WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind photovoltaics pv

  1. Comparative Study Between Wind and Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Wesam

    This paper reviews two renewable energy systems; wind and photovoltaic (PV) systems. The common debate between the two of them is to conclude which one is better, in terms of cost and efficiency. Therefore, comparative study, in terms of cost and efficiency, is attempted. Regarding total cost of both, wind and PV systems, many parameters must be taken into consideration such as availability of energy (either wind or solar), operation and maintenance, availability of costumers, political influence, and the components used in building the system. The main components and parameters that play major role in determining the overall efficiency of wind systems are the wind turbine generator (WTG), gearbox and control technologies such as power, and speed control. On the other hand, in grid-connected PV systems (GCPVS), converter architecture along with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm and inverter topologies are the issues that affects the efficiency significantly. Cost and efficiency analyses of both systems have been carried out based on the statistics available till today and would be useful in the progress of renewable energy penetration throughout the world.

  2. Simulation and Modeling of a Five -Level (NPC Inverter Fed by a Photovoltaic Generator and Integrated in a Hybrid Wind-PV Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezki,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A distributed hybrid coordinated wind photovoltaic (PV power system was proposed in this paper. As oil and coal reserves are being depleted whilst at the same time the energy demand is growing, it is important to consider alternative energy generating techniques. Today, the five-level (NPC inverter represents a good alternative for several industrial applications. To take advantage of the five-level inverter topology and the benefits of renewable energy represented by a photovoltaic generator, a new scheme of these controllers is proposed in this work. This paper outlines the design of a hybrid power system consisting of a solar photovoltaic (PV and a wind power system. The system is modeled in Matlab Simulink and tested for various conditions. The model and results are discussed in this paper.

  3. Photovoltaic (PV) energy in the Netherlands and Switzerland. A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Loo, F.; Spiessens, P.

    1995-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) energy in Switzerland and the Netherlands is compared for a number of aspects. The Swiss have realized more PV capacity. Also the economic conditions to develop PV are better in Switzerland than in the Netherlands. In Switzerland the public support is mobilized for solar energy while in the Netherlands a social basis is created for wind energy. 3 ills., 3 tabs

  4. Photovoltaics for Buildings Cutting-Edge PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayter, S. J.; Martin, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology development for building-integrated applications (commonly called PV for Buildings) is one of the fastest growing areas in the PV industry. Buildings represent a huge potential market for photovoltaics because they consume approximately two-thirds of the electricity consumed in the US. The PV and buildings industries are beginning to work together to address issues including building codes and standards, integration, after-market servicing, education, and building energy efficiency. One of the most notable programs to encourage development of new PV-for-buildings products is the PV:BONUS program, supported by the US Department of Energy. Demand for these products from building designers has escalated since the program was initiated in 1993. This paper presents a range of PV-for-buildings issues and products that are currently influencing today's PV and buildings markets

  5. Comparing the International Knowledge Flow of China’s Wind and Solar Photovoltaic (PV Industries: Patent Analysis and Implications for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate-relevant technologies, like wind and solar energy, are crucial for mitigating climate change and for achieving sustainable development. Recent literature argues that Chinese solar firms play more active roles in international knowledge flows, which may better explain their success in international markets when compared to those of Chinese wind firms; however, empirical evidence remains sparse. This study aims to explore to what extent and how do the international knowledge flows differ between China’s wind and solar photovoltaic (PV industries? From a network perspective, this paper develops a three-dimensional framework to compare the knowledge flows in both explicit and tacit dimensions: (i inter-country explicit knowledge clusters (by topological clustering of patent citation network; (ii inter-firm explicit knowledge flow (patent citation network of key firms; and, (iii inter-firm tacit knowledge flow (by desktop research and interviews. The results show that China’s PV industry has stronger international knowledge linkages in terms of knowledge clustering and explicit knowledge flow, but the wind power industry has a stronger tacit knowledge flow. Further, this study argues that the differences of global knowledge links between China’s wind and solar PV industries may be caused by technology characteristics, market orientation, and policy implementation. This suggests that these industries both have strong connections to global knowledge networks, but they may involve disparate catch-up pathways that concern follower-modes and leader-modes. These findings are important to help us understand how China can follow sustainable development pathways in the light of climate change.

  6. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  7. Effect of wind speed on performance of a solar-pv array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousands of solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays have been installed over the past few years, but the effect of wind speed on the predicted performance of PV arrays is not usually considered by installers. An increase in wind speed will cool the PV array, and the electrical power of the PV modules will ...

  8. Photovoltaics: PV takes off the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Ray; Gregory, Jenny

    2000-01-01

    Despite historical ups and downs, there is still ambition to bring increasingly efficient photovoltaic (PV) systems to the market. PV for major remote telecommunications systems is now an established part of the market, many mobile phone systems are powered by PV and there is potential for increased use of home solar systems, especially in developing countries. Over the past few years, building-integrated PV (BIPV) has been on the increase. In 1999, global production from PV exceeded 200 MW and the UK installed capacity was greater than 1 MW. BIPV is a fast growing market and its characteristics and advantages are discussed. PV installations at Nottingham University, Greenwich Pavilion, BP Amoco Sunbury, Baglan Bay, BP filling stations, and Sainsbury's are described

  9. The market for photovoltaic (PV) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantzis, L.; Vejtasa, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a study that was intended to provide the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) with a market analysis for photovoltaic (PV) technologies under development by EPRI and others. The analysis was to focus on markets and factors leading to significant incremental growth for PV demand, large enough to support more efficient scale PV manufacturing capacity. EPRI anticipates that PV ultimately could provide grid-connected power, however, the 1995--2010 market dynamics are uncertain. The specific objectives of this study, therefore, were to: determine what major future domestic US markets for PV technologies will emerge and provide enough volume to support significant improvements in manufacturing costs through manufacturing economies of scale; provide insight on what is needed to gain acceptance of PV technologies for electric power generation in those major markets; provide insight on when investments in demonstration and manufacturing facilities should be made and what is needed to be successful in each element of the business that these markets could support (e.g., technology development, manufacturing, sales, installation, and service); and provide key insights on the requirements for commercial success of PV in the utility sector

  10. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand

  11. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  12. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia); Yahaya, M. S. [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  13. PV Obelisk - Information system with photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoss, D.; Rasmussen, J.

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development of an information system powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array. As an innovative approach, the 'PV-Obelisk' project is the combination of PV with a multi-functional pillar made of natural stone in an aesthetic way. The PV modules serve both as a power supply and as a design element. Two initial prototypes led the way to a third, optimised consumer configuration that was planned to guarantee maximum user frequency. Test operation in front of the 'Heidiland' motor way restaurant confirmed the market analyses made and delivered the expected results. The product, whose three LCD displays are updated via a mobile telephony-based text-message system, proved its technical reliability and showed a high user frequency. Because of the high overall energy consumption, PV power can only partially contribute to the energy supply needed. Various compromises in the technical and aesthetic areas are discussed that were made for the sake of product acceptance in the market. The range of application areas for such a 'PV Obelisk' are discussed and the need for early co-ordination with urban planners is stressed

  14. Integrated photovoltaic (PV) monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahinder Singh, Balbir Singh; Husain, NurSyahidah; Mohamed, Norani Muti

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of this research work is to design an accurate and reliable monitoring system to be integrated with solar electricity generating system. The performance monitoring system is required to ensure that the PVEGS is operating at an optimum level. The PV monitoring system is able to measure all the important parameters that determine an optimum performance. The measured values are recorded continuously, as the data acquisition system is connected to a computer, and data is stored at fixed intervals. The data can be locally used and can also be transmitted via internet. The data that appears directly on the local monitoring system is displayed via graphical user interface that was created by using Visual basic and Apache software was used for data transmission The accuracy and reliability of the developed monitoring system was tested against the data that captured simultaneously by using a standard power quality analyzer device. The high correlation which is 97% values indicates the level of accuracy of the monitoring system. The aim of leveraging on a system for continuous monitoring system is achieved, both locally, and can be viewed simultaneously at a remote system.

  15. SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-Cost PV Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zuboy, Jarrett; Woodhouse, Michael A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This presentation summarizes the findings from the report 'SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-cost PV Future.' This presentation was given as a webinar on September 26, 2017.

  16. Innovations in Wind and Solar PV Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Jenkin, T.; Pater, J.; Swezey, B.

    2008-02-01

    There is growing national interest in renewable energy development based on the economic, environmental, and security benefits that these resources provide. Historically, greater development of our domestic renewable energy resources has faced a number of hurdles, primarily related to cost, regulation, and financing. With the recent sustained increase in the costs and associated volatility of fossil fuels, the economics of renewable energy technologies have become increasingly attractive to investors, both large and small. As a result, new entrants are investing in renewable energy and new business models are emerging. This study surveys some of the current issues related to wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project financing in the electric power industry, and identifies both barriers to and opportunities for increased investment.

  17. Sizing PV-wind hybrid energy system for lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Engin; Dilşad Engin

    2012-01-01

    Sizing of wind and photovoltaic generators ensures lower operational costs and therefore, is considered as an important issue. An approach for sizing along with a best management technique for a PV-wind hybrid system with batteries is proposed in this paper, in which the best size for every component of the system could be optimized according to the weather conditions and the load profile. The average hourly values for wind speed and solar radiation for Izmir, Turkey has been used in the desi...

  18. Photovoltaic (PV) contribution to the primary frequency control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafa, Adel Hamad

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is among the most efficient and cost effective renewable energy kinds currently available on the market. The connection of a large number of PVs to the grid may influence the frequency and voltage stability of the power system. This paper proposes load-frequency control technique for system with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV). The proposed controller has been successfully implemented and tested using PSCAD/EMTDC. In this study, the impact of photovoltaic (PV) on frequency stability of the system is studies in detail. This study shows that large penetration of photovoltaic (PV) with load and frequency control has a significant impact on the stability and security level of electrical network.(author)

  19. Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV),

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office (SETO) residential 2030 photovoltaics (PV) cost target of $0.05 per kilowatt-hour by identifying could influence system costs in key market segments. This report examines two key market segments that demonstrate significant opportunities for cost savings and market growth: installing PV at the time of roof

  20. PVSOFT99 - Photovoltaic (PV) System Sizing And Simulation Software

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computer program (PVSOFT99) has been developed for sizing and simulation of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems. Two distinct PV sizing algorithms, one based on the worst case and the other on the reliability concept, have been incorporated in the program. The reliability concept is generalized in that variation of ...

  1. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Security lightning application is selected, whereas system performance data and environmental operating conditions are measured and stored. This hybrid system, which includes a PV, wind turbine, inverter, and a battery, was installed to supply energy to 24 W lamps, considering that the renewable energy resources of this site where the system was installed were 1700 Wh/m2/day solar radiation and 3.43 m/s yearly average wind speed. Using the measured variables, the inverter and charge regulator efficiencies were calculated as 90% and 98%, respectively, and the overall system’s electrical efficiency is calculated as 72%. Life cycle costs per kWh are found to be $0.89 and LLP = 0.0428.

  2. Photovoltaic-STATCOM with Low Voltage Ride through Strategy and Power Quality Enhancement in a Grid Integrated Wind-PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshman Naik Popavath

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional configurations of power systems are changing due to the greater penetration of renewable energy sources (solar and wind, resulting in reliability issues. At present, the most severe power quality problems in distribution systems are current harmonics, reactive power demands, and the islanding of renewables caused by severe voltage variations (voltage sag and swell. Current harmonics and voltage sag strongly affect the performance of renewable-based power systems. Various conventional methods (passive filters, capacitor bank, and UPS are not able to mitigate harmonics and voltage sag completely. Based on several studies, custom power devices can mitigate harmonics completely and slightly mitigate voltage sags with reactive power supplies. To ensure the generating units remain grid-connected during voltage sags and to improve system operation during abnormal conditions, efficient and reliable utilization of PV solar farm inverter as STATCOMs is needed. This paper elaborates the dynamic performance of a VSC-based PV-STATCOM for power quality enhancement in a grid integrated system and low voltage ride through (LVRT capability. LVRT requirements suggest that the injection of real and reactive power supports grid voltage during abnormal grid conditions. The proposed strategy was demonstrated with MATLAB simulations.

  3. Sizing PV-wind hybrid energy system for lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sizing of wind and photovoltaic generators ensures lower operational costs and therefore, is considered as an important issue. An approach for sizing along with a best management technique for a PV-wind hybrid system with batteries is proposed in this paper, in which the best size for every component of the system could be optimized according to the weather conditions and the load profile. The average hourly values for wind speed and solar radiation for Izmir, Turkey has been used in the design of the systems, along with expected load profile. A hybrid power model is also developed for battery operation according to the power balance between generators and loads used in the software, to anticipate performances for the different systems according to the different weather conditions. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Using proposed procedure, a 1.2 kWp PV-wind hybrid system was designed for Izmir, and simulated and measured results are presented.

  4. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy; latest developments in the building integrated and hybrid PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental concerns are growing and interest in environmental issues is increasing and the idea of generating electricity with less pollution is becoming more and more attractive. Unlike conventional generation systems, fuel of the solar photovoltaic energy is available at no cost. And solar photovoltaic energy systems generate electricity pollution-free and can easily be installed on the roof of residential as well as on the wall of commercial buildings as grid-connected PV application. In addition to grid-connected rooftop PV systems, solar photovoltaic energy offers a solution for supplying electricity to remote located communities and facilities, those not accessible by electricity companies. The interest in solar photovoltaic energy is growing worldwide. Today, more than 3500MW of photovoltaic systems have been installed all over the world. Since 1970, the PV price has continuously dropped [8]. This price drop has encouraged worldwide application of small-scale residential PV systems. These recent developments have led researchers concerned with the environment to undertake extensive research projects for harnessing renewable energy sources including solar energy. The usage of solar photovoltaic as a source of energy is considered more seriously making future of this technology looks promising. The objective of this contribution is to present the latest developments in the area of solar photovoltaic energy systems. A further objective of this contribution is to discuss the long-term prospect of the solar photovoltaic energy as a sustainable energy supply. [Author

  5. Wind effect on PV module temperature: Analysis of different techniques for an accurate estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Clemens; Petitta, Marcello; Ernst Wagner, Jochen; Belluardo, Giorgio; Moser, David; Castelli, Mariapina; Zebisch, Marc; Tetzlaff, Anke

    2013-04-01

    In this abstract a study on the influence of wind to model the PV module temperature is presented. This study is carried out in the framework of the PV-Alps INTERREG project in which the potential of different photovoltaic technologies is analysed for alpine regions. The PV module temperature depends on different parameters, such as ambient temperature, irradiance, wind speed and PV technology [1]. In most models, a very simple approach is used, where the PV module temperature is calculated from NOCT (nominal operating cell temperature), ambient temperature and irradiance alone [2]. In this study the influence of wind speed on the PV module temperature was investigated. First, different approaches suggested by various authors were tested [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]. For our analysis, temperature, irradiance and wind data from a PV test facility at the airport Bolzano (South Tyrol, Italy) from the EURAC Institute of Renewable Energies were used. The PV module temperature was calculated with different models and compared to the measured PV module temperature at the single panels. The best results were achieved with the approach suggested by Skoplaki et al. [1]. Preliminary results indicate that for all PV technologies which were tested (monocrystalline, amorphous, microcrystalline and polycrystalline silicon and cadmium telluride), modelled and measured PV module temperatures show a higher agreement (RMSE about 3-4 K) compared to standard approaches in which wind is not considered. For further investigation the in-situ measured wind velocities were replaced with wind data from numerical weather forecast models (ECMWF, reanalysis fields). Our results show that the PV module temperature calculated with wind data from ECMWF is still in very good agreement with the measured one (R² > 0.9 for all technologies). Compared to the previous analysis, we find comparable mean values and an increasing standard deviation. These results open a promising approach for PV module

  6. Simulation of transcontinental wind and solar PV generation time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño Martinez, Edgar; Maule, Petr; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2018-01-01

    to the technical characteristics of individual installations spread across large regions. The proposed methodology is validated using actual power data in Europe and can be applied to represent intermittent generation in network development plans, reliability and market studies, as well as operational guidelines.......The deployment of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is driving modern power systems towards a fundamental green transition. In this regard, there is a need to develop models to accurately capture the variability of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power, at different geographical and temporal scales...

  7. Optimal Capacity Allocation of Large-Scale Wind-PV-Battery Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehe Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal capacity allocation of large-scale wind-photovoltaic- (PV- battery units was proposed. First, an output power model was established according to meteorological conditions. Then, a wind-PV-battery unit was connected to the power grid as a power-generation unit with a rated capacity under a fixed coordinated operation strategy. Second, the utilization rate of renewable energy sources and maximum wind-PV complementation was considered and the objective function of full life cycle-net present cost (NPC was calculated through hybrid iteration/adaptive hybrid genetic algorithm (HIAGA. The optimal capacity ratio among wind generator, PV array, and battery device also was calculated simultaneously. A simulation was conducted based on the wind-PV-battery unit in Zhangbei, China. Results showed that a wind-PV-battery unit could effectively minimize the NPC of power-generation units under a stable grid-connected operation. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the wind-PV-battery unit demonstrated that the optimization result was closely related to potential wind-solar resources and government support. Regions with rich wind resources and a reasonable government energy policy could improve the economic efficiency of their power-generation units.

  8. TRNSYS HYBRID wind diesel PV simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, P.J.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.; Blair, N.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Energy Laboratory (SEL) has developed a wind diesel PV hybrid systems simulator, UW-HYBRID 1.0, an application of the TRNSYS 14.2 time-series simulation environment. An AC/DC bus links up to five diesels and wind turbine models, along with PV modules, a battery bank, and an AC/DC converter. Multiple units can be selected. PV system simulations include solar angle and peak power tracking options. Weather data are Typical Meteorological Year data, parametrically generated synthesized data, or external data files. PV performance simulations rely on long-standing SEL-developed algorithms. Loads data are read as scalable time series. Diesel simulations include estimated fuel-use and waste heat output, and are dispatched using a least-cost of fuel strategy. Wind system simulations include varying air density, wind shear and wake effects. Time step duration is user-selectable. UW-HYBRID 1.0 runs in Windows{reg_sign}, with TRNSED providing a customizable user interface. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  9. PV Module Reliability Workshop | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Cara Fagerholm, David M. Burns, Timothy J. Peshek, Laura S. Bruckman, Roger H. French Backsheet Chen, C. H. Hsueh, W. J. Hsieh Accurately Measuring PV Power Loss Due to Soiling-Michael Gostein and Walters, Stephen Barkaszi Tracking PV Changes: Bridging Between Thin-Film Cells and Modules-Russell

  10. Dynamic response evaluation of sensorless MPPT method for hybrid PV-DFIG wind turbine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danvu Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a sensorless Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method for a hybrid Photovoltaic-Wind system, which consists of Photovoltaic (PV system and Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG Wind Turbine. In the hybrid system, the DC/DC converter output of the PV system is directly connected to the DC-link of DFIG’s back-to-back converter. Therefore, the PV inverter and its associated circuit can be removed in this structure. Typically, the PV power is monitored by using PV current sensor and PV voltage sensor for MPPT. In this paper, the powers of converters on grid side and rotor side of DFIG are used to estimate the PV power without the PV current sensor. That can efficiently reduce the cost of the hybrid system. The detailed analysis of the sensorless MPPT method, which includes derived equations and operation response, is also presented in this paper. In addition, an overview of PV-DFIG research in literature is stated to supply comprehensive knowledge of related research.

  11. Improving the efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) panels by oil coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Elhady, M.S.; Fouad, M.M.; Khalil, T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • It is possible to improve the efficiency of PV panels by increasing the amount of light transmitted to the panel. • Coating PV panels by a fine layer of Labovac oil increases the amount of sun light transmitted to the panel. • Coating PV panels by a fine layer of Labovac oil increases the power output of the panel. • Coating PV panels with a layer of Labovac oil has to be applied in cold countries and not in hot regions. - Abstract: The objective of this research is to develop a new technique for improving the efficiency of Photovoltaic (PV) panels. This technique is done by coating the front surface of the PV panel by a fine layer of oil in order to increase the amount of light transmitted to the panel, and consequently its efficiency. Different types of oils are examined, including both mineral oils and natural oils. In case of mineral oils; vacuum pump oil (Labovac oil), engine oil (Mobil oil) and brake oil (Abro oil) are examined, while in case of natural oils; olive and sunflower oils are examined. An experimental setup has been developed to examine the performance of the PV panels as a function of oil coatings. The experimental setup consists of an artificial sun, the PV panel under investigation, a cooling system and a measuring system to measure the performance of the panel. It has been found that coating the PV panel with a fine layer of Labovac oil, ∼1 mm thick, improves the efficiency of the PV panel by more than 20%, and this is due to the high transmissivity of the Labovac oil compared to other oils. However, the Labovac oil has a drawback which is overheating of the panel due to its high transmissivity. Coating of PV panels with a fine layer of Labovac oil should be done only in cold regions, in order to avoid the heating effect that can decrease the power output of PV panels.

  12. Tools for PV (photovoltaic) plant operators: Nowcasting of passing clouds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paulescu, M.; Badescu, V.; Brabec, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2013), s. 104-112 ISSN 0360-5442 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12009 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : PV (photovoltaic) plants * Sunshine number * Nowcasting * ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average ) modeling Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 4.159, year: 2013

  13. Harmonic analysis and suppression in hybrid wind & PV solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tripti; Namekar, Swapnil

    2018-04-01

    The growing demand of electricity has led to produce power through non-conventional source of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, hydro power, energy through biogas and biomass etc. Hybrid system is taken to complement the shortcoming of either sources of energy. The proposed system is grid connected hybrid wind and solar system. A 2.1 MW Doubly fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has been taken for analysis of wind farm whose rotor part is connected to two back-to-back converters. A 250 KW Photovoltaic (PV) array taken to analyze solar farm where inverter is required to convert power from DC to AC since electricity generated through solar PV is in the form of DC. Stability and reliability of the system is very important when the system is grid connected. Harmonics is the major Power quality issue which degrades the quality of power at load side. Harmonics in hybrid system arise through the use of power conversion unit. The other causes of harmonics are fluctuation in wind speed and solar irradiance. The power delivered to grid must be free from harmonics and within the limits specified by Indian grid codes. In proposed work, harmonic analysis of the hybrid system is performed in Electrical Transient Analysis program (ETAP) and single tuned harmonic filter is designed to maintain the utility grid harmonics within limits.

  14. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid system for permanent magnet DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Lada, M. Y.; Baharom, M. F.; Jaafar, H. I.; Ramani, A. N.; Sulaima, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Hybrid system of Photovoltaic (PV) - Wind turbine (WT) generation has more advantages and reliable compared to PV or wind turbine system alone. The aim of this paper is to model and design hybrid system of PV-WT supplying 100W permanent-magnet dc motor. To achieve the objective, both of PV and WT are connected to converter in order to get the same source of DC supply. Then both sources were combined and straightly connected to 100W permanent magnet dc motor. All the works in this paper is only applied in circuit simulator by using Matlab Simulink. The output produced from each converter is expected to be suit to the motor specification. The output produced from each renewable energy system is as expected to be high as it can support the motor if one of them is breakdown

  15. Less CO2 by means of photovoltaic energy (PV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsema, E.A.; Van Brummelen, M.

    1992-11-01

    Regarding the title subject special attention is paid to the technical limitations of a fast introduction of the use of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion. After a brief introduction on PV systems and the operation of a solar cell in chapter two, a state of the art is given of PV technology and possible price developments for PV modules and Balance-Of-System (BOS) components up to the year 2000 in chapters three and four. In chapter five the potential of installing grid-connected PV systems in the Netherlands is determined, taking into account the options of using existing buildings (PV systems on the roof), unexplored ground, in the verge of highways or railroads, industrial areas and airports. In chapter six non-economical bottlenecks for a large-scale introduction of grid-connected PV systems are discussed: the industrial production capacity for PV modules and other components, the fitting-in into the public electricity supply, and institutional aspects of installing PV systems on roofs. In chapter seven it is determined how much costs can be saved and CO 2 emission can be reduced when PV capacity is fitted-in into the Dutch electric power supply. The calculations are based on the Global Shift scenario. In chapter eight two scenarios (an optimistic scenario and a more realistic scenario) for the introduction of PV systems are outlined. For both scenarios the financial consequences and the contribution to the electric power supply are indicated. In chapter nine the net energy yield, being the result of the previously discussed introduction scenarios, is calculated, followed by a calculation of the avoided CO 2 emission, as well as the costs to avoid such emission. 25 figs., 15 tabs., 116 refs., 1 annex

  16. Statistics for PV, wind and biomass generators and their impact on distribution grid planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy generation leads to major challenges for distribution grid operators. When the feed-in of photovoltaic (PV), biomass and wind generators exceed significantly the local consumption, large investments are needed. To improve the knowledge on the interaction between

  17. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafticht, T.; Agbossou, K. [Institut de recherche sur l hydrogene, Universite du Quebec - Trois-Rivieres, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivieres, (Ciheam), G9A 5H7, (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyser, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  18. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T Tafticht; K Agbossou

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyzer, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  19. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafticht, T.; Agbossou, K.

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyser, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  20. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Tafticht; K Agbossou [Institut de recherche sur l hydrogene, Universite du Quebec - Trois-Rivieres, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivieres, (Ciheam), G9A 5H7, (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyzer, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  1. Energy metrics analysis of hybrid - photovoltaic (PV) modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Arvind [Department of Electronics and Communication, Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology, 13 k.m. stone, Ghaziabad - Meerut Road, Ghaziabad 201 206, UP (India); Barnwal, P.; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, energy metrics (energy pay back time, electricity production factor and life cycle conversion efficiency) of hybrid photovoltaic (PV) modules have been analyzed and presented for the composite climate of New Delhi, India. For this purpose, it is necessary to calculate (1) the energy consumption in making different components of the PV modules and (2) the annual energy (electrical and thermal) available from the hybrid-PV modules. A set of mathematical relations have been reformulated for computation of the energy metrics. The manufacturing energy, material production energy, energy use and distribution energy of the system have been taken into account, to determine the embodied energy for the hybrid-PV modules. The embodied energy and annual energy outputs have been used for evaluation of the energy metrics. For hybrid PV module, it has been observed that the EPBT gets significantly reduced by taking into account the increase in annual energy availability of the thermal energy in addition to the electrical energy. The values of EPF and LCCE of hybrid PV module become higher as expected. (author)

  2. Canadian PV [photovoltaic] commercial activity report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Photovoltaic Industries Association (CPIA) conducted a survey among 65 Canadian firms involved in the photovoltaic industry and technology to determine the degree of commercial activity. Overall revenue for these firms in 1989 increased nearly 15% to ca $15 million. Actual reported sales of photovoltaic (PV) modules totalled 400 kW for use in Canada and abroad, of which communications applications accounted for ca 40% of these sales. Export sales were significant, with 59% of reported sales sold as packages being exported. Sales of systems within Canada were fairly evenly distributed between Quebec, Ontario, the Prairies, and British Columbia. The private sector share of reported sales was 42% or greater in terms of both dollar or peak wattage. Residential-use and water-pumping segments of the market reported increased activity. Internationally, annual PV module sales in 1989 were reported to be 42 MW peak, a 20% increase from 1988. The USA has the world market share with 36%, followed by Japan at 30%. Survey respondents made suggestions for more equitable tax treatment for PV products, and saw environmental issues as having a major impact on marketing strategies. 27 refs., 11 tabs

  3. Wind/PV Generation for Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping in the Eastern Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Gracia, Jose R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Yilu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report presents the control of renewable energy sources, including the variable-speed wind generators and solar photovoltaic (PV) generators, for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI). In this report, based on the user-defined wind/PV generator electrical control model and the 16,000-bus Eastern Interconnection dynamic model, the additional controllers for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are developed and incorporated and the potential contributions of renewable energy sources to the EI system frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are evaluated.

  4. PV Obelisk - Information system with photovoltaics; PV-Obelisk Orientierungssystem mit Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoss, D.; Rasmussen, J.

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development of an information system powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array. As an innovative approach, the 'PV-Obelisk' project is the combination of PV with a multi-functional pillar made of natural stone in an aesthetic way. The PV modules serve both as a power supply and as a design element. Two initial prototypes led the way to a third, optimised consumer configuration that was planned to guarantee maximum user frequency. Test operation in front of the 'Heidiland' motor way restaurant confirmed the market analyses made and delivered the expected results. The product, whose three LCD displays are updated via a mobile telephony-based text-message system, proved its technical reliability and showed a high user frequency. Because of the high overall energy consumption, PV power can only partially contribute to the energy supply needed. Various compromises in the technical and aesthetic areas are discussed that were made for the sake of product acceptance in the market. The range of application areas for such a 'PV Obelisk' are discussed and the need for early co-ordination with urban planners is stressed.

  5. An insight on advantage of hybrid sun–wind-tracking over sun-tracking PV system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Masoud; Banybayat, Meisam; Tagheie, Yaghoub; Valeh-e-Sheyda, Peyvand

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Real photograph of hybrid sun–wind-tracking system. - Highlights: • Novel hybrid sun–wind-tracking system proposed to enhance PV cell performance. • The wind tracker can cool down the PV cell as sun-tracking system work. • The hybrid tracker achieved 7.4% increase in energy gain over the sun tracker. • The overall daily output energy gain was increased by 49.83% by using this system. - Abstract: This paper introduces the design and application of a novel hybrid sun–wind-tracking system. This hybrid system employs cooling effect of wind, besides the advantages of tracking sun for enhancing power output from examined hybrid photovoltaic cell. The principal experiment focuses on comparison between dual-axes sun-tracking and hybrid sun–wind-tracking photovoltaic (PV) panels. The deductions based on the research tests confirm that the overall daily output energy gain was increased by 49.83% compared with that of a fixed system. Moreover, an overall increase of about 7.4% in the output power was found for the hybrid sun–wind-tracking over the two-axis sun tracking system.

  6. Sizing wind/photovoltaic hybrids for households in inner Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, C.D.; Lew, D.J.; Flowers, L.T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Approximately 140,000 wind turbines currently provide electricity to about one-third of the non-grid-connected households in Inner Mongolia. However, these households often suffer from a lack of power during the low-wind summer months. This report describes an analysis of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (PV) systems for such households. The sizing of the major components is based on a subjective trade-off between the cost of the system and the percent unmet load, as determined by the Hybrid2 software in conjunction with a simplified time-series model. Actual resource data (wind speed and solar radiation) from the region are processed so as to best represent the scenarios of interest. Small wind turbines of both Chinese and U.S. manufacture are considered in the designs. The results indicate that combinations of wind and PV are more cost-effective than either one alone, and that the relative amount of PV in the design increases as the acceptable unmet load decreases and as the average wind speed decreases.

  7. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Distributed Generation Systems - Control and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhehan

    This dissertation proposes a comprehensive control, power management, and fault detection strategy for solar photovoltaic (PV) distribution generations. Battery storages are typically employed in PV systems to mitigate the power fluctuation caused by unstable solar irradiance. With AC and DC loads, a PV-battery system can be treated as a hybrid microgrid which contains both DC and AC power resources and buses. In this thesis, a control power and management system (CAPMS) for PV-battery hybrid microgrid is proposed, which provides 1) the DC and AC bus voltage and AC frequency regulating scheme and controllers designed to track set points; 2) a power flow management strategy in the hybrid microgrid to achieve system generation and demand balance in both grid-connected and islanded modes; 3) smooth transition control during grid reconnection by frequency and phase synchronization control between the main grid and microgrid. Due to the increasing demands for PV power, scales of PV systems are getting larger and fault detection in PV arrays becomes challenging. High-impedance faults, low-mismatch faults, and faults occurred in low irradiance conditions tend to be hidden due to low fault currents, particularly, when a PV maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is in-service. If remain undetected, these faults can considerably lower the output energy of solar systems, damage the panels, and potentially cause fire hazards. In this dissertation, fault detection challenges in PV arrays are analyzed in depth, considering the crossing relations among the characteristics of PV, interactions with MPPT algorithms, and the nature of solar irradiance. Two fault detection schemes are then designed as attempts to address these technical issues, which detect faults inside PV arrays accurately even under challenging circumstances, e.g., faults in low irradiance conditions or high-impedance faults. Taking advantage of multi-resolution signal decomposition (MSD), a powerful signal

  8. Parallel experimental study of a novel super-thin thermal absorber based photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T system against conventional photovoltaic (PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV semiconductor degrades in performance due to temperature rise. A super thin-conductive thermal absorber is therefore developed to regulate the PV working temperature by retrofitting the existing PV panel into the photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T panel. This article presented the parallel comparative investigation of the two different systems through both laboratory and field experiments. The laboratory evaluation consisted of one PV panel and one PV/T panel respectively while the overall field system involved 15 stand-alone PV panels and 15 retrofitted PV/T panels. The laboratory testing results demonstrated the PV/T panel could achieve the electrical efficiency of about 16.8% (relatively 5% improvement comparing with the stand-alone PV panel, and yield an extra amount of heat with thermal efficiency of nearly 65%. The field testing results indicated that the hybrid PV/T panel could enhance the electrical return of PV panels by nearly 3.5%, and increase the overall energy output by nearly 324.3%. Further opportunities and challenges were then discussed from aspects of different PV/T stakeholders to accelerate the development. It is expected that such technology could become a significant solution to yield more electricity, offset heating load freely and reduce carbon footprint in contemporary energy environment.

  9. Photovoltaic solar panel for a hybrid PV/thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenko, R.; Licea-Jimenez, L.; Perez-Garcia, S.A.; Perez-Robles, J.F.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Vorobiev, Y. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, (Mexico); Vorobiev, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria; Dehesa-Carrasco, U. [Instituto Tec. Del Istmo, Oaxaco (Mexico). Dep. de Ingenieria Electromecanica

    2004-05-01

    The hybrid PV-thermal system was studied, with the photovoltaic panel (PVP) area much smaller than that of the solar collector. Performance of the different panels in the system was investigated, in particular, those made of crystalline (c-) Si, {alpha}-Si and CuInSe{sub 2} as well as different materials and constructions for the thermal contact between the panel and the collector. Our conclusion is that the PVP for application in a hybrid system needs a special design providing efficient heat extraction from it. PVP was designed and made. Its study has shown that this design provides the high electrical and thermal efficiency of the hybrid system. (author)

  10. Integrated Three-Port DC-DC Converter for Photovoltaic (PV) Battery Stand-alone Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    of solar energy. Moreover, a novel transformer configuration enables variable turns ratio controlled by the phase between the two current excitations subjected to the primary windings, allowing a wider input/output range. 1 kW experimental prototype has been built to demonstrate a wellmanaged power flow......Several power sources such as PV solar arrays and battery are often used to manage the power flow for a photovoltaic (PV) based stand-alone power system due to the fluctuation nature of solar energy resource, and deliver a continuous power to the users in an appropriate form. Traditionally, three...... different single-input single-output (SISO) dc/dc converters would have been used. To reduce the cost and improve the power density of the system, an integrated three-port isolated dc/dc converter is proposed in this paper. It can realize all functions of the energy delivery due to the fluctuation nature...

  11. Models for a stand-alone PV system[Photovoltaic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.; Soerensen, P.; Hansen, L.H.; Bindner, H.

    2000-12-01

    This report presents a number of models for modelling and simulation of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system with a battery bank verified against a system installed at Risoe National Laboratory. The work has been supported by the Danish Ministry of Energy, as a part of the activities in the Solar Energy Centre Denmark. The study is carried out at Risoe National Laboratory with the main purpose to establish a library of simple mathematical models for each individual element of a stand-alone PV system, namely solar cells, battery, controller, inverter and load. The models for PV module and battery are based on the model descriptions found in the literature. The battery model is developed at UMASS and is known as the Kinetic Battery Model (KiBaM). The other component models in the PV system are based on simple electrical knowledge. The implementation is done using Matlab/Simulink, a simulation program that provides a graphical interface for building models as modular block diagrams. The non-linear behaviour of the battery, observed in the measurements, is investigated and compared to the KiBaM model's performance. A set of linear Black box models are estimated based on the battery measurements. The performance of the best linear Black box model is compared to the KiBaM model. A validation of each of the implemented mathematical model is performed by an interactive analysis and comparison between simulation results and measurements, acquired from the stand-alone PV system at Risoe. (au)

  12. Assessing the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions from solar PV and wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nugent, Daniel; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically screens 153 lifecycle studies covering a broad range of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation technologies to identify 41 of the most relevant, recent, rigorous, original, and complete assessments so that the dynamics of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...... profiles can be determined. When viewed in a holistic manner, including initial materials extraction, manufacturing, use and disposal/decommissioning, these 41 studies show that both wind and solar systems are directly tied to and responsible for GHG emissions. They are thus not actually emissions free......, this article uncovers best practices in wind and solar design and deployment that can better inform climate change mitigation efforts in the electricity sector...

  13. Temperature Dependences on Various Types of Photovoltaic (PV) Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audwinto, I A; Leong, C S; Sopian, K; Zaidi, S H

    2015-01-01

    Temperature is one of the key roles in PV technology performance, since with the increases of temperature the open-circuit voltage will drop accordingly so do the electrical efficiency and power output generation. Different types of Photovoltaic (PV) panels- silicon solar panels and thin film solar panels; mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline, CIS, CIGS, CdTe, back-contact, and bi-facial solar panel under 40°C to 70°C approximately with 5°C interval have been comparatively analyzed their actual performances with uniformly distribution of light illumination from tungsten halogen light source, ±500W/m 2 . DC-Electronic Load and Data Logger devices with “Lab View” data program interface were used to collect all the necessary parameters in this study. Time needed to achieve a certain degree of temperature was recorded. Generally, each of the panels needed 15 minutes to 20 minutes to reach 70°C. Halogen based light source is not compatible in short wave-length in response to thin-film solar cell. Within this period of times, all the panels are facing a performance loss up to 15%. Other parameters; P max , V max , I max , V oc , I sc , R serries , R shunt , Fillfactor were collected as study cases. Our study is important in determining Photovoltaic type selection and system design as for study or industrial needed under different temperature condition. (paper)

  14. Real Time Photovoltaic Array Simulator for Testing Grid-Connected PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Valentini, Massimo; Raducu, Alin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a real time flexible PV array simulator is presented. It is a system that can simulate different PV panel arrays in specific environmental conditions. To evaluate performance of the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) inverters only measurements...... undertaken with an appropriate PV array simulator provide accurate and reproducible results. Thus the PV array simulator has been developed and implemented. MPPT efficiency tests on a commercial grid-connected PV inverter have been performed to validate the PV array simulator....

  15. Short-Term Optimal Operation of a Wind-PV-Hydro Complementary Installation: Yalong River, Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinshuo Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively use clean renewable energy to improve the capacity of the power grid to absorb new energy and optimize the power grid structure has become one of China’s current issues. The Yalong River Wind-PV-Hydro complementary clean energy base was chosen as the research object from which to analyze the output complementarity principle and characteristics of wind farms, photovoltaic power plants, and hydropower stations. Then, an optimization scheduling model was established with the objective of minimizing the amount of abandoned wind and photovoltaic power and maximizing the stored energy in cascade hydropower stations. A Progress Optimality Algorithm (POA was used for the short-term optimal operation of Wind-PV-Hydro combinations. The results show that use of cascaded hydropower storage capacity can compensate for large-scale wind power and photovoltaic power, provide a relatively sustained and stable power supply for the grid. Wind-PV-Hydro complementary operation not only promotes wind power and photovoltaic power consumption but also improves the efficiency of using the original transmission channel of hydropower. This is of great significance to many developing countries in formatting a new green approach, realizing low-carbon power dispatch and trade and promoting regional economic development.

  16. Overview of PV Wind hybrid system activities in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, G.; Gabler, H.; Kiefer, K.; Preiser, K.; Wiemken, E. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Photovoltaic solar generators combined with diesel engines, in some cases additionally with wind energy converters, and battery energy storage are powering isolated mountain lodges, information centers in nature parks, isolated farms or dwellings all over Europe. A total of 300,000 buildings in Europe are estimated to be not connected to the public grid. This represents a major market potential for photovoltaic, as often photovoltaic power generation is less expensive than a connection to the electric utility. The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE has planned, realized and monitored about 30 hybrid remote energy supply systems with PV generators typically around 5 kW for loads typically around 20 kWh per day. More than one hundred years of operational experience accumulated so far, are a sound foundation on which to draw an interim balance over problems solved and technical questions still under development. Room for further technical development is seen in the domain of system reliability and the reduction of operating costs as well as in the optimization of the utilization of the electric energy produced by the PV generator. [Espanol] Para la electrificacion en toda Europa de casas de campo en la montana, centros de informacion, parques naturales, granjas aisladas o conjuntos habitacionales, se estan usando generadores fotovoltaicos combinados con maquinas diesel, en algunos casos adicionalmente con convertidores de energia del viento y baterias para el almacenamiento de energia. Se estima que en Europa un total de 300,000 edificios no estan conectados a la red publica. Esto representa un gran mercado potencial para los sistemas fotovoltaicos, ya que a menudo la generacion fotovoltaica es menos costosa que una conexion a la empresa electrica. El Instituto Fraunhofer para Sistemas de Energia Solar ISE ha planeado, llevado a cabo y monitoreado alrededor de 30 sistemas hibridos remotos de suministro de energia con generadores fotovoltaicos

  17. Overview of PV Wind hybrid system activities in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, G; Gabler, H; Kiefer, K; Preiser, K; Wiemken, E [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Photovoltaic solar generators combined with diesel engines, in some cases additionally with wind energy converters, and battery energy storage are powering isolated mountain lodges, information centers in nature parks, isolated farms or dwellings all over Europe. A total of 300,000 buildings in Europe are estimated to be not connected to the public grid. This represents a major market potential for photovoltaic, as often photovoltaic power generation is less expensive than a connection to the electric utility. The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE has planned, realized and monitored about 30 hybrid remote energy supply systems with PV generators typically around 5 kW for loads typically around 20 kWh per day. More than one hundred years of operational experience accumulated so far, are a sound foundation on which to draw an interim balance over problems solved and technical questions still under development. Room for further technical development is seen in the domain of system reliability and the reduction of operating costs as well as in the optimization of the utilization of the electric energy produced by the PV generator. [Espanol] Para la electrificacion en toda Europa de casas de campo en la montana, centros de informacion, parques naturales, granjas aisladas o conjuntos habitacionales, se estan usando generadores fotovoltaicos combinados con maquinas diesel, en algunos casos adicionalmente con convertidores de energia del viento y baterias para el almacenamiento de energia. Se estima que en Europa un total de 300,000 edificios no estan conectados a la red publica. Esto representa un gran mercado potencial para los sistemas fotovoltaicos, ya que a menudo la generacion fotovoltaica es menos costosa que una conexion a la empresa electrica. El Instituto Fraunhofer para Sistemas de Energia Solar ISE ha planeado, llevado a cabo y monitoreado alrededor de 30 sistemas hibridos remotos de suministro de energia con generadores fotovoltaicos

  18. A methodology for optimal sizing of autonomous hybrid PV/wind system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaf, S.; Diaf, D.; Belhamel, M.; Haddadi, M.; Louche, A.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper presents a methodology to perform the optimal sizing of an autonomous hybrid PV/wind system. The methodology aims at finding the configuration, among a set of systems components, which meets the desired system reliability requirements, with the lowest value of levelized cost of energy. Modelling a hybrid PV/wind system is considered as the first step in the optimal sizing procedure. In this paper, more accurate mathematical models for characterizing PV module, wind generator and battery are proposed. The second step consists to optimize the sizing of a system according to the loss of power supply probability (LPSP) and the levelized cost of energy (LCE) concepts. Considering various types and capacities of system devices, the configurations, which can meet the desired system reliability, are obtained by changing the type and size of the devices systems. The configuration with the lowest LCE gives the optimal choice. Applying this method to an assumed PV/wind hybrid system to be installed at Corsica Island, the simulation results show that the optimal configuration, which meet the desired system reliability requirements (LPSP=0) with the lowest LCE, is obtained for a system comprising a 125 W photovoltaic module, one wind generator (600 W) and storage batteries (using 253 Ah). On the other hand, the device system choice plays an important role in cost reduction as well as in energy production

  19. A detailed thermal-electrical model of three photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) hybrid air collectors and photovoltaic (PV) module: Comparative study under Algiers climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimani, Mohamed El Amine; Amirat, Madjid; Kurucz, Ildikó; Bahria, Sofiane; Hamidat, Abderrahmane; Chaouch, Wafa Braham

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A detailed thermal and electrical model for PV and PV/T systems has been presented. • The developed numerical model was validated successfully with previously published experimental results. • A comparative study between four solar devices (PV and PV/T systems) was carried out. • The experimental weather conditions of Algiers site are used in the numerical model. • The glazed double-pass photovoltaic/thermal air collector shows the best overall energy efficiency. - Abstract: The thermal photovoltaic hybrid collector is a genuine cogeneration technology; it can produce electricity and heat simultaneously. In this paper, a comparative study is presented between four solar device configurations: photovoltaic module (PV-I), conventional hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-II), glazed hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-III) and glazed double-pass hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-IV). A numerical model is developed and validated through experimental results indicated in the previous literature. The numerical model takes the heat balance equations and different thermal and electrical parameters into account for each configuration included in this study, the energy performances are evaluated with a sample weather data of Algiers site. The numerical results show that the daily average of overall energy efficiency reaches: 29.63%, 51.02%, 69.47% and 74% for the first (PV-I), the second (PV/T-II), the third (PV/T-III) and the fourth (PV/T-IV) configurations respectively. These values are obtained with an air flow of 0.023 kg/s and introducing a sample of experimental weather data collected in Algiers site for a sunny day in summer.

  20. Final Technical Report - Photovoltaics for You (PV4You) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, J. M. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Sherwood, L. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Pulaski, J. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Cook, C. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Kalland, S. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Haynes, J. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States)

    2005-08-14

    In September 2000, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) began its 5-year work on contract # DE-FGO3-00SF22116, the Photovoltaics for You (PV4You) Project. The objective was to develop and distribute information on photovoltaics and to educate key stakeholder groups including state government agencies, local government offices, consumer representative agencies, school officials and students, and Million Solar Roofs Partnerships. In addition, the project was to identify barriers to the deployment of photovoltaics and implement strategies to overcome them. Information dissemination and education was accomplished by publishing newsletters; creating a base of information, guides, and models on the www.irecusa.org and the www.millionsolarroofs.org web sites; convening workshops and seminars; engaging multiple stakeholders; and widening the solar network to include new consumers and decision makers. Two major web sites were maintained throughout the project cycle. The www.irecusa.org web site housed dedicated pages for Connecting to the Grid, Schools Going Solar, Community Outreach, and Certification & Training. The www.millionsolarroofs.org web site was created to serve the MSR Partnerships with news, interviews, key documents, and resource material. Through the course of this grant, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council has been supporting the Department of Energy's solar energy program goals by providing the Department with expertise services for their network of city, state, and community stakeholders. IREC has been the leading force at the state and federal levels regarding net metering and interconnection policy for photovoltaic systems. The principal goal and benefit of the interconnection and net metering work is to lower both barriers and cost for the installation of PV. IREC typically plays a leadership role among small generator stakeholders and has come to be relied upon for its expertise by industry and regulators. IREC also took a leadership

  1. The Villas Carrousel PV-Wind Hybrid Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A pilot project was carried out to supply electrical services for an ecological hotel (eco-hotel), using solar and wind energy in Southeast Mexico. Fifteen small photovoltaic-wind hybrid systems were designed and built by researchers of the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (IIE), as part of a cooperation agreement with the mexican company Carrousel Operadora Turistica, aimed at developing a technology package to supply electrical services to similar hotels sited in remote areas. Each hybrid system includes one wind generator of 500W nominal capacity, one PV panel ranging in power from 150W to 320 Watts peak, one lead-acid battery bank of 570 ampere-hour in capacity, and an electronic charge controller. This paper describes the systems and summarizes the results from the first twelve months of operation. [Espanol] Se llevo a cabo un proyecto piloto para el suministro de servicios electricos a un hotel ecologico (eco-hotel), utilizando energia solar y energia del viento en el Sudeste de Mexico. Investigadores del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas de Mexico, disenaron y construyeron quince pequenos sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos-viento, como parte de un acuerdo de cooperacion con la compania mexicana Carrousel Operadora Turistica, orientado al desarrollo de un paquete tecnologico para proporcionar servicios de energia electrica a hoteles similares ubicados en areas remotas. Cada sistema hibrido incluye un aero-generador con capacidad nominal de 500W un panel foto-voltaico con una potencia que varia entre los 150W y los 320W pico, una banco de baterias de plomo-acido de 570 amperes-hora de capacidad y un controlador electronico de carga. Este articulo describe los sistemas y presenta un resumen de los resultados de los primeros doce meses de operacion.

  2. The Villas Carrousel PV-Wind Hybrid Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, Jorge M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A pilot project was carried out to supply electrical services for an ecological hotel (eco-hotel), using solar and wind energy in Southeast Mexico. Fifteen small photovoltaic-wind hybrid systems were designed and built by researchers of the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (IIE), as part of a cooperation agreement with the mexican company Carrousel Operadora Turistica, aimed at developing a technology package to supply electrical services to similar hotels sited in remote areas. Each hybrid system includes one wind generator of 500W nominal capacity, one PV panel ranging in power from 150W to 320 Watts peak, one lead-acid battery bank of 570 ampere-hour in capacity, and an electronic charge controller. This paper describes the systems and summarizes the results from the first twelve months of operation. [Espanol] Se llevo a cabo un proyecto piloto para el suministro de servicios electricos a un hotel ecologico (eco-hotel), utilizando energia solar y energia del viento en el Sudeste de Mexico. Investigadores del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas de Mexico, disenaron y construyeron quince pequenos sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos-viento, como parte de un acuerdo de cooperacion con la compania mexicana Carrousel Operadora Turistica, orientado al desarrollo de un paquete tecnologico para proporcionar servicios de energia electrica a hoteles similares ubicados en areas remotas. Cada sistema hibrido incluye un aero-generador con capacidad nominal de 500W un panel foto-voltaico con una potencia que varia entre los 150W y los 320W pico, una banco de baterias de plomo-acido de 570 amperes-hora de capacidad y un controlador electronico de carga. Este articulo describe los sistemas y presenta un resumen de los resultados de los primeros doce meses de operacion.

  3. Development of a test facility for PV-Wind hybrid energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engin, Mustafa [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Ege Tech., Electronics Technolgy; Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Solar Energy Inst.

    2010-07-01

    To quantify the potential for performance improvements of photovoltaic-wind hybrid energy systems, a test facility has been installed at the Solar Energy Institute, Ege University. Hybrid system consist of a wind turbine, PV array, battery, AC and DC loads, inverters, charge regulators and a data logging and control unit. The collected data are first conditioned using precision electronic circuits and then interfaced to a PC using a data logging unit. The LABVIEW program is used to further process, display and store the collected data in the PC disk. The proposed data logging and control unit permits the rapid system development and has the advantage of flexibility in the case of changes, while it can be easily extended for controlling the of photovoltaic-wind hybrid energy system operation. (orig.)

  4. The impact of photovoltaic (PV) installations on downwind particulate matter concentrations: Results from field observations at a 550-MWAC utility-scale PV plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Dwarakanath; Sinha, Parikhit

    2017-10-01

    With utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) projects increasingly developed in dry and dust-prone geographies with high solar insolation, there is a critical need to analyze the impacts of PV installations on the resulting particulate matter (PM) concentrations, which have environmental and health impacts. This study is the first to quantify the impact of a utility-scale PV plant on PM concentrations downwind of the project site. Background, construction, and post-construction PM 2.5 and PM 10 (PM with aerodynamic diameters construction through a wind-shielding effect. The results show that the (1) confidence intervals of the mean PM concentrations during construction overlap with or are lower than background concentrations for three of the four BAM stations; and (2) post-construction PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations downwind of the PV installation are significantly lower than the background concentrations at three of the four BAM stations. At the fourth BAM station, downwind post-construction PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations increased marginally by 5.7% and 2.6% of the 24-hr ambient air quality standards defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, respectively, when compared with background concentrations, with the PM 2.5 increase being statistically insignificant. This increase may be due to vehicular emissions from an access road near the southwest corner of the site or a drainage berm near the south station. The findings demonstrate the overall environmental benefit of downwind PM emission abatement from a utility-scale PV installation in desert conditions due to wind shielding. With PM emission reductions observed within 10 months of completion of construction, post-construction monitoring of downwind PM levels may be reduced to a 1-yr period for other projects with similar soil and weather conditions. This study is the first to analyze impact of a utility photovoltaic (PV) project on downwind particulate matter (PM) concentration in desert conditions. The PM

  5. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-02

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  6. A Statistical Model for Hourly Large-Scale Wind and Photovoltaic Generation in New Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrom, Jussi; Koivisto, Matti Juhani; Mellin, Ilkka

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of large-scale wind and photovoltaic (PV) energy generation is of vital importance in power systems where their penetration is high. This paper presents a modular methodology to assess the power generation and volatility of a system consisting of both PV plants (PVPs) and wind power...... of new PVPs and WPPs in system planning. The model is verified against hourly measured wind speed and solar irradiance data from Finland. A case study assessing the impact of the geographical distribution of the PVPs and WPPs on aggregate power generation and its variability is presented....

  7. Household photovoltaic market in Xining, Qingha province, China: the role of local PV business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, S.; Boardman, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the present and future market for household photovoltaic (PV) systems in rural Northwest China, especially from the PV commerce at Xining, Qinghai Province. This unsubsidised free market is now met by the emerging PV industry in China, which includes cell and module manufacturers, and PV system distributors and assemblers. For widespread deployment of such a renewable energy technology, the development of a local free market seems more successful than donor- or 'government subsidy'-driven programmes. Presently, there is a thriving infant PV industry in Northwest China, mostly centred in Xining. Xining-based PV sales companies have extensive networks for selling, marketing and servicing household PV systems for rural farmers and nomads. Small systems are now ordinary items on sale in local shops. Based on interviews and fieldwork observations with seven major PV sales companies in Xining, the household PV market is assessed from the present business operations of these companies. Detail of primary sources is given with the aim of archiving seminal progress in the history of photovoltaic power. The results suggest that although the household PV market will continue to grow, current government and international sponsored PV programmes can create both opportunities and barriers for the infant PV market an industry in China. (author)

  8. A New Energy Management Technique for PV/Wind/Grid Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozdal Mengi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent energy management system (IEMS for maintaining the energy sustainability in renewable energy systems (RES is introduced here. It consists of wind and photovoltaic (PV solar panels are established and used to test the proposed IEMS. Since the wind and solar sources are not reliable in terms of sustainability and power quality, a management system is required for supplying the load power demand. The power generated by RES is collected on a common DC bus as a renewable green power pool to be used for supplying power to loads. The renewable DC power bus is operated in a way that there is always a base power available for permanent loads. Then the additional power requirement is supplied from either wind or PV or both depending upon the availability of these power sources. The decision about operating these systems is given by an IEMS with fuzzy logic decision maker proposed in this study. Using the generated and required power information from the wind/PV and load sides, the fuzzy reasoning based IEMS determines the amount of power to be supplied from each or both sources. Besides, the IEMS tracks the maximum power operating point of the wind energy system.

  9. Hybrid PV/wind system with quinary asymmetric inverter without increasing DC-link number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Baghbany Oskouei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests quinary asymmetric inverter with coupled inductors and transformer, and uses it in hybrid system including photovoltaic (PV and wind. This inverter produces twenty-five-level voltage in addition to merits of multilevel inverter, has only one DC source. Then, it is adequate for hybrid systems, which prevents increasing DC-link and makes control of system easy. Proposed structure also provides isolation in the system and the switch numbers are reduced in this topology compared with other multilevel structures. In this system, battery is used as backup, where PV and wind have complementary nature. The performance of proposed inverter and hybrid system is validated with simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK software and experimental results based PCI-1716 data acquisition system.

  10. Solar Photovoltaic Economic Development: Building and Growing a Local PV Industry, August 2011 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry is forecast to grow, and it represents an opportunity for economic development and job creation in communities throughout the United States. This report helps U.S. cities evaluate economic opportunities in the PV industry. It serves as a guide for local economic development offices in evaluating their community?s competitiveness in the solar PV industry, assessing the viability of solar PV development goals, and developing strategies for recruiting and retaining PV companies to their areas.

  11. Numerical investigation of dust pollution on a solar photovoltaic (PV) system mounted on an isolated building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hao; Lu, Lin; Wang, Yuanhao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of dust pollution on PV panels mounted on building roofs were investigated by CFD. • The dust deposition rates first increased and then decreased with the increase of dust size. • The gravity has different influences on dust deposition rates of large and small dusts. • The influence of released dust number on dust deposition rate is less than 8%. • A simple model was developed to estimate the PV efficiency reduction ratio by dust pollution. - Abstract: Dust deposition on a solar photovoltaic (PV) system mounted on the windward roof of an isolated building was investigated by CFD simulation. The SST k-ω turbulence model with UDF inlet profiles and the discrete particle model (DPM) were adopted to simulate the wind flow fields and the dust deposition behavior, respectively. The CFD wind flow velocity profiles around the building were in good agreement with experimental results reported in the literature. The effects of various dust particle sizes, differing quantities of released dust particles, and the force of gravity on the rates of dust deposition upon the PV panels were investigated in detail. It was found that the dust deposition rate first rose and then declined with the increase of dust particle size. The maximum deposition rate was about 0.28% for 10 μm dust, and the minimum deposition rate was about 0.13% for 50 μm dust. Gravity also had a significant effect on the rate of dust deposition for large-particle dust (d_p > 5 μm), and the rate could reach 75% for 50 μm dust. However, the effect of gravity on dust deposition was less than 5% for small-particle dust (d_p < 5 μm). The effect of releasing differing quantities of dust particles on the dust deposition rate was less than 8%. Moreover, the mechanisms by which dust was deposited on the PV roof were analyzed and discussed. Finally, a simple empirical model was developed to estimate the PV efficiency reduction ratios in relation to exposure time, as based on this

  12. Photovoltaic (PV) Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goodrich, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-11-30

    The installed capacity of global and U.S. photovoltaic (PV) systems has soared in recent years, driven by declining PV prices and government incentives. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) SunShot Initiative aims to make PV cost competitive without incentives by reducing the cost of PV-generated electricity by about 75% between 2010 and 2020. This summary report—based on research at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)—examines progress in PV price reductions to help DOE and other PV stakeholders manage the transition to a market-driven PV industry, and to provide clarity surrounding the wide variety of potentially conflicting data available about PV system prices.

  13. A strategic research agenda for photovoltaic solar energy technology : report of the EU PV technology platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, W.C.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.; Ballif, C.; Bett, A.; Dimmler, B.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.; Fath, P.; Ferrazza, F.; Gabler, H.-J.; Hall, M.; Marti, A.; Mason, N.; Mellikov, E.; Milner, A.; Mogensen, P.; Panhuber, C.; Pearsall, N.; Poortmans, J.; Protogeropoulos, C.; Sarre, G.; Sarti, D.; Strauss, P.; Topic, M.; Zdanowicz, T.

    2007-01-01

    The EU PV Technology Platform [1] aims at joining forces on a European level to contribute to the further development of photovoltaic solar energy into a competitive technology that can be applied on a large scale and to the strengthening of the position of the European PV industry on the global

  14. Optimizing economic benefit of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems through lowering energy demand of industrial halls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial halls are characterized with their relatively high roof-to-floor ratio, which facilitates ready deployment of photovoltaic (PV) systems on the rooftop. To promote deployment of PV systems, feed-in tariff (FIT) higher than the electricity rate is available in many countries to subsidize

  15. Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems : a cost–benefit analysis study of industrial halls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems can be readily deployed on industrial halls with relatively large rooftop area. Feed-in tariff above the base price of electricity is offered in many countries to subsidize the high initial investment of PV systems. In order to fully capitalize the benefit of the

  16. Analyzing the Energy Performance, Wind Loading, and Costs of Photovoltaic Slat Modules on Commercial Rooftops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, Otto D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Kelsey A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); MacAlpine, Sara M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    NREL studied a new type of photovoltaic (PV) module configuration wherein multiple narrow, tilted slats are mounted in a single frame. Each slat of the PV slat module contains a single row of cells and is made using ordinary crystalline silicon PV module materials and processes, including a glass front sheet and weatherproof polymer encapsulation. Compared to a conventional ballasted system, a system using slat modules offer higher energy production and lower weight at lower LCOE. The key benefits of slat modules are reduced wind loading, improved capacity factor and reduced installation cost. First, the individual slats allow air to flow through, which reduce wind loading. Using PV performance modeling software, we compared the performance of an optimized installation of slats modules to a typical installation of conventional modules in a ballasted rack mounting system. Based on the results of the performance modeling two different row tilt and spacing were tested in a wind tunnel. Scaled models of the PV Slat modules were wind tunnel tested to quantify the wind loading of a slat module system on a commercial rooftop, comparing the results to conventional ballasted rack mounted PV modules. Some commercial roofs do not have sufficient reserve dead load capacity to accommodate a ballasted system. A reduced ballast system design could make PV system installation on these roofs feasible for the first time without accepting the disadvantages of penetrating mounts. Finally, technoeconomic analysis was conducted to enable an economic comparison between a conventional commercial rooftop system and a reduced-ballast slat module installation.

  17. Tools for PV (photovoltaic) plant operators: Nowcasting of passing clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulescu, Marius; Badescu, Viorel; Brabec, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The response time of a PV (photovoltaic) plant is very short and its output power follows the abrupt change in solar irradiance level due to alternate shadow by clouds. The sunshine number (SSN) is a Boolean quantity stating whether the sun is covered by clouds or not, thus being an appropriate parameter to predict the occurrence of direct solar radiation at ground level. Various ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) models for SSN nowcasting are inferred and discussed in this paper. Actinometric and meteorological data measured at 15 s lag during June 2010 in Timisoara (Romania) are used. The forecasting accuracy is studied as a function of season, of the procedure used to obtain a binary time series and of the type of white noise distribution, respectively. It is demonstrated that the ARIMA(0,1,0) model forecasts SSN with the same accuracy as higher order ARIMA models. The forecasting accuracy decreases when the instability of the radiative regime increases. - Highlights: • Nowcasting of passing clouds is modeled by using a 15 s lag database. • ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) (0,1,0) model is mostly recommended for nowcasting of passing clouds. • Models accuracy increases by increasing the radiative regime stability

  18. Mathematical modeling of photovoltaic thermal PV/T system with v-groove collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohri, M.; Fudholi, A.; Ruslan, M. H.; Sopian, K.

    2017-07-01

    The use of v-groove in solar collector has a higher thermal efficiency in references. Dropping the working heat of photovoltaic panel was able to raise the electrical efficiency performance. Electrical and thermal efficiency were produced by photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) system concurrently. Mathematical modeling based on steady-state thermal analysis of PV/T system with v-groove was conducted. With matrix inversion method, the energy balance equations are explained by means of the investigative method. The comparison results show that in the PV/T system with the V-groove collector is higher temperature, thermal and electrical efficiency than other collectors.

  19. Advanced Control of Photovoltaic and Wind Turbines Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Chen, Wenjie; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Much more efforts have been made on the integration of renewable energies into the grid in order to meet the imperative demand of a clean and reliable electricity generation. In this case, the grid stability and robustness may be violated due to the intermittency and interaction of the solar...... and wind renewables. Thus, in this chapter, advanced control strategies, which can enable the power conversion efficiently and reliably, for both photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbines power systems are addressed in order to enhance the integration of those technologies. Related grid demands have been...... presented firstly, where much more attention has been paid on specific requirements, like Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) and reactive power injection capability. To perform the functions of those systems, advanced control strategies are presented with much more emphasis on the LVRT operation with reactive...

  20. Grid-connected wind and photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devabakthuni, Sindhuja

    The objective of this thesis is to design a grid connected wind and photovoltaic system. A new model of converter control was designed which maintains the voltage of the bus to grid as constant when combined system of solar and wind is connected to AC bus. The model is designed to track maximum power at each point irrespective of changes in irradiance, temperature and wind speed which affects the power supplied to grid. Solar power from the sun is not constant as it is affected by changes in irradiances and temperature. Even the wind power is affected by wind speed. A MPPT controller was designed for both systems. A boost converter is designed which uses the pulses from MPPT controller to boost the output. Wind system consists of wind turbine block from the MATLAB with a pitch angle controller to maintain optimum pitch angle. The output from wind turbine is connected to a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The unregulated DC output from the photovoltaic system is directly given to boost converter. The AC output from the wind system is given to an uncontrolled rectifier to get a unregulated DC output. The unregulated DC output goes to the boost converter. A voltage source inverter was designed which converts the rectified DC output from the boost converter to AC power. The inverter is designed to maintain constant AC bus voltage irrespective of the disturbances in the power supply. Photovoltaic and wind systems are individually designed for 5KW each in MATLAB-Simulink environment. In this thesis, the models were subjected to changes in irradiance, temperature and wind speed and the results were interpreted. The model was successful in tracking maximum at every instant and the AC bus voltage was maintained constant throughout the simulation.

  1. Optimal stochastic management of renewable MG (micro-grids) considering electro-thermal model of PV (photovoltaic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najibi, Fatemeh; Niknam, Taher; Kavousi-Fard, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to report the results of the research conducted to one thermal and electrical model for photovoltaic. Moreover, one probabilistic framework is introduced for considering all uncertainties in the optimal energy management of Micro-Grid problem. It should be noted that one typical Micro-Grid is being studied as a case, including different renewable energy sources, such as Photovoltaic, Micro Turbine, Wind Turbine, and one battery as a storage device for storing energy. The uncertainties of market price variation, photovoltaic and wind turbine output power change and load demand error are covered by the suggested probabilistic framework. The Micro-Grid problem is of nonlinear nature because of the stochastic behavior of the renewable energy sources such as Photovoltaic and Wind Turbine units, and hence there is need for a powerful tool to solve the problem. Therefore, in addition to the simulated thermal model and suggested probabilistic framework, a new algorithm is also introduced. The Backtracking Search Optimization Algorithm is described as a useful method to optimize the MG (micro-grids) problem. This algorithm has the benefit of escaping from the local optima while converging fast, too. The proposed algorithm is also tested on the typical Micro-Grid. - Highlights: • Proposing an electro-thermal model for PV. • Proposing a new stochastic formulation for optimal operation of renewable MGs. • Introduction of a new optimization method based on BSO to explore the problem search space.

  2. Effect of Thermoelectric Cooling (TEC module and the water flow heatsink on Photovoltaic (PV panel performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV panel suffers in low conversion efficiency of the output performance affected by the elevated operating temperature of the PV panel. It is important to keep the PV panel to operate at low temperature. To address this issue, this paper proposes the cooling system using thermoelectric cooling (TEC and water block heatsink for enhancing the PV panel output performance. These both types cooling system were designed located on the back side of the PV panel to cool down the operating temperature of the PV panel. To evaluate the function for the existing cooling systems, the experiment was subsequently performed for PV panel without and with different design of the cooling system in outdoor weather conditions. By comparing the experimental results, it is concluded that by the hybrid cooling system which combining TEC module and the water block heatsink could improve the output performance of the PV panel. By the reduction temperature of the PV panel by 16.04 %, the average output power of the PV panel has been boosted up from 8.59 W to 9.03 W. In short, the output power of the PV panel was enhanced by the reduction of the operating temperature of the PV panel.

  3. Effect of Thermoelectric Cooling (TEC) module and the water flow heatsink on Photovoltaic (PV) panel performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, A. R.; Jusoh, MA; Shamira Idris, Ida

    2017-11-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) panel suffers in low conversion efficiency of the output performance affected by the elevated operating temperature of the PV panel. It is important to keep the PV panel to operate at low temperature. To address this issue, this paper proposes the cooling system using thermoelectric cooling (TEC) and water block heatsink for enhancing the PV panel output performance. These both types cooling system were designed located on the back side of the PV panel to cool down the operating temperature of the PV panel. To evaluate the function for the existing cooling systems, the experiment was subsequently performed for PV panel without and with different design of the cooling system in outdoor weather conditions. By comparing the experimental results, it is concluded that by the hybrid cooling system which combining TEC module and the water block heatsink could improve the output performance of the PV panel. By the reduction temperature of the PV panel by 16.04 %, the average output power of the PV panel has been boosted up from 8.59 W to 9.03 W. In short, the output power of the PV panel was enhanced by the reduction of the operating temperature of the PV panel.

  4. Technical analysis of photovoltaic/wind systems with hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Vukman V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical analysis of a hybrid wind-photovoltaic energy system with hydrogen gas storage was studied. The market for the distributed power generation based on renewable energy is increasing, particularly for the standalone mini-grid applications. The main design components of PV/Wind hybrid system are the PV panels, the wind turbine and an alkaline electrolyzer with tank. The technical analysis is based on the transient system simulation program TRNSYS 16. The study is realized using the meteorological data for a Typical Metrological Year (TMY for region of Novi Sad, Belgrade cities and Kopaonik national park in Serbia. The purpose of the study is to design a realistic energy system that maximizes the use of renewable energy and minimizes the use of fossil fuels. The reduction in the CO2 emissions is also analyzed in the paper. [Acknowledgment. This paper is the result of the investigations carried out within the scientific project TR33036 supported by the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia.

  5. Smoothing out the volatility of South Africa's wind and PV energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bofinger, S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar PV & wind are the cheapest new-build options per kWh in South Africa. By 2020, a mix of PV, wind and flexible gas (LNG-based) costs the same as new coal, even without any value given to excess wind/PV energy. South Africa has abundant solar...

  6. Studies on battery storage requirement of PV fed wind-driven induction generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan Singaravel, M.M.; Arul Daniel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sizing of battery storage for PV fed wind-driven IG system is taken up. ► Battery storage is also used to supply reactive power for wind-driven IG. ► Computation of LPSP by incorporating uncertainties of irradiation and wind speed. ► Sizing of hybrid power system components to ensure zero LPSP. ► Calculated storage size satisfied the constraints and improves battery life. - Abstract: Hybrid stand-alone renewable energy systems based on wind–solar resources are considered to be economically better and reliable than stand-alone systems with a single source. An isolated hybrid wind–solar system has been considered in this work, where the storage (battery bank) is necessary to supply the required reactive power for a wind-driven induction generator (IG) during the absence of power from a photovoltaic (PV) array. In such a scheme, to ensure zero Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) and to improve battery bank life, a sizing procedure has been proposed with the incorporation of uncertainties in wind-speed and solar-irradiation level at the site of erection of the plant. Based on the proposed procedure, the size of hybrid power system components and storage capacity are determined. Storage capacity has been calculated for two different requirements. The first requirement of storage capacity is common to any hybrid scheme, which is; to supply both real and reactive power in the absence of wind and solar sources. The second requirement is to supply reactive power alone for the IG during the absence of photovoltaic power, which is unique to the hybrid scheme considered in this work. Storage capacity calculations for different conditions using the proposed approach, satisfies the constraints of maintaining zero LPSP and also improved cycle life of the battery bank

  7. The energy roof - Photovoltaics and solar collectors combined; PV und Kollektoren schoen kombiniert. Das Energiedach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2008-07-01

    In this Interview with Giorgio Hefti, CEO of the Swiss Tritec group, the company's aims and the products offered are discussed. These include mains-connected and island-operated photovoltaic (PV) systems. The history of the company is briefly discussed, as is co-operation with local installers and the company's function as a general contractor for large installations. These include, amongst others, the PV-installation on the 'Stade de Suisse' football stadium in Berne. PV systems for single-family homes and their costs are examined. Also, mounting systems for combining PV and solar collectors (combined power and heat generation) are discussed, as are combinations of PV and heat-pumps. Hybrid PV-solar-collectors and their disadvantages are discussed as is the future of the Tritec group, which has grown continuously over the years and is active in several European countries.

  8. Interactive smart battery storage for a PV and wind hybrid energy management control based on conservative power theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy Simões, Marcelo; Davi Curi Busarello, Tiago; Saad Bubshait, Abdullah; Harirchi, Farnaz; Antenor Pomilio, José; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents interactive smart battery-based storage (BBS) for wind generator (WG) and photovoltaic (PV) systems. The BBS is composed of an asymmetric cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (ACMI) with staircase modulation. The structure is parallel to the WG and PV systems, allowing the ACMI to have a reduction in power losses compared to the usual solution for storage connected at the DC-link of the converter for WG or PV systems. Moreover, the BBS is embedded with a decision algorithm running real-time energy costs, plus a battery state-of-charge manager and power quality capabilities, making the described system in this paper very interactive, smart and multifunctional. The paper describes how BBS interacts with the WG and PV and how its performance is improved. Experimental results are presented showing the efficacy of this BBS for renewable energy applications.

  9. Electrical production for domestic and industrial applications using hybrid PV-wind system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essalaimeh, S.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Abdullat, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Modeling and building hybrid system of PV and wind turbine. ► Investigation of the electrical generation under Amman–Jordan’s climate. ► Configuration of theoretical and actual characteristics of the hybrid system. ► Testing effects of dust, inclination and load on the electrical generation. ► Financial analysis for various applications. - Abstract: The present work shows an experimental investigation of using a combination of solar and wind energies as hybrid system for electrical generation under the Jordanian climate conditions. The generated electricity has been utilized for different types of applications and mainly for space heating and cooling. The system has also integration with grid connection to have more reliable system. Measurements included the solar radiation intensity, the ambient temperature, the wind speed and the output power from the solar PV panels and wind turbine. The performance characteristic of the PV panels has been obtained by varying the load value through a variable resistance. Some major factors have been studied and practically measured; one of them is the dust effect on electrical production efficiency for photovoltaic panels. Another factor is the inclination of the PV panels, where varying the angle of inclination has a seasonal importance for gathering the maximum solar intensity. Through mathematical calculation and the collected and measured data, a simple payback period has been calculated of the hybrid system in order to study the economical aspects of installing such a system under Jordanian climate conditions and for different usages and local tariffs including domestic, industrial and commercial applications. It was found through this work that the generated electricity of hybrid system and under Jordanian climate conditions can be utilized for electrical heating and cooling through split units and resistive heaters.

  10. PV (photovoltaics) performance evaluation and simulation-based energy yield prediction for tropical buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, Esmail M.; Lee, Siew Eang; Manthapuri, Sumanth; Yi, Wang; Deb, Chirag

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution and climate change increased the importance of renewable energy resources like solar energy in the last decades. Rack-mounted PhotoVoltaics (PV) and Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics (BIPV) are the most common photovoltaic systems which convert incident solar radiation on façade or surrounding area to electricity. In this paper the performance of different solar cell types is evaluated for the tropical weather of Singapore. As a case study, on-site measured data of PV systems implemented in a zero energy building in Singapore, is analyzed. Different types of PV systems (silicon wafer and thin film) have been installed on rooftop, façade, car park shelter, railing and etc. The impact of different solar cell generations, arrays environmental conditions (no shading, dappled shading, full shading), orientation (South, North, East or West facing) and inclination (between PV module and horizontal direction) is investigated on performance of modules. In the second stage of research, the whole PV systems in the case study are simulated in EnergyPlus energy simulation software with several PV performance models including Simple, Equivalent one-diode and Sandia. The predicted results by different models are compared with measured data and the validated model is used to provide simulation-based energy yield predictions for wide ranges of scenarios. It has been concluded that orientation of low-slope rooftop PV has negligible impact on annual energy yield but in case of PV external sunshade, east façade and panel slope of 30–40° are the most suitable location and inclination. - Highlights: • Characteristics of PV systems in tropics are analyzed in depth. • The ambiguity toward amorphous panel energy yield in tropics is discussed. • Equivalent-one diode and Sandia models can fairly predict the energy yield. • A general guideline is provided to estimate the energy yield of PV systems in tropics

  11. A Case Study of Wind-PV-Thermal-Bundled AC/DC Power Transmission from a Weak AC Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H. W.; Du, W. J.; Wang, H. F.; Song, Y. T.; Wang, Q.; Ding, J.; Chen, D. Z.; Wei, W.

    2017-05-01

    Wind power generation and photovoltaic (PV) power generation bundled with the support by conventional thermal generation enables the generation controllable and more suitable for being sent over to remote load centre which are beneficial for the stability of weak sending end systems. Meanwhile, HVDC for long-distance power transmission is of many significant technique advantages. Hence the effects of wind-PV-thermal-bundled power transmission by AC/DC on power system have become an actively pursued research subject recently. Firstly, this paper introduces the technical merits and difficulties of wind-photovoltaic-thermal bundled power transmission by AC/DC systems in terms of meeting the requirement of large-scale renewable power transmission. Secondly, a system model which contains a weak wind-PV-thermal-bundled sending end system and a receiving end system in together with a parallel AC/DC interconnection transmission system is established. Finally, the significant impacts of several factors which includes the power transmission ratio between the DC and AC line, the distance between the sending end system and receiving end system, the penetration rate of wind power and the sending end system structure on system stability are studied.

  12. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we examine some of the limits to large-scale deployment of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems. Specifically, we evaluate the ability of PV to provide a large fraction (up to 50%) of a utility system's energy by comparing hourly output of a simulated large PV system to the amount of electricity actually usable. The simulations use hourly recorded solar insolation and load data for Texas in the year 2000 and consider the constraints of traditional electricity generation plants to reduce output and accommodate intermittent PV generation. We find that under high penetration levels and existing grid-operation procedures and rules, the system will have excess PV generation during certain periods of the year. Several metrics are developed to examine this excess PV generation and resulting costs as a function of PV penetration at different levels of system flexibility. The limited flexibility of base load generators produces increasingly large amounts of unusable PV generation when PV provides perhaps 10-20% of a system's energy. Measures to increase PV penetration beyond this range will be discussed and quantified in a follow-up analysis

  13. A Non-Modeling Exploration of Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Adoption and Non-Adoption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moezzi, Mithra [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Ingle, Aaron [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Lutzenhiser, Loren [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin O. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Although U.S. deployment of residential rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has accelerated in recent years, PV is still installed on less than 1 percent of single-family homes. Most research on household PV adoption focuses on scaling initial markets and modeling predicted growth rather than considering more broadly why adoption occurs. Among the studies that have investigated the characteristics of PV adoption, most collected data from adopters, sometimes with additional non-adopter data, and rarely from people who considered but did not adopt PV. Yet the vast majority of Americans are non-adopters, and they are a diverse group - understanding their ways of evaluating PV adoption is important. Similarly, PV is a unique consumer product, which makes it difficult to apply findings from studies of other technologies to PV. In addition, little research addresses the experience of households after they install PV. This report helps fill some of these gaps in the existing literature. The results inform a more detailed understanding of residential PV adoption, while helping ensure that adoption is sufficiently beneficial to adopters and even non-adopters.

  14. Photovoltaic module with integrated power conversion and interconnection system - the European project PV-MIPS

    OpenAIRE

    Henze, N.; Engler, A.; Zacharias, P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the 6th framework program funded by the European Commission the project PV-MIPS (Photovoltaic Module with Integrated Power Conversion System) was launched in November 2004. Together with eleven European partners from Germany, Austria, Greece and the Netherlands a solar module with integrated in-verter shall be developed that can feed solar electricity directly into the grid. The challenging objective of the project is to reduce the total costs of a PV system. At the same time lifetime ...

  15. Recent advances in flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Adnan; Othman, Mohd Yusof; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Mat, Sohif; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman [Solar Energy Research Institute Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    Flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collector produces both thermal energy and electricity simultaneously. This paper presents the state-of-the-art on flat plate PV/T collector classification, design and performance evaluation of water, air and combination of water and/or air based. This review also covers the future development of flat plate PV/T solar collector on building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) and building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPVT) applications. Different designs feature and performance of flat plate PV/T solar collectors have been compared and discussed. Future research and development (R and D) works have been elaborated. The tube and sheet design is the simplest and easiest to be manufactured, even though, the efficiency is 2% lower compared to other types of collectors such as, channel, free flow and two-absorber. It is clear from the review that for both air and water based PV/T solar collectors, the important key factors that influenced the efficiency of the system are the area where the collector covered, the number of passes and the gap between the absorber collector and solar cells. From the literature review, it is obvious that the flat plate PV/T solar collector is an alternative promising system for low-energy applications in residential, industrial and commercial buildings. Other possible areas for the future works of BIPVT are also mentioned. (author)

  16. MPPT Based on Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) for Photovoltaic (PV) System in Solar Car

    OpenAIRE

    Aji, Seno; Ajiatmo, Dwi; Robandi, Imam; Suryoatmojo, Heri

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a control called Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic (PV) system in a solar car. The main purpose of this system is to extracts PV power maximally while keeping small losses using a simple design of converter. Working principle of MPPT based fuzzy logic controller (MPPT-FLC) is to get desirable values of reference current and voltage. MPPT-FLC compares them with the values of the PV's actual current and voltage to control duty cycle value. Then the duty cy...

  17. A Review on Photovoltaic-Thermal (PV-T) Air and Water Collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avezov, R.R.; Akhatov, J. S.; Avezova, N. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the state-of-the-art on photovoltaic-thermal PV-T collectors. There are presented two main classification groups: -Air and -Water PV-Thermal collectors, design and performance evaluation, comparison of the findings obtained by various researchers. The review also covers the description of different designs of air and water PV-T collectors, the results of theoretical and experimental works, focused to optimization of the technical and economical performances in terms of electrical as well as thermal outputs. (authors)

  18. PV-BUK: Operating and maintenance costs of photovoltaic installations; PV-BUK - Betriebs- und Unterhaltskosten von PV-Anlagen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stettler, S.; Toggweiler, P. [Enecolo AG, Moenchaltorf (Switzerland); Ruoss, D.; Schudel, P. [Envision, Lucerne (Switzerland); Kottmann, A.; Steinle, F. [BE Netz AG, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2008-03-15

    This final report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a project carried out to determine the costs for facility management, to estimate future cost development and to propose activities for the further reduction of the operation and maintenance costs of photovoltaic systems. Information on the cost situation was collected by literature study, as well as in interviews and surveys with photovoltaic (PV) experts and the owners of PV installations. The discussion of the results at a workshop with about 20 Swiss PV experts is noted. The results are presented and discussed. These show that operating costs per kWh decrease with the size of the PV system. Figures are quoted. The major part of the costs are quoted as being those for spare parts, especially for the inverter. The authors are of the opinion that, in future, costs for facility management will further decrease, as they are partly linked to capital and insurance costs. Potential for optimisation is said to exist in several areas of facility management such as, for example, in system monitoring and fast reaction in the case of malfunctions.

  19. Photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar collectors: Features and performance modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atienza-Márquez, Antonio; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto; Korolija, Ivan; Greenough, Richard; Wright, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the electrical efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells ranges between 5–25%. One of the most important parameters that affects the electrical efficiency of a PV collector is the temperature of its cells: the higher temperature, the lower is the efficiency. Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) technology is a potential solution to ensure an acceptable solar energy conversion. The PV/T technology produces both electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. It is suitable for low temperature applications (25–40 o C) and overall efficiency increases compared to individual collectors. This paper describes an installation in a single-family house where PV/T collectors are coupled with a ground heat exchanger and a heat pump for domestic hot water and space heating purposes. The aim of this work is twofold. First, the features of the PV/T technology are analyzed. Second, a model of a flat-plate PV/T water collector was developed in TRNSYS in order to analyze collectors performance. (author)

  20. A Best Practice for Developing Availability Guarantee Language in Photovoltaic (PV) O&M Agreements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Balfour, John [High Performance PV, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This document outlines the foundation for developing language that can be utilized in an Equipment Availability Guarantee, typically included in an O&M services agreement between a PV system or plant owner and an O&M services provider, or operator. Many of the current PV O&M service agreement Availability Guarantees are based on contracts used for traditional power generation, which create challenges for owners and operators due to the variable nature of grid-tied photovoltaic generating technologies. This report documents language used in early PV availability guarantees and presents best practices and equations that can be used to more openly communicate how the reliability of the PV system and plant equipment can be expressed in an availability guarantee. This work will improve the bankability of PV systems by providing greater transparency into the equipment reliability state to all parties involved in an O&M services contract.

  1. The performance of a combined solar photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a combined solar photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) system is examined using an analytical model for four different types of commercial PVs and a commercial bismuth telluride TEG. The TEG is applied directly on the back of the PV, so that the two devices have...... the same temperature. The PVs considered are crystalline Si (c-Si), amorphous Si (a-Si), copper indium gallium (di) selenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) cells. The degradation of PV performance with temperature is shown to dominate the increase in power produced by the TEG, due to the low...... efficiency of the TEG. For c-Si, CIGS and CdTe PV cells the combined system produces a lower power and has a lower efficiency than the PV alone, whereas for an a-Si cell the total system performance may be slightly increased by the TEG....

  2. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields (nonsteady winds)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques to predict the dynamic response and the structural dynamic loads of flat plate photovoltaic arrays due to wind turbulence were analyzed. Guidelines for use in predicting the turbulent portion of the wind loading on future similar arrays are presented. The dynamic response and the loads dynamic magnification factor of the two array configurations are similar. The magnification factors at a mid chord and outer chord location on the array illustrated and at four points on the chord are shown. The wind tunnel test experimental rms pressure coefficient on which magnification factors are based is shown. It is found that the largest response and dynamic magnification factor occur at a mid chord location on an array and near the trailing edge. A technique employing these magnification factors and the wind tunnel test rms fluctuating pressure coefficients to calculate design pressure loads due to wind turbulence is presented.

  3. Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems for industrial halls: Achieving economic benefit via lowering energy demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial halls are characterized with their relatively high roof-to-floor ratio, which facilitates ready deployment of renewable energy generation, such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, on the rooftop. To promote deployment of renewable energy generation, feed-in tariff (FIT) higher than the

  4. Energy and Cost Saving of a Photovoltaic-Phase Change Materials (PV-PCM System through Temperature Regulation and Performance Enhancement of Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current research seeks to maintain high photovoltaic (PV efficiency and increased operating PV life by maintaining them at a lower temperature. Solid-liquid phase change materials (PCM are integrated into PV panels to absorb excess heat by latent heat absorption mechanism and regulate PV temperature. Electrical and thermal energy efficiency analysis of PV-PCM systems is conducted to evaluate their effectiveness in two different climates. Finally costs incurred due to inclusion of PCM into PV system and the resulting benefits are discussed in this paper. The results show that such systems are financially viable in higher temperature and higher solar radiation environment.

  5. Optimization of a PV/T (photovoltaic/thermal) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeedi, F.; Sarhaddi, F.; Behzadmehr, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the optimization of a PV/T (photovoltaic/thermal) active solar still is carried out. Analytical expressions for glass cover temperature, basin temperature, brackish water temperature and fresh water productivity are obtained by writing energy balance for different components of PV/T active solar still. The output electrical power of PV/T active solar still is calculated by four-parameter I–V (current–voltage) model. Objective function in present study is the energy efficiency of PV/T active solar still. A computer simulation program has been developed in order to obtain thermal and electrical parameters, respectively. The simulation results of the present study are in fair agreement with the experimental data of previous literatures. Finally, the optimization of PV/T active solar still has been carried out and the optimized value of mass flow rate, number of PV/T collector and the objective function have been obtained. Furthermore, the effect of various operating parameters on energy efficiency have been investigated. - Highlights: • The comprehensive optimization of a PV/T active solar still is carried out. • Present study is based on numerical simulation. • A modified energy efficiency for PV/T active solar still is obtained. • The effect of design and operating parameters is investigated on energy efficiency

  6. Maximum photovoltaic power tracking for the PV array using the fractional-order incremental conductance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Huang, Cong-Hui; Du, Yi-Chun; Chen, Jian-Liung

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The FOICM can shorten the tracking time less than traditional methods. → The proposed method can work under lower solar radiation including thin and heavy clouds. → The FOICM algorithm can achieve MPPT for radiation and temperature changes. → It is easy to implement in a single-chip microcontroller or embedded system. -- Abstract: This paper proposes maximum photovoltaic power tracking (MPPT) for the photovoltaic (PV) array using the fractional-order incremental conductance method (FOICM). Since the PV array has low conversion efficiency, and the output power of PV array depends on the operation environments, such as various solar radiation, environment temperature, and weather conditions. Maximum charging power can be increased to a battery using a MPPT algorithm. The energy conversion of the absorbed solar light and cell temperature is directly transferred to the semiconductor, but electricity conduction has anomalous diffusion phenomena in inhomogeneous material. FOICM can provide a dynamic mathematical model to describe non-linear characteristics. The fractional-order incremental change as dynamic variable is used to adjust the PV array voltage toward the maximum power point. For a small-scale PV conversion system, the proposed method is validated by simulation with different operation environments. Compared with traditional methods, experimental results demonstrate the short tracking time and the practicality in MPPT of PV array.

  7. Selecting Solar. Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This analysis leverages available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  8. PV Status Report 2009. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2009-08-01

    Photovoltaics is a key technology option to realise the shift to a decarbonised energy supply. The solar resources in Europe and world wide are abundant and cannot be monopolised by one country. Regardless for what reasons and how fast the oil price and energy prices increase in the future, Photovoltaics and other renewable energies are the only ones to offer a reduction of prices rather than an increase in the future. As a response to the economic crisis, most of the G20 countries have designed economic recovery packages which include 'green stimulus' measures. However, compared to the new Chinese Energy Revitalisation Plan under discussion, the pledged investments in green energy are marginal. If no changes are made, China which now strongly supports its renewable energy industry, will emerge even stronger after the current financial crisis. In 2008, the Photovoltaic industry production almost doubled and reached a world-wide production volume of 7.3 GWp of Photovoltaic modules. Yearly growth rates over the last decade were in average more than 40%, which makes Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict the market volume to increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect lower prices for consumers. The trend that thin-film Photovoltaics grew faster than the overall PV market continued in 2008. The Eighth Edition of the 'PV Status Report' tries to give an overview about the current activities regarding Research, Manufacturing and Market Implementation.

  9. Nationwide Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Breakeven Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The commercial sector offers strong potential for solar photovoltaics (PV) owing to abundant available roof space suitable for PV and the opportunity to offset the sector's substantial retail electricity purchases. This report evaluated the breakeven price of PV for 15 different building types and various financing options by calculating electricity savings based on detailed rate structures for most U.S. utility territories (representing approximately two thirds of U.S. commercial customers). We find that at current capital costs, an estimated 1/3 of U.S. commercial customers break even in the cash scenario and approximately 2/3 break even in the loan scenario. Variation in retail rates is a stronger driver of breakeven prices than is variation in building load or solar generation profiles. At the building level, variation in the average breakeven price is largely driven by the ability for a PV system to reduce demand charges.

  10. MPPT Based on Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC for Photovoltaic (PV System in Solar Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seno Aji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control called Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT for photovoltaic (PV system in a solar car. The main purpose of this system is to extracts PV power maximally while keeping small losses using a simple design of converter. Working principle of MPPT based fuzzy logic controller (MPPT-FLC is to get desirable values of reference current and voltage. MPPT-FLC compares them with the values of the PV's actual current and voltage to control duty cycle value. Then the duty cycle value is used to adjust the angle of ignition switch (MOSFET gate on the Boost converter. The proposed method was shown through simulation performed using PSIM and MATLAB software. Simulation results show that the system is able to improve the PV power extraction efficiency significantly by approximately 98% of PV’s power.

  11. A wind-PV-battery hybrid power system at Sitakunda in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Sanjoy Kumar; Ghosh, Himangshu Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    The measured wind data of Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) for 2006 at 30 m height shows a good prospect for wind energy extraction at the site. For a few months and hours the speed is below the cut in speeds of the available turbines in the market. The predicted solar radiation data from directly related measured cloud cover and sunshine duration data of Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) for 1992-2003 indicates that a reliable power system can be developed over the year if the solar energy technology is merged with the wind energy technologies for this site. This research work has studied on optimization of a wind-photovoltaic-battery hybrid system and its performance for a typical community load. The assessment shows that least cost of energy (COE) is about USD 0.363/kWh for a community using 169 kWh/day with 61 kW peak and having minimum amount of access or unused energy. Moreover, compared to the existing fossil fuel-based electricity supply, such an environment friendly system can mitigate about 25 t CO 2 /yr. The analysis also indicates that wind-PV-battery is economically viable as a replacement for conventional grid energy supply for a community at a minimum distance of about 17 km from grid.

  12. PAPER PRINTED PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS: EMERGING METHOD OF PV CELL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Nikhil S. Mane*, Avinash M. Patil2, Vishal P. Patil3

    2017-01-01

    An Solar energy is a renewable method for the energy production. The use of solar energy is increasing day by day and share of solar energy is increasing in the power sector of India. But as per pollution increases with energy consumption the need of solar energy will goes on increase in recent future as solar energy is a best option in both thermal and photovoltaic energy conversion processes. Photovoltaic cells are compact and has no movable parts which provides them effectiveness and easy ...

  13. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienard, Helene

    2011-11-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, projects in progress, regional status. (J.S.)

  14. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  15. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  16. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. First quarter 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  17. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Fourth quarter 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienard, Helene

    2012-02-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, projects in progress, regional status. (J.S.)

  18. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  19. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienard, Helene

    2012-09-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, projects in progress, regional status. (J.S.)

  20. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Fourth quarter 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  1. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. First quarter 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  2. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  3. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Fourth quarter 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  4. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. First quarter 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienard, Helene

    2012-06-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, projects in progress, regional status. (J.S.)

  5. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  6. Regulatory potential for increasing small scale grid connected photovoltaic (PV) deployment in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaraman, Deepak; Horne, Ralph E.

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has seen significant innovation and change in regulatory incentives to support photovoltaic deployment globally. With high fossil fuel dependency and abundant solar resource availability in Australia, grid connected photovoltaics are a viable low carbon technology option in existing electricity grids. Drawing on international examples, the potential to increase grid PV deployment through government response and regulation is explored. For each renewable energy certificate (REC) earned by small scale photovoltaics until 2012, the market provides four additional certificates under the current banded renewable targets. Our analysis indicates that REC eligibility is not accurately estimated currently, and an energy model is developed to calculate the variance. The energy model estimates as much as 26% additional REC's to be obtained by a 3 kWp PV system, when compared to the currently used regulatory method. Moreover, the provision of REC's increases benefits to PV technologies, in the process distorting CO 2 abatement (0.21 tonne/REC) by 68%, when PV displaces peaking natural gas plants. Consideration of the secondary effects of a banded structure on emissions trading market is important in the context of designing a range of initiatives intended to support a transition to a low carbon electricity sector. - Research Highlights: →Grid connected photovoltaics hedge spikes in peak demand summer electricity prices. →Nationwide feed in tariff and new building regulations needed to increase PV deployment. →Australia has transitioned from a solar rebate to a banded solar credit structure. →The currently used regulatory deeming method underestimates REC eligibility by 27%. →The banded structure can potentially distort CO 2 abatement by as much as 68%.

  7. Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Before investing in a system, a prospective PV customer must not only have initial concept 'buy in,' but also be able to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with different system parameters. Prospective customers might need to evaluate disparate costs for each system attribute by comparing multiple bids. The difficulty of making such an evaluation with limited information can create a cognitive barrier to proceeding with the investment. This analysis leverages recently available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  8. Bidding Strategy of Virtual Power Plant with Energy Storage Power Station and Photovoltaic and Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the virtual power plants containing energy storage power stations and photovoltaic and wind power, the output of PV and wind power is uncertain and virtual power plants must consider this uncertainty when they participate in the auction in the electricity market. In this context, this paper studies the bidding strategy of the virtual power plant with photovoltaic and wind power. Assuming that the upper and lower limits of the combined output of photovoltaic and wind power are stochastically variable, the fluctuation range of the day-ahead energy market and capacity price is stochastically variable. If the capacity of the storage station is large enough to stabilize the fluctuation of the output of the wind and photovoltaic power, virtual power plants can participate in the electricity market bidding. This paper constructs a robust optimization model of virtual power plant bidding strategy in the electricity market, which considers the cost of charge and discharge of energy storage power station and transmission congestion. The model proposed in this paper is solved by CPLEX; the example results show that the model is reasonable and the method is valid.

  9. Stochastic coordination of joint wind and photovoltaic systems with energy storage in day-ahead market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, I.L.R.; Pousinho, H.M.I.; Melício, R.; Mendes, V.M.F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal bid submission in a day-ahead electricity market for the problem of joint operation of wind with photovoltaic power systems having an energy storage device. Uncertainty not only due to the electricity market price, but also due to wind and photovoltaic powers is one of the main characteristics of this submission. The problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem. The optimal bids and the energy flow in the batteries are the first-stage variables and the energy deviation is the second stage variable of the problem. Energy storage is a way to harness renewable energy conversion, allowing the store and discharge of energy at conveniently market prices. A case study with data from the Iberian day-ahead electricity market is presented and a comparison between joint and disjoint operations is discussed. - • Joint wind and PV systems with energy storage. • Electricity markets. • Stochastic optimization. • Day-ahead market.

  10. Design of an off-grid hybrid PV/wind power system for remote mobile base station: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulualem T. Yeshalem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear challenge to provide reliable cellular mobile service at remote locations where a reliable power supply is not available. So, the existing Mobile towers or Base Transceiver Station (BTSs uses a conventional diesel generator with backup battery banks. This paper presents the solution to utilizing a hybrid of photovoltaic (PV solar and wind power system with a backup battery bank to provide feasibility and reliable electric power for a specific remote mobile base station located at west arise, Oromia. All the necessary modeling, simulation, and techno-economic evaluation are carried out using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software. The best optimal system configurations namely PV/Battery and PV/Wind/Battery hybrid systems are compared with the conventional stand-alone diesel generator (DG system. Findings indicated that PV array and battery is the most economically viable option with the total net present cost (NPC of $\\$$57,508 and per unit cost of electricity (COE of $\\$$0.355. Simulation results show that the hybrid energy systems can minimize the power generation cost significantly and can decrease CO2 emissions as compared to the traditional diesel generator only. The sensitivity analysis is also carried out to analysis the effects of probable variation in solar radiation, wind speed, diesel price and average annual energy usage of the system load in the optimal system configurations.

  11. RMS Current of a Photovoltaic Generator in Grid-Connected PV Systems: Definition and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes a definition of a new and original concept in the photovoltaic field, RMS current of a photovoltaic generator for grid-connected systems. The RMS current is very useful for calculating energy losses in cables used in a PV generator. As well, a current factor has been defined in order to simplify RMS current calculation. This factor provides an immediate (quick and easy calculation method for the RMS current that does not depend on the case particular conditions (orientation, location, etc.. RMS current and current factor values have been calculated for different locations and modules.

  12. Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV), 2017-2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-03

    The installed cost of solar photovoltaics (PV) has fallen rapidly in recent years and is expected to continue declining in the future. In this report, we focus on the potential for continued PV cost reductions in the residential market. From 2010 to 2017, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for residential PV declined from 52 cents per kilowatt-hour (cents/kWh) to 16 cents/kWh (Fu et al. 2017). The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) recently set new LCOE targets for 2030, including a target of 5 cents/kWh for residential PV. We present a roadmap for achieving the SETO 2030 residential PV target. Because the 2030 target likely will not be achieved under business-as-usual trends (NREL 2017), we examine two key market segments that demonstrate significant opportunities for cost savings and market growth: installing PV at the time of roof replacement and installing PV as part of the new home construction process. Within both market segments, we identify four key cost-reduction opportunities: market maturation, business model integration, product innovation, and economies of scale. To assess the potential impact of these cost reductions, we compare modeled residential PV system prices in 2030 to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) quarter one 2017 (Q1 2017) residential PV system price benchmark (Fu et al. 2017). We use a bottom-up accounting framework to model all component and project-development costs incurred when installing a PV system. The result is a granular accounting for 11 direct and indirect costs associated with installing a residential PV system in 2030. All four modeled pathways demonstrate significant installed-system price savings over the Q1 2017 benchmark, with the visionary pathways yielding the greatest price benefits. The largest modeled cost savings are in the supply chain, sales and marketing, overhead, and installation labor cost categories. When we translate these

  13. SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-cost PV Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Michael A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-12

    In this report we summarize the implications, impacts, and deployment potential of reaching the SunShot 2030 targets for the electricity system in the contiguous United States. We model 25 scenarios of the U.S. power sector using the Regional Energy Deployment Systems (ReEDS) and Distributed Generation (dGen) capacity expansion models. The scenarios cover a wide range of sensitivities to capture future uncertainties relating to fuel prices, retirements, renewable energy capital costs, and load growth. We give special attention to the potential for storage costs to also rapidly decline due to its large synergies with low-cost solar. The ReEDS and dGen models project utility- and distributed-scale power sector evolution, respectively, for the United States. Both models have been designed with special emphasis on capturing the unique traits of renewable energy, including variability and grid integration requirements. Across the suite of scenarios modeled, we find that reaching the SunShot 2030 target has the potential to lead to significant capacity additions of PV in the United States. By 2050, PV penetration levels are projected to reach 28-46 percent of total generation. If storage also sees significant reductions in cost, then the 2050 solar penetration levels could reach 41-64 percent. PV deployment is projected to occur in all of the lower 48 states, though the specific deployment level is scenario dependent. The growth in PV is projected to be dominated by utility-scale systems, but the actual mix between utility and distributed systems could ultimately vary depending on how policies, system costs, and rate structures evolve.

  14. Double-pass photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) solar collector with advanced heat transfer features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nazari Abu Bakar; Baharudin Yatim; Mohd Yusof Othman; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2006-01-01

    The use of PV/T in combination with concentrating reflectors has a potential to significantly increase power production from a given solar cell area. A prototype double-pass photovoltaic-thermal solar air collector with CPR and fins has been designed and fabricated and its performance over a range of operating conditions was studied. The absorber of the hybrid photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) collector under investigation consists of an array of solar cells for generating electricity, compound parabolic concentrator (CPR) to increase the radiation intensity falling on the solar cells and fins attached to the back side of the absorber plate to improve heat transfer to the flowing air. The thermal, electrical and combined electrical and thermal efficiencies of the collector are presented and discussed

  15. A Review of Hybrid Solar PV and Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al Badwawi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that solar and wind power is intermittent and unpredictable in nature, higher penetration of their types in existing power system could cause and create high technical challenges especially to weak grids or stand-alone systems without proper and enough storage capacity. By integrating the two renewable resources into an optimum combination, the impact of the variable nature of solar and wind resources can be partially resolved and the overall system becomes more reliable and economical to run. This paper provides a review of challenges and opportunities / solutions of hybrid solar PV and wind energy integration systems. Voltage and frequency fluctuation, and harmonics are major power quality issues for both grid-connected and stand-alone systems with bigger impact in case of weak grid. This can be resolved to a large extent by having proper design, advanced fast response control facilities, and good optimization of the hybrid systems. The paper gives a review of the main research work reported in the literature with regard to optimal sizing design, power electronics topologies and control. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of both grid-connected and stand-alone hybrid solar and wind systems.

  16. Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Liserre, Marco; Rodriguez, Pedro

    power, operation within a wide range of voltage and frequency, voltage ride-through capability, reactive current injection during faults, grid services support. This book explains the topologies, modulation and control of grid converters for both photovoltaic and wind power applications. In addition...... to power electronics, this book focuses on the specific applications in photovoltaic wind power systems where grid condition is an essential factor. With a review of the most recent grid requirements for photovoltaic and wind power systems, the book discusses these other relevant issues: Modern grid...... inverter topologies for photovoltaic and wind turbines Islanding detection methods for photovoltaic systems Synchronization techniques based on second order generalized integrators (SOGI) Advanced synchronization techniques with robust operation under grid unbalance condition grid filter design and active...

  17. Design and Analysis of Photovoltaic (PV) Power Plant at Different Locations in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    Power generation from sun oriented vitality through a photovoltaic (PV) system is ended up prevalent over the world due to clean innovation. Geographical location of Malaysia is very favorable for PV power generation system. The Malaysian government has also taken different steps to increase the use of solar energy especially by emphasizing on building integrated PV (BIPV) system. Comparative study on the feasibility of BIPV installation at the different location of Malaysia is rarely found. On the other hand, solar cell temperature has a negative impact on the electricity generation. So in this study cost effectiveness and initial investment cost of building integrated grid connected solar PV power plant in different regions of Malaysia have been carried. The effect of PV solar cell temperature on the payback period (PBP) is also investigated. Highest PBP is 12.38 years at Selangor and lowest PBP is 9.70 years at Sabah (Kota Kinabalu). Solar cell temperature significantly increases the PBP of PV plant and highest 14.64% and lowest 13.20% raise of PBP are encountered at Penang and Sarawak respectively.

  18. Comprehensive Benefit Evaluation of the Wind-PV-ES and Transmission Hybrid Power System Consideration of System Functionality and Proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizheng Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the background of decreasing fossil fuels and increasing environmental pollution, the wind-photovoltaic energy storage and transmission hybrid power system (or called the wind-PV-ES and transmission hybrid system has become a strategic choice to achieve energy sustainability. However, the comprehensive benefit evaluation of such a combined power system is in a relatively blank state in China, which will hinder the reasonable and orderly development of this station. Four parts, the technical performance, economic benefit, ecological impact and social benefit, are considered in this paper, and a multi-angle evaluation index system of the wind-PV-ES and transmission system is designed. The projection pursuit model is used to evaluated system functionality conventionally; relative entropy theory is used to evaluate the system functionality simultaneously; and a comprehensive benefit evaluation model of the technique for order preference by similar to ideal solution (TOPSIS considering both system functionality and proportionality is constructed. Finally, the national demonstration station of the wind-PV-ES-transmission system is taken as an example to testify to the practicability and validity of the evaluation index system and model.

  19. Design, fabrication and performance of a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shiv; Tiwari, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Two solar stills (single slope passive and single slope photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still) were fabricated and tested at solar energy park, IIT New Delhi (India) for composite climate. Photovoltaic operated DC water pump was used between solar still and photovoltaic (PV) integrated flat plate collector to re-circulate the water through the collectors and transfer it to the solar still. The newly designed hybrid (PV/T) active solar still is self-sustainable and can be used in remote areas, need to transport distilled water from a distance and not connected to grid, but blessed with ample solar energy. Experiments were performed for 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 m water depth, round the year 2006-2007 for both the stills. It has been observed that maximum daily yield of 2.26 kg and 7.22 kg were obtained from passive and hybrid active solar still, respectively at 0.05 m water depth. The daily yield from hybrid active solar still is around 3.2 and 5.5 times higher than the passive solar still in summer and winter month, respectively. The study has shown that this design of the hybrid active solar still also provides higher electrical and overall thermal efficiency, which is about 20% higher than the passive solar still.

  20. PV-wind hybrid system performance. A new approach and a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arribas, Luis; Cano, Luis; Cruz, Ignacio [Departamento de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mata, Montserrat; Llobet, Ermen [Ecotecnia, Roc Boronat 78, 08005 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Until now, there is no internationally accepted guideline for the measurement, data exchange and analysis of PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. As there is a need for such a tool, so as to overcome the barrier that the lack of confidence due to the absence of reliability means for the development of the market of Hybrid Systems, an effort has been made to suggest one tool for PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. The suggested guidelines presented in this work are based on the existing guidelines for PV Systems, as a PV-Wind Hybrid system can be roughly thought of as a PV System to which wind generation has been added. So, the guidelines for PV Systems are valid for the PV-Wind System, and only the part referred to wind generation should be included. This has been the process followed in this work. The proposed method is applied to a case study, the CICLOPS Project, a 5 kW PV, 7.5 kW Wind Hybrid system installed at the Isolated Wind Systems Test Site that CIEMAT owns in CEDER (Soria, Spain). This system has been fully monitored through a year and the results of the monitoring activity, characterizing the long-term performance of the system are shown in this work. (author)

  1. PV-wind hybrid system performance. A new approach and a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arribas, Luis; Cano, Luis; Cruz, Ignacio; Mata, Montserrat; Llobet, Ermen

    2010-01-01

    Until now, there is no internationally accepted guideline for the measurement, data exchange and analysis of PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. As there is a need for such a tool, so as to overcome the barrier that the lack of confidence due to the absence of reliability means for the development of the market of Hybrid Systems, an effort has been made to suggest one tool for PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. The suggested guidelines presented in this work are based on the existing guidelines for PV Systems, as a PV-Wind Hybrid system can be roughly thought of as a PV System to which wind generation has been added. So, the guidelines for PV Systems are valid for the PV-Wind System, and only the part referred to wind generation should be included. This has been the process followed in this work. The proposed method is applied to a case study, the CICLOPS Project, a 5 kW PV, 7.5 kW Wind Hybrid system installed at the Isolated Wind Systems Test Site that CIEMAT owns in CEDER (Soria, Spain). This system has been fully monitored through a year and the results of the monitoring activity, characterizing the long-term performance of the system are shown in this work. (author)

  2. Solar PV resource for higher penetration through a combined spatial aggregation with wind

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, ST

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available between wind and solar PV and how these would be reflected in the power system. The benefits of spatial distribution of renewables are well understood, but the impact of the combined spatial aggregation of wind and solar PV is central to the design...

  3. Modeling the allocation and economic evaluation of PV panels and wind turbines in urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, S.; Vries, de B.; Schaefer, W.F.; Timmermans, H.

    2014-01-01

    A model for allocating PV panels and wind turbines in urban areas is developed. Firstly, it examines the spatial and technical requirements for the installation of PV panels and wind turbines and then evaluates their economic feasibilities in order to generate the cost effective electricity neutral

  4. Integrating solar PV (photovoltaics) in utility system operations: Analytical framework and Arizona case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jing; Botterud, Audun; Mills, Andrew; Zhou, Zhi; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Heaney, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A systematic framework is proposed to estimate the impact on operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources. The framework quantifies the integration costs associated with sub-hourly variability and uncertainty as well as day-ahead forecasting errors in solar PV (photovoltaics) power. A case study illustrates how changes in system operations may affect these costs for a utility in the southwestern United States (Arizona Public Service Company). We conduct an extensive sensitivity analysis under different assumptions about balancing reserves, system flexibility, fuel prices, and forecasting errors. We find that high solar PV penetrations may lead to operational challenges, particularly during low-load and high solar periods. Increased system flexibility is essential for minimizing integration costs and maintaining reliability. In a set of sensitivity cases where such flexibility is provided, in part, by flexible operations of nuclear power plants, the estimated integration costs vary between $1.0 and $4.4/MWh-PV for a PV penetration level of 17%. The integration costs are primarily due to higher needs for hour-ahead balancing reserves to address the increased sub-hourly variability and uncertainty in the PV resource. - Highlights: • We propose an analytical framework to estimate grid integration costs for solar PV. • Increased operating costs from variability and uncertainty in solar PV are computed. • A case study of a utility in Arizona is conducted. • Grid integration costs are found in the $1.0–4.4/MWh range for a 17% PV penetration. • Increased system flexibility is essential for minimizing grid integration costs

  5. Evolutionary analysis of technological innovations: the example of solar photovoltaic and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillant, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to study the building up and the development of technologies for renewable energies considered as environmental radical innovations. In a first part, the author discusses the systemic aspects of innovation and the environmental challenges associated with energy technologies. He examines the main evolutions of energy systems over a long period. In a second part, he addresses innovation incentives in the case of environmental technologies and within the frame of the neo-classical economic theory. The next parts aim at presenting the theoretical framework of the evolutionary analysis of innovation and technical change, and at applying it to the case of technological innovations for renewable energies (photovoltaic and wind energy). World PV market trends are discussed and the technological competition context of this sector is analysed. The evolution of the solar PV technological system in Germany is discussed, as well as the specific case of development of the wind energy technological system in Denmark

  6. Integration of Hybrid PV/Wind Generation System Using Fuzzy MPPT in Grid Connected System for Remote Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soedibyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic and wind are renewable energy resources that widely used and grow rapidly in fulfilling electricity demand. Powers from both technologies depend on sunlight intensity and wind speed. For small scale power generation, DC voltage from both technologies is low and requires step-up converter to raise DC voltage ratio before converted into AC voltage. To optimize this system, step-up converter must have high ratio and efficiency to a distance of wide voltage input. This paper proposed an operation simulation and arrangement of DC-DC converter along with DC-AC from hybrid source PV-Wind which integrated to grid utilities without using storage device. High Gain Integrated Cascade Boost (HGICB is DC-DC converter that has quadratic voltage ratio and used in this research. Then DC link connected to Voltage Source Inverter (VSI which interconnected with utility grid and controlled by current control method. The total installed capacity of hybrid source is 4.4 kW. Wind turbine uses PMSG along with full bridge rectifier. To maximize and stabilize the generated power, MPPT fuzzy is used. Result from the simulation shows that converter capable to maintain maximum power whether from PV and wind turbine which canalized to utility grid in various irradiation condition, wind speed, and grid load alteration.

  7. Multiple time-scale optimization scheduling for islanded microgrids including PV, wind turbine, diesel generator and batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Nan, Jiakai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    A multiple time-scale optimization scheduling including day ahead and short time for an islanded microgrid is presented. In this paper, the microgrid under study includes photovoltaics (PV), wind turbine (WT), diesel generator (DG), batteries, and shiftable loads. The study considers the maximum...... efficiency operation area for the diesel engine and the cost of the battery charge/discharge cycle losses. The day-ahead generation scheduling takes into account the minimum operational cost and the maximum load satisfaction as the objective function. Short-term optimal dispatch is based on minimizing...

  8. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid autonomous generation systems in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dei, Tsutomu; Ushiyama, Izumi

    2005-01-01

    Two hybrid stand-alone (autonomous) power systems, each with wind and PV generation, were studied as installed at health clinics in semi-desert and mountainous region in Mongolia. Meteorological and system operation parameters, including power output and the consumption of the system, were generally monitored by sophisticated monitoring. However, where wind and solar site information was lacking, justifiable estimates were made. The results show that there is a seasonal complementary relationship between wind and solar irradiation in Tarot Sum. The users understood the necessity of Demand Side Management of isolated wind-PV generation system through technology transfer seminars and actually executed DSM at both sites. (author)

  9. Optimization of an off-grid hybrid PV-wind-diesel-battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merei, Ghada [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group; Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-Energy (Germany); Sauer, Dirk Uwe [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group; Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-Energy (Germany); RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS)

    2012-07-01

    The power supply of remote sites and applications at minimal cost and with low emissions is an important issue when discussing future energy concepts. This paper presents the modelling and optimisation of a stand-alone hybrid energy system. The system consists of photovoltaic (PV) panels and a wind turbine as renewable power sources, a diesel generator for back-up power and batteries to store excess energy and to improve the system reliability. For storage the technologies of lithium-ion, lead-acid, vanadium redox-flow or a combination thereof are considered. In order to use different battery technologies at once, a battery management system (BMS) is needed. The presented BMS minimises operation cost while taking into account different battery operating points and ageing mechanisms. The system is modelled and implemented in Matlab/Simulink. As input, the model uses data of the irradiation, wind speed and air temperature measured in ten minute intervals for ten years in Aachen, Germany. The load is assumed to be that of a rural UMTS/GSM base station for telecommunication. For a timeframe of 20 years, the performance is evaluated and the total costs are determined. Using a genetic algorithm, component sizes and settings are then varied and the system re-evaluated to minimise the overall cost. The optimisation results show that using batteries in combination with the renewables is economic and ecologic. However, the best solution is to combine redox-flow batteries with the renewables. In addition, a power supply system consisting only of batteries, PV and wind generators can satisfy the power demand.

  10. Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Jason (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Walling, Reigh (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Peter, William (SunPower, Richmond, CA); Von Engeln, Edi (NV Energy, Reno, NV); Seymour, Eric (AEI, Fort Collins, CO); Nelson, Robert (Siemens Wind Turbines, Orlando, FL); Casey, Leo (Satcon, Boston, MA); Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris. (SunPower, Richmond, CA)

    2012-02-01

    Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

  11. Embodied energy analysis of photovoltaic (PV) system based on macro- and micro-level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, I.; Tiwari, G.N.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the energy payback time and CO 2 emissions of photovoltaic (PV) system have been analyzed. The embodied energy for production of PV module based on single crystal silicon, as well as for the manufacturing of other system components have been computed at macro- and micro-level assuming irradiation of 800-1200 W/m 2 in different climatic zones in India for inclined surface. The energy payback time with and without balance-of-system for open field and rooftop has been evaluated. It is found that the embodied energy at micro-level is significantly higher than embodied energy at macro-level. The effect of insolation, overall efficiency, lifetime of PV system on energy pay back time and CO 2 emissions have been studied with and without balance of system. A 1.2 kW p PV system of SIEMENS for mudhouse at IIT, Delhi based on macro- and micro-level has been evaluated. The CO 2 mitigation potential, the importance and role of PV system for sustainable development are also highlighted

  12. Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed-in-Tariff (FiT mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii describes the developments of PV, (iii applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium; and finally (iv predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future.

  13. Feasibility study of an islanded microgrid in rural area consisting of PV, wind, biomass and battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shakti; Singh, Mukesh; Kaushik, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A cost effective hybrid PV-wind-biomass energy system with storage is proposed. • Mathematical modeling and operational strategy of the proposed system is discussed. • Optimal sizing of components is evaluated using evolutionary algorithms. • Results obtained is compared with software tool HOMER. • The performance of the hybrid system in the critical case has been presented. - Abstract: Renewable energy systems are proving to be promising and environment friendly sources of electricity generation, particularly, in countries with inadequate fossil fuel resources. In recent years, wind, solar photovoltaic (PV) and biomass based systems have been drawing more attention to provide electricity to isolated or energy deficient regions. This paper presents a hybrid PV-wind generation system along with biomass and storage to fulfill the electrical load demand of a small area. For optimal sizing of components, a recently introduced swarm based artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is applied. To verify the strength of the proposed technique, the results are compared with the results obtained from the standard software tool, hybrid optimization model for electric renewable (HOMER) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. It has been verified from the results that the ABC algorithm has good convergence property and ability to provide good quality results. Further, for critical case such as the failure of any source, the behavior of the proposed system has been observed. It is evident from the results that the proposed scheme is able to manage a smooth power flow with the same optimal configuration.

  14. Life cycle analysis of photovoltaic cell and wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yohji

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents life cycle analyses of net energy and CO 2 emissions on photovoltaic cell and wind power generation plants. Energy requirements associated with a plant are estimated for producing materials, manufacturing equipment, constructing facilities, acid operating plants. Energy ratio and net supplied energy are calculated by the process energy analysis that examines the entire energy inventory of input and output during life time of a plant. Life cycle CO 2 emission can also be calculated from the energy requirements obtained by the net energy analysis. The emission also includes greenhouse effect equivalent to CO 2 emission of methane gas leakage at a mining as well as CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion during generating electricity, natural gas treatment at an extracting well and cement production in industry. The commercially available and future-commercial technologies are dealt with in the study. Regarding PV technologies, two different kinds of installation are investigated; roof-top typed installation of residential houses and ground installation of electric utilities. (author)

  15. Proposing offshore photovoltaic (PV) technology to the energy mix of the Maltese islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapani, Kim; Millar, Dean L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Significant cost and carbon savings for offshore PV integration. ► Maximum savings at circa 315 MW for thin film PV integration. ► Minimum generating capacity of turbines significant in cost of electricity. ► Part-load efficiencies of current system could hugely limit the integration of renewables. - Abstract: The islands of Malta are located in the Mediterranean basin enjoying 5.3 kW h/m 2 /day of solar insolation, at a latitude of 35°50N. Electricity generation for the islands is dependent upon imported fossil fuels for combustion. The available solar resource could be exploited to offset the current generation of electricity using solar photovoltaic technology (PV). Due to the limited land availability onshore, the offshore environment surrounding the Maltese islands were considered for the installation of PV floating on the sea surface. The output from such an installation would have to be integrated with the existing conventional electricity generation infrastructure, which currently relies on gas and steam turbine technology. To assess the feasibility of floating PV being integrated with the existing fossil plant, monthly trend consumption data for Malta were analysed. The change in gasoil and heavy fuel oil (HFO) consumption resulting from the part load efficiency variation and the displacement of electricity generation from the PVs were estimated. A cost analysis was prepared for the system integration analysis specifically accounting for the reduction in combustion of fossil fuels at the power station and the capital expenditures and operating costs due to the floating PV installation. Aside from the basic cost-benefit of a floating PV installation, CO 2 savings are also considered

  16. Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ... from Hybrid System, power delivered to or from grid and phase voltage of the inverter leg. ... Renewable Energy, Electrical Network 220 kV, Hybrid System, Solar, MPPT.

  17. A New Control Method to Mitigate Power Fluctuations for Grid Integrated PV/Wind Hybrid Power System Using Ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, N. S.; Gaonkar, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    The output power obtained from solar-wind hybrid system fluctuates with changes in weather conditions. These power fluctuations cause adverse effects on the voltage, frequency and transient stability of the utility grid. In this paper, a control method is presented for power smoothing of grid integrated PV/wind hybrid system using ultracapacitors in a DC coupled structure. The power fluctuations of hybrid system are mitigated and smoothed power is supplied to the utility grid. In this work both photovoltaic (PV) panels and the wind generator are controlled to operate at their maximum power point. The grid side inverter control strategy presented in this paper maintains DC link voltage constant while injecting power to the grid at unity power factor considering different operating conditions. Actual solar irradiation and wind speed data are used in this study to evaluate the performance of the developed system using MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that output power fluctuations of solar-wind hybrid system can be significantly mitigated using the ultracapacitor based storage system.

  18. PV Status Report 2008. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2008-09-01

    Photovoltaics is a solar power technology to generate electricity using semiconductor devices, known as solar cells. A number of solar cells form a solar 'Module' or 'Panel', which can then be combined to solar systems, ranging from a few Watts of electricity output to multi Megawatt power stations. The unique format of the Photovoltaic Status Report is to combine international up-to-date information about Research Activities with Manufacturing and Market Implementation data of Photovoltaics. These data are collected on a regular basis from public and commercial studies and cross-checked with personal communications. Regular fact-finding missions with company visits, as well as meetings with officials from funding organisations and policy makers, complete the picture. Growth in the solar Photovoltaic sector has been robust. Yearly growth rates over the last five years were on average more than 40%, thus making Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict that the market volume will increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect rising profit margins and lower prices for consumers at the same time. The PV Status Report provides comprehensive and relevant information on this dynamic sector for the public interested, as well as decision-makers in policy and industry.

  19. PV Status Report 2010. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2010-08-01

    Photovoltaics is a solar power technology to generate Electricity using semiconductor devices, known as solar cells. A number of solar cells form a solar 'Module' or 'Panel', which can then be combined to solar systems, ranging from a few Watts of electricity output to multi Megawatt power stations. The unique format of the Photovoltaic Status Report combines international up-to-date information about Research Activities with Manufacturing and Market Implementation data of Photovoltaics. These data are collected on a regular basis from public and commercial studies and cross-checked with personal communications. Regular fact finding missions with company visits, as well as meetings with officials from funding organisations and policy makers, complete the picture. Growth in the solar Photovoltaic sector has been robust. Yearly growth rates over the last decade were on average more than 40 %, thus making Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. The PV Status Report provides comprehensive and relevant information on this dynamic sector for the public interested, as well as decision-makers in policy and industry.

  20. Is Germany's energy transition a case of successful green industrial policy? Contrasting wind and solar PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegels, Anna; Lütkenhorst, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we address the challenge of Germany's energy transition (Energiewende) as the centrepiece of the country's green industrial policy. In addition to contributing to global climate change objectives, the Energiewende is intended to create a leading position for German industry in renewable energy technologies, boost innovative capabilities and create employment opportunities in future growth markets at the least possible cost. The success in reaching these aims, and indeed the future of the entire concept, is hotly debated. The paper aims to provide an up-to-date assessment of what has become a fierce controversy by comparing solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy along five policy objectives: (1) competitiveness, (2) innovation, (3) job creation, (4) climate change mitigation, and (5) cost. We find mixed evidence that Germany reaches its green industrial policy aims at reasonable costs. Wind energy seems to perform better against all policy objectives, while the solar PV sector has come under intense pressure from international competition. However, this is only a snapshot of current performance, and the long term and systemic perspective required for the energy sector transformation suggests a need for a balanced mix of a variety of clean energy sources. - Highlights: • We give an up-to-date assessment of costs and benefits of Germany's Energiewende. • We compare solar PV and wind to show key elements of policy success. • Considered policy objectives: competitiveness, innovation, jobs, emissions, costs. • Wind energy seems to perform better than solar PV against all policy objectives. • The results are a snapshot: a deep transformation requires energy diversification

  1. An investigation of the maximum penetration level of a photovoltaic (PV) system into a traditional distribution grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalise, Santosh

    Although solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have remained the fastest growing renewable power generating technology, variability as well as uncertainty in the output of PV plants is a significant issue. This rapid increase in PV grid-connected generation presents not only progress in clean energy but also challenges in integration with traditional electric power grids which were designed for transmission and distribution of power from central stations. Unlike conventional electric generators, PV panels do not have rotating parts and thus have no inertia. This potentially causes a problem when the solar irradiance incident upon a PV plant changes suddenly, for example, when scattered clouds pass quickly overhead. The output power of the PV plant may fluctuate nearly as rapidly as the incident irradiance. These rapid power output fluctuations may then cause voltage fluctuations, frequency fluctuations, and power quality issues. These power quality issues are more severe with increasing PV plant power output. This limits the maximum power output allowed from interconnected PV plants. Voltage regulation of a distribution system, a focus of this research, is a prime limiting factor in PV penetration levels. The IEEE 13-node test feeder, modeled and tested in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, was used as an example distribution feeder to analyze the maximum acceptable penetration of a PV plant. The effect of the PV plant's location was investigated, along with the addition of a VAR compensating device (a D-STATCOM in this case). The results were used to develop simple guidelines for determining an initial estimate of the maximum PV penetration level on a distribution feeder. For example, when no compensating devices are added to the system, a higher level of PV penetration is generally achieved by installing the PV plant close to the substation. The opposite is true when a VAR compensator is installed with the PV plant. In these cases, PV penetration levels over 50% may be

  2. Technical feasibility and financial analysis of hybrid wind-photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage for Cooma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakya, B.D.; Aye, L. [Melbourne Univ., Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Musgrave, P. [Snowy Hydro Ltd., Cooma, NSW (Australia)

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of a stand-alone hybrid wind-photovoltaic (PV) system incorporating compressed hydrogen gas storage was studied for Cooma (Australia). Cooma has an average annual solar and wind energy availability of 1784 and 932 kWh/m{sup 2}, respectively. A system with 69 kWh{sub e}/day (load) and 483 kWh{sub e}(storage) was studied. Hydrogen is generated in electrolysers using excess electricity from the system. The system components were selected according to their availability and cost. The 'discounted cash flow' method, with the 'levelized energy cost' (LEC) as a financial indicator was used for analysis. Configurations with PV% of 100, 60, 12 and zero were analysed. The lowest LEC of AU $2.52/kWh{sub e} was found for 100% PV. The cost of hydrogen generation from 100% PV was AU $692/GJ of hydrogen. Fifty-two percent of the total project costs were due to the electrolyser. Hence, a reduction in the electrolyser cost would reduce the cost of the overall system. (Author)

  3. A peaking-regulation-balance-based method for wind & PV power integrated accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfang; Li, Nan; Liu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Rapid development of China’s new energy in current and future should be focused on cooperation of wind and PV power. Based on the analysis of system peaking balance, combined with the statistical features of wind and PV power output characteristics, a method of comprehensive integrated accommodation analysis of wind and PV power is put forward. By the electric power balance during night peaking load period in typical day, wind power installed capacity is determined firstly; then PV power installed capacity could be figured out by midday peak load hours, which effectively solves the problem of uncertainty when traditional method hard determines the combination of the wind and solar power simultaneously. The simulation results have validated the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Key technical and non-technical challenges for mass deployment of photovoltaic solar energy (PV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.

    2001-12-01

    Photovoltaic solar energy (PV) is used for direct conversion of sunlight into electricity. It is not to be confused with low-temperature thermal solar energy (e.g. solar domestic hot water systems) and with solar electricity production using a conventional high-temperature steam cycle (using parabolic troughs or 'power towers'). Important features of PV are: inherently renewable; sustainable if well designed, manufactured, used, and disposed; no moving parts, quiet; reliable if well designed and engineered; modular (from milliwatts to multi-megawatts); suitable for a wide variety of applications (stand-alone and grid-connected); large potential (regionally and globally); intermittent; capacity factor (ratio of average system power to installed (=peak) power) =0.08-0.24. PV is among the major renewable energy technologies in all well known energy scenarios, although a substantial role in % of the total energy production can only be achieved on the long term (typically 40-60 years years). Fortunately, long before that the PV market may be a rapidly growing, multi-billion euro business, providing enormous economic opportunities and many jobs

  5. An experimental study on energy generation with a photovoltaic (PV)-solar thermal hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdil, Erzat; Ilkan, Mustafa; Egelioglu, Fuat

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid system, composed of a photovoltaic (PV) module and a solar thermal collector is constructed and tested for energy collection at a geographic location of Cyprus. Normally, it is required to install a PV system occupying an area of about 10 m 2 in order to produce electrical energy; 7 kWh/day, required by a typical household. In this experimental study, we used only two PV modules of area approximately 0.6 m 2 (i.e., 1.3x0.47 m 2 ) each. PV modules absorb a considerable amount of solar radiation that generate undesirable heat. This thermal energy, however, may be utilized in water pre-heating applications. The proposed hybrid system produces about 2.8 kWh thermal energy daily. Various attachments that are placed over the hybrid modules lead to a total of 11.5% loss in electrical energy generation. This loss, however, represents only 1% of the 7 kWh energy that is consumed by a typical household in northern Cyprus. The pay-back period for the modification is less than 2 years. The low investment cost and the relatively short pay-back period make this hybrid system economically attractive

  6. Lighting rural and peri-urban homes of the Gambia using solar photovoltaics (PV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanneh, E.S.; Hu, A.H. [National Taipei Univ. of Technology, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Environmental Engineering Technology

    2009-07-01

    The main fuel supplies of Gambia are fuel woods, petroleum products, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This study considered the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) as a principal source of power for rural and peri-urban communities in Gambia. The country currently has high rates of poverty and malnutrition, and it is expected that the provision of electricity to communities will encourage economic growth. Gambia is also heavily dependent on foreign imports of oil. To date, PV systems have been used for water pumping, refrigeration, and telecommunications projects. The study showed that better access to sustainable energy services is needed at the micro-level to stimulate businesses and income-generating activities, as well as at the macro level to foster economic growth. Financing methods for developing solar energy in Gambia include credit financing; PV market transformative initiatives; revolving loan funds; and government-granted renewable energy concessions for institutionally-owned and maintained systems. A pilot program has been established to investigate the acceptability of PV lighting systems for rural populations. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  7. PV Horizon : Proceedings of the Workshop on Photovoltaic Hybrid Systems. CD ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this workshop was to share information on current photovoltaic (PV) and hybrid system technology, and to present information on international experience and trends in research and development. It brought together 70 experts from Canada, the United States, several European countries, Japan and Australia. Currently, PV hybrid systems are used for stand-alone projects in telecommunication applications, remote housing, and leisure lodges. The applications for these sectors are well known and the technology is cost effective. Other applications are for micro-grid applications such as small remote islands, village power and tourist resorts. The costs for these types of applications can also be effective as long as the power demand is relatively low. A keynote presentation which highlighted the current application of PV hybrid systems, was followed by three sessions dealing with international experience with hybrid systems, the research and development opportunities for hybrid systems, and visual presentations on a range of subjects dealing with PV hybrid systems, their components, system integration, standards, guidelines, and control system issues. It was noted that the future for renewables looks bright, particularly for developing countries. Their use will also reduce the environmental footprint of remote power solutions. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Optimal Photovoltaic System Sizing of a Hybrid Diesel/PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Belhamadia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cost analysis study of a hybrid diesel and Photovoltaic (PV system in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. It first presents the climate conditions of the city followed by the load profile of a 2MVA network; the system was evaluated as a standalone system. Diesel generator rating was considered such that it follows ISO 8528. The maximum size of the PV system was selected such that its penetration would not exceed 25%. Several sizes were considered but the 400kWp system was found to be the most cost efficient. Cost estimation was done using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER. Based on the simulation results, the climate conditions and the NEC 960, the numbers of the maximum and minimum series modules were suggested as well as the maximum number of the parallel strings.

  9. Market dynamics, innovation, and transition in China's solar photovoltaic (PV) industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Hongyang; Du, Huibin; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    development from the perspective of technological innovation. By incorporating a Technological Innovation System (TIS) approach, the analysis performed here complements the previous literature, which has not provided agrounded itself in a theoretical framework for associated analyses. In addition......China’s photovoltaic (PV) industry has undergone dramatic development in recent years and is now the global market leader in terms of newly added capacity. However, market diffusion and adoption in China is not ideal. This paper examines the blocking and inducement mechanisms of China’s PV industry......, to determine the current market dynamics, we closely examine the market concentration trends as well as the vertical and horizontal integration of upstream and downstream actors and calculate the market concentration of the upstream and downstream integration (74.8% and 36.3%). The results of applying the TIS...

  10. CFD Simulation of Turbulent Wind Effect on an Array of Ground-Mounted Solar PV Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irtaza, Hassan; Agarwal, Ashish

    2018-02-01

    Aim of the present study is to determine the wind loads on the PV panels in a solar array since panels are vulnerable to high winds. Extensive damages of PV panels, arrays and mounting modules have been reported the world over due to high winds. Solar array of dimension 6 m × 4 m having 12 PV panels of size 1 m × 2 m on 3D 1:50 scaled models have been simulated using unsteady solver with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations of computational fluid dynamics techniques to study the turbulent wind effects on PV panels. A standalone solar array with 30° tilt angle in atmospheric surface layer with the Renormalized Group (RNG) turbulence closure subjected to incident wind varied from - 90° to 90°. The net pressure, drag and lift coefficients are found to be maximum when the wind is flowing normally to the PV panel either 90° or - 90°. The tilt angle of solar arrays the world over not vary on the latitude but also on the seasons. Keeping this in mind the ground mounted PV panels in array with varying tilt angle from 10° to 60° at an interval of 10° have been analyzed for normal wind incident i.e. 90° and - 90° using unsteady RNG turbulence model. Net pressure coefficients have been calculated and found to be increasing with increase in array tilting angle. Maximum net pressure coefficient was observed for the 60° tilted PV array for 90° and - 90° wind incident having value of 0.938 and 0.904 respectively. The results can be concluded that the PV panels are subjected to significant lift and drag forces under wind loading, which needs to be quantified with sufficient factor of safety to avoid damages.

  11. CFD Simulation of Turbulent Wind Effect on an Array of Ground-Mounted Solar PV Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irtaza, Hassan; Agarwal, Ashish

    2018-06-01

    Aim of the present study is to determine the wind loads on the PV panels in a solar array since panels are vulnerable to high winds. Extensive damages of PV panels, arrays and mounting modules have been reported the world over due to high winds. Solar array of dimension 6 m × 4 m having 12 PV panels of size 1 m × 2 m on 3D 1:50 scaled models have been simulated using unsteady solver with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations of computational fluid dynamics techniques to study the turbulent wind effects on PV panels. A standalone solar array with 30° tilt angle in atmospheric surface layer with the Renormalized Group (RNG) turbulence closure subjected to incident wind varied from - 90° to 90°. The net pressure, drag and lift coefficients are found to be maximum when the wind is flowing normally to the PV panel either 90° or - 90°. The tilt angle of solar arrays the world over not vary on the latitude but also on the seasons. Keeping this in mind the ground mounted PV panels in array with varying tilt angle from 10° to 60° at an interval of 10° have been analyzed for normal wind incident i.e. 90° and - 90° using unsteady RNG turbulence model. Net pressure coefficients have been calculated and found to be increasing with increase in array tilting angle. Maximum net pressure coefficient was observed for the 60° tilted PV array for 90° and - 90° wind incident having value of 0.938 and 0.904 respectively. The results can be concluded that the PV panels are subjected to significant lift and drag forces under wind loading, which needs to be quantified with sufficient factor of safety to avoid damages.

  12. Task 5. Grid interconnection of building integrated and other dispersed photovoltaic power systems. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: power value and capacity value of PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppi, F.

    2002-02-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the power value and capacity value of photovoltaic power systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and dispersed PV power systems. This report summarises the results of a study aimed to assess the benefits that may be obtained when distributed PV production systems are present in a low-voltage grid. The basic aspects concerning the power-value and those related to the capacity-value are discussed. Data obtained from simulations are presented and discussed. A simple concept shows that great variation occurs if varying load patterns are taken into account. The power-value of PV generation in the grid varies instant by instant depending on the current level of power production and on the surrounding load conditions. Although the three case-studies considered do not cover all the possibilities of coupling between PV and loads, the results obtained show a good differentiation among users with PV production which leads to interesting conclusions.

  13. Grid matching of large-scale wind energy conversion systems, alone and in tandem with large-scale photovoltaic systems: An Israeli case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, A.A.; Faiman, D.; Meron, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a grid matching analysis of wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) and photovoltaic (PV)-WECS hybrid systems. The study was carried out using hourly load data of the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC) for the year 2006 and the corresponding simulated hourly performance of large PV and WECS plants in the Negev Desert. Our major objective was to compare the grid-matching capabilities of wind with those of our previously published PV results, and to assess the extent to which the combined employment of WECS and PV can improve the grid matching capability of either technology when used on its own. We find that, due to the differences in diurnal and seasonal output profiles of WECS and PV, their tandem employment significantly improves grid penetration compared to their use individually.

  14. A regional optimisation of renewable energy supply from wind and photovoltaics with respect to three key energy-political objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killinger, Sven; Mainzer, Kai; McKenna, Russell; Kreifels, Niklas; Fichtner, Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Currently, most PV (photovoltaic) modules are aligned in a way that maximizes annual yields. With an increasing number of PV installations, this leads to significant power peaks and could threaten energy policy objectives. Apparently sub-optimal inclinations and azimuth angles of PV plants on building roofs could counteract such tendencies by achieving significant temporal shifts in the electricity production. This paper addresses the potential of these counter-measures by evaluating the optimal regional mix of wind and PV installations with different mounting configurations in order to locally generate the annual electricity demand. It does so by adhering to three distinctive energy policy goals: economic efficiency, environmental sustainability and security of supply. The hourly yields of wind parks and nine PV orientations are simulated for four representative NUTS3-regions in Germany. These profiles are combined with regional electricity demand profiles and fed into an optimisation model. As a result, the optimal installed capacity for PV for every possible configuration – determined by inclination and azimuth angles – and the optimal installed capacity of wind power are obtained. The results indicate that the optimal mix differs significantly for each of the chosen goals, depending on regional conditions, but also shows a high transferability of general statements. - Highlights: • The optimal mix of wind and PV plants with different mounting angles is evaluated. • Four regions with different climatic and demand conditions are considered. • Three distinctive energy-political objectives are optimised. • The optimal generation mix differs significantly for each of the chosen goals. • Non-economical political objectives call for more east and west facing PV plants

  15. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data observed at weather station belongs to the Australian bureau of meteorology in Armidale town over a fourteen years period from 1997–2010. Simulation of solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were conducted to obtain the optimal hybrid system sizing and best efficient with lowest cost. Correlations between the solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis. It is shown that the hybrid system can be applied for the efficient and economic utilization of wind and solar renewable energy sources.

  16. Investigation of wind speed cooling effect on PV panels in windy locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gökmen, Nuri; Hu, Weihao; Hou, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Environmental concerns have considerably increased the penetration of renewable energy sources in the electricity grid. Especially, the quick rise of photovoltaic (PV) installations aroused more research interests in efficiency improvement during the recent years. Even one percent more gain is of...

  17. Analysis of off-grid hybrid wind turbine/solar PV water pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    While many remote water pumping systems exist (e.g. mechanical windmills, solar photovoltaic , wind-electric, diesel powered), very few combine both the wind and solar energy resources to possibly improve the reliability and the performance of the system. In this paper, off-grid wind turbine (WT) a...

  18. A low cost wireless data acquisition system for a remote photovoltaic (PV) water pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahjoubi, A.; Mechlouch, R. F.; Brahim, A. B. [National School of Engineering of Gabes, Gabes University, Chemical and Processes Engineering Department, Gabes (Tunisia)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a 16F877 microcontroller-based wireless data acquisition system and a study of the feasibility of different existing methodologies linked to field data acquisition from remote photovoltaic (PV) water pumping systems. Various existing data transmission techniques were studied, especially satellite, radio, Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). The system's hardware and software and an application to test its performance are described. The system will be used for reading, storing and analyzing information from several PV water pumping stations situated in remote areas in the arid region of the south of Tunisia. The remote communications are based on the GSM network and, in particular, on the Short text Message Service (SMS). With this integrated system, we can compile a complete database of the different parameters related to the PV water pumping systems of Tunisia. This data could be made available to interested parties over the Internet. (authors)

  19. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric power systems utilizing energy storage and other enabling technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate technologies that will enable solar photovoltaics (PV) to overcome the limits of traditional electric power systems. We performed simulations of a large utility system using hourly solar insolation and load data and attempted to provide up to 50% of this system's energy from PV. We considered several methods to avoid the limits of unusable PV that result at high penetration due to the use of inflexible baseload generators. The enabling technologies considered in this work are increased system flexibility, load shifting via demand responsive appliances, and energy storage

  20. Electrical Rating of Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) Systems: Long-Term Performance Analysis and Comparison to Conventional PV Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-29

    The dynamic nature of meteorological data and the commercial availability of diverse photovoltaic systems, ranging from single-junction silicon-based PV panels to concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems utilizing multi-junction solar cells and a two-axis solar tracker, demand a simple but accurate methodology for energy planners and PV system designers to understand the economic feasibility of photovoltaic or renewable energy systems. In this paper, an electrical rating methodology is proposed that provides a common playing field for planners, consumers and PV manufacturers to evaluate the long-term performance of photovoltaic systems, as long-term electricity rating is deemed to be a quick and accurate method to evaluate economic viability and determine plant sizes and photovoltaic system power production. A long-term performance analysis based on monthly and electrical ratings (in kWh/m2/year) of two developed CPV prototypes, the Cassegrain mini dish and Fresnel lens CPVs with triple-junction solar cells operating under the meteorological conditions of Singapore, is presented in this paper. Performances are compared to other conventional photovoltaic systems.

  1. Vestas Power Plant Solutions Integrating Wind, Solar PV and Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Hesselbæk, Bo; Martinez, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses a value proposition and feasible system topologies for hybrid power plant solutions integrating wind, solar PV and energy storage and moreover provides insights into Vestas hybrid power plant projects. Seen from the perspective of a wind power plant developer, these hybrid...... solutions provide a number of benefits that could potentially reduce the Levelized Cost of Energy and enable entrance to new markets for wind power and facilitate the transition to a more sustainable energy mix. First, various system topologies are described in order to distinguish the generic concepts...... for the electrical infrastructure of hybrid power plants. Subsequently, the benefits of combining wind and solar PV power as well as the advantages of combining variable renewable energy sources with energy storage are elaborated. Finally, the world’s first utility-scale hybrid power plant combining wind, solar PV...

  2. RE-SUPPLY: Securing the supply chains of wind power and solar PV Securing the supply chain for renewable energy. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Franz; Vuille, Francois; Ziem, Sabine [E4tech UK Ltd, London (United Kingdom); Rastogi, Ankur; Sengupta, Subhabrata [Avalon Consulting, Mumbai (India)

    2012-11-15

    The RE-SUPPLY project aimed to provide insight into the elements of the supply chains which are presently or can in the future evolve as critical constraints in further large-scale deployment of on- and offshore wind and solar photovoltaic energy. The objectives of the study were twofold: Risk assessment: identify potential bottlenecks in the supply chains of wind and PV and assess their criticality and timeline for occurrence; and, Risk management: identify suitable mitigation strategies and recommend specific actions at policy and industry level.

  3. PV status report 2004. Research, Solar cell production and market implementation of photovoltaic s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager-Waldau, A.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing demand for photovoltaic devices leads to the search for new developments with respect to material use and consumption, device design and production technologies, as well as new concepts to increase the overall efficiency. At present solar cell manufacturing is based on single junction device silicon wafer technology with close to 90% market share. Consistent with the time needed for any major change in the energy infrastructure, another 20 to 30 years of sustained and aggressive growth will be required for photovoltaic to substitute a significant share of the conventional energy sources. This growth will be possible if a continuous introduction of new technologies takes place, made possible by sound fundamental research. In October 2004 the Russian Duma ratified the Kyoto Protocol and it can be expected that the Protocol will now be set into force by the beginning of 2005. This recent development will definitively have an impact on the further implementation of renewable energies and photovoltaic is a prime source to deliver it. The Third Edition of the PV Status Report will widen its view to the enlarged European Union as well as the new player China and tries to give an overview about the current activities regarding Research, Manufacturing and Market Implementation. The opinion given in this report is based on the current information available to the author, and does not reflect the opinion of the European Commission. (author)

  4. Grid converters for photovoltaic and wind power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Remus; Rodríguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    "Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems provides a comprehensive description of the control of grid converters for photovoltaic and wind power systems. The authors present a range of control methods for meeting the latest application, power quality and power conversion requirements and standards, as well as looking towards potential future control functions. Practical examples, exercises, and an accompanying website with simulation models using Matlab and Simulink environments, and PSIM software make this text a pragmatic resource for electrical engineers as well as students taking related courses"--

  5. Impacts of Voltage Control Methods on Distribution Circuit’s Photovoltaic (PV Integration Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Dubey

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread integration of photovoltaic (PV units may result in a number of operational issues for the utility distribution system. The advances in smart-grid technologies with better communication and control capabilities may help to mitigate these challenges. The objective of this paper is to evaluate multiple voltage control methods and compare their effectiveness in mitigating the impacts of high levels of PV penetrations on distribution system voltages. A Monte Carlo based stochastic analysis framework is used to evaluate the impacts of PV integration, with and without voltage control. Both snapshot power flow and time-series analysis are conducted for the feeder with varying levels of PV penetrations. The methods are compared for their impacts on (1 the feeder’s PV hosting capacity; (2 the number of voltage violations and the magnitude of the largest bus voltage; (3 the net reactive power demand from the substation; and (4 the number of switching operations of feeder’s legacy voltage support devices i.e., capacitor banks and load tap changers (LTCs. The simulation results show that voltage control help in mitigating overvoltage concerns and increasing the feeder’s hosting capacity. Although, the legacy control solves the voltage concerns for primary feeders, a smart inverter control is required to mitigate both primary and secondary feeder voltage regulation issues. The smart inverter control, however, increases the feeder’s reactive power demand and the number of LTC and capacitor switching operations. For the 34.5-kV test circuit, it is observed that the reactive power demand increases from 0 to 6.8 MVAR on enabling Volt-VAR control for PV inverters. The total number of capacitor and LTC operations over a 1-year period also increases from 455 operations to 1991 operations with Volt-VAR control mode. It is also demonstrated that by simply changing the control mode of capacitor banks, a significant reduction in the unnecessary

  6. Optimized Fuzzy-Cuckoo Controller for Active Power Control of Battery Energy Storage System, Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell and Wind Turbine in an Isolated Micro-Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Einan; Hossein Torkaman; Mahdi Pourgholi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new control strategy for isolated micro-grids including wind turbines (WT), fuel cells (FC), photo-voltaic (PV) and battery energy storage systems (BESS). FC have been used in parallel with BESSs in order to increase their lifetime and efficiency. The changes in some parameters such as wind speed, sunlight, and consumption, lead to improper performance of droop. To overcome this challenge, a new intelligent method using a combination of fuzzy controller and cuckoo optimi...

  7. Equivalent Method of Integrated Power Generation System of Wind, Photovoltaic and Energy Storage in Power Flow Calculation and Transient Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The integrated power generation system of wind, photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage is composed of several wind turbines, PV units and energy storage units. The detailed model of integrated generation is not suitable for the large-scale powe.r system simulation because of the model's complexity and long computation time. An equivalent method for power flow calculation and transient simulation of the integrated generation system is proposed based on actual projects, so as to establish the foundation of such integrated system simulation and analysis.

  8. Impact of high penetration of wind and solar PV generation on the country power system load: The case study of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komušanac, Ivan; Ćosić, Boris; Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 69 scenarios of wind and solar PV as a base technology are analysed with EnergyPLAN model. • Pareto analysis is used for selection of the optimal scenario. • Multi-criteria analysis was performed in order to observe the behaviour of grading the scenarios. • Results shows optimal mix of 1.65 GW of wind and 1.6 GW of solar PV. - Abstract: Even though the Republic of Croatia is on track of achieving goals set in the Europe 2020 strategy, to achieve the goals set in the 2030 European framework for climate and energy policies will require more effort. The new 2030 framework calls for a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% compared to the 1990 level, yet the Republic of Croatia does not have such an ambitious plan. In times when wind plants and photovoltaic systems have reached grid parity in the majority of European countries, this paper analysed the influence of construction of wind and photovoltaic power plants in order to present the optimal constructing ratio of such systems on the Croatian power system load. Simulations have been conducted in the EnergyPLAN model for the year 2012. After the simulation presented promising scenarios, applying the Pareto analysis showed the optimal scenario for generating electricity from renewables, scenario with the lowest import of electricity, scenario with the lowest CO 2 emissions and with the lowest critical excess electricity production. In addition, all of the scenarios were subjected to a multiple criteria decision analysis in order to find the best overall scenario. After showing that the best overall scenario was 1.65 GW of wind power plants and 1.6 GW of installed PV capacity, a multi-criteria analysis was performed in order to observe the behaviour of grading the scenarios. Indeed, all of the simulations proved that PV will have a bigger role in the Republic of Croatia than expected.

  9. Quantifying system-wide financial costs and benefits of renewables (Wind and PV) in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, T

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the direct financial costs and benefits in South Africa from the wind and PV plants that came online in 2014 and all additional wind projects coming online in 2015 are quantified. In 2014, renewables created financial benefits of R5...

  10. Consequences of Reducing the Cost of PV Modules on a PV Wind Diesel Hybrid System with Limited Sizing Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones S. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable resources for power supply in family homes has passed the stage of utopia to became a reality, with limits set by technical and economic parameters. This paper presents the results of a project originated from the initiative of a middle-class family to achieve energy independence at home. The starting point was the concept of home with “zero energy” in which the total energy available is equal to the energy consumed. The solution devised to meet the energy demand of the residence in question is a PV wind diesel hybrid system connected to the grid, with the possibility of energy storage in batteries and in the form of heating water and the environment of the house. As a restriction, the family requested that the system would represent little impact to the lifestyle and landscape. This paper aims to assess the consequences of reductions in the cost of the PV modules on the optimization space, as conceived by the software Homer. The results show that for this system, a 50% reduction in the cost of PV modules allows all viable solutions including PV modules.

  11. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2015-08-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional balance sheet

  12. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2014-11-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional balance sheet

  13. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Fourth quarter 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier; Thienard, Helene

    2013-02-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional status. (J.S.)

  14. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienard, Helene

    2010-11-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional balance sheet

  15. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Fourth quarter 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2014-02-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional status

  16. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2013-11-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional status

  17. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienard, Helene

    2012-11-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional balance sheet

  18. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. First quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2014-05-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional status

  19. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. First quarter 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier; Thienard, Helene

    2013-06-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional status. (J.S.)

  20. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Forth quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2015-02-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional balance sheet

  1. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2014-08-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional balance sheet

  2. Study of Interdependence of Wind Generation Output and Potential PV Generation in the Area of ENERGA-OPERATOR SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Bajor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of the interdependence of wind generation output and photovoltaic generation potential in the ENERGA-OPERATOR SA grid. The first study of the interdependence of these two types of renewable sources’ generation outputs was carried out by the Gdańsk Branch of the Institute of Power Engineering in cooperation with ENERGA-OPERATOR in 2012. An important conclusion of the study was the need to repeat the analysis for a larger set of input data as the study covered the period of one year only, and for obvious reasons a limited number of wind farms. The present study’s inputs included a period of four years and more wind farms, due to the continuous connecting of new facilities to the grid. Thus, the results are characterized by a much higher level of credibility, and allow drawing mor correct conclusions regarding the analysed interdependence. The research on the interdependence of the annual wind generation output and potential generation from photovoltaic sources indicates that both generation types are characterized by mutual spatio-temporal dependency. In the study the relationship was quantified by evaluation of the maximum actual wind generation output in specific areas in the case of high PV generation output in a given area and vice versa. The results may allow for appropriate (i.e. substantiating the modelled operating conditions of the system in relation to reality consideration of both types of sources in various types of system analyses of their impact on the grid performance, such as interconnection studies for new sources and distribution grid development planning.

  3. Modeling and optimization of batteryless hybrid PV (photovoltaic)/Diesel systems for off-grid applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuanyo, David; Azoumah, Yao; Aussel, Didier; Neveu, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new model and optimization procedure for off-grid hybrid PV (photovoltaic)/Diesel systems operating without battery storage. The proposed technico-economic model takes into account the variability of both the solar irradiation and the electrical loads. It allows optimizing the design and the operation of the hybrid systems by searching their lowest LCOE (Levelized Cost of Electricity). Two cases have been investigated: identical Diesel generators and Diesel generators with different sizes, and both are compared to conventional standalone Diesel generator systems. For the same load profile, the optimization results show that the LCOE of the optimized batteryless hybrid solar PV/Diesel (0.289 €/kWh for the hybrid system with identical Diesel generators and 0.284 €/kWh for the hybrid system with different sizes of Diesel generators) is lower than the LCOE obtained with standalone Diesel generators (0.32 €/kWh for the both cases). The obtained results are then confirmed by HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables) software. - Highlights: • A technico-economic model for optimal design and operation management of batteryless hybrid systems is developed. • The model allows optimizing design and operation of hybrid systems by ensuring their lowest LCOE. • The model was validated by HOMER. • Batteryless hybrid system are suitable for off-grid applications

  4. The Geography of Solar Photovoltaics (PV and a New Low Carbon Urban Transition Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Newton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the early phases of a 21st century energy transition that involves distributed generation technologies employing low or zero carbon emission power sources and their take-up within Australia, with particular reference to the major cities and solar photovoltaics (PV. This transition is occurring in a nation with significant path dependency to overcome in relation to fossil fuel use. Tracking the diffusion of solar PV technology within Australia over the past decade provides a basis for assessing those factors underpinning its exponential growth and its associated geography of diffusion. Positive evidence that there are pathways for cities to decarbonise is apparent but there appear to be different pathways for different city forms with lower density suburban areas showing the biggest take-up of household-based energy technologies. This suggests a model for the low carbon urban transition involving combinations of simple technological changes and harder structural changes, depending upon which parts of the urban fabric are in focus. This is being called a New Low Carbon Urban Transition Theory.

  5. Identifying Potential Area and Financial Prospects of Rooftop Solar Photovoltaics (PV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Ninsawat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In an urban area, the roof is the only available surface that can be utilized for installing solar photovoltaics (PV, and the active surface area depends on the type of roof. Shadows on a solar panel can be caused by nearby tall buildings, construction materials such as water tanks, or the roof configuration itself. The azimuth angle of the sun varies, based on the season and the time of day. Therefore, the simulation of shadow for one or two days or using the rule of thumb may not be sufficient to evaluate shadow effects on solar panels throughout the year. In this paper, a methodology for estimating the solar potential of solar PV on rooftops is presented, which is particularly applicable to urban areas. The objective of this method is to assess how roof type and shadow play a role in potentiality and financial benefit. The method starts with roof type extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery, using Object Base Image Analysis (OBIA, the generation of a 3D structure from height data and roof type, the simulation of shadow throughout the year, and the identification of potential and financial prospects. Based on the results obtained, the system seems to be adequate for calculating the financial benefits of solar PV to a very fine scale. The payback period varied from 7–13 years depending on the roof type, direction, and shadow impact. Based on the potentiality, a homeowner can make a profit of up to 200%. This method could help homeowners to identify potential roof area and economic interest.

  6. An innovation management approach for renewable energy deployment. The case of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, Kwok L.; Watanabe, Chihiro

    2009-01-01

    In the discussion of renewable energy deployment, one key concern is the various types of barriers that renewable energy needs to overcome before it can make its way into the mainstream. These barriers increasingly shift from the technical to the economic and institutional. The most general types of barriers are due to technological 'lock-out' or to carbon 'lock-in' [. Understanding carbon lock-in. Energy Policy 28(12), 817-830 (Elsevier)]. These barriers necessitate the development of a strategic approach to deploy or introduce renewable energy technology. Existing energy policy has mostly relied upon financial subsidies, market-based instruments such as renewable portfolio standards, and production tax credits to stimulate the installation and use of equipment to generate electricity from renewable sources. These strategies target mostly system-level decisions of end users. The purpose of this paper is to present an innovation perspective on the renewable energy deployment process by introducing the innovation value-added chain (IVC) framework. The analytical objective of IVC is to evaluate the impact of a new innovation on the various stakeholders and players in the development and deployment processes. A deployment or innovation strategy that causes minimal disruption, enhances existing competencies, or expedites new learning by the players has a higher chance to succeed. We draw upon two sets of system integration costs data for grid-connected distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems in Japan and the United States and demonstrate conspicuously different dynamic learning behaviors. These two deployment models can be understood in terms of how the IVCs are organized and how PV system integration projects are performed in the field. In addition, IVC-based findings can inform the targeted application of conventional financial subsidies for learning investment not only at the PV system level, but also at the (localized) system integration level. This would involve

  7. Comparing Photovoltaic (PV) Costs and Deployment Drivers in the Japanese and U.S. Residential and Commercial Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seel, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Japan has re-emerged in 2013 as one of the world's fastest-growing and largest photovoltaic (PV) markets (Renewable Energy World 2013). Year-over-year growth in Japanese installed capacity in the first half of 2013 was about 270%. Japan's PV market was on pace to triple in 2013 compared with 2012, with approximately 2.7 GW installed during the first half of 2013 (compared to about 1.6 GW in the United States). This places Japan's market among the world's largest PV markets, along with China, Germany, and the United States. This report explores details of the rapidly changing Japanese market, and similarities and differences between the Japanese and U.S. markets. We collected data from a diverse group of Japanese PV installers, and we gathered additional Japanese and U.S. data from published sources as well as internal analyses.

  8. Design construction and analysis of solar ridge concentrator photovoltaic (PV) system to improve battery charging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimman, Kalaiselvan; Selvarasan, Iniyan

    2016-05-01

    A ridge concentrator photovoltaic system for a 10W multi-crystalline solar panel was designed with the concentration ratios of 1X and 2X. The ray tracing model of ridge concentrator photovoltaic system was carried out using Trace-Pro simulation. The optimum tilt angle for the concentrator PV system throughout the year was computed. The electrical parameters of the 3 panels were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the electrical performance of the panel was also studied. The reduction of voltage due to increasing panel temperature was managed by MPES type Charge controller. Glass reflector with reflectivity 0.95 was chosen as the ridge wall for the concentrator system. The maximum power outputs for the 1X and 2X panel reached were 9W and 10.5W with glass reflector. The percentage of power improvement for 1X and 2X concentrations were 22.3% and 45.8% respectively. The 2X concentrated panel connected battery takes lower time to charge compared with normal panel connected battery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an experimental analysis (boundary layer wind tunnel test) of the aerodynamic forces resulting from winds acting on flat plate photovoltaic arrays are presented. Local pressure coefficient distributions and normal force coefficients on the arrays are shown and compared to theoretical results. Parameters that were varied when determining the aerodynamic forces included tilt angle, array separation, ground clearance, protective wind barriers, and the effect of the wind velocity profile. Recommended design wind forces and pressures are presented, which envelop the test results for winds perpendicular to the array's longitudinal axis. This wind direction produces the maximum wind loads on the arrays except at the array edge where oblique winds produce larger edge pressure loads. The arrays located at the outer boundary of an array field have a protective influence on the interior arrays of the field. A significant decrease of the array wind loads were recorded in the wind tunnel test on array panels located behind a fence and/or interior to the array field compared to the arrays on the boundary and unprotected from the wind. The magnitude of this decrease was the same whether caused by a fence or upwind arrays.

  10. Design and economical analysis of hybrid PV-wind systems connected to the grid for the intermittent production of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Mendoza, Franklin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, several designs of hybrid PV-wind (photovoltaic-wind) systems connected to the electrical grid, including the intermittent production of hydrogen, are shown. The objective considered in the design is economical to maximise the net present value (NPV) of the system. A control strategy has been applied so that hydrogen is only produced by the electrolyser when there is an excess of electrical energy that cannot be exported to the grid (intermittent production of hydrogen). Several optimisation studies based on different scenarios have been carried out. After studying the results - for systems with which the produced hydrogen would be sold for external consumption - it can be stated that the selling price of hydrogen should be about 10 Euro /kg in areas with strong wind, in order to get economically viable systems. For the hydrogen-producing systems in which hydrogen is produced when there is an excess of electricity and then stored and later used in a fuel cell to produce electricity to be sold to the grid, even in areas with high wind speed rate, the price of electrical energy produced by the fuel cell should be very high for the system to be profitable.

  11. Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitterlin, Ian F [Emerson Network Power Ltd., Globe Park, Marlow, SL7 1YG (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-22

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) cells has made steady progress from the early days, when only the USA space program could afford to deploy them, to now, seeing them applied to roadside applications even in our Northern European climes. The manufacturing cost per watt has fallen and the daylight-to-power conversion efficiency increased. At the same time, the perception that the sun has to be directly shining on it for a PV array to work has faded. On some of those roadside applications, particularly for remote emergency telephones or for temporary roadwork signage where a utility electrical power connection is not practical, the keen observer will spot, usually in addition to a PV array, a small wind-turbine and an electrical cabinet quite obviously (by virtue of its volume) containing a storage battery. In the UK, we have the lions share (>40%) of Europe's entire wind power resource although, despite press coverage of the 'anti-wind' lobby to the contrary, we have hardly started to harvest this clean and free energy source. Taking this (established and proven) roadside solution one step further, we will consider higher power applications. A cellular phone system is one where a multitude of remote radio base stations (RBS) are required to provide geographical coverage. With networks developing into the so called '3G' technologies the need for base stations has tripled, as each 3G cell covers only 1/3 the geographical area of its '2G' counterpart. To cover >90% of the UK's topology (>97% population coverage) with 3G cellular technology will requires in excess of 12,000 radio base stations per operator network. In 2001, there were around 25,000 established sites and, with an anticipated degree of collocation by necessity, that figure is forecast to rise to >47,000. Of course, the vast majority of these sites have a convenient grid connection. However, it is easy to see that the combination of wind and PV power generation and an energy storage system may be an

  12. Decentralized control of a scalable photovoltaic (PV)-battery hybrid power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myungchin; Bae, Sungwoo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper introduces the design and control of a PV-battery hybrid power system. • Reliable and scalable operation of hybrid power systems is achieved. • System and power control are performed without a centralized controller. • Reliability and scalability characteristics are studied in a quantitative manner. • The system control performance is verified using realistic solar irradiation data. - Abstract: This paper presents the design and control of a sustainable standalone photovoltaic (PV)-battery hybrid power system (HPS). The research aims to develop an approach that contributes to increased level of reliability and scalability for an HPS. To achieve such objectives, a PV-battery HPS with a passively connected battery was studied. A quantitative hardware reliability analysis was performed to assess the effect of energy storage configuration to the overall system reliability. Instead of requiring the feedback control information of load power through a centralized supervisory controller, the power flow in the proposed HPS is managed by a decentralized control approach that takes advantage of the system architecture. Reliable system operation of an HPS is achieved through the proposed control approach by not requiring a separate supervisory controller. Furthermore, performance degradation of energy storage can be prevented by selecting the controller gains such that the charge rate does not exceed operational requirements. The performance of the proposed system architecture with the control strategy was verified by simulation results using realistic irradiance data and a battery model in which its temperature effect was considered. With an objective to support scalable operation, details on how the proposed design could be applied were also studied so that the HPS could satisfy potential system growth requirements. Such scalability was verified by simulating various cases that involve connection and disconnection of sources and loads. The

  13. Better or worse? The role of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in sustainable development. Case studies of remote atoll communities in Kiribati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mala, Kirti; Schlaepfer, August; Pryor, Trevor [School of Electrical, Energy and Process Engineering, Murdoch University, Murdoch 6150 (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    The Republic of Kiribati, formerly known as the Gilbert Islands, is a Micronesian (One of the three groups of islands in the Pacific. The eight territories that make up Micronesia are Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Kiribati, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Republic of Nauru, Republic of Palau, Territory of Guam and Territory of Wake Island. The other two groups of islands in the Pacific are Melanesia and Polynesia) country in the Pacific. The energy sources utilised in Kiribati include petroleum products, biomass, solar energy and wind power. Solar energy was introduced in Kiribati in the early 1980s (Wade H. Survey of RESCO projects - prepared for OPRET, Fiji Department of Energy, 2003; p. 36). Currently, it makes a very insignificant (less than 1%) contribution to the total annual primary energy supply (South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP). Pacific Islands Renewable Energy Project (PIREP) - Pacific Regional Energy Assessment (PREA) 2004. Kiribati national report, Vol. 5, 2005). Solar energy in Kiribati is used mostly in the form of solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies for the provision of lighting and electricity. This study examines the role of PV technologies in the sustainable development process in Kiribati, with particular reference to remote atoll communities. Initial results from on-site surveys carried out are reported in this paper. These surveys have sought to identify the reasons why people use or do not use PV systems. (author)

  14. Native Vegetation Performance under a Solar PV Array at the National Wind Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatty, Brenda [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Braus, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buckner, David [ESCO Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-16

    Construction activities at most large-scale ground installations of photovoltaic (PV) arrays are preceded by land clearing and re-grading to uniform slope and smooth surface conditions to facilitate convenient construction access and facility operations. The impact to original vegetation is usually total eradication followed by installation of a gravel cover kept clear of vegetation by use of herbicides. The degree to which that total loss can be mitigated by some form of revegetation is a subject in its infancy, and most vegetation studies at PV development sites only address weed control and the impact of tall plants on the efficiency of the solar collectors from shading.This study seeks to address this void, advancing the state of knowledge of how constructed PV arrays affect ground-level environments, and to what degree plant cover, having acceptable characteristics within engineering constraints, can be re-established.

  15. Future wind deployment scenarios for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, Jarrad G

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available understood wind (and solar) resource in South Africa combined with large geographical land-area and technology cost reductions globally and domestically for wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) has made these technologies more than competitive with alternatives...

  16. A Novel Design and Optimization Software for Autonomous PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Eltamaly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a design and optimization computer simulation program for autonomous hybrid PV/wind/battery energy system. The main function of the new proposed computer program is to determine the optimum size of each component of the hybrid energy system for the lowest price of kWh generated and the best loss of load probability at highest reliability. This computer program uses the hourly wind speed, hourly radiation, and hourly load power with several numbers of wind turbine (WT and PV module types. The proposed computer program changes the penetration ratio of wind/PV with certain increments and calculates the required size of all components and the optimum battery size to get the predefined lowest acceptable probability. This computer program has been designed in flexible fashion that is not available in market available software like HOMER and RETScreen. Actual data for Saudi sites have been used with this computer program. The data obtained have been compared with these market available software. The comparison shows the superiority of this computer program in the optimal design of the autonomous PV/wind/battery hybrid system. The proposed computer program performed the optimal design steps in very short time and with accurate results. Many valuable results can be extracted from this computer program that can help researchers and decision makers.

  17. Optimal sizing study of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power generation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfkira, Rachid; Zhang, Lu; Barakat, Georges [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Automatique du Havre, University of Le Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, BP 1123, 76063 Le Havre (France)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, a methodology of sizing optimization of a stand-alone hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system is presented. This approach makes use of a deterministic algorithm to suggest, among a list of commercially available system devices, the optimal number and type of units ensuring that the total cost of the system is minimized while guaranteeing the availability of the energy. The collection of 6 months of data of wind speed, solar radiation and ambient temperature recorded for every hour of the day were used. The mathematical modeling of the main elements of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel system is exposed showing the more relevant sizing variables. A deterministic algorithm is used to minimize the total cost of the system while guaranteeing the satisfaction of the load demand. A comparison between the total cost of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system with batteries and the hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system without batteries is presented. The reached results demonstrate the practical utility of the used sizing methodology and show the influence of the battery storage on the total cost of the hybrid system. (author)

  18. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage as solution to electrical grid outages in Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdoulaye, D; Koalaga, Z; Zougmore, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a key solution for power outages problem experienced by many African countries and this through grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage. African grids are characterized by an insufficient power supply and frequent interruptions. Due to this fact, users who especially use classical grid-connected photovoltaic systems are unable to profit from their installation even if there is sun. In this study, we suggest the using of a grid-connected photovoltaic system with batteries storage as a solution to these problems. This photovoltaic system works by injecting the surplus of electricity production into grid and can also deliver electricity as a stand-alone system with all security needed. To achieve our study objectives, firstly we conducted a survey of a real situation of one African electrical grid, the case of Burkina Faso (SONABEL: National Electricity Company of Burkina). Secondly, as study case, we undertake a sizing, a modeling and a simulation of a grid-connected PV system with batteries storage for the LAME laboratory at the University of Ouagadougou. The simulation shows that the proposed grid-connected system allows users to profit from their photovoltaic installation at any time even if the public electrical grid has some failures either during the day or at night.

  19. The active control strategy on the output power for photovoltaic-storage systems based on extended PQ-QV-PV Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Zhou, Bao-Rong; Zhai, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Yi, Ying-Qi

    2017-05-01

    In order to solve the problem of voltage exceeding specified limits and improve the penetration of photovoltaic in distribution network, we can make full use of the active power regulation ability of energy storage(ES) and the reactive power regulation ability of grid-connected photovoltaic inverter to provide support of active power and reactive power for distribution network. A strategy of actively controlling the output power for photovoltaic-storage system based on extended PQ-QV-PV node by analyzing the voltage regulating mechanism of point of commom coupling(PCC) of photovoltaic with energy storage(PVES) by controlling photovoltaic inverter and energy storage. The strategy set a small wave range of voltage to every photovoltaic by making the type of PCC convert among PQ, PV and QV. The simulation results indicate that the active control method can provide a better solution to the problem of voltage exceeding specified limits when photovoltaic is connectted to electric distribution network.

  20. Mounting and performance measurements of a PV array addition to an existing small wind-power installation for greenhouse electric supply in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Oliva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A small wind-power system intended for electric supply of a research greenhouse at the local University facilities in San Julian region incorporates a photovoltaic (PV array and regulator, which is described in this report together with its data-acquisition system. The main application is control and lighting. The Alternative Energy Group at the University seeks through this project to acquire knowledge and practical experience in the combination of renewable energy sources for optimal electrical supply of isolated systems, their associated measurements and processing of resulting data

  1. Analysis of the value of battery storage with wind and photovoltaic generation to the Sacramento Municipal Utility District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaininger, H.W. [Zaininger Engineering Co., Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the results of an analysis to determine the economic and operational value of battery storage to wind and photovoltaic (PV) generation technologies to the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) system. The analysis approach consisted of performing a benefit-cost economic assessment using established SMUD financial parameters, system expansion plans, and current system operating procedures. This report presents the results of the analysis. Section 2 describes expected wind and PV plant performance. Section 3 describes expected benefits to SMUD associated with employing battery storage. Section 4 presents preliminary benefit-cost results for battery storage added at the Solano wind plant and the Hedge PV plant. Section 5 presents conclusions and recommendations resulting from this analysis. The results of this analysis should be reviewed subject to the following caveat. The assumptions and data used in developing these results were based on reports available from and interaction with appropriate SMUD operating, planning, and design personnel in 1994 and early 1995 and are compatible with financial assumptions and system expansion plans as of that time. Assumptions and SMUD expansion plans have changed since then. In particular, SMUD did not install the additional 45 MW of wind that was planned for 1996. Current SMUD expansion plans and assumptions should be obtained from appropriate SMUD personnel.

  2. Numerical investigation of the thermal and electrical performances for combined solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) modules based on internally extruded fin flow channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y. C.; Li, Q. P.; Wang, G. J.

    2017-11-01

    A solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) module based on internally extruded fin flow channel was investigated numerically in this paper. First of all, the structures of the thin plate heat exchanger and the PV/T module were presented. Then, a numerical model of the PV/T module considering solar irradiation, fluid flow and heat transfer was developed to analyze the performance of the module. Finally, the steady electrical and thermal efficiencies of the PV/T module at different inlet water temperatures and mass flow rates were achieved. These numerical results supply theory basis for practical application of the PV/T module.

  3. Building opportunities for photovoltaics in the U.S. Final report [PV BONUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Nicklas

    1999-09-08

    The objective of the North Carolina's PV Bonus Team was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable, building-integrated, photovoltaic system that, in addition to providing electricity, would capture and effectively utilize the thermal energy produced by the photovoltaic array. This project objective was successfully achieved by designing, testing, constructing, and monitoring two roof integrated photovoltaic systems--one on a Applebee's Restaurant in Salisbury, North Carolina and the second on a Central Carolina Bank in Bessemer City, North Carolina. The goal of Innovative Design is to now use these successful demonstrations to facilitate entry of building integrated, pv/thermal systems into the marketplace. The strategy was to develop the two systems that could be utilized in future applications. Both systems were designed and then constructed at the North Carolina Solar Center at North Carolina State University. After extensive testing at the North Carolina Solar Center, the systems were moved to the actual construction sites and implemented. The Applebee's Restaurant system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of a low sloping, south-facing sunspace roof that typically incorporated clay tile. After monitoring the installed system for one year it was determined that the 1.2 kilowatt (peak) system produces an average peak reduction of 1 kilowatt (rated peak is 1.7 kiloWatts), saves 1,529 kilowatt-hours of electricity, and offsets 11,776 kilowatt-hours of thermal energy savings used to pre-heat water. A DC fan connected directly to eight of the thirty-two amorphous modules moves air through air passages mounted on the backside of the modules and into a closed loop duct system to a heat exchanger. This heat exchanger is, in turn, connected to a pre-heat hot water tank that is used to heat the water for the restaurant. The Central Carolina Bank system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of the drive-in window area of the

  4. Optimal Sizing for Wind/PV/Battery System Using Fuzzy c-Means Clustering with Self-Adapted Cluster Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrating wind generation, photovoltaic power, and battery storage to form hybrid power systems has been recognized to be promising in renewable energy development. However, considering the system complexity and uncertainty of renewable energies, such as wind and solar types, it is difficult to obtain practical solutions for these systems. In this paper, optimal sizing for a wind/PV/battery system is realized by trade-offs between technical and economic factors. Firstly, the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was modified with self-adapted parameters to extract useful information from historical data. Furthermore, the Markov model is combined to determine the chronological system states of natural resources and load. Finally, a power balance strategy is introduced to guide the optimization process with the genetic algorithm to establish the optimal configuration with minimized cost while guaranteeing reliability and environmental factors. A case of island hybrid power system is analyzed, and the simulation results are compared with the general FCM method and chronological method to validate the effectiveness of the mentioned method.

  5. Model predictive control for power fluctuation supression in hybrid wind/PV/battery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Liu, Zongyu; Zong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid energy system, the combination of wind turbines, PV panels and battery storage with effective control mechanism, represents a promising solution to the power fluctuation problem when integrating renewable energy resources (RES) into conventional power systems. This paper proposes a model...

  6. The Effect of Metal-Semiconductor Contact on the Transient Photovoltaic Characteristic of HgCdTe PV Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient photovoltaic (PV characteristic of HgCdTe PV array is studied using an ultrafast laser. The photoresponse shows an apparent negative valley first, then it evolves into a positive peak. By employing a combined theoretical model of pn junction and Schottky potential, this photo-response polarity changing curves can be interpreted well. An obvious decreasing of ratio of negative valley to positive peak can be realized by limiting the illumination area of the array electrode. This shows that the photoelectric effect of Schottky barrier at metal-semiconductor (M/S interface is suppressed, which will verify the correctness of the model. The characteristic parameters of transient photo-response induced from p-n junction and Schottky potential are extracted by fitting the response curve utilizing this model. It shows that the negative PV response induced by the Schottky barrier decreases the positive photovoltage generated by the pn junction.

  7. Regional PV power estimation and forecast to mitigate the impact of high photovoltaic penetration on electric grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Marco; De Felice, Matteo; Maggioni, Enrico; Moser, David; Perotto, Alessandro; Spada, Francesco; Cornaro, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The growing photovoltaic generation results in a stochastic variability of the electric demand that could compromise the stability of the grid and increase the amount of energy reserve and the energy imbalance cost. On regional scale, solar power estimation and forecast is becoming essential for Distribution System Operators, Transmission System Operator, energy traders, and aggregators of generation. Indeed the estimation of regional PV power can be used for PV power supervision and real time control of residual load. Mid-term PV power forecast can be employed for transmission scheduling to reduce energy imbalance and related cost of penalties, residual load tracking, trading optimization, secondary energy reserve assessment. In this context, a new upscaling method was developed and used for estimation and mid-term forecast of the photovoltaic distributed generation in a small area in the north of Italy under the control of a local DSO. The method was based on spatial clustering of the PV fleet and neural networks models that input satellite or numerical weather prediction data (centered on cluster centroids) to estimate or predict the regional solar generation. It requires a low computational effort and very few input information should be provided by users. The power estimation model achieved a RMSE of 3% of installed capacity. Intra-day forecast (from 1 to 4 hours) obtained a RMSE of 5% - 7% while the one and two days forecast achieve to a RMSE of 7% and 7.5%. A model to estimate the forecast error and the prediction intervals was also developed. The photovoltaic production in the considered region provided the 6.9% of the electric consumption in 2015. Since the PV penetration is very similar to the one observed at national level (7.9%), this is a good case study to analyse the impact of PV generation on the electric grid and the effects of PV power forecast on transmission scheduling and on secondary reserve estimation. It appears that, already with 7% of PV

  8. Electrification of the Prudencio community through a hybrid system wind photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Egurrola, Dayerling Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    Paraguana Peninsula is located in the northernmost part of Venezuela, have average wind speeds above 7 m / s and solar radiation is between 5 to 6 kW -h/m2-dia without significant variation in the annual cycle. Taking into account the favorable conditions for the realization of this potential solar wind and pose the goal of designing a hybrid generation system (solar PV - wind) that supplies electricity to the coastal community of Prudencio made up of 26 families engaged mainly in fishing and not have the power supply by conventional means by be located far from the grid of the national grid. Project development began with a study that among other things includes: geographic location, topography, climate, social and economical. Subsequently determines the demand for housing and community in general to determine the requirements of the load. Finally sized autonomous electrical network formed by 2 2.0 kW wind turbines and a photovoltaic system consists of 18 panels 205 W, which supply electricity to 110 VAC single phase by using 2 inverters 4.0 kW interconnected to a whole battery bank dimensioning system according to the requirements of the load. (full text)

  9. Analysis of spectral effects on the energy yield of different PV (photovoltaic) technologies: The case of four specific sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Abella, M.; Chenlo, F.; Nofuentes, G.; Torres-Ramírez, M.

    2014-01-01

    This work is aimed at looking into the impact of the solar spectrum distribution on the energy yield of some PV (photovoltaic) materials on both monthly and annual time scales. The relative spectral responses of eight different PV solar cells – representative of each considered technology – have been selected. Modeling solar spectra in four sites located in the north hemisphere together with a 12-month experimental campaign in which spectral irradiances were periodically recorded in two of these sites located in Spain have provided highly interesting results. Regardless of the site, the considered amorphous silicon and cadmium telluride PV cells experience the most noticeable modeled and experimental variations of their monthly spectral gains, whilst flatter seasonal ones are identified in the remaining considered PV technologies. Thus, the maximum monthly variations of these spectral gains take place in the a-Si PV cell, ranging from −16% (winter) to 4% (summer) in Stuttgart. Anyway, the monthly spread of the spectral effects decreases as the latitude of the site does. Last, the impact of the solar spectrum distribution is remarkably reduced when the period of integration is enlarged up to a year. In fact, annual spectral gains keep below 2.2% for all the studied technologies and sites. - Highlights: • Monthly and annual spectral effects on eight different PV (photovoltaic) technologies studied. • Modeled spectra in four sites combined with relative spectral responses. • Measured spectra (12 months) in two sites combined with relative spectral responses. • Higher bandgap technologies: noticeable monthly variations in their spectral gains. • Annual spectral gains keep below 2.2% for all the studied technologies and sites

  10. Modeling and Coordinated Control Strategy of Large Scale Grid-Connected Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage Hybrid Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingguo Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An AC-linked large scale wind/photovoltaic (PV/energy storage (ES hybrid energy conversion system for grid-connected application was proposed in this paper. Wind energy conversion system (WECS and PV generation system are the primary power sources of the hybrid system. The ES system, including battery and fuel cell (FC, is used as a backup and a power regulation unit to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of the intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic resources. Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM is employed to support the AC-linked bus voltage and improve low voltage ride through (LVRT capability of the proposed system. An overall power coordinated control strategy is designed to manage real-power and reactive-power flows among the different energy sources, the storage unit, and the STATCOM system in the hybrid system. A simulation case study carried out on Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC 3-machine 9-bus test system for the large scale hybrid energy conversion system has been developed using the DIgSILENT/Power Factory software platform. The hybrid system performance under different scenarios has been verified by simulation studies using practical load demand profiles and real weather data.

  11. Design of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (PV Models for Home Lightings and Clean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a well-documented health risks of fuel-based lighting (kerosene lamps and fuel-powered generators and proposed a design of a stand-alone solar PV system for sustainable home lightings in rural Nigerian area. The design was done in three different patterns of electricity consumptions with energy efficient lightings (EELs using two different battery types (Rolls Surrette 6CS25PS and hoppecke 10 OpzS 1000 on; i judicious power consumption, ii normal power consumption, iii excess power consumption; and compared them with the incandescent light bulb consumption. The stand-alone photovoltaic energy systems were designed to match the rural Nigerian sunlight and weather conditions to meet the required lightings of the household. The objective function and constraints for the design models were formulated and optimization procedure were used to demonstrate the best solution (reliability at the lowest lifecycle cost. Initial capital costs as well as annualized costs over 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years were quantified and documented. The design identified the most cost-effective and reliable solar and battery array among the patterns of electricity consumption with energy efficient lighting options (judicious power consumption, normal power consumption, and excess power consumption.

  12. Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency for decorative PV applications (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. Jay

    2015-10-01

    This talk will describe an approach to create architecturally compatible and decorative thin-film-based hybrid photovoltaics [1]. Most current solar panels are fabricated via complex processes using expensive semiconductor materials, and they are rigid and heavy with a dull, black appearance. As a result of their non-aesthetic appearance and weight, they are primarily installed on rooftops to minimize their negative impact on building appearance. Recently we introduced dual-function solar cells based on ultra-thin dopant-free amorphous silicon embedded in an optical cavity that not only efficiently extract the photogenerated carriers but also display distinctive colors with the desired angle-insensitive appearances [1,2]. The angle-insensitive behavior is the result of an interesting phase cancellation effect in the optical cavity with respect to angle of light propagation [3]. In order to produce the desired optical effect, the semiconductor layer should be ultra-thin and the traditional doped layers need to be eliminated. We adopted the approach of employing charge transport/blocking layers used in organic solar cells to meet this demand. We showed that the ultra-thin (6 to 31 nm) undoped amorphous silicon/organic hybrid solar cell can transmit desired wavelength of light and that most of the absorbed photons in the undoped a-Si layer contributed to the extracted electric charges. This is because the a-Si layer thickness is smaller than the charge diffusion length, therefore the electron-hole recombination is strongly suppressed in such ultra-thin layer. Reflective colored PVs can be made in a similar fashion. Light-energy-harvesting colored signage was demonstrated. Furthermore, a cascaded photovoltaics scheme based on tunable spectrum splitting can be employed to increase power efficiency by absorbing a broader band of light energy. Our work provides a guideline for optimizing a photoactive layer thickness in high efficiency hybrid PV design, which can be

  13. The Impact of Transformer Winding Connections of A Grid-Connected PV on Voltage Quality Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tumbelaka, Hanny H. [Petra Christian University; Gao, Wenzhong [University of Denver

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the high-power PV plant is connected to the weak grid by means of a three-phase power transformer. The selection of transformer winding connection is critical especially when the PV inverter has a reactive power controller. In general, transformer winding connection can be arranged in star-star (with neutral earthed) or star-delta. The reactive power controller supports voltage regulation of the power system particularly under transient faults. Its control strategy is based on utilizing the grid currents to make a three-phase reactive unbalanced current with a small gain. The gain is determined by the system impedance. Simulation results exhibit that the control strategy works very well particularly under disturbance conditions when the transformer winding connection is star-star with both neutrals grounded. The power quality in terms of the voltage quality is improved.

  14. Analysis on PV system sales price and subsidy through buy-back which make photovoltaics cost-competitive by 2030 in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, E.; Ichinohe, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze PV system sales price and subsidy through buy-back which make photovoltaics cost-competitive against other energy technologies and make the target for PV capacity achievable by 2030 in Japan under expected carbon tax. For the analysis energy system of Japan is modeled by using MARKAL. According to the results of analysis, under 6000 JPY/t-C carbon tax, photovoltaics needs subsidy for a while even if we taking both fuel savings and Green Credit into account. For attaining the national target for PV capacity in 2010, photovoltaics needs more expensive buy-back than that in present, but after 2010 necessary buy-back decreases gradually. If 120 JPY/W PV system sales price is attained by 2030, photovoltaics becomes cost-competitive without any supports. Subsidy through buy-back becomes almost need not in 2030, if we can reduce it less than 170 JPY/W. The total subsidy meets peak in 2025. It is much more than ongoing subsidy to capital cost of PV systems, but annual revenue of the assumed carbon tax can afford enough the annual total subsidy. This means if photovoltaics can attain the PV system sales price, we should support it for a while by spending carbon tax revenue effectively and efficiently. (authors)

  15. Energetic performance analysis of a commercial water-based photovoltaic thermal system (PV/T) under summer conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, I.; Ambrosini, D.; de Rubeis, T.; Paoletti, D.; Muttillo, M.; Sfarra, S.

    2017-11-01

    In the last years, the importance of integrating the production of electricity with the production of sanitary hot water led to the development of new solutions, i.e. PV/T systems. It is well known that hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems, able to produce electricity and thermal energy at the same time with better energetic performance in comparison with two separate systems, present many advantages for application in a residential building. A PV/T is constituted generally by a common PV panel with a metallic pipe, in which fluid flows. Pipe accomplishes two roles: it absorbs the heat from the PV panel, thus increasing, or at least maintaining its efficiency; furthermore, it stores the heat for sanitary uses. In this work, the thermal and electrical efficiencies of a commercial PV/T panel have been evaluated during the summer season in different days, to assess the effect of environmental conditions on the system total efficiency. Moreover, infrared thermographic diagnosis in real time has been effected during the operating mode in two conditions: with cooling and without cooling; cooling was obtained by natural flowing water. This analysis gave information about the impact of a non-uniform temperature distribution on the thermal and electrical performance. Furthermore, measurements have been performed in two different operating modes: 1) production of solely electrical energy and 2) simultaneous production of thermal and electrical energy. Finally, total efficiency is largely increased by using a simple solar concentrator nearby the panel.

  16. Techno-economic feasibility of hybrid diesel/PV/wind/battery electricity generation systems for non-residential large electricity consumers under southern Iran climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baneshi, Mehdi; Hadianfard, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid electricity generation system for a large electricity consumer was studied. • The PV and wind electricity potentials under given climate conditions were evaluated. • Technical, economical, and environmental issues of different systems were discussed. • The optimum configuration of components was obtained. • The impacts of governmental incentives on economic viability of systems were examined. - Abstract: This paper aims to study the techno-economical parameters of a hybrid diesel/PV/wind/battery power generation system for a non-residential large electricity consumer in the south of Iran. As a case study, the feasibility of running a hybrid system to meet a non-residential community’s load demand of 9911 kWh daily average and 725 kW peak load demand was investigated. HOMER Pro software was used to model the operation of the system and to identify the appropriate configuration of it based on comparative technical, economical, and environmental analysis. Both stand alone and grid connected systems were modeled. The impacts of annual load growth and governmental energy policies such as providing low interest loan to renewable energy projects, carbon tax, and modifying the grid electricity price on viability of the system were discussed. Results show that for off-grid systems the cost of electricity (COE) and the renewable fraction of 9.3–12.6 ₵/kWh and 0–43.9%, respectively, are achieved with photovoltaic (PV) panel, wind turbine, and battery sizes of 0–1000 kW, 0–600 kW, and 1300 kWh, respectively. For on grid systems without battery storage the range of COE and renewable fraction are 5.7–8.4 ₵/kWh and 0–53%, respectively, for the same sizes of PV panel and wind turbine.

  17. Generic model of a community-based microgrid integrating wind turbines, photovoltaics and CHP generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xiandong; Wang, Yifei; Qin, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Proposes a generic microgrid model comprising hybrid distributed generation units. ► Examines DG performance due to both environmental condition changes and electrical faults. ► Addresses island and grid connected modes of operation for DG units. ► We demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed residential microgrid system. - Abstract: Development and deployment of low-carbon energy technologies has been a national strategy of both the UK and China for a number of years, including the use of renewable generation technologies and the improvement of energy efficiency of operations and activities. The paper addresses several issues of generic importance to a residential microgrid system such as network modelling, advanced control and integration of intelligent monitoring techniques. The system, comprising representative distributed generation technologies of photovoltaics, wind turbines and combined heat and power, has been simulated by PSCAD/EMTDC under different operational scenarios. Studies include the effect of environmental condition changes, control systems and power electronics on wind turbines and PV cells, and the mixture of wind/solar/CHP energy generation under dominance of each technology. The performance and dynamics of the system are examined against symmetrical and asymmetrical electrical faults to seek an optimal isolation and restoration of the distributed generation unit from the connected grid system. Modelling these system interactions has demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed residential microgrid system

  18. Performance Study of Photovoltaic-Thermal (Pv/T) Solar Collector with ·-Grooved Absorber Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Othman; Hafidz Ruslan; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Jin, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar collector has been designed, built and its performance has been studied. The advantage of the collector is that it can generate electricity and heat simultaneously. Photovoltaic module SHARP NE-80E2EA with maximum output power of 80 W was used to generate electricity. The module also acts as heat absorber of the collector. Single pass ·-groove collector made of aluminium sheet with 0.7 mm thickness has been used to collect heat generated. Study was conducted under a designed halogen lamps solar simulator with intensities set at 386 ± 8 Wm -2 and 817 ± 8 Wm -2 . The speed of air passing through the collector was set between (69.6 ± 2.2) x 10 -4 kg/s to (695.8 ± 2.2) x 10 -4 kg/s. The objective of the study is to compare the performance of PV/T collector with and without ·-groove absorber. The study found that the PV/T collector with ·-groove absorber plate has higher efficiency than the PV/T without ·-groove absorber. The electrical and thermal efficiencies are also increased when radiation intensity and speed of air increase. (author)

  19. Performance Analysis of FLC Controlled PV-Wind Hybrid Power System for dc Load with Real-Time Data in Matlab, Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavan Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power system is a combination of different but complementary energy generation systems based on renewable energies. The Hybrid power system harnesses most of the power from the environmental conditions, reduces the losses and repetitive maintenance, thus improving efficiency and reliability of the system. This is achieved by proper coordination control between the Renewable Energy Sources (RES. This paper focuses on the implementation of Photovoltaic - Wind hybrid power system with real-time data of environmental conditions. The continuous real-time values of the solar irradiation and wind speed are obtained from the weather monitoring system at the location. The PV will be the primary source of generation during the day and wind generation can act as power conditioning. The Hybrid model is implemented in Matlab Simulink and its performance is examined under variable environmental conditions with a variable resistive load. A scale down experiment set-up of PV-Wind hybrid system is utilized to evaluate the performance of the proposed control logic. It has emerged from the simulation and experimental study that the hybrid system implemented with the real-time data maintains the output voltage constant irrespective of environmental conditions and load condition.

  20. Household level innovation diffusion model of photo-voltaic (PV) solar cells from stated preference data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Towhidul

    2014-01-01

    We focus on predicting the adoption time probabilities of photo-voltaic solar panels by households using discrete choice experiments and an innovation diffusion model. The primary objective of this research is cohesively mapping the theory of disruptive innovation into diffusion of innovations to aid policy makers by linking two critical uncertainties of new technology: (1) whether households prefer the new attributes of the new technology and how these preferences vary by market segments? and (2) when are they going to adopt (if at all)? Our study uses recent developments of discrete choice experiments and establishes a causal link between the attributes of the technology, attitudinal constructs and socio-demographics, and adoption time probabilities using the Bass diffusion model. The data was collected from Ontario, a province of Canada. The innovation diffusion model allows us to compute the cumulative probability of adoption over time per household. Technology awareness and energy cost saving have a significant effect on the adoption probability, reinforcing the need for effective education. These findings also suggest that campaigns should explain more about investment criteria, feed-in tariffs and environmental attributes. This study findings call for a need to use seeding strategies to accelerate exogenous Word-of-Mouth (WOM) for this new technology. - Highlights: • Adoption of renewable energy (i.e. solar PV panels) and theory of disruptive innovations. • Household level innovation diffusion model from discrete choice experiments with time intent questions. • Variation in adoption probabilities by market segments. • Promotions should explain new attributes and lack of consistency of households especially on market develop policies. • Data from Ontario, province of Canada, with generous feed-in tariff for solar households

  1. PWM Regulation of Grid-Tied PV System on the Base of Photovoltaic-Fed Diode-Clamped Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleschuk V.I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of grid-tied photovoltaic system on the base of two diode-clamped inverters, controlled by specific algorithms of pulse-width modulation (PWM, has been done. This system includes two strings of photovoltaic panels feeding two diode-clamped inverters. The outputs of inverters are connected with the corresponding windings on the primary side of three-phase transformer, connected with a grid. In order to reduce phase voltage distortion and to increase efficiency of operation of the system, special scheme of control and modulation of inverters has been used, providing minimization of common-mode voltages and voltage waveforms symmetries under different operating conditions. Detailed simulation of processes in this photovoltaic-fed power conversion system has been executed. The results of simulations verify good performance of photovoltaic system regulated in accordance with specific strategy of control and modulation.

  2. Performance analysis of the Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverter of a photovoltaic system in water and wind applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkowski Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-phase grid connected inverters are nowadays broadly developed and tested in various types of applications especially in photovoltaic systems. The main aim of the inverter control strategy is to extract the maximum energy from the PV system which corresponds to the maximum power at certain conditions. However, the MPPT methods are also important in other renewable energy conversion systems. This paper analyses the performance of a commercially available photovoltaic inverter in water and wind systems. Presented models are implemented in a laboratory test bench in the form of torque characteristics realised by an induction motor fed by the inverter with vector control. The parameters are scaled into relative variables to provide a proper performance comparison. Presented tests include step response to assess the performance of a system dynamic. The dynamic tests showed a fast response of the investigated systems. The MPPT tracking accuracy tested under realistic profiles is similar for both cases: 98% and 96% respectively for the wind and water systems. These results prove the satisfactory performance of the MPPT of the PV microinverter in these applications.

  3. Modified Grid-Connected CSI for Hybrid PV/Wind Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Amorndechaphon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of a power conditioning unit for hybrid PV/wind power generation system is proposed. The proposed power conditioner is based on the current source inverter (CSI topology. All energy sources are connected in parallel with a DC-bus through the modified wave-shaping circuits. To achieve the unity power factor at the utility grid, the DC-link current can be controlled via the wave-shaping circuits with the sinusoidal PWM scheme. In this work, the carrier-based PWM scheme is also proposed to minimize the utility current THD. The power rating of the proposed system can be increased by connecting more PV/wind modules through their wave-shaping circuits in parallel with the other modules. The details of the operating principles, the system configurations, and the design considerations are described. The effectiveness of the proposed CSI is demonstrated by simulation results.

  4. Design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Warner, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of a study centered on the design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for remote locations in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate high reliability hybrid power systems that have been designed for the lowest life cycle costs. The technical and economic analysis of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems was carried out using HYBRID2, a computational code developed at the University of Massachusetts in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). After a summary of a generalized design procedure for such systems based on the use of this code, a systematic parametric evaluation of a representative design case for a village power system in Brazil is presented. As summarized in the paper, the performance and economic effects of key design parameters are illustrated. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Effect of wind speed and solar irradiation on the optimization of a PV-Wind-Battery system to supply a telecommunications station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Lujano, Juan; Zubi, Ghassan [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Electrical Engineerign Dept.

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows the optimization of a PV-Wind hybrid system with batteries storage to supply the electrical power to a small telecommunications station. The load demanded by the station is 100 W continuously. We have considered 6 different wind speed profiles, from 2 m/s average speed (low wind speed in many places in Spain) to 8 m/s average (very high wind speed, in few places in Spain) and 3 different irradiation profiles, from the lowest average daily irradiation in Spain, about 2.5 kWh/m{sup 2}/day, to the highest one in Spain, about 5 kWh/m{sup 2}/day. Therefore we have considered 6 x 3 = 18 combinations of wind speed and irradiation profiles. For each combination of wind speed and irradiation profiles, we have optimized the PV-Wind-Battery system to supply the power demand, considering some different PV panels, wind turbines and batteries. We have also considered in the optimization non-hybrid systems (PV-Battery systems and Wind-Battery systems). The simulation of the system performance has been done hourly. The optimal system for each combination of wind speed and irradiation is the one which can supply the whole demand of the telecommunications station with the lowest Net Present Cost of the system. Simulation and optimization has been done using HOGA (Hybrid Optimization by Genetic Algorithms) software, developed by some of the authors. The results show that, with actual prices of PV panels and wind turbines, in 13 of the 18 combinations of wind speed and irradiation profiles the optimal system is a hybrid system (it includes PV panels, wind turbine and batteries). In the other 5 combinations (the ones with lowest wind speed and/or highest irradiation), the optimal system is PV-Battery, i.e., without wind turbine. We conclude that, in most of the places in Spain, the optimal system to supply the demand of a communications station (with continous demand profile) is a hybrid system (PV-Wind-Batteries) instead of a PV-Batteries system or a Wind

  6. Valence of wind power, photovoltaic and peak-load power plants as a part of the entire electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schüppel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The transition to a higher share of renewable energy sources in the electricity sector leads to a multitude of challenges for the current electricity system. Within this thesis, the development of wind power and photovoltaics generation capacities in Germany is analysed based on the evaluation of technical and economic criteria. In order to derive those criteria, different scenarios with a separated and combined increase of wind and photovoltaics capacity are simulated using the model ATLANTIS. The results are compared to a reference scenario without additional wind and PV capacities. Furthermore, the value and functionality of the energy only market based on economic methods, as well as the value of peak load power plants based on opportunity costs are determined. The results of this thesis show, that the current market system is able to gain an additional annual welfare of four to six billion Euro at the best. This result shows that the task of optimising the power plant dispatch is well fulfilled by the current market design. However, the effects, e.g. fuel costs, which may influence this margin. The value of wind power and photovoltaics within the overall electricity system can be derived from the effort which is necessary to integrate these generation technologies into the existing system, and the changes in total costs of electricity generation. Based on the evaluation of time dependencies (seasonality of energy yield from wind and PV) as well as the development of total generation costs, the conclusion can be drawn that wind power is the more suitable RES generation technology for Germany. However, when it comes to grid integration measures, PV shows better results due to a higher generation potential in Southern Germany, which leads to a higher degree of utilisation. Therefore, there is no need to transport electricity from Northern to Southern Germany as it is the case with wind power. A common expansion of wind power and photovoltaics even shows slight

  7. Electric power generation in a combined photovoltaic and wind power system at Ottendorf-Okrilla (Saxony); Elektroenergieerzeugung einer kombinierten Wind-Photovoltaik-Anlage in Ottendorf-Okrilla (Sachsen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futterschneider, H.; Hirsch, W.; Rindelhardt, U.; Teichmann, G.

    1996-04-01

    A hybrid wind-photovoltaic system has been operated in the Zentrallager of the Plus-Warenhandelsgesellschaft in Ottendorf-Okrilla (Saxony) since 1992. A 60 kW wind energy converter of Tackes TW-60 type has been combined with a 3.18 kW photovoltaic system. Some special features of the pv system (orientation of the generator, master-slave operation of the inverters) are remarkable. The operation of both systems was investigated in detail. With a yield of 689 kWh/kW{sub p}a in 1995 the pv system achieved comparable results with other grid coupled pv systems in Saxony. Possible better results are prevented by the selected generator orientation. The master-slave mode of the inverter was studied in detail. The nonoptimal relation between the generator size and the inverters influenced the results. The wind energy converter achieved in 1995 a yield of 990 kWh/kW, which is below average also for non coast areas. The result is influenced by many obstacles in the surrounding of the converter. The time availability of the hybrid energy system in 1995 was 71.5% (6260 hours). (orig.) [Deutsch] Vom Zentrallager der Plus-Warenhandelgesellschaft in Ottendorf-Okrilla (Sachsen) wird seit 1992 eine hybride Wind-Photovoltaik-Anlage zur Erzeugung von Elektroenergie betrieben. Die Anlage besteht aus einer 60-kW-Windkraftanlage des Typs TW 60 und einer Photovoltaikanlage mit einer Spitzenleistung von 3,18 kW. Letztere zeichnet sich durch einige Besonderheiten (Orientierung des Generators, Master-Slave-Betrieb der Wechselrichter) aus. Das Betriebsverhalten der Anlagen wurde ueber einen laengeren Zeitraum untersucht. Im Jahr 1995 erreichte die Photovoltaikanlage mit 689 Vollastbetriebsstunden etwa die Ergebnisse anderer Photovoltaikanlagen in Sachsen. Moegliche hoehere Ertraege werden durch die gewaehlte Orientierung des Generators verhindert. Die Master-Slave-Schaltung der Wechselrichter arbeitete ohne Probleme. Ihre Effektivitaet wurde durch die nicht optimale Abstimmung von Generator

  8. Experimentally Investigating the Effect of Temperature Differences in the Particle Deposition Process on Solar Photovoltaic (PV Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an experimental investigation of the dust particle deposition process on solar photovoltaic (PV modules with different surface temperatures by a heating plate to illustrate the effect of the temperature difference (thermophoresis between the module surface and the surrounding air on the dust accumulation process under different operating temperatures. In general, if the temperature of PV modules is increased, the energy conversion efficiency of the modules is decreased. However, in this study, it is firstly found that higher PV module surface temperature differences result in a higher energy output compared with those modules with lower temperature differences because of a reduced accumulation of dust particles. The measured deposition densities of dust particles were found to range from 0.54 g/m2 to 0.85 g/m2 under the range of experimental conditions and the output power ratios were found to increase from 0.861 to 0.965 with the increase in the temperature difference from 0 to 50 °C. The PV module with a higher temperature difference experiences a lower dust density because of the effect of the thermophoresis force arising from the temperature gradient between the module surface and its surrounding air. In addition, dust particles have a significant impact on the short circuit current, as well as the output power. However, the influence of particles on open circuit voltage can be negligible.

  9. A Single Phase Doubly Grounded Semi-Z-Source Inverter for Photovoltaic (PV Systems with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofael Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a single phase doubly grounded semi-Z-source inverter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT is proposed for photovoltaic (PV systems. This proposed system utilizes a single-ended primary inductor (SEPIC converter as DC-DC converter to implement the MPPT algorithm for tracking the maximum power from a PV array and a single phase semi-Z-source inverter for integrating the PV with AC power utilities. The MPPT controller utilizes a fast-converging algorithm to track the maximum power point (MPP and the semi-Z-source inverter utilizes a nonlinear SPWM to produce sinusoidal voltage at the output. The proposed system is able to track the MPP of PV arrays and produce an AC voltage at its output by utilizing only three switches. Experimental results show that the fast-converging MPPT algorithm has fast tracking response with appreciable MPP efficiency. In addition, the inverter shows the minimization of common mode leakage current with its ground sharing feature and reduction of the THD as well as DC current components at the output during DC-AC conversion.

  10. Prismatic TIR (total internal reflection) low-concentration PV (photovoltaics)-integrated façade for low latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Low-concentration Façade-integrated Photovoltaic system in the form of TIR (total internal reflection) prismatic segmented façade could play an effective role in reducing the direct component of solar radiation transmitting through buildings, hence reducing both cooling and artificial lighting load on such buildings. A prismatic segmented façade is capable of allowing diffused skylight to transmit through it to the building interior, while preventing most of the direct solar radiation and converting it into clean energy by means of the integrated PV (​photovoltaics) cells. A range of prismatic TIR segmented façades with different head angles has been designed based on the geographical latitude of the chosen location. Each façade configuration is simulated by ray-tracing technique and its performance is investigated against realistic direct solar radiation data in two clear sky days representing summer and winter of the targeted location. Ray tracing simulations revealed that all of the selected configurations could collect most of the direct solar radiation in summer. In contrary, larger head angle of the segmented façade could collect wider intervals around the noon time till reaching a head angle of 23° at which most of the incident direct solar radiation could be collected. - Highlights: • 5 different head angles of prismatic segmented PV-integrated Façade are ray-traced. • Transmitted and PV-collected solar radiation percentages are determined. • DNI daily profiles with associated solar altitudes and azimuth data are simulated. • Expected transmitted and PV collected solar radiation are calculated for the proposed segments.

  11. Photovoltaics (PV) as an Eligible Measure in Residential PACE Programs: Benefits and Challenges (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.

    2010-06-01

    Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing is one of several new financial models broadening access to clean energy by addressing the barrier of initial capital cost. The majority of the PACE programs in the market today include PV as an eligible measure. PV appeals to homeowners as a way to reduce utility bills, self-generate sustainable power, increase energy independence and demonstrate a commitment to the environment. If substantial state incentives for PV exist, PV projects can be economic under PACE, especially when partnered with good net metering policies. At the same time, PV is expensive relative to other eligible measures with a return on investment horizon that might exceed program targets. This fact sheet reviews the benefits and potential challenges of including PV in PACE programs.

  12. Photovoltaic Solar Energy : From Fundamentals to Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, P.J.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Freundlich, A.

    2016-01-01

    Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date

  13. Modeling and control of hybrid wind/photovoltaic/fuel cell distributed generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caisheng

    Due to ever increasing energy consumption, rising public awareness of environmental protection, and steady progress in power deregulation, alternative (i.e., renewable and fuel cell based) distributed generation (DG) systems have attracted increased interest. Wind and photovoltaic (PV) power generation are two of the most promising renewable energy technologies. Fuel cell (FC) systems also show great potential in DG applications of the future due to their fast technology development and many merits they have, such as high efficiency, zero or low emission (of pollutant gases) and flexible modular structure. The modeling and control of a hybrid wind/PV/FC DG system is addressed in this dissertation. Different energy sources in the system are integrated through an AC bus. Dynamic models for the main system components, namely, wind energy conversion system (WECS), PV energy conversion system (PVECS), fuel cell, electrolyzer, power electronic interfacing circuits, battery, hydrogen storage tank, gas compressor and gas pressure regulator, are developed. Two types of fuel cells have been modeled in this dissertation: proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Power control of a grid-connected FC system as well as load mitigation control of a stand-alone FC system are investigated. The pitch angle control for WECS, the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control for PVECS, and the control for electrolyzer and power electronic devices, are also addressed in the dissertation. Based on the dynamic component models, a simulation model for the proposed hybrid energy system has been developed using MATLAB/Simulink. The overall power management strategy for coordinating the power flows among the different energy sources is presented in the dissertation. Simulation studies have been carried out to verify the system performance under different scenarios using a practical load profile and real weather data. The results show that the overall power

  14. Simulation and performance analysis of 110 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic system for residential building in India: A comparative analysis of various PV technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar Shukla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available System simulation is necessary to investigate the feasibility of Solar PV system at a given location. This study is done to evaluate the feasibility of grid connected rooftop solar photovoltaic system for a residential Hostel building at MANIT, Bhopal, India (Latitude: 23° 16′ N, Longitude: 77° 36′ E. The study focuses on the use of Solargis PV Planner software as a tool to analyze the performance a 110 kWp solar photovoltaic rooftop plant and also compares the performances of different PV technologies based on simulated energy yield and performance ratio. Solargis proves to easy, fast, accurate and reliable software tool for the simulation of solar PV system.

  15. Photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, H.; Heidenreich, M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1993 a wide test for photovoltaic (PV) was carried out in Austria, 110 stations were built and precise measurements were done. At that time the demand of integrating direct current from solar cells into the 50 Hz alternating current network was a weak point. At present four european research projects dealing with security, reliability, network compatibility and its integration in buildings are being developed. The cost development of PVs in Germany from 1983 to 1998 is given. Because of the PV environmental quality, one million of new intallations are demanded (until 2010) by the European commission. In Austria exists ∼5,000 kWp installed capacity and the growth rate average in the last years was 30 %. (nevyjel)

  16. Performance of a small stand alone photovoltaic-wind system at El Oyameyo D.F., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Juarez, A.; Campos, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Tiburcio Silver, A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca-Division de Posgrado, Toluca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    El Oyameyo, is an ecological site located to the South-West of the Topilejo town, D.F., 19 degree 25` North latitude, 99 degree 5` West longitude and at an altitude of 3100 m. At present, there are 10 families living at this place. They have energy generators to produce their own electricity by means of solar or wind energy using photovoltaic (PV) technology and eolic systems, respectively. There are three different configurations of energy generators: DC regulated PV systems, AC regulated PV systems and one PV-Wind hybrid system. The electrical power installed for the stand alone PV systems are from 48 W-p up to 768 W-p range. Among these, there are 4 PV systems that are configurated in DC regulated systems, and other 6 are AC regulated systems. All these systems use lead-acid battery (scaled or vented) banks to store the energy produced daily by the systems. The PV-Wind hybrid system in formed, at present, by a 5.0 kW wind generator, a PV array of 768 W-p, a 37.8 kW-h storage battery bank and a 5.0 kW DC/AC inverter. In this work, we report the electricity generated, load pattern and overall system performance of the photovoltaic-wind hybrid system. The technical characteristics, energy test on the hybrid system and the experience obtained from energy handling and system maintenance for all the systems are presented. We found that all the systems had shown good performance and users` satisfaction. [Espanol] El Oyameyo es un lugar ecologico localizado al Sur-Oeste del pueblo de Topilejo, D. F., 19 grados 25` de latitud Norte 99 grados 5` de longitud Oeste y a una altitud de 3100m. Actualmente hay 10 familias viviendo en este lugar. Tienen generadores de energia para producir su propia electricidad mediante la energia solar y la del viento usando sistemas fotovoltaicos (FV) y sistemas eolicos, respectivamente. Hay tres diferentes configuraciones de generadores de energia: sistemas fotovoltaicos de CD regulados, sistemas fotovoltaicos de CA regulados y un sistema

  17. Performance of a small stand alone photovoltaic-wind system at El Oyameyo D.F., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Juarez, A; Campos, J [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Tiburcio Silver, A [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca-Division de Posgrado, Toluca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    El Oyameyo, is an ecological site located to the South-West of the Topilejo town, D.F., 19 degree 25` North latitude, 99 degree 5` West longitude and at an altitude of 3100 m. At present, there are 10 families living at this place. They have energy generators to produce their own electricity by means of solar or wind energy using photovoltaic (PV) technology and eolic systems, respectively. There are three different configurations of energy generators: DC regulated PV systems, AC regulated PV systems and one PV-Wind hybrid system. The electrical power installed for the stand alone PV systems are from 48 W-p up to 768 W-p range. Among these, there are 4 PV systems that are configurated in DC regulated systems, and other 6 are AC regulated systems. All these systems use lead-acid battery (scaled or vented) banks to store the energy produced daily by the systems. The PV-Wind hybrid system in formed, at present, by a 5.0 kW wind generator, a PV array of 768 W-p, a 37.8 kW-h storage battery bank and a 5.0 kW DC/AC inverter. In this work, we report the electricity generated, load pattern and overall system performance of the photovoltaic-wind hybrid system. The technical characteristics, energy test on the hybrid system and the experience obtained from energy handling and system maintenance for all the systems are presented. We found that all the systems had shown good performance and users` satisfaction. [Espanol] El Oyameyo es un lugar ecologico localizado al Sur-Oeste del pueblo de Topilejo, D. F., 19 grados 25` de latitud Norte 99 grados 5` de longitud Oeste y a una altitud de 3100m. Actualmente hay 10 familias viviendo en este lugar. Tienen generadores de energia para producir su propia electricidad mediante la energia solar y la del viento usando sistemas fotovoltaicos (FV) y sistemas eolicos, respectivamente. Hay tres diferentes configuraciones de generadores de energia: sistemas fotovoltaicos de CD regulados, sistemas fotovoltaicos de CA regulados y un sistema

  18. Assessing the Impact of Wind/PV Power Generation and Market Policies on Decentralized Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S.M. Arnoux, Luciana; Santiago, Leonardo

    In this paper, we offer a comprehensive approach to assess the impact of wind and photovoltaic power generation on decentralized hybrid systems. In particular, we focus on three performance measures of the energy system, namely reliability, costs, and efficiency. Most of the current studies focus...... level. Therefore, we appropriately assess the inherent uncertainty and design options. First, we use linear and quantile regression models to estimate the wind speed and solar insolation. Then, we use different quantiles as an input for the hybrid system design to assess market policies (e.g., net...

  19. Indoor simulation and testing of photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) air collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solanki, S.C.; Dubey, Swapnil; Tiwari, A.

    2009-01-01

    An indoor standard test procedure has been developed for thermal and electrical testing of PV/T collectors connected in series. For this, a PV/T solar air heater has been designed, fabricated and its performance over different operating parameters were studied. Based on the energy balance equations,

  20. Sensor System for Long-term Recording of Photovoltaic (PV) IV-curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper; Nymand, Morten; Haase, Frerk

    The purpose of this paper is to present a recording system for long-term investigation of PV panel dynamics under partial shading conditions. The system is intended to be a low-cost system deployable for stand-alone field use and long-term data recording at PV-plants. Passing clouds will affect...

  1. Novel simplified hourly energy flow models for photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Tamer; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed an energy flow model for standalone PV system using MATLAB line code. • We developed an energy flow model for hybrid PV/wind system using MATLAB line code. • We developed an energy flow model for hybrid PV/diesel system using MATLAB line code. - Abstract: This paper presents simplified energy flow models for photovoltaic (PV) power systems using MATLAB. Three types of PV power system are taken into consideration namely standalone PV systems, hybrid PV/wind systems and hybrid PV/diesel systems. The logic of the energy flow for each PV power system is discussed first and then the MATLAB line codes for these models are provided and explained. The results prove the accuracy of the proposed models. Such models help modeling and sizing PV systems

  2. A stochastic method for battery sizing with uninterruptible-power and demand shift capabilities in PV (photovoltaic) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Chee Wei; Green, Tim C.; Hernandez-Aramburo, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic simulation using Monte Carlo technique to size a battery to meet dual objectives of demand shift at peak electricity cost times and outage protection in BIPV (building integrated photovoltaic) systems. Both functions require battery storage and the sizing of battery using numerical optimization is popularly used. However, the weather conditions, outage events and demand peaks are not deterministic in nature. Therefore, the sizing of battery storage capacity should also be based on a probabilistic approach. The Monte Carlo simulation is a rigorous method to sizing BIPV system as it takes into account a real building load profiles, the weather information and the local historical outage distribution. The simulation is split into seasonal basis for the analysis of demand shifting and outage events in order to match the seasonal weather conditions and load profiles. Five configurations of PV (photovoltaic) are assessed that cover different areas and orientations. The simulation output includes the predicted PV energy yield, the amount of energy required for demand management and outage event. Therefore, consumers can base sizing decisions on the historical data and local risk of outage statistics and the success rate of meeting the demand shift required. Finally, the economic evaluations together with the sensitivity analysis and the assessment of customers' outage cost are discussed.

  3. Hybrid PV/Wind Power Systems Incorporating Battery Storage and Considering the Stochastic Nature of Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Abdulwasa Bakr

    Hybrid power generation system and distributed generation technology are attracting more investments due to the growing demand for energy nowadays and the increasing awareness regarding emissions and their environmental impacts such as global warming and pollution. The price fluctuation of crude oil is an additional reason for the leading oil producing countries to consider renewable resources as an alternative. Saudi Arabia as the top oil exporter country in the word announced the "Saudi Arabia Vision 2030" which is targeting to generate 9.5 GW of electricity from renewable resources. Two of the most promising renewable technologies are wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic cells (PV). The integration or hybridization of photovoltaics and wind turbines with battery storage leads to higher adequacy and redundancy for both autonomous and grid connected systems. This study presents a method for optimal generation unit planning by installing a proper number of solar cells, wind turbines, and batteries in such a way that the net present value (NPV) is minimized while the overall system redundancy and adequacy is maximized. A new renewable fraction technique (RFT) is used to perform the generation unit planning. RFT was tested and validated with particle swarm optimization and HOMER Pro under the same conditions and environment. Renewable resources and load randomness and uncertainties are considered. Both autonomous and grid-connected system designs were adopted in the optimal generation units planning process. An uncertainty factor was designed and incorporated in both autonomous and grid connected system designs. In the autonomous hybrid system design model, the strategy including an additional amount of operation reserve as a percent of the hourly load was considered to deal with resource uncertainty since the battery storage system is the only backup. While in the grid-connected hybrid system design model, demand response was incorporated to overcome the impact of

  4. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  5. Power Control and Optimization of Photovoltaic and Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Azad

    Power map and Maximum Power Point (MPP) of Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) highly depend on system dynamics and environmental parameters, e.g., solar irradiance, temperature, and wind speed. Power optimization algorithms for PV systems and WECS are collectively known as Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm. Gradient-based Extremum Seeking (ES), as a non-model-based MPPT algorithm, governs the system to its peak point on the steepest descent curve regardless of changes of the system dynamics and variations of the environmental parameters. Since the power map shape defines the gradient vector, then a close estimate of the power map shape is needed to create user assignable transients in the MPPT algorithm. The Hessian gives a precise estimate of the power map in a neighborhood around the MPP. The estimate of the inverse of the Hessian in combination with the estimate of the gradient vector are the key parts to implement the Newton-based ES algorithm. Hence, we generate an estimate of the Hessian using our proposed perturbation matrix. Also, we introduce a dynamic estimator to calculate the inverse of the Hessian which is an essential part of our algorithm. We present various simulations and experiments on the micro-converter PV systems to verify the validity of our proposed algorithm. The ES scheme can also be used in combination with other control algorithms to achieve desired closed-loop performance. The WECS dynamics is slow which causes even slower response time for the MPPT based on the ES. Hence, we present a control scheme, extended from Field-Oriented Control (FOC), in combination with feedback linearization to reduce the convergence time of the closed-loop system. Furthermore, the nonlinear control prevents magnetic saturation of the stator of the Induction Generator (IG). The proposed control algorithm in combination with the ES guarantees the closed-loop system robustness with respect to high level parameter uncertainty

  6. Multi-Input Converter with MPPT Feature for Wind-PV Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-input converter (MIC to process wind-PV power is proposed, designed, analyzed, simulated, and implemented. The MIC cannot only process solar energy but deal with wind power, of which structure is derived from forward-type DC/DC converter to step-down/up voltage for charger systems, DC distribution applications, or grid connection. The MIC comprises an upper modified double-ended forward, a lower modified double-ended forward, a common output inductor, and a DSP-based system controller. The two modified double-ended forwards can operate individually or simultaneously so as to accommodate the variation of the hybrid renewable energy under different atmospheric conditions. While the MIC operates at interleaving mode, better performance can be achieved and volume also is reduced. The proposed MIC is capable of recycling the energy stored in the leakage inductance and obtaining high step-up output voltage. In order to draw maximum power from wind turbine and PV panel, perturb-and-observe method is adopted to achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT feature. The MIC is constructed, analyzed, simulated, and tested. Simulations and hardware measurements have demonstrated the feasibility and functionality of the proposed multi-input converter.

  7. Determining roof surfaces suitable for the installation of PV (photovoltaic) systems, based on LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data, pyranometer measurements, and distribution network configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srećković, Nevena; Lukač, Niko; Žalik, Borut; Štumberger, Gorazd

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation of distributed generation units, integrated within the distribution network requires increased attention to their proper placements. In urban areas, buildings' rooftops are expected to have greater involvement in the deployment of PV (photovoltaic) systems. This paper proposes a novel procedure for determining roof surfaces suitable for their installation. The PV potential of roof surfaces is assessed based on Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data and pyranometer measurements. Then, the time-dependent PV generation profiles, electricity distribution network configuration, and time-dependent loading profiles are used together over time-steps for selecting those roof surfaces with the highest PV potential, which would lead to the highest reduction of network losses per year. The presented procedure was implemented within a real urban area distribution network. The results obtained confirmed that PV potential assessment could be an insufficient criterion when selecting those roof surfaces suitable for the installation of PV systems. In order to obtain relevant results, network configuration and time-dependent loading and generation profiles must be considered as well. - Highlights: • Roof surfaces, suitable for installation of PV systems are evaluated and ranked. • Improved PV potential based procedure is proposed for their selection in urban areas. • Time-dependent network loading and PV generation profiles are considered. • Losses in a real electricity network are minimized in the optimization procedure. • Final selection of ranked roof surfaces is based on results of optimization.

  8. Solar and Wind Site Screening Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and NREL created a decision tree to guide state and local governments and other stakeholders through a process for screening sites for their suitability for future redevelopment with solar photovoltaic (PV) energy and wind energy.

  9. Size optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) room air conditioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chien-Wei; Zahedi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Sizing of a stand-alone PV system determines the main cost of the system. PV electricity cost is determined by the amount of solar energy received, hence the actual climate and weather conditions such as solar irradiance and ambient temperature affect the size required and cost of the system. Air conditioning demand also depends on the weather conditions. Therefore, sizing a PV powered air conditioner must consider the characteristics of local climate and temperature. In this paper, sizing procedures and special considerations for air conditioning under Melbourne's climatic conditions is presented. The reliability of various PV-battery size combinations is simulated by MATLAB. As a result, excellent system performance can be predicated.(Author)

  10. National Survey Report of PV Power Applications in France 2012. Photovoltaic Power Applications in France - National Survey Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Yvonnick

    2013-05-01

    The PV power of all grid-connected photovoltaic systems installed in 2012 stood at 1 079 MW. This represented a 38 % fall compared with 2011. New grid-connected distributed systems, the majority of which were building-integrated, represented a total power of 756 MW, while grid-connected centralised ground-based power plants accounted for 323 MW. New PV installations in mainland France accounted for 35 % of total new electricity production capacity commissioned in 2012. The off-grid stand-alone photovoltaic system sector remains marginal with around 0,2 MW installed. The cumulative power capacity of all photovoltaic systems in operation at the end of 2012 stood at 4 003 MW (281 724 systems) representing an increase of 37% compared with 2011. Residential systems less than or equal to 3 kW accounted for 86% of all installations and 16 % of total power capacity, while systems exceeding 250 kW accounted for 0,3% of all installations and 44% of total capacity. In 2012, photovoltaic electricity production accounted for 0,7% of France's total electricity production. In France, the estimated average price of European-manufactured photovoltaic modules stood at 0,72 EUR/W in 2012. The fall in prices observed over the last two years has led to substantial growth in the medium-power and high-power systems sector. The turnkey price stood at around 3,7 EUR/W in 2012 for building-integrated residential systems (IAB) using European modules. The price of simplified building-integrated systems (ISB) on commercial and industrial buildings stood at 2,0 EUR/W, and at 1,6 EUR/W for high-power grid-connected ground-mounted systems (all prices mentioned are exclusive of VAT). The French photovoltaic component industry faced stiff international competition in 2012. The industrial value chain has, on the whole, remained relatively unscathed, but small installation companies have been the worst affected. Upstream of the PV sector, photovoltaic-grade silicon manufacturing is currently at

  11. A novel off-grid hybrid power system comprised of solar photovoltaic, wind, and hydro energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, Binayak; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Caroline Sunyong; Song, Chul-Ki; Maskey, Ramesh K.; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose two hybridization methods for small off-grid power systems consisting solar (PV), wind, and micro-hydro sources. • One of the methods was implemented in a mini-grid connecting Thingan and Kolkhop villages in Makawanpur District, Nepal. • The results can be applied to help achieve Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability. • This is the first implementation anywhere comprising of three renewable energy power, in a single off-grid power system. • This research may be applied as a practical guide for implementing similar systems in various locations. - Abstract: Several factors must be considered before adopting a full-phase power generation system based on renewable energy sources. Long-term necessary data (for one year if possible) should be collected before making any decisions concerning implementation of such a systems. To accurately assess the potential of available resources, we measured solar irradiation, wind speed, and ambient temperature at two high-altitude locations in Nepal: the Lama Hotel in Rasuwa District and Thingan in Makawanpur District. Here, we propose two practical, economical hybridization methods for small off-grid systems consisting entirely of renewable energy sources—specifically solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and micro-hydro sources. One of the methods was tested experimentally, and the results can be applied to help achieve Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability. Hydro, wind, and solar photovoltaic energy are the top renewable energy sources in terms of globally installed capacity. However, no reports have been published about off-grid hybrid systems comprised of all three sources, making this implementation the first of its kind anywhere. This research may be applied as a practical guide for implementing similar systems in various locations. Of the four off-grid PV systems installed by the authors for village electrification in Nepal, one was

  12. Multi-objective design of PV-wind-diesel-hydrogen-battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna 3, 50018-Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    This paper presents, for the first time, a triple multi-objective design of isolated hybrid systems minimizing, simultaneously, the total cost throughout the useful life of the installation, pollutant emissions (CO{sub 2}) and unmet load. For this task, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) and a genetic algorithm (GA) have been used in order to find the best combination of components of the hybrid system and control strategies. As an example of application, a complex PV-wind-diesel-hydrogen-battery system has been designed, obtaining a set of possible solutions (Pareto Set). The results achieved demonstrate the practical utility of the developed design method. (author)

  13. Status and modeling improvements of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Taylor, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper present a summary of the ongoing work on the modeling and system design of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for two different sites in the Amazonia region of Brazil. The work incorporates the latest resource data and is based on the use of the Hybrid2 simulation code developed by the University of Massachusetts and NREL. Details of the baseline operating hybrid systems are reviewed, and the results of the latest detailed hybrid system evaluation for each site are summarized. Based on the system modeling results, separate recommendations for system modification and improvements are made.

  14. Real-time POD-CFD Wind-Load Calculator for PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huayamave, Victor [Centecorp; Divo, Eduardo [Centecorp; Ceballos, Andres [Centecorp; Barriento, Carolina [Centecorp; Stephen, Barkaszi [FSEC; Hubert, Seigneur [FSEC

    2014-03-21

    The primary objective of this project is to create an accurate web-based real-time wind-load calculator. This is of paramount importance for (1) the rapid and accurate assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, (2) identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of mounting hardware and installation. Wind loading calculations for structures are currently performed according to the American Society of Civil Engineers/ Structural Engineering Institute Standard ASCE/SEI 7; the values in this standard were calculated from simplified models that do not necessarily take into account relevant characteristics such as those from full 3D effects, end effects, turbulence generation and dissipation, as well as minor effects derived from shear forces on installation brackets and other accessories. This standard does not include provisions that address the special requirements of rooftop PV systems, and attempts to apply this standard may lead to significant design errors as wind loads are incorrectly estimated. Therefore, an accurate calculator would be of paramount importance for the preliminary assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of the mounting system and installation. The challenge is that although a full-fledged three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis would properly and accurately capture the complete physical effects of air flow over PV systems, it would be impractical for this tool, which is intended to be a real-time web-based calculator. CFD routinely requires enormous computation times to arrive at solutions that can be deemed accurate and grid-independent even in powerful and massively parallel computer platforms. This work is expected not only to accelerate solar deployment nationwide, but also help reach the SunShot Initiative goals

  15. Analysis of a utility-interactive wind-photovoltaic hybrid system with battery storage using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Francois

    1999-10-01

    This dissertation investigates the application of neural network theory to the analysis of a 4-kW Utility-interactive Wind-Photovoltaic System (WPS) with battery storage. The hybrid system comprises a 2.5-kW photovoltaic generator and a 1.5-kW wind turbine. The wind power generator produces power at variable speed and variable frequency (VSVF). The wind energy is converted into dc power by a controlled, tree-phase, full-wave, bridge rectifier. The PV power is maximized by a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), a dc-to-dc chopper, switching at a frequency of 45 kHz. The whole dc power of both subsystems is stored in the battery bank or conditioned by a single-phase self-commutated inverter to be sold to the utility at a predetermined amount. First, the PV is modeled using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). To reduce model uncertainty, the open-circuit voltage VOC and the short-circuit current ISC of the PV are chosen as model input variables of the ANN. These input variables have the advantage of incorporating the effects of the quantifiable and non-quantifiable environmental variants affecting the PV power. Then, a simplified way to predict accurately the dynamic responses of the grid-linked WPS to gusty winds using a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is investigated. The RNN is a single-output feedforward backpropagation network with external feedback, which allows past responses to be fed back to the network input. In the third step, a Radial Basis Functions (RBF) Network is used to analyze the effects of clouds on the Utility-Interactive WPS. Using the irradiance as input signal, the network models the effects of random cloud movement on the output current, the output voltage, the output power of the PV system, as well as the electrical output variables of the grid-linked inverter. Fourthly, using RNN, the combined effects of a random cloud and a wind gusts on the system are analyzed. For short period intervals, the wind speed and the solar radiation are considered as

  16. Potential Effect and Analysis of High Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV Systems Penetration to an Electric Distribution Utility (DU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Tamba Dellosa

    2016-11-01

    This Article: Dellosa, J. (2016 Potential Effect and Analysis of High Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV Systems Penetration to an Electric Distribution Utility (DU. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3, 179-185. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.179-185

  17. Effect of Neutral Grounding Protection Methods for Compensated Wind/PV Grid-Connected Hybrid Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Çetinkaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the wind/PV grid-connected system (GCS can be categorized as technical, environmental, and economic impacts. It has a vital impact for improving the voltage in the power systems; however, it has some negative effects such as interfacing and fault clearing. This paper discusses different grounding methods for fault protection of High-voltage (HV power systems. Influences of these grounding methods for various fault characteristics on wind/PV GCSs are discussed. Simulation models are implemented in the Alternative Transient Program (ATP version of the Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP. The models allow for different fault factors and grounding methods. Results are obtained to evaluate the impact of each grounding method on the 3-phase short-circuit fault (SCF, double-line-to-ground (DLG fault, and single-line-to-ground (SLG fault features. Solid, resistance, and Petersen coil grounding are compared for different faults on wind/PV GCSs. Transient overcurrent and overvoltage waveforms are used to describe the fault case. This paper is intended as a guide to engineers in selecting adequate grounding and ground fault protection schemes for HV, for evaluating existing wind/PV GCSs to minimize the damage of the system components from faults. This research presents the contribution of wind/PV generators and their comparison with the conventional system alone.

  18. Comparative analysis of different supporting measures for the production of electrical energy by solar PV and Wind systems. Four representative European cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campoccia, A.; Dusonchet, L.; Telaretti, E.; Zizzo, G.

    2009-01-01

    In the 9th of March 2007, the European Council decided a fixing goal of 20% contribution of the renewable energy sources (RES) on the total European electric energy production in 2020. In order to reach such an ambitious goal, all the European countries are adopting different support policies for encouraging the installations of RES-based generation systems. In this paper, after a brief review on the main support policies for RES in Europe, the specific situations of four representative countries (France, Germany, Italy and Spain) are examined, with the purpose of putting into evidence the main differences in the support policies adopted for Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind systems. In particular, a comparison based on the calculation of the pay-back-period (PBP), the net present value (NPV) and the internal rate of return (IRR), for different sized PV and Wind systems, shows that in some situations a support policy can be not convenient for the owner of the RES-based generation system and that, in many cases, the differences between the way of implementation of the same support policy in different countries, can give place to significantly different results. (author)

  19. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, K.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; Wiser, R.; Feldman, D.; Ong, S.

    2012-11-01

    This report presents results from the first U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs--often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs--for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems.

  20. SIMWEST: A simulation model for wind and photovoltaic energy storage systems (CDC user's manual), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, A. W.; Esinger, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    Procedures are given for using the SIMWEST program on CDC 6000 series computers. This expanded software package includes wind and/or photovoltaic systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic).

  1. A Simple Sizing Algorithm for Stand-Alone PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a simple algorithm to determine the required number of generating units of wind-turbine generator and photovoltaic array, and the associated storage capacity for stand-alone hybrid microgrid. The algorithm is based on the observation that the state of charge of battery should be periodically invariant. The optimal sizing of hybrid microgrid is given in the sense that the life cycle cost of system is minimized while the given load power demand can be satisfied without load rejection. We also report a case study to show the efficacy of the developed algorithm.

  2. Integrated sizing and scheduling of wind/PV/diesel/battery isolated systems

    KAUST Repository

    Malheiro, André

    2015-05-22

    In this paper we address the optimal sizing and scheduling of isolated hybrid systems using an optimization framework. The hybrid system features wind and photovoltaic conversion systems, batteries and diesel backup generators to supply electricity demand. A Mixed-Integer Linear Programming formulation is used to model system behavior over a time horizon of one year, considering hourly changes in both the availability of renewable resources and energy demand. The optimal solution is achieved with respect to the minimization of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) over a lifetime of 20 years. Results for a case study show that the most economical solution features all four postulated subsystems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Integrated sizing and scheduling of wind/PV/diesel/battery isolated systems

    KAUST Repository

    Malheiro, André ; Castro, Pedro M.; Lima, Ricardo; Estanqueiro, Ana; Estanqueiro, Ana

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the optimal sizing and scheduling of isolated hybrid systems using an optimization framework. The hybrid system features wind and photovoltaic conversion systems, batteries and diesel backup generators to supply electricity demand. A Mixed-Integer Linear Programming formulation is used to model system behavior over a time horizon of one year, considering hourly changes in both the availability of renewable resources and energy demand. The optimal solution is achieved with respect to the minimization of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) over a lifetime of 20 years. Results for a case study show that the most economical solution features all four postulated subsystems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission reduction potentials of renewable energy--case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yu-Ming; Fukushima, Yasuhiro

    2009-03-01

    To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the reduction potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the emission reduction potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic reduction of carbon dioxide emission induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study.

  5. Good exemplary projects in the field of photovoltaics; Goede voorbeeldprojecten op PV-gebied

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goud, J.; Alsema, E.; Nuiten, P. [W/E Adviseurs, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study is to identify the main features of several appealing PV projects in the Netherlands. It involves both technical and organizational and financial characteristics for the various phases from initiative to implementation and use and management. The second goal is to extract lessons from the collected information for future initiators or investors and managers of PV installations. The findings of the study are presented in this report, and the data collected will be published in the form of a database on the website of the Foundation Monitoring Solar Electricity ('Stichting Monitoring Zonnestroom') [Dutch] Doel van dit onderzoek is het inventariseren van de belangrijkste kenmerken van meerdere aansprekende PV-projecten in Nederland. Het gaat om zowel technische als organisatorische en financiele kenmerken, voor de verschillende fasen van initiatief tot realisatie en gebruik en beheer. Het tweede doel is het uit de verzamelde informatie destilleren van lessen voor toekomstige initiatiefnemers of investeerders en beheerders van PV-installaties. De bevindingen van het onderzoek worden vastgelegd in deze rapportage, de verzamelde informatie wordt openbaar gemaakt in de vorm van een database op de website van Stichting Monitoring Zonnestroom.

  6. Photovoltaic (PV) Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; Wiser, R.; Darghouth, N.; Goodrich, A.

    2012-11-01

    This report helps to clarify the confusion surrounding different estimates of system pricing by distinguishing between past, current, and near-term projected estimates. It also discusses the different methodologies and factors that impact the estimated price of a PV system, such as system size, location, technology, and reporting methods.These factors, including timing, can have a significant impact on system pricing.

  7. Task 9: deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. Sources of financing for PV-based rural electrification in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Syngellakis, K. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom); Shanker, A. [Innovation Energie Developpement, IED, Francheville (France)

    2004-05-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at how PV-based rural electrification in developing countries can be financed. The objective of Task 9 is to increase the overall rate of successful deployment of PV systems in developing countries through increased co-operation and information exchange. This document provides an introduction to PV project financing, including funding sources available, strategies and planning needed to secure the necessary financial resources for the deployment of PV technologies in developing and transitional economies. Topics discussed include risk analysis and the barriers to financing, sources of financing, considerations and variables that influence financing decisions and the process for securing financing. Various forms of international and national financing are looked at, as are the factors influencing financing decisions.

  8. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - Programme design, planning and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Oldach, R.; Wilshaw, A. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the design, planning and implementation of PV programmes. The guide contains details on the preparation for PV programmes, including the assessment of needs, stakeholder consultation, social context analysis, supply options and national policy considerations. The establishment of goals, delivery modes, timelines, logistics and quality assurance are discussed. Further, the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of PV programmes is discussed, as are a number of methodologies that have been developed with the aim of improving programme design and implementation. The guide highlights issues pertinent to rural energy programmes in developing countries and leads programme administrators through the process of planning, implementing and evaluating a PV programme.

  9. Optimal sizing of a hybrid grid-connected photovoltaic and wind power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Arnau; Riba, Jordi-Roger; Rius, Antoni; Puig, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid renewable energy systems are efficient mechanisms to generate electrical power. • This work optimally sizes hybrid grid-connected photovoltaic–wind power systems. • It deals with hourly wind, solar irradiation and electricity demand data. • The system cost is minimized while matching the electricity supply with the demand. • A sensitivity analysis to detect the most critical design variables has been done. - Abstract: Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) have been widely identified as an efficient mechanism to generate electrical power based on renewable energy sources (RES). This kind of energy generation systems are based on the combination of one or more RES allowing to complement the weaknesses of one with strengths of another and, therefore, reducing installation costs with an optimized installation. To do so, optimization methodologies are a trendy mechanism because they allow attaining optimal solutions given a certain set of input parameters and variables. This work is focused on the optimal sizing of hybrid grid-connected photovoltaic–wind power systems from real hourly wind and solar irradiation data and electricity demand from a certain location. The proposed methodology is capable of finding the sizing that leads to a minimum life cycle cost of the system while matching the electricity supply with the local demand. In the present article, the methodology is tested by means of a case study in which the actual hourly electricity retail and market prices have been implemented to obtain realistic estimations of life cycle costs and benefits. A sensitivity analysis that allows detecting to which variables the system is more sensitive has also been performed. Results presented show that the model responds well to changes in the input parameters and variables while providing trustworthy sizing solutions. According to these results, a grid-connected HRES consisting of photovoltaic (PV) and wind power technologies would be

  10. Photovoltaic energy congress 'PV Industry Forum 2008' of Munich. Looking for new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The debate between scientists and investors about photovoltaic conversion remains dominated by the silicon shortage and by replacement solutions that should allow the world market to maintain its strong growth. Thin film, concentrators and trackers are the three processes put forward, alone, or more and more combined with each others. This article presents the German context of photovoltaic power, the world market status, the German industry as world leader in this domain, and the technology advances in thin films, optical concentration, and tracking. (J.S.)

  11. A Multiobjective Robust Scheduling Optimization Mode for Multienergy Hybrid System Integrated by Wind Power, Solar Photovoltaic Power, and Pumped Storage Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power plant (WPP, photovoltaic generators (PV, cell-gas turbine (CGT, and pumped storage power station (PHSP are integrated into multienergy hybrid system (MEHS. Firstly, this paper presents MEHS structure and constructs a scheduling model with the objective functions of maximum economic benefit and minimum power output fluctuation. Secondly, in order to relieve the uncertainty influence of WPP and PV on system, robust stochastic theory is introduced to describe uncertainty and propose a multiobjective stochastic scheduling optimization mode by transforming constraint conditions with uncertain variables. Finally, a 9.6 MW WPP, a 6.5 MW PV, three CGT units, and an upper reservoir with 10 MW·h equivalent capacity are chosen as simulation system. The results show MEHS system can achieve the best operation result by using the multienergy hybrid generation characteristic. PHSP could shave peak and fill valley of load curve by optimizing pumping storage and inflowing generating behaviors based on the load supply and demand status and the available power of WPP and PV. Robust coefficients can relieve the uncertainty of WPP and PV and provide flexible scheduling decision tools for decision-makers with different risk attitudes by setting different robust coefficients, which could maximize economic benefits and minimize operation risks at the same time.

  12. Generating systems: PV modules. Interconnections, operation and installation. The photovoltaic generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzo, E.

    1992-01-01

    A method to predict the electrical performances of a photovoltaic generator, at any operation mode, is given. Data are taken from manufactures catalogues and assuming all the cells identical. On the other hand, it is demonstrated the necessity to attach the modules following determined rules to minimize dispersion losses and use diodes to avoid the formation of hot spots

  13. Analysis of the Photovoltaic Market 2001. Cost of PV Components and Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balenzategui Manzanares, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    This document tries to study the development and evolution of the photovoltaic market at a national and international scale, and to analyse its current status at the end of 2001. The paper broaches the study from different points of view. At the first step, the actual great expansion of the global market is analysed by means of the data for international sales and shipments of photovoltaic modules, which are completed with figures of the main countries and manufacturing companies involved in the market, the end-use applications, the installed power per country, the technologies used and the evolution of the cost of the modules. By using the same kind of parameters, the particular conditions of the Spanish market is then analysed, and the current national norms and plans for promotion and their short term perspectives are reviewed and discussed. As a complementary aspect, a simple cost analysis of the main components of a photovoltaic system in the Spanish market is carried out, together with the costs of complete installations. The average values for components and systems are obtained and are compared with those from preceding years. These data allow evaluating in practice how the global situation is reflected in the final cost of the photovoltaic devices for consumers. (Author) 56 refs

  14. Review on the Recent Developments of Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC Based Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkepli Afzam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T system emerged as one of the convenient type of renewable energy system acquire the ability to generate power and thermal energy in the absence of moving parts. However, the power output of PV/T is intermittent due to dependency on solar irradiation condition. Furthermore, its efficiency decreases because of cells instability at high temperature. On the other hand, fuel cell co-generation system (CGS is another technology that can generate power and heat simultaneously. Integration of PV/T and fuel cell CGS could enhance the reliability and sustainability of both systems as well as increasing the overall system performance. Hence, this paper intended to present the parameters that affect performance of PV/T and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC CGS. Moreover, recent developments on PV/T-fuel cell hybrid system are also presented. Based on literates, mass flow rate of moving fluid in PV/T was found to affect the system efficiency. For the PEMFC, when the heat is utilized, the system performance can be increased where the heat efficiency is similar to electrical efficiency which is about 50%. Recent developments of hybrid PV/T and fuel cell show that most of the studies only focus on the power generation of the system. There are less study on the both power and heat utilization which is indeed necessary in future development in term of operation strategy, optimization of size, and operation algorithm.

  15. U.S. Residential Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices, Q4 2013 Benchmarks: Cash Purchase, Fair Market Value, and Prepaid Lease Transaction Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.; James, T. L.; Margolis, R.; Fu, R.; Feldman, D.

    2014-10-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. This report provides a Q4 2013 update for residential PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variation in business models, labor rates, and module choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.29/W for modeled standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon residential PV systems installed in the United States. This is a 46% decline from the 2013-dollar-adjusted price reported in the Q4 2010 benchmark report. In addition, this report frames the cash purchase price in the context of key price metrics relevant to the continually evolving landscape of third-party-owned PV systems by benchmarking the minimum sustainable lease price and the fair market value of residential PV systems.

  16. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) integrated with earth to air heat exchanger (EAHE) for space heating/cooling of adobe house in New Delhi (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chel, Arvind; Tiwari, G.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with an experimental outdoor annual performance evaluation of 2.32 kW P photovoltaic (PV) power system located at solar energy park in New Delhi composite climatic conditions. This PV system operates the daily electrical load nearly 10 kW h/day which comprises of various applications such as electric air blower of an earth to air heat exchanger (EAHE) used for heating/cooling of adobe house, ceiling fan, fluorescent tube-light, computer, submersible water pump, etc. The outdoor efficiencies, power generated and lost in PV system components were determined using hourly experimental measured data for 1 year on typical clear day in each month. These realistic data are useful for design engineers for outdoor assessment of PV system components. The energy conservation, mitigation of CO 2 emission and carbon credit potential of the existing PV integrated EAHE system is presented in this paper. Also, the energy payback time (EPBT) and unit cost of electricity were determined for both stand-alone PV (SAPV) and building roof integrated PV (BIPV) systems.

  17. Analysis and Monitoring Results of a Building Integrated Photovoltaic Façade Using PV Ceramic Tiles in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chieh Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal silicon-based solar cells laminated with tempered-glass and ceramic tiles for use in a building’s façade have been developed. The optical, thermal, and electrical properties of the proposed PV module are first evaluated, and then a wind-resistance test is carried out to evaluate the feasibility of installing it in Taiwan. The electrical and deflection characteristics of the proposed PV module did not change significantly after a 50 thermal cycling test and a 200-hour humidity-freeze test, based on IEC 61215 and a wind-resistance test. Finally, the electrical power generation ability of the proposed BIPV system with 1 kWp electrical power capacity was examined. Building information modeling software tools were used to simulate the BIPV system and carry out the energy analysis. The simulation results show a very consistent trend with regard to the actual monthly electricity production of the BIPV system designed in this work. The BIPV system was able to produce an accumulative electrical power of 185 kWh during the 6-month experimental period. In addition, the exterior temperature of the demonstration house was about 10°C lower than the surface of the BIPV system, which could reduce indoor temperature.

  18. LPV model for PV cell and fractional control of DC/DC converter for photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez González, Rubén; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Grau Saldes, Antoni; Martínez García, Herminio

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the fractional modelling of a DC-DC converter, suitable in solar-powered electrical generation systems, and the design of a fractional controller for the aforementioned switching converter. A new model for PV cells is proposed in order to obtain a linear equation for V-I characteristic via scheduling dependence of temperature and irradiance. Due to the fractional nature of the ultracapacitors this kind of controller gives a suitable and good performance. Peer Reviewed

  19. LPV model for PV cells and fractional control of DC/DC converter for photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez González, Rubén; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Grau Saldes, Antoni; Martínez García, Herminio

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the fractional modelling of a DC-DC converter, suitable in solar-powered electrical generation systems, and the design of a fractional controller for the aforementioned switching converter. A new model for PV cells is proposed in order to obtain a linear equation for VI characteristic via scheduling dependence of temperature and irradiance. Due to the fractional nature of the ultracapacitors this kind of controller gives a suitable and good performance. Peer Rev...

  20. Large-scale integration of optimal combinations of PV, wind and wave power into the electricity supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of analyses of large-scale integration of wind power, photo voltaic (PV) and wave power into a Danish reference energy system. The possibility of integrating Renewable Energy Sources (RES) into the electricity supply is expressed in terms of the ability to avoid...... ancillary services are needed in order to secure the electricity supply system. The idea is to benefit from the different patterns in the fluctuations of different renewable sources. And the purpose is to identify optimal mixtures from a technical point of view. The optimal mixture seems to be when onshore...... wind power produces approximately 50% of the total electricity production from RES. Meanwhile, the mixture between PV and wave power seems to depend on the total amount of electricity production from RES. When the total RES input is below 20% of demand, PV should cover 40% and wave power only 10%. When...

  1. Schemes for photovoltaic-wind electrification in rural areas of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzeh, A.; Kaadan, M.

    2004-01-01

    The electricity authority has, over the years, connected most of population to the electric grid. But for very small villages (2000 villages which are yet to be electrified) and newly established Bedouins settlements (80,000 Bedouin families), the cost of grid connections would be high. The purpose of this paper is to propose planning schemes for off-grid hybrid PV-wind power systems that are suitable for energy requirements and general conditions of Syrian remote small villages. A case study will be introduced where a village with 25 houses and a school is to be supplied by hybrid PV-wind AC systems. The paper presents first a survey and operation evaluation of the PV power systems installed in Syria. Three types of stand-alone PV electrification systems (centralized, individual DC and individual AC systems) with a total capacity of about 100 kW were installed in Syria. Furthermore, the paper presents a summary of the renewable energy development plans, especially PV and PV hybrid systems, included in the renewable energy master plan that was recently performed for Syria. The master plan suggests activities to develop wind, bio-energy, solar, hydro and hybrid systems, which will provide heat and power to Syrian energy needs until 2010. (authors)

  2. PV-hybrid and mini-grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the 5th European PV-hybrid and mini-grid conference 29th and 30th April, 2010 in Tarragona (Spain) the following lectures were held: (1) Overview of IEA PVPS Task 11 PV-hybrid systems within mini grids; (2) Photovoltaic revolution for deployment in developing countries; (3) Legal and financial conditions for the sustainable operation of mini-grids; (4) EU instruments to promote renewable energies in developing countries; (5) PV hybridization of diesel electricity generators: Conditions of profitability and examples in differential power and storage size ranges; (6) Education suit of designing PV hybrid systems; (7) Sustainable renewable energy projects for intelligent rural electrification in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam; (8) Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV systems, diesel generators and electric grid (Case studies: Emnazeil and Atouf villages); (9) Technical, economical and sustainability considerations of a solar PV mini grid as a tool for rural electrification in Uganda; (10) Can we rate inverters for rural electrification on the basis of energy efficiency?; (11) Test procedures for MPPT charge controllers characterization; (12) Energy storage for mini-grid stabilization; (13) Redox flow batteries - Already an alternative storage solution for hybrid PV mini-grids?; (14) Control methods for PV hybrid mini-grids; (15) Partial AC-coupling in mini-grids; (15) Normative issues of small wind turbines in PV hybrid systems; (16) Communication solutions for PV hybrid systems; (17) Towards flexible control and communication of mini-grids; (18) PV/methanol fuel cell hybrid system for powering a highway security variable message board; (19) Polygeneration smartgrids: A solution for the supply of electricity, potable water and hydrogen as fuel for transportation in remote Areas; (20) Implementation of the Bronsbergen micro grid using FACDS; (21) A revisited approach for the design of PV wind hybrid systems; (22

  3. Optimal Design of Wind-PV-Diesel-Battery System using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryoatmojo, Heri; Hiyama, Takashi; Elbaset, Adel A.; Ashari, Mochamad

    Application of diesel generators to supply the load demand on isolated islands in Indonesia has widely spread. With increases in oil price and the concerns about global warming, the integration of diesel generators with renewable energy systems have become an attractive energy sources for supplying the load demand. This paper performs an optimal design of integrated system involving Wind-PV-Diesel-Battery system for isolated island with CO2 emission evaluation by using genetic algorithm. The proposed system has been designed for the hybrid power generation in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia-latitude 09.30S, longitude 122.0E. From simulation results, the proposed system is able to minimize the total annual cost of the system under study and reduce CO2 emission generated by diesel generators.

  4. Smoothing out the volatility of South Africa’s wind and PV energy resources for an increased share of renewables

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, C

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available wind and PV power profiles for different spatial distributions in South Africa Generate data sets that can be used for various studies (IEP, IRP, TDP, SEA etc.) Resulting in: • Confidence in integrating higher renewables shares • Optimal mix...

  5. Composition Modeling and Equivalence of an Integrated Power Generation System of Wind, Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haohuai; TANG Yong; HOU Junxian; ZOU Jiangfeng; LIANGShuang; SU Feng

    2011-01-01

    The characteristic of wind and solar generation is random and fluctuant. In order to improve their generation performance, the integrated power generation of wind, photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage is a focus in the study. In this paper,

  6. Developing High PV Penetration Cases for Frequency Response Study of U.S. Western Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jin; Zhang, Yingchen; Veda, Santosh; Elgindy, Tarek; Liu, Yilu

    2017-04-11

    Recent large penetrations of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation and the inertial characteristics of inverter-based generation technologies have caught the attention of those in the electric power industry in the United States. This paper presents a systematic approach to developing test cases of high penetrations of PV for the Western Interconnection. First, to examine the accuracy of the base case model, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) model is validated by using measurement data from synchronized phasor measurement units. Based on the 2022 Light Spring case, we developed four high PV penetration cases for the WECC system that are of interest to the industry: 5% PV+15 % wind, 25% PV+15% wind, 45% PV+15% wind, 65% PV+15% wind). Additionally, a method to project PV is proposed that is based on collected, realistic PV distribution information, including the current and future PV power plant locations and penetrations in the WECC system. Both the utility-scale PV plant and residential rooftop PV are included in this study.

  7. Polysun. PV, wind and power-heat-cogeneration in one design tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoste, Baptiste; Wolf, Andreas; Witzig, Andreas [Vela Solaris AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Maerklin, Adrian [Envergate GmbH, Horn (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    In this article, the simulation software Polysun is presented, which by its fundamental concept favors the combination of several energy sources (e.g. PV, Solarthermal, oil/gas boiler) and consumers (heating, sanitary hot water, swimming pool) in one simulation setup. It is discussed how the state-of-the-art small wind turbines and power-heat-cogeneration shall be integrated into the simulation tool Polysun. A close collaboration between Vela Solaris and the manufacturer is important for model validation as well as for the building up of the Polysun component database. Wind measurement results are presented from the manufacturer Envergate, which is a typical partner of choice for such collaboration. The modular concept of Polysun provides the ideal basis for communicating the advantages of new hybrid systems in de-centralized electicity production both for educational purposes as well as in renewable energy system marketing and sales. Physics-based simulation and prediction of system performance helps in the decision phase and supports the implementation of modern energy efficient and/or renewable energy systems. (orig.)

  8. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. The role of quality management, hardware certification and accredited training in PV programmes in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, M. C. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Oldach, R.; Bates, J. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the role of quality management, hardware certification and accredited training in PV programmes in developing countries. The objective of this document is to provide assistance to those project developers that are interested in implementing or improving support programmes for the deployment of PV systems for rural electrification. It is to enable them to address and implement quality assurance measures, with an emphasis on management, technical and training issues and other factors that should be considered for the sustainable implementation of rural electrification programmes. It is considered important that quality also addresses the socio-economic and the socio-technical aspects of a programme concept. The authors summarise that, for a PV programme, there are three important areas of quality control to be implemented: quality management, technical standards and quality of training.

  9. Use of appliances in stand-alone PV power supply systems: problems and solutions. Task 3 use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallve, X.; Gafas, G. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (Spain); Villoz, M. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (Switzerland); Wilshaw, A. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (United Kingdom); Jacquin, P. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (France)

    2002-09-15

    In Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems (SAPV systems), special attention must be paid to the used appliances and loads. Inappropriate loads are very often the origin of PV system malfunction or failure. Start-up power peaks, or reactive power and harmonic distortion can cause system signal instability and protective devices will close the system down. A well-matched load together with a carefully selected choice of appliances can lead to significant savings in terms of reduced need for PV and electricity storage capacity. Conversely, inefficient appliances and processes, standby loads and inappropriate loads will increase the requirement for expensive PV and storage capacity. This paper presents a survey of real cases with load related problems in worldwide applications, their effect on quality and cost of the service and the solutions that were adopted and suggested alternative solutions. One of the main conclusions of the work is the importance to integrate the choice of the appliance while designing the SAPV system. (author)

  10. Energetic and exergetic performances analysis of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system tested and simulated under to Tunisian (North Africa) climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Riahi, Ali; Mehdaoui, Farah; Nouicer, Omeima; Farhat, Abdelhamid

    2016-01-01

    The endeavor of this paper is to study the potential offered by the expenditure of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system in Tunisian households. This investigation is performed according to two-folded approaches. Firstly, outdoor experiments were carried out during July 2014 for both passive and active mode. An exhaustive energy and exergy analysis was then performed to evaluate the instantaneous thermal and the electrical exergy outputs of the PV/T solar system. The results showed that the maximum instantaneous thermal and electric energy efficiency in active mode are about 50 and 15%, respectively. It was found also that the maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were about 50 and 14.8%, respectively. The second approach is the evaluation of the monthly/annual performances of the PV/T solar system under typical climate area of Tunisia by using TRNSYS program. The results showed that the active mode enhances the electric efficiency and the exergy of the PV/T system by 3 and 2.5% points, respectively. The results showed that the optimized PV/T solar system covert the major part of the hot water and the electric needs of Tunisian household's with an expected annual average gain of about 14.60 and 5.33%, respectively. An economic appraisal was performed. - Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using PV/T solar collector in Tunisian. • The maximum thermal and electric efficiencies are 50 and 15%, respectively. • The maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were 50 and 14.8%. • The results showed that the expected annual gain are 14.60 and 5.33%. • The PV/T is compared to a high quality commercial solar collectors and a PV panel.

  11. Optimal Capacity Proportion and Distribution Planning of Wind, Photovoltaic and Hydro Power in Bundled Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X.; Tang, Q.; Li, T.; Wang, Y. L.; Zhang, X.; Ye, S. Y.

    2017-05-01

    The wind, photovoltaic and hydro power bundled transmission system attends to become common in Northwest and Southwest of China. To make better use of the power complementary characteristic of different power sources, the installed capacity proportion of wind, photovoltaic and hydro power, and their capacity distribution for each integration node is a significant issue to be solved in power system planning stage. An optimal capacity proportion and capacity distribution model for wind, photovoltaic and hydro power bundled transmission system is proposed here, which considers the power out characteristic of power resources with different type and in different area based on real operation data. The transmission capacity limit of power grid is also considered in this paper. Simulation cases are tested referring to one real regional system in Southwest China for planning level year 2020. The results verify the effectiveness of the model in this paper.

  12. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2011; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique - Troisieme trimestre 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thienard, Helene

    2011-11-15

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, projects in progress, regional status. (J.S.)

  13. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Fourth quarter 2009; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. Quatrieme trimestre 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-02-15

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  14. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Fourth quarter 2011; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique - Quatrieme trimestre 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thienard, Helene

    2012-02-15

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, projects in progress, regional status. (J.S.)

  15. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2010; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. troisieme trimestre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  16. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2011; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. Deuxieme trimestre 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  17. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2009; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. troisieme trimestre 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  18. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2009; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. Deuxieme trimestre 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  19. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. First quarter 2011; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. Premier trimestre 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  20. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2010; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. Deuxieme trimestre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  1. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. First quarter 2010; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. Premier trimestre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  2. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Fourth quarter 2010; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. Quatrieme trimestre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  3. The Recent Change in the Italian Policies for Photovoltaics: Effects on the Energy Demand Coverage of Grid-Connected PV Systems Installed in Urban Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Orioli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In July 2013, the Italian photovoltaic (PV support policies changed the feed-in tariff (FIT mechanism and turned to a tax credits program, which is currently in force. The aim of this paper is to investigate how such a radical change has influenced the electricity demand coverage of the PV systems installed in urban contexts. A methodology, which connects the economic assessment to a detailed architectural and energy suitability analysis, was applied to some case studies to analyse the relationships between the physical parameters related to multi-storey buildings (roof shapes, number of floors and area of flats and the most relevant economic and financial features affecting the viability of rooftop PV systems. The study, which considers only the electricity produced by the PV systems that are economically profitable, highlighted that the tax credits scheme is even more effective in covering the electrical consumption of densely urbanised Italian city districts. The results, which are significantly influenced by the latitude of the analysed districts, underline the opportunity for governments to adopt PV promoting policies that are more sensitive to the amount of solar energy available in the different regions of their national territory.

  4. Integration of renewables and reverse osmosis desalination – Case study for the Jordanian energy system with a high share of wind and photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novosel, T.; Ćosić, B.; Pukšec, T.

    2015-01-01

    and solar potential but practically no utilization with 99% of the produced electricity coming from imported fossil fuels resulting in high CO2 emissions and a potential security of supply issue. The utilization of reverse osmosis desalination in a combination with brine operated pump storage units and wind......Jordan is a country faced with several environmental and energy related issues. It is the Worlds' fourth most water deprived country with a water consumption of only 145m3 per capita annually, less than a third of the established severe water poverty line. Jordan is also a country rich in wind...... and (PV) photovoltaic plants can tackle both issues. The desalination plants can produce the much needed water and act as a flexible demand to increase the penetration of intermittent renewables supported by the brine operated pump storage units. This paper presents six scenarios for the development...

  5. Optimized Fuzzy-Cuckoo Controller for Active Power Control of Battery Energy Storage System, Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell and Wind Turbine in an Isolated Micro-Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Einan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new control strategy for isolated micro-grids including wind turbines (WT, fuel cells (FC, photo-voltaic (PV and battery energy storage systems (BESS. FC have been used in parallel with BESSs in order to increase their lifetime and efficiency. The changes in some parameters such as wind speed, sunlight, and consumption, lead to improper performance of droop. To overcome this challenge, a new intelligent method using a combination of fuzzy controller and cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA techniques for active power controllers in isolated networks is proposed. In this paper, COA is compared with genetic algorithm (GA and particles swarm optimization algorithm (PSO. In order to show efficiency of the proposed controller, this optimal controller has been compared with droop, optimized droop, and conventional fuzzy methods, the dynamic analysis of the island is implemented to assess the behavior of isolated generations accurately and simulation results are reported.

  6. Forces and Moments on Flat Plates of Small Aspect Ratio with Application to PV Wind Loads and Small Wind Turbine Blades

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Ortiz; David Rival; David Wood

    2015-01-01

    To improve knowledge of the wind loads on photovoltaic structures mounted on flat roofs at the high angles required in high latitudes, and to study starting flow on low aspect ratio wind turbine blades, a series of wind tunnel tests were undertaken. Thin flat plates of aspect ratios between 0.4 and 9.0 were mounted on a sensitive three-component instantaneous force and moment sensor. The Reynolds numbers varied from 6 × 10 4 to 2 × 10 5 . Measurements were made for angles of attack between 0°...

  7. Feasibility Study of Standalone PV-Wind-Diesel Energy Systems for Coastal Residential Application in Pekan, Pahang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailan Roziah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Techno economic study is feasible to optimize the usage of renewable energy components that targeting low cost of electricity generation system. The selected case study area is coastal area in Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia. The autonomous system designed in this study is hybrid standalone PV-wind-diesel energy system to fulfil a basic power demand of 20.1 kWh/day. Such power system was designed and optimized further to meet the power demand at a minimum cost of energy using energy optimization software, Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER. The analysis focused on the operational characteristics and economics. The standalone PV-wind-diesel energy system has total net present cost about $61, 911 with cost of energy $0.66/kWh. Apparently, the generation of electricity from both wind turbine and PV can be inflated with the diesel generator. In comparison, return of investment (ROI value turned out lower for Feed in Tariff (FIT as compared to self-sustained house. Payback period also longer for FIT program that makes the selling back of electricity generated to Tenaga National Berhad (TNB is considered not favourable.

  8. Technical and economic analysis of grid-connected PV/Wind energy stations in the Republic of Serbia under varying climatic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bakić, Vukman V.; Pezo, Milada L.; Stojković, Saša M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper technical and economic analysis of grid-connected PV/Wind energy systems located in the Republic of Serbia are presented. The technical and economic data, of the various grid-connected PV/Wind hybrid energy systems for three different locations: Novi Sad, Belgrade and Kopaonik, using the transient simulations software TRNSYS and HOMER were obtained. The results obtained in this paper show that locations and technical characteristics of the energy systems have an important influe...

  9. Technical performance of the Villas Carrousel PV-Wind hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano, J.; Munguia, G.; Flores, J. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Fifteen PV-Wind mini Hybrid Systems were installed at the Villas Carrousel Hotel. The first twelve were installed in December 1995. The remainder were installed during January 1997. The energy produced by the systems is used to provide the hotel illumination. Monitoring of the system`s performance has been carried out since 1996. Each system is integrated by a wind generator (Avispa) rated at 500 W, a PV array ranging from 150 to 320 Wp, an electronic control and a battery bank with capacities from 585 up to 780 Ah. The systems operate at 12 VDC and the energy produced is used through 12 V, 13 Watt high efficiency fluorescent lamps. The systems were designed to produce 140-180 Ah/day. During the first months of operation. Some problems arised with the battery voltage measurement. This parameter was formerly measured at the DC bus car of the control board. Some corrosion problems were detected there. This problem caused the undercharging of the battery banks, and in several cases abnormal operation of the wind generators were observed. In general the systems produce the energy demanded by the load. This first experience is helping to promote the Mini Hybrid technology in other applications. This paper presents some results from the system monitoring for the first year of operation that gives a general idea of the system performance. [Espanol] En el Hotel Villas Carrousel se instalaron 15 sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos-viento. Los primeros doce se instalaron en diciembre de 1995. Los restantes se instalaron durante el mes de enero de 1997. La energia producida por los sistemas se usa para proporcionar la iluminacion del hotel. El monitoreo del rendimiento del sistema se ha llevado a cabo desde 1966. Cada sistema esta integrado por un aerogenerador (Avispa) con capacidad nominal de 500 W, en un arreglo fotovoltaico que varia de 150 a 320 Wp, un control electronico y un banco de baterias con capacidades desde 585 hasta 780 Ampere-horas. Los sistemas operan a 12 VCD y

  10. Technical performance of the Villas Carrousel PV-Wind hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano, J; Munguia, G; Flores, J R [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Fifteen PV-Wind mini Hybrid Systems were installed at the Villas Carrousel Hotel. The first twelve were installed in December 1995. The remainder were installed during January 1997. The energy produced by the systems is used to provide the hotel illumination. Monitoring of the system`s performance has been carried out since 1996. Each system is integrated by a wind generator (Avispa) rated at 500 W, a PV array ranging from 150 to 320 Wp, an electronic control and a battery bank with capacities from 585 up to 780 Ah. The systems operate at 12 VDC and the energy produced is used through 12 V, 13 Watt high efficiency fluorescent lamps. The systems were designed to produce 140-180 Ah/day. During the first months of operation. Some problems arised with the battery voltage measurement. This parameter was formerly measured at the DC bus car of the control board. Some corrosion problems were detected there. This problem caused the undercharging of the battery banks, and in several cases abnormal operation of the wind generators were observed. In general the systems produce the energy demanded by the load. This first experience is helping to promote the Mini Hybrid technology in other applications. This paper presents some results from the system monitoring for the first year of operation that gives a general idea of the system performance. [Espanol] En el Hotel Villas Carrousel se instalaron 15 sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos-viento. Los primeros doce se instalaron en diciembre de 1995. Los restantes se instalaron durante el mes de enero de 1997. La energia producida por los sistemas se usa para proporcionar la iluminacion del hotel. El monitoreo del rendimiento del sistema se ha llevado a cabo desde 1966. Cada sistema esta integrado por un aerogenerador (Avispa) con capacidad nominal de 500 W, en un arreglo fotovoltaico que varia de 150 a 320 Wp, un control electronico y un banco de baterias con capacidades desde 585 hasta 780 Ampere-horas. Los sistemas operan a 12 VCD y

  11. Compressive spatio-temporal forecasting of meteorological quantities and photovoltaic power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tascikaraoglu, A.; Sanandaji, B.M.; Chicco, G.; Cocina, V.; Spertino, F.; Erdinç, O.; Paterakis, N.G.; Catalaõ, J.P.S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a solar power forecasting scheme, which uses spatial and temporal time series data along with a photovoltaic (PV) power conversion model. The PV conversion model uses the forecast of three different variables, namely, irradiance on the tilted plane, ambient temperature, and wind

  12. Stability analysis of grid inverter LCL-filter resonance in wind or photovoltaic parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcuri, S.; Liserre, M.; Ricchiuto, D.

    2011-01-01

    Typically the resonance problems related to the use of LCL-filters in grid connected inverters are analyzed assuming the operation of a single inverter. Wind and photovoltaic parks may experience propagation of resonance from a poorly damped inverter to other systems connected in parallel....... The paper focuses on the study of the resonance at a park system level with simulations and experimental results....

  13. Wind loads on stand-off photovoltaic systems on pitched roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Blackmore, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Stand-off photovoltaic systems are a popular measure for retrofitting of existing pitched roofs. Panels are generally mounted parallel to the existing roof coverings, usually roofing tiles. Full scale and wind tunnel experiments have been performed to determine the net uplift loads on these systems,

  14. Modelling and control of a microgrid including photovoltaic and wind generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mohammed Touseef

    Extensive increase of distributed generation (DG) penetration and the existence of multiple DG units at distribution level have introduced the notion of micro-grid. This thesis develops a detailed non-linear and small-signal dynamic model of a microgrid that includes PV, wind and conventional small scale generation along with their power electronics interfaces and the filters. The models developed evaluate the amount of generation mix from various DGs for satisfactory steady state operation of the microgrid. In order to understand the interaction of the DGs on microgrid system initially two simpler configurations were considered. The first one consists of microalternator, PV and their electronics, and the second system consists of microalternator and wind system each connected to the power system grid. Nonlinear and linear state space model of each microgrid are developed. Small signal analysis showed that the large participation of PV/wind can drive the microgrid to the brink of unstable region without adequate control. Non-linear simulations are carried out to verify the results obtained through small-signal analysis. The role of the extent of generation mix of a composite microgrid consisting of wind, PV and conventional generation was investigated next. The findings of the smaller systems were verified through nonlinear and small signal modeling. A central supervisory capacitor energy storage controller interfaced through a STATCOM was proposed to monitor and enhance the microgrid operation. The potential of various control inputs to provide additional damping to the system has been evaluated through decomposition techniques. The signals identified to have damping contents were employed to design the supervisory control system. The controller gains were tuned through an optimal pole placement technique. Simulation studies demonstrate that the STATCOM voltage phase angle and PV inverter phase angle were the best inputs for enhanced stability boundaries.

  15. High index glass thin film processing for photonics and photovoltaic (PV) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuu, Okechukwu Anthony

    To favorably compete with fossil-fuel technology, the greatest challenge for thin film solar-cells is to improve efficiency and reduce material cost. Thickness scaling to thin film reduces material cost but affects the light absorption in the cells; therefore a concept that traps incident photons and increases its optical path length is needed to boost absorption in thin film solar cells. One approach is the integration of low symmetric gratings (LSG), using high index material, on either the front-side or backside of 30 um thin c-Si cells. In this study, Multicomponent TeO2--Bi2O 3--ZnO (TBZ) glass thin films were prepared using RF magnetron sputtering under different oxygen flow rates. The influences of oxygen flow rate on the structural and optical properties of the resulting thin films were investigated. The structural origin of the optical property variation was studied using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that TBZ glass thin film is a suitable material for front side LSG material photovoltaic and photonics applications due to their amorphous nature, high refractive index (n > 2), broad band optical transparency window, low processing temperature. We developed a simple maskless method to pattern sputtered tellurite based glass thin films using unconventional agarose hydrogel mediated wet etching. Conventional wet etching process, while claiming low cost and high throughput, suffers from reproducibility and pattern fidelity issues due to the isotropic nature of wet chemical etching when applied to glasses and polymers. This method overcomes these challenges by using an agarose hydrogel stamp to mediate a conformal etching process. In our maskless method, agarose hydrogel stamps are patterned following a standard soft lithography and replica molding process from micropatterned masters and soaked in a chemical etchant. The micro-scale features on the stamp are

  16. The effectiveness of small scale Photovoltaic (PV) systems design and cost analysis simulation on Saudi Arabian Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansour, Faris Abdullah

    The advantages of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are much more than the disadvantages, RES such as solar, wind energy, biomass, and geothermal, which can be used for generating distributed power but cannot directly replace the existing electric energy grid technologies. The latter are far too well established to abandon, while the new RES technologies are not sufficiently developed to meet the total energy demand. Therefore, it is sensible to gradually infuse RES into existing grids and transform the system over time Saudi Arabia (SA) is a semi-developed nation with a population of over twenty nine million people. It is the largest country in western Asia with an area of 2.225MKm2. SA's largest export is oil, owning 1/5 of the world's supply, and producing twelve million barrels a day. However, SA is far behind in developing a smart grid and RES. A lot of this is to do with lack of participation by both the government and the private business sector. Currently SA spends over $13B a year on generating electricity from oil. SA is the largest consumer of petroleum in the Middle East, due to the high demand for transportation and electricity generation. According to the Saudi electrical company, the total amount of generated power in 2011 was 190.280GW. In addition, SA's electricity consumption is currently growing 8% a year. SA aims to generate 55GW of renewable energy by 2020, in order to free up fossil fuels for export. 41GW of the 55GW will be generated from solar energy. Smart grid technologies are also under consideration in SA; this will allow an efficient and reliable way to control the energy in the future. In addition, the potential for wind and geothermal energy is very high. In this thesis, there is a full exploration of RES components which are critical to manage carbon emission and the limitations of the current grid to the new RES technologies, which face barriers to full-scale deployment. A study in Dhahran, SA has been simulated on a installing a Dual

  17. Data book on new energy technology development in FY 1997. Photovoltaic (PV) power generation; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Taiyoko hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of understanding the present status of photovoltaic power system (PVPS) and supporting its promotion, various data were collected. The significance of adopting PV power technology was specified for customers of various levels, such as nation, local communities, industries and individual households, to clarify the CO2 reduction effect and energy pay-back time. Data illustrate the solar cell production according to region, cell types, industries, applications, production value, and market price. Policies for PVPS in industrial countries were compared with those in Japan. Distribution of PVPS in various countries was compared with that in Japan in respect to installations and purposes of the introduction of PVPS. Financial aid programs such as subsidies, tax benefits and loans for the installation of PVPS in Japan were listed. The trend of PV-related budget of MITI was shown with every project`s description. Steps of introducing PVPS from plan to installation were depicted in the form of flow chart. Were shown measures sponsored by the government or local organizations to promote PVPS. Domestic and foreign firms related to PVPS including PV module suppliers, and PV installation contractors were listed

  18. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar System with Different Cooling Methods and a Bi-Reflector PV System (BRPVS: An Experimental Study and Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adil Khan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the price of solar photovoltaic (PV systems has been a constant challenge. Despite recent advances, solar PV systems are still more costly than conventional energy resources. For the first time, this study examines the effectiveness of three different structures/materials: (i silvered glass plane mirror; (ii convex spherical mirrors; and (iii aluminum (Al foil as reflector. Comparative analysis of four different cooling techniques, i.e., water sprinkling system, passive heat sink method, active air fan method, and closed loop method, for enhancement of output power was performed. A novel Bi reflector solar PV system (BRPVS was suggested to control the working of the reflectors. The Al foil enhanced the power output compared to the others. In addition, the effect of using a reflector on the temperature of a solar PV system was studied. High operating temperatures resulted in a decrease in the maximum output power under the same solar radiation conditions. The combined enhancement of the output power by both Al foil BRPVS system and cooling system was almost 22.75–38.55%. An optimal control algorithm to use cooling and BRPVS in an efficient manner is described.

  19. Photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Jason A; Keenihan, James R; Gaston, Ryan S; Kauffmann, Keith L; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo; Maak, Kevin D; Mills, Michael E; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R

    2017-03-21

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  20. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  1. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  2. Wind tunnel study of natural ventilation of building integrated photovoltaics double skin façade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudişteanu Sebastian Valeriu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a wind tunnel experimental analysis of a small-scale building model (1:30. The objective of the study is to determine the wind influence on the ventilation of a double skin façade channel (DSF and the cooling effect over integrated photovoltaic panels. The tests were achieved by conceiving and implementation of an experimental program using a wind tunnel with atmospheric boundary layer. The effect of the wind over the ventilation of the horizontal channels of double skin façades is evaluated for different incident velocities. The results are generalized for the average steady state values of the velocities analysed. The experimental results put in evidence the correlation between the reference wind velocity and the dynamics of the air movement inside the double skin façade. These values are used to determine the convective heat transfer and the cooling effect of the air streams inside the channel upon the integrated photovoltaic panels. The decrease of the photovoltaic panels temperature determines a raise of 11% in efficiency and power generated.

  3. Wind tunnel study of natural ventilation of building integrated photovoltaics double skin façade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudişteanu, Sebastian Valeriu; Popovici, Cătălin George; Cherecheş, Nelu-Cristian

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents a wind tunnel experimental analysis of a small-scale building model (1:30). The objective of the study is to determine the wind influence on the ventilation of a double skin façade channel (DSF) and the cooling effect over integrated photovoltaic panels. The tests were achieved by conceiving and implementation of an experimental program using a wind tunnel with atmospheric boundary layer. The effect of the wind over the ventilation of the horizontal channels of double skin façades is evaluated for different incident velocities. The results are generalized for the average steady state values of the velocities analysed. The experimental results put in evidence the correlation between the reference wind velocity and the dynamics of the air movement inside the double skin façade. These values are used to determine the convective heat transfer and the cooling effect of the air streams inside the channel upon the integrated photovoltaic panels. The decrease of the photovoltaic panels temperature determines a raise of 11% in efficiency and power generated.

  4. A Software Tool for Optimal Sizing of PV Systems in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Khatib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a MATLAB based user friendly software tool called as PV.MY for optimal sizing of photovoltaic (PV systems. The software has the capabilities of predicting the metrological variables such as solar energy, ambient temperature and wind speed using artificial neural network (ANN, optimizes the PV module/ array tilt angle, optimizes the inverter size and calculate optimal capacities of PV array, battery, wind turbine and diesel generator in hybrid PV systems. The ANN based model for metrological prediction uses four meteorological variables, namely, sun shine ratio, day number and location coordinates. As for PV system sizing, iterative methods are used for determining the optimal sizing of three types of PV systems, which are standalone PV system, hybrid PV/wind system and hybrid PV/diesel generator system. The loss of load probability (LLP technique is used for optimization in which the energy sources capacities are the variables to be optimized considering very low LLP. As for determining the optimal PV panels tilt angle and inverter size, the Liu and Jordan model for solar energy incident on a tilt surface is used in optimizing the monthly tilt angle, while a model for inverter efficiency curve is used in the optimization of inverter size.

  5. Ensemble Data Assimilation of Wind and Photovoltaic Power Information in the Convection-permitting High-Resolution Model COSMO-DE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declair, Stefan; Saint-Drenan, Yves-Marie; Potthast, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Determining the amount of weather dependent renewable energy is a demanding task for transmission system operators (TSOs) and wind and photovoltaic (PV) prediction errors require the use of reserve power, which generate costs and can - in extreme cases - endanger the security of supply. In the project EWeLiNE funded by the German government, the German Weather Service and the Fraunhofer Institute on Wind Energy and Energy System Technology develop innovative weather- and power forecasting models and tools for grid integration of weather dependent renewable energy. The key part in energy prediction process chains is the numerical weather prediction (NWP) system. Wind speed and irradiation forecast from NWP system are however subject to several sources of error. The quality of the wind power prediction is mainly penalized by forecast error of the NWP model in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which is characterized by high spatial and temporal fluctuations of the wind speed. For PV power prediction, weaknesses of the NWP model to correctly forecast i.e. low stratus, the absorption of condensed water or aerosol optical depth are the main sources of errors. Inaccurate radiation schemes (i.e. the two-stream parametrization) are also known as a deficit of NWP systems with regard to irradiation forecast. To mitigate errors like these, NWP model data can be corrected by post-processing techniques such as model output statistics and calibration using historical observational data. Additionally, latest observations can be used in a pre-processing technique called data assimilation (DA). In DA, not only the initial fields are provided, but the model is also synchronized with reality - the observations - and hence the model error is reduced in the forecast. Besides conventional observation networks like radiosondes, synoptic observations or air reports of wind, pressure and humidity, the number of observations measuring meteorological information indirectly such as satellite

  6. Stochastic energy procurement of large electricity consumer considering photovoltaic, wind-turbine, micro-turbines, energy storage system in the presence of demand response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojavan, Sayyad; Aalami, Habib allah

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic energy procurement cost function in presence of DRP is proposed. • The load, price and output power of PV and wind uncertainties are modeled. • Four case studies are used to assess the effects of ESS and DRP on SEPP. • Case 4 is considered the effects of ESS and DRP simultaneously. • The expected energy procurement cost of case 4 is lower than cases 1, 2 and 3. - Abstract: This paper proposes a stochastic energy procurement problem (SEPP) for large electricity consumer (LEC) with multiple energy procurement sources (EPSs) considering the effects of demand response program (DRP) and energy storage system (ESS). The EPSs contain power market (PM), bilateral contracts (BCs), micro-turbines (MTs), and renewable energy sources (RESs). Moreover, the RESs include photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind-turbines (WT). The ESS and DRP are incorporated in the SEPP by the LEC’s decision-maker to reduce the expected energy procurement cost (EEPC). Meanwhile, the uncertainty models of market price, load and RES output power are considered in the SEPP formulation. The error of forecasting of market price, load, temperature and radiation of PV systems are modeled using the normal distribution for generating the related scenarios. Also, the weibull distribution is used to generate variable wind speed scenarios for WT output power uncertainty modeling. Furthermore, the fast forward selection based on Kantorovich distance approach is used for the scenarios reduction. Finally, the influences of ESS and DRP on EEPC are investigated, and four case studies are used to illustrate the capability of the proposed SEPP. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed stochastic program

  7. Byproduct metal requirements for U.S. wind and solar photovoltaic electricity generation up to the year 2040 under various Clean Power Plan scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Nedal T.; Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    The United States has and will likely continue to obtain an increasing share of its electricity from solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind power, especially under the Clean Power Plan (CPP). The need for additional solar PV modules and wind turbines will, among other things, result in greater demand for a number of minor metals that are produced mainly or only as byproducts. In this analysis, the quantities of 11 byproduct metals (Ag, Cd, Te, In, Ga, Se, Ge, Nd, Pr, Dy, and Tb) required for wind turbines with rare-earth permanent magnets and four solar PV technologies are assessed through the year 2040. Three key uncertainties (electricity generation capacities, technology market shares, and material intensities) are varied to develop 42 scenarios for each byproduct metal. The results indicate that byproduct metal requirements vary significantly across technologies, scenarios, and over time. In certain scenarios, the requirements are projected to become a significant portion of current primary production. This is especially the case for Te, Ge, Dy, In, and Tb under the more aggressive scenarios of increasing market share and conservative material intensities. Te and Dy are, perhaps, of most concern given their substitution limitations. In certain years, the differences in byproduct metal requirements between the technology market share and material intensity scenarios are greater than those between the various CPP and No CPP scenarios. Cumulatively across years 2016–2040, the various CPP scenarios are estimated to require 15–43% more byproduct metals than the No CPP scenario depending on the specific byproduct metal and scenario. Increasing primary production via enhanced recovery rates of the byproduct metals during the beneficiation and enrichment operations, improving end-of-life recycling rates, and developing substitutes are important strategies that may help meet the increased demand for these byproduct metals.

  8. Comparative study to use nano-(Al2O3, CuO, and SiC) with water to enhance photovoltaic thermal PV/T collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Waeli, Ali H.A.; Chaichan, Miqdam T.; Kazem, Hussein A.; Sopian, K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three types of nanoparticles (Al 2 O 3 , CuO and SiC) were added to water which was used as a base fluid. • The resulted nanofluid was used for cooling an indoor PV/T system. • The used nanofluids improved the thermal and electrical efficiencies of the PV/T system. • The stability of nanofluids was examined for an extended period and found to be stable. • SiC nanofluid showed better thermal conductivity and stability compared with Al 2 O 3 and CuO nanofluids. - Abstract: The reduction in efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) units due to increases in cell temperature occurs when a small part of the absorbed solar radiation is converted into electricity and the remaining part is lost as heat. Recently, the addition of a range of nanomaterials with high thermal conductivity to the cooling fluid in PV/T systems has been the subject of much research. In this study, three nanomaterials were added to water as a base fluid with several volume fractions to determine the best concentration and nanoparticle for this application. The PV/T system was setup in an indoor laboratory. Knowing which material has a better effect on the PV unit in particular, and the PV/T unit in general, is important for deciding which nanomaterial is more suitable for the system. The results reveal that nanofluid gives higher thermal conductivity with very little increase in the fluid density and viscosity compared with the base fluid. The studied volume fractions were 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4% and the selected nanoparticles were Al 2 O 3 , CuO, and SiC. It was found that silicon carbide nanoparticles have the best stability and the highest thermal conductivity compared to the other two nano-substances. Copper oxide nanofluid has higher thermal conductivity than aluminium oxide but lower stability, although it was found here that this material reliably stable compared to in other studies. The nanofluid reduced the indoor PV/T system temperature and enhanced its generated power.

  9. Ideal Operation of a Photovoltaic Power Plant Equipped with an Energy Storage System on Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Markku Järvelä; Seppo Valkealahti

    2017-01-01

    There is no natural inertia in a photovoltaic (PV) generator and changes in irradiation can be seen immediately at the output power. Moving cloud shadows are the dominant reason for fast PV power fluctuations taking place typically within a minute between 20 to 100% of the clear sky value roughly 100 times a day, on average. Therefore, operating a utility scale grid connected PV power plant is challenging. Currently, in many regions, renewable energy sources such as solar and wind receive fee...

  10. Hybrid Test Bed of Wind Electric Generator with Photovoltaic Panels

    OpenAIRE

    G.D.Anbarasi Jebaselvi; S.Paramasivam

    2014-01-01

    Driven by the increasing costs of power production and decreasing fossil fuel reserves with the addition of global environmental concerns, renewable energy is now becoming significant fraction of total electricity production in the world. Advancements in the field of wind electric generator technology and power electronics help to achieve rapid progress in hybrid power system which mainly involves wind, solar and diesel energy with a good battery back-up. Here the discussion brings about the ...

  11. How do users interact with photovoltaic-powered products? Investigating 100 'lead-users' and 6 PV products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolou, G.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand how 'lead-users' interact with PV-powered products, the behaviour of 100 people interacting with six different PV-powered products in their daily life was analysed. The sample of respondents to be observed consisted of 20 groups, each one formed by five students of

  12. Power and Energy Management with Battery Storage for a Hybrid Residential PV-Wind System – A Case Study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Zaharof, Andreea; Iov, Florin

    2018-01-01

    The energy generation paradigm is shifting from centralized fossil-fuel-based generation to distributed-based renewable generation. Thus, hybrid residential energy systems based on wind turbines, PV panels and/or micro-turbines are gaining more and more terrain. Nevertheless, such a system needs...... to be coupled with an energy storage solution, most often a battery, in order to mitigate its power generation variability and to ensure a stable and reliable operation. In this work, two power and energy management strategies for a hybrid residential PV-wind system with battery energy storage were evaluated....... Simple but customized performance models for PV modules and a small wind turbine have been developed; furthermore the models have been parameterized based on real-life time-series for irradiance and wind speed, characteristic for a site in Denmark. The stress to which the battery was subjected, while...

  13. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and coal fired power

  14. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and

  15. Transient Oscillations Analysis and Modified Control Strategy for Seamless Mode Transfer in Micro-Grids: A Wind-PV-ES Hybrid System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengfei Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the micro-grid associated with new and clean energies, the smooth switching between grid-connected and islanded operation modes of the micro-grid is a key issue that needs to be addressed urgently. In traditional solutions, V/f (Voltage/frequency control is adopted for the master micro sources when the micro-grid works in islanded mode, while PQ (real and reactive power control is adopted when in grid-connected mode. However, when the two controllers switch when mode transfer occurs, transient oscillations usually occur and thereafter the dynamic response will be degraded. This paper considers an archetypical micro-grid with Wind-PV-ES (Wind, Photovoltaic and Energy Storage hybrid system, which forms the basis of our case study. The underlying reason for such transient oscillation is analyzed in this paper. Thereafter a modified control strategy for seamless mode transfer is designed and implemented. An improved PQ control method is designed by which the output of the PQ controller always synchronously tracks the output of the V/f controller for micro-grid switches from islanded mode to grid-connected; furthermore, a dq rotating coordinate synchronization based V/f control method is proposed for transition from grid-connected mode to islanded mode. Finally, experiments and analysis are undertaken on some basic and important operating cases; the results in our case study indicate that the modified control strategy is effective in dominating the micro-grid during mode transfer and thus yielding significantly better performances.

  16. Effective policies for renewable energy - the example of China's wind power - lessons for China's photovoltaic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    China, one of the global biggest emitter of CO 2 , needs promotion renewable energy to reduce air pollution from its surging fossil fuel use, and to increase its energy supply security. Renewable energy in its infancy needs policy support and market cultivation. Wind power installed capacity has boomed in recent year in China, as a series of effective support policies were adopted. In this paper, I review the main renewable energy policies regarding to China's wind power, including the Wind Power Concession Program, Renewable Energy Law, and a couple of additional laws and regulations. Such policies have effectively reduced the cost of wind power installed capacity, stimulated the localization of wind power manufacture, and driven the company investment in wind power. China is success in wind power installed capacity, however, success in wind-generated electricity has yet achieved, mainly due to the backward grid system and lack of quota system. The paper ends with the recommended best practice of the China's wind power installed capacity might be transferable to China's photovoltaic power generation. (author)

  17. Meeting the Electrical Energy Needs of a Residential Building with a Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Mohammadnezami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A complete hybrid system including a photovoltaic cell, a wind turbine, and battery is modeled to determine the best approach for sizing the system to meet the electrical energy needs of a residential building. In evaluating system performance, the city of Tehran is used as a case study. Matlab software is used for analyzing the data and optimizing the system for the given application. Further, the cost of the system design is investigated, and shows that the electrical cost of the hybrid system in Tehran is 0.62 US$/kWh, which is 78% less expensive than a wind turbine system and 34% less expensive than a photovoltaic system.

  18. Wind and Photovoltaic Large-Scale Regional Models for hourly production evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinelli, Mattia; Maule, Petr; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents two large-scale regional models used for the evaluation of normalized power output from wind turbines and photovoltaic power plants on a European regional scale. The models give an estimate of renewable production on a regional scale with 1 h resolution, starting from a mesosca...... of the transmission system, especially regarding the cross-border power flows. The tuning of these regional models is done using historical meteorological data acquired on a per-country basis and using publicly available data of installed capacity.......This work presents two large-scale regional models used for the evaluation of normalized power output from wind turbines and photovoltaic power plants on a European regional scale. The models give an estimate of renewable production on a regional scale with 1 h resolution, starting from a mesoscale...

  19. Photovoltaic research and development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV) is the direct conversion of sunlight into electrical energy through a solar cell. This presentation consists of an introduction to photovoltaics, the South African PV research roadmap, a look at the CSIR PV research and development...

  20. Photovoltaics in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietruszko, Stanislaw M.

    2003-01-01

    The legislative framework and financing possibilities for photovoltaics (PV) in Poland are presented. Barriers that exist or can be encountered in implementing PV technology in Poland are identified. This paper also discusses future prospects and possibilities for developing photovoltaics in Poland. Finally, the paper suggests ways to promote, disseminate, and deploy PV technology in Poland. (Author)

  1. Novel double-stage high-concentrated solar hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector with nonimaging optics and GaAs solar cells reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland; Yablonovitch, Eli; Scranton, Gregg; Cygan, David; Abbasi, Hamid; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hybrid concentrating photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector is developed. • Thermal component achieves 60× concentration using nonimaging optics. • GaAs solar cells used as spectrally selective mirrors for low energy photons. • Thermal efficiencies of 37% at 365 °C and electrical efficiencies of 8% achieved. • Combined electric efficiency reaches 25% of DNI for system cost of $283.10/m"2". - Abstract: A novel double stage high-concentration hybrid solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector using nonimaging optics and world record thin film single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells has been developed. We present a detailed design and simulation of the system, experimental setup, prototype, system performance, and economic analysis. The system uses a parabolic trough (primary concentrator) to focus sunlight towards a secondary nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to simultaneously generate electricity from single junction GaAs solar cells, as well as high temperature dispatchable heat. This study is novel in that (a) the solar cells inside the vacuum tube act as spectrally selective mirrors for lower energy photons to maximize the system exergy, and (b) secondary concentrator allows the thermal component to reach a concentration ratio ∼60×, which is significantly higher than conventional PV/T concentration ratios. The maximum outlet temperature reached was 365 °C, and on average the thermal efficiency of the experiment was around 37%. The maximum electrical efficiency was around 8%. The total system electricity generation is around 25% of incoming DNI, by assuming the high temperature stream is used to power a steam turbine. The installed system cost per unit of parabolic trough aperture area is $283.10 per m"2.

  2. Energy matrices evaluation and exergoeconomic analysis of series connected N partially covered (glass to glass PV module) concentrated-photovoltaic thermal collector: At constant flow rate mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Rohit; Tiwari, G.N.; Dwivedi, V.K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fluid, other than water has been chosen for achieving higher outlet temperature. • Mass flow rate and number of collector have been optimized. • Three PVT systems have been compared for evaluating annual energy and exergy. • Life cycle cost analysis has been evaluated to obtain exergetic cost. • Proposed PVT systems have been compared on the basis of energy matrices. - Abstract: In present analysis, a comparative study has been carried out to evaluate the annual performances of three systems or cases at constant flow rate, namely: case (i): partially covered (25% PV module) N concentrated photovoltaic thermal collectors connected in series, case (ii): fully covered (100% PV module) N concentrated photovoltaic thermal collectors in series and case (iii): N (0% PV module) convectional compound parabolic concentrator collector connected in series. Comparison for three cases has also been carried out by considering fluid namely: ethylene glycol for higher outlet temperature and better thermal performance which can be applicable for heating and steaming or small industry purpose. The embodied energy, energy matrices, uniform annual cost, exergetic cost and carbon credits are also evaluated for same systems. The energy payback time is found to be 5.58 years and energy production factor is to be 0.17 on energy basis for case (iii) which is maximum. The exergetic cost has computed as 17.85 Rs/kW h for 30 years of life time of the system. It is observed that N conventional compound parabolic concentrator collector [case (iii)] is most suitable for steam cooking or space heating but not self-sustainable to run the dc power motor due to unavailability of electrical power.

  3. An OECD comparison of wind power and photovoltaics - approach to a consistent survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.J.; Ziemons, S.

    1996-01-01

    Adequate solutions are expected from renewable energy sources that may stop ozone depletion and contribute to resource conservation. Almost any OECD country is making efforts to promote photovoltaics and wind power. To give a survey of the measures taken and results obtained promotion programs are compared and the success achieved in the individual OECD countries is outlined. National energy institutions were interviewed and their 1993/94 programs were evaluated. Some of the data and statements are incomplete. (orig.) [de

  4. The realization of three special photovoltaic (PV) pilot projects. The roles and learning experiences of parties involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geuzendam, C.; Van Mierlo, B.

    1995-11-01

    Experiences with the following three demonstration projects, carried out in the Netherlands, are inventorized and evaluated: (1) 16 private grid-connected PV-systems in existing houses within the framework of the project of the Organization for Renewable Energy (ODE, abbreviated in Dutch); (2) five private grid-connected roof-integrated PV-systems in renovated buildings in Leiden; and (3) the integration of PV in an acoustic baffle along the high-way A-27 near De Bilt. Attention is paid to the decision making processes, the most important actors, the management of the projects and what is learned from the experiences

  5. Study of applying a hybrid standalone wind-photovoltaic generation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissa Dahmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the study of applying a hybrid system wind/photovoltaic to supply a community in southern Algeria. Diesel generators are always used to provide such remote regions with energy. Using renewable energy resources is a good alternative to overcome such pollutant generators. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software is used to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed configuration. Assessment of renewable resources consisting in wind and solar potentials, load profile determination and sensitivity of different parameters analysis were performed. The cost of energy (COE of 0.226 $/kWh is very competitive with those found in literature.

  6. Exploring the macro-scale CO_2 mitigation potential of photovoltaics and wind energy in Europe's energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usubiaga, Arkaitz; Acosta-Fernández, José; McDowall, Will; Li, Francis G.N.

    2017-01-01

    Replacing traditional technologies by renewables can lead to an increase of emissions during early diffusion stages if the emissions avoided during the use phase are exceeded by those associated with the deployment of new units. Based on historical developments and on counterfactual scenarios in which we assume that selected renewable technologies did not diffuse, we conclude that onshore and offshore wind energy have had a positive contribution to climate change mitigation since the beginning of their diffusion in EU27. In contrast, photovoltaic panels did not pay off from an environmental standpoint until very recently, since the benefits expected at the individual plant level were offset until 2013 by the CO_2 emissions related to the construction and deployment of the next generation of panels. Considering the varied energy mixes and penetration rates of renewable energies in different areas, several countries can experience similar time gaps between the installation of the first renewable power plants and the moment in which the emissions from their infrastructure are offset. The analysis demonstrates that the time-profile of renewable energy emissions can be relevant for target-setting and detailed policy design, particularly when renewable energy strategies are pursued in concert with carbon pricing through cap-and-trade systems. - Highlights: • There is a time gap between the deployment of renewables and net CO2 mitigation. • Offshore wind energy contributes to net emission reductions in the EU27 since 2004. • PV panels contribute to net emission reductions in the EU27 since 2013. • The time-profile of renewable energy emissions is not usually considered in policy-design. • But it is important when renewable energy strategies are combined with carbon pricing.

  7. Firefighter Safety for PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu

    2015-01-01

    An important and highly discussed safety issue for photovoltaic (PV) systems is that as long as the PV panels are illuminated, a high voltage is present at the PV string terminals and cables between the string and inverters that is independent of the state of the inverter's dc disconnection switch...

  8. Systems-based modeling of generation variability under alternate geographic configurations of photovoltaic (PV) installations in Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Ross D.; Crowther, Kenneth G.

    2011-01-01

    With increased focus on renewable energy in our modern era, it is increasingly important to understand the impact of policies on the performance and reliability of regional energy systems. This research develops a model to understand how geographic dispersion of PV installations impacts the reliability of electricity generated from the total PV network, measured by the variance of the distribution of generated electricity. Using NREL data, beta probability distributions of sunlight (kWh/m 2 /day) in various regions of Virginia are estimated using a fitting method that minimizes the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic. A Monte Carlo simulation model is developed to measure PV electricity generation from multiple centralized and dispersed configurations over 100,000 days of probabilistic sunlight. There is a calculable tradeoff between average generation and generation variability, and increased geographic dispersion of PV installations can decrease this variability. Controlling variable generation through policies that promote efficient PV siting can help provide reliable power, minimizing the need for load-balancing peaking power infrastructure and costly electricity purchases from the grid. Using a tradeoff framework of generation and costs, this paper shows that geographically dispersed generation can mitigate the risk of unreliable solar generation that can significantly impact the end-user costs and make PV infrastructure unattractive. - Highlights: → We model how uncertain sunlight affects generation of different PV systems. → We show that geographically dispersed systems decrease generation variability. → Geographically dispersed PV systems are potentially more costly in the short run. → Controlling variability provides reliable power, which can decrease long-run costs. → Promoting mixes of uncertain energy sources requires assessment of these tradeoffs.

  9. Deconstructing the dichotomies of solar photovoltaic (PV) dissemination trajectories in Ghana, Kenya and Zimbabwe from the 1960s to 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bawakyillenuo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The profuse dissemination and utilisation of solar PV technology in the world is indispensable, especially in this era of climate change. However, in the African continent, between 1960 and 2007 Kenya and Zimbabwe were among countries with the highest PV dissemination, while Ghana was among countries with the least disseminations. Analysing empirical data through the lens of the Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) theory, the article aims to uncover the drivers underpinning the disparate dissemination trends of PV in the three countries within the stated period and to tease out lessons apropos replicating the successes within Kenya and Zimbabwe in Ghana. SCOT theory is chosen because it provides an excellent framework for analysing the social shaping of PV's development and diffusion processes in these countries. This theory posits that the shape and meanings of a technology do not reside in it, but are acquired through the heterogeneity of social interactions. Findings in the paper reveal that a gamut of socio-economic and political antecedents informed the varied dissemination outcomes of the technology in these countries. Premised on these findings, the paper recommends critical steps, which Ghana needs to undertake to enhance the replication of the Kenyan and Zimbabwean PV success stories. - Highlights: ► I examined the disparate disseminations of PV in Kenya, Zimbabwe and Ghana. ► Kenya's PV market successes not down to private sector alone. ► Varied antecedents underpin the dissimilar disseminations of PV in these countries. ► Replication of Kenya and Zimbabwe success stories in Ghana demands certain factors.

  10. Optimized Sizing, Selection, and Economic Analysis of Battery Energy Storage for Grid-Connected Wind-PV Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Fathima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy storages are emerging as a predominant sector for renewable energy applications. This paper focuses on a feasibility study to integrate battery energy storage with a hybrid wind-solar grid-connected power system to effectively dispatch wind power by incorporating peak shaving and ramp rate limiting. The sizing methodology is optimized using bat optimization algorithm to minimize the cost of investment and losses incurred by the system in form of load shedding and wind curtailment. The integrated system is then tested with an efficient battery management strategy which prevents overcharging/discharging of the battery. In the study, five major types of battery systems are considered and analyzed. They are evaluated and compared based on technoeconomic and environmental metrics as per Indian power market scenario. Technoeconomic analysis of the battery is validated by simulations, on a proposed wind-photovoltaic system in a wind site in Southern India. Environmental analysis is performed by evaluating the avoided cost of emissions.

  11. Break-even analysis for the storage of PV in power distribution grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nykamp, Stefan; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems poses major challenges on distribution grid operators. Because of the strong growth rates of the installation of photovoltaic (PV) and wind generators, huge needs for reinforcements in grids are expected. Next to conventional reinforcements (with

  12. Prospect of wind-PV-battery hybrid power system as an alternative to grid extension in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Sanjoy Kumar; Ghosh, Himangshu Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    A pre-feasibility of wind-PV-battery hybrid system has been performed for a small community in the east-southern part of Bangladesh. Solar radiation resources have been assessed from other meteorological parameters like sunshine duration and cloud cover as measured radiation data were not available at the site. The predicted monthly averaged daily global radiation over Chittagong is 4.36 kWh/m 2 /day. Measured wind speed at the site varies from 3 m/s to 5 m/s. For few months and hours the speed is below the cut in speeds of the available turbines in market. The hybrid system analysis has showed that for a small community consuming 53,317 kWh/year the cost energy is 0.47USD/kWh with 10% annual capacity of shortage and produces 89,151 kWh/year in which 53% electricity comes from wind and the remaining from solar energy. The sensitivity analysis showed that the hybrid system for the community is compatible with the 8 km-12 km grid extension depending on small variation of solar radiation and wind speed over the district whereas the proposed site is more away from the upper limit. Such a hybrid system will reduce about 25 tCO 2 /yr green house gases (GHG) emission in the local atmosphere.

  13. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2014-12-02

    An apparatus for mounting a photovoltaic (PV) module on a surface, including a support with an upper surface, a lower surface, tabs, one or more openings, and a clip comprising an arm and a notch, where the apparatus resists wind forces and seismic forces and creates a grounding electrical bond between the PV module, support, and clip. The invention further includes a method for installing PV modules on a surface that includes arranging supports in rows along an X axis and in columns along a Y axis on a surface such that in each row the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the longest side of a PV module and in each column the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the shortest side of a PV module.

  14. Generation of large-scale PV scenarios using aggregated power curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño Martinez, Edgar; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of solar photovoltaic (PV) power to the generation is becoming more relevant in modern power system. Therefore, there is a need to model the variability large-scale PV generation accurately. This paper presents a novel methodology to generate regional PV scenarios based...... on aggregated power curves rather than traditional physical PV conversion models. Our approach is based on hourly mesoscale reanalysis irradiation data and power measurements and do not require additional variables such as ambient temperature or wind speed. It was used to simulate the PV generation...... on the German system between 2012 and 2015 showing high levels of correlation with actual measurements (93.02–97.60%) and small deviations from the expected capacity factors (0.02–1.80%). Therefore, we are confident about the ability of the proposed model to accurately generate realistic large-scale PV...

  15. An Improved Matlab-Simulink Model of PV Module considering Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ayaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A photovoltaic (PV model is proposed on Matlab/Simulink environment considering the real atmospheric conditions and this PV model is tested with different PV panels technologies (monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, and thin film. The meteorological data of Istanbul—the location of the study—such as irradiance, cell temperature, and wind speed are taken into account in the proposed model for each technology. Eventually, the power outputs of the PV module under real atmospheric conditions are measured for resistive loading and these powers are compared with the results of proposed PV model. As a result of the comparison, it is shown that the proposed model is more compatible for monocrystal silicon and thin-film modules; however, it does not show a good correlation with polycrystalline silicon PV module.

  16. Optimal Power Scheduling for a Grid-Connected Hybrid PV-Wind-Battery Microgrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    mathematical model, wherein the cost of energy purchased from the main grid is minimized and profits for selling energy generated by photovoltaic arrays are maximized by considering both physical constraints and requirements for a feasible deployment in the real system. The optimization model is tested...

  17. PV-WEB: internet-based PV information tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, P

    2003-07-01

    This report gives details of a project to create a web-based information system on photovoltaic (PV) systems for the British PV Association (PV-UK) for use by decision makers in government, the utilities, and the housing and construction sectors. The project, which aims to provide an easily accessible tool for UK companies, promote PV technology, increase competitiveness, and identify market opportunities, is described. The design of the web site and its implementation and the evolution are discussed, along with the maintenance of the site by PV-UK and the opportunities offered to PV-UK Members.

  18. PV-WEB: internet-based PV information tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, P.

    2003-01-01

    This report gives details of a project to create a web-based information system on photovoltaic (PV) systems for the British PV Association (PV-UK) for use by decision makers in government, the utilities, and the housing and construction sectors. The project, which aims to provide an easily accessible tool for UK companies, promote PV technology, increase competitiveness, and identify market opportunities, is described. The design of the web site and its implementation and the evolution are discussed, along with the maintenance of the site by PV-UK and the opportunities offered to PV-UK Members

  19. Research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power systems. Research on engineering methods for cost effective PV installation; Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Tashu secchi koho no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of engineering methods for photovoltaic power system installation in fiscal 1994. (1) On the survey on applicable fields, various application aspects, applicability, and problems on location and legal regulation were continuously studied for railway, river reservation, lake surface and public facility as promising locations after highway in the last fiscal year. The result pointed out relatively easy possibility of PV power generation of nearly 11,700MW except residence and building fields. (2) On installation technology of solar cell arrays, several models based on various installation conditions, construction methods and system configurations were studied, and various application aspects were proposed by combination of simple design conditions. (3) On test and evaluation of the structural design of array racks, wind tunnel experiments were conducted for structure wall, platform shed and highway sound insulation wall. (4) On basic design of various promising systems, the conceptual design of interconnection systems was carried out assuming applications to highway and railway. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - A guide to capacity building requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.; Gunning, R. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom); Stapleton, G. [Global Sustainable Energy Solutions Pty Ltd, GSES, Ulladulla 2539 (Australia)

    2003-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the topic of 'capacity building' in rural electrification projects. Capacity building is defined here as the development of an organisation's or individual's core knowledge, skills and capabilities in order to build and enhance the organisation's effectiveness and sustainability. This document identifies capacity building measures that should be undertaken as an integral component of a PV-based rural electrification implementation programme. Capacity building is to be facilitated through the provision of technical support activities, training, specific technical assistance and resource networking. The assessment of existing knowledge and the identification of training needs are discussed and training needs and their implementation by governmental and commercial players is discussed. Eleven case studies complete the report.

  1. The effect of real-time pricing on load shifting in a highly renewable power system dominated by generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Brown, Tom; Schlachtberger, David; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The supply-demand imbalance is a major concern in the presence of large shares of highly variable renewable generation from sources like wind and photovoltaics (PV) in power systems. Other than the measures on the generation side, such as flexible backup generation or energy storage, sector coupling or demand side management are the most likely option to counter imbalances, therefore to ease the integration of renewable generation. Demand side management usually refers to load shifting, which comprises the reaction of electricity consumers to price fluctuations. In this work, we derive a novel methodology to model the interplay of load shifting and provided incentives via real-time pricing in highly renewable power systems. We use weather data to simulate generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics, as well as historical load data, split into different consumption categories, such as, heating, cooling, domestic, etc., to model a simplified power system. Together with renewable power forecast data, a simple market model and approaches to incorporate sector coupling [1] and load shifting [2,3], we model the interplay of incentives and load shifting for different scenarios (e.g., in dependency of the risk-aversion of consumers or the forecast horizon) and demonstrate the practical benefits of load shifting. First, we introduce the novel methodology and compare it with existing approaches. Secondly, we show results of numerical simulations on the effects of load shifting: It supports the integration of PV power by providing a storage, which characteristics can be described as "daily" and provides a significant amount of balancing potential. Lastly, we propose an experimental setup to obtain empirical data on end-consumer load-shifting behaviour in response to price incentives. References [1] Brown, T., Schlachtberger, D., Kies. A., Greiner, M., Sector coupling in a highly renewable European energy system, Proc. of the 15th International Workshop on

  2. Development of units for change measurement of batteries at photovoltaic plant. Final report; Entwicklung von Einheiten zur Ladezustandserfassung von Batterien in PV-Anlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothert, M.; Knorr, R.; Willer, B.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the project was to contribute to enhanced service life and reliability of batteries in photovoltaic systems by developing further processes and components for charge measurement. The essential basic information in charge determination is the direct measurement of acid concentration in the electrolyte compartment of lead batteries and the evaluation and processing of this signal. Within the framework of this project, operative acidity sensors were developed and tested. They are accurate within an error margin of 0.5 per cent for short periods and of 2 per cent for long periods. A charge measurement unit based on the acid concentration reading was built and special algorithms for measuring charge were developed and tested. This unit stands out particularly because of the following: determination of dynamic charge, long-term stability, and automatic and regular adaptation to the type, size and age of the battery. Using this unit in combination with the acid concentration sensor in photovoltaic plant will permit more efficient plant operation and reliable protection of the battery. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Ziel des Vorhabens war es, Massnahmen zur Verbesserung der Lebensdauer und Zuverlaessigkeit von Batterien in PV-Anlagen durch die konkrete Weiterentwicklung von Verfahren und Komponenten zur Ladezustandserfassung aufzuzeigen, durchzufuehren und zu demonstrieren. Die direkte Messung der Saeuredichte im Elektrolytraum von Bleibatterien sowie die Auswertung und Weiterverarbeitung dieses Signals bildet dabei die wesentliche Basisinformation. Im Rahmen des Vorhabens wurden funktionstuechtige Saeuredichtesensoren entwickelt und erprobt. Die dabei erreichte Genauigkeit betraegt im Kurzzeitbereich 0,5% und im Langzeitbereich ca. 2%. Eine Ladezustandseinheit basierend auf dem Saeuredichtesignal wurde aufgebaut und spezielle Algorithmen zur Ladezustandserfassung entwickelt und getestet. Besonders die Bestimmung des dynamischen Ladezustands, die Langzeitstabilitaet sowie

  3. New approach to exploit optimally the PV array output energy by maximizing the discharge rate of a directly-coupled photovoltaic water pumping system (DC/PVPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutelhig, Azzedine; Hadj Arab, Amar; Hanini, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mismatches on a designed d-c PV pumping system have been highlighted. • A new approach predicting the maximal discharge has been developed. • The approach has been discussed versus its linearity coefficient. • The approach effectiveness has been investigated and approved. • Theoretical and experimental obtained values have been compared and approved. - Abstract: A directly-coupled photovoltaic water pumping system (DC/PVPS) is generally designed by considering the worst month conditions on lowest daylight-hours, the maximum monthly daily required water volume and tank to store the excess water. In case of absence of hydraulic storage (water tank) or it is not enough dimensioned, the extra amount of pumped water is lost or is not reasonably used, when the system is operated on full daylight-hour. Beside that the extra amount of energy, which might be produced by the PV generator, is not exploited, when the system is operated only during a specified period-time needed to satisfy the demand. Beyond the accurate design that satisfying the end-user, a new approach has been developed as target to exploit maximally the PV array energy production, by maximizing the discharge rate of the system. The methodology consists of approaching maximally the demanded energy to the supplied energy on full operating day. Based on the demand/supply energy condition, the approach has been developed, upon the PV array and the pump performance models. The issued approach predicts the maximum delivery capacity of the system on monthly daily water volumes versus the monthly daily averages of solar irradiation, previously recorded. Its efficacy has been investigated and discussed according to the estimated and experimental values of its linearity coefficient, following the characterization tests of a designed system, carried out at our pumping test facility in Ghardaia (Algeria). The new theoretically and experimentally obtained flow-rates fit well, except

  4. A new estimation method of irradiance on a partially shaded PV generator in grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drif, M. [Grupo de Investigacion IDEA, Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables, BP 62, Route de l' Observatoire, 16340 Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria); Perez, P.J.; Aguilera, J.; Aguilar, J.D. [Grupo de Investigacion IDEA, Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas, 23071 Jaen (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    A new method for estimating the irradiance on a partially shaded photovoltaic generator system is proposed. The basic principle of this method consists of two parts: firstly, an approximation of the obstacles' outline or the local horizon by a set of linear functions. Here, a survey of the surroundings is based on the reading of the topographic coordinates of the only significant points of all the objects surrounding the photovoltaic generator. Secondly, the irradiance on the photovoltaic plane is estimated using an accurate model such as the Perez et al. model and assuming that the shading affects both the direct radiation and a part of the diffuse component (circumsolar component). The aim of this paper is to present the principles of the proposed method and the algorithm used for calculating the irradiance on shaded planes. In addition, the results of the comparison between the simulated and measured values of this method are presented. (author)

  5. Research and photovoltaic industry at the United States; Recherche et industrie photovoltaique (PV) aux Etats-Unis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerouge, Ch; Herino, R; Delville, R; Allegre, R

    2006-06-15

    For a big country as the United States, the solar energy can be a solution for the air quality improvement, the greenhouse gases fight and the reduction of the dependence to the imported petroleum and also for the economic growth by the increase of the employment in the solar industry sector. This document takes stock on the photovoltaic in the United States in the industrial and research domains. The american photovoltaic industry is the third behind the Japan and the Germany. (A.L.B.)

  6. A novel approach for evaluating the impact of fixed variables on photovoltaic (PV) solar installations using enhanced meta data analysis among higher education institutions in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hoyos, Diane N.

    The global demand for electric energy has continuously increased over the last few decades. Some mature, alternative generation methods are wind, power, photovoltaic panels, biogas and fuel cells. In order to find alternative sources of energy to aid in the reduction of our nation's dependency on non-renewable fuels, energy sources include the use of solar energy panels. The intent of these initiatives is to provide substantial energy savings and reduce dependence on the electrical grid and net metering savings during the peak energy-use hours. The focus of this study explores and provides a clearer picture of the adoption of solar photovoltaic technology in institutions of higher education. It examines the impact of different variables associated with a photovoltaic installation in an institutions of higher education in the United States on the production generations for universities. Secondary data was used with permission from the Advancement of Suitability in Higher Education (AASHE). A multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of different variables on the energy generation production. A Meta Data transformation analysis offered a deeper investigation into the impact of the variables on the photovoltaic installations. Although a review of a significant number of journal articles, dissertations and thesis in the area of photovoltaic solar installations are available, there were limited studies of actual institutions of higher education with the significant volume of institutions. However a study where the database included a significant number of data variables is unique and provides a researcher the opportunity to investigate different facets of a solar installation. The data of the installations ranges from 1993-2015. Included in this observation are the researcher's experience both in the procurement industry and as a team member of a solar institution of higher education in the southern portion of the United States.

  7. Forces and Moments on Flat Plates of Small Aspect Ratio with Application to PV Wind Loads and Small Wind Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Ortiz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve knowledge of the wind loads on photovoltaic structures mounted on flat roofs at the high angles required in high latitudes, and to study starting flow on low aspect ratio wind turbine blades, a series of wind tunnel tests were undertaken. Thin flat plates of aspect ratios between 0.4 and 9.0 were mounted on a sensitive three-component instantaneous force and moment sensor. The Reynolds numbers varied from 6 × 104 to 2 × 105. Measurements were made for angles of attack between 0° and 90° both in the free stream and in wall proximity with increased turbulence and mean shear. The ratio of drag to lift closely follows the inverse tangent of the angle of incidence for virtually all measurements. This implies that the forces of interest are due largely to the instantaneous pressure distribution around the plate and are not significantly influenced by shear stresses. The instantaneous forces appear most complex for the smaller aspect ratios but the intensity of the normal force fluctuations is between 10% and 20% in the free-steam but can exceed 30% near the wall. As the wind tunnel floor is approached, the lift and drag reduce with increasing aspect ratio, and there is a reduction in the high frequency components of the forces. It is shown that the centre of pressure is closer to the centre of the plates than the quarter-chord position for nearly all cases.

  8. What are the costs of an accelerated installation of new onshore wind power and photovoltaic plants?; Was kostet ein schnellerer Ausbau von Wind an Land und Photovoltaik?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestle, Uwe [EnKliP Energie- und KlimaPolitik - Beratung, Kiel (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    The most recent amendment of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG), enacted in August 2014, was the first to set limits to the further expansion of renewable energy. However, the continued growth of production capacity from onshore wind and photovoltaic energy would actually only have a low impact on the level of the EEG surcharge. The costs that would be incurred instead through the installation of new natural gas power stations are practically the same. If production capacities from onshore wind and photovoltaic plants grow faster than envisaged by the EEG, it will bring the federal government faster towards its goal of lowering the average remuneration to below 12 cents per kWh.

  9. Landfill waste and recycling: Use of a screening-level risk assessment tool for end-of-life cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyrs, William D.; Avens, Heather J.; Capshaw, Zachary A.; Kingsbury, Robert A.; Sahmel, Jennifer; Tvermoes, Brooke E.

    2014-01-01

    Grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) power is currently one of the fastest growing power-generation technologies in the world. While PV technologies provide the environmental benefit of zero emissions during use, the use of heavy metals in thin-film PV cells raises important health and environmental concerns regarding the end-of-life disposal of PV panels. To date, there is no published quantitative assessment of the potential human health risk due to cadmium leaching from cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV panels disposed in a landfill. Thus, we used a screening-level risk assessment tool to estimate possible human health risk associated with disposal of CdTe panels into landfills. In addition, we conducted a literature review of potential cadmium release from the recycling process in order to contrast the potential health risks from PV panel disposal in landfills to those from PV panel recycling. Based on the results of our literature review, a meaningful risk comparison cannot be performed at this time. Based on the human health risk estimates generated for PV panel disposal, our assessment indicated that landfill disposal of CdTe panels does not pose a human health hazard at current production volumes, although our results pointed to the importance of CdTe PV panel end-of-life management. - Highlights: • Analysis of possible human health risk posed by disposal of CdTe panels into landfills. • Qualitative comparison of risks associated with landfill disposal and recycling of CdTe panels. • Landfill disposal of CdTe panels does not pose a human health hazard at current production volumes. • There could be potential risks associated with recycling if not properly managed. • Factors other than concerns over toxic substances will likely drive the decisions of how to manage end-of-life PV panels

  10. Combined wind, hydropower and photovoltaic systems for generation of electric power and control of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, M.; Karimov, K.S.; Akhmedov, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the present day energy consumption and potentialities of utilization of wind- and hydropower resources in some Central and Southern Asian Republics, in particular, in the Republic of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Pakistan are presented. The maximum consumption of electric power is observed in winter time when hydropower is the minimum, but wind power is the maximum. At the same time water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those which use water for generation of electric power. It is proposed that the utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy will facilitate the proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia. In the future in Tajikistan, wind power systems with a capacity of 30-100 MW and more will be installed, providing power balance of the country in winter; hence saving water in reservoirs, especially in drought years. This will provide the integration of electricity generated by wind, hydroelectric power and photovoltaic system in the unified energy system of the country. (author)

  11. Economic and technical study of a hybrid system (wind-photovoltaic-diesel) for rural electrification in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheb-Koussa, D.; Belhamel, M. [Centre of Development of Renewable energies, Route de l' observatoire, BP.62 Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria); Haddadi, M. [Laboratoire de Dispositif de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique E. N. P, 10 Avenue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)

    2009-07-15

    This paper deals with design of hybrid energy system consisting of wind and photovoltaic with battery storage. A diesel generator is added to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic. The paper reports results of the technical-economic optimization study of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage in Algeria. The primary objective of this study is to estimate the appropriate dimension of stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic/wind/diesel with battery storage that guarantee the energy autonomy of typical remote consumer with lowest cost of energy. A secondary aim is to study the impact of renewable energy potential quality on the system size. The optimum dimensions of the system are defined for six sites in Algeria. In this context, a complete sizing model is developed in Matlab/Simulink V.6.5, able to predict the optimum system configuration. The simulation results indicate that the hybrid system is the best option for all the sites considered in this study. Thus, it provides higher system performance than photovoltaic or wind alone. It s shown that the principal advantage of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage are used all together, the reliability of the system is enhanced. The economic analysis has resulted in the calculation of kWh cost of energy for different types of resources and optimized cost of hybrid energy system. It s revealed too that the energy cost depends largely on the renewable energy potential quality. So, our objective for the optimization parameters is not the production cost but the offered service. (author)

  12. Energy and exergy analysis of a two pass photovoltaic –thermal (PV/T) air heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, M.; Jayaraj, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2013-07-01

    A double pass hybrid solar air (PV/T) heater with slats is designed and fabricated to study elaborately its thermal and electrical performance corresponding to the warm and humid environment. Air as a heat removing fluid is made to flow through upper and lower channels of the collector. The collector is designed in such way that the absorber plate is partially covered by solar cells. Thin metallic strips (called slats) are attached longitudinally at the bottom side of the absorber plate to improve the overall system performance (by increasing the cooling rate of the absorber plate). Thermal and electrical performances of the whole system at different cooling rates are presented. The exergy analysis of double pass hybrid solar air (PV/T) heater with slats has also been carried out. The instantaneous overall energy and overall exergy efficiency of the double pass hybrid (PV/T) solar air heater varies between 29 – 37 percent and 14-17 percent respectively. These obtained values are comparable with that of published results.

  13. Photovoltaic energy conversion and wind power plants creating new jobs; Arbeitsplaetze durch Photovoltaik und Windenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hille, G.; Hoffmann, V.U. [Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Dienhart, H.; Langniss, O.; Nitsch, J. [DLR, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Experts are unanimous that opening up new markets through innovative technologies will be the successful strategy for reversing the upward trend of unemployment in Germany. This approach puts renewable energy sources into the foreground, as enhanced use of wind power and photovoltaic energy conversion will no doubt create new jobs. These technologies will, however, require favourable regulatory framework conditions in order to become a significant force in combatting unemployment. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Es gilt unter Experten als sicher, dass eine Umkehr am Arbeitsmarkt nur dadurch zu schaffen ist, dass innovative Technologien genutzt und damit neue Maerkte erschlossen werden. Demnach koennte etwa dem Ausbau der regenerativen Energietraeger Wind und Photovoltaik zur Schaffung zukunftssicherer Arbeitsplaetze eine grosse Bedeutung zukommen. Einen ernstzunehmenden Beitrag im Kampf gegen die Arbeitslosigkeit koennen diese Technologien allerdings nur unter bestimmten Rahmenbedingungen leisten. (orig./RHM)

  14. Photovoltaics (PV System Energy Forecast on the Basis of the Local Weather Forecast: Problems, Uncertainties and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Brecl

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available When integrating a photovoltaic system into a smart zero-energy or energy-plus building, or just to lower the electricity bill by rising the share of the self-consumption in a private house, it is very important to have a photovoltaic power energy forecast for the next day(s. While the commercially available forecasting services might not meet the household prosumers interests due to the price or complexity we have developed a forecasting methodology that is based on the common weather forecast. Since the forecasted meteorological data does not include the solar irradiance information, but only the weather condition, the uncertainty of the results is relatively high. However, in the presented approach, irradiance is calculated from discrete weather conditions and with correlation of forecasted meteorological data, an RMS error of 65%, and a R2 correlation factor of 0.85 is feasible.

  15. Some tests of flat plate photovoltaic module cell temperatures in simulated field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J. S.; Rathod, M. S.; Paslaski, J.

    1981-01-01

    The nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules is an important characteristic. Typically, the power output of a PV module decreases 0.5% per deg C rise in cell temperature. Several tests were run with artificial sun and wind to study the parametric dependencies of cell temperature on wind speed and direction and ambient temperature. It was found that the cell temperature is extremely sensitive to wind speed, moderately so to wind direction and rather insensitive to ambient temperature. Several suggestions are made to obtain data more typical of field conditions.

  16. Energy modeling and economic optimization of a hybrid wind/photovoltaic system coupled with the grid and associated to an accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergaud, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals of the production of photovoltaic and wind electricity connected to the grid and having a storage. The principal interests of such a system are the clean production on the place of consumption, the mutualization of resources and energy storage, and the security of supply. Models are developed and compared successfully with reality thanks to an experimental device instrumented completion (2 kWp PV, 2 x 750 Wp wind generators, 15 kWh lead-acid battery). We obtain then a model that proves both accurate enough to distinguish energy transfers and fast enough to enable optimizing the sizing and handling of the system's energy transfers. Having energy, economic models and tools of dimensioning and management, we carried out a study of optimization based on simple cases of systems multi-production. To tackle this difficult problem, we then placed ourselves within the framework of a producer-consumer whose conditions weather with the site of production as its own consumption are supposed to be known, therefore deterministic. The problems were then the search for strategies of management of flows of energy and the fundamental characteristics of the elements of the installation optimal allowing the minimization of the energy cost. (author) [fr

  17. Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the photovoltaics. It presents the principles and the applications, the issues and the current technology, the challenges and the Group Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  18. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  19. Optimization of PV/Wind/Battery stand-alone system, using hybrid FPA/SA algorithm and CFD simulation, case study: Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahani, Mojtaba; Babayan, Narek; Pouyaei, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The utilization of an optimized Hybrid PV/Wind/Battery system has been studied. • The proposed system has been studied for a building in Tehran. • A novel hybrid optimization method, namely FPA/SA has been proposed. • The impact of inclined part of the roof on wind velocity is studied by CFD. • LPSP and Payback time were considered as objective functions in this study. - Abstract: Renewable energy hybrid systems are a promising technology toward sustainable and clean development. Due to stochastic behavior of renewable energy sources, optimization of their convertors has great importance for increasing system’s reliability and efficiency and also in order to decrease the costs. In this research study, it was aimed to study the utilization of an optimized hybrid PV/Wind/Battery system for a three story building, with an inclined surface on the edge of its roof, located in Tehran, capital of Iran. For this purpose, a new evolutionary based optimization technique, namely hybrid FPA/SA algorithm was developed, in order to maximize system’s reliability and minimize system’s costs. The new algorithm combines the approaches which are utilized in Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) and Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm. The developed algorithm was validated using popular benchmark functions. Moreover the influence of PV panels tilt angle (which is equal to the slope of inclined part of the roof) is studied on the wind speed by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The outputs of CFD simulations are utilized as inputs for modeling wind turbine performance. The Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) and Payback time are considered as objective functions, and PV panel tilt angle, number of PV panels and number of batteries are selected as decision variables. The results showed that if the tilt angle for PV panels is set equal to 30° and the number of PV panels is selected equal to 11 the fastest payback time which is 12 years and

  20. The Photovoltaic Sector in France. National survey report Year 2010. National Survey Report of PV Power Applications in France 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Yvonnick; Jacquin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The cumulative photovoltaic power installed in France (mainland and overseas territories) was 180 MW at the end of 2008, and was in excess of 1 000 MW at the end of 2010; in other words, it has grown by a factor of 5 in 2 years. The procedures for the acceptance of requests for connection to the national grid have been simplified and the waiting times have been reduced. Thus, nearly 150 000 facilities have been connected to the national grid over the course of the year. However, at the end of December 2010, approximately 75 000 systems were awaiting connection over the entire country (metropolitan France and overseas territories) adding up to a total power of 4 150 MW. This increase marks an advance on the Grenelle Environment Forum targets defined at the end of 2007 (1 100 MW installed by the end of 2012 and 5 400 MW by 2020). In order to avoid windfall profits, the Government has, following gains in productivity and reduction in the costs of modules in the market, proceeded over the course of the year to revise the feed-in tariffs of photovoltaic electricity in order to adapt the support measures to the explosive growth in the number of facilities. Furthermore, a decree was promulgated on 9 December suspending the obligation to purchase photovoltaic electricity for three months. This suspension affects photovoltaic systems with a power of greater than 3 kW, where the producer has not notified the grid operator of their acceptance of the technical and financial proposal (PTF) for connection to the grid before 2 December 2010. By means of this moratorium, the government wished to start a forum to discuss the lowering of feed-in tariffs and the implementation of a system of quotas. Discussions brought together players in the photovoltaic segment, elected representatives, and representatives of consumer groups and environmental associations, who started the talks on 20 December in order to come up with a new regulatory framework during March 2011, thus ensuring

  1. Optimization of hybrid PV/wind power system for remote telecom station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, S.; Shrestha, J.N.; Neto, F.J.; Ferreira, J.A.F.; Adhikari, M.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid depletion of fossil fuel resources and environmental concerns has given awareness on generation of renewable energy resources. Among the various renewable resources, hybrid solar and wind energy seems to be promising solutions to provide reliable power supply with improved system

  2. Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project NREL's Thin Film Photovoltaic (PV) Partnership Project led R&D on emerging thin-film solar technologies in the United States from 1994 to 2009. The project made many advances in thin-film PV technologies that allowed

  3. The influence of wind on the temperature of PV modules in tropical environments, evaluated on an hourly basis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.J.; Nobre, A.; Reindl, T.; Ruther, R.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the efficiency of PV modules decreases with increasing module temperatures. Many studies have paid attention to the development and validation of heuristic models to calculate the PV module temperature in higher latitudes, however only a few focus on the thermal behaviour of PV

  4. Technical and Economic Analysis of a Hybrid Generation System of Wind Turbines, Photovoltaic Modules and a Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Szczerbowsk Radosław; Ceran Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the analysis of the economic and manufacturing system consisting of wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, polymer membrane fuel cell and the electrolyzer. The system supplies the customer profile at the assumed wind and solar conditions. Energy analysis was conducted on the basis of the balance equations produced and received electric power. To assess the economic efficiency of investments adopted the following economic indicators: NPV, IRR, MIRR, MNPV, DPP. T...

  5. PV and PV/hybrid products for buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, H. P.; Hayter, S. J.; Martin, R. L., Pierce, L. K.

    2000-05-15

    Residential, commercial, and industrial buildings combined are the largest consumers of electricity in the United States and represent a significant opportunity for photovoltaic (PV) and PV/hybrid systems. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a phased research and product development program, Building Opportunities in the United States for Photovoltaics (PV:BONUS), focused on this market sector. The purpose of the program is to develop technologies and foster business arrangements integrating cost-effective PV or hybrid products into buildings. The first phase was completed in 1996 and a second solicitation, PV:BONUS2, was initiated during 1997. These projects are resulting in a variety of building-integrated products. This paper summarizes the recent progress of the seven firms and collaborative teams currently participating in PV:BONUS2 and outlines planned work for the final phase of their work.

  6. Optimal allocation and sizing of PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery hybrid energy system for minimizing life cycle cost, carbon emission and dump energy of remote residential building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunjuyigbe, A.S.O.; Ayodele, T.R.; Akinola, O.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Genetic Algorithm is used for tri-objective design of hybrid energy system. • The objective is minimizing the Life Cycle Cost, CO_2 emissions and dump energy. • Small split diesel generators are used in place of big single diesel generator. • The split diesel generators are aggregable based on certain set of rules. • The proposed algorithm achieves the set objectives (LCC, CO_2 emission and dump). - Abstract: In this paper, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is utilized to implement a tri-objective design of a grid independent PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery hybrid energy system for a typical residential building with the objective of minimizing the Life Cycle Cost (LCC), CO_2 emissions and dump energy. To achieve some of these objectives, small split Diesel generators are used in place of single big Diesel generator and are aggregable based on certain set of rules depending on available renewable energy resources and state of charge of the battery. The algorithm was utilized to study five scenarios (PV/Battery, Wind/Battery, Single big Diesel generator, aggregable 3-split Diesel generators, PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery) for a typical load profile of a residential house using typical wind and solar radiation data. The results obtained revealed that the PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery is the most attractive scenario (optimal) having LCC of $11,273, COE of 0.13 ($/kW h), net dump energy of 3 MW h, and net CO_2 emission of 13,273 kg. It offers 46%, 28%, 82% and 94% reduction in LCC, COE, CO_2 emission and dump energy respectively when compared to a single big Diesel generator scenario.

  7. Building brighter PV business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, R.

    2002-01-01

    The current status and future prospects of the UK market for solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity are briefly discussed. Through the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), the UK Government has supported research and development (R and D) into PV for a number of years. This programme has now been extended to demonstrating PV systems on houses. Phase 2 - the domestic field trial programme - aims to monitor the performance of individual systems and the impact on a cluster of systems on the electricity network. New funding had allowed a trebling of the size of this programme, which involves both private developers and housing associations. The DTI is also working to promote PV on commercial buildings, eg the installation of BP Solar PV systems at BP petrol stations. The PV industry in the UK is technically strong and is working to overcome the barriers in the UK to greater uptake of the technology (including cost, conservatism, legal requirements and metering practices). Improvements are expected in a number of recent initiatives in the electricity industry to boost PV use and the PV industry is lobbying for PV to be included in the Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECA) scheme

  8. Effect of urban climate on building integrated photovoltaics performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Wei; Wang Yiping; Ren Jianbo; Zhu Li

    2007-01-01

    It is generally recognized that BIPV (building integrated photovoltaics) has the potential to become a major source of renewable energy in the urban environment. The actual output of a PV module in the field is a function of orientation, total irradiance, spectral irradiance, wind speed, air temperature, soiling and various system-related losses. In urban areas, the attenuation of solar radiation due to air pollution is obvious, and the solar spectral content subsequently changes. The urban air temperature is higher than that in the surrounding countryside, and the wind speed in urban areas is usually less than that in rural areas. Three different models of PV power are used to investigate the effect of urban climate on PV performance. The results show that the dimming of solar radiation in the urban environment is the main reason for the decrease of PV module output using the climatic data of urban and rural sites in Mexico City for year 2003. The urban PV conversion efficiency is higher than that of the rural PV system because the PV module temperature in the urban areas is slightly lower than that in the rural areas in the case. The DC power output of PV seems to be underestimated if the spectral response of PV in the urban environment is not taken into account based on the urban hourly meteorological data of Sao Paulo for year 2004

  9. Detailed performance analysis of realistic solar photovoltaic systems at extensive climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ankit; Chauhan, Yogesh K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, solar energy has been considered as one of the principle renewable energy source for electric power generation. In this paper, single diode photovoltaic (PV) system and double/bypass diode based PV system are designed in MATLAB/Simulink environment based on their mathematical modeling and are validated with a commercially available solar panel. The novelty of the paper is to include the effect of climatic conditions i.e. variable irradiation level, wind speed, temperature, humidity level and dust accumulation in the modeling of both the PV systems to represent a realistic PV system. The comprehensive investigations are made on both the modeled PV systems. The obtained results show the satisfactory performance for realistic models of the PV system. Furthermore, an in depth comparative analysis is carried out for both PV systems. - Highlights: • Modeling of Single diode and Double diode PV systems in MATLAB/Simulink software. • Validation of designed PV systems with a commercially available PV panel. • Acquisition and employment of key climatic factors in modeling of the PV systems. • Evaluation of main model parameters of both the PV systems. • Detailed comparative assessment of both the modeled PV system parameters.

  10. Action plan for photovoltaic standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldach, R.

    1999-07-01

    This report examines the present situation regarding international standards governing photovoltaic (PV) systems and components, and seeks to identify barriers to the commercialisation of PV systems in the UK due to the absence of standards and codes of practice, and develop an action plan to overcome these barriers. An overview of standardisation bodies and standard generation mechanisms is presented, and the PV cells and modules, stand-alone PV systems, utility interconnection with PV systems, and building integration of PV are reviewed.

  11. Hybrid wind-PV grid connected power station case study: Al Tafila, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tous, Yousif [Department of Electrical Engineering/Faculty of Engineering Technology/ Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman, P.O.Box (15008), Marka Ashamalia (Jordan); Al-Battat, Saleh [Department of substation maintenance and protection, National Electric Power Company (NEPCO), Amman (Jordan); Abdel Hafith, Sandro [Department of technical support and project supervision/Integrated power systems co., Amman (Jordan)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we are providing an attempt to highlight the importance of renewable energy, more specifically, the one produced from a wind-solar hybrid system. This purpose will be achieved through providing a detailed case study for such system that would be applied in Al-Tafila, Jordan. First and foremost site assessment has been conducted based on an intensive literature review for the data available regarding the availability of wind and solar energy in Jordan and resulted in the selection of Al-Tafila 2 district as the best option among all. Then, the components of the power station and its size have been selected based on specific criteria that make the station as much efficient and competitive as possible. To obtain the output of the different components with respect to the demand for a period of 25 years, a system model was built using HOMER. Finally, the total capital cost of the system was calculated and resulted to be (63400168) $ and with a cost of energy of (0.053) $/kWh which is a very competitive and feasible cost compared to similar international projects and to the conventional energy price.

  12. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some small scale irrigation systems (powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  13. Autonomous photovoltaic lighting system

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, Ahmed A. A.; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a comparison between the conventional and Photovoltaic (PV) lighting systems. A simple sizing procedure for a PV stand-alone system was advised. The paper also proposes a novel PV lighting system. The proposed system is simple, compact and reliable. The system operation was investigated by thoroughly mathematical and simulation work.

  14. Building integrated photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzen, M.J.; Vroon, Z.A.E.P.; Geurts, C.P.W.; Reinders, Angèle; Verlinden, Pierre; Sark, Wilfried; Freundlich, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installations can be realized in different situations and on different scales, such as at a building level. PV installations at the building level can either be added to the building envelope, which is called building added PV (BAPV), or they can be integrated into the building

  15. Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy systems have the long range potential for supplying a significant part of the world's need for electricity Even today, such systems offer many benefits compared to other energy systems such as fossil fuel, nuclear and other renewable systems. These include: stability, reliability, require no water, no moving parts, environmentally benign, moderate efficiency, modular, universally usable, easy maintenance, and low power distribution costs. This paper will present information on present costs of the key system components, realistic cost projections and the results of a comparative study of three renewable approaches for a large system. (author), (tabs. 2)

  16. Turbulence convective heat transfer for cooling the photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianmehr, Iman

    Solar PV (photovoltaic) is a rapidly advancing renewable energy technology which converts sunlight directly into electricity. One of the outstanding challenges of the current PV technology is the reduction in its conversion efficiency with increasing PV panel temperature, which is closely associated with the increase in solar intensity and the ambient temperature surrounding the PV panels. To more effectively capture the available energy when the sun is most intense, significant efforts have been invested in active and passive cooling research over the last few years. While integrated cooling systems can lead to the highest total efficiencies, they are usually neither the most feasible nor the most cost effective solutions. This work examines some simple passive means of manipulating the prevailing wind turbulence to enhance convective heat transfer over a heated plate in a wind tunnel.

  17. PV-HYBRID and MINI-GRID. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Within the 3rd European Conference at the Centre de Congres in Aix en Provence (France) between 11th and 12th May, 2006, the following lessons were held: (1) Small electric networks: European drivers and projects for the integration of RES and DG into the electricity grids of the future (Manuel Sanchez-Jimenez); (2) PV hybrid system within mini grids - IEA PVPS programme (Meuch Konraf); (3) Renewables for the developing world (Alvaro Ponce Plaza); (4) Rural electicity supply using photovoltaic / - Diesel hybrid systems: Attractive for investors in the renewable energy sector? (Andreas Hahn); (5) Economic analysis of stand-alone and grid-connected photovoltaic systems under current tariff structure of Taiwan (Yaw-Juen Wang); (6) Using wind-PV-diesel hybrid system for electrification of remote village in Western Libya (N.M. Kreama); (7) Venezuela's renewable energy program for small towns and rural areas ''Sembrando Luz'' (Jorge Torres); (8) AeroSmart5, the professional, sysem-compatible small-scale wind energy converter will be tested in field tests (Fabian Jochem); (9) Lifetime, test procedures and recommendations for optimal operating strategies for lead-acid-batteries in renewable energy systems - A survey on results from European projects from the 5th framework programme (Rudi Kaiser); (10) Prototype of a reversible fuel cell system for autonomous power supplies (Tom Smolinska); (11) Interconnection management in microgrids (Michel Vandenbergh); (12) Control strategy for a small-scale stand-alone power system based on renewable energy and hydrogen (Harald Miland); (13) Standard renewable electricity supply for people in rural areas - mini-grids in western provinces of China (Michael Wollny); (14) The Brava island a ''100% renewable energy'' project (Jean-Christian Marcel); (15) Breakthrough to a new era of PV-hybrid systems with the help of standardised components communication? (Michael Mueller); (16) Standardized

  18. 2017 NREL Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-15

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Reliability Workshop (PVRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology -- both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  19. The case for better PV forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alet, Pierre-Jean; Efthymiou, Venizelos; Graditi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Rising levels of PV penetration mean increasingly sophisticated forecasting technologies are needed to maintain grid stability and maximise the economic value of PV systems. The Grid Integration working group of the European Technology and Innovation Platform – Photovoltaics (ETIP PV) shares the ...

  20. A Wavelet-Based Unified Power Quality Conditioner to Eliminate Wind Turbine Non-Ideality Consequences on Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Rahmani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The integration of renewable power sources with power grids presents many challenges, such as synchronization with the grid, power quality problems and so on. The shunt active power filter (SAPF can be a solution to address the issue while suppressing the grid-end current harmonics and distortions. Nonetheless, available SAPFs work somewhat unpredictably in practice. This is attributed to the dependency of the SAPF controller on nonlinear complicated equations and two distorted variables, such as load current and voltage, to produce the current reference. This condition will worsen when the plant includes wind turbines which inherently produce 3rd, 5th, 7th and 11th voltage harmonics. Moreover, the inability of the typical phase locked loop (PLL used to synchronize the SAPF reference with the power grid also disrupts SAPF operation. This paper proposes an improved synchronous reference frame (SRF which is equipped with a wavelet-based PLL to control the SAPF, using one variable such as load current. Firstly the fundamental positive sequence of the source voltage, obtained using a wavelet, is used as the input signal of the PLL through an orthogonal signal generator process. Then, the generated orthogonal signals are applied through the SRF-based compensation algorithm to synchronize the SAPF’s reference with power grid. To further force the remained uncompensated grid current harmonics to pass through the SAPF, an improved series filter (SF equipped with a current harmonic suppression loop is proposed. Concurrent operation of the improved SAPF and SF is coordinated through a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC. The DC-link capacitor of the proposed UPQC, used to interconnect a photovoltaic (PV system to the power grid, is regulated by an adaptive controller. Matlab/Simulink results confirm that the proposed wavelet-based UPQC results in purely sinusoidal grid-end currents with total harmonic distortion (THD = 1.29%, which leads to high

  1. German PV-producers - an overview. Look back in humility; Photovoltaik Fabriken in Deutschland- eine Uebersicht. Blick zurueck in Demut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iken, J.

    2001-03-01

    Three years are a long period of time in a growing field of industry like photovoltaic power generation. In January 1998, Sonne Wind and Waerme published the first list of German PV producers. The update is presented here. [German] Drei Jahre sind in einer Wachstumsbranche wie der Photovoltaik eine lange Zeit. Im Januar 1998 veroeffentlichte Sonne Wind and Waerme einen Ueberblick ueber die deutschen Photovoltaik-Fabriken. Hoechste Zeit also, die Uebersicht auf den neuesten Stand zu bringen. (orig.)

  2. Study on an optimum ratio of PV output energy to WG output energy in PV/WG hybrid system; Taiyoko/furyoku hybrid hatsuden system no saiteki yoryohi ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S [Kandenko Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A photovoltaic power (PV) and wind generated power (WG) are an unlimited clean energy source, yet their output is unstable depending on the fluctuation of weather conditions such as solar radiation and wind velocity. Consequently, a large-scale power storage equipment is necessitated leading to a high cost especially in an independent system. As a solution, a method is available in which PV and WG are combined so that the effect may be utilized for stabilizing the output of a system as a whole, at a site where a fluctuation pattern is different between photovoltaic energy and wind energy. In building a hybrid system by PV and WG, sites with such supplementary effect existing were selected from the viewpoint of stabilizing the fluctuation of the power generation in the long run; and then, an examination was made on the optimum PV capacity ratio (%Ppo) in each site. As a result, it revealed that the %Ppo had great bearing on a ratio of PV energy fluctuation to WG, which was converted to a numerical formula. A comparatively simple examination by means of meteorological data also indicated that the share ratio was possibly optimized between the quantities of PV and WG energy. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Dynamic Analysis of a Hybrid Energy Storage System (H-ESS Coupled to a Photovoltaic (PV Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Barelli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays energy storage is strongly needed to allow grid safety and stability due to the wide penetration of renewable plants. Mainly economic and technological issues impede a relevant integration of conventional storage devices in the energy system. In this scenario, the hybridization of different storage technologies can be a techno-economic solution useful to overcome these issues and promote their diffusion. Hybridization allows multi-operation modes of the Energy Storage System (ESS, merging the positive features of base-technologies and extending their application ranges. This paper provides a dynamic analysis of a hybrid energy storage system (H-ESS consisting of a flywheel and a battery pack coupled to a photovoltaic generation plant and a residential load up to 20 kW. A dynamic model of the overall micro-grid (MG was developed implementing the H-ESS preliminary sizing and a suitable management algorithm. The instantaneous behavior of each component was evaluated. A brief summary of the MG performance at different weather and load conditions was provided together with a characterization of the impact of power fluctuations on the battery current and on the power exchange with the grid.

  4. Power fluctuations suppression of stand-alone hybrid generation combining solar photovoltaic/wind turbine and fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Nabil A.; Miyatake, Masafumi; Al-Othman, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a hybrid energy system combining variable speed wind turbine, solar photovoltaic and fuel cell generation systems is presented to supply continuous power to residential power applications as stand-alone loads. The wind and photovoltaic systems are used as main energy sources while the fuel cell is used as secondary or back-up energy source. Three individual dc-dc boost converters are used to control the power flow to the load. A simple and cost effective control with dc-dc converters is used for maximum power point tracking and hence maximum power extracting from the wind turbine and the solar photovoltaic systems. The hybrid system is sized to power a typical 2 kW/150 V dc load as telecommunication power plants or ac residential power applications in isolated islands continuously throughout the year. The results show that even when the sun and wind are not available; the system is reliable and available and it can supply high-quality power to the load. The simulation results which proved the accuracy of the proposed controllers are given to demonstrate the availability of the proposed system in this paper. Also, a complete description of the management and control system is presented

  5. PV/T slates - Energy-efficiency optimisation for buildings using simulation and measurement - Back-ventilated photovoltaics as an example; PV/T-Schiefer. Optimierung der Energieeffizienz von Gebaeuden durch gegenseitige Ergaenzung von Simulation und Messung am Beispiel der Hinterlueftung gebaeudeintegrierter Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is the introductory report to a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. This introductory report summarises the findings of the project. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. A mathematical model for the calculation of the dynamic gain is described. Reports 1 and 2 deal with an experimental outdoor set-up and in-situ measurements made on the prototype of a ventilated PV-tile system (PV/T-Slates). In report 3 the simulation model for the dynamic calculation of the heat gain from the PV/T-Slates using climatic data available is described in detail. Measured data from reports 1 and 2 are compared with the simulation results. In the yield atlas (report 4) the heat gain expected is subdivided into classes of temperature and presented for three locations in different Swiss climatic regions. In report 5 it is shown with the help of the yield-atlas how the degree of utilisation can be estimated. Two promising applications (domestic hot water preheating for a hotel in Lugano and seasonal ground heat storage for a Minergie low energy consumption house in Davos) are selected for detailed investigation using the new numerical model.

  6. Photovoltaic solar energy; Photovoltaische Solarenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the 27th symposium of the Ostbayerische Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) from 29th February to 02th March, 2012, at Banz monastery near Bad Staffelstein (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) EEG 12: State of the art and impacts (K. Freier); (2) Promising markets - PV market potentials Europe (M. Lohr); (3) Expansion requires restructuring - Research promotion for renewable energy and renewable energy supply systems (K. Deller); (4) Fields of application and potentials of photovoltaics in Germany without an enhanced EEG compensation (V. Quaschning); (5) ''Smart Solar Grid'' - Results of the analysis and solar roof potential of the first test area of the public utility Ulm (H. Ruf); (6) Power limitation at PV plants - Adjustment of modelling methods and comparison of different location (J. von Appen); (7) Exploitations to the power limitation till to 70 % of the module capacity (B. Giesler); (8) Actual procedural results of the clearing house EEG to photovoltaics and modifications at PV by means of the EEG 2012 (M. Winkler); (9) Grid integration of PV plants from a legal point of view (M. von Oppen); (10) EEG 2012 - Abetment or brake? PV and other renewable energies in comparison (M. Reichmuth); (11) On the precision of radiation and photovoltaics component models (J. Schumacher); (12) Impact of global radiation data with different properties on the performance ratio and prognosticated energy efficiency of photovoltaic power plants (M. Egler); (13) Quantification of superelevations of irradiation in high-resolution DWD datasets for different locations in Germany (M. Zehner); (14) Prognosis of the regional PV performance with measuring data of PV plant and satellite pictures (Y.-M. Saint-Drenan); (15) Photovoltaics and wind power: perfectly complementing power technologies using Central Germany as an example (C. Breyer); (16) Which and how much storages are necessary

  7. Technical and economic assessment of hybrid photovoltaic/wind system with battery storage in Corsica island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaf, S.; Belhamel, M.; Haddadi, M.; Louche, A.

    2008-01-01

    The sizing and techno-economical optimization of a stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic/wind system (HPWS) with battery storage is presented in this paper. The main objective of the present study is to find the optimum size of system, able to fulfill the energy requirements of a given load distribution, for three sites located at Corsica island and to analyze the impact of different parameters on the system size. The methodology used provides a useful and simple approach for sizing and analyzing an HPWS. In the proposed stand-alone system, a new concept such as the supply of wind power via a uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is introduced and therefore the energy produced by the wind generator can be sent directly to the load. In this context, an optimization sizing model is developed. It consists of three submodels; system components submodels, technical submodel based on the loss of power supply probability (LPSP) and the economical submodel based on the levelized cost of energy (LCE). Applying the developed model, a set of configurations meeting the desired LPSP are obtained. The configuration with the lowest LCE gives the optimal one. Analyzing the optimal system configurations used to satisfy the requirements of typical residential home (3 kWh/day), a significant reduction in system size is observed as the available renewable potential increases leading to a considerable decrease in LCE (case of Cape corse site). The 2 days storage capacity is found to be the best for the optimal configuration with the lowest LCE. On the other hand, for low energy requirements, the LCE is found relatively high and decreases sharply with the increase in load. However, for low LPSP values, the LCE is found to rise sharply for a little increase in LPSP

  8. An open source GIS tool to quantify the visual impact of wind turbines and photovoltaic panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minelli, Annalisa; Marchesini, Ivan; Taylor, Faith E.; De Rosa, Pierluigi; Casagrande, Luca; Cenci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Although there are clear economic and environmental incentives for producing energy from solar and wind power, there can be local opposition to their installation due to their impact upon the landscape. To date, no international guidelines exist to guide quantitative visual impact assessment of these facilities, making the planning process somewhat subjective. In this paper we demonstrate the development of a method and an Open Source GIS tool to quantitatively assess the visual impact of these facilities using line-of-site techniques. The methods here build upon previous studies by (i) more accurately representing the shape of energy producing facilities, (ii) taking into account the distortion of the perceived shape and size of facilities caused by the location of the observer, (iii) calculating the possible obscuring of facilities caused by terrain morphology and (iv) allowing the combination of various facilities to more accurately represent the landscape. The tool has been applied to real and synthetic case studies and compared to recently published results from other models, and demonstrates an improvement in accuracy of the calculated visual impact of facilities. The tool is named r.wind.sun and is freely available from GRASS GIS AddOns. - Highlights: • We develop a tool to quantify wind turbine and photovoltaic panel visual impact. • The tool is freely available to download and edit as a module of GRASS GIS. • The tool takes into account visual distortion of the shape and size of objects. • The accuracy of calculation of visual impact is improved over previous methods

  9. An open source GIS tool to quantify the visual impact of wind turbines and photovoltaic panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minelli, Annalisa, E-mail: Annalisa.Minelli@univ-brest.fr [Insitute Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Université de la Bretagne Occidentale, Rue Dumont D' Urville, 29280 Plouzané (France); Marchesini, Ivan, E-mail: Ivan.Marchesini@irpi.cnr.it [National Research Council (CNR), Research Insitute for Geo-hydrological Protection (IRPI), Strada della Madonna Alta 126, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Taylor, Faith E., E-mail: Faith.Taylor@kcl.ac.uk [Earth and Environmental Dynamics Research Group, Department of Geography, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); De Rosa, Pierluigi, E-mail: Pierluigi.Derosa@unipg.it [Physics and Geology Department, University of Perugia, Via Zefferino Faina 4, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Casagrande, Luca, E-mail: Luca.Casagrande@gfosservices.it [Gfosservices S.A., Open Source GIS-WebGIS Solutions, Spatial Data Infrastructures, Planning and Counseling, Via F.lli Cairoli 24, 06127 Perugia (Italy); Cenci, Michele, E-mail: mcenci@regione.umbria.it [Servizio Energia qualità dell' ambiente, rifiuti, attività estrattive, Regione Umbia, Corso Vannucci 96, 06121 Perugia (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Although there are clear economic and environmental incentives for producing energy from solar and wind power, there can be local opposition to their installation due to their impact upon the landscape. To date, no international guidelines exist to guide quantitative visual impact assessment of these facilities, making the planning process somewhat subjective. In this paper we demonstrate the development of a method and an Open Source GIS tool to quantitatively assess the visual impact of these facilities using line-of-site techniques. The methods here build upon previous studies by (i) more accurately representing the shape of energy producing facilities, (ii) taking into account the distortion of the perceived shape and size of facilities caused by the location of the observer, (iii) calculating the possible obscuring of facilities caused by terrain morphology and (iv) allowing the combination of various facilities to more accurately represent the landscape. The tool has been applied to real and synthetic case studies and compared to recently published results from other models, and demonstrates an improvement in accuracy of the calculated visual impact of facilities. The tool is named r.wind.sun and is freely available from GRASS GIS AddOns. - Highlights: • We develop a tool to quantify wind turbine and photovoltaic panel visual impact. • The tool is freely available to download and edit as a module of GRASS GIS. • The tool takes into account visual distortion of the shape and size of objects. • The accuracy of calculation of visual impact is improved over previous methods.

  10. 78 FR 2423 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Proposed Shu'luuk Wind Project on the Campo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... to 80 2-MW wind turbines (totaling 160 MW from wind) in combination with up to 40 1-MW solar photovoltaic (PV) panels (totaling 40 MW from solar). Each turbine would generate 2 MW, have a hub height up to... solar energy generation. The approval of the lease would allow Invenergy, LLC to develop and operate a...

  11. The impact of attribute preferences on adoption timing: The case of photo-voltaic (PV) solar cells for household electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Towhidul; Meade, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    We are concerned with micro-generation, individual households generating electricity using a renewable technology. We focus on modeling the adoption probability of photo-voltaic solar panels by households. Using data from Ontario, Canada where a generous feed-in-tariff is available to households generating electricity from solar panels, we measure household level preferences for panels and use these preferences along with household characteristics to predict adoption time intentions. We use discrete choice experiments to measure household level preferences and establish a causal link between the attributes of the technology and adoption time intentions using discrete time survival mixture analysis. Significant preferences included lower cost, greater energy savings and lower fossil fuel inflation. The conditional (hazard) probability of adoption at a particular time given no previous adoption showed that the attribute preferences had intuitively reasonable effects. The hazard probabilities allow us to compute the cumulative probability of adoption over a 10-year period per household. Technology awareness has a significant effect on the adoption probability, reinforcing the need for effective education. Our approach indicates the level of heterogeneity in preferences, particularly high for investment criteria and CO 2 emissions. These findings suggest that education campaigns should explain more about investment criteria, feed-in tariffs and environmental effects. - Highlights: ► To model the adoption probability of PV solar panels by households. ► Data from Ontario, province of Canada, with generous feed-in tariff for solar households. ► Estimation of adoption probability using attribute preferences and social covariates. ► Wide range of household adoption probability within 10 years median value 52%. ► Promotions should explain investment criteria, tariffs and environmental effects

  12. PENGEMBANGAN LAMPU LED DENGAN TEKNOLOGI PHOTOVOLTAIC (LED-PV SEBAGAI ALAT BANTU PENGUMPUL IKAN PADA PERIKANAN BAGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Arief Sofijanto

    2015-03-01

    mengetahui perbedaan jumlah hasil tangkapan pada bagan tancap akibat perlakuan warna lampu LED yang berbeda. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskriptif dan experimental fishing dimana rancangan penelitiannya adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan perlakuan warna lampu LED sebanyak 5 jenis warna yaitu merah (A, kuning (B, hijau (C, biru (D, dan putih (E dengan 6 kali ulangan. Secara deskriptif hasil penelitian menunjukkan lampu LED dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan lampu petromaks dan lampu LHE. Diperoleh 17 jenis ikan laut yang tertarik pada cahaya lampu LED yang digunakan. Hasil analisis statistik menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan nyata terhadap hasil tangkapan bagan dengan perlakuan warna lampu LED. Berdasarkan Uji Nyata Terkecil dinyatakan bahwa bagan yang menggunakan warna lampu LED biru mendapatkan hasil tangkapan tertinggi kemudian diikuti oleh warna kuning, hijau, putih dan merah.  The set ‘bagan’ (liftnet fishing gear is a kind of fishing gears which using atificial light as fishes gathering. This fishing gear uses an electric generator to turn on the energy saving lamp which hang on under the set ‘bagan’. The price of gasoline more expensive due to the Indonesia government’s fuel subsidy reduced and this make fishing operation costs more expensive for fishermen. This research using the LED lamps that do not use gasoline as fuel because the LED lamps can use the photovoltaic technology (solar cell system. The purposes of this study were: 1 to find out whether the LED lamps can replace the kerosene lamps and saving energy lamps, 2 to know the different in cath using different colours of LED lamps. The reserach methods are descriptive and experimental fishing which used Completely Randomized Design with LED lamps colour treatments i.e: red (A, yellow (B, green (C, blue (D, and white (E, the number of replications are 6 times. LED lamps can be used to replace the kerosene and saving energy lamps. There were 17 species of

  13. A thermal model for photovoltaic panels under varying atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, S.; Hurley, W.G.

    2010-01-01

    The response of the photovoltaic (PV) panel temperature is dynamic with respect to the changes in the incoming solar radiation. During periods of rapidly changing conditions, a steady state model of the operating temperature cannot be justified because the response time of the PV panel temperature becomes significant due to its large thermal mass. Therefore, it is of interest to determine the thermal response time of the PV panel. Previous attempts to determine the thermal response time have used indoor measurements, controlling the wind flow over the surface of the panel with fans or conducting the experiments in darkness to avoid radiative heat loss effects. In real operating conditions, the effective PV panel temperature is subjected to randomly varying ambient temperature and fluctuating wind speeds and directions; parameters that are not replicated in controlled, indoor experiments. A new thermal model is proposed that incorporates atmospheric conditions; effects of PV panel material composition and mounting structure. Experimental results are presented which verify the thermal behaviour of a photovoltaic panel for low to strong winds.

  14. Overview of Grid Codes for Photovoltaic Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qianwei; Li, Jiaming; Ai, Xiaomeng

    2017-01-01

    The increasing grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power stations might threaten the safety and stability of power system. Therefore, the grid code is developed for PV power stations to ensure the security of PV integrated power systems. In this paper, requirements for PV power integration in differ......The increasing grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power stations might threaten the safety and stability of power system. Therefore, the grid code is developed for PV power stations to ensure the security of PV integrated power systems. In this paper, requirements for PV power integration...

  15. A Technical, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Grid-Connected Hybrid (Photovoltaic-Wind) Power System in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Saheb-Koussa, Djohra; Koussa, Mustapha; Said, Nourredine

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simu...

  16. The PV market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper forecasts the photovoltaic (PV) market growth for the 1990s. Ten years of PV history are reviewed and used to establish market trends in terms of average selling price (ASP) and kilowatts shipped by market segment. The market is segmented into indoor consumer, stand-alone, and grid-connected applications. Indoor consumer presently represents a saturated market and is fairly predictable. The stand-alone market (i.e. not connected to the utility grid) is fairly stable and predictable. The utility PV market however is highly dependent on a number of market factors such as the cost of conventional energy the cost of PV systems utility acceptance of PV and regulatory controls. Government and institutional regulations, environmental issues, and OPEC and Middle East politics will have the greatest impact on the cost of conventional fuels. Private and federal investment in PV technology development could have a significant impact on the cost of PV systems. Forecasts are provided through the year 2000 for indoor consumer stand-alone and utility markets

  17. Operating capability as a PQ/PV node of a direct-drive wind turbine based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, L.M.; Garcia, C.A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Cadiz, EPS Algeciras, Avda. Ramon Puyol s/n,11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Jurado, F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Jaen, EPS Linares, C/ Alfonso X n . 28, 23700 Linares (Jaen) (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    This paper describes the modelling and control system of a direct-drive PMSG wind turbine for effective active and reactive power generation control and voltage control at the grid connection point. This study focuses on the maximum power capability of the wind turbine, which is limited by its generator and power converter. The ability of this model and control strategy are assessed by means of simulations and discussed at length. The results of our study show that a PMSG wind turbine is able to actively participate in grid operation because it can independently control active and reactive power production (operating as a PQ node) or the active power and voltage at the connection node (operating as a PV node). (author)

  18. Kepler-Chevreux: 100 billions invested in solar photovoltaic and wind energy produce more energy than with oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielo, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the calculation of a new index created by Kepler-Chevreux experts: the energy return on invested capital, EROCI. This index reveals the benefit of solar-energy and wind-energy based electro-mobility compared to the oil-based thermo-mobility. This index only takes economic issues into account, but not the benefits in terms of public health, environment, climate or geopolitics. It also outlines that whenever oil prices increase or decrease, the oil sector has reached a dead end, and that photovoltaic and wind energy present a growing interest among not only ecologists but also finance experts

  19. Technical and Economic Analysis of a Hybrid Generation System of Wind Turbines, Photovoltaic Modules and a Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczerbowsk Radosław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the analysis of the economic and manufacturing system consisting of wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, polymer membrane fuel cell and the electrolyzer. The system supplies the customer profile at the assumed wind and solar conditions. Energy analysis was conducted on the basis of the balance equations produced and received electric power. To assess the economic efficiency of investments adopted the following economic indicators: NPV, IRR, MIRR, MNPV, DPP. The authors describe the limits of investment costs intended for the construction, which use hybrid power generation system (HPGS is viable.

  20. Is solar PV generated electricity cheap in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation reflects on photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in South Africa, and whether it is a cheaper alternative to current generated electricity in the country. It is projected that by 2019 the installed capacity of PV could...

  1. Reliability and cost evaluation of small isolated power systems containing photovoltaic and wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Rajesh

    Renewable energy application in electric power systems is growing rapidly worldwide due to enhanced public concerns for adverse environmental impacts and escalation in energy costs associated with the use of conventional energy sources. Photovoltaics and wind energy sources are being increasingly recognized as cost effective generation sources. A comprehensive evaluation of reliability and cost is required to analyze the actual benefits of utilizing these energy sources. The reliability aspects of utilizing renewable energy sources have largely been ignored in the past due the relatively insignificant contribution of these sources in major power systems, and consequently due to the lack of appropriate techniques. Renewable energy sources have the potential to play a significant role in the electrical energy requirements of small isolated power systems which are primarily supplied by costly diesel fuel. A relatively high renewable energy penetration can significantly reduce the system fuel costs but can also have considerable impact on the system reliability. Small isolated systems routinely plan their generating facilities using deterministic adequacy methods that cannot incorporate the highly erratic behavior of renewable energy sources. The utilization of a single probabilistic risk index has not been generally accepted in small isolated system evaluation despite its utilization in most large power utilities. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy. This thesis presents an evaluation model for small isolated systems containing renewable energy sources by integrating simulation models that generate appropriate atmospheric data, evaluate chronological renewable power outputs and combine total available energy and load to provide useful system indices. A software tool SIPSREL+ has been developed which generates

  2. Module-level DC/DC conversion for photovoltaic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, H.J.; Büthker, D.; Castello, C.; Doorn, T.S.; Jong, de A.; van Otten, R.; Waal, de K.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are increasingly used to generate electrical energy from solar irradiance incident on PV modules. Each PV module is formed by placing a large amount of PV cells, typically 60, in series. The PV system is then formed by placing a number, typically 10–12, of PV modules in

  3. Scenario-based stochastic optimal operation of wind, photovoltaic, pump-storage hybrid system in frequency- based pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare Oskouei, Morteza; Sadeghi Yazdankhah, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-stage objective function is proposed for optimization problem. • Hourly-based optimal contractual agreement is calculated. • Scenario-based stochastic optimization problem is solved. • Improvement of system frequency by utilizing PSH unit. - Abstract: This paper proposes the operating strategy of a micro grid connected wind farm, photovoltaic and pump-storage hybrid system. The strategy consists of two stages. In the first stage, the optimal hourly contractual agreement is determined. The second stage corresponds to maximizing its profit by adapting energy management strategy of wind and photovoltaic in coordination with optimum operating schedule of storage device under frequency based pricing for a day ahead electricity market. The pump-storage hydro plant is utilized to minimize unscheduled interchange flow and maximize the system benefit by participating in frequency control based on energy price. Because of uncertainties in power generation of renewable sources and market prices, generation scheduling is modeled by a stochastic optimization problem. Uncertainties of parameters are modeled by scenario generation and scenario reduction method. A powerful optimization algorithm is proposed using by General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS)/CPLEX. In order to verify the efficiency of the method, the algorithm is applied to various scenarios with different wind and photovoltaic power productions in a day ahead electricity market. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. Economic PV - a shift in thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maycock, P.

    1999-01-01

    This article argues that photovoltaic (PV) technology is already economically viable contrary to current opinion. A table of world PV module shipments for 1990 to 1998 by market sector is presented, and use of PV modules in consumer electronics such as calculators, battery trickle chargers, and garden lights; in communications and signals (eg. microwave repeaters, cellular communication); and in the residential sector in fluorescent lights, radios etc. are discussed. The early adopters of PV technology, and the value placed on PV devices by consumers are considered. Details of PV manufacturing costs for 1997, and forecasts for 2000 and 2010 are tabulated

  5. Grid Support in Large Scale PV Power Plants using Active Power Reserves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut

    to validate the performance of the frequency support functions, a flexible grid model with IEEE 12 bus system characteristics has been developed and implemented in RTDS. A power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) system composed by 20 kW plant (2 x 10 kW inverters and PV linear simulator) and grid simulator (RTDS......Photovoltaic (PV) systems are in the 3rd place in the renewable energy market, after hydro and wind power. The increased penetration of PV within the electrical power system has led to stability issues of the entire grid in terms of its reliability, availability and security of the supply....... As a consequence, Large scale PV Power Plants (LPVPPs) operating in Maximum Power Point (MPP) are not supporting the electrical network, since several grid triggering events or the increased number of downward regulation procedures have forced European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity...

  6. Photovoltaic roofing tile systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, B.

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems in architecture is discussed. A PV-solar roofing tile system with polymer concrete base; PV-roofing tile with elastomer frame profiles and aluminum profile frames; contact technique; and solar cell modules measuring technique are described. Field tests at several places were conducted on the solar generator, electric current behavior, battery station, electric installation, power conditioner, solar measuring system with magnetic bubble memory technique, data transmission via telephone modems, and data processing system. The very favorable response to the PV-compact system proves the commercial possibilities of photovoltaic integration in architecture.

  7. Optimal operation management of fuel cell/wind/photovoltaic power sources connected to distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, Taher; Kavousifard, Abdollah; Tabatabaei, Sajad; Aghaei, Jamshid

    2011-10-01

    In this paper a new multiobjective modified honey bee mating optimization (MHBMO) algorithm is presented to investigate the distribution feeder reconfiguration (DFR) problem considering renewable energy sources (RESs) (photovoltaics, fuel cell and wind energy) connected to the distribution network. The objective functions of the problem to be minimized are the electrical active power losses, the voltage deviations, the total electrical energy costs and the total emissions of RESs and substations. During the optimization process, the proposed algorithm finds a set of non-dominated (Pareto) optimal solutions which are stored in an external memory called repository. Since the objective functions investigated are not the same, a fuzzy clustering algorithm is utilized to handle the size of the repository in the specified limits. Moreover, a fuzzy-based decision maker is adopted to select the 'best' compromised solution among the non-dominated optimal solutions of multiobjective optimization problem. In order to see the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, two standard distribution test systems are used as case studies.

  8. Assessing the costs of photovoltaic and wind power in six developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tobias S.; Born, Robin; Schneider, Malte

    2012-07-01

    To support developing countries in greenhouse-gas emission abatement the 2010 Cancún Agreement established various institutions, among others a financial mechanism administered by the Green Climate Fund. However, the instruments for delivering the support and the magnitude of different countries' financial needs are strongly debated. Both debates are predominantly underpinned by rather aggregate and strongly varying top-down cost estimates. To complement these numbers, we provide a more fine-grained bottom-up approach, comparing the cost of the renewable-energy technologies photovoltaics and wind in six developing countries with those of conventional technologies. Our results unveil large cost variations across specific technology-country combinations and show to what extent fossil-fuel subsidies can negatively affect the competitiveness of renewable-energy technologies. Regarding the instrument debate, our results indicate that to foster transformative changes, nationally appropriate mitigation actions are often more suited than a reformed clean development mechanism. Regarding the debate on financial needs, our results highlight the need for a decision on a fair baseline calculation methodology. To this end, we propose a new methodology that incentivizes changes in the baseline through subsidy phase-out. Finally, we contribute to the debate on domestic versus international support for these measures.

  9. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid systems for remote power supply. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J. M.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document include the papers of the RIER Workshop that was hold in Cancun, Mexico, on 21-25 April 1997. This Workshop was organized by the Non-Conventional Energy Unit of the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (IIE), with the financial contributions from the Mexican National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT) and the Iberoamerican Network for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy (RIER) of the Program Science and Technology for Development (CYTED). The purpose of this Workshop was to present works developed on the technology of Photovoltaic-Wind Hybrid Systems, and to discuss both technical and non-technical factors that could foster or inhibit the widespread application this technology [Espanol] Este documento incluye los articulos tecnicos del taller de trabajo RIER, realizado en Cancun, Mexico, del 21 al 25 de abril de 1997. Este taller de trabajo fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), con la contribucion financiera del Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT) y de la Red de Trabajo Iberoamericana para la Electrificacion Rural con Energia Renovable (RIER) del programa Ciencia y Tecnologia para el Desarrollo (CYTED). El proposito de este taller fue presentar trabajos desarrollados sobre la tecnologia de sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos y de viento, y discutir los factores tecnicos y no tecnicos que pudieran fomentar o detener la amplia aplicacion de esta tecnologia

  10. Photovoltaic and Wind Turbine Integration Applying Cuckoo Search for Probabilistic Reliable Optimal Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Swief

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient Cuckoo Search Optimization technique to improve the reliability of electrical power systems. Various reliability objective indices such as Energy Not Supplied, System Average Interruption Frequency Index, System Average Interruption, and Duration Index are the main indices indicating reliability. The Cuckoo Search Optimization (CSO technique is applied to optimally place the protection devices, install the distributed generators, and to determine the size of distributed generators in radial feeders for reliability improvement. Distributed generator affects reliability and system power losses and voltage profile. The volatility behaviour for both photovoltaic cells and the wind turbine farms affect the values and the selection of protection devices and distributed generators allocation. To improve reliability, the reconfiguration will take place before installing both protection devices and distributed generators. Assessment of consumer power system reliability is a vital part of distribution system behaviour and development. Distribution system reliability calculation will be relayed on probabilistic reliability indices, which can expect the disruption profile of a distribution system based on the volatility behaviour of added generators and load behaviour. The validity of the anticipated algorithm has been tested using a standard IEEE 69 bus system.

  11. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid systems for remote power supply. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J M; Urrutia, M [eds.; Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This document include the papers of the RIER Workshop that was hold in Cancun, Mexico, on 21-25 April 1997. This Workshop was organized by the Non-Conventional Energy Unit of the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (IIE), with the financial contributions from the Mexican National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT) and the Iberoamerican Network for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy (RIER) of the Program Science and Technology for Development (CYTED). The purpose of this Workshop was to present works developed on the technology of Photovoltaic-Wind Hybrid Systems, and to discuss both technical and non-technical factors that could foster or inhibit the widespread application this technology [Espanol] Este documento incluye los articulos tecnicos del taller de trabajo RIER, realizado en Cancun, Mexico, del 21 al 25 de abril de 1997. Este taller de trabajo fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), con la contribucion financiera del Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT) y de la Red de Trabajo Iberoamericana para la Electrificacion Rural con Energia Renovable (RIER) del programa Ciencia y Tecnologia para el Desarrollo (CYTED). El proposito de este taller fue presentar trabajos desarrollados sobre la tecnologia de sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos y de viento, y discutir los factores tecnicos y no tecnicos que pudieran fomentar o detener la amplia aplicacion de esta tecnologia

  12. Photovoltaics information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  13. Assessment of MPPT Techniques During the Faulty Conditions of PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhukya Krishna Naick

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Distributed Generation (DG systems like wind energy systems and solar Photovoltaic (PV systems on the generation of electricity has increased. Out of these DG systems, the PV systems have gained wide popularity, because of the availability of solar energy throughout the day. Depending on the size of PV installations, a large number of PV modules can be interconnected in the form of series and parallel connection. Since a large number of modules are interconnected, it is possible for the faults in a PV array to occur due to the failure of protection system, which can cause damage to the PV module and also the decrease in the output power. This paper presents the tracking of a maximum power point under the faulty conditions of 12x5 PV array. The fault conditions that have been considered in the PV array are open circuit fault, line to ground, line to line and failure of bypass diodes. Perturb and observe, incremental conductance and fuzzy logic controller are the maximum power point tracking techniques that have been implemented. For each of the fault conditions, the results have been presented in terms of the maximum power tracked, tracking time and tracking efficiency.

  14. Georgetown University Photovoltaic Higher Education National Exemplar Facility (PHENEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N.

    1984-01-01

    Several photographs of this facility using photovoltaic (PV) cells are shown. An outline is given of the systems requirements, system design and wiring topology, a simplified block design, module electrical characteristics, PV module and PV module matching.

  15. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report: Volume 5, for Beverly High School, Beverly, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    Performance data for the month of January, 1982 for a grid connected photovoltaic power supply in Massachusetts are presented. Data include: monthly and daily electrical energy produced; monthly and daily solar energy incident on the array; monthly and daily array efficiency; plots of energy produced as a function of power level, voltage, cell temperature and time of day; power conditioner input, output and efficiency for each of two individual units and for the total power conditioning system; photovoltaic system efficiency; capacity factor; PV system to load and grid to load energies and corresponding dollar values; daily energy supplies to the load by the PV system; daily PV system availability; monthly and hourly insolation; monthly and hourly temperature average; monthly and hourly wind speed; wind direction distribution; average heating and cooling degree days; number of freeze/thaw cycles; and the data acquisition mode and recording interval plot.

  16. MATLAB Simulation of Photovoltaic and Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Farah H. M.; Husaini, Yusnira

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of the photovoltaic reduces when the photovoltaic cell temperature increased due to solar irradiance. One solution is come up with the cooling system photovoltaic system. This combination is forming the photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) system. Not only will it generate electricity also heat at the same time. The aim of this research is to focus on the modeling and simulation of photovoltaic (PV) and photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) electrical performance by using single-diode equivalent circuit model. Both PV and PV/T models are developed in Matlab/Simulink. By providing the cooling system in PV/T, the efficiency of the system can be increased by decreasing the PV cell temperature. The maximum thermal, electrical and total efficiency values of PV/T in the present research are 35.18%, 15.56% and 50.74% at solar irradiance of 400 W/m2, mass flow rate of 0.05kgs-1 and inlet temperature of 25 °C respectively has been obtained. The photovoltaic-thermal shows that the higher efficiency performance compared to the photovoltaic system.

  17. An innovative thermodynamic model for performance evaluation of photovoltaic systems: Effect of wind speed and cell temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, S.C.; Rawat, Rahul; Manikandan, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel thermodynamic modelling of photovoltaic energy system has been proposed. • The entropy, optical, thermal, spectral and fill factor losses are assessed. • The expression of energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been derived. • Reversible, endoreversible, exoreversible and irreversible systems are presented. - Abstract: The photovoltaic energy conversion is a thermodynamic system which converts the solar energy to the electrical and thermal energy. In this paper, a novel thermodynamic model of photovoltaic energy conversion system has been proposed on the basis of the first and second law of thermodynamics including entropy generation, optical, thermal, spectral and fill factor losses. Based on the irreversibilities, the proposed model has been classified into four cases i.e. reversible, endoreversible, exoreversible and irreversible systems, for which, the expressions of energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been derived. The upper limit efficiency of an ideal photovoltaic module placed in an irreversible environment, i.e. endoreversible system, is determined to be 82.8%. The effect of wind speed and module temperature on the energetic and exergetic efficiencies, thermodynamic losses and irreversibilities has also been presented.

  18. Status and Needs of Power Electronics for Photovoltaic Inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Y. C.; Mohan, N.; West, R.; Bonn, R.

    2002-06-01

    Photovoltaics is the utility connected distributed energy resource (DER) that is in widespread use today. It has one element, the inverter, which is common with all DER sources except rotating generators. The inverter is required to transfer dc energy to ac energy. With all the DER technologies, (solar, wind, fuel cells, and microturbines) the inverter is still an immature product that will result in reliability problems in fielded systems. Today, the PV inverter is a costly and complex component of PV systems that produce ac power. Inverter MTFF (mean time to first failure) is currently unacceptable. Low inverter reliability contributes to unreliable fielded systems and a loss of confidence in renewable technology. The low volume of PV inverters produced restricts the manufacturing to small suppliers without sophisticated research and reliability programs or manufacturing methods. Thus, the present approach to PV inverter supply has low probability of meeting DOE reliability goals.

  19. Power of design - the future of building-integrated PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Cinzia

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses strategies to make building integrated photovoltaic (PV) systems more acceptable and to allow PV material to compete with conventional construction material. The history of developments in building integration and difficulties encountered by architects wishing to use PV products are explored, and the Dutch Amersfoot project in Utrecht involving a new suburb of 501 house covered with PV panels is described. Questions raised regarding architectural integration of PV systems, and PV systems and the construction market are discussed. The Italian PV programme, financial and political constraints, and the positioning of PV on existing structures are reported

  20. Thermal modelling of PV module performance under high ambient temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diarra, D.C.; Harrison, S.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Solar Calorimetry Lab; Akuffo, F.O. [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    When predicting the performance of photovoltaic (PV) generators, the actual performance is typically lower than test results conducted under standard test conditions because the radiant energy absorbed in the module under normal operation raises the temperature of the cell and other multilayer components. The increase in temperature translates to a lower conversion efficiency of the solar cells. In order to address these discrepancies, a thermal model of a characteristic PV module was developed to assess and predict its performance under real field-conditions. The PV module consisted of monocrystalline silicon cells in EVA between a glass cover and a tedlar backing sheet. The EES program was used to compute the equilibrium temperature profile in the PV module. It was shown that heat is dissipated towards the bottom and the top of the module, and that its temperature can be much higher than the ambient temperature. Modelling results indicate that 70-75 per cent of the absorbed solar radiation is dissipated from the solar cells as heat, while 4.7 per cent of the solar energy is absorbed in the glass cover and the EVA. It was also shown that the operating temperature of the PV module decreases with increased wind speed. 2 refs.

  1. Thermal performances of vertical hybrid PV/T air collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, I.; Touafek, K.; Bellel, N.; Khelifa, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, numerical analyses and the experimental validation of the thermal behavior of a vertical photovoltaic thermal air collector are investigated. The thermal model is developed using the energy balance equations of the PV/T air collector. Experimental tests are conducted to validate our mathematical model. The tests are performed in the southern Algerian region (Ghardaïa) under clear sky conditions. The prototype of the PV/T air collector is vertically erected and south oriented. The absorber upper plate temperature, glass cover temperature, air temperature in the inlet and outlet of the collector, ambient temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation are measured. The efficiency of the collector increases with increase in mass flow of air, but the increase in mass flow of air reduces the temperature of the system. The increase in efficiency of the PV/T air collector is due to the increase in the number of fins added. In the experiments, the air temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet of the PV/T air collector reaches 10 ° C on November 21, 2014, the interval time is between 10:00 and 14:00, and the temperature of the upper plate reaches 45 ° C at noon. The mathematical model describing the dynamic behavior of the typical PV/T air collector is evaluated by calculating the root mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. A good agreement between the experiment and the simulation results is obtained.

  2. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, Thomas; Catalano, Anthony

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  3. Photovoltaic programme - edition 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules and building integration, system technologies, planning and operating aids is summarised. Also, PV for applications in developing countries, thermo-photovoltaics and international co-operation are commented on. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and noise barriers as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and further PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents the abstracts of reports made by the project managers of 73 research and pilot and demonstration projects in these areas for 2002.

  4. Photovoltaic programme - edition 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules and building integration, system technologies, planning and operating aids is summarised. Also, PV for applications in developing countries, thermo-photovoltaics and international co-operation are commented on. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and noise barriers as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and further PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents the abstracts of reports made by the project managers of 73 research and pilot and demonstration projects in these areas for 2002.

  5. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission’s Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...

  6. Space and industrial markets for photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggins, C.R.; Hardingham, C.M.

    2000-07-01

    This report presents a review of applications, technologies and markets for photovoltaic power (PV) supplies. A brief history of PV and PV principles is presented, and an overview of the satellite industry is given. Space arrays, space PV, terrestrial PV, and thermo photovoltaics are examined. Targets and constraints in space and terrestrial solar cells are compared, and details of commercial market sizes for given technologies in space and terrestrial PV in 1999, and technical barriers to be overcome towards development of existing products are tabulated. The scope for cross-culture interaction in all aspects of manufacturing, testing and evaluation in the PV devices are considered. (UK)

  7. Space and industrial markets for photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, C.R.; Hardingham, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a review of applications, technologies and markets for photovoltaic power (PV) supplies. A brief history of PV and PV principles is presented, and an overview of the satellite industry is given. Space arrays, space PV, terrestrial PV, and thermo photovoltaics are examined. Targets and constraints in space and terrestrial solar cells are compared, and details of commercial market sizes for given technologies in space and terrestrial PV in 1999, and technical barriers to be overcome towards development of existing products are tabulated. The scope for cross-culture interaction in all aspects of manufacturing, testing and evaluation in the PV devices are considered. (UK)

  8. A technical, economic, and environmental performance of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power system in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheb-Koussa, Djohra; Koussa, Mustapha; Said, Nourredine

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power systems.

  9. A Technical, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Grid-Connected Hybrid (Photovoltaic-Wind Power System in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djohra Saheb-Koussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind power systems.

  10. Optimal coordinated scheduling of combined heat and power fuel cell, wind, and photovoltaic units in micro grids considering uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornapour, Mosayeb; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Khodabakhshian, Amin; Parastegari, Moein

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a stochastic model is proposed for coordinated scheduling of combined heat and power units in micro grid considering wind turbine and photovoltaic units. Uncertainties of electrical market price; the speed of wind and solar radiation are considered using a scenario-based method. In the method, scenarios are generated using roulette wheel mechanism based on probability distribution functions of input random variables. Using this method, the probabilistic specifics of the problem are distributed and the problem is converted to a deterministic one. The type of the objective function, coordinated scheduling of combined heat and power, wind turbine, and photovoltaic units change this problem to a mixed integer nonlinear one. Therefore to solve this problem modified particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed. The mentioned uncertainties lead to an increase in profit. Moreover, the optimal coordinated scheduling of renewable energy resources and thermal units in micro grids increase the total profit. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, its performance is executed on modified 33 bus distributed system as a micro grid. - Highlights: • Stochastic model is proposed for coordinated scheduling of renewable energy sources. • The effect of combined heat and power is considered. • Maximizing profits of micro grid is considered as objective function. • Considering the uncertainties of problem lead to profit increasing. • Optimal scheduling of renewable energy sources and thermal units increases profit.

  11. A Novel Numerical Algorithm for Optimal Sizing of a Photovoltaic/Wind/Diesel Generator/Battery Microgrid Using Loss of Load Probability Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A. Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for determining optimal sizes of PV array, wind turbine, diesel generator, and storage battery installed in a building integrated system. The objective of the proposed optimization is to design the system that can supply a building load demand at minimum cost and maximum availability. The mathematical models for the system components as well as meteorological variables such as solar energy, temperature, and wind speed are employed for this purpose. Moreover, the results showed that the optimum sizing ratios (the daily energy generated by the source to the daily energy demand for the PV array, wind turbine, diesel generator, and battery for a system located in Sohar, Oman, are 0.737, 0.46, 0.22, and 0.17, respectively. A case study represented by a system consisting of 30 kWp PV array (36%, 18 kWp wind farm (55%, and 5 kVA diesel generator (9% is presented. This system is supposed to power a 200 kWh/day load demand. It is found that the generated energy share of the PV array, wind farm, and diesel generator is 36%, 55%, and 9%, respectively, while the cost of energy is 0.17 USD/kWh.

  12. Valuation of the quantity of electric output from photovoltaic generation system in case of PV module applied to installing to vertical direction; Taiyo denchi wo suichoku ni haichishita baai no hatsudenryo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, K [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In general, it is most efficient and economical to install photovoltaic (PV) modules with proper slope. There are room spaces on the wall except ground or roof. The PV modules were installed on the vertical wall, to consider the compensative method for this weak point. When modules were installed vertically, there is an advantage that reflecting solar light as well as incident solar light can be utilized compared with the installation with slope. The PV modules were installed on the roof of building with inclination of 90{degree} facing to south using the roof material as a reflecting material (S90), and with inclination of 15{degree} facing to south (S15), to compare their output. The output ratio, S90/S15 was 0.42. When it was very fine, this value increased to 0.60. When using plated steel plate as the reflecting material, this value increased to 0.74, which provided 10 to 30% larger output than the roof material. From these results, about 50% of module output of S15 can be expected for S90. If receiving larger reflection, there would only a slight difference in the module output between S15 and S90. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zamzam, Ahmed S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Market transparency refers to the degree of customer awareness of product options and fair market prices for a given good. In The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets, we use residential solar photovoltaic (PV) quote data to study the value of transparency in distributed solar PV markets. We find that improved market transparency results in lower installation offer prices. Further, the results of this study suggest that PV customers benefit from gaining access to more PV quotes.

  14. Global PV Market Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    2009-01-01

    The dawn of 2009 saw several events which caused major turbulence in the global photovoltaic industry. In 2008 the Spanish PV market grew beyond all expectations and even outranked Germany as the world's number one market. However, the promotion scheme was modified and a market cap was introduced in 2009, cutting back the maximum capacity to be installed to about the level of 2007. In addition, the industry is facing an oversupply of PV modules and a harsh recession which is significantly affecting the traditionally strong PV markets. International photovoltaic companies are challenged by a changing market situation: all of a sudden, competition has increased significantly, pushing the customer to the fore. As a result, a consolidation process is expected within the PV industry worldwide. However, the story is not all negative. In the U.S., the election of Barack Obama may be seen as the starting signal for a massive expansion in PV, likely to bring the country to first place globally within the next five years. Furthermore, different markets and market segments are being opened up - especially in Europe - thanks to the gradual arrival of generation parity and new PV support mechanisms. EuPD Research has observed and studied international PV markets since its foundation. The information included in the presentation is based on a wide range of quantitative and qualitative studies that EuPD Research has conducted in the key markets since 2002. Florian Schmidt, EuPD Research's Head of Product Management, will give an overview of the global PV market and how it is developing in this crucial year 2009. Aspects such as technology development, production capacities and the demand side will be included, with a special emphasis on the European PV markets. So far Chinese PV companies have often benefited from the booming PV markets in Europe, above all Germany and Spain. Due to the lack of domestic market, the Chinese industry strongly depends on the export and is

  15. With building integrated photovoltaic in a daylight optimized passive house to energy autonomy; Mit gebaeudeintegrierter PV im tageslichtoptimierten Passivhaus zur bilanziellen Energieautarkie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miloni, R.P. [Miloni Lichtplanung und Architektur, Hausen (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    With the introduction of a cost recovering energy feeding law, new possibilities open up for the building integration of photovoltaics and for the solar power generation at the ''Point of sale ''. Still, the appropriate Swiss market is marginal. Not all legal, technical and financial hurdles are removed. Here the photovoltaics with its building integration is in touch with an emotional factor of revaluation: An integration of photovoltaics adresses the building owner beyond their technical-economic value at a culturally abstract level - a wing of a butterfly oscillating in the sunlight also touches on a completely different level. Exactly the same the integration of photovoltaics makes the building to a unique piece of jewellery. In the pioneer phase of the photovoltaics market, architectonically successful integrations of photovoltaics succeeded in a break-through of the solar power generation. Photovoltaics at building coverings is more than a ''fashion '': it becomes a lever arm, with which the solarization of our society transports significant values. Apart from rational-technical considerations this effect has to be used to favour a broad application of photovoltaics with the building integration more purposefully.

  16. 2015 NREL Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-14

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  17. 2016 NREL Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology - both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  18. Wind and photovoltaic energy: energetic, industrial and societal challenges - Report to the Minister for productive recovery, the Minister of ecology, sustainable development and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambrine, Fabrice; Legait, Benoit; Liger, Alain; Valerian, Francois; Bellier, Michel; Brunetiere, Jean-Rene; Gazeau, Jean-Claude; Boye, Henri; Weymuller, Benoit

    2012-09-01

    After having presented 24 recommendations resulting from this study, this report proposes a detailed and commented presentation of the general context: past development with an abundant and cheap energy, extremely ambitious national and international commitments for the development of renewable energies, wind and photovoltaic production still modest in France but in rapid growth and with a potential which must not be overestimated, the issue of intermittency and unpredictability, environmental challenges, financial support to wind and photovoltaic sectors and their impact, the role of local communities. Then, the report proposes a presentation of the wind energy sector and of the photovoltaic sector (actors, technologies, industry, jobs), of the R and D and innovation strategy within a European framework. It gives an overview of the renewable energy sector in other European member countries: Germany, Denmark, Spain, Italy and United Kingdom

  19. A case study of utility PV economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.; Hoff, T.; Osborn, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents selected results from a detailed study of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) applications within the service area of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. The intent is to better understand the economics and markets for grid-connected PV systems in a utility setting. Research results include: Benefits calculations for utility-owned PV systems at transmission and distribution voltages; How the QuickScreen software package can help utilities investigate the viability of distributed PV; Energy production and capacity credit estimates for fixed and tracking PV systems; Economics and rate impacts of net metering residential PV systems; Market potential estimates for residential rooftop PV systems; and Viability and timing of grid-connected PV commercialization paths

  20. Photovoltaic sources modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Petrone, Giovanni; Spagnuolo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive guide surveys all available models for simulating a photovoltaic (PV) generator at different levels of granularity, from cell to system level, in uniform as well as in mismatched conditions. Providing a thorough comparison among the models, engineers have all the elements needed to choose the right PV array model for specific applications or environmental conditions matched with the model of the electronic circuit used to maximize the PV power production.

  1. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 3: Renewable energy plant: reports on wind, photovoltaics and biomas energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoha, Bruno; Cohen, Martin [Electricite de France (France)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 3 (WG3). WG3 will promote the introduction of performance indicators for renewable energy generating plant (wind, geothermal, solar and biomass) developed by the Committee. It will also assess selected transitional technology issues and environmental factors related to non-conventional technologies. The WG3 report includes sections on Wind Energy Today, Photovoltaics Energy Today, Biomass Electricity Today and appendices.

  2. Optimized Sizing, Selection, and Economic Analysis of Battery Energy Storage for Grid-Connected Wind-PV Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Fathima, Hina; Palanisamy, K.

    2015-01-01

    Energy storages are emerging as a predominant sector for renewable energy applications. This paper focuses on a feasibility study to integrate battery energy storage with a hybrid wind-solar grid-connected power system to effectively dispatch wind power by incorporating peak shaving and ramp rate limiting. The sizing methodology is optimized using bat optimization algorithm to minimize the cost of investment and losses incurred by the system in form of load shedding and wind curtailment. The ...

  3. Photovoltaics in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolcso, S L

    1983-06-01

    A literature review was carried out for the purpose of summarizing the current conditions existing and affecting photovoltaics (PV) technology in a Canadian context. Information is presented concerning: PV device materials and efficiencies; PV cell manufacturing techniques; other materials/device designs; photovoltaic costs, markets, and research and development; PV and microelectronics; and Canadian strengths and opportunities. It was concluded that PV's simplicity, amenability to mass production and environmentally benign nature will likely assure it a faster and eventually greater market penetration than any other renewable energy form (and possibly some conventional forms). It is recommended that the Ministry of State, Science and Technology coordinate a joint microelectronics-photovoltaic research effort, by: indentifying areas where joint efforts would be mutually beneficial; identifying the strategic value of PV; identifying a set of goals for Canadian programs; coordinating efforts between government, universities and industry; developing supporting strategies for the mining and smelting of indigenous semiconducting materials; determining the economic support required to develop a silicon processing plant for the production of microelectronic chips and PV cells; developing Canadian expertise in providing complete PV systems competitive in world markets; and developing a marketing strategy for a coordinated PV/microelectronics effort. 60 refs., 17 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Good and bad practices in pv plants

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Moreno, Francisco; Helleputte, F.; Tyutyundzhiev, N.; Rabal Echeverria, Daniel; Conlon, Michael; Fartaria, Tomás; Oteiza, David

    2013-01-01

    The PVCROPS project (PhotoVolta ic Cost r€duction, Reliability, Operational performance, Prediction and Simulation), cofinanced by European Commission in the frame of Seventh Framework Programme, has compiled in the “Good and bad practices: Manual to improve the quality and reduce the cost of PV systems” a collection of good and bad practices in actual PV plants . All the situations it collects represent the state-of-the-art of existing PV installations all around Europe. They show how ...

  5. Urban photovoltaic electricity policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at urban photovoltaic electricity policies. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy as a significant and sustainable renewable energy option. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The goal of the study presented was to evaluate a standardised basis for urban policies regarding photovoltaic integration in a set of cities in the countries participating in the IEA's Task 10, Urban Scale PV. The investigation was focused on three topics: the present state of the policies, the prospects for future policies fostering photovoltaic deployment and the prospects for future policies to cope with large-scale photovoltaic integration. The first section analyses the state of the policies; this analysis is then confirmed in section 2, which deals with present obstacles to PV deployment and solutions to overcome them. The third section investigates future prospects for PV deployment with the question of mastering large scale integration. The report concludes that cities could formulate urban solutions by developing integrated, specific provisions for PV deployment in their urban infrastructure planning.

  6. An experimental investigation of SiC nanofluid as a base-fluid for a photovoltaic thermal PV/T system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Waeli, Ali H.A.; Sopian, K.; Chaichan, Miqdam T.; Kazem, Hussein A.; Hasan, Husam Abdulrasool; Al-Shamani, Ali Najah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano-SiC-water used as a base fluid for cooling an outdoor PV/T system. • The used nanofluid improved the thermal and electrical efficiencies of the PV/T system. • The stability of nanofluid was examined for an extended period and found to be stable. • The overall effectiveness found to be 88.9% compared to the separate PV system. - Abstract: The thermophysical properties of nanofluid composed of water and SiC nanoparticles without the use of a surfactant as a coolant for a PV/T system was investigated. It was observed that the addition of 3 wt% of these nanoparticles to water caused an increase in the resulting fluid density by up to 0.0082% and an increase of viscosity by up to 1.8%. Moreover, the thermal conductivity was enhanced by up to 8.2% for the tested temperature range of 25 °C–60 °C. The stability of the nanofluid was examined at intervals of three months and it was found that after six months the thermal conductivity reduced by up to 0.003 W/m K, indicating that the solution was stable and suitable for use for long periods. The use of 3 wt% SiC nanofluid increased the electrical efficiency by up to 24.1% compared to the PV system alone, while the thermal efficiency increased by up to 100.19% compared to the use of water for cooling. The final results indicated that the total effectiveness of the PV/T nanofluid system had a higher overall efficiency of about 88.9% compared to the separate PV system.

  7. Photovoltaic System in Progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Sera, Dezso

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive update on photovoltaic (PV) technologies and the materials. In recent years, targeted research advancement has been made in the photovoltaic cell technologies to reduce cost and increase efficiency. Presently, several types of PV solar panels are commercially...... falls in the third generation PV technologies. However, Multi-junction Cells are still considered new and have not yet achieved commercialization status. The fundamental change observed among all generations has been how the semiconductor material is employed and the development associated with crystal...

  8. PV–wind hybrid power option for a low wind topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Subhadeep; Acharya, Shantanu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimally harness the wind energy by unification of solar resource. • Analysis of PV–wind hybrid system with tangible experience. • Cost of generation and renewable fraction are $0.488/kWh and 0.90 respectively. • Maximum wind penetration is observed to be 32.75% with installed PV–wind system. • Indicative annual grid electricity conservation is 90%. - Abstract: Solar and wind are clean energy sources with enormous potential to alleviate grid dependence. The paper aims to optimally harness the wind resource with the support of solar energy through hybrid technology for a north-east Indian state Tripura (low wind topography). Techno-economic analysis of a photovoltaic (PV)-wind hybrid simulation model has been performed for small scale application in an educational building. The study also evaluates the tangible performance of a similar plant in practical condition of the site. It has emerged from the study that major energy generation is turning out from PV segment which is promising almost all round the year. Nonetheless, a considerable amount of wind power is found to be generated during half of the year when average PV power production is comparatively less. The cost of electricity from the simulation model is found to be $0.488/kWh while renewable fraction in the total electricity share is obtained to be 0.90. From the actual performance of the plant, maximum wind penetration is observed to be 32.75%

  9. A solar PV augmented hybrid scheme for enhanced wind power generation through improved control strategy for grid connected doubly fed induction generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adikanda Parida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a wind power generation scheme using a grid connected doubly fed induction generator (DFIG augmented with solar PV has been proposed. A reactive power-based rotor speed and position estimation technique with reduced machine parameter sensitivity is also proposed to improve the performance of the DFIG controller. The estimation algorithm is based on model reference adaptive system (MRAS, which uses the air gap reactive power as the adjustable variable. The overall generation reliability of the wind energy conversion system can be considerably improved as both solar and wind energy can supplement each other during lean periods of either of the sources. The rotor-side DC-link voltage and active power generation at the stator terminals of the DFIG are maintained constant with minimum storage battery capacity using single converter arrangement without grid-side converter (GSC. The proposed scheme has been simulated and experimentally validated with a practical 2.5 kW DFIG using dSPACE CP1104 module which produced satisfactory results.

  10. A Simple Power Management Scheme with Enhanced Stability for a Solar PV/Wind/Fuel Cell/Grid Fed Hybrid Power Supply Designed for Industrial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new power conditioner topology with an intelligent power management controller that integrates multiple renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, and fuel cell energy with battery and AC grid supply as backup to make the best use of their operating characteristics with better reliability than that could be obtained by single renewable energy source based power supply. The proposed embedded controller is programmed to perform MPPT for solar PV panel and WTG, SOC estimation and battery, maintaining a constant voltage at PCC and power flow control by regulating the reference currents of the controller in an instantaneous basis. The instantaneous variation in reference currents of the controller enhances the controller response as it accommodates the effect of continuously varying solar insolation and wind speed in the power management. It also prioritizes the sources for consumption to achieve maximum usage of green energy than grid energy. The simulation results of the proposed power management system with real-time solar radiation and wind velocity data collected from solar centre, KEC, and experimental results for a sporadically varying load demand are presented in this paper and the results are encouraging from reliability and stability perspectives.

  11. High-resolution global irradiance monitoring from photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Tina; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Siegmund, Alexander; Meilinger, Stefanie; Mayer, Bernhard; Pinitz, Sven; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Reliable and regional differentiated power forecasts are required to guarantee an efficient and economic energy transition towards renewable energies. Amongst other renewable energy technologies, e.g. wind mills, photovoltaic systems are an essential component of this transition being cost-efficient and simply to install. Reliable power forecasts are however required for a grid integration of photovoltaic systems, which among other data requires high-resolution spatio-temporal global irradiance data. Hence the generation of robust reviewed global irradiance data is an essential contribution for the energy transition. To achieve this goal our studies introduce a novel method which makes use of photovoltaic power generation in order to infer global irradiance. The method allows to determine high-resolution temporal global irradiance data (one data point every 15 minutes at each location) from power data of operated photovoltaic systems. Due to the multitude of installed photovoltaic systems (in Germany) the detailed spatial coverage is much better than for example only using global irradiance data from conventional pyranometer networks (e.g. from the German Weather Service). Our designated method is composed of two components: a forward component, i.e. to conclude from predicted global irradiance to photovoltaic (PV) power, and a backward component, i.e. from PV power with suitable calibration to global irradiance. The forward process is modelled by using the radiation transport model libRadtran (B. Mayer and A. Kylling (1)) for clear skies to obtain the characteristics (orientation, size, temperature dependence, …) of individual PV systems. For PV systems in the vicinity of a meteorological station, these data are validated against calibrated pyranometer readings. The forward-modelled global irradiance is used to determine the power efficiency for each photovoltaic system using non-linear optimisation techniques. The backward component uses the power efficiency

  12. Modeling Photovoltaic Power

    OpenAIRE

    Mavromatakis, F.; Franghiadakis, Y.; Vignola, F.

    2016-01-01

    A robust and reliable model describing the power produced by a photovoltaic system is needed in order to be able to detect module failures, inverter malfunction, shadowing effects and other factors that may result to energy losses. In addition, a reliable model enables an investor to perform accurate estimates of the system energy production, payback times etc. The model utilizes the global irradiance reaching the plane of the photovoltaic modules since in almost all Photovoltaic (PV) facilit...

  13. Data book on new energy technology development in FY 1997. Installations of photovoltaic (PV) power generation; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Taiyoko hatsuden jireishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The present survey places particular emphasis on the field of PV power generation systems, and intends to collect data on solar cell application products and PV power generation system installation cases, to classify them according to their usage and to compile a collection of case records including photographs. For the data collection, two formats have been adopted. A format for the solar cell-based products includes a picture of the product, and information on solar cell output and commercialization status. Another format for the installation of PV power systems includes a picture of the installation, and information on location, output level, system type, PV module type, owner, and date of installation. The application of solar cells was classified into 14 fields, i.e., consumer appliances, road and traffic, railroad, general industries, housing related, automobiles, agriculture, ocean development, disaster prevention and safety, amenity, developing countries, buildings, public facilities, and environment. A total of 241 valid cases have been collected. Overseas products and installation cases are often characterized by new applications and innovative design, and contain a lot of useful suggestions for promoting the spread of PV technology in Japan

  14. Voltage Gain Derivation Based on Energy-Balanced Criterion for a Novel Hybrid-Input PV-Wind Power Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies energy-balanced criterion to a novel hybrid-input PV-wind power conversion system (HPWPCS for voltage gain derivation. With the energy-balanced concept, complicated mathematical problems related to voltage gain derivation can be readily resolved. Based on the derived results, it is proven that the proposed HPWPCS is able to process two different kinds of renewable energy resources simultaneously. Even though the HPWPCS includes seven capacitors and three magnetic components, its voltage gain still can be found by the mathematical analysis. In the theoretical derivation, only the energy status of output inductor is dealt with such that complicated derivation procedure is avoided. This analysis method can also be applied to other hybrid green-energy conversion systems. In this paper, a 200 W 50 kHz prototype of HPWPCS is built and examined to verify the mathematical results.

  15. Impedance characterization of PV modules in outdoor conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oprea, Matei-lon; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Spataru, Sergiu

    2016-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy (IS) has been used for laboratory characterizations of photovoltaic (PV) technologies under well controlled conditions. This work applies IS for outdoor characterization of PV panels, in order to observe the effect of irradiance (G) and temperature (T) on the PV module’s...

  16. Overview of Recent Grid Codes for PV Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2012-01-01

    The challenge to bring down the cost of produced photovoltaic (PV) power had a major impact on the PV market and in consequence the grid operators experienced higher and higher PV power penetration. The growing share of this decentralized generation plants started to affect the grid stability...

  17. Voltage rise mitigation for solar PV integration at LV grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guangya; Marra, Francesco; Juamperez Goñi, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy from photovoltaic (PV) is among the fastest developing renewable energy systems worldwide. Driven by governmental subsidies and technological development, Europe has seen a fast expansion of solar PV in the last few years. Among the installed PV plants, most of them are situated...

  18. PHOTOVOLTAICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1998. REPORT ON THE WORKSHOP PHOTOVOLTAICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FTHENAKIS,V.; ZWEIBEL,K.; MOSKOWITZ,P.

    1999-02-01

    The objective of the workshop ``Photovoltaics and the Environment'' was to bring together PV manufacturers and industry analysts to define EH and S issues related to the large-scale commercialization of PV technologies.

  19. PSCAD Modules Representing PV Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-08-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPs) have been growing in size, and the installation time is very short. With the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels dropping in recent years, it can be predicted that in the next 10 years the contribution of PVPs to the total number of renewable energy power plants will grow significantly. In this project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a dynamic modeling of the modules to be used as building blocks to develop simulation models of single PV arrays, expanded to include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), expanded to include PV inverter, or expanded to cover an entire PVP. The focus of the investigation and complexity of the simulation determines the components that must be included in the simulation. The development of the PV inverter was covered in detail, including the control diagrams. Both the current-regulated voltage source inverter and the current-regulated current source inverter were developed in PSCAD. Various operations of the PV inverters were simulated under normal and abnormal conditions. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults were simulated, presented, and discussed. Both the three-phase analysis and the symmetrical component analysis were included to clarify the understanding of unsymmetrical faults. The dynamic model validation was based on the testing data provided by SCE. Testing was conducted at SCE with the focus on the grid interface behavior of the PV inverter under different faults and disturbances. The dynamic model validation covers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.

  20. Influence of Special Weather on Output of PV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zele

    2018-01-01

    The output of PV system is affected by different environmental factors, therefore, it is important to study the output of PV system under different environmental conditions. Through collecting data on the spot, collecting the output of photovoltaic panels under special weather conditions, and comparing the collected data, the output characteristics of the photovoltaic panels under different weather conditions are obtained. The influence of weather factors such as temperature, humidity and irradiance on the output of photovoltaic panels was investigated.