WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind photovoltaics pv

  1. Comparative Study Between Wind and Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Wesam

    This paper reviews two renewable energy systems; wind and photovoltaic (PV) systems. The common debate between the two of them is to conclude which one is better, in terms of cost and efficiency. Therefore, comparative study, in terms of cost and efficiency, is attempted. Regarding total cost of both, wind and PV systems, many parameters must be taken into consideration such as availability of energy (either wind or solar), operation and maintenance, availability of costumers, political influence, and the components used in building the system. The main components and parameters that play major role in determining the overall efficiency of wind systems are the wind turbine generator (WTG), gearbox and control technologies such as power, and speed control. On the other hand, in grid-connected PV systems (GCPVS), converter architecture along with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm and inverter topologies are the issues that affects the efficiency significantly. Cost and efficiency analyses of both systems have been carried out based on the statistics available till today and would be useful in the progress of renewable energy penetration throughout the world.

  2. Simulation and Modeling of a Five -Level (NPC Inverter Fed by a Photovoltaic Generator and Integrated in a Hybrid Wind-PV Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezki,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A distributed hybrid coordinated wind photovoltaic (PV power system was proposed in this paper. As oil and coal reserves are being depleted whilst at the same time the energy demand is growing, it is important to consider alternative energy generating techniques. Today, the five-level (NPC inverter represents a good alternative for several industrial applications. To take advantage of the five-level inverter topology and the benefits of renewable energy represented by a photovoltaic generator, a new scheme of these controllers is proposed in this work. This paper outlines the design of a hybrid power system consisting of a solar photovoltaic (PV and a wind power system. The system is modeled in Matlab Simulink and tested for various conditions. The model and results are discussed in this paper.

  3. Photovoltaic (PV) energy in the Netherlands and Switzerland. A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Loo, F.; Spiessens, P.

    1995-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) energy in Switzerland and the Netherlands is compared for a number of aspects. The Swiss have realized more PV capacity. Also the economic conditions to develop PV are better in Switzerland than in the Netherlands. In Switzerland the public support is mobilized for solar energy while in the Netherlands a social basis is created for wind energy. 3 ills., 3 tabs

  4. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  5. Photovoltaics: PV takes off the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Ray; Gregory, Jenny

    2000-01-01

    Despite historical ups and downs, there is still ambition to bring increasingly efficient photovoltaic (PV) systems to the market. PV for major remote telecommunications systems is now an established part of the market, many mobile phone systems are powered by PV and there is potential for increased use of home solar systems, especially in developing countries. Over the past few years, building-integrated PV (BIPV) has been on the increase. In 1999, global production from PV exceeded 200 MW and the UK installed capacity was greater than 1 MW. BIPV is a fast growing market and its characteristics and advantages are discussed. PV installations at Nottingham University, Greenwich Pavilion, BP Amoco Sunbury, Baglan Bay, BP filling stations, and Sainsbury's are described

  6. The market for photovoltaic (PV) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantzis, L.; Vejtasa, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a study that was intended to provide the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) with a market analysis for photovoltaic (PV) technologies under development by EPRI and others. The analysis was to focus on markets and factors leading to significant incremental growth for PV demand, large enough to support more efficient scale PV manufacturing capacity. EPRI anticipates that PV ultimately could provide grid-connected power, however, the 1995--2010 market dynamics are uncertain. The specific objectives of this study, therefore, were to: determine what major future domestic US markets for PV technologies will emerge and provide enough volume to support significant improvements in manufacturing costs through manufacturing economies of scale; provide insight on what is needed to gain acceptance of PV technologies for electric power generation in those major markets; provide insight on when investments in demonstration and manufacturing facilities should be made and what is needed to be successful in each element of the business that these markets could support (e.g., technology development, manufacturing, sales, installation, and service); and provide key insights on the requirements for commercial success of PV in the utility sector

  7. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia); Yahaya, M. S. [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  8. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  9. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand

  10. PV Obelisk - Information system with photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoss, D.; Rasmussen, J.

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development of an information system powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array. As an innovative approach, the 'PV-Obelisk' project is the combination of PV with a multi-functional pillar made of natural stone in an aesthetic way. The PV modules serve both as a power supply and as a design element. Two initial prototypes led the way to a third, optimised consumer configuration that was planned to guarantee maximum user frequency. Test operation in front of the 'Heidiland' motor way restaurant confirmed the market analyses made and delivered the expected results. The product, whose three LCD displays are updated via a mobile telephony-based text-message system, proved its technical reliability and showed a high user frequency. Because of the high overall energy consumption, PV power can only partially contribute to the energy supply needed. Various compromises in the technical and aesthetic areas are discussed that were made for the sake of product acceptance in the market. The range of application areas for such a 'PV Obelisk' are discussed and the need for early co-ordination with urban planners is stressed

  11. Simulation of transcontinental wind and solar PV generation time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño Martinez, Edgar; Maule, Petr; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2018-01-01

    The deployment of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is driving modern power systems towards a fundamental green transition. In this regard, there is a need to develop models to accurately capture the variability of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power, at different geographical and temporal scales...

  12. SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-Cost PV Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zuboy, Jarrett; Woodhouse, Michael A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This presentation summarizes the findings from the report 'SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-cost PV Future.' This presentation was given as a webinar on September 26, 2017.

  13. Innovations in Wind and Solar PV Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Jenkin, T.; Pater, J.; Swezey, B.

    2008-02-01

    There is growing national interest in renewable energy development based on the economic, environmental, and security benefits that these resources provide. Historically, greater development of our domestic renewable energy resources has faced a number of hurdles, primarily related to cost, regulation, and financing. With the recent sustained increase in the costs and associated volatility of fossil fuels, the economics of renewable energy technologies have become increasingly attractive to investors, both large and small. As a result, new entrants are investing in renewable energy and new business models are emerging. This study surveys some of the current issues related to wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project financing in the electric power industry, and identifies both barriers to and opportunities for increased investment.

  14. PVSOFT99 - Photovoltaic (PV) System Sizing And Simulation Software

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computer program (PVSOFT99) has been developed for sizing and simulation of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems. Two distinct PV sizing algorithms, one based on the worst case and the other on the reliability concept, have been incorporated in the program. The reliability concept is generalized in that variation of ...

  15. Parallel experimental study of a novel super-thin thermal absorber based photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) system against conventional photovoltaic (PV) system

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Xu; Xingxing Zhang; Jingchun Shen; Xudong Zhao; Wei He; Deying Li

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) semiconductor degrades in performance due to temperature rise. A super thin-conductive thermal absorber is therefore developed to regulate the PV working temperature by retrofitting the existing PV panel into the photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panel. This article presented the parallel comparative investigation of the two different systems through both laboratory and field experiments. The laboratory evaluation consisted of one PV panel and one PV/T panel respectively while the...

  16. Photovoltaic-STATCOM with Low Voltage Ride through Strategy and Power Quality Enhancement in a Grid Integrated Wind-PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshman Naik Popavath

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional configurations of power systems are changing due to the greater penetration of renewable energy sources (solar and wind, resulting in reliability issues. At present, the most severe power quality problems in distribution systems are current harmonics, reactive power demands, and the islanding of renewables caused by severe voltage variations (voltage sag and swell. Current harmonics and voltage sag strongly affect the performance of renewable-based power systems. Various conventional methods (passive filters, capacitor bank, and UPS are not able to mitigate harmonics and voltage sag completely. Based on several studies, custom power devices can mitigate harmonics completely and slightly mitigate voltage sags with reactive power supplies. To ensure the generating units remain grid-connected during voltage sags and to improve system operation during abnormal conditions, efficient and reliable utilization of PV solar farm inverter as STATCOMs is needed. This paper elaborates the dynamic performance of a VSC-based PV-STATCOM for power quality enhancement in a grid integrated system and low voltage ride through (LVRT capability. LVRT requirements suggest that the injection of real and reactive power supports grid voltage during abnormal grid conditions. The proposed strategy was demonstrated with MATLAB simulations.

  17. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Security lightning application is selected, whereas system performance data and environmental operating conditions are measured and stored. This hybrid system, which includes a PV, wind turbine, inverter, and a battery, was installed to supply energy to 24 W lamps, considering that the renewable energy resources of this site where the system was installed were 1700 Wh/m2/day solar radiation and 3.43 m/s yearly average wind speed. Using the measured variables, the inverter and charge regulator efficiencies were calculated as 90% and 98%, respectively, and the overall system’s electrical efficiency is calculated as 72%. Life cycle costs per kWh are found to be $0.89 and LLP = 0.0428.

  18. Photovoltaic-wind-fuel cell-hybrid systems for the supply of measuring stations at offshore drilling platforms; PV-Wind-Brennstoffzellen-Hybridsysteme zur Versorgung von Messstationen auf Meeresplattformen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, M.; Thomas, R.; Schwunk, S.; Pfanner, N.; Schreiber, F.; Otto, J. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Wolf, M.; Losch, S. [Pairan Elektronik GmbH, Goettingen (Germany); Zenz, T.; Hoereth, R. [Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Koblenz (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Measurement and acquisition of environmental data for dependable weather forecasts, for early warnings of natural catastrophes like avalanches, floods or storms, and for identification of potential wind park sites are performed almost exclusively by automated measurement stations. Remote from the electricity grid, these stations are self-sufficient and the electricity is generally provided by a PV module. Due to the existing environmental conditions the supply with PV only is often not sufficient, especially when additional power is needed, e.g. for heating sensors during periods of bad weather. With modular and flexible to use hybrid PV systems this gap can be closed and a reliable operation of measurement stations in remote locations can be enabled. Therefore PV and batteries are supplemented with an auxiliary power supply in form of wind generators and fuel cells. The core of such systems is an energy management system, which ensures a high efficiency and a reliable operation even under heavy environmental conditions. In this contribution a hybrid PV wind fuel cell system powering a measurement station on an off-shore platform is introduced. Results of a simulation study and the potential of using a closed hydrogen loop are presented. (orig.)

  19. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy; latest developments in the building integrated and hybrid PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental concerns are growing and interest in environmental issues is increasing and the idea of generating electricity with less pollution is becoming more and more attractive. Unlike conventional generation systems, fuel of the solar photovoltaic energy is available at no cost. And solar photovoltaic energy systems generate electricity pollution-free and can easily be installed on the roof of residential as well as on the wall of commercial buildings as grid-connected PV application. In addition to grid-connected rooftop PV systems, solar photovoltaic energy offers a solution for supplying electricity to remote located communities and facilities, those not accessible by electricity companies. The interest in solar photovoltaic energy is growing worldwide. Today, more than 3500MW of photovoltaic systems have been installed all over the world. Since 1970, the PV price has continuously dropped [8]. This price drop has encouraged worldwide application of small-scale residential PV systems. These recent developments have led researchers concerned with the environment to undertake extensive research projects for harnessing renewable energy sources including solar energy. The usage of solar photovoltaic as a source of energy is considered more seriously making future of this technology looks promising. The objective of this contribution is to present the latest developments in the area of solar photovoltaic energy systems. A further objective of this contribution is to discuss the long-term prospect of the solar photovoltaic energy as a sustainable energy supply. [Author

  20. Sizing PV-wind hybrid energy system for lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sizing of wind and photovoltaic generators ensures lower operational costs and therefore, is considered as an important issue. An approach for sizing along with a best management technique for a PV-wind hybrid system with batteries is proposed in this paper, in which the best size for every component of the system could be optimized according to the weather conditions and the load profile. The average hourly values for wind speed and solar radiation for Izmir, Turkey has been used in the design of the systems, along with expected load profile. A hybrid power model is also developed for battery operation according to the power balance between generators and loads used in the software, to anticipate performances for the different systems according to the different weather conditions. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Using proposed procedure, a 1.2 kWp PV-wind hybrid system was designed for Izmir, and simulated and measured results are presented.

  1. Optimal Capacity Allocation of Large-Scale Wind-PV-Battery Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehe Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal capacity allocation of large-scale wind-photovoltaic- (PV- battery units was proposed. First, an output power model was established according to meteorological conditions. Then, a wind-PV-battery unit was connected to the power grid as a power-generation unit with a rated capacity under a fixed coordinated operation strategy. Second, the utilization rate of renewable energy sources and maximum wind-PV complementation was considered and the objective function of full life cycle-net present cost (NPC was calculated through hybrid iteration/adaptive hybrid genetic algorithm (HIAGA. The optimal capacity ratio among wind generator, PV array, and battery device also was calculated simultaneously. A simulation was conducted based on the wind-PV-battery unit in Zhangbei, China. Results showed that a wind-PV-battery unit could effectively minimize the NPC of power-generation units under a stable grid-connected operation. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the wind-PV-battery unit demonstrated that the optimization result was closely related to potential wind-solar resources and government support. Regions with rich wind resources and a reasonable government energy policy could improve the economic efficiency of their power-generation units.

  2. TRNSYS HYBRID wind diesel PV simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, P.J.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.; Blair, N.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Energy Laboratory (SEL) has developed a wind diesel PV hybrid systems simulator, UW-HYBRID 1.0, an application of the TRNSYS 14.2 time-series simulation environment. An AC/DC bus links up to five diesels and wind turbine models, along with PV modules, a battery bank, and an AC/DC converter. Multiple units can be selected. PV system simulations include solar angle and peak power tracking options. Weather data are Typical Meteorological Year data, parametrically generated synthesized data, or external data files. PV performance simulations rely on long-standing SEL-developed algorithms. Loads data are read as scalable time series. Diesel simulations include estimated fuel-use and waste heat output, and are dispatched using a least-cost of fuel strategy. Wind system simulations include varying air density, wind shear and wake effects. Time step duration is user-selectable. UW-HYBRID 1.0 runs in Windows{reg_sign}, with TRNSED providing a customizable user interface. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Tools for PV (photovoltaic) plant operators: Nowcasting of passing clouds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paulescu, M.; Badescu, V.; Brabec, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2013), s. 104-112 ISSN 0360-5442 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12009 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : PV (photovoltaic) plants * Sunshine number * Nowcasting * ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) modeling Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 4.159, year: 2013

  4. Improving the efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) panels by oil coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Elhady, M.S.; Fouad, M.M.; Khalil, T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • It is possible to improve the efficiency of PV panels by increasing the amount of light transmitted to the panel. • Coating PV panels by a fine layer of Labovac oil increases the amount of sun light transmitted to the panel. • Coating PV panels by a fine layer of Labovac oil increases the power output of the panel. • Coating PV panels with a layer of Labovac oil has to be applied in cold countries and not in hot regions. - Abstract: The objective of this research is to develop a new technique for improving the efficiency of Photovoltaic (PV) panels. This technique is done by coating the front surface of the PV panel by a fine layer of oil in order to increase the amount of light transmitted to the panel, and consequently its efficiency. Different types of oils are examined, including both mineral oils and natural oils. In case of mineral oils; vacuum pump oil (Labovac oil), engine oil (Mobil oil) and brake oil (Abro oil) are examined, while in case of natural oils; olive and sunflower oils are examined. An experimental setup has been developed to examine the performance of the PV panels as a function of oil coatings. The experimental setup consists of an artificial sun, the PV panel under investigation, a cooling system and a measuring system to measure the performance of the panel. It has been found that coating the PV panel with a fine layer of Labovac oil, ∼1 mm thick, improves the efficiency of the PV panel by more than 20%, and this is due to the high transmissivity of the Labovac oil compared to other oils. However, the Labovac oil has a drawback which is overheating of the panel due to its high transmissivity. Coating of PV panels with a fine layer of Labovac oil should be done only in cold regions, in order to avoid the heating effect that can decrease the power output of PV panels.

  5. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid system for permanent magnet DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Lada, M. Y.; Baharom, M. F.; Jaafar, H. I.; Ramani, A. N.; Sulaima, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Hybrid system of Photovoltaic (PV) - Wind turbine (WT) generation has more advantages and reliable compared to PV or wind turbine system alone. The aim of this paper is to model and design hybrid system of PV-WT supplying 100W permanent-magnet dc motor. To achieve the objective, both of PV and WT are connected to converter in order to get the same source of DC supply. Then both sources were combined and straightly connected to 100W permanent magnet dc motor. All the works in this paper is only applied in circuit simulator by using Matlab Simulink. The output produced from each converter is expected to be suit to the motor specification. The output produced from each renewable energy system is as expected to be high as it can support the motor if one of them is breakdown

  6. Dynamic response evaluation of sensorless MPPT method for hybrid PV-DFIG wind turbine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danvu Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a sensorless Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method for a hybrid Photovoltaic-Wind system, which consists of Photovoltaic (PV system and Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG Wind Turbine. In the hybrid system, the DC/DC converter output of the PV system is directly connected to the DC-link of DFIG’s back-to-back converter. Therefore, the PV inverter and its associated circuit can be removed in this structure. Typically, the PV power is monitored by using PV current sensor and PV voltage sensor for MPPT. In this paper, the powers of converters on grid side and rotor side of DFIG are used to estimate the PV power without the PV current sensor. That can efficiently reduce the cost of the hybrid system. The detailed analysis of the sensorless MPPT method, which includes derived equations and operation response, is also presented in this paper. In addition, an overview of PV-DFIG research in literature is stated to supply comprehensive knowledge of related research.

  7. Complementing hydropower with PV and wind: optimal energy mix in a fully renewable Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jérôme; Kahl, Annelen; Kruyt, Bert; Lehning, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Like several other countries, Switzerland plans to phase out its nuclear power production and will replace most or all of it by renewables. Switzerland has the chance to benefit from a large hydropower potential and has already exploited almost all of it. Currently about 60% of the Swiss electricity consumption is covered by hydropower, which will eventually leave a gap of about 40% to the other renewables mainly composed of photovoltaics (PV) and wind. With its high flexibility, storage hydropower will play a major role in the future energy mix, providing valuable power and energy balance. Our work focuses on the interplay between PV, wind and storage hydropower, to analyze the dynamics of this complex system and to identify the best PV-wind mixing ratio. Given the current electricity consumption and the currently installed pumping capacity of the storage hydropower plants, it appears that the Swiss hydropower system can completely alleviate the intermittency of PV and wind. However, some seasonal mismatch between production and demand will remain, but we show that oversizing the production from PV and wind or enlarging the reservoir capacity can be a solution to keep it to an acceptable level or even eliminate it. We found that PV, wind and hydropower performs the best together when the share of PV in the solar - wind mix is between 20 and 60%. These findings are quantitatively specific for Switzerland but qualitatively transferable to similar mountainous environments with abundant hydropower resources.

  8. Harmonic analysis and suppression in hybrid wind & PV solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tripti; Namekar, Swapnil

    2018-04-01

    The growing demand of electricity has led to produce power through non-conventional source of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, hydro power, energy through biogas and biomass etc. Hybrid system is taken to complement the shortcoming of either sources of energy. The proposed system is grid connected hybrid wind and solar system. A 2.1 MW Doubly fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has been taken for analysis of wind farm whose rotor part is connected to two back-to-back converters. A 250 KW Photovoltaic (PV) array taken to analyze solar farm where inverter is required to convert power from DC to AC since electricity generated through solar PV is in the form of DC. Stability and reliability of the system is very important when the system is grid connected. Harmonics is the major Power quality issue which degrades the quality of power at load side. Harmonics in hybrid system arise through the use of power conversion unit. The other causes of harmonics are fluctuation in wind speed and solar irradiance. The power delivered to grid must be free from harmonics and within the limits specified by Indian grid codes. In proposed work, harmonic analysis of the hybrid system is performed in Electrical Transient Analysis program (ETAP) and single tuned harmonic filter is designed to maintain the utility grid harmonics within limits.

  9. Quantifying system-wide financial costs and benefits of renewables (Wind and PV) in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, T

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available .3 billion in total (or R2.42 per kWh of renewable energy), while the tariff payments to independent power producers of the first wind and photovoltaic (PV) projects were only R4.5 billion (or R2.07 per kWh of renewable energy), leaving a net benefit of R0...

  10. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T Tafticht; K Agbossou

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyzer, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  11. PV Obelisk - Information system with photovoltaics; PV-Obelisk Orientierungssystem mit Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoss, D.; Rasmussen, J.

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development of an information system powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array. As an innovative approach, the 'PV-Obelisk' project is the combination of PV with a multi-functional pillar made of natural stone in an aesthetic way. The PV modules serve both as a power supply and as a design element. Two initial prototypes led the way to a third, optimised consumer configuration that was planned to guarantee maximum user frequency. Test operation in front of the 'Heidiland' motor way restaurant confirmed the market analyses made and delivered the expected results. The product, whose three LCD displays are updated via a mobile telephony-based text-message system, proved its technical reliability and showed a high user frequency. Because of the high overall energy consumption, PV power can only partially contribute to the energy supply needed. Various compromises in the technical and aesthetic areas are discussed that were made for the sake of product acceptance in the market. The range of application areas for such a 'PV Obelisk' are discussed and the need for early co-ordination with urban planners is stressed.

  12. Wind/PV Generation for Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping in the Eastern Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Gracia, Jose R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Yilu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report presents the control of renewable energy sources, including the variable-speed wind generators and solar photovoltaic (PV) generators, for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI). In this report, based on the user-defined wind/PV generator electrical control model and the 16,000-bus Eastern Interconnection dynamic model, the additional controllers for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are developed and incorporated and the potential contributions of renewable energy sources to the EI system frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are evaluated.

  13. Advanced Control of Photovoltaic and Wind Turbines Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Chen, Wenjie; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Much more efforts have been made on the integration of renewable energies into the grid in order to meet the imperative demand of a clean and reliable electricity generation. In this case, the grid stability and robustness may be violated due to the intermittency and interaction of the solar...... and wind renewables. Thus, in this chapter, advanced control strategies, which can enable the power conversion efficiently and reliably, for both photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbines power systems are addressed in order to enhance the integration of those technologies. Related grid demands have been...

  14. Capacity Value of PV and Wind Generation in the NV Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shuai; Diao, Ruisheng; Samaan, Nader A.; Etingov, Pavel V.

    2014-03-21

    Calculation of photovoltaic (PV) and wind power capacity values is important for estimating additional load that can be served by new PV or wind installations in the electrical power system. It also is the basis for assigning capacity credit payments in systems with markets. Because of variability in solar and wind resources, PV and wind generation contribute to power system resource adequacy differently from conventional generation. Many different approaches to calculating PV and wind generation capacity values have been used by utilities and transmission operators. Using the NV Energy system as a study case, this report applies peak-period capacity factor (PPCF) and effective load carrying capability (ELCC) methods to calculate capacity values for renewable energy sources. We show the connection between the PPCF and ELCC methods in the process of deriving a simplified approach that approximates the ELCC method. This simplified approach does not require generation fleet data and provides the theoretical basis for a quick check on capacity value results of PV and wind generation. The diminishing return of capacity benefit as renewable generation increases is conveniently explained using the simplified capacity value approach.

  15. An insight on advantage of hybrid sun–wind-tracking over sun-tracking PV system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Masoud; Banybayat, Meisam; Tagheie, Yaghoub; Valeh-e-Sheyda, Peyvand

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Real photograph of hybrid sun–wind-tracking system. - Highlights: • Novel hybrid sun–wind-tracking system proposed to enhance PV cell performance. • The wind tracker can cool down the PV cell as sun-tracking system work. • The hybrid tracker achieved 7.4% increase in energy gain over the sun tracker. • The overall daily output energy gain was increased by 49.83% by using this system. - Abstract: This paper introduces the design and application of a novel hybrid sun–wind-tracking system. This hybrid system employs cooling effect of wind, besides the advantages of tracking sun for enhancing power output from examined hybrid photovoltaic cell. The principal experiment focuses on comparison between dual-axes sun-tracking and hybrid sun–wind-tracking photovoltaic (PV) panels. The deductions based on the research tests confirm that the overall daily output energy gain was increased by 49.83% compared with that of a fixed system. Moreover, an overall increase of about 7.4% in the output power was found for the hybrid sun–wind-tracking over the two-axis sun tracking system.

  16. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Distributed Generation Systems - Control and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhehan

    This dissertation proposes a comprehensive control, power management, and fault detection strategy for solar photovoltaic (PV) distribution generations. Battery storages are typically employed in PV systems to mitigate the power fluctuation caused by unstable solar irradiance. With AC and DC loads, a PV-battery system can be treated as a hybrid microgrid which contains both DC and AC power resources and buses. In this thesis, a control power and management system (CAPMS) for PV-battery hybrid microgrid is proposed, which provides 1) the DC and AC bus voltage and AC frequency regulating scheme and controllers designed to track set points; 2) a power flow management strategy in the hybrid microgrid to achieve system generation and demand balance in both grid-connected and islanded modes; 3) smooth transition control during grid reconnection by frequency and phase synchronization control between the main grid and microgrid. Due to the increasing demands for PV power, scales of PV systems are getting larger and fault detection in PV arrays becomes challenging. High-impedance faults, low-mismatch faults, and faults occurred in low irradiance conditions tend to be hidden due to low fault currents, particularly, when a PV maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is in-service. If remain undetected, these faults can considerably lower the output energy of solar systems, damage the panels, and potentially cause fire hazards. In this dissertation, fault detection challenges in PV arrays are analyzed in depth, considering the crossing relations among the characteristics of PV, interactions with MPPT algorithms, and the nature of solar irradiance. Two fault detection schemes are then designed as attempts to address these technical issues, which detect faults inside PV arrays accurately even under challenging circumstances, e.g., faults in low irradiance conditions or high-impedance faults. Taking advantage of multi-resolution signal decomposition (MSD), a powerful signal

  17. Photovoltaic solar panel for a hybrid PV/thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenko, R.; Licea-Jimenez, L.; Perez-Garcia, S.A.; Perez-Robles, J.F.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Vorobiev, Y. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, (Mexico); Vorobiev, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria; Dehesa-Carrasco, U. [Instituto Tec. Del Istmo, Oaxaco (Mexico). Dep. de Ingenieria Electromecanica

    2004-05-01

    The hybrid PV-thermal system was studied, with the photovoltaic panel (PVP) area much smaller than that of the solar collector. Performance of the different panels in the system was investigated, in particular, those made of crystalline (c-) Si, {alpha}-Si and CuInSe{sub 2} as well as different materials and constructions for the thermal contact between the panel and the collector. Our conclusion is that the PVP for application in a hybrid system needs a special design providing efficient heat extraction from it. PVP was designed and made. Its study has shown that this design provides the high electrical and thermal efficiency of the hybrid system. (author)

  18. Parallel experimental study of a novel super-thin thermal absorber based photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T system against conventional photovoltaic (PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV semiconductor degrades in performance due to temperature rise. A super thin-conductive thermal absorber is therefore developed to regulate the PV working temperature by retrofitting the existing PV panel into the photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T panel. This article presented the parallel comparative investigation of the two different systems through both laboratory and field experiments. The laboratory evaluation consisted of one PV panel and one PV/T panel respectively while the overall field system involved 15 stand-alone PV panels and 15 retrofitted PV/T panels. The laboratory testing results demonstrated the PV/T panel could achieve the electrical efficiency of about 16.8% (relatively 5% improvement comparing with the stand-alone PV panel, and yield an extra amount of heat with thermal efficiency of nearly 65%. The field testing results indicated that the hybrid PV/T panel could enhance the electrical return of PV panels by nearly 3.5%, and increase the overall energy output by nearly 324.3%. Further opportunities and challenges were then discussed from aspects of different PV/T stakeholders to accelerate the development. It is expected that such technology could become a significant solution to yield more electricity, offset heating load freely and reduce carbon footprint in contemporary energy environment.

  19. Optimal Power Flow Management Control for Grid Connected Photovoltaic/Wind turbine/Diesel generator (GCPWD) Hybrid System with Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Murugan, Bala; S., Manoharan

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a Optimal Power Flow Management control for Grid Connected Photovoltaic/Wind turbine/ Diesel generator (GCPWD) Hybrid System with hybrid storage system. The energy system having a photo voltaic (PV) panel, wind turbine (WT) and diesel generator (DG) for continuous power flow management. A diesel generator is added to ensure uninterrupted power supply due to the discontinuous nature of solar and wind resources. The developed Grid Connected Photovoltaic/Wind turbine/ Diesel ...

  20. Temperature Dependences on Various Types of Photovoltaic (PV) Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audwinto, I A; Leong, C S; Sopian, K; Zaidi, S H

    2015-01-01

    Temperature is one of the key roles in PV technology performance, since with the increases of temperature the open-circuit voltage will drop accordingly so do the electrical efficiency and power output generation. Different types of Photovoltaic (PV) panels- silicon solar panels and thin film solar panels; mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline, CIS, CIGS, CdTe, back-contact, and bi-facial solar panel under 40°C to 70°C approximately with 5°C interval have been comparatively analyzed their actual performances with uniformly distribution of light illumination from tungsten halogen light source, ±500W/m 2 . DC-Electronic Load and Data Logger devices with “Lab View” data program interface were used to collect all the necessary parameters in this study. Time needed to achieve a certain degree of temperature was recorded. Generally, each of the panels needed 15 minutes to 20 minutes to reach 70°C. Halogen based light source is not compatible in short wave-length in response to thin-film solar cell. Within this period of times, all the panels are facing a performance loss up to 15%. Other parameters; P max , V max , I max , V oc , I sc , R serries , R shunt , Fillfactor were collected as study cases. Our study is important in determining Photovoltaic type selection and system design as for study or industrial needed under different temperature condition. (paper)

  1. Assessing the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions from solar PV and wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nugent, Daniel; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically screens 153 lifecycle studies covering a broad range of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation technologies to identify 41 of the most relevant, recent, rigorous, original, and complete assessments so that the dynamics of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...... profiles can be determined. When viewed in a holistic manner, including initial materials extraction, manufacturing, use and disposal/decommissioning, these 41 studies show that both wind and solar systems are directly tied to and responsible for GHG emissions. They are thus not actually emissions free......, this article uncovers best practices in wind and solar design and deployment that can better inform climate change mitigation efforts in the electricity sector...

  2. Real Time Photovoltaic Array Simulator for Testing Grid-Connected PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Valentini, Massimo; Raducu, Alin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a real time flexible PV array simulator is presented. It is a system that can simulate different PV panel arrays in specific environmental conditions. To evaluate performance of the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) inverters only measurements...

  3. Integrated Three-Port DC-DC Converter for Photovoltaic (PV) Battery Stand-alone Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Several power sources such as PV solar arrays and battery are often used to manage the power flow for a photovoltaic (PV) based stand-alone power system due to the fluctuation nature of solar energy resource, and deliver a continuous power to the users in an appropriate form. Traditionally, three...... for PV and battery stand-alone system....

  4. Overview of PV Wind hybrid system activities in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, G.; Gabler, H.; Kiefer, K.; Preiser, K.; Wiemken, E. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Photovoltaic solar generators combined with diesel engines, in some cases additionally with wind energy converters, and battery energy storage are powering isolated mountain lodges, information centers in nature parks, isolated farms or dwellings all over Europe. A total of 300,000 buildings in Europe are estimated to be not connected to the public grid. This represents a major market potential for photovoltaic, as often photovoltaic power generation is less expensive than a connection to the electric utility. The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE has planned, realized and monitored about 30 hybrid remote energy supply systems with PV generators typically around 5 kW for loads typically around 20 kWh per day. More than one hundred years of operational experience accumulated so far, are a sound foundation on which to draw an interim balance over problems solved and technical questions still under development. Room for further technical development is seen in the domain of system reliability and the reduction of operating costs as well as in the optimization of the utilization of the electric energy produced by the PV generator. [Espanol] Para la electrificacion en toda Europa de casas de campo en la montana, centros de informacion, parques naturales, granjas aisladas o conjuntos habitacionales, se estan usando generadores fotovoltaicos combinados con maquinas diesel, en algunos casos adicionalmente con convertidores de energia del viento y baterias para el almacenamiento de energia. Se estima que en Europa un total de 300,000 edificios no estan conectados a la red publica. Esto representa un gran mercado potencial para los sistemas fotovoltaicos, ya que a menudo la generacion fotovoltaica es menos costosa que una conexion a la empresa electrica. El Instituto Fraunhofer para Sistemas de Energia Solar ISE ha planeado, llevado a cabo y monitoreado alrededor de 30 sistemas hibridos remotos de suministro de energia con generadores fotovoltaicos

  5. Final Technical Report - Photovoltaics for You (PV4You) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, J. M. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Sherwood, L. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Pulaski, J. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Cook, C. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Kalland, S. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Haynes, J. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States)

    2005-08-14

    In September 2000, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) began its 5-year work on contract # DE-FGO3-00SF22116, the Photovoltaics for You (PV4You) Project. The objective was to develop and distribute information on photovoltaics and to educate key stakeholder groups including state government agencies, local government offices, consumer representative agencies, school officials and students, and Million Solar Roofs Partnerships. In addition, the project was to identify barriers to the deployment of photovoltaics and implement strategies to overcome them. Information dissemination and education was accomplished by publishing newsletters; creating a base of information, guides, and models on the www.irecusa.org and the www.millionsolarroofs.org web sites; convening workshops and seminars; engaging multiple stakeholders; and widening the solar network to include new consumers and decision makers. Two major web sites were maintained throughout the project cycle. The www.irecusa.org web site housed dedicated pages for Connecting to the Grid, Schools Going Solar, Community Outreach, and Certification & Training. The www.millionsolarroofs.org web site was created to serve the MSR Partnerships with news, interviews, key documents, and resource material. Through the course of this grant, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council has been supporting the Department of Energy's solar energy program goals by providing the Department with expertise services for their network of city, state, and community stakeholders. IREC has been the leading force at the state and federal levels regarding net metering and interconnection policy for photovoltaic systems. The principal goal and benefit of the interconnection and net metering work is to lower both barriers and cost for the installation of PV. IREC typically plays a leadership role among small generator stakeholders and has come to be relied upon for its expertise by industry and regulators. IREC also took a leadership

  6. A methodology for optimal sizing of autonomous hybrid PV/wind system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaf, S.; Diaf, D.; Belhamel, M.; Haddadi, M.; Louche, A.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper presents a methodology to perform the optimal sizing of an autonomous hybrid PV/wind system. The methodology aims at finding the configuration, among a set of systems components, which meets the desired system reliability requirements, with the lowest value of levelized cost of energy. Modelling a hybrid PV/wind system is considered as the first step in the optimal sizing procedure. In this paper, more accurate mathematical models for characterizing PV module, wind generator and battery are proposed. The second step consists to optimize the sizing of a system according to the loss of power supply probability (LPSP) and the levelized cost of energy (LCE) concepts. Considering various types and capacities of system devices, the configurations, which can meet the desired system reliability, are obtained by changing the type and size of the devices systems. The configuration with the lowest LCE gives the optimal choice. Applying this method to an assumed PV/wind hybrid system to be installed at Corsica Island, the simulation results show that the optimal configuration, which meet the desired system reliability requirements (LPSP=0) with the lowest LCE, is obtained for a system comprising a 125 W photovoltaic module, one wind generator (600 W) and storage batteries (using 253 Ah). On the other hand, the device system choice plays an important role in cost reduction as well as in energy production

  7. Photovoltaic Module Simulink Model for a Stand-alone PV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chen; Ming, Zhu

    Photovoltaic(PV) Module is indispensable of a stand-alone PV system. In this paper, a one-diode equivalent circuit-based versatile simulation model in the form of masked block PV module is proposed. By the model, it is allowed to estimate behavior of PV module with respect changes on irradiance intensity, ambient temperature and parameters of the PV module. In addition, the model is capable of function of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) which can be used in the dynamic simulation of stand-alone PV systems.

  8. The impact of photovoltaic (PV) installations on downwind particulate matter concentrations: Results from field observations at a 550-MWAC utility-scale PV plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Dwarakanath; Sinha, Parikhit

    2017-10-01

    With utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) projects increasingly developed in dry and dust-prone geographies with high solar insolation, there is a critical need to analyze the impacts of PV installations on the resulting particulate matter (PM) concentrations, which have environmental and health impacts. This study is the first to quantify the impact of a utility-scale PV plant on PM concentrations downwind of the project site. Background, construction, and post-construction PM 2.5 and PM 10 (PM with aerodynamic diameters construction through a wind-shielding effect. The results show that the (1) confidence intervals of the mean PM concentrations during construction overlap with or are lower than background concentrations for three of the four BAM stations; and (2) post-construction PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations downwind of the PV installation are significantly lower than the background concentrations at three of the four BAM stations. At the fourth BAM station, downwind post-construction PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations increased marginally by 5.7% and 2.6% of the 24-hr ambient air quality standards defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, respectively, when compared with background concentrations, with the PM 2.5 increase being statistically insignificant. This increase may be due to vehicular emissions from an access road near the southwest corner of the site or a drainage berm near the south station. The findings demonstrate the overall environmental benefit of downwind PM emission abatement from a utility-scale PV installation in desert conditions due to wind shielding. With PM emission reductions observed within 10 months of completion of construction, post-construction monitoring of downwind PM levels may be reduced to a 1-yr period for other projects with similar soil and weather conditions. This study is the first to analyze impact of a utility photovoltaic (PV) project on downwind particulate matter (PM) concentration in desert conditions. The PM

  9. The Villas Carrousel PV-Wind Hybrid Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A pilot project was carried out to supply electrical services for an ecological hotel (eco-hotel), using solar and wind energy in Southeast Mexico. Fifteen small photovoltaic-wind hybrid systems were designed and built by researchers of the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (IIE), as part of a cooperation agreement with the mexican company Carrousel Operadora Turistica, aimed at developing a technology package to supply electrical services to similar hotels sited in remote areas. Each hybrid system includes one wind generator of 500W nominal capacity, one PV panel ranging in power from 150W to 320 Watts peak, one lead-acid battery bank of 570 ampere-hour in capacity, and an electronic charge controller. This paper describes the systems and summarizes the results from the first twelve months of operation. [Espanol] Se llevo a cabo un proyecto piloto para el suministro de servicios electricos a un hotel ecologico (eco-hotel), utilizando energia solar y energia del viento en el Sudeste de Mexico. Investigadores del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas de Mexico, disenaron y construyeron quince pequenos sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos-viento, como parte de un acuerdo de cooperacion con la compania mexicana Carrousel Operadora Turistica, orientado al desarrollo de un paquete tecnologico para proporcionar servicios de energia electrica a hoteles similares ubicados en areas remotas. Cada sistema hibrido incluye un aero-generador con capacidad nominal de 500W un panel foto-voltaico con una potencia que varia entre los 150W y los 320W pico, una banco de baterias de plomo-acido de 570 amperes-hora de capacidad y un controlador electronico de carga. Este articulo describe los sistemas y presenta un resumen de los resultados de los primeros doce meses de operacion.

  10. Techno-economic analysis of key renewable energy technologies (PV, CSP and wind)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Guevara, H.; Tuebke, A. [Joint Research Centre JRC, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies IPTS, Sevilla (Spain); Folkerts, W. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Brizard, N. [Enerdata, Lyon (France); Lako, P. [Unit Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    This report shows the results of a techno-economic analysis of key renewable energy technologies: Solar Photovoltaics (PV), Concentrating Solar Power (CSP), and Wind Energy Technologies (wind). For this purpose, bottom-up company-data were collected, market supply and demand factors addressed, the regulatory framework examined, and EU industry compared against its main competitors. Personal interviews with 10 key industrialists from these sectors were undertaken to generate first-hand feedback from companies. The information generated was validated in a workshop with selected study participants, industrialists and policymakers.

  11. The wind chill temperature effect on a large-scale PV plant—an exergy approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed exergetic analysis based on the variation of meteorological parameters was performed for a solar power generation system. All wind and solar energy and exergy characteristics were examined in order to identify the variables that affect the power output of the photovoltaic...... disregarded atmospheric variables in planning new PV plants, in fact, do play a significant role on the plant's overall exergetic efficiency as wind chill temperature. The solar potential around a windy coastal hilly area was studied and presented on the basis of field measurements and simulations...

  12. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-02

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  13. Experimental investigation of the impact of airborne dust deposition on the performance of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai; Lu, Lin; Sun, Ke

    2011-08-01

    Deposition of airborne dust on outdoor photovoltaic (PV) modules may decrease the transmittance of solar cell glazing and cause a significant degradation of solar conversion efficiency of PV modules. Previous studies of this issue indicated that dust deposition is closely related to the tilt angle of solar collector, exposure period, site climate conditions, wind movement and dust properties. However, few studies considered the influence of the properties of PV module itself on dust deposition and efficiency degradation, such as the cell types and surface materials. This experimental work aimed to study the dust accumulation onto different types of solar PV modules and the corresponding efficiency degradation. The experiment was designed and conducted in the laboratory with a sun simulator and a test chamber. The degradation of PV module efficiency caused by dust deposition under various conditions was investigated. The results indicated that dust pollution has a significant impact on PV module output. With dust deposition density increasing from 0 to 22 g m -2, the corresponding reduction of PV output efficiency grew from 0 to 26%. The reduction of efficiency has a linear relationship with the dust deposition density, and the difference caused by cell types was not obvious. When the dust deposition density was fixed, the reductions of output efficiency at relatively lower or higher solar densities were much more severe. Moreover, the surface material may influence dust deposition and accumulation considerably. The poly-crystalline silicon module packaged with epoxy degraded faster than other modules with glass surface under the same dust concentration.

  14. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Engin, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during t...

  15. Household photovoltaic market in Xining, Qingha province, China: the role of local PV business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, S.; Boardman, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the present and future market for household photovoltaic (PV) systems in rural Northwest China, especially from the PV commerce at Xining, Qinghai Province. This unsubsidised free market is now met by the emerging PV industry in China, which includes cell and module manufacturers, and PV system distributors and assemblers. For widespread deployment of such a renewable energy technology, the development of a local free market seems more successful than donor- or 'government subsidy'-driven programmes. Presently, there is a thriving infant PV industry in Northwest China, mostly centred in Xining. Xining-based PV sales companies have extensive networks for selling, marketing and servicing household PV systems for rural farmers and nomads. Small systems are now ordinary items on sale in local shops. Based on interviews and fieldwork observations with seven major PV sales companies in Xining, the household PV market is assessed from the present business operations of these companies. Detail of primary sources is given with the aim of archiving seminal progress in the history of photovoltaic power. The results suggest that although the household PV market will continue to grow, current government and international sponsored PV programmes can create both opportunities and barriers for the infant PV market an industry in China. (author)

  16. Comprehensive Benefit Evaluation of the Wind-PV-ES and Transmission Hybrid Power System Consideration of System Functionality and Proportionality

    OpenAIRE

    Huizheng Ji; Dongxiao Niu; Meiqiong Wu; Duoduo Yao

    2017-01-01

    In the background of decreasing fossil fuels and increasing environmental pollution, the wind-photovoltaic energy storage and transmission hybrid power system (or called the wind-PV-ES and transmission hybrid system) has become a strategic choice to achieve energy sustainability. However, the comprehensive benefit evaluation of such a combined power system is in a relatively blank state in China, which will hinder the reasonable and orderly development of this station. Four parts, the technic...

  17. Solar Photovoltaic Economic Development: Building and Growing a Local PV Industry, August 2011 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry is forecast to grow, and it represents an opportunity for economic development and job creation in communities throughout the United States. This report helps U.S. cities evaluate economic opportunities in the PV industry. It serves as a guide for local economic development offices in evaluating their community?s competitiveness in the solar PV industry, assessing the viability of solar PV development goals, and developing strategies for recruiting and retaining PV companies to their areas.

  18. Distributed generation system using wind/photovoltaic/fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buasri, Panhathai

    This dissertation investigates the performance and the operation of a distributed generation (DG) power system using wind/photovoltaic/fuel cell (W/PV/FC). The power system consists of a 2500 W photovoltaic array subsystem, a 500 W proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack subsystem, 300 W wind turbine, 500 W wind turbine, and 1500 W wind energy conversion subsystems. To extract maximum power from the PV, a maximum power point tracker was designed and fabricated. A 4 kW single phase inverter was used to convert the DC voltage to AC voltage; also a 44 kWh battery bank was used to store energy and prevent fluctuation of the power output of the DG system. To connect the fuel cell to the batteries, a DC/DC controller was designed and fabricated. To monitor and study the performance of the DG system under variable conditions, a data acquisition system was designed and installed. The fuel cell subsystem performance was evaluated under standalone operation using a variable resistance and under interactive mode, connected to the batteries. The manufacturing data and the experimental data were used to develop an electrical circuit model to the fuel cell. Furthermore, harmonic analysis of the DG system was investigated. For an inverter, the AC voltage delivered to the grid changed depending on the time, load, and electronic equipment that was connected. The quality of the DG system was evaluated by investigating the harmonics generated by the power electronics converters. Finally, each individual subsystem of the DG system was modeled using the neuro-fuzzy approach. The model was used to predict the performance of the DG system under variable conditions, such as passing clouds and wind gust conditions. The steady-state behaviors of the model were validated by the experimental results under different operating conditions.

  19. Analyzing the Energy Performance, Wind Loading, and Costs of Photovoltaic Slat Modules on Commercial Rooftops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, Otto D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Kelsey A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); MacAlpine, Sara M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    NREL studied a new type of photovoltaic (PV) module configuration wherein multiple narrow, tilted slats are mounted in a single frame. Each slat of the PV slat module contains a single row of cells and is made using ordinary crystalline silicon PV module materials and processes, including a glass front sheet and weatherproof polymer encapsulation. Compared to a conventional ballasted system, a system using slat modules offer higher energy production and lower weight at lower LCOE. The key benefits of slat modules are reduced wind loading, improved capacity factor and reduced installation cost. First, the individual slats allow air to flow through, which reduce wind loading. Using PV performance modeling software, we compared the performance of an optimized installation of slats modules to a typical installation of conventional modules in a ballasted rack mounting system. Based on the results of the performance modeling two different row tilt and spacing were tested in a wind tunnel. Scaled models of the PV Slat modules were wind tunnel tested to quantify the wind loading of a slat module system on a commercial rooftop, comparing the results to conventional ballasted rack mounted PV modules. Some commercial roofs do not have sufficient reserve dead load capacity to accommodate a ballasted system. A reduced ballast system design could make PV system installation on these roofs feasible for the first time without accepting the disadvantages of penetrating mounts. Finally, technoeconomic analysis was conducted to enable an economic comparison between a conventional commercial rooftop system and a reduced-ballast slat module installation.

  20. Photovoltaic (PV) Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goodrich, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-11-30

    The installed capacity of global and U.S. photovoltaic (PV) systems has soared in recent years, driven by declining PV prices and government incentives. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) SunShot Initiative aims to make PV cost competitive without incentives by reducing the cost of PV-generated electricity by about 75% between 2010 and 2020. This summary report—based on research at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)—examines progress in PV price reductions to help DOE and other PV stakeholders manage the transition to a market-driven PV industry, and to provide clarity surrounding the wide variety of potentially conflicting data available about PV system prices.

  1. The performance of a combined solar photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a combined solar photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) system is examined using an analytical model for four different types of commercial PVs and a commercial bismuth telluride TEG. The TEG is applied directly on the back of the PV, so that the two devices have...

  2. Integrated Three-Port DC-DC Converter for Photovoltaic (PV) Battery Stand-alone Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Several power sources such as PV solar arrays and battery are often used to manage the power flow for a photovoltaic (PV) based stand-alone power system due to the fluctuation nature of solar energy resource, and deliver a continuous power to the users in an appropriate form. Traditionally, three...

  3. A New Energy Management Technique for PV/Wind/Grid Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozdal Mengi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent energy management system (IEMS for maintaining the energy sustainability in renewable energy systems (RES is introduced here. It consists of wind and photovoltaic (PV solar panels are established and used to test the proposed IEMS. Since the wind and solar sources are not reliable in terms of sustainability and power quality, a management system is required for supplying the load power demand. The power generated by RES is collected on a common DC bus as a renewable green power pool to be used for supplying power to loads. The renewable DC power bus is operated in a way that there is always a base power available for permanent loads. Then the additional power requirement is supplied from either wind or PV or both depending upon the availability of these power sources. The decision about operating these systems is given by an IEMS with fuzzy logic decision maker proposed in this study. Using the generated and required power information from the wind/PV and load sides, the fuzzy reasoning based IEMS determines the amount of power to be supplied from each or both sources. Besides, the IEMS tracks the maximum power operating point of the wind energy system.

  4. Market dynamics, innovation, and transition in China's solar photovoltaic (PV) industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Hongyang; Du, Huibin; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    China’s photovoltaic (PV) industry has undergone dramatic development in recent years and is now the global market leader in terms of newly added capacity. However, market diffusion and adoption in China is not ideal. This paper examines the blocking and inducement mechanisms of China’s PV indust...... mechanisms and offset functional innovation deficiencies. In addition, policy implications are proposed for promoting the development of the PV industry in China....

  5. Grid-connected wind and photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devabakthuni, Sindhuja

    The objective of this thesis is to design a grid connected wind and photovoltaic system. A new model of converter control was designed which maintains the voltage of the bus to grid as constant when combined system of solar and wind is connected to AC bus. The model is designed to track maximum power at each point irrespective of changes in irradiance, temperature and wind speed which affects the power supplied to grid. Solar power from the sun is not constant as it is affected by changes in irradiances and temperature. Even the wind power is affected by wind speed. A MPPT controller was designed for both systems. A boost converter is designed which uses the pulses from MPPT controller to boost the output. Wind system consists of wind turbine block from the MATLAB with a pitch angle controller to maintain optimum pitch angle. The output from wind turbine is connected to a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The unregulated DC output from the photovoltaic system is directly given to boost converter. The AC output from the wind system is given to an uncontrolled rectifier to get a unregulated DC output. The unregulated DC output goes to the boost converter. A voltage source inverter was designed which converts the rectified DC output from the boost converter to AC power. The inverter is designed to maintain constant AC bus voltage irrespective of the disturbances in the power supply. Photovoltaic and wind systems are individually designed for 5KW each in MATLAB-Simulink environment. In this thesis, the models were subjected to changes in irradiance, temperature and wind speed and the results were interpreted. The model was successful in tracking maximum at every instant and the AC bus voltage was maintained constant throughout the simulation.

  6. Mathematical modeling of photovoltaic thermal PV/T system with v-groove collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohri, M.; Fudholi, A.; Ruslan, M. H.; Sopian, K.

    2017-07-01

    The use of v-groove in solar collector has a higher thermal efficiency in references. Dropping the working heat of photovoltaic panel was able to raise the electrical efficiency performance. Electrical and thermal efficiency were produced by photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) system concurrently. Mathematical modeling based on steady-state thermal analysis of PV/T system with v-groove was conducted. With matrix inversion method, the energy balance equations are explained by means of the investigative method. The comparison results show that in the PV/T system with the V-groove collector is higher temperature, thermal and electrical efficiency than other collectors.

  7. PV (photovoltaics) performance evaluation and simulation-based energy yield prediction for tropical buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Saber, EM; Lee, SE; Manthapuri, S; Yi, W; Deb, C

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution and climate change increased the importance of renewable energy resources like solar energy in the last decades. Rack-mounted PhotoVoltaics (PV) and Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics (BIPV) are the most common photovoltaic systems which convert incident solar radiation on façade or surrounding area to electricity. In this paper the performance of different solar cell types is evaluated for the tropical weather of Singapore. As a case study, on-site measured data of PV systems im...

  8. Technical analysis of photovoltaic/wind systems with hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Vukman V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical analysis of a hybrid wind-photovoltaic energy system with hydrogen gas storage was studied. The market for the distributed power generation based on renewable energy is increasing, particularly for the standalone mini-grid applications. The main design components of PV/Wind hybrid system are the PV panels, the wind turbine and an alkaline electrolyzer with tank. The technical analysis is based on the transient system simulation program TRNSYS 16. The study is realized using the meteorological data for a Typical Metrological Year (TMY for region of Novi Sad, Belgrade cities and Kopaonik national park in Serbia. The purpose of the study is to design a realistic energy system that maximizes the use of renewable energy and minimizes the use of fossil fuels. The reduction in the CO2 emissions is also analyzed in the paper. [Acknowledgment. This paper is the result of the investigations carried out within the scientific project TR33036 supported by the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia.

  9. Optimal stochastic management of renewable MG (micro-grids) considering electro-thermal model of PV (photovoltaic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najibi, Fatemeh; Niknam, Taher; Kavousi-Fard, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to report the results of the research conducted to one thermal and electrical model for photovoltaic. Moreover, one probabilistic framework is introduced for considering all uncertainties in the optimal energy management of Micro-Grid problem. It should be noted that one typical Micro-Grid is being studied as a case, including different renewable energy sources, such as Photovoltaic, Micro Turbine, Wind Turbine, and one battery as a storage device for storing energy. The uncertainties of market price variation, photovoltaic and wind turbine output power change and load demand error are covered by the suggested probabilistic framework. The Micro-Grid problem is of nonlinear nature because of the stochastic behavior of the renewable energy sources such as Photovoltaic and Wind Turbine units, and hence there is need for a powerful tool to solve the problem. Therefore, in addition to the simulated thermal model and suggested probabilistic framework, a new algorithm is also introduced. The Backtracking Search Optimization Algorithm is described as a useful method to optimize the MG (micro-grids) problem. This algorithm has the benefit of escaping from the local optima while converging fast, too. The proposed algorithm is also tested on the typical Micro-Grid. - Highlights: • Proposing an electro-thermal model for PV. • Proposing a new stochastic formulation for optimal operation of renewable MGs. • Introduction of a new optimization method based on BSO to explore the problem search space.

  10. Lessons Learned from the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology/PV Manufacturing R&D and Thin Film PV Partnership Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis, R.; Mitchell, R.; Zweibel, K.

    2006-09-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program initiates new cost-shared solar energy R&D under the Solar America Initiative (SAI), it is useful to analyze the experience gained from cost-shared R&D projects that have been funded through the program to date. This report summarizes lessons learned from two DOE-sponsored photovoltaic (PV) projects: the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology/PV Manufacturing R&D (PVMaT/PVMR&D) project and the Thin-Film PV Partnership project. During the past 10-15 years, these two projects have invested roughly $330 million of government resources in cost-shared R&D and leveraged another $190 million in private-sector PV R&D investments. Following a description of key findings and brief descriptions of the PVMaT/PVMR&D and Thin-Film PV Partnership projects, this report presents lessons learned from the projects.

  11. Effect of Thermoelectric Cooling (TEC module and the water flow heatsink on Photovoltaic (PV panel performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV panel suffers in low conversion efficiency of the output performance affected by the elevated operating temperature of the PV panel. It is important to keep the PV panel to operate at low temperature. To address this issue, this paper proposes the cooling system using thermoelectric cooling (TEC and water block heatsink for enhancing the PV panel output performance. These both types cooling system were designed located on the back side of the PV panel to cool down the operating temperature of the PV panel. To evaluate the function for the existing cooling systems, the experiment was subsequently performed for PV panel without and with different design of the cooling system in outdoor weather conditions. By comparing the experimental results, it is concluded that by the hybrid cooling system which combining TEC module and the water block heatsink could improve the output performance of the PV panel. By the reduction temperature of the PV panel by 16.04 %, the average output power of the PV panel has been boosted up from 8.59 W to 9.03 W. In short, the output power of the PV panel was enhanced by the reduction of the operating temperature of the PV panel.

  12. Effect of Thermoelectric Cooling (TEC) module and the water flow heatsink on Photovoltaic (PV) panel performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, A. R.; Jusoh, MA; Shamira Idris, Ida

    2017-11-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) panel suffers in low conversion efficiency of the output performance affected by the elevated operating temperature of the PV panel. It is important to keep the PV panel to operate at low temperature. To address this issue, this paper proposes the cooling system using thermoelectric cooling (TEC) and water block heatsink for enhancing the PV panel output performance. These both types cooling system were designed located on the back side of the PV panel to cool down the operating temperature of the PV panel. To evaluate the function for the existing cooling systems, the experiment was subsequently performed for PV panel without and with different design of the cooling system in outdoor weather conditions. By comparing the experimental results, it is concluded that by the hybrid cooling system which combining TEC module and the water block heatsink could improve the output performance of the PV panel. By the reduction temperature of the PV panel by 16.04 %, the average output power of the PV panel has been boosted up from 8.59 W to 9.03 W. In short, the output power of the PV panel was enhanced by the reduction of the operating temperature of the PV panel.

  13. Smoothing out the volatility of South Africa's wind and PV energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bofinger, S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar PV & wind are the cheapest new-build options per kWh in South Africa. By 2020, a mix of PV, wind and flexible gas (LNG-based) costs the same as new coal, even without any value given to excess wind/PV energy. South Africa has abundant solar...

  14. Studies on battery storage requirement of PV fed wind-driven induction generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan Singaravel, M.M.; Arul Daniel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sizing of battery storage for PV fed wind-driven IG system is taken up. ► Battery storage is also used to supply reactive power for wind-driven IG. ► Computation of LPSP by incorporating uncertainties of irradiation and wind speed. ► Sizing of hybrid power system components to ensure zero LPSP. ► Calculated storage size satisfied the constraints and improves battery life. - Abstract: Hybrid stand-alone renewable energy systems based on wind–solar resources are considered to be economically better and reliable than stand-alone systems with a single source. An isolated hybrid wind–solar system has been considered in this work, where the storage (battery bank) is necessary to supply the required reactive power for a wind-driven induction generator (IG) during the absence of power from a photovoltaic (PV) array. In such a scheme, to ensure zero Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) and to improve battery bank life, a sizing procedure has been proposed with the incorporation of uncertainties in wind-speed and solar-irradiation level at the site of erection of the plant. Based on the proposed procedure, the size of hybrid power system components and storage capacity are determined. Storage capacity has been calculated for two different requirements. The first requirement of storage capacity is common to any hybrid scheme, which is; to supply both real and reactive power in the absence of wind and solar sources. The second requirement is to supply reactive power alone for the IG during the absence of photovoltaic power, which is unique to the hybrid scheme considered in this work. Storage capacity calculations for different conditions using the proposed approach, satisfies the constraints of maintaining zero LPSP and also improved cycle life of the battery bank

  15. PV (photovoltaics) performance evaluation and simulation-based energy yield prediction for tropical buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, Esmail M.; Lee, Siew Eang; Manthapuri, Sumanth; Yi, Wang; Deb, Chirag

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution and climate change increased the importance of renewable energy resources like solar energy in the last decades. Rack-mounted PhotoVoltaics (PV) and Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics (BIPV) are the most common photovoltaic systems which convert incident solar radiation on façade or surrounding area to electricity. In this paper the performance of different solar cell types is evaluated for the tropical weather of Singapore. As a case study, on-site measured data of PV systems implemented in a zero energy building in Singapore, is analyzed. Different types of PV systems (silicon wafer and thin film) have been installed on rooftop, façade, car park shelter, railing and etc. The impact of different solar cell generations, arrays environmental conditions (no shading, dappled shading, full shading), orientation (South, North, East or West facing) and inclination (between PV module and horizontal direction) is investigated on performance of modules. In the second stage of research, the whole PV systems in the case study are simulated in EnergyPlus energy simulation software with several PV performance models including Simple, Equivalent one-diode and Sandia. The predicted results by different models are compared with measured data and the validated model is used to provide simulation-based energy yield predictions for wide ranges of scenarios. It has been concluded that orientation of low-slope rooftop PV has negligible impact on annual energy yield but in case of PV external sunshade, east façade and panel slope of 30–40° are the most suitable location and inclination. - Highlights: • Characteristics of PV systems in tropics are analyzed in depth. • The ambiguity toward amorphous panel energy yield in tropics is discussed. • Equivalent-one diode and Sandia models can fairly predict the energy yield. • A general guideline is provided to estimate the energy yield of PV systems in tropics

  16. Electrical production for domestic and industrial applications using hybrid PV-wind system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essalaimeh, S.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Abdullat, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Modeling and building hybrid system of PV and wind turbine. ► Investigation of the electrical generation under Amman–Jordan’s climate. ► Configuration of theoretical and actual characteristics of the hybrid system. ► Testing effects of dust, inclination and load on the electrical generation. ► Financial analysis for various applications. - Abstract: The present work shows an experimental investigation of using a combination of solar and wind energies as hybrid system for electrical generation under the Jordanian climate conditions. The generated electricity has been utilized for different types of applications and mainly for space heating and cooling. The system has also integration with grid connection to have more reliable system. Measurements included the solar radiation intensity, the ambient temperature, the wind speed and the output power from the solar PV panels and wind turbine. The performance characteristic of the PV panels has been obtained by varying the load value through a variable resistance. Some major factors have been studied and practically measured; one of them is the dust effect on electrical production efficiency for photovoltaic panels. Another factor is the inclination of the PV panels, where varying the angle of inclination has a seasonal importance for gathering the maximum solar intensity. Through mathematical calculation and the collected and measured data, a simple payback period has been calculated of the hybrid system in order to study the economical aspects of installing such a system under Jordanian climate conditions and for different usages and local tariffs including domestic, industrial and commercial applications. It was found through this work that the generated electricity of hybrid system and under Jordanian climate conditions can be utilized for electrical heating and cooling through split units and resistive heaters.

  17. A Non-Modeling Exploration of Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Adoption and Non-Adoption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moezzi, Mithra [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Ingle, Aaron [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Lutzenhiser, Loren [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin O. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Although U.S. deployment of residential rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has accelerated in recent years, PV is still installed on less than 1 percent of single-family homes. Most research on household PV adoption focuses on scaling initial markets and modeling predicted growth rather than considering more broadly why adoption occurs. Among the studies that have investigated the characteristics of PV adoption, most collected data from adopters, sometimes with additional non-adopter data, and rarely from people who considered but did not adopt PV. Yet the vast majority of Americans are non-adopters, and they are a diverse group - understanding their ways of evaluating PV adoption is important. Similarly, PV is a unique consumer product, which makes it difficult to apply findings from studies of other technologies to PV. In addition, little research addresses the experience of households after they install PV. This report helps fill some of these gaps in the existing literature. The results inform a more detailed understanding of residential PV adoption, while helping ensure that adoption is sufficiently beneficial to adopters and even non-adopters.

  18. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields (nonsteady winds)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques to predict the dynamic response and the structural dynamic loads of flat plate photovoltaic arrays due to wind turbulence were analyzed. Guidelines for use in predicting the turbulent portion of the wind loading on future similar arrays are presented. The dynamic response and the loads dynamic magnification factor of the two array configurations are similar. The magnification factors at a mid chord and outer chord location on the array illustrated and at four points on the chord are shown. The wind tunnel test experimental rms pressure coefficient on which magnification factors are based is shown. It is found that the largest response and dynamic magnification factor occur at a mid chord location on an array and near the trailing edge. A technique employing these magnification factors and the wind tunnel test rms fluctuating pressure coefficients to calculate design pressure loads due to wind turbulence is presented.

  19. Photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar collectors: Features and performance modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atienza-Márquez, Antonio; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto; Korolija, Ivan; Greenough, Richard; Wright, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the electrical efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells ranges between 5–25%. One of the most important parameters that affects the electrical efficiency of a PV collector is the temperature of its cells: the higher temperature, the lower is the efficiency. Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) technology is a potential solution to ensure an acceptable solar energy conversion. The PV/T technology produces both electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. It is suitable for low temperature applications (25–40 o C) and overall efficiency increases compared to individual collectors. This paper describes an installation in a single-family house where PV/T collectors are coupled with a ground heat exchanger and a heat pump for domestic hot water and space heating purposes. The aim of this work is twofold. First, the features of the PV/T technology are analyzed. Second, a model of a flat-plate PV/T water collector was developed in TRNSYS in order to analyze collectors performance. (author)

  20. A Best Practice for Developing Availability Guarantee Language in Photovoltaic (PV) O&M Agreements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Balfour, John [High Performance PV, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This document outlines the foundation for developing language that can be utilized in an Equipment Availability Guarantee, typically included in an O&M services agreement between a PV system or plant owner and an O&M services provider, or operator. Many of the current PV O&M service agreement Availability Guarantees are based on contracts used for traditional power generation, which create challenges for owners and operators due to the variable nature of grid-tied photovoltaic generating technologies. This report documents language used in early PV availability guarantees and presents best practices and equations that can be used to more openly communicate how the reliability of the PV system and plant equipment can be expressed in an availability guarantee. This work will improve the bankability of PV systems by providing greater transparency into the equipment reliability state to all parties involved in an O&M services contract.

  1. PV-BUK: Operating and maintenance costs of photovoltaic installations; PV-BUK - Betriebs- und Unterhaltskosten von PV-Anlagen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stettler, S.; Toggweiler, P. [Enecolo AG, Moenchaltorf (Switzerland); Ruoss, D.; Schudel, P. [Envision, Lucerne (Switzerland); Kottmann, A.; Steinle, F. [BE Netz AG, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2008-03-15

    This final report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a project carried out to determine the costs for facility management, to estimate future cost development and to propose activities for the further reduction of the operation and maintenance costs of photovoltaic systems. Information on the cost situation was collected by literature study, as well as in interviews and surveys with photovoltaic (PV) experts and the owners of PV installations. The discussion of the results at a workshop with about 20 Swiss PV experts is noted. The results are presented and discussed. These show that operating costs per kWh decrease with the size of the PV system. Figures are quoted. The major part of the costs are quoted as being those for spare parts, especially for the inverter. The authors are of the opinion that, in future, costs for facility management will further decrease, as they are partly linked to capital and insurance costs. Potential for optimisation is said to exist in several areas of facility management such as, for example, in system monitoring and fast reaction in the case of malfunctions.

  2. Energy and Cost Saving of a Photovoltaic-Phase Change Materials (PV-PCM System through Temperature Regulation and Performance Enhancement of Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current research seeks to maintain high photovoltaic (PV efficiency and increased operating PV life by maintaining them at a lower temperature. Solid-liquid phase change materials (PCM are integrated into PV panels to absorb excess heat by latent heat absorption mechanism and regulate PV temperature. Electrical and thermal energy efficiency analysis of PV-PCM systems is conducted to evaluate their effectiveness in two different climates. Finally costs incurred due to inclusion of PCM into PV system and the resulting benefits are discussed in this paper. The results show that such systems are financially viable in higher temperature and higher solar radiation environment.

  3. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Fourth quarter 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienard, Helene

    2012-02-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, projects in progress, regional status. (J.S.)

  4. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Fourth quarter 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  5. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  6. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienard, Helene

    2012-09-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, projects in progress, regional status. (J.S.)

  7. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. First quarter 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienard, Helene

    2012-06-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, projects in progress, regional status. (J.S.)

  8. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  9. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  10. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. First quarter 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  11. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. First quarter 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  12. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  13. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Fourth quarter 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  14. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienard, Helene

    2011-11-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, projects in progress, regional status. (J.S.)

  15. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  16. Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Liserre, Marco; Rodriguez, Pedro

    power, operation within a wide range of voltage and frequency, voltage ride-through capability, reactive current injection during faults, grid services support. This book explains the topologies, modulation and control of grid converters for both photovoltaic and wind power applications. In addition...... inverter topologies for photovoltaic and wind turbines Islanding detection methods for photovoltaic systems Synchronization techniques based on second order generalized integrators (SOGI) Advanced synchronization techniques with robust operation under grid unbalance condition grid filter design and active...

  17. A Statistical Model for Hourly Large-Scale Wind and Photovoltaic Generation in New Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrom, Jussi; Koivisto, Matti Juhani; Mellin, Ilkka

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of large-scale wind and photovoltaic (PV) energy generation is of vital importance in power systems where their penetration is high. This paper presents a modular methodology to assess the power generation and volatility of a system consisting of both PV plants (PVPs) and wind power...... through distances between the locations, which allows the methodology to be used to assess scenarios with PVPs and WPPs in multiple locations without actual measurement data. The methodology can be applied by the transmission and distribution system operators when analysing the effects and feasibility...... of new PVPs and WPPs in system planning. The model is verified against hourly measured wind speed and solar irradiance data from Finland. A case study assessing the impact of the geographical distribution of the PVPs and WPPs on aggregate power generation and its variability is presented....

  18. PV Status Report 2009. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2009-08-01

    Photovoltaics is a key technology option to realise the shift to a decarbonised energy supply. The solar resources in Europe and world wide are abundant and cannot be monopolised by one country. Regardless for what reasons and how fast the oil price and energy prices increase in the future, Photovoltaics and other renewable energies are the only ones to offer a reduction of prices rather than an increase in the future. As a response to the economic crisis, most of the G20 countries have designed economic recovery packages which include 'green stimulus' measures. However, compared to the new Chinese Energy Revitalisation Plan under discussion, the pledged investments in green energy are marginal. If no changes are made, China which now strongly supports its renewable energy industry, will emerge even stronger after the current financial crisis. In 2008, the Photovoltaic industry production almost doubled and reached a world-wide production volume of 7.3 GWp of Photovoltaic modules. Yearly growth rates over the last decade were in average more than 40%, which makes Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict the market volume to increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect lower prices for consumers. The trend that thin-film Photovoltaics grew faster than the overall PV market continued in 2008. The Eighth Edition of the 'PV Status Report' tries to give an overview about the current activities regarding Research, Manufacturing and Market Implementation.

  19. Selecting Solar. Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This analysis leverages available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  20. Nationwide Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Breakeven Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The commercial sector offers strong potential for solar photovoltaics (PV) owing to abundant available roof space suitable for PV and the opportunity to offset the sector's substantial retail electricity purchases. This report evaluated the breakeven price of PV for 15 different building types and various financing options by calculating electricity savings based on detailed rate structures for most U.S. utility territories (representing approximately two thirds of U.S. commercial customers). We find that at current capital costs, an estimated 1/3 of U.S. commercial customers break even in the cash scenario and approximately 2/3 break even in the loan scenario. Variation in retail rates is a stronger driver of breakeven prices than is variation in building load or solar generation profiles. At the building level, variation in the average breakeven price is largely driven by the ability for a PV system to reduce demand charges.

  1. Stochastic coordination of joint wind and photovoltaic systems with energy storage in day-ahead market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, I.L.R.; Pousinho, H.M.I.; Melício, R.; Mendes, V.M.F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal bid submission in a day-ahead electricity market for the problem of joint operation of wind with photovoltaic power systems having an energy storage device. Uncertainty not only due to the electricity market price, but also due to wind and photovoltaic powers is one of the main characteristics of this submission. The problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem. The optimal bids and the energy flow in the batteries are the first-stage variables and the energy deviation is the second stage variable of the problem. Energy storage is a way to harness renewable energy conversion, allowing the store and discharge of energy at conveniently market prices. A case study with data from the Iberian day-ahead electricity market is presented and a comparison between joint and disjoint operations is discussed. - • Joint wind and PV systems with energy storage. • Electricity markets. • Stochastic optimization. • Day-ahead market.

  2. A study of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Danny H.W.; Cheung, K.L.; Lam, Tony N.T.; Chan, Wilco W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) is one of the promising solar energy applications. Measured data can give the realistic performance of PV systems under actual operating environments for product selection and system design. This paper studies a grid-connected PV system installed in an institutional building. Technical data including available solar radiation and output energy generated were systematically recorded and analyzed. The performance of the PV system is elaborated in terms of energy, environmental and financial aspects. Feed-in-tariff (FIT) schemes with high electricity selling price can encourage the deployment of PV system. The monetary payback period (MPBP) for the PV system was computed to be 72.4 years when the electricity buying price is equal to the electricity selling price. If carbon trading was considered, the payback was shortened to 61.4 years. The embodied energy payback period (EEPBP) was estimated to be 8.9 years. The findings would be useful for planning grid-connected PV installations and applicable to other spaces with similar architectural layouts.

  3. Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Before investing in a system, a prospective PV customer must not only have initial concept 'buy in,' but also be able to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with different system parameters. Prospective customers might need to evaluate disparate costs for each system attribute by comparing multiple bids. The difficulty of making such an evaluation with limited information can create a cognitive barrier to proceeding with the investment. This analysis leverages recently available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  4. RMS Current of a Photovoltaic Generator in Grid-Connected PV Systems: Definition and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes a definition of a new and original concept in the photovoltaic field, RMS current of a photovoltaic generator for grid-connected systems. The RMS current is very useful for calculating energy losses in cables used in a PV generator. As well, a current factor has been defined in order to simplify RMS current calculation. This factor provides an immediate (quick and easy calculation method for the RMS current that does not depend on the case particular conditions (orientation, location, etc.. RMS current and current factor values have been calculated for different locations and modules.

  5. Design of an off-grid hybrid PV/wind power system for remote mobile base station: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulualem T. Yeshalem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear challenge to provide reliable cellular mobile service at remote locations where a reliable power supply is not available. So, the existing Mobile towers or Base Transceiver Station (BTSs uses a conventional diesel generator with backup battery banks. This paper presents the solution to utilizing a hybrid of photovoltaic (PV solar and wind power system with a backup battery bank to provide feasibility and reliable electric power for a specific remote mobile base station located at west arise, Oromia. All the necessary modeling, simulation, and techno-economic evaluation are carried out using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software. The best optimal system configurations namely PV/Battery and PV/Wind/Battery hybrid systems are compared with the conventional stand-alone diesel generator (DG system. Findings indicated that PV array and battery is the most economically viable option with the total net present cost (NPC of $\\$$57,508 and per unit cost of electricity (COE of $\\$$0.355. Simulation results show that the hybrid energy systems can minimize the power generation cost significantly and can decrease CO2 emissions as compared to the traditional diesel generator only. The sensitivity analysis is also carried out to analysis the effects of probable variation in solar radiation, wind speed, diesel price and average annual energy usage of the system load in the optimal system configurations.

  6. Effects of frame shadow on the PV character of a photovoltaic/thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yunyun; Pei, Gang; Zhang, Longcan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed a method for predicting the performance of a partly shaded PV cell. • Even a small shadow can significantly affect the performance of a PV/T system. • A parallel circuit is better than a series circuit in addressing partial shadows. • The total output of a series circuit within a day/year is higher than that of a parallel circuit. - Abstract: Most photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems have an air layer between the glass cover and the cells to minimize heat loss and to improve overall efficiency. This feature is not found in typical PV systems. The frame border that supports the glass cover casts a shadow over the cells near the frame when sunlight is slanted. This design is common in PV/T systems. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of a frame shadow on PV/T systems. A mathematical model of a PV module in a PV/T system is established. An experimental research on a partly shaded single cell is then conducted. Based on the module model and the results of the experiment, a single cell model that simulates the performance of partly shaded cells is developed and integrated into an existing system model. The new model can be applied to simulate frame shadow in a PV/T system. Results show that the performance of a partly shaded single cell can be calculated as the cell operates below the average irradiation intensity of the shaded and unshaded parts. In the worst-case scenario, the frame shadow can cause a 39.3% decrease in photoelectric efficiency. Although the parallel circuit performs better than the series circuit in minimizing loss caused by the frame shadow, the latter has a higher total output

  7. Double-pass photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) solar collector with advanced heat transfer features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nazari Abu Bakar; Baharudin Yatim; Mohd Yusof Othman; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2006-01-01

    The use of PV/T in combination with concentrating reflectors has a potential to significantly increase power production from a given solar cell area. A prototype double-pass photovoltaic-thermal solar air collector with CPR and fins has been designed and fabricated and its performance over a range of operating conditions was studied. The absorber of the hybrid photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) collector under investigation consists of an array of solar cells for generating electricity, compound parabolic concentrator (CPR) to increase the radiation intensity falling on the solar cells and fins attached to the back side of the absorber plate to improve heat transfer to the flowing air. The thermal, electrical and combined electrical and thermal efficiencies of the collector are presented and discussed

  8. Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV), 2017-2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-03

    The installed cost of solar photovoltaics (PV) has fallen rapidly in recent years and is expected to continue declining in the future. In this report, we focus on the potential for continued PV cost reductions in the residential market. From 2010 to 2017, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for residential PV declined from 52 cents per kilowatt-hour (cents/kWh) to 16 cents/kWh (Fu et al. 2017). The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) recently set new LCOE targets for 2030, including a target of 5 cents/kWh for residential PV. We present a roadmap for achieving the SETO 2030 residential PV target. Because the 2030 target likely will not be achieved under business-as-usual trends (NREL 2017), we examine two key market segments that demonstrate significant opportunities for cost savings and market growth: installing PV at the time of roof replacement and installing PV as part of the new home construction process. Within both market segments, we identify four key cost-reduction opportunities: market maturation, business model integration, product innovation, and economies of scale. To assess the potential impact of these cost reductions, we compare modeled residential PV system prices in 2030 to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) quarter one 2017 (Q1 2017) residential PV system price benchmark (Fu et al. 2017). We use a bottom-up accounting framework to model all component and project-development costs incurred when installing a PV system. The result is a granular accounting for 11 direct and indirect costs associated with installing a residential PV system in 2030. All four modeled pathways demonstrate significant installed-system price savings over the Q1 2017 benchmark, with the visionary pathways yielding the greatest price benefits. The largest modeled cost savings are in the supply chain, sales and marketing, overhead, and installation labor cost categories. When we translate these

  9. SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-cost PV Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Michael A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-12

    In this report we summarize the implications, impacts, and deployment potential of reaching the SunShot 2030 targets for the electricity system in the contiguous United States. We model 25 scenarios of the U.S. power sector using the Regional Energy Deployment Systems (ReEDS) and Distributed Generation (dGen) capacity expansion models. The scenarios cover a wide range of sensitivities to capture future uncertainties relating to fuel prices, retirements, renewable energy capital costs, and load growth. We give special attention to the potential for storage costs to also rapidly decline due to its large synergies with low-cost solar. The ReEDS and dGen models project utility- and distributed-scale power sector evolution, respectively, for the United States. Both models have been designed with special emphasis on capturing the unique traits of renewable energy, including variability and grid integration requirements. Across the suite of scenarios modeled, we find that reaching the SunShot 2030 target has the potential to lead to significant capacity additions of PV in the United States. By 2050, PV penetration levels are projected to reach 28-46 percent of total generation. If storage also sees significant reductions in cost, then the 2050 solar penetration levels could reach 41-64 percent. PV deployment is projected to occur in all of the lower 48 states, though the specific deployment level is scenario dependent. The growth in PV is projected to be dominated by utility-scale systems, but the actual mix between utility and distributed systems could ultimately vary depending on how policies, system costs, and rate structures evolve.

  10. Evolutionary analysis of technological innovations: the example of solar photovoltaic and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillant, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to study the building up and the development of technologies for renewable energies considered as environmental radical innovations. In a first part, the author discusses the systemic aspects of innovation and the environmental challenges associated with energy technologies. He examines the main evolutions of energy systems over a long period. In a second part, he addresses innovation incentives in the case of environmental technologies and within the frame of the neo-classical economic theory. The next parts aim at presenting the theoretical framework of the evolutionary analysis of innovation and technical change, and at applying it to the case of technological innovations for renewable energies (photovoltaic and wind energy). World PV market trends are discussed and the technological competition context of this sector is analysed. The evolution of the solar PV technological system in Germany is discussed, as well as the specific case of development of the wind energy technological system in Denmark

  11. Using CAD software to simulate PV energy yield - The case of product integrated photovoltaic operated under indoor solar irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reich, N.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Sinke, W.C.

    In this paper, we show that photovoltaic (PV) energy yields can be simulated using standard rendering and ray-tracing features of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. To this end, three-dimensional (3-D) sceneries are ray-traced in CAD. The PV power output is then modeled by translating irradiance

  12. Design, fabrication and performance of a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shiv; Tiwari, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Two solar stills (single slope passive and single slope photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still) were fabricated and tested at solar energy park, IIT New Delhi (India) for composite climate. Photovoltaic operated DC water pump was used between solar still and photovoltaic (PV) integrated flat plate collector to re-circulate the water through the collectors and transfer it to the solar still. The newly designed hybrid (PV/T) active solar still is self-sustainable and can be used in remote areas, need to transport distilled water from a distance and not connected to grid, but blessed with ample solar energy. Experiments were performed for 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 m water depth, round the year 2006-2007 for both the stills. It has been observed that maximum daily yield of 2.26 kg and 7.22 kg were obtained from passive and hybrid active solar still, respectively at 0.05 m water depth. The daily yield from hybrid active solar still is around 3.2 and 5.5 times higher than the passive solar still in summer and winter month, respectively. The study has shown that this design of the hybrid active solar still also provides higher electrical and overall thermal efficiency, which is about 20% higher than the passive solar still.

  13. Voltage Support Study of Smart PV Inverters on a High-Photovoltaic Penetration Utility Distribution Feeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Fei; Pratt, Annabelle; Bialek, Tom; Bell, Frances; McCarty, Michael; Atef, Kahveh; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Gotseff, Peter

    2016-11-21

    This paper reports on tools and methodologies developed to study the impact of adding rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems, with and without the ability to provide voltage support, on the voltage profile of distribution feeders. Simulation results are provided from a study of a specific utility feeder. The simulation model of the utility distribution feeder was built in OpenDSS and verified by comparing the simulated voltages to field measurements. First, we set all PV systems to operate at unity power factor and analyzed the impact on feeder voltages. Then we conducted multiple simulations with voltage support activated for all the smart PV inverters. These included different constant power factor settings and volt/VAR controls.

  14. Method to size photovoltaic arrays for hydrogen-PV stand-alone power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barra, L.; Coiante, D. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energetica

    1993-11-01

    With reference to a stand alone power plant configuration, a photovoltaic (PV) system, integrated with an electrolytic hydrogen production and fuel cell reconversion line, is examined with the aim of checking the possibility of assuring energy supply for a given load with time continuity. In order to size the PV array in function of the annual load diagram, for a given site, a method, which utilizes the monthly average values of sun energy density collected on horizontal surface as input data, is presented. The results demonstrate that a PV-H{sub 2} system is suitable for a modular stand alone solar power station, able to supply continuously each generic load. This technical acquisition has to be considered as the first necessary condition to get photovoltaics to overcome the limit due to working intermittence and become a real energy option. An example of an application for a small Mediterranean island, the Volcano Island, permanently inhabited by 469 people, is also discussed. This typical case can be actually show the technical viability of the PV-H{sub 2} solution in powering a small community with the required reliability.

  15. Comprehensive Benefit Evaluation of the Wind-PV-ES and Transmission Hybrid Power System Consideration of System Functionality and Proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizheng Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the background of decreasing fossil fuels and increasing environmental pollution, the wind-photovoltaic energy storage and transmission hybrid power system (or called the wind-PV-ES and transmission hybrid system has become a strategic choice to achieve energy sustainability. However, the comprehensive benefit evaluation of such a combined power system is in a relatively blank state in China, which will hinder the reasonable and orderly development of this station. Four parts, the technical performance, economic benefit, ecological impact and social benefit, are considered in this paper, and a multi-angle evaluation index system of the wind-PV-ES and transmission system is designed. The projection pursuit model is used to evaluated system functionality conventionally; relative entropy theory is used to evaluate the system functionality simultaneously; and a comprehensive benefit evaluation model of the technique for order preference by similar to ideal solution (TOPSIS considering both system functionality and proportionality is constructed. Finally, the national demonstration station of the wind-PV-ES-transmission system is taken as an example to testify to the practicability and validity of the evaluation index system and model.

  16. A Review of Hybrid Solar PV and Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al Badwawi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that solar and wind power is intermittent and unpredictable in nature, higher penetration of their types in existing power system could cause and create high technical challenges especially to weak grids or stand-alone systems without proper and enough storage capacity. By integrating the two renewable resources into an optimum combination, the impact of the variable nature of solar and wind resources can be partially resolved and the overall system becomes more reliable and economical to run. This paper provides a review of challenges and opportunities / solutions of hybrid solar PV and wind energy integration systems. Voltage and frequency fluctuation, and harmonics are major power quality issues for both grid-connected and stand-alone systems with bigger impact in case of weak grid. This can be resolved to a large extent by having proper design, advanced fast response control facilities, and good optimization of the hybrid systems. The paper gives a review of the main research work reported in the literature with regard to optimal sizing design, power electronics topologies and control. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of both grid-connected and stand-alone hybrid solar and wind systems.

  17. PV-wind hybrid system performance. A new approach and a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arribas, Luis; Cano, Luis; Cruz, Ignacio [Departamento de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mata, Montserrat; Llobet, Ermen [Ecotecnia, Roc Boronat 78, 08005 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Until now, there is no internationally accepted guideline for the measurement, data exchange and analysis of PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. As there is a need for such a tool, so as to overcome the barrier that the lack of confidence due to the absence of reliability means for the development of the market of Hybrid Systems, an effort has been made to suggest one tool for PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. The suggested guidelines presented in this work are based on the existing guidelines for PV Systems, as a PV-Wind Hybrid system can be roughly thought of as a PV System to which wind generation has been added. So, the guidelines for PV Systems are valid for the PV-Wind System, and only the part referred to wind generation should be included. This has been the process followed in this work. The proposed method is applied to a case study, the CICLOPS Project, a 5 kW PV, 7.5 kW Wind Hybrid system installed at the Isolated Wind Systems Test Site that CIEMAT owns in CEDER (Soria, Spain). This system has been fully monitored through a year and the results of the monitoring activity, characterizing the long-term performance of the system are shown in this work. (author)

  18. Solar PV resource for higher penetration through a combined spatial aggregation with wind

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, ST

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available between wind and solar PV and how these would be reflected in the power system. The benefits of spatial distribution of renewables are well understood, but the impact of the combined spatial aggregation of wind and solar PV is central to the design...

  19. Integration of Hybrid PV/Wind Generation System Using Fuzzy MPPT in Grid Connected System for Remote Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soedibyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic and wind are renewable energy resources that widely used and grow rapidly in fulfilling electricity demand. Powers from both technologies depend on sunlight intensity and wind speed. For small scale power generation, DC voltage from both technologies is low and requires step-up converter to raise DC voltage ratio before converted into AC voltage. To optimize this system, step-up converter must have high ratio and efficiency to a distance of wide voltage input. This paper proposed an operation simulation and arrangement of DC-DC converter along with DC-AC from hybrid source PV-Wind which integrated to grid utilities without using storage device. High Gain Integrated Cascade Boost (HGICB is DC-DC converter that has quadratic voltage ratio and used in this research. Then DC link connected to Voltage Source Inverter (VSI which interconnected with utility grid and controlled by current control method. The total installed capacity of hybrid source is 4.4 kW. Wind turbine uses PMSG along with full bridge rectifier. To maximize and stabilize the generated power, MPPT fuzzy is used. Result from the simulation shows that converter capable to maintain maximum power whether from PV and wind turbine which canalized to utility grid in various irradiation condition, wind speed, and grid load alteration.

  20. Embodied energy analysis of photovoltaic (PV) system based on macro- and micro-level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, I.; Tiwari, G.N.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the energy payback time and CO 2 emissions of photovoltaic (PV) system have been analyzed. The embodied energy for production of PV module based on single crystal silicon, as well as for the manufacturing of other system components have been computed at macro- and micro-level assuming irradiation of 800-1200 W/m 2 in different climatic zones in India for inclined surface. The energy payback time with and without balance-of-system for open field and rooftop has been evaluated. It is found that the embodied energy at micro-level is significantly higher than embodied energy at macro-level. The effect of insolation, overall efficiency, lifetime of PV system on energy pay back time and CO 2 emissions have been studied with and without balance of system. A 1.2 kW p PV system of SIEMENS for mudhouse at IIT, Delhi based on macro- and micro-level has been evaluated. The CO 2 mitigation potential, the importance and role of PV system for sustainable development are also highlighted

  1. Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed-in-Tariff (FiT mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii describes the developments of PV, (iii applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium; and finally (iv predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future.

  2. Optimization of PV/WIND/DIESEL Hybrid Power System in HOMER for Rural Electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Q.; Jaszczur, M.; Abdulateef, J.

    2016-09-01

    A large proportion of the world's population lives in remote rural areas that are geographically isolated and sparsely populated. The present study is based on modeling, computer simulation and optimization of hybrid power generation system in the rural area in Muqdadiyah district of Diyala state, Iraq. Two renewable resources, namely, solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbine (WT) are considered. The HOMER software is used to study and design the proposed hybrid energy system model. Based on simulation results, it has been found that renewable energy sources perhaps replace the conventional energy sources and would be a feasible solution for the generation of electric power at remote locations with a reasonable investment. The hybrid power system solution to electrify the selected area resulted in a least-cost combination of the hybrid power system that can meet the demand in a dependable manner at a cost about (0.321/kWh). If the wind resources in the study area at the lower stage, it's not economically viable for a wind turbine to generate the electricity.

  3. Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Jason (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Walling, Reigh (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Peter, William (SunPower, Richmond, CA); Von Engeln, Edi (NV Energy, Reno, NV); Seymour, Eric (AEI, Fort Collins, CO); Nelson, Robert (Siemens Wind Turbines, Orlando, FL); Casey, Leo (Satcon, Boston, MA); Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris. (SunPower, Richmond, CA)

    2012-02-01

    Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

  4. Optimization of an off-grid hybrid PV-wind-diesel-battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merei, Ghada [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group; Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-Energy (Germany); Sauer, Dirk Uwe [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group; Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-Energy (Germany); RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS)

    2012-07-01

    The power supply of remote sites and applications at minimal cost and with low emissions is an important issue when discussing future energy concepts. This paper presents the modelling and optimisation of a stand-alone hybrid energy system. The system consists of photovoltaic (PV) panels and a wind turbine as renewable power sources, a diesel generator for back-up power and batteries to store excess energy and to improve the system reliability. For storage the technologies of lithium-ion, lead-acid, vanadium redox-flow or a combination thereof are considered. In order to use different battery technologies at once, a battery management system (BMS) is needed. The presented BMS minimises operation cost while taking into account different battery operating points and ageing mechanisms. The system is modelled and implemented in Matlab/Simulink. As input, the model uses data of the irradiation, wind speed and air temperature measured in ten minute intervals for ten years in Aachen, Germany. The load is assumed to be that of a rural UMTS/GSM base station for telecommunication. For a timeframe of 20 years, the performance is evaluated and the total costs are determined. Using a genetic algorithm, component sizes and settings are then varied and the system re-evaluated to minimise the overall cost. The optimisation results show that using batteries in combination with the renewables is economic and ecologic. However, the best solution is to combine redox-flow batteries with the renewables. In addition, a power supply system consisting only of batteries, PV and wind generators can satisfy the power demand.

  5. Proposing offshore photovoltaic (PV) technology to the energy mix of the Maltese islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapani, Kim; Millar, Dean L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Significant cost and carbon savings for offshore PV integration. ► Maximum savings at circa 315 MW for thin film PV integration. ► Minimum generating capacity of turbines significant in cost of electricity. ► Part-load efficiencies of current system could hugely limit the integration of renewables. - Abstract: The islands of Malta are located in the Mediterranean basin enjoying 5.3 kW h/m 2 /day of solar insolation, at a latitude of 35°50N. Electricity generation for the islands is dependent upon imported fossil fuels for combustion. The available solar resource could be exploited to offset the current generation of electricity using solar photovoltaic technology (PV). Due to the limited land availability onshore, the offshore environment surrounding the Maltese islands were considered for the installation of PV floating on the sea surface. The output from such an installation would have to be integrated with the existing conventional electricity generation infrastructure, which currently relies on gas and steam turbine technology. To assess the feasibility of floating PV being integrated with the existing fossil plant, monthly trend consumption data for Malta were analysed. The change in gasoil and heavy fuel oil (HFO) consumption resulting from the part load efficiency variation and the displacement of electricity generation from the PVs were estimated. A cost analysis was prepared for the system integration analysis specifically accounting for the reduction in combustion of fossil fuels at the power station and the capital expenditures and operating costs due to the floating PV installation. Aside from the basic cost-benefit of a floating PV installation, CO 2 savings are also considered

  6. PV Status Report 2008. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2008-09-01

    Photovoltaics is a solar power technology to generate electricity using semiconductor devices, known as solar cells. A number of solar cells form a solar 'Module' or 'Panel', which can then be combined to solar systems, ranging from a few Watts of electricity output to multi Megawatt power stations. The unique format of the Photovoltaic Status Report is to combine international up-to-date information about Research Activities with Manufacturing and Market Implementation data of Photovoltaics. These data are collected on a regular basis from public and commercial studies and cross-checked with personal communications. Regular fact-finding missions with company visits, as well as meetings with officials from funding organisations and policy makers, complete the picture. Growth in the solar Photovoltaic sector has been robust. Yearly growth rates over the last five years were on average more than 40%, thus making Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict that the market volume will increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect rising profit margins and lower prices for consumers at the same time. The PV Status Report provides comprehensive and relevant information on this dynamic sector for the public interested, as well as decision-makers in policy and industry.

  7. PV Status Report 2010. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2010-08-01

    Photovoltaics is a solar power technology to generate Electricity using semiconductor devices, known as solar cells. A number of solar cells form a solar 'Module' or 'Panel', which can then be combined to solar systems, ranging from a few Watts of electricity output to multi Megawatt power stations. The unique format of the Photovoltaic Status Report combines international up-to-date information about Research Activities with Manufacturing and Market Implementation data of Photovoltaics. These data are collected on a regular basis from public and commercial studies and cross-checked with personal communications. Regular fact finding missions with company visits, as well as meetings with officials from funding organisations and policy makers, complete the picture. Growth in the solar Photovoltaic sector has been robust. Yearly growth rates over the last decade were on average more than 40 %, thus making Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. The PV Status Report provides comprehensive and relevant information on this dynamic sector for the public interested, as well as decision-makers in policy and industry.

  8. Technical feasibility and financial analysis of hybrid wind-photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage for Cooma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakya, B.D.; Aye, L. [Melbourne Univ., Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Musgrave, P. [Snowy Hydro Ltd., Cooma, NSW (Australia)

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of a stand-alone hybrid wind-photovoltaic (PV) system incorporating compressed hydrogen gas storage was studied for Cooma (Australia). Cooma has an average annual solar and wind energy availability of 1784 and 932 kWh/m{sup 2}, respectively. A system with 69 kWh{sub e}/day (load) and 483 kWh{sub e}(storage) was studied. Hydrogen is generated in electrolysers using excess electricity from the system. The system components were selected according to their availability and cost. The 'discounted cash flow' method, with the 'levelized energy cost' (LEC) as a financial indicator was used for analysis. Configurations with PV% of 100, 60, 12 and zero were analysed. The lowest LEC of AU $2.52/kWh{sub e} was found for 100% PV. The cost of hydrogen generation from 100% PV was AU $692/GJ of hydrogen. Fifty-two percent of the total project costs were due to the electrolyser. Hence, a reduction in the electrolyser cost would reduce the cost of the overall system. (Author)

  9. Analysis of typical world countries' wind power and PV industry policies and their enlightenment to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Yang, Lijun; Qiu, Hongji; Li, Yuanfei; Peng, Lilin

    2017-01-01

    The wind power and PV are the key fields of clean energy development in China in recent years. However, there are still many aspects of problems in wind power and PV industries at present, such as the insufficient consumptive ability and the limitation of market competition capability. The effective leading and support of government in the aspect of policies is especially needed in order to solve these problems. Based on the analysis of main policies system of wind power and PV in our country, Spain, the United Kingdom and Germany are chosen as typical countries because of their wind power and PV industries are relatively developed. Their policies of wind power and PV industries are studied respectively from five aspects, namely macroscopic laws, development planning, administrative policies, fiscal and tax policies and price policies. Then the comparison among typical countries and China is made and the exiting problems in China's policies of wind power and PV industries are summed up. Finally, the suggestions to promote China's wind power and PV industries development are presented.

  10. Optimal Photovoltaic System Sizing of a Hybrid Diesel/PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Belhamadia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cost analysis study of a hybrid diesel and Photovoltaic (PV system in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. It first presents the climate conditions of the city followed by the load profile of a 2MVA network; the system was evaluated as a standalone system. Diesel generator rating was considered such that it follows ISO 8528. The maximum size of the PV system was selected such that its penetration would not exceed 25%. Several sizes were considered but the 400kWp system was found to be the most cost efficient. Cost estimation was done using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER. Based on the simulation results, the climate conditions and the NEC 960, the numbers of the maximum and minimum series modules were suggested as well as the maximum number of the parallel strings.

  11. Lighting rural and peri-urban homes of the Gambia using solar photovoltaics (PV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanneh, E.S.; Hu, A.H. [National Taipei Univ. of Technology, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Environmental Engineering Technology

    2009-07-01

    The main fuel supplies of Gambia are fuel woods, petroleum products, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This study considered the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) as a principal source of power for rural and peri-urban communities in Gambia. The country currently has high rates of poverty and malnutrition, and it is expected that the provision of electricity to communities will encourage economic growth. Gambia is also heavily dependent on foreign imports of oil. To date, PV systems have been used for water pumping, refrigeration, and telecommunications projects. The study showed that better access to sustainable energy services is needed at the micro-level to stimulate businesses and income-generating activities, as well as at the macro level to foster economic growth. Financing methods for developing solar energy in Gambia include credit financing; PV market transformative initiatives; revolving loan funds; and government-granted renewable energy concessions for institutionally-owned and maintained systems. A pilot program has been established to investigate the acceptability of PV lighting systems for rural populations. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  12. An experimental study on energy generation with a photovoltaic (PV)-solar thermal hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdil, Erzat; Ilkan, Mustafa; Egelioglu, Fuat

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid system, composed of a photovoltaic (PV) module and a solar thermal collector is constructed and tested for energy collection at a geographic location of Cyprus. Normally, it is required to install a PV system occupying an area of about 10 m 2 in order to produce electrical energy; 7 kWh/day, required by a typical household. In this experimental study, we used only two PV modules of area approximately 0.6 m 2 (i.e., 1.3x0.47 m 2 ) each. PV modules absorb a considerable amount of solar radiation that generate undesirable heat. This thermal energy, however, may be utilized in water pre-heating applications. The proposed hybrid system produces about 2.8 kWh thermal energy daily. Various attachments that are placed over the hybrid modules lead to a total of 11.5% loss in electrical energy generation. This loss, however, represents only 1% of the 7 kWh energy that is consumed by a typical household in northern Cyprus. The pay-back period for the modification is less than 2 years. The low investment cost and the relatively short pay-back period make this hybrid system economically attractive

  13. Task 5. Grid interconnection of building integrated and other dispersed photovoltaic power systems. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: power value and capacity value of PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppi, F.

    2002-02-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the power value and capacity value of photovoltaic power systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and dispersed PV power systems. This report summarises the results of a study aimed to assess the benefits that may be obtained when distributed PV production systems are present in a low-voltage grid. The basic aspects concerning the power-value and those related to the capacity-value are discussed. Data obtained from simulations are presented and discussed. A simple concept shows that great variation occurs if varying load patterns are taken into account. The power-value of PV generation in the grid varies instant by instant depending on the current level of power production and on the surrounding load conditions. Although the three case-studies considered do not cover all the possibilities of coupling between PV and loads, the results obtained show a good differentiation among users with PV production which leads to interesting conclusions.

  14. A peaking-regulation-balance-based method for wind & PV power integrated accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfang; Li, Nan; Liu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Rapid development of China’s new energy in current and future should be focused on cooperation of wind and PV power. Based on the analysis of system peaking balance, combined with the statistical features of wind and PV power output characteristics, a method of comprehensive integrated accommodation analysis of wind and PV power is put forward. By the electric power balance during night peaking load period in typical day, wind power installed capacity is determined firstly; then PV power installed capacity could be figured out by midday peak load hours, which effectively solves the problem of uncertainty when traditional method hard determines the combination of the wind and solar power simultaneously. The simulation results have validated the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Modeling & power management of standalone PV-Wind Hybrid energy system for remote location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawon, M. J. A.

    This thesis mainly focuses on a novel design of a standalone PV-Wind hybrid energy system for remote locations where grid extension is not feasible or is expensive. The Hybrid PV-Wind standalone energy system shows higher reliability compared to Wind or PV standalone systems as wind and solar are complementary. A Matlab/Simulink model of an integrated standalone PV-Wind hybrid system using a battery for storage and backup protection is presented. The individual component of the system is discussed and modeled. A novel and unique control strategy is designed and simulated to control the power flow of the system while maintaining the battery charging and discharging limit. In addition, different converter design and maximum power point tracking control are applied to ensure efficient and reliable power supply under various atmospheric and loading conditions.

  16. Diagnostic for Photovoltaic panels: models and methods for the "on-line" identification of the PV degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Petrone, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In the past the diagnosis of PV panels was mainly devoted to evaluate the performance degradation due to the manufacturing process and to guarantee the 25 years lifetime; these analysis was essentially based on off-line costly laboratory measurement. Recent studies shown that the degradation of photovoltaic (PV) panels is accelerated by various unpredictable and unavoidable phenomena, e.g, the extreme environmental and operating conditions, or by the type of electrical connections thus, in or...

  17. CFD Simulation of Turbulent Wind Effect on an Array of Ground-Mounted Solar PV Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irtaza, Hassan; Agarwal, Ashish

    2018-02-01

    Aim of the present study is to determine the wind loads on the PV panels in a solar array since panels are vulnerable to high winds. Extensive damages of PV panels, arrays and mounting modules have been reported the world over due to high winds. Solar array of dimension 6 m × 4 m having 12 PV panels of size 1 m × 2 m on 3D 1:50 scaled models have been simulated using unsteady solver with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations of computational fluid dynamics techniques to study the turbulent wind effects on PV panels. A standalone solar array with 30° tilt angle in atmospheric surface layer with the Renormalized Group (RNG) turbulence closure subjected to incident wind varied from - 90° to 90°. The net pressure, drag and lift coefficients are found to be maximum when the wind is flowing normally to the PV panel either 90° or - 90°. The tilt angle of solar arrays the world over not vary on the latitude but also on the seasons. Keeping this in mind the ground mounted PV panels in array with varying tilt angle from 10° to 60° at an interval of 10° have been analyzed for normal wind incident i.e. 90° and - 90° using unsteady RNG turbulence model. Net pressure coefficients have been calculated and found to be increasing with increase in array tilting angle. Maximum net pressure coefficient was observed for the 60° tilted PV array for 90° and - 90° wind incident having value of 0.938 and 0.904 respectively. The results can be concluded that the PV panels are subjected to significant lift and drag forces under wind loading, which needs to be quantified with sufficient factor of safety to avoid damages.

  18. Multiple time-scale optimization scheduling for islanded microgrids including PV, wind turbine, diesel generator and batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Nan, Jiakai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    the adjustment of the day-ahead scheduling and giving priority to the use of renewable energy. According to the forecast of the critical and noncritical load, the wind speed, and the solar irradiation, mixed integer linear programming (MILP) optimization method is used to solve the multi-objective optimization......A multiple time-scale optimization scheduling including day ahead and short time for an islanded microgrid is presented. In this paper, the microgrid under study includes photovoltaics (PV), wind turbine (WT), diesel generator (DG), batteries, and shiftable loads. The study considers the maximum...... efficiency operation area for the diesel engine and the cost of the battery charge/discharge cycle losses. The day-ahead generation scheduling takes into account the minimum operational cost and the maximum load satisfaction as the objective function. Short-term optimal dispatch is based on minimizing...

  19. Experimental study of a novel photovoltaic solar-assisted heat pump/loop heat-pipe (PV-SAHP/LHP) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Pei, Gang; Zhu, Qunzhi; Ji, Jie

    2017-01-01

    A prototype of a photovoltaic solar-assisted heat-pump/loop heat-pipe system (PV-SAHP/LHP) was constructed in this paper. The system was a combination of photovoltaic solar-assisted heat pump system (PV-SAHP) and loop heat pipe photovoltaic/thermal (LHP-PV/T) system. The combined system can carry out with two modes but using the same working fluid, and the two modes can switch operation freely. R600a was employed as the working fluid, and system performance under different working mode was presented in this paper. The results show that the day average photothermal efficiency & photovoltaic efficiency can reach to 43.6% & 11.3% under LHP-PV/T working mode compared with that of 57.5% & 12.1% under PV-SAHP working mode: Besides that, a day average COP of 3.66 was obtained under PV-SAHP working mode.

  20. Electrical Rating of Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) Systems: Long-Term Performance Analysis and Comparison to Conventional PV Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-29

    The dynamic nature of meteorological data and the commercial availability of diverse photovoltaic systems, ranging from single-junction silicon-based PV panels to concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems utilizing multi-junction solar cells and a two-axis solar tracker, demand a simple but accurate methodology for energy planners and PV system designers to understand the economic feasibility of photovoltaic or renewable energy systems. In this paper, an electrical rating methodology is proposed that provides a common playing field for planners, consumers and PV manufacturers to evaluate the long-term performance of photovoltaic systems, as long-term electricity rating is deemed to be a quick and accurate method to evaluate economic viability and determine plant sizes and photovoltaic system power production. A long-term performance analysis based on monthly and electrical ratings (in kWh/m2/year) of two developed CPV prototypes, the Cassegrain mini dish and Fresnel lens CPVs with triple-junction solar cells operating under the meteorological conditions of Singapore, is presented in this paper. Performances are compared to other conventional photovoltaic systems.

  1. A Low Cost Wireless Data Acquisition System for a Remote Photovoltaic (PV Water Pumping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Mahjoubi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and development of a 16F877 microcontroller-based wireless data acquisition system and a study of the feasibility of different existing methodologies linked to field data acquisition from remote photovoltaic (PV water pumping systems. Various existing data transmission techniques were studied, especially satellite, radio, Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS. The system’s hardware and software and an application to test its performance are described. The system will be used for reading, storing and analyzing information from several PV water pumping stations situated in remote areas in the arid region of the south of Tunisia. The remote communications are based on the GSM network and, in particular, on the Short text Message Service (SMS. With this integrated system, we can compile a complete database of the different parameters related to the PV water pumping systems of Tunisia. This data could be made available to interested parties over the Internet.

  2. Grid converters for photovoltaic and wind power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Remus; Rodríguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    "Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems provides a comprehensive description of the control of grid converters for photovoltaic and wind power systems. The authors present a range of control methods for meeting the latest application, power quality and power conversion requirements and standards, as well as looking towards potential future control functions. Practical examples, exercises, and an accompanying website with simulation models using Matlab and Simulink environments, and PSIM software make this text a pragmatic resource for electrical engineers as well as students taking related courses"--

  3. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric power systems utilizing energy storage and other enabling technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate technologies that will enable solar photovoltaics (PV) to overcome the limits of traditional electric power systems. We performed simulations of a large utility system using hourly solar insolation and load data and attempted to provide up to 50% of this system's energy from PV. We considered several methods to avoid the limits of unusable PV that result at high penetration due to the use of inflexible baseload generators. The enabling technologies considered in this work are increased system flexibility, load shifting via demand responsive appliances, and energy storage

  4. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data observed at weather station belongs to the Australian bureau of meteorology in Armidale town over a fourteen years period from 1997–2010. Simulation of solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were conducted to obtain the optimal hybrid system sizing and best efficient with lowest cost. Correlations between the solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis. It is shown that the hybrid system can be applied for the efficient and economic utilization of wind and solar renewable energy sources.

  5. Investigation of wind speed cooling effect on PV panels in windy locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gökmen, Nuri; Hu, Weihao; Hou, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Environmental concerns have considerably increased the penetration of renewable energy sources in the electricity grid. Especially, the quick rise of photovoltaic (PV) installations aroused more research interests in efficiency improvement during the recent years. Even one percent more gain is of...

  6. ENVI-PV: An Interactive Web Client for Multi-Criteria Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Systems Worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, Paula; Gschwind, Benoit; Blanc, Philippe; Frischknecht, Rolf; Stolz, Philippe; Durand, Yvonnick; Heath, Garvin; Menard, Lionel; Blanc, Isabelle

    2016-11-23

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the second largest source of new capacity among renewable energies. The worldwide capacity encompassed 135 GW in 2013 and is estimated to increase to 1721 GW in 2030 and 4674 GW in 2050, according to a prospective high-renewable scenario. To achieve this production level while minimizing environmental impacts, decision makers must have access to environmental performance data that reflect their high spatial variability accurately. We propose ENVI-PV (http://viewer.webservice-energy.org/project_iea), a new interactive tool that provides maps and screening level data, based on weighted average supply chains, for the environmental performance of common PV technologies. Environmental impacts of PV systems are evaluated according to a life cycle assessment approach. ENVI-PV was developed using a state-of-the-art interoperable and open standard Web Service framework from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). It combines the latest life cycle inventories, published in 2015 by the International Energy Agency (IEA) under the Photovoltaic Power Systems Program (PVPS) Task 12, and some inventories previously published from Ecoinvent v2.2 database with solar irradiation estimates computed from the worldwide NASA SSE database. ENVI-PV is the first tool to propose a worldwide coverage of environmental performance of PV systems using a multi-criteria assessment. The user can compare the PV environmental performance to the environmental footprint of country electricity mixes. ENVI-PV is designed as an environmental interactive tool to generate PV technological options and evaluate their performance in different spatial and techno-economic contexts. Its potential applications are illustrated in this paper with several examples.

  7. RE-SUPPLY: Securing the supply chains of wind power and solar PV Securing the supply chain for renewable energy. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Franz; Vuille, Francois; Ziem, Sabine [E4tech UK Ltd, London (United Kingdom); Rastogi, Ankur; Sengupta, Subhabrata [Avalon Consulting, Mumbai (India)

    2012-11-15

    The RE-SUPPLY project aimed to provide insight into the elements of the supply chains which are presently or can in the future evolve as critical constraints in further large-scale deployment of on- and offshore wind and solar photovoltaic energy. The objectives of the study were twofold: Risk assessment: identify potential bottlenecks in the supply chains of wind and PV and assess their criticality and timeline for occurrence; and, Risk management: identify suitable mitigation strategies and recommend specific actions at policy and industry level.

  8. Impacts of Voltage Control Methods on Distribution Circuit’s Photovoltaic (PV Integration Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Dubey

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread integration of photovoltaic (PV units may result in a number of operational issues for the utility distribution system. The advances in smart-grid technologies with better communication and control capabilities may help to mitigate these challenges. The objective of this paper is to evaluate multiple voltage control methods and compare their effectiveness in mitigating the impacts of high levels of PV penetrations on distribution system voltages. A Monte Carlo based stochastic analysis framework is used to evaluate the impacts of PV integration, with and without voltage control. Both snapshot power flow and time-series analysis are conducted for the feeder with varying levels of PV penetrations. The methods are compared for their impacts on (1 the feeder’s PV hosting capacity; (2 the number of voltage violations and the magnitude of the largest bus voltage; (3 the net reactive power demand from the substation; and (4 the number of switching operations of feeder’s legacy voltage support devices i.e., capacitor banks and load tap changers (LTCs. The simulation results show that voltage control help in mitigating overvoltage concerns and increasing the feeder’s hosting capacity. Although, the legacy control solves the voltage concerns for primary feeders, a smart inverter control is required to mitigate both primary and secondary feeder voltage regulation issues. The smart inverter control, however, increases the feeder’s reactive power demand and the number of LTC and capacitor switching operations. For the 34.5-kV test circuit, it is observed that the reactive power demand increases from 0 to 6.8 MVAR on enabling Volt-VAR control for PV inverters. The total number of capacitor and LTC operations over a 1-year period also increases from 455 operations to 1991 operations with Volt-VAR control mode. It is also demonstrated that by simply changing the control mode of capacitor banks, a significant reduction in the unnecessary

  9. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2014-08-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional balance sheet

  10. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2013-11-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional status

  11. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienard, Helene

    2010-11-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional balance sheet

  12. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Fourth quarter 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2014-02-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional status

  13. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2015-08-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional balance sheet

  14. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. First quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2014-05-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional status

  15. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Fourth quarter 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier; Thienard, Helene

    2013-02-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional status. (J.S.)

  16. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2014-11-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional balance sheet

  17. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Forth quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2015-02-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional balance sheet

  18. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier; Thienard, Helene

    2013-08-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional balance sheet

  19. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. First quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2015-06-01

    This document presents a quarterly review of power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, regional balance sheet

  20. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an experimental analysis (boundary layer wind tunnel test) of the aerodynamic forces resulting from winds acting on flat plate photovoltaic arrays are presented. Local pressure coefficient distributions and normal force coefficients on the arrays are shown and compared to theoretical results. Parameters that were varied when determining the aerodynamic forces included tilt angle, array separation, ground clearance, protective wind barriers, and the effect of the wind velocity profile. Recommended design wind forces and pressures are presented, which envelop the test results for winds perpendicular to the array's longitudinal axis. This wind direction produces the maximum wind loads on the arrays except at the array edge where oblique winds produce larger edge pressure loads. The arrays located at the outer boundary of an array field have a protective influence on the interior arrays of the field. A significant decrease of the array wind loads were recorded in the wind tunnel test on array panels located behind a fence and/or interior to the array field compared to the arrays on the boundary and unprotected from the wind. The magnitude of this decrease was the same whether caused by a fence or upwind arrays.

  1. Economic Analysis of a Brackish Water Photovoltaic-Operated (BWRO-PV) Desalination System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Karaghouli, A.; Kazmerski, L. L.

    2010-10-01

    The photovoltaic (PV)-powered reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination system is considered one of the most promising technologies in producing fresh water from both brackish and sea water, especially for small systems located in remote areas. We analyze the economic viability of a small PV-operated RO system with a capacity of 5 m3/day used to desalinate brackish water of 4000 ppm total dissolve solids, which is proposed to be installed in a remote area of the Babylon governorate in the middle of Iraq; this area possesses excellent insolation throughout the year. Our analysis predicts very good economic and environmental benefits of using this system. The lowest cost of fresh water achieved from using this system is US $3.98/ m3, which is very reasonable compared with the water cost reported by small-sized desalination plants installed in rural areas in other parts of the world. Our analysis shows that using this small system will prevent the release annually of 8,170 kg of CO2, 20.2 kg of CO, 2.23 kg of CH, 1.52 kg of particulate matter, 16.41 kg of SO2, and 180 kg of NOx.

  2. The Geography of Solar Photovoltaics (PV and a New Low Carbon Urban Transition Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Newton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the early phases of a 21st century energy transition that involves distributed generation technologies employing low or zero carbon emission power sources and their take-up within Australia, with particular reference to the major cities and solar photovoltaics (PV. This transition is occurring in a nation with significant path dependency to overcome in relation to fossil fuel use. Tracking the diffusion of solar PV technology within Australia over the past decade provides a basis for assessing those factors underpinning its exponential growth and its associated geography of diffusion. Positive evidence that there are pathways for cities to decarbonise is apparent but there appear to be different pathways for different city forms with lower density suburban areas showing the biggest take-up of household-based energy technologies. This suggests a model for the low carbon urban transition involving combinations of simple technological changes and harder structural changes, depending upon which parts of the urban fabric are in focus. This is being called a New Low Carbon Urban Transition Theory.

  3. Modeling and optimization of batteryless hybrid PV (photovoltaic)/Diesel systems for off-grid applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuanyo, David; Azoumah, Yao; Aussel, Didier; Neveu, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new model and optimization procedure for off-grid hybrid PV (photovoltaic)/Diesel systems operating without battery storage. The proposed technico-economic model takes into account the variability of both the solar irradiation and the electrical loads. It allows optimizing the design and the operation of the hybrid systems by searching their lowest LCOE (Levelized Cost of Electricity). Two cases have been investigated: identical Diesel generators and Diesel generators with different sizes, and both are compared to conventional standalone Diesel generator systems. For the same load profile, the optimization results show that the LCOE of the optimized batteryless hybrid solar PV/Diesel (0.289 €/kWh for the hybrid system with identical Diesel generators and 0.284 €/kWh for the hybrid system with different sizes of Diesel generators) is lower than the LCOE obtained with standalone Diesel generators (0.32 €/kWh for the both cases). The obtained results are then confirmed by HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables) software. - Highlights: • A technico-economic model for optimal design and operation management of batteryless hybrid systems is developed. • The model allows optimizing design and operation of hybrid systems by ensuring their lowest LCOE. • The model was validated by HOMER. • Batteryless hybrid system are suitable for off-grid applications

  4. Consequences of Reducing the Cost of PV Modules on a PV Wind Diesel Hybrid System with Limited Sizing Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones S. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable resources for power supply in family homes has passed the stage of utopia to became a reality, with limits set by technical and economic parameters. This paper presents the results of a project originated from the initiative of a middle-class family to achieve energy independence at home. The starting point was the concept of home with “zero energy” in which the total energy available is equal to the energy consumed. The solution devised to meet the energy demand of the residence in question is a PV wind diesel hybrid system connected to the grid, with the possibility of energy storage in batteries and in the form of heating water and the environment of the house. As a restriction, the family requested that the system would represent little impact to the lifestyle and landscape. This paper aims to assess the consequences of reductions in the cost of the PV modules on the optimization space, as conceived by the software Homer. The results show that for this system, a 50% reduction in the cost of PV modules allows all viable solutions including PV modules.

  5. An innovation management approach for renewable energy deployment. The case of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, Kwok L.; Watanabe, Chihiro

    2009-01-01

    In the discussion of renewable energy deployment, one key concern is the various types of barriers that renewable energy needs to overcome before it can make its way into the mainstream. These barriers increasingly shift from the technical to the economic and institutional. The most general types of barriers are due to technological 'lock-out' or to carbon 'lock-in' [. Understanding carbon lock-in. Energy Policy 28(12), 817-830 (Elsevier)]. These barriers necessitate the development of a strategic approach to deploy or introduce renewable energy technology. Existing energy policy has mostly relied upon financial subsidies, market-based instruments such as renewable portfolio standards, and production tax credits to stimulate the installation and use of equipment to generate electricity from renewable sources. These strategies target mostly system-level decisions of end users. The purpose of this paper is to present an innovation perspective on the renewable energy deployment process by introducing the innovation value-added chain (IVC) framework. The analytical objective of IVC is to evaluate the impact of a new innovation on the various stakeholders and players in the development and deployment processes. A deployment or innovation strategy that causes minimal disruption, enhances existing competencies, or expedites new learning by the players has a higher chance to succeed. We draw upon two sets of system integration costs data for grid-connected distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems in Japan and the United States and demonstrate conspicuously different dynamic learning behaviors. These two deployment models can be understood in terms of how the IVCs are organized and how PV system integration projects are performed in the field. In addition, IVC-based findings can inform the targeted application of conventional financial subsidies for learning investment not only at the PV system level, but also at the (localized) system integration level. This would involve

  6. Comparing Photovoltaic (PV) Costs and Deployment Drivers in the Japanese and U.S. Residential and Commercial Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seel, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Japan has re-emerged in 2013 as one of the world's fastest-growing and largest photovoltaic (PV) markets (Renewable Energy World 2013). Year-over-year growth in Japanese installed capacity in the first half of 2013 was about 270%. Japan's PV market was on pace to triple in 2013 compared with 2012, with approximately 2.7 GW installed during the first half of 2013 (compared to about 1.6 GW in the United States). This places Japan's market among the world's largest PV markets, along with China, Germany, and the United States. This report explores details of the rapidly changing Japanese market, and similarities and differences between the Japanese and U.S. markets. We collected data from a diverse group of Japanese PV installers, and we gathered additional Japanese and U.S. data from published sources as well as internal analyses.

  7. Design construction and analysis of solar ridge concentrator photovoltaic (PV) system to improve battery charging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimman, Kalaiselvan; Selvarasan, Iniyan

    2016-05-01

    A ridge concentrator photovoltaic system for a 10W multi-crystalline solar panel was designed with the concentration ratios of 1X and 2X. The ray tracing model of ridge concentrator photovoltaic system was carried out using Trace-Pro simulation. The optimum tilt angle for the concentrator PV system throughout the year was computed. The electrical parameters of the 3 panels were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the electrical performance of the panel was also studied. The reduction of voltage due to increasing panel temperature was managed by MPES type Charge controller. Glass reflector with reflectivity 0.95 was chosen as the ridge wall for the concentrator system. The maximum power outputs for the 1X and 2X panel reached were 9W and 10.5W with glass reflector. The percentage of power improvement for 1X and 2X concentrations were 22.3% and 45.8% respectively. The 2X concentrated panel connected battery takes lower time to charge compared with normal panel connected battery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. A Novel Design and Optimization Software for Autonomous PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ali M. Eltamaly; Mohamed A. Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a design and optimization computer simulation program for autonomous hybrid PV/wind/battery energy system. The main function of the new proposed computer program is to determine the optimum size of each component of the hybrid energy system for the lowest price of kWh generated and the best loss of load probability at highest reliability. This computer program uses the hourly wind speed, hourly radiation, and hourly load power with several numbers of wind turbine (WT) an...

  9. Optimal power flow based TU/CHP/PV/WPP coordination in view of wind speed, solar irradiance and load correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizipanah-Abarghooee, Rasoul; Niknam, Taher; Malekpour, Mostafa; Bavafa, Farhad; Kaji, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Formulate probabilistic OPF with VPE, multi-fuel options, POZs, FOR of CHP units. • Propose a new powerful optimization method based on enhanced black hole algorithm. • Coordinate of TUs, WPPs, PVs and CHP units together in the proposed problem. • Evaluate the impacts of inputs’ uncertainties and their correlations on the POPF. • Use the 2m + 1 point estimated method. - Abstract: This paper addresses a novel probabilistic optimisation framework for handling power system uncertainties in the optimal power flow (OPF) problem that considers all the essential factors of great impact in the OPF problem. The object is to study and model the correlation and fluctuation of load demands, photovoltaic (PV) and wind power plants (WPPs) which have an important influence on transmission lines and bus voltages. Moreover, as an important tool of saving waste heat energy in the thermoelectric power plant, the power networks share of combined heat and power (CHP) has increased dramatically in the past decade. So, the probabilistic OPF (POPF) problem considering valve point effects, multi-fuel options and prohibited zones of thermal units (TUs) is firstly formulated. The PV, WPP and CHP units are also modeled. Then, a new method utilizing enhanced binary black hole (EBBH) algorithm and 2m + 1 point estimated method is proposed to solve this problem and to handle the random nature of solar irradiance, wind speed and load of consumers. The correlation between input random variables is considered using a correlation matrix. Finally, numerical results are presented and considered regarding the IEEE 118-busses, including PV, WPP, CHP and TU at several busses. The simulation and comparison results obtained demonstrate the broad advantages and feasibility of the suggested framework in the presence of dependent non-Gaussian distribution of random variables

  10. Analysis of the value of battery storage with wind and photovoltaic generation to the Sacramento Municipal Utility District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaininger, H.W. [Zaininger Engineering Co., Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the results of an analysis to determine the economic and operational value of battery storage to wind and photovoltaic (PV) generation technologies to the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) system. The analysis approach consisted of performing a benefit-cost economic assessment using established SMUD financial parameters, system expansion plans, and current system operating procedures. This report presents the results of the analysis. Section 2 describes expected wind and PV plant performance. Section 3 describes expected benefits to SMUD associated with employing battery storage. Section 4 presents preliminary benefit-cost results for battery storage added at the Solano wind plant and the Hedge PV plant. Section 5 presents conclusions and recommendations resulting from this analysis. The results of this analysis should be reviewed subject to the following caveat. The assumptions and data used in developing these results were based on reports available from and interaction with appropriate SMUD operating, planning, and design personnel in 1994 and early 1995 and are compatible with financial assumptions and system expansion plans as of that time. Assumptions and SMUD expansion plans have changed since then. In particular, SMUD did not install the additional 45 MW of wind that was planned for 1996. Current SMUD expansion plans and assumptions should be obtained from appropriate SMUD personnel.

  11. Model predictive control for power fluctuation supression in hybrid wind/PV/battery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Liu, Zongyu; Zong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid energy system, the combination of wind turbines, PV panels and battery storage with effective control mechanism, represents a promising solution to the power fluctuation problem when integrating renewable energy resources (RES) into conventional power systems. This paper proposes a model...... predictive control (MPC)-based algorithm for battery management in a hybrid wind/PV/battery system to suppress the short-term power fluctuation on the ‘minute’ scale. A case study with data collected from a practical hybrid system setup is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm...

  12. Native Vegetation Performance under a Solar PV Array at the National Wind Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatty, Brenda [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Braus, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buckner, David [ESCO Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-16

    Construction activities at most large-scale ground installations of photovoltaic (PV) arrays are preceded by land clearing and re-grading to uniform slope and smooth surface conditions to facilitate convenient construction access and facility operations. The impact to original vegetation is usually total eradication followed by installation of a gravel cover kept clear of vegetation by use of herbicides. The degree to which that total loss can be mitigated by some form of revegetation is a subject in its infancy, and most vegetation studies at PV development sites only address weed control and the impact of tall plants on the efficiency of the solar collectors from shading.This study seeks to address this void, advancing the state of knowledge of how constructed PV arrays affect ground-level environments, and to what degree plant cover, having acceptable characteristics within engineering constraints, can be re-established.

  13. Numerical investigation of the thermal and electrical performances for combined solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) modules based on internally extruded fin flow channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y. C.; Li, Q. P.; Wang, G. J.

    2017-11-01

    A solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) module based on internally extruded fin flow channel was investigated numerically in this paper. First of all, the structures of the thin plate heat exchanger and the PV/T module were presented. Then, a numerical model of the PV/T module considering solar irradiation, fluid flow and heat transfer was developed to analyze the performance of the module. Finally, the steady electrical and thermal efficiencies of the PV/T module at different inlet water temperatures and mass flow rates were achieved. These numerical results supply theory basis for practical application of the PV/T module.

  14. Electrification of the Prudencio community through a hybrid system wind photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Egurrola, Dayerling Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    Paraguana Peninsula is located in the northernmost part of Venezuela, have average wind speeds above 7 m / s and solar radiation is between 5 to 6 kW -h/m2-dia without significant variation in the annual cycle. Taking into account the favorable conditions for the realization of this potential solar wind and pose the goal of designing a hybrid generation system (solar PV - wind) that supplies electricity to the coastal community of Prudencio made up of 26 families engaged mainly in fishing and not have the power supply by conventional means by be located far from the grid of the national grid. Project development began with a study that among other things includes: geographic location, topography, climate, social and economical. Subsequently determines the demand for housing and community in general to determine the requirements of the load. Finally sized autonomous electrical network formed by 2 2.0 kW wind turbines and a photovoltaic system consists of 18 panels 205 W, which supply electricity to 110 VAC single phase by using 2 inverters 4.0 kW interconnected to a whole battery bank dimensioning system according to the requirements of the load. (full text)

  15. A Novel Design and Optimization Software for Autonomous PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Eltamaly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a design and optimization computer simulation program for autonomous hybrid PV/wind/battery energy system. The main function of the new proposed computer program is to determine the optimum size of each component of the hybrid energy system for the lowest price of kWh generated and the best loss of load probability at highest reliability. This computer program uses the hourly wind speed, hourly radiation, and hourly load power with several numbers of wind turbine (WT and PV module types. The proposed computer program changes the penetration ratio of wind/PV with certain increments and calculates the required size of all components and the optimum battery size to get the predefined lowest acceptable probability. This computer program has been designed in flexible fashion that is not available in market available software like HOMER and RETScreen. Actual data for Saudi sites have been used with this computer program. The data obtained have been compared with these market available software. The comparison shows the superiority of this computer program in the optimal design of the autonomous PV/wind/battery hybrid system. The proposed computer program performed the optimal design steps in very short time and with accurate results. Many valuable results can be extracted from this computer program that can help researchers and decision makers.

  16. Building opportunities for photovoltaics in the U.S. Final report [PV BONUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Nicklas

    1999-09-08

    The objective of the North Carolina's PV Bonus Team was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable, building-integrated, photovoltaic system that, in addition to providing electricity, would capture and effectively utilize the thermal energy produced by the photovoltaic array. This project objective was successfully achieved by designing, testing, constructing, and monitoring two roof integrated photovoltaic systems--one on a Applebee's Restaurant in Salisbury, North Carolina and the second on a Central Carolina Bank in Bessemer City, North Carolina. The goal of Innovative Design is to now use these successful demonstrations to facilitate entry of building integrated, pv/thermal systems into the marketplace. The strategy was to develop the two systems that could be utilized in future applications. Both systems were designed and then constructed at the North Carolina Solar Center at North Carolina State University. After extensive testing at the North Carolina Solar Center, the systems were moved to the actual construction sites and implemented. The Applebee's Restaurant system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of a low sloping, south-facing sunspace roof that typically incorporated clay tile. After monitoring the installed system for one year it was determined that the 1.2 kilowatt (peak) system produces an average peak reduction of 1 kilowatt (rated peak is 1.7 kiloWatts), saves 1,529 kilowatt-hours of electricity, and offsets 11,776 kilowatt-hours of thermal energy savings used to pre-heat water. A DC fan connected directly to eight of the thirty-two amorphous modules moves air through air passages mounted on the backside of the modules and into a closed loop duct system to a heat exchanger. This heat exchanger is, in turn, connected to a pre-heat hot water tank that is used to heat the water for the restaurant. The Central Carolina Bank system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of the drive-in window area of the

  17. Mounting and performance measurements of a PV array addition to an existing small wind-power installation for greenhouse electric supply in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Oliva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A small wind-power system intended for electric supply of a research greenhouse at the local University facilities in San Julian region incorporates a photovoltaic (PV array and regulator, which is described in this report together with its data-acquisition system. The main application is control and lighting. The Alternative Energy Group at the University seeks through this project to acquire knowledge and practical experience in the combination of renewable energy sources for optimal electrical supply of isolated systems, their associated measurements and processing of resulting data

  18. Modeling and Coordinated Control Strategy of Large Scale Grid-Connected Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage Hybrid Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingguo Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An AC-linked large scale wind/photovoltaic (PV/energy storage (ES hybrid energy conversion system for grid-connected application was proposed in this paper. Wind energy conversion system (WECS and PV generation system are the primary power sources of the hybrid system. The ES system, including battery and fuel cell (FC, is used as a backup and a power regulation unit to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of the intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic resources. Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM is employed to support the AC-linked bus voltage and improve low voltage ride through (LVRT capability of the proposed system. An overall power coordinated control strategy is designed to manage real-power and reactive-power flows among the different energy sources, the storage unit, and the STATCOM system in the hybrid system. A simulation case study carried out on Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC 3-machine 9-bus test system for the large scale hybrid energy conversion system has been developed using the DIgSILENT/Power Factory software platform. The hybrid system performance under different scenarios has been verified by simulation studies using practical load demand profiles and real weather data.

  19. The Effect of Metal-Semiconductor Contact on the Transient Photovoltaic Characteristic of HgCdTe PV Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient photovoltaic (PV characteristic of HgCdTe PV array is studied using an ultrafast laser. The photoresponse shows an apparent negative valley first, then it evolves into a positive peak. By employing a combined theoretical model of pn junction and Schottky potential, this photo-response polarity changing curves can be interpreted well. An obvious decreasing of ratio of negative valley to positive peak can be realized by limiting the illumination area of the array electrode. This shows that the photoelectric effect of Schottky barrier at metal-semiconductor (M/S interface is suppressed, which will verify the correctness of the model. The characteristic parameters of transient photo-response induced from p-n junction and Schottky potential are extracted by fitting the response curve utilizing this model. It shows that the negative PV response induced by the Schottky barrier decreases the positive photovoltage generated by the pn junction.

  20. Regional PV power estimation and forecast to mitigate the impact of high photovoltaic penetration on electric grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Marco; De Felice, Matteo; Maggioni, Enrico; Moser, David; Perotto, Alessandro; Spada, Francesco; Cornaro, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The growing photovoltaic generation results in a stochastic variability of the electric demand that could compromise the stability of the grid and increase the amount of energy reserve and the energy imbalance cost. On regional scale, solar power estimation and forecast is becoming essential for Distribution System Operators, Transmission System Operator, energy traders, and aggregators of generation. Indeed the estimation of regional PV power can be used for PV power supervision and real time control of residual load. Mid-term PV power forecast can be employed for transmission scheduling to reduce energy imbalance and related cost of penalties, residual load tracking, trading optimization, secondary energy reserve assessment. In this context, a new upscaling method was developed and used for estimation and mid-term forecast of the photovoltaic distributed generation in a small area in the north of Italy under the control of a local DSO. The method was based on spatial clustering of the PV fleet and neural networks models that input satellite or numerical weather prediction data (centered on cluster centroids) to estimate or predict the regional solar generation. It requires a low computational effort and very few input information should be provided by users. The power estimation model achieved a RMSE of 3% of installed capacity. Intra-day forecast (from 1 to 4 hours) obtained a RMSE of 5% - 7% while the one and two days forecast achieve to a RMSE of 7% and 7.5%. A model to estimate the forecast error and the prediction intervals was also developed. The photovoltaic production in the considered region provided the 6.9% of the electric consumption in 2015. Since the PV penetration is very similar to the one observed at national level (7.9%), this is a good case study to analyse the impact of PV generation on the electric grid and the effects of PV power forecast on transmission scheduling and on secondary reserve estimation. It appears that, already with 7% of PV

  1. Optimal Sizing for Wind/PV/Battery System Using Fuzzy c-Means Clustering with Self-Adapted Cluster Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrating wind generation, photovoltaic power, and battery storage to form hybrid power systems has been recognized to be promising in renewable energy development. However, considering the system complexity and uncertainty of renewable energies, such as wind and solar types, it is difficult to obtain practical solutions for these systems. In this paper, optimal sizing for a wind/PV/battery system is realized by trade-offs between technical and economic factors. Firstly, the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was modified with self-adapted parameters to extract useful information from historical data. Furthermore, the Markov model is combined to determine the chronological system states of natural resources and load. Finally, a power balance strategy is introduced to guide the optimization process with the genetic algorithm to establish the optimal configuration with minimized cost while guaranteeing reliability and environmental factors. A case of island hybrid power system is analyzed, and the simulation results are compared with the general FCM method and chronological method to validate the effectiveness of the mentioned method.

  2. Design of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (PV Models for Home Lightings and Clean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a well-documented health risks of fuel-based lighting (kerosene lamps and fuel-powered generators and proposed a design of a stand-alone solar PV system for sustainable home lightings in rural Nigerian area. The design was done in three different patterns of electricity consumptions with energy efficient lightings (EELs using two different battery types (Rolls Surrette 6CS25PS and hoppecke 10 OpzS 1000 on; i judicious power consumption, ii normal power consumption, iii excess power consumption; and compared them with the incandescent light bulb consumption. The stand-alone photovoltaic energy systems were designed to match the rural Nigerian sunlight and weather conditions to meet the required lightings of the household. The objective function and constraints for the design models were formulated and optimization procedure were used to demonstrate the best solution (reliability at the lowest lifecycle cost. Initial capital costs as well as annualized costs over 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years were quantified and documented. The design identified the most cost-effective and reliable solar and battery array among the patterns of electricity consumption with energy efficient lighting options (judicious power consumption, normal power consumption, and excess power consumption.

  3. Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency for decorative PV applications (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. Jay

    2015-10-01

    This talk will describe an approach to create architecturally compatible and decorative thin-film-based hybrid photovoltaics [1]. Most current solar panels are fabricated via complex processes using expensive semiconductor materials, and they are rigid and heavy with a dull, black appearance. As a result of their non-aesthetic appearance and weight, they are primarily installed on rooftops to minimize their negative impact on building appearance. Recently we introduced dual-function solar cells based on ultra-thin dopant-free amorphous silicon embedded in an optical cavity that not only efficiently extract the photogenerated carriers but also display distinctive colors with the desired angle-insensitive appearances [1,2]. The angle-insensitive behavior is the result of an interesting phase cancellation effect in the optical cavity with respect to angle of light propagation [3]. In order to produce the desired optical effect, the semiconductor layer should be ultra-thin and the traditional doped layers need to be eliminated. We adopted the approach of employing charge transport/blocking layers used in organic solar cells to meet this demand. We showed that the ultra-thin (6 to 31 nm) undoped amorphous silicon/organic hybrid solar cell can transmit desired wavelength of light and that most of the absorbed photons in the undoped a-Si layer contributed to the extracted electric charges. This is because the a-Si layer thickness is smaller than the charge diffusion length, therefore the electron-hole recombination is strongly suppressed in such ultra-thin layer. Reflective colored PVs can be made in a similar fashion. Light-energy-harvesting colored signage was demonstrated. Furthermore, a cascaded photovoltaics scheme based on tunable spectrum splitting can be employed to increase power efficiency by absorbing a broader band of light energy. Our work provides a guideline for optimizing a photoactive layer thickness in high efficiency hybrid PV design, which can be

  4. Analysis on PV system sales price and subsidy through buy-back which make photovoltaics cost-competitive by 2030 in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, E.; Ichinohe, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze PV system sales price and subsidy through buy-back which make photovoltaics cost-competitive against other energy technologies and make the target for PV capacity achievable by 2030 in Japan under expected carbon tax. For the analysis energy system of Japan is modeled by using MARKAL. According to the results of analysis, under 6000 JPY/t-C carbon tax, photovoltaics needs subsidy for a while even if we taking both fuel savings and Green Credit into account. For attaining the national target for PV capacity in 2010, photovoltaics needs more expensive buy-back than that in present, but after 2010 necessary buy-back decreases gradually. If 120 JPY/W PV system sales price is attained by 2030, photovoltaics becomes cost-competitive without any supports. Subsidy through buy-back becomes almost need not in 2030, if we can reduce it less than 170 JPY/W. The total subsidy meets peak in 2025. It is much more than ongoing subsidy to capital cost of PV systems, but annual revenue of the assumed carbon tax can afford enough the annual total subsidy. This means if photovoltaics can attain the PV system sales price, we should support it for a while by spending carbon tax revenue effectively and efficiently. (authors)

  5. Energetic performance analysis of a commercial water-based photovoltaic thermal system (PV/T) under summer conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, I.; Ambrosini, D.; de Rubeis, T.; Paoletti, D.; Muttillo, M.; Sfarra, S.

    2017-11-01

    In the last years, the importance of integrating the production of electricity with the production of sanitary hot water led to the development of new solutions, i.e. PV/T systems. It is well known that hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems, able to produce electricity and thermal energy at the same time with better energetic performance in comparison with two separate systems, present many advantages for application in a residential building. A PV/T is constituted generally by a common PV panel with a metallic pipe, in which fluid flows. Pipe accomplishes two roles: it absorbs the heat from the PV panel, thus increasing, or at least maintaining its efficiency; furthermore, it stores the heat for sanitary uses. In this work, the thermal and electrical efficiencies of a commercial PV/T panel have been evaluated during the summer season in different days, to assess the effect of environmental conditions on the system total efficiency. Moreover, infrared thermographic diagnosis in real time has been effected during the operating mode in two conditions: with cooling and without cooling; cooling was obtained by natural flowing water. This analysis gave information about the impact of a non-uniform temperature distribution on the thermal and electrical performance. Furthermore, measurements have been performed in two different operating modes: 1) production of solely electrical energy and 2) simultaneous production of thermal and electrical energy. Finally, total efficiency is largely increased by using a simple solar concentrator nearby the panel.

  6. The Impact of Transformer Winding Connections of A Grid-Connected PV on Voltage Quality Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tumbelaka, Hanny H. [Petra Christian University; Gao, Wenzhong [University of Denver

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the high-power PV plant is connected to the weak grid by means of a three-phase power transformer. The selection of transformer winding connection is critical especially when the PV inverter has a reactive power controller. In general, transformer winding connection can be arranged in star-star (with neutral earthed) or star-delta. The reactive power controller supports voltage regulation of the power system particularly under transient faults. Its control strategy is based on utilizing the grid currents to make a three-phase reactive unbalanced current with a small gain. The gain is determined by the system impedance. Simulation results exhibit that the control strategy works very well particularly under disturbance conditions when the transformer winding connection is star-star with both neutrals grounded. The power quality in terms of the voltage quality is improved.

  7. Techno-economic feasibility of hybrid diesel/PV/wind/battery electricity generation systems for non-residential large electricity consumers under southern Iran climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baneshi, Mehdi; Hadianfard, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid electricity generation system for a large electricity consumer was studied. • The PV and wind electricity potentials under given climate conditions were evaluated. • Technical, economical, and environmental issues of different systems were discussed. • The optimum configuration of components was obtained. • The impacts of governmental incentives on economic viability of systems were examined. - Abstract: This paper aims to study the techno-economical parameters of a hybrid diesel/PV/wind/battery power generation system for a non-residential large electricity consumer in the south of Iran. As a case study, the feasibility of running a hybrid system to meet a non-residential community’s load demand of 9911 kWh daily average and 725 kW peak load demand was investigated. HOMER Pro software was used to model the operation of the system and to identify the appropriate configuration of it based on comparative technical, economical, and environmental analysis. Both stand alone and grid connected systems were modeled. The impacts of annual load growth and governmental energy policies such as providing low interest loan to renewable energy projects, carbon tax, and modifying the grid electricity price on viability of the system were discussed. Results show that for off-grid systems the cost of electricity (COE) and the renewable fraction of 9.3–12.6 ₵/kWh and 0–43.9%, respectively, are achieved with photovoltaic (PV) panel, wind turbine, and battery sizes of 0–1000 kW, 0–600 kW, and 1300 kWh, respectively. For on grid systems without battery storage the range of COE and renewable fraction are 5.7–8.4 ₵/kWh and 0–53%, respectively, for the same sizes of PV panel and wind turbine.

  8. Performance analysis of the Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverter of a photovoltaic system in water and wind applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkowski Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-phase grid connected inverters are nowadays broadly developed and tested in various types of applications especially in photovoltaic systems. The main aim of the inverter control strategy is to extract the maximum energy from the PV system which corresponds to the maximum power at certain conditions. However, the MPPT methods are also important in other renewable energy conversion systems. This paper analyses the performance of a commercially available photovoltaic inverter in water and wind systems. Presented models are implemented in a laboratory test bench in the form of torque characteristics realised by an induction motor fed by the inverter with vector control. The parameters are scaled into relative variables to provide a proper performance comparison. Presented tests include step response to assess the performance of a system dynamic. The dynamic tests showed a fast response of the investigated systems. The MPPT tracking accuracy tested under realistic profiles is similar for both cases: 98% and 96% respectively for the wind and water systems. These results prove the satisfactory performance of the MPPT of the PV microinverter in these applications.

  9. PWM Regulation of Grid-Tied PV System on the Base of Photovoltaic-Fed Diode-Clamped Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleschuk V.I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of grid-tied photovoltaic system on the base of two diode-clamped inverters, controlled by specific algorithms of pulse-width modulation (PWM, has been done. This system includes two strings of photovoltaic panels feeding two diode-clamped inverters. The outputs of inverters are connected with the corresponding windings on the primary side of three-phase transformer, connected with a grid. In order to reduce phase voltage distortion and to increase efficiency of operation of the system, special scheme of control and modulation of inverters has been used, providing minimization of common-mode voltages and voltage waveforms symmetries under different operating conditions. Detailed simulation of processes in this photovoltaic-fed power conversion system has been executed. The results of simulations verify good performance of photovoltaic system regulated in accordance with specific strategy of control and modulation.

  10. A hybrid wind-PV system performance investigation for the purpose of maximum hydrogen production and storage using advanced alkaline electrolyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalilnejad, A.; Riahy, G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new index for optimal sizing of system is proposed. • Electromechanical model of all components is designed and simulated using MATLAB. • Detailed and accurate model of advanced alkaline electrolyzer is simulated. • Three different conditions of using WT and PV array for this system are discussed. • Actual data for weekly irradiation, wind speed, and temperature of Sahand are used. - Abstract: In this study, design and modelling of hybrid wind–photovoltaic system is done for the purpose of hydrogen production through water electrolysis. Actual data for weekly solar irradiation, wind speed, and ambient temperature of Sahand, Iran, are used for performance simulation and analysis of the system examined. The detailed model of components is used. The 10 kW alkaline electrolyzer model, which produces hydrogen, is based on combination of empirical electrochemical relationships, thermodynamics, and heat transfer theory. The operation of this system is optimized using imperial competitive colony algorithm. The objective of optimization is to maximize hydrogen production, considering minimum production of average excess power. This system is analysed in three different conditions of using just wind turbine (WT), photovoltaic (PV) array, and combination of them as power source, producing hydrogen of 8297, 4592, and 10,462 mol, respectively. As for this result and with analysing other results of simulation, it is clarified that the hybrid system is more useful for this study. In hybrid form the ratio of average produced power to nominal power for PV array is 0.247 and for WT is 0.493 which demonstrates that WT is more effective in production

  11. Valence of wind power, photovoltaic and peak-load power plants as a part of the entire electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schüppel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The transition to a higher share of renewable energy sources in the electricity sector leads to a multitude of challenges for the current electricity system. Within this thesis, the development of wind power and photovoltaics generation capacities in Germany is analysed based on the evaluation of technical and economic criteria. In order to derive those criteria, different scenarios with a separated and combined increase of wind and photovoltaics capacity are simulated using the model ATLANTIS. The results are compared to a reference scenario without additional wind and PV capacities. Furthermore, the value and functionality of the energy only market based on economic methods, as well as the value of peak load power plants based on opportunity costs are determined. The results of this thesis show, that the current market system is able to gain an additional annual welfare of four to six billion Euro at the best. This result shows that the task of optimising the power plant dispatch is well fulfilled by the current market design. However, the effects, e.g. fuel costs, which may influence this margin. The value of wind power and photovoltaics within the overall electricity system can be derived from the effort which is necessary to integrate these generation technologies into the existing system, and the changes in total costs of electricity generation. Based on the evaluation of time dependencies (seasonality of energy yield from wind and PV) as well as the development of total generation costs, the conclusion can be drawn that wind power is the more suitable RES generation technology for Germany. However, when it comes to grid integration measures, PV shows better results due to a higher generation potential in Southern Germany, which leads to a higher degree of utilisation. Therefore, there is no need to transport electricity from Northern to Southern Germany as it is the case with wind power. A common expansion of wind power and photovoltaics even shows slight

  12. Household level innovation diffusion model of photo-voltaic (PV) solar cells from stated preference data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Towhidul

    2014-01-01

    We focus on predicting the adoption time probabilities of photo-voltaic solar panels by households using discrete choice experiments and an innovation diffusion model. The primary objective of this research is cohesively mapping the theory of disruptive innovation into diffusion of innovations to aid policy makers by linking two critical uncertainties of new technology: (1) whether households prefer the new attributes of the new technology and how these preferences vary by market segments? and (2) when are they going to adopt (if at all)? Our study uses recent developments of discrete choice experiments and establishes a causal link between the attributes of the technology, attitudinal constructs and socio-demographics, and adoption time probabilities using the Bass diffusion model. The data was collected from Ontario, a province of Canada. The innovation diffusion model allows us to compute the cumulative probability of adoption over time per household. Technology awareness and energy cost saving have a significant effect on the adoption probability, reinforcing the need for effective education. These findings also suggest that campaigns should explain more about investment criteria, feed-in tariffs and environmental attributes. This study findings call for a need to use seeding strategies to accelerate exogenous Word-of-Mouth (WOM) for this new technology. - Highlights: • Adoption of renewable energy (i.e. solar PV panels) and theory of disruptive innovations. • Household level innovation diffusion model from discrete choice experiments with time intent questions. • Variation in adoption probabilities by market segments. • Promotions should explain new attributes and lack of consistency of households especially on market develop policies. • Data from Ontario, province of Canada, with generous feed-in tariff for solar households

  13. Optimization of a stand-alone Solar PV-Wind-DG Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation at Sagar Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P. C.; Majumder, A.; Chakraborty, N.

    2010-10-01

    An estimation of a stand-alone solar PV and wind hybrid system for distributed power generation has been made based on the resources available at Sagar island, a remote area distant to grid operation. Optimization and sensitivity analysis has been made to evaluate the feasibility and size of the power generation unit. A comparison of the different modes of hybrid system has been studied. It has been estimated that Solar PV-Wind-DG hybrid system provides lesser per unit electricity cost. Capital investment is observed to be lesser when the system run with Wind-DG compared to Solar PV-DG.

  14. Performance Analysis of FLC Controlled PV-Wind Hybrid Power System for dc Load with Real-Time Data in Matlab, Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavan Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power system is a combination of different but complementary energy generation systems based on renewable energies. The Hybrid power system harnesses most of the power from the environmental conditions, reduces the losses and repetitive maintenance, thus improving efficiency and reliability of the system. This is achieved by proper coordination control between the Renewable Energy Sources (RES. This paper focuses on the implementation of Photovoltaic - Wind hybrid power system with real-time data of environmental conditions. The continuous real-time values of the solar irradiation and wind speed are obtained from the weather monitoring system at the location. The PV will be the primary source of generation during the day and wind generation can act as power conditioning. The Hybrid model is implemented in Matlab Simulink and its performance is examined under variable environmental conditions with a variable resistive load. A scale down experiment set-up of PV-Wind hybrid system is utilized to evaluate the performance of the proposed control logic. It has emerged from the simulation and experimental study that the hybrid system implemented with the real-time data maintains the output voltage constant irrespective of environmental conditions and load condition.

  15. Renewable Energy Potential by the Application of a Building Integrated Photovoltaic and Wind Turbine System in Global Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, maintaining equilibrium between energy supply and demand is critical in urban areas facing increasing energy consumption and high-speed economic development. As an alternative, the large-scale application of renewable energy, such as solar and wind power, might be a long-term solution in an urban context. This study assessed the overall utilization potential of a building-integrated photovoltaic and wind turbine (BIPvWt system, which can be applied to a building skin in global urban areas. The first step of this study was to reorganize the large volume of global annual climate data. The data were analyzed by computational fluid dynamic analysis and an energy simulation applicable to the BIPvWt system, which can generate a Pmax 300 Wp/module with a 15% conversion efficiency from a photovoltaic (PV system and a 0.149 power coefficient/module from wind turbines in categorized urban contexts and office buildings in specific cities; it was constructed to evaluate and optimize the ratio that can cover the current energy consumption. A diagram of the distribution of the solar and wind energy potential and design guidelines for a building skin were developed. The perspective of balancing the increasing energy consumption using renewable energy in urban areas can be visualized positively in the near future.

  16. Experimentally Investigating the Effect of Temperature Differences in the Particle Deposition Process on Solar Photovoltaic (PV Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an experimental investigation of the dust particle deposition process on solar photovoltaic (PV modules with different surface temperatures by a heating plate to illustrate the effect of the temperature difference (thermophoresis between the module surface and the surrounding air on the dust accumulation process under different operating temperatures. In general, if the temperature of PV modules is increased, the energy conversion efficiency of the modules is decreased. However, in this study, it is firstly found that higher PV module surface temperature differences result in a higher energy output compared with those modules with lower temperature differences because of a reduced accumulation of dust particles. The measured deposition densities of dust particles were found to range from 0.54 g/m2 to 0.85 g/m2 under the range of experimental conditions and the output power ratios were found to increase from 0.861 to 0.965 with the increase in the temperature difference from 0 to 50 °C. The PV module with a higher temperature difference experiences a lower dust density because of the effect of the thermophoresis force arising from the temperature gradient between the module surface and its surrounding air. In addition, dust particles have a significant impact on the short circuit current, as well as the output power. However, the influence of particles on open circuit voltage can be negligible.

  17. A Single Phase Doubly Grounded Semi-Z-Source Inverter for Photovoltaic (PV Systems with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofael Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a single phase doubly grounded semi-Z-source inverter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT is proposed for photovoltaic (PV systems. This proposed system utilizes a single-ended primary inductor (SEPIC converter as DC-DC converter to implement the MPPT algorithm for tracking the maximum power from a PV array and a single phase semi-Z-source inverter for integrating the PV with AC power utilities. The MPPT controller utilizes a fast-converging algorithm to track the maximum power point (MPP and the semi-Z-source inverter utilizes a nonlinear SPWM to produce sinusoidal voltage at the output. The proposed system is able to track the MPP of PV arrays and produce an AC voltage at its output by utilizing only three switches. Experimental results show that the fast-converging MPPT algorithm has fast tracking response with appreciable MPP efficiency. In addition, the inverter shows the minimization of common mode leakage current with its ground sharing feature and reduction of the THD as well as DC current components at the output during DC-AC conversion.

  18. Photovoltaic Solar Energy : From Fundamentals to Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, P.J.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Freundlich, A.

    2016-01-01

    Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date

  19. Modeling and control of hybrid wind/photovoltaic/fuel cell distributed generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caisheng

    Due to ever increasing energy consumption, rising public awareness of environmental protection, and steady progress in power deregulation, alternative (i.e., renewable and fuel cell based) distributed generation (DG) systems have attracted increased interest. Wind and photovoltaic (PV) power generation are two of the most promising renewable energy technologies. Fuel cell (FC) systems also show great potential in DG applications of the future due to their fast technology development and many merits they have, such as high efficiency, zero or low emission (of pollutant gases) and flexible modular structure. The modeling and control of a hybrid wind/PV/FC DG system is addressed in this dissertation. Different energy sources in the system are integrated through an AC bus. Dynamic models for the main system components, namely, wind energy conversion system (WECS), PV energy conversion system (PVECS), fuel cell, electrolyzer, power electronic interfacing circuits, battery, hydrogen storage tank, gas compressor and gas pressure regulator, are developed. Two types of fuel cells have been modeled in this dissertation: proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Power control of a grid-connected FC system as well as load mitigation control of a stand-alone FC system are investigated. The pitch angle control for WECS, the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control for PVECS, and the control for electrolyzer and power electronic devices, are also addressed in the dissertation. Based on the dynamic component models, a simulation model for the proposed hybrid energy system has been developed using MATLAB/Simulink. The overall power management strategy for coordinating the power flows among the different energy sources is presented in the dissertation. Simulation studies have been carried out to verify the system performance under different scenarios using a practical load profile and real weather data. The results show that the overall power

  20. Design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Warner, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of a study centered on the design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for remote locations in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate high reliability hybrid power systems that have been designed for the lowest life cycle costs. The technical and economic analysis of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems was carried out using HYBRID2, a computational code developed at the University of Massachusetts in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). After a summary of a generalized design procedure for such systems based on the use of this code, a systematic parametric evaluation of a representative design case for a village power system in Brazil is presented. As summarized in the paper, the performance and economic effects of key design parameters are illustrated. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Modified Grid-Connected CSI for Hybrid PV/Wind Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Amorndechaphon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of a power conditioning unit for hybrid PV/wind power generation system is proposed. The proposed power conditioner is based on the current source inverter (CSI topology. All energy sources are connected in parallel with a DC-bus through the modified wave-shaping circuits. To achieve the unity power factor at the utility grid, the DC-link current can be controlled via the wave-shaping circuits with the sinusoidal PWM scheme. In this work, the carrier-based PWM scheme is also proposed to minimize the utility current THD. The power rating of the proposed system can be increased by connecting more PV/wind modules through their wave-shaping circuits in parallel with the other modules. The details of the operating principles, the system configurations, and the design considerations are described. The effectiveness of the proposed CSI is demonstrated by simulation results.

  2. Effect of wind speed and solar irradiation on the optimization of a PV-Wind-Battery system to supply a telecommunications station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Lujano, Juan; Zubi, Ghassan [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Electrical Engineerign Dept.

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows the optimization of a PV-Wind hybrid system with batteries storage to supply the electrical power to a small telecommunications station. The load demanded by the station is 100 W continuously. We have considered 6 different wind speed profiles, from 2 m/s average speed (low wind speed in many places in Spain) to 8 m/s average (very high wind speed, in few places in Spain) and 3 different irradiation profiles, from the lowest average daily irradiation in Spain, about 2.5 kWh/m{sup 2}/day, to the highest one in Spain, about 5 kWh/m{sup 2}/day. Therefore we have considered 6 x 3 = 18 combinations of wind speed and irradiation profiles. For each combination of wind speed and irradiation profiles, we have optimized the PV-Wind-Battery system to supply the power demand, considering some different PV panels, wind turbines and batteries. We have also considered in the optimization non-hybrid systems (PV-Battery systems and Wind-Battery systems). The simulation of the system performance has been done hourly. The optimal system for each combination of wind speed and irradiation is the one which can supply the whole demand of the telecommunications station with the lowest Net Present Cost of the system. Simulation and optimization has been done using HOGA (Hybrid Optimization by Genetic Algorithms) software, developed by some of the authors. The results show that, with actual prices of PV panels and wind turbines, in 13 of the 18 combinations of wind speed and irradiation profiles the optimal system is a hybrid system (it includes PV panels, wind turbine and batteries). In the other 5 combinations (the ones with lowest wind speed and/or highest irradiation), the optimal system is PV-Battery, i.e., without wind turbine. We conclude that, in most of the places in Spain, the optimal system to supply the demand of a communications station (with continous demand profile) is a hybrid system (PV-Wind-Batteries) instead of a PV-Batteries system or a Wind

  3. Photovoltaics (PV) as an Eligible Measure in Residential PACE Programs: Benefits and Challenges (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.

    2010-06-01

    Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing is one of several new financial models broadening access to clean energy by addressing the barrier of initial capital cost. The majority of the PACE programs in the market today include PV as an eligible measure. PV appeals to homeowners as a way to reduce utility bills, self-generate sustainable power, increase energy independence and demonstrate a commitment to the environment. If substantial state incentives for PV exist, PV projects can be economic under PACE, especially when partnered with good net metering policies. At the same time, PV is expensive relative to other eligible measures with a return on investment horizon that might exceed program targets. This fact sheet reviews the benefits and potential challenges of including PV in PACE programs.

  4. Performance of a small stand alone photovoltaic-wind system at El Oyameyo D.F., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Juarez, A.; Campos, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Tiburcio Silver, A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca-Division de Posgrado, Toluca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    El Oyameyo, is an ecological site located to the South-West of the Topilejo town, D.F., 19 degree 25` North latitude, 99 degree 5` West longitude and at an altitude of 3100 m. At present, there are 10 families living at this place. They have energy generators to produce their own electricity by means of solar or wind energy using photovoltaic (PV) technology and eolic systems, respectively. There are three different configurations of energy generators: DC regulated PV systems, AC regulated PV systems and one PV-Wind hybrid system. The electrical power installed for the stand alone PV systems are from 48 W-p up to 768 W-p range. Among these, there are 4 PV systems that are configurated in DC regulated systems, and other 6 are AC regulated systems. All these systems use lead-acid battery (scaled or vented) banks to store the energy produced daily by the systems. The PV-Wind hybrid system in formed, at present, by a 5.0 kW wind generator, a PV array of 768 W-p, a 37.8 kW-h storage battery bank and a 5.0 kW DC/AC inverter. In this work, we report the electricity generated, load pattern and overall system performance of the photovoltaic-wind hybrid system. The technical characteristics, energy test on the hybrid system and the experience obtained from energy handling and system maintenance for all the systems are presented. We found that all the systems had shown good performance and users` satisfaction. [Espanol] El Oyameyo es un lugar ecologico localizado al Sur-Oeste del pueblo de Topilejo, D. F., 19 grados 25` de latitud Norte 99 grados 5` de longitud Oeste y a una altitud de 3100m. Actualmente hay 10 familias viviendo en este lugar. Tienen generadores de energia para producir su propia electricidad mediante la energia solar y la del viento usando sistemas fotovoltaicos (FV) y sistemas eolicos, respectivamente. Hay tres diferentes configuraciones de generadores de energia: sistemas fotovoltaicos de CD regulados, sistemas fotovoltaicos de CA regulados y un sistema

  5. Concentrating Photovoltaics: Collaborative Opportunities within DOEs CSP and PV Programs; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehos, M.; Lewandowski, A.; Symko-Davies, M.; Kurtz, S.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: DOEs Concentrating Solar Power program is investigating the viability of concentrating PV converters as an alternative to thermal conversion devices.

  6. Simulation and performance analysis of 110 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic system for residential building in India: A comparative analysis of various PV technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar Shukla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available System simulation is necessary to investigate the feasibility of Solar PV system at a given location. This study is done to evaluate the feasibility of grid connected rooftop solar photovoltaic system for a residential Hostel building at MANIT, Bhopal, India (Latitude: 23° 16′ N, Longitude: 77° 36′ E. The study focuses on the use of Solargis PV Planner software as a tool to analyze the performance a 110 kWp solar photovoltaic rooftop plant and also compares the performances of different PV technologies based on simulated energy yield and performance ratio. Solargis proves to easy, fast, accurate and reliable software tool for the simulation of solar PV system.

  7. Novel simplified hourly energy flow models for photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Tamer; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed an energy flow model for standalone PV system using MATLAB line code. • We developed an energy flow model for hybrid PV/wind system using MATLAB line code. • We developed an energy flow model for hybrid PV/diesel system using MATLAB line code. - Abstract: This paper presents simplified energy flow models for photovoltaic (PV) power systems using MATLAB. Three types of PV power system are taken into consideration namely standalone PV systems, hybrid PV/wind systems and hybrid PV/diesel systems. The logic of the energy flow for each PV power system is discussed first and then the MATLAB line codes for these models are provided and explained. The results prove the accuracy of the proposed models. Such models help modeling and sizing PV systems

  8. Indoor simulation and testing of photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) air collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solanki, S.C.; Dubey, Swapnil; Tiwari, A.

    2009-01-01

    An indoor standard test procedure has been developed for thermal and electrical testing of PV/T collectors connected in series. For this, a PV/T solar air heater has been designed, fabricated and its performance over different operating parameters were studied. Based on the energy balance equations,

  9. Sensor System for Long-term Recording of Photovoltaic (PV) IV-curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper; Nymand, Morten; Haase, Frerk

    The purpose of this paper is to present a recording system for long-term investigation of PV panel dynamics under partial shading conditions. The system is intended to be a low-cost system deployable for stand-alone field use and long-term data recording at PV-plants. Passing clouds will affect...

  10. Power Control and Optimization of Photovoltaic and Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Azad

    Power map and Maximum Power Point (MPP) of Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) highly depend on system dynamics and environmental parameters, e.g., solar irradiance, temperature, and wind speed. Power optimization algorithms for PV systems and WECS are collectively known as Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm. Gradient-based Extremum Seeking (ES), as a non-model-based MPPT algorithm, governs the system to its peak point on the steepest descent curve regardless of changes of the system dynamics and variations of the environmental parameters. Since the power map shape defines the gradient vector, then a close estimate of the power map shape is needed to create user assignable transients in the MPPT algorithm. The Hessian gives a precise estimate of the power map in a neighborhood around the MPP. The estimate of the inverse of the Hessian in combination with the estimate of the gradient vector are the key parts to implement the Newton-based ES algorithm. Hence, we generate an estimate of the Hessian using our proposed perturbation matrix. Also, we introduce a dynamic estimator to calculate the inverse of the Hessian which is an essential part of our algorithm. We present various simulations and experiments on the micro-converter PV systems to verify the validity of our proposed algorithm. The ES scheme can also be used in combination with other control algorithms to achieve desired closed-loop performance. The WECS dynamics is slow which causes even slower response time for the MPPT based on the ES. Hence, we present a control scheme, extended from Field-Oriented Control (FOC), in combination with feedback linearization to reduce the convergence time of the closed-loop system. Furthermore, the nonlinear control prevents magnetic saturation of the stator of the Induction Generator (IG). The proposed control algorithm in combination with the ES guarantees the closed-loop system robustness with respect to high level parameter uncertainty

  11. Output Filter Design for a Novel Dual-Input PV-Wind Power Converter by Energy Balance Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a detailed and systematic derivation of the output filter in a novel dual-input photovoltaic (PV-wind converter (DIPWC is presented. The theoretical derivation is based on an energy balance principle. While the DIPWC operates in steady state, the amount of charged energy of the output filter will be equal to that of the energy pumped away within one switching cycle. From this zero net change in energy, the minimum value of the output filter can be found. With the determined value, the DIPWC is able to operate in continuous conduction for high power applications. The developed procedure of the inductance determination can be applied to other types of dual-input converters. Therefore, it makes significant contributions to the design toward a green-energy, multi-input converter. To verify the correctness of the mathematical analysis, the DIPWC—with the derived output inductance—is built and tested. Practical measurements and results have verified the inductance determination.

  12. Hybrid PV/Wind Power Systems Incorporating Battery Storage and Considering the Stochastic Nature of Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Abdulwasa Bakr

    Hybrid power generation system and distributed generation technology are attracting more investments due to the growing demand for energy nowadays and the increasing awareness regarding emissions and their environmental impacts such as global warming and pollution. The price fluctuation of crude oil is an additional reason for the leading oil producing countries to consider renewable resources as an alternative. Saudi Arabia as the top oil exporter country in the word announced the "Saudi Arabia Vision 2030" which is targeting to generate 9.5 GW of electricity from renewable resources. Two of the most promising renewable technologies are wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic cells (PV). The integration or hybridization of photovoltaics and wind turbines with battery storage leads to higher adequacy and redundancy for both autonomous and grid connected systems. This study presents a method for optimal generation unit planning by installing a proper number of solar cells, wind turbines, and batteries in such a way that the net present value (NPV) is minimized while the overall system redundancy and adequacy is maximized. A new renewable fraction technique (RFT) is used to perform the generation unit planning. RFT was tested and validated with particle swarm optimization and HOMER Pro under the same conditions and environment. Renewable resources and load randomness and uncertainties are considered. Both autonomous and grid-connected system designs were adopted in the optimal generation units planning process. An uncertainty factor was designed and incorporated in both autonomous and grid connected system designs. In the autonomous hybrid system design model, the strategy including an additional amount of operation reserve as a percent of the hourly load was considered to deal with resource uncertainty since the battery storage system is the only backup. While in the grid-connected hybrid system design model, demand response was incorporated to overcome the impact of

  13. A novel off-grid hybrid power system comprised of solar photovoltaic, wind, and hydro energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, Binayak; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Caroline Sunyong; Song, Chul-Ki; Maskey, Ramesh K.; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose two hybridization methods for small off-grid power systems consisting solar (PV), wind, and micro-hydro sources. • One of the methods was implemented in a mini-grid connecting Thingan and Kolkhop villages in Makawanpur District, Nepal. • The results can be applied to help achieve Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability. • This is the first implementation anywhere comprising of three renewable energy power, in a single off-grid power system. • This research may be applied as a practical guide for implementing similar systems in various locations. - Abstract: Several factors must be considered before adopting a full-phase power generation system based on renewable energy sources. Long-term necessary data (for one year if possible) should be collected before making any decisions concerning implementation of such a systems. To accurately assess the potential of available resources, we measured solar irradiation, wind speed, and ambient temperature at two high-altitude locations in Nepal: the Lama Hotel in Rasuwa District and Thingan in Makawanpur District. Here, we propose two practical, economical hybridization methods for small off-grid systems consisting entirely of renewable energy sources—specifically solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and micro-hydro sources. One of the methods was tested experimentally, and the results can be applied to help achieve Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability. Hydro, wind, and solar photovoltaic energy are the top renewable energy sources in terms of globally installed capacity. However, no reports have been published about off-grid hybrid systems comprised of all three sources, making this implementation the first of its kind anywhere. This research may be applied as a practical guide for implementing similar systems in various locations. Of the four off-grid PV systems installed by the authors for village electrification in Nepal, one was

  14. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  15. National Survey Report of PV Power Applications in France 2012. Photovoltaic Power Applications in France - National Survey Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Yvonnick

    2013-05-01

    The PV power of all grid-connected photovoltaic systems installed in 2012 stood at 1 079 MW. This represented a 38 % fall compared with 2011. New grid-connected distributed systems, the majority of which were building-integrated, represented a total power of 756 MW, while grid-connected centralised ground-based power plants accounted for 323 MW. New PV installations in mainland France accounted for 35 % of total new electricity production capacity commissioned in 2012. The off-grid stand-alone photovoltaic system sector remains marginal with around 0,2 MW installed. The cumulative power capacity of all photovoltaic systems in operation at the end of 2012 stood at 4 003 MW (281 724 systems) representing an increase of 37% compared with 2011. Residential systems less than or equal to 3 kW accounted for 86% of all installations and 16 % of total power capacity, while systems exceeding 250 kW accounted for 0,3% of all installations and 44% of total capacity. In 2012, photovoltaic electricity production accounted for 0,7% of France's total electricity production. In France, the estimated average price of European-manufactured photovoltaic modules stood at 0,72 EUR/W in 2012. The fall in prices observed over the last two years has led to substantial growth in the medium-power and high-power systems sector. The turnkey price stood at around 3,7 EUR/W in 2012 for building-integrated residential systems (IAB) using European modules. The price of simplified building-integrated systems (ISB) on commercial and industrial buildings stood at 2,0 EUR/W, and at 1,6 EUR/W for high-power grid-connected ground-mounted systems (all prices mentioned are exclusive of VAT). The French photovoltaic component industry faced stiff international competition in 2012. The industrial value chain has, on the whole, remained relatively unscathed, but small installation companies have been the worst affected. Upstream of the PV sector, photovoltaic-grade silicon manufacturing is currently at

  16. Solar and Wind Site Screening Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and NREL created a decision tree to guide state and local governments and other stakeholders through a process for screening sites for their suitability for future redevelopment with solar photovoltaic (PV) energy and wind energy.

  17. Analysis of a utility-interactive wind-photovoltaic hybrid system with battery storage using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Francois

    1999-10-01

    This dissertation investigates the application of neural network theory to the analysis of a 4-kW Utility-interactive Wind-Photovoltaic System (WPS) with battery storage. The hybrid system comprises a 2.5-kW photovoltaic generator and a 1.5-kW wind turbine. The wind power generator produces power at variable speed and variable frequency (VSVF). The wind energy is converted into dc power by a controlled, tree-phase, full-wave, bridge rectifier. The PV power is maximized by a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), a dc-to-dc chopper, switching at a frequency of 45 kHz. The whole dc power of both subsystems is stored in the battery bank or conditioned by a single-phase self-commutated inverter to be sold to the utility at a predetermined amount. First, the PV is modeled using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). To reduce model uncertainty, the open-circuit voltage VOC and the short-circuit current ISC of the PV are chosen as model input variables of the ANN. These input variables have the advantage of incorporating the effects of the quantifiable and non-quantifiable environmental variants affecting the PV power. Then, a simplified way to predict accurately the dynamic responses of the grid-linked WPS to gusty winds using a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is investigated. The RNN is a single-output feedforward backpropagation network with external feedback, which allows past responses to be fed back to the network input. In the third step, a Radial Basis Functions (RBF) Network is used to analyze the effects of clouds on the Utility-Interactive WPS. Using the irradiance as input signal, the network models the effects of random cloud movement on the output current, the output voltage, the output power of the PV system, as well as the electrical output variables of the grid-linked inverter. Fourthly, using RNN, the combined effects of a random cloud and a wind gusts on the system are analyzed. For short period intervals, the wind speed and the solar radiation are considered as

  18. Potential Effect and Analysis of High Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV Systems Penetration to an Electric Distribution Utility (DU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Tamba Dellosa

    2016-11-01

    This Article: Dellosa, J. (2016 Potential Effect and Analysis of High Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV Systems Penetration to an Electric Distribution Utility (DU. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3, 179-185. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.179-185

  19. SIMWEST: A simulation model for wind and photovoltaic energy storage systems (CDC user's manual), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, A. W.; Esinger, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    Procedures are given for using the SIMWEST program on CDC 6000 series computers. This expanded software package includes wind and/or photovoltaic systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic).

  20. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, K.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; Wiser, R.; Feldman, D.; Ong, S.

    2012-11-01

    This report presents results from the first U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs--often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs--for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems.

  1. Multi-Input Converter with MPPT Feature for Wind-PV Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-input converter (MIC to process wind-PV power is proposed, designed, analyzed, simulated, and implemented. The MIC cannot only process solar energy but deal with wind power, of which structure is derived from forward-type DC/DC converter to step-down/up voltage for charger systems, DC distribution applications, or grid connection. The MIC comprises an upper modified double-ended forward, a lower modified double-ended forward, a common output inductor, and a DSP-based system controller. The two modified double-ended forwards can operate individually or simultaneously so as to accommodate the variation of the hybrid renewable energy under different atmospheric conditions. While the MIC operates at interleaving mode, better performance can be achieved and volume also is reduced. The proposed MIC is capable of recycling the energy stored in the leakage inductance and obtaining high step-up output voltage. In order to draw maximum power from wind turbine and PV panel, perturb-and-observe method is adopted to achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT feature. The MIC is constructed, analyzed, simulated, and tested. Simulations and hardware measurements have demonstrated the feasibility and functionality of the proposed multi-input converter.

  2. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid Generation System of Wind Turbines, Photovoltaic Modules, and a Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Ceran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of energy analysis of a generation system consisting of wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, a fuel cell with a polymer membrane, and an electrolyser. The analysis was carried out for three configurations of generating devices’ connections with consumer: I – wind turbines and photovoltaic modules supply electrolyser, II – paralel co-operation of fuel cell with renewables, III – renewables supply electrolyser, with the option of direct supply of the consumer.

  3. Comparative analysis of different supporting measures for the production of electrical energy by solar PV and Wind systems. Four representative European cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campoccia, A.; Dusonchet, L.; Telaretti, E.; Zizzo, G.

    2009-01-01

    In the 9th of March 2007, the European Council decided a fixing goal of 20% contribution of the renewable energy sources (RES) on the total European electric energy production in 2020. In order to reach such an ambitious goal, all the European countries are adopting different support policies for encouraging the installations of RES-based generation systems. In this paper, after a brief review on the main support policies for RES in Europe, the specific situations of four representative countries (France, Germany, Italy and Spain) are examined, with the purpose of putting into evidence the main differences in the support policies adopted for Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind systems. In particular, a comparison based on the calculation of the pay-back-period (PBP), the net present value (NPV) and the internal rate of return (IRR), for different sized PV and Wind systems, shows that in some situations a support policy can be not convenient for the owner of the RES-based generation system and that, in many cases, the differences between the way of implementation of the same support policy in different countries, can give place to significantly different results. (author)

  4. Real-time POD-CFD Wind-Load Calculator for PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huayamave, Victor [Centecorp; Divo, Eduardo [Centecorp; Ceballos, Andres [Centecorp; Barriento, Carolina [Centecorp; Stephen, Barkaszi [FSEC; Hubert, Seigneur [FSEC

    2014-03-21

    The primary objective of this project is to create an accurate web-based real-time wind-load calculator. This is of paramount importance for (1) the rapid and accurate assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, (2) identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of mounting hardware and installation. Wind loading calculations for structures are currently performed according to the American Society of Civil Engineers/ Structural Engineering Institute Standard ASCE/SEI 7; the values in this standard were calculated from simplified models that do not necessarily take into account relevant characteristics such as those from full 3D effects, end effects, turbulence generation and dissipation, as well as minor effects derived from shear forces on installation brackets and other accessories. This standard does not include provisions that address the special requirements of rooftop PV systems, and attempts to apply this standard may lead to significant design errors as wind loads are incorrectly estimated. Therefore, an accurate calculator would be of paramount importance for the preliminary assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of the mounting system and installation. The challenge is that although a full-fledged three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis would properly and accurately capture the complete physical effects of air flow over PV systems, it would be impractical for this tool, which is intended to be a real-time web-based calculator. CFD routinely requires enormous computation times to arrive at solutions that can be deemed accurate and grid-independent even in powerful and massively parallel computer platforms. This work is expected not only to accelerate solar deployment nationwide, but also help reach the SunShot Initiative goals

  5. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission reduction potentials of renewable energy--case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yu-Ming; Fukushima, Yasuhiro

    2009-03-01

    To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the reduction potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the emission reduction potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic reduction of carbon dioxide emission induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study.

  6. Effect of Neutral Grounding Protection Methods for Compensated Wind/PV Grid-Connected Hybrid Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Çetinkaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the wind/PV grid-connected system (GCS can be categorized as technical, environmental, and economic impacts. It has a vital impact for improving the voltage in the power systems; however, it has some negative effects such as interfacing and fault clearing. This paper discusses different grounding methods for fault protection of High-voltage (HV power systems. Influences of these grounding methods for various fault characteristics on wind/PV GCSs are discussed. Simulation models are implemented in the Alternative Transient Program (ATP version of the Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP. The models allow for different fault factors and grounding methods. Results are obtained to evaluate the impact of each grounding method on the 3-phase short-circuit fault (SCF, double-line-to-ground (DLG fault, and single-line-to-ground (SLG fault features. Solid, resistance, and Petersen coil grounding are compared for different faults on wind/PV GCSs. Transient overcurrent and overvoltage waveforms are used to describe the fault case. This paper is intended as a guide to engineers in selecting adequate grounding and ground fault protection schemes for HV, for evaluating existing wind/PV GCSs to minimize the damage of the system components from faults. This research presents the contribution of wind/PV generators and their comparison with the conventional system alone.

  7. Benchmark Networks for grid integration impact studies of large PV plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2013-01-01

    The increased amount of Photovoltaic (PV) power installed into the power system every year places this renewable way of producing electricity on the third position in the renewable sources hierarchy after hydro and wind solutions. Having significant levels of renewable power penetration into the ...... system with large PV penetration levels on every level, the system continues to be reliable and redundant....

  8. A Simple Sizing Algorithm for Stand-Alone PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a simple algorithm to determine the required number of generating units of wind-turbine generator and photovoltaic array, and the associated storage capacity for stand-alone hybrid microgrid. The algorithm is based on the observation that the state of charge of battery should be periodically invariant. The optimal sizing of hybrid microgrid is given in the sense that the life cycle cost of system is minimized while the given load power demand can be satisfied without load rejection. We also report a case study to show the efficacy of the developed algorithm.

  9. Integrated sizing and scheduling of wind/PV/diesel/battery isolated systems

    KAUST Repository

    Malheiro, André

    2015-05-22

    In this paper we address the optimal sizing and scheduling of isolated hybrid systems using an optimization framework. The hybrid system features wind and photovoltaic conversion systems, batteries and diesel backup generators to supply electricity demand. A Mixed-Integer Linear Programming formulation is used to model system behavior over a time horizon of one year, considering hourly changes in both the availability of renewable resources and energy demand. The optimal solution is achieved with respect to the minimization of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) over a lifetime of 20 years. Results for a case study show that the most economical solution features all four postulated subsystems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Assessing the Impact of Wind/PV Power Generation and Market Policies on Decentralized Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S.M. Arnoux, Luciana; Santiago, Leonardo

    In this paper, we offer a comprehensive approach to assess the impact of wind and photovoltaic power generation on decentralized hybrid systems. In particular, we focus on three performance measures of the energy system, namely reliability, costs, and efficiency. Most of the current studies focus...... technologies (e.g., smart metering) and policy design....... metering). Finally, we shed light on the performance metrics of the energy system: reliability, economy, and efficiency. We illustrate our approach by using data from a city in Brazil and analyze the behavior of system’s key parameters. We close by suggesting possible implications for managing new...

  11. A Multiobjective Robust Scheduling Optimization Mode for Multienergy Hybrid System Integrated by Wind Power, Solar Photovoltaic Power, and Pumped Storage Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power plant (WPP, photovoltaic generators (PV, cell-gas turbine (CGT, and pumped storage power station (PHSP are integrated into multienergy hybrid system (MEHS. Firstly, this paper presents MEHS structure and constructs a scheduling model with the objective functions of maximum economic benefit and minimum power output fluctuation. Secondly, in order to relieve the uncertainty influence of WPP and PV on system, robust stochastic theory is introduced to describe uncertainty and propose a multiobjective stochastic scheduling optimization mode by transforming constraint conditions with uncertain variables. Finally, a 9.6 MW WPP, a 6.5 MW PV, three CGT units, and an upper reservoir with 10 MW·h equivalent capacity are chosen as simulation system. The results show MEHS system can achieve the best operation result by using the multienergy hybrid generation characteristic. PHSP could shave peak and fill valley of load curve by optimizing pumping storage and inflowing generating behaviors based on the load supply and demand status and the available power of WPP and PV. Robust coefficients can relieve the uncertainty of WPP and PV and provide flexible scheduling decision tools for decision-makers with different risk attitudes by setting different robust coefficients, which could maximize economic benefits and minimize operation risks at the same time.

  12. Good exemplary projects in the field of photovoltaics; Goede voorbeeldprojecten op PV-gebied

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goud, J.; Alsema, E.; Nuiten, P. [W/E Adviseurs, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study is to identify the main features of several appealing PV projects in the Netherlands. It involves both technical and organizational and financial characteristics for the various phases from initiative to implementation and use and management. The second goal is to extract lessons from the collected information for future initiators or investors and managers of PV installations. The findings of the study are presented in this report, and the data collected will be published in the form of a database on the website of the Foundation Monitoring Solar Electricity ('Stichting Monitoring Zonnestroom') [Dutch] Doel van dit onderzoek is het inventariseren van de belangrijkste kenmerken van meerdere aansprekende PV-projecten in Nederland. Het gaat om zowel technische als organisatorische en financiele kenmerken, voor de verschillende fasen van initiatief tot realisatie en gebruik en beheer. Het tweede doel is het uit de verzamelde informatie destilleren van lessen voor toekomstige initiatiefnemers of investeerders en beheerders van PV-installaties. De bevindingen van het onderzoek worden vastgelegd in deze rapportage, de verzamelde informatie wordt openbaar gemaakt in de vorm van een database op de website van Stichting Monitoring Zonnestroom.

  13. Photovoltaic (PV) Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; Wiser, R.; Darghouth, N.; Goodrich, A.

    2012-11-01

    This report helps to clarify the confusion surrounding different estimates of system pricing by distinguishing between past, current, and near-term projected estimates. It also discusses the different methodologies and factors that impact the estimated price of a PV system, such as system size, location, technology, and reporting methods.These factors, including timing, can have a significant impact on system pricing.

  14. Photovoltaic energy congress 'PV Industry Forum 2008' of Munich. Looking for new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The debate between scientists and investors about photovoltaic conversion remains dominated by the silicon shortage and by replacement solutions that should allow the world market to maintain its strong growth. Thin film, concentrators and trackers are the three processes put forward, alone, or more and more combined with each others. This article presents the German context of photovoltaic power, the world market status, the German industry as world leader in this domain, and the technology advances in thin films, optical concentration, and tracking. (J.S.)

  15. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - Programme design, planning and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Oldach, R.; Wilshaw, A. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the design, planning and implementation of PV programmes. The guide contains details on the preparation for PV programmes, including the assessment of needs, stakeholder consultation, social context analysis, supply options and national policy considerations. The establishment of goals, delivery modes, timelines, logistics and quality assurance are discussed. Further, the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of PV programmes is discussed, as are a number of methodologies that have been developed with the aim of improving programme design and implementation. The guide highlights issues pertinent to rural energy programmes in developing countries and leads programme administrators through the process of planning, implementing and evaluating a PV programme.

  16. Task 9: deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. Sources of financing for PV-based rural electrification in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Syngellakis, K. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom); Shanker, A. [Innovation Energie Developpement, IED, Francheville (France)

    2004-05-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at how PV-based rural electrification in developing countries can be financed. The objective of Task 9 is to increase the overall rate of successful deployment of PV systems in developing countries through increased co-operation and information exchange. This document provides an introduction to PV project financing, including funding sources available, strategies and planning needed to secure the necessary financial resources for the deployment of PV technologies in developing and transitional economies. Topics discussed include risk analysis and the barriers to financing, sources of financing, considerations and variables that influence financing decisions and the process for securing financing. Various forms of international and national financing are looked at, as are the factors influencing financing decisions.

  17. Analysis of the Photovoltaic Market 2001. Cost of PV Components and Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balenzategui Manzanares, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    This document tries to study the development and evolution of the photovoltaic market at a national and international scale, and to analyse its current status at the end of 2001. The paper broaches the study from different points of view. At the first step, the actual great expansion of the global market is analysed by means of the data for international sales and shipments of photovoltaic modules, which are completed with figures of the main countries and manufacturing companies involved in the market, the end-use applications, the installed power per country, the technologies used and the evolution of the cost of the modules. By using the same kind of parameters, the particular conditions of the Spanish market is then analysed, and the current national norms and plans for promotion and their short term perspectives are reviewed and discussed. As a complementary aspect, a simple cost analysis of the main components of a photovoltaic system in the Spanish market is carried out, together with the costs of complete installations. The average values for components and systems are obtained and are compared with those from preceding years. These data allow evaluating in practice how the global situation is reflected in the final cost of the photovoltaic devices for consumers. (Author) 56 refs

  18. Smoothing out the volatility of South Africa’s wind and PV energy resources for an increased share of renewables

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, C

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : cmushwana@csir.co.za 2 Agenda Background Objectives of the wind and PV resource aggregation study Study progress to-date and Port Elizabeth case study Animated/interactive GUI (wind/PV/Residual load) in the proposed REDZ... O&M costs per MWh); Assumptions: average efficiency for CCGT = 50%, OCGT = 35%; coal = 37%; nuclear = 33%; IRP cost from Jan 2012 escalated with CPI to May 2015; assumed EPC CAPEX inflated by 10% to convert EPC/LCOE into tariff; CSP: 50% annual...

  19. Review on the Recent Developments of Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC Based Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkepli Afzam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T system emerged as one of the convenient type of renewable energy system acquire the ability to generate power and thermal energy in the absence of moving parts. However, the power output of PV/T is intermittent due to dependency on solar irradiation condition. Furthermore, its efficiency decreases because of cells instability at high temperature. On the other hand, fuel cell co-generation system (CGS is another technology that can generate power and heat simultaneously. Integration of PV/T and fuel cell CGS could enhance the reliability and sustainability of both systems as well as increasing the overall system performance. Hence, this paper intended to present the parameters that affect performance of PV/T and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC CGS. Moreover, recent developments on PV/T-fuel cell hybrid system are also presented. Based on literates, mass flow rate of moving fluid in PV/T was found to affect the system efficiency. For the PEMFC, when the heat is utilized, the system performance can be increased where the heat efficiency is similar to electrical efficiency which is about 50%. Recent developments of hybrid PV/T and fuel cell show that most of the studies only focus on the power generation of the system. There are less study on the both power and heat utilization which is indeed necessary in future development in term of operation strategy, optimization of size, and operation algorithm.

  20. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) integrated with earth to air heat exchanger (EAHE) for space heating/cooling of adobe house in New Delhi (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chel, Arvind; Tiwari, G.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with an experimental outdoor annual performance evaluation of 2.32 kW P photovoltaic (PV) power system located at solar energy park in New Delhi composite climatic conditions. This PV system operates the daily electrical load nearly 10 kW h/day which comprises of various applications such as electric air blower of an earth to air heat exchanger (EAHE) used for heating/cooling of adobe house, ceiling fan, fluorescent tube-light, computer, submersible water pump, etc. The outdoor efficiencies, power generated and lost in PV system components were determined using hourly experimental measured data for 1 year on typical clear day in each month. These realistic data are useful for design engineers for outdoor assessment of PV system components. The energy conservation, mitigation of CO 2 emission and carbon credit potential of the existing PV integrated EAHE system is presented in this paper. Also, the energy payback time (EPBT) and unit cost of electricity were determined for both stand-alone PV (SAPV) and building roof integrated PV (BIPV) systems.

  1. U.S. Residential Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices, Q4 2013 Benchmarks: Cash Purchase, Fair Market Value, and Prepaid Lease Transaction Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.; James, T. L.; Margolis, R.; Fu, R.; Feldman, D.

    2014-10-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. This report provides a Q4 2013 update for residential PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variation in business models, labor rates, and module choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.29/W for modeled standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon residential PV systems installed in the United States. This is a 46% decline from the 2013-dollar-adjusted price reported in the Q4 2010 benchmark report. In addition, this report frames the cash purchase price in the context of key price metrics relevant to the continually evolving landscape of third-party-owned PV systems by benchmarking the minimum sustainable lease price and the fair market value of residential PV systems.

  2. Analysis and Monitoring Results of a Building Integrated Photovoltaic Façade Using PV Ceramic Tiles in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chieh Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal silicon-based solar cells laminated with tempered-glass and ceramic tiles for use in a building’s façade have been developed. The optical, thermal, and electrical properties of the proposed PV module are first evaluated, and then a wind-resistance test is carried out to evaluate the feasibility of installing it in Taiwan. The electrical and deflection characteristics of the proposed PV module did not change significantly after a 50 thermal cycling test and a 200-hour humidity-freeze test, based on IEC 61215 and a wind-resistance test. Finally, the electrical power generation ability of the proposed BIPV system with 1 kWp electrical power capacity was examined. Building information modeling software tools were used to simulate the BIPV system and carry out the energy analysis. The simulation results show a very consistent trend with regard to the actual monthly electricity production of the BIPV system designed in this work. The BIPV system was able to produce an accumulative electrical power of 185 kWh during the 6-month experimental period. In addition, the exterior temperature of the demonstration house was about 10°C lower than the surface of the BIPV system, which could reduce indoor temperature.

  3. Optimised Control of 10 MW Photovoltaic (PV) Plant with 1MW / 1MWh Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand; Bindner, Henrik W.; Thavlov, Anders

    2016-01-01

    MWp PV capacity and 1MW/1MWh battery storage at the campus. This paper presents the specific context of the power system in Cyprus and the future UCY microgrid along with the possible and expected impacts of the PV plant and Battery Energy Storage System. The battery control strategies are tested......With the existing energy systems and electricity grids worldwide being developed as smart systems and grids with increased renewable energy in general, there are critical needs in smart grid knowledge, development, testing, demonstration, evaluation, education and training. The University of Cyprus...... (UCY) is presently establishing a complete new green-field campus in Nicosia and is looking at the opportunity to introduce smart, sustainable and cost and energy efficient solutions for the energy services at the campus as a truly smart grid living lab. As part of this vision, UCY plans to install 10...

  4. Schemes for photovoltaic-wind electrification in rural areas of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzeh, A.; Kaadan, M.

    2004-01-01

    The electricity authority has, over the years, connected most of population to the electric grid. But for very small villages (2000 villages which are yet to be electrified) and newly established Bedouins settlements (80,000 Bedouin families), the cost of grid connections would be high. The purpose of this paper is to propose planning schemes for off-grid hybrid PV-wind power systems that are suitable for energy requirements and general conditions of Syrian remote small villages. A case study will be introduced where a village with 25 houses and a school is to be supplied by hybrid PV-wind AC systems. The paper presents first a survey and operation evaluation of the PV power systems installed in Syria. Three types of stand-alone PV electrification systems (centralized, individual DC and individual AC systems) with a total capacity of about 100 kW were installed in Syria. Furthermore, the paper presents a summary of the renewable energy development plans, especially PV and PV hybrid systems, included in the renewable energy master plan that was recently performed for Syria. The master plan suggests activities to develop wind, bio-energy, solar, hydro and hybrid systems, which will provide heat and power to Syrian energy needs until 2010. (authors)

  5. Simulation and experimental study of power losses due to shading and soiling on photovoltaic (PV) modules

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersen, Anna Derås

    2015-01-01

    A model for predicting and quantifying the effects of complex partial shading profiles on a PV-module has been constructed by using the simulation tool LTspice IV. The model is constructed according to the two-diode model equivalent circuit for solar cells. Technical specifications from REC255PE were implemented in the model, and partial shade was simulated by applying shade normal to the strings, and along the strings on the module. An experimental basis has been established for quantify...

  6. Grid Support in Large Scale PV Power Plants using Active Power Reserves

    OpenAIRE

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut

    2014-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are in the 3rd place in the renewable energy market, after hydro and wind power. The increased penetration of PV within the electrical power system has led to stability issues of the entire grid in terms of its reliability, availability and security of the supply. As a consequence, Large scale PV Power Plants (LPVPPs) operating in Maximum Power Point (MPP) are not supporting the electrical network, since several grid triggering events or the increased number of downw...

  7. PV-hybrid and mini-grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the 5th European PV-hybrid and mini-grid conference 29th and 30th April, 2010 in Tarragona (Spain) the following lectures were held: (1) Overview of IEA PVPS Task 11 PV-hybrid systems within mini grids; (2) Photovoltaic revolution for deployment in developing countries; (3) Legal and financial conditions for the sustainable operation of mini-grids; (4) EU instruments to promote renewable energies in developing countries; (5) PV hybridization of diesel electricity generators: Conditions of profitability and examples in differential power and storage size ranges; (6) Education suit of designing PV hybrid systems; (7) Sustainable renewable energy projects for intelligent rural electrification in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam; (8) Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV systems, diesel generators and electric grid (Case studies: Emnazeil and Atouf villages); (9) Technical, economical and sustainability considerations of a solar PV mini grid as a tool for rural electrification in Uganda; (10) Can we rate inverters for rural electrification on the basis of energy efficiency?; (11) Test procedures for MPPT charge controllers characterization; (12) Energy storage for mini-grid stabilization; (13) Redox flow batteries - Already an alternative storage solution for hybrid PV mini-grids?; (14) Control methods for PV hybrid mini-grids; (15) Partial AC-coupling in mini-grids; (15) Normative issues of small wind turbines in PV hybrid systems; (16) Communication solutions for PV hybrid systems; (17) Towards flexible control and communication of mini-grids; (18) PV/methanol fuel cell hybrid system for powering a highway security variable message board; (19) Polygeneration smartgrids: A solution for the supply of electricity, potable water and hydrogen as fuel for transportation in remote Areas; (20) Implementation of the Bronsbergen micro grid using FACDS; (21) A revisited approach for the design of PV wind hybrid systems; (22

  8. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2009; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. Deuxieme trimestre 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  9. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2009; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. troisieme trimestre 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  10. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2010; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. troisieme trimestre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  11. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Third quarter 2011; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique - Troisieme trimestre 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thienard, Helene

    2011-11-15

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, projects in progress, regional status. (J.S.)

  12. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. First quarter 2011; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. Premier trimestre 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  13. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2010; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. Deuxieme trimestre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  14. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Fourth quarter 2009; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. Quatrieme trimestre 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-02-15

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  15. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Second quarter 2011; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. Deuxieme trimestre 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  16. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. First quarter 2010; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. Premier trimestre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  17. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Fourth quarter 2010; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique. Quatrieme trimestre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, regional status. (J.S.)

  18. Wind/photovoltaic power indicators. Fourth quarter 2011; Tableau de bord eolien-photovoltaique - Quatrieme trimestre 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thienard, Helene

    2012-02-15

    This document makes a quarterly status of the power generation from wind and photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly connected load during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year, progress trend of wind and photovoltaic power in France, projects in progress, regional status. (J.S.)

  19. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. The role of quality management, hardware certification and accredited training in PV programmes in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, M. C. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Oldach, R.; Bates, J. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the role of quality management, hardware certification and accredited training in PV programmes in developing countries. The objective of this document is to provide assistance to those project developers that are interested in implementing or improving support programmes for the deployment of PV systems for rural electrification. It is to enable them to address and implement quality assurance measures, with an emphasis on management, technical and training issues and other factors that should be considered for the sustainable implementation of rural electrification programmes. It is considered important that quality also addresses the socio-economic and the socio-technical aspects of a programme concept. The authors summarise that, for a PV programme, there are three important areas of quality control to be implemented: quality management, technical standards and quality of training.

  20. Developing High PV Penetration Cases for Frequency Response Study of U.S. Western Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jin; Zhang, Yingchen; Veda, Santosh; Elgindy, Tarek; Liu, Yilu

    2017-05-11

    Recent large penetrations of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation and the inertial characteristics of inverter-based generation technologies have caught the attention of those in the electric power industry in the United States. This paper presents a systematic approach to developing test cases of high penetrations of PV for the Western Interconnection. First, to examine the accuracy of the base case model, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) model is validated by using measurement data from synchronized phasor measurement units. Based on the 2022 Light Spring case, we developed four high PV penetration cases for the WECC system that are of interest to the industry: 5% PV+15 % wind, 25% PV+15% wind, 45% PV+15% wind, 65% PV+15% wind). Additionally, a method to project PV is proposed that is based on collected, realistic PV distribution information, including the current and future PV power plant locations and penetrations in the WECC system. Both the utility-scale PV plant and residential rooftop PV are included in this study.

  1. Developing High PV Penetration Cases for Frequency Response Study of U.S. Western Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jin; Zhang, Yingchen; Veda, Santosh; Elgindy, Tarek; Liu, Yilu

    2017-04-11

    Recent large penetrations of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation and the inertial characteristics of inverter-based generation technologies have caught the attention of those in the electric power industry in the United States. This paper presents a systematic approach to developing test cases of high penetrations of PV for the Western Interconnection. First, to examine the accuracy of the base case model, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) model is validated by using measurement data from synchronized phasor measurement units. Based on the 2022 Light Spring case, we developed four high PV penetration cases for the WECC system that are of interest to the industry: 5% PV+15 % wind, 25% PV+15% wind, 45% PV+15% wind, 65% PV+15% wind). Additionally, a method to project PV is proposed that is based on collected, realistic PV distribution information, including the current and future PV power plant locations and penetrations in the WECC system. Both the utility-scale PV plant and residential rooftop PV are included in this study.

  2. Energetic and exergetic performances analysis of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system tested and simulated under to Tunisian (North Africa) climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Riahi, Ali; Mehdaoui, Farah; Nouicer, Omeima; Farhat, Abdelhamid

    2016-01-01

    The endeavor of this paper is to study the potential offered by the expenditure of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system in Tunisian households. This investigation is performed according to two-folded approaches. Firstly, outdoor experiments were carried out during July 2014 for both passive and active mode. An exhaustive energy and exergy analysis was then performed to evaluate the instantaneous thermal and the electrical exergy outputs of the PV/T solar system. The results showed that the maximum instantaneous thermal and electric energy efficiency in active mode are about 50 and 15%, respectively. It was found also that the maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were about 50 and 14.8%, respectively. The second approach is the evaluation of the monthly/annual performances of the PV/T solar system under typical climate area of Tunisia by using TRNSYS program. The results showed that the active mode enhances the electric efficiency and the exergy of the PV/T system by 3 and 2.5% points, respectively. The results showed that the optimized PV/T solar system covert the major part of the hot water and the electric needs of Tunisian household's with an expected annual average gain of about 14.60 and 5.33%, respectively. An economic appraisal was performed. - Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using PV/T solar collector in Tunisian. • The maximum thermal and electric efficiencies are 50 and 15%, respectively. • The maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were 50 and 14.8%. • The results showed that the expected annual gain are 14.60 and 5.33%. • The PV/T is compared to a high quality commercial solar collectors and a PV panel.

  3. Large-scale integration of optimal combinations of PV, wind and wave power into the electricity supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    ancillary services are needed in order to secure the electricity supply system. The idea is to benefit from the different patterns in the fluctuations of different renewable sources. And the purpose is to identify optimal mixtures from a technical point of view. The optimal mixture seems to be when onshore...... wind power produces approximately 50% of the total electricity production from RES. Meanwhile, the mixture between PV and wave power seems to depend on the total amount of electricity production from RES. When the total RES input is below 20% of demand, PV should cover 40% and wave power only 10%. When...

  4. Optimized Fuzzy-Cuckoo Controller for Active Power Control of Battery Energy Storage System, Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell and Wind Turbine in an Isolated Micro-Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Einan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new control strategy for isolated micro-grids including wind turbines (WT, fuel cells (FC, photo-voltaic (PV and battery energy storage systems (BESS. FC have been used in parallel with BESSs in order to increase their lifetime and efficiency. The changes in some parameters such as wind speed, sunlight, and consumption, lead to improper performance of droop. To overcome this challenge, a new intelligent method using a combination of fuzzy controller and cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA techniques for active power controllers in isolated networks is proposed. In this paper, COA is compared with genetic algorithm (GA and particles swarm optimization algorithm (PSO. In order to show efficiency of the proposed controller, this optimal controller has been compared with droop, optimized droop, and conventional fuzzy methods, the dynamic analysis of the island is implemented to assess the behavior of isolated generations accurately and simulation results are reported.

  5. The Recent Change in the Italian Policies for Photovoltaics: Effects on the Energy Demand Coverage of Grid-Connected PV Systems Installed in Urban Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Orioli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In July 2013, the Italian photovoltaic (PV support policies changed the feed-in tariff (FIT mechanism and turned to a tax credits program, which is currently in force. The aim of this paper is to investigate how such a radical change has influenced the electricity demand coverage of the PV systems installed in urban contexts. A methodology, which connects the economic assessment to a detailed architectural and energy suitability analysis, was applied to some case studies to analyse the relationships between the physical parameters related to multi-storey buildings (roof shapes, number of floors and area of flats and the most relevant economic and financial features affecting the viability of rooftop PV systems. The study, which considers only the electricity produced by the PV systems that are economically profitable, highlighted that the tax credits scheme is even more effective in covering the electrical consumption of densely urbanised Italian city districts. The results, which are significantly influenced by the latitude of the analysed districts, underline the opportunity for governments to adopt PV promoting policies that are more sensitive to the amount of solar energy available in the different regions of their national territory.

  6. Wind loads on stand-off photovoltaic systems on pitched roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Blackmore, P.

    2013-01-01

    Stand-off photovoltaic systems are a popular measure for retrofitting of existing pitched roofs.Panels are generally mounted parallel to the existing roof coverings,usually roofing tiles.Full scale and wind tunnel experiments have been performed to determine the net uplift loads on these systems,

  7. Stability analysis of grid inverter LCL-filter resonance in wind or photovoltaic parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcuri, S.; Liserre, M.; Ricchiuto, D.

    2011-01-01

    Typically the resonance problems related to the use of LCL-filters in grid connected inverters are analyzed assuming the operation of a single inverter. Wind and photovoltaic parks may experience propagation of resonance from a poorly damped inverter to other systems connected in parallel...

  8. Modelling and control of a microgrid including photovoltaic and wind generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mohammed Touseef

    Extensive increase of distributed generation (DG) penetration and the existence of multiple DG units at distribution level have introduced the notion of micro-grid. This thesis develops a detailed non-linear and small-signal dynamic model of a microgrid that includes PV, wind and conventional small scale generation along with their power electronics interfaces and the filters. The models developed evaluate the amount of generation mix from various DGs for satisfactory steady state operation of the microgrid. In order to understand the interaction of the DGs on microgrid system initially two simpler configurations were considered. The first one consists of microalternator, PV and their electronics, and the second system consists of microalternator and wind system each connected to the power system grid. Nonlinear and linear state space model of each microgrid are developed. Small signal analysis showed that the large participation of PV/wind can drive the microgrid to the brink of unstable region without adequate control. Non-linear simulations are carried out to verify the results obtained through small-signal analysis. The role of the extent of generation mix of a composite microgrid consisting of wind, PV and conventional generation was investigated next. The findings of the smaller systems were verified through nonlinear and small signal modeling. A central supervisory capacitor energy storage controller interfaced through a STATCOM was proposed to monitor and enhance the microgrid operation. The potential of various control inputs to provide additional damping to the system has been evaluated through decomposition techniques. The signals identified to have damping contents were employed to design the supervisory control system. The controller gains were tuned through an optimal pole placement technique. Simulation studies demonstrate that the STATCOM voltage phase angle and PV inverter phase angle were the best inputs for enhanced stability boundaries.

  9. Photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  10. Photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Jason A; Keenihan, James R; Gaston, Ryan S; Kauffmann, Keith L; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo; Maak, Kevin D; Mills, Michael E; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R

    2017-03-21

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  11. The effectiveness of small scale Photovoltaic (PV) systems design and cost analysis simulation on Saudi Arabian Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansour, Faris Abdullah

    The advantages of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are much more than the disadvantages, RES such as solar, wind energy, biomass, and geothermal, which can be used for generating distributed power but cannot directly replace the existing electric energy grid technologies. The latter are far too well established to abandon, while the new RES technologies are not sufficiently developed to meet the total energy demand. Therefore, it is sensible to gradually infuse RES into existing grids and transform the system over time Saudi Arabia (SA) is a semi-developed nation with a population of over twenty nine million people. It is the largest country in western Asia with an area of 2.225MKm2. SA's largest export is oil, owning 1/5 of the world's supply, and producing twelve million barrels a day. However, SA is far behind in developing a smart grid and RES. A lot of this is to do with lack of participation by both the government and the private business sector. Currently SA spends over $13B a year on generating electricity from oil. SA is the largest consumer of petroleum in the Middle East, due to the high demand for transportation and electricity generation. According to the Saudi electrical company, the total amount of generated power in 2011 was 190.280GW. In addition, SA's electricity consumption is currently growing 8% a year. SA aims to generate 55GW of renewable energy by 2020, in order to free up fossil fuels for export. 41GW of the 55GW will be generated from solar energy. Smart grid technologies are also under consideration in SA; this will allow an efficient and reliable way to control the energy in the future. In addition, the potential for wind and geothermal energy is very high. In this thesis, there is a full exploration of RES components which are critical to manage carbon emission and the limitations of the current grid to the new RES technologies, which face barriers to full-scale deployment. A study in Dhahran, SA has been simulated on a installing a Dual

  12. Wind tunnel study of natural ventilation of building integrated photovoltaics double skin façade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudişteanu, Sebastian Valeriu; Popovici, Cătălin George; Cherecheş, Nelu-Cristian

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents a wind tunnel experimental analysis of a small-scale building model (1:30). The objective of the study is to determine the wind influence on the ventilation of a double skin façade channel (DSF) and the cooling effect over integrated photovoltaic panels. The tests were achieved by conceiving and implementation of an experimental program using a wind tunnel with atmospheric boundary layer. The effect of the wind over the ventilation of the horizontal channels of double skin façades is evaluated for different incident velocities. The results are generalized for the average steady state values of the velocities analysed. The experimental results put in evidence the correlation between the reference wind velocity and the dynamics of the air movement inside the double skin façade. These values are used to determine the convective heat transfer and the cooling effect of the air streams inside the channel upon the integrated photovoltaic panels. The decrease of the photovoltaic panels temperature determines a raise of 11% in efficiency and power generated.

  13. Wind tunnel study of natural ventilation of building integrated photovoltaics double skin façade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudişteanu Sebastian Valeriu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a wind tunnel experimental analysis of a small-scale building model (1:30. The objective of the study is to determine the wind influence on the ventilation of a double skin façade channel (DSF and the cooling effect over integrated photovoltaic panels. The tests were achieved by conceiving and implementation of an experimental program using a wind tunnel with atmospheric boundary layer. The effect of the wind over the ventilation of the horizontal channels of double skin façades is evaluated for different incident velocities. The results are generalized for the average steady state values of the velocities analysed. The experimental results put in evidence the correlation between the reference wind velocity and the dynamics of the air movement inside the double skin façade. These values are used to determine the convective heat transfer and the cooling effect of the air streams inside the channel upon the integrated photovoltaic panels. The decrease of the photovoltaic panels temperature determines a raise of 11% in efficiency and power generated.

  14. Feasibility Study of Standalone PV-Wind-Diesel Energy Systems for Coastal Residential Application in Pekan, Pahang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailan Roziah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Techno economic study is feasible to optimize the usage of renewable energy components that targeting low cost of electricity generation system. The selected case study area is coastal area in Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia. The autonomous system designed in this study is hybrid standalone PV-wind-diesel energy system to fulfil a basic power demand of 20.1 kWh/day. Such power system was designed and optimized further to meet the power demand at a minimum cost of energy using energy optimization software, Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER. The analysis focused on the operational characteristics and economics. The standalone PV-wind-diesel energy system has total net present cost about $61, 911 with cost of energy $0.66/kWh. Apparently, the generation of electricity from both wind turbine and PV can be inflated with the diesel generator. In comparison, return of investment (ROI value turned out lower for Feed in Tariff (FIT as compared to self-sustained house. Payback period also longer for FIT program that makes the selling back of electricity generated to Tenaga National Berhad (TNB is considered not favourable.

  15. Technical performance of the Villas Carrousel PV-Wind hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano, J.; Munguia, G.; Flores, J. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Fifteen PV-Wind mini Hybrid Systems were installed at the Villas Carrousel Hotel. The first twelve were installed in December 1995. The remainder were installed during January 1997. The energy produced by the systems is used to provide the hotel illumination. Monitoring of the system`s performance has been carried out since 1996. Each system is integrated by a wind generator (Avispa) rated at 500 W, a PV array ranging from 150 to 320 Wp, an electronic control and a battery bank with capacities from 585 up to 780 Ah. The systems operate at 12 VDC and the energy produced is used through 12 V, 13 Watt high efficiency fluorescent lamps. The systems were designed to produce 140-180 Ah/day. During the first months of operation. Some problems arised with the battery voltage measurement. This parameter was formerly measured at the DC bus car of the control board. Some corrosion problems were detected there. This problem caused the undercharging of the battery banks, and in several cases abnormal operation of the wind generators were observed. In general the systems produce the energy demanded by the load. This first experience is helping to promote the Mini Hybrid technology in other applications. This paper presents some results from the system monitoring for the first year of operation that gives a general idea of the system performance. [Espanol] En el Hotel Villas Carrousel se instalaron 15 sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos-viento. Los primeros doce se instalaron en diciembre de 1995. Los restantes se instalaron durante el mes de enero de 1997. La energia producida por los sistemas se usa para proporcionar la iluminacion del hotel. El monitoreo del rendimiento del sistema se ha llevado a cabo desde 1966. Cada sistema esta integrado por un aerogenerador (Avispa) con capacidad nominal de 500 W, en un arreglo fotovoltaico que varia de 150 a 320 Wp, un control electronico y un banco de baterias con capacidades desde 585 hasta 780 Ampere-horas. Los sistemas operan a 12 VCD y

  16. Coating of photovoltaic modules - Effectiveness and stability of various coating methods; Beschichtung von PV-Modulen. Wirksamkeit und Stabilitaet verschiedener Beschichtungsmethoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, A.; Leutenegger, S.; Brunold, S.

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results of a study made on various coating methods for photovoltaic (PV) modules. The results of investigations carried out in parallel are discussed: laboratory investigations for a systematic screening of different glass/coating combinations and a 'real life' investigation in an existing power plant. The results of three years of laboratory investigations are presented and discussed, whereby the authors state that two or even three years of exposition is not long enough for safe conclusions to be drawn. Financing for a further four years of investigation is being discussed. Both investigations have shown that, independent of the coating, regular cleaning of the glass surface has a large impact on the power output of the PV-modules: The significant reduction of power output due to soiling can thus be avoided very effectively.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar System with Different Cooling Methods and a Bi-Reflector PV System (BRPVS: An Experimental Study and Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adil Khan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the price of solar photovoltaic (PV systems has been a constant challenge. Despite recent advances, solar PV systems are still more costly than conventional energy resources. For the first time, this study examines the effectiveness of three different structures/materials: (i silvered glass plane mirror; (ii convex spherical mirrors; and (iii aluminum (Al foil as reflector. Comparative analysis of four different cooling techniques, i.e., water sprinkling system, passive heat sink method, active air fan method, and closed loop method, for enhancement of output power was performed. A novel Bi reflector solar PV system (BRPVS was suggested to control the working of the reflectors. The Al foil enhanced the power output compared to the others. In addition, the effect of using a reflector on the temperature of a solar PV system was studied. High operating temperatures resulted in a decrease in the maximum output power under the same solar radiation conditions. The combined enhancement of the output power by both Al foil BRPVS system and cooling system was almost 22.75–38.55%. An optimal control algorithm to use cooling and BRPVS in an efficient manner is described.

  18. Data book on new energy technology development in FY 1997. Photovoltaic (PV) power generation; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Taiyoko hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of understanding the present status of photovoltaic power system (PVPS) and supporting its promotion, various data were collected. The significance of adopting PV power technology was specified for customers of various levels, such as nation, local communities, industries and individual households, to clarify the CO2 reduction effect and energy pay-back time. Data illustrate the solar cell production according to region, cell types, industries, applications, production value, and market price. Policies for PVPS in industrial countries were compared with those in Japan. Distribution of PVPS in various countries was compared with that in Japan in respect to installations and purposes of the introduction of PVPS. Financial aid programs such as subsidies, tax benefits and loans for the installation of PVPS in Japan were listed. The trend of PV-related budget of MITI was shown with every project`s description. Steps of introducing PVPS from plan to installation were depicted in the form of flow chart. Were shown measures sponsored by the government or local organizations to promote PVPS. Domestic and foreign firms related to PVPS including PV module suppliers, and PV installation contractors were listed

  19. Ensemble Data Assimilation of Wind and Photovoltaic Power Information in the Convection-permitting High-Resolution Model COSMO-DE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declair, Stefan; Saint-Drenan, Yves-Marie; Potthast, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Determining the amount of weather dependent renewable energy is a demanding task for transmission system operators (TSOs) and wind and photovoltaic (PV) prediction errors require the use of reserve power, which generate costs and can - in extreme cases - endanger the security of supply. In the project EWeLiNE funded by the German government, the German Weather Service and the Fraunhofer Institute on Wind Energy and Energy System Technology develop innovative weather- and power forecasting models and tools for grid integration of weather dependent renewable energy. The key part in energy prediction process chains is the numerical weather prediction (NWP) system. Wind speed and irradiation forecast from NWP system are however subject to several sources of error. The quality of the wind power prediction is mainly penalized by forecast error of the NWP model in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which is characterized by high spatial and temporal fluctuations of the wind speed. For PV power prediction, weaknesses of the NWP model to correctly forecast i.e. low stratus, the absorption of condensed water or aerosol optical depth are the main sources of errors. Inaccurate radiation schemes (i.e. the two-stream parametrization) are also known as a deficit of NWP systems with regard to irradiation forecast. To mitigate errors like these, NWP model data can be corrected by post-processing techniques such as model output statistics and calibration using historical observational data. Additionally, latest observations can be used in a pre-processing technique called data assimilation (DA). In DA, not only the initial fields are provided, but the model is also synchronized with reality - the observations - and hence the model error is reduced in the forecast. Besides conventional observation networks like radiosondes, synoptic observations or air reports of wind, pressure and humidity, the number of observations measuring meteorological information indirectly such as satellite

  20. Byproduct metal requirements for U.S. wind and solar photovoltaic electricity generation up to the year 2040 under various Clean Power Plan scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Nedal T.; Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    The United States has and will likely continue to obtain an increasing share of its electricity from solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind power, especially under the Clean Power Plan (CPP). The need for additional solar PV modules and wind turbines will, among other things, result in greater demand for a number of minor metals that are produced mainly or only as byproducts. In this analysis, the quantities of 11 byproduct metals (Ag, Cd, Te, In, Ga, Se, Ge, Nd, Pr, Dy, and Tb) required for wind turbines with rare-earth permanent magnets and four solar PV technologies are assessed through the year 2040. Three key uncertainties (electricity generation capacities, technology market shares, and material intensities) are varied to develop 42 scenarios for each byproduct metal. The results indicate that byproduct metal requirements vary significantly across technologies, scenarios, and over time. In certain scenarios, the requirements are projected to become a significant portion of current primary production. This is especially the case for Te, Ge, Dy, In, and Tb under the more aggressive scenarios of increasing market share and conservative material intensities. Te and Dy are, perhaps, of most concern given their substitution limitations. In certain years, the differences in byproduct metal requirements between the technology market share and material intensity scenarios are greater than those between the various CPP and No CPP scenarios. Cumulatively across years 2016–2040, the various CPP scenarios are estimated to require 15–43% more byproduct metals than the No CPP scenario depending on the specific byproduct metal and scenario. Increasing primary production via enhanced recovery rates of the byproduct metals during the beneficiation and enrichment operations, improving end-of-life recycling rates, and developing substitutes are important strategies that may help meet the increased demand for these byproduct metals.

  1. Stochastic energy procurement of large electricity consumer considering photovoltaic, wind-turbine, micro-turbines, energy storage system in the presence of demand response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojavan, Sayyad; Aalami, Habib allah

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic energy procurement cost function in presence of DRP is proposed. • The load, price and output power of PV and wind uncertainties are modeled. • Four case studies are used to assess the effects of ESS and DRP on SEPP. • Case 4 is considered the effects of ESS and DRP simultaneously. • The expected energy procurement cost of case 4 is lower than cases 1, 2 and 3. - Abstract: This paper proposes a stochastic energy procurement problem (SEPP) for large electricity consumer (LEC) with multiple energy procurement sources (EPSs) considering the effects of demand response program (DRP) and energy storage system (ESS). The EPSs contain power market (PM), bilateral contracts (BCs), micro-turbines (MTs), and renewable energy sources (RESs). Moreover, the RESs include photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind-turbines (WT). The ESS and DRP are incorporated in the SEPP by the LEC’s decision-maker to reduce the expected energy procurement cost (EEPC). Meanwhile, the uncertainty models of market price, load and RES output power are considered in the SEPP formulation. The error of forecasting of market price, load, temperature and radiation of PV systems are modeled using the normal distribution for generating the related scenarios. Also, the weibull distribution is used to generate variable wind speed scenarios for WT output power uncertainty modeling. Furthermore, the fast forward selection based on Kantorovich distance approach is used for the scenarios reduction. Finally, the influences of ESS and DRP on EEPC are investigated, and four case studies are used to illustrate the capability of the proposed SEPP. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed stochastic program

  2. Hybrid Test Bed of Wind Electric Generator with Photovoltaic Panels

    OpenAIRE

    G.D.Anbarasi Jebaselvi; S.Paramasivam

    2014-01-01

    Driven by the increasing costs of power production and decreasing fossil fuel reserves with the addition of global environmental concerns, renewable energy is now becoming significant fraction of total electricity production in the world. Advancements in the field of wind electric generator technology and power electronics help to achieve rapid progress in hybrid power system which mainly involves wind, solar and diesel energy with a good battery back-up. Here the discussion brings about the ...

  3. A Software Tool for Optimal Sizing of PV Systems in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Khatib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a MATLAB based user friendly software tool called as PV.MY for optimal sizing of photovoltaic (PV systems. The software has the capabilities of predicting the metrological variables such as solar energy, ambient temperature and wind speed using artificial neural network (ANN, optimizes the PV module/ array tilt angle, optimizes the inverter size and calculate optimal capacities of PV array, battery, wind turbine and diesel generator in hybrid PV systems. The ANN based model for metrological prediction uses four meteorological variables, namely, sun shine ratio, day number and location coordinates. As for PV system sizing, iterative methods are used for determining the optimal sizing of three types of PV systems, which are standalone PV system, hybrid PV/wind system and hybrid PV/diesel generator system. The loss of load probability (LLP technique is used for optimization in which the energy sources capacities are the variables to be optimized considering very low LLP. As for determining the optimal PV panels tilt angle and inverter size, the Liu and Jordan model for solar energy incident on a tilt surface is used in optimizing the monthly tilt angle, while a model for inverter efficiency curve is used in the optimization of inverter size.

  4. Power-system-wide analysis of the benefits of reserve provision from solar photovoltaics in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reserve provision from standalone solar photovoltaic (PV) power plants has to date not been adopted in practice but has been conceptualised by a number of authors for variable renewable energy (RE) power plants like solar PV and wind. The authors...

  5. Meeting the Electrical Energy Needs of a Residential Building with a Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Mohammadnezami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A complete hybrid system including a photovoltaic cell, a wind turbine, and battery is modeled to determine the best approach for sizing the system to meet the electrical energy needs of a residential building. In evaluating system performance, the city of Tehran is used as a case study. Matlab software is used for analyzing the data and optimizing the system for the given application. Further, the cost of the system design is investigated, and shows that the electrical cost of the hybrid system in Tehran is 0.62 US$/kWh, which is 78% less expensive than a wind turbine system and 34% less expensive than a photovoltaic system.

  6. Effective policies for renewable energy - the example of China's wind power - lessons for China's photovoltaic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    China, one of the global biggest emitter of CO 2 , needs promotion renewable energy to reduce air pollution from its surging fossil fuel use, and to increase its energy supply security. Renewable energy in its infancy needs policy support and market cultivation. Wind power installed capacity has boomed in recent year in China, as a series of effective support policies were adopted. In this paper, I review the main renewable energy policies regarding to China's wind power, including the Wind Power Concession Program, Renewable Energy Law, and a couple of additional laws and regulations. Such policies have effectively reduced the cost of wind power installed capacity, stimulated the localization of wind power manufacture, and driven the company investment in wind power. China is success in wind power installed capacity, however, success in wind-generated electricity has yet achieved, mainly due to the backward grid system and lack of quota system. The paper ends with the recommended best practice of the China's wind power installed capacity might be transferable to China's photovoltaic power generation. (author)

  7. How do users interact with photovoltaic-powered products? Investigating 100 'lead-users' and 6 PV products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolou, G.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand how 'lead-users' interact with PV-powered products, the behaviour of 100 people interacting with six different PV-powered products in their daily life was analysed. The sample of respondents to be observed consisted of 20 groups, each one formed by five students of

  8. Photovoltaic research and development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV) is the direct conversion of sunlight into electrical energy through a solar cell. This presentation consists of an introduction to photovoltaics, the South African PV research roadmap, a look at the CSIR PV research and development...

  9. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and

  10. Study of applying a hybrid standalone wind-photovoltaic generation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissa Dahmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the study of applying a hybrid system wind/photovoltaic to supply a community in southern Algeria. Diesel generators are always used to provide such remote regions with energy. Using renewable energy resources is a good alternative to overcome such pollutant generators. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software is used to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed configuration. Assessment of renewable resources consisting in wind and solar potentials, load profile determination and sensitivity of different parameters analysis were performed. The cost of energy (COE of 0.226 $/kWh is very competitive with those found in literature.

  11. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

  12. Transient Oscillations Analysis and Modified Control Strategy for Seamless Mode Transfer in Micro-Grids: A Wind-PV-ES Hybrid System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengfei Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the micro-grid associated with new and clean energies, the smooth switching between grid-connected and islanded operation modes of the micro-grid is a key issue that needs to be addressed urgently. In traditional solutions, V/f (Voltage/frequency control is adopted for the master micro sources when the micro-grid works in islanded mode, while PQ (real and reactive power control is adopted when in grid-connected mode. However, when the two controllers switch when mode transfer occurs, transient oscillations usually occur and thereafter the dynamic response will be degraded. This paper considers an archetypical micro-grid with Wind-PV-ES (Wind, Photovoltaic and Energy Storage hybrid system, which forms the basis of our case study. The underlying reason for such transient oscillation is analyzed in this paper. Thereafter a modified control strategy for seamless mode transfer is designed and implemented. An improved PQ control method is designed by which the output of the PQ controller always synchronously tracks the output of the V/f controller for micro-grid switches from islanded mode to grid-connected; furthermore, a dq rotating coordinate synchronization based V/f control method is proposed for transition from grid-connected mode to islanded mode. Finally, experiments and analysis are undertaken on some basic and important operating cases; the results in our case study indicate that the modified control strategy is effective in dominating the micro-grid during mode transfer and thus yielding significantly better performances.

  13. Novel double-stage high-concentrated solar hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector with nonimaging optics and GaAs solar cells reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland; Yablonovitch, Eli; Scranton, Gregg; Cygan, David; Abbasi, Hamid; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hybrid concentrating photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector is developed. • Thermal component achieves 60× concentration using nonimaging optics. • GaAs solar cells used as spectrally selective mirrors for low energy photons. • Thermal efficiencies of 37% at 365 °C and electrical efficiencies of 8% achieved. • Combined electric efficiency reaches 25% of DNI for system cost of $283.10/m 2. - Abstract: A novel double stage high-concentration hybrid solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector using nonimaging optics and world record thin film single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells has been developed. We present a detailed design and simulation of the system, experimental setup, prototype, system performance, and economic analysis. The system uses a parabolic trough (primary concentrator) to focus sunlight towards a secondary nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to simultaneously generate electricity from single junction GaAs solar cells, as well as high temperature dispatchable heat. This study is novel in that (a) the solar cells inside the vacuum tube act as spectrally selective mirrors for lower energy photons to maximize the system exergy, and (b) secondary concentrator allows the thermal component to reach a concentration ratio ∼60×, which is significantly higher than conventional PV/T concentration ratios. The maximum outlet temperature reached was 365 °C, and on average the thermal efficiency of the experiment was around 37%. The maximum electrical efficiency was around 8%. The total system electricity generation is around 25% of incoming DNI, by assuming the high temperature stream is used to power a steam turbine. The installed system cost per unit of parabolic trough aperture area is $283.10 per m 2 .

  14. Deconstructing the dichotomies of solar photovoltaic (PV) dissemination trajectories in Ghana, Kenya and Zimbabwe from the 1960s to 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bawakyillenuo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The profuse dissemination and utilisation of solar PV technology in the world is indispensable, especially in this era of climate change. However, in the African continent, between 1960 and 2007 Kenya and Zimbabwe were among countries with the highest PV dissemination, while Ghana was among countries with the least disseminations. Analysing empirical data through the lens of the Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) theory, the article aims to uncover the drivers underpinning the disparate dissemination trends of PV in the three countries within the stated period and to tease out lessons apropos replicating the successes within Kenya and Zimbabwe in Ghana. SCOT theory is chosen because it provides an excellent framework for analysing the social shaping of PV's development and diffusion processes in these countries. This theory posits that the shape and meanings of a technology do not reside in it, but are acquired through the heterogeneity of social interactions. Findings in the paper reveal that a gamut of socio-economic and political antecedents informed the varied dissemination outcomes of the technology in these countries. Premised on these findings, the paper recommends critical steps, which Ghana needs to undertake to enhance the replication of the Kenyan and Zimbabwean PV success stories. - Highlights: ► I examined the disparate disseminations of PV in Kenya, Zimbabwe and Ghana. ► Kenya's PV market successes not down to private sector alone. ► Varied antecedents underpin the dissimilar disseminations of PV in these countries. ► Replication of Kenya and Zimbabwe success stories in Ghana demands certain factors.

  15. Firefighter Safety for PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu

    2015-01-01

    An important and highly discussed safety issue for photovoltaic (PV) systems is that as long as the PV panels are illuminated, a high voltage is present at the PV string terminals and cables between the string and inverters that is independent of the state of the inverter's dc disconnection switch...

  16. Optimized Sizing, Selection, and Economic Analysis of Battery Energy Storage for Grid-Connected Wind-PV Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Fathima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy storages are emerging as a predominant sector for renewable energy applications. This paper focuses on a feasibility study to integrate battery energy storage with a hybrid wind-solar grid-connected power system to effectively dispatch wind power by incorporating peak shaving and ramp rate limiting. The sizing methodology is optimized using bat optimization algorithm to minimize the cost of investment and losses incurred by the system in form of load shedding and wind curtailment. The integrated system is then tested with an efficient battery management strategy which prevents overcharging/discharging of the battery. In the study, five major types of battery systems are considered and analyzed. They are evaluated and compared based on technoeconomic and environmental metrics as per Indian power market scenario. Technoeconomic analysis of the battery is validated by simulations, on a proposed wind-photovoltaic system in a wind site in Southern India. Environmental analysis is performed by evaluating the avoided cost of emissions.

  17. The effect of real-time pricing on load shifting in a highly renewable power system dominated by generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Brown, Tom; Schlachtberger, David; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The supply-demand imbalance is a major concern in the presence of large shares of highly variable renewable generation from sources like wind and photovoltaics (PV) in power systems. Other than the measures on the generation side, such as flexible backup generation or energy storage, sector coupling or demand side management are the most likely option to counter imbalances, therefore to ease the integration of renewable generation. Demand side management usually refers to load shifting, which comprises the reaction of electricity consumers to price fluctuations. In this work, we derive a novel methodology to model the interplay of load shifting and provided incentives via real-time pricing in highly renewable power systems. We use weather data to simulate generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics, as well as historical load data, split into different consumption categories, such as, heating, cooling, domestic, etc., to model a simplified power system. Together with renewable power forecast data, a simple market model and approaches to incorporate sector coupling [1] and load shifting [2,3], we model the interplay of incentives and load shifting for different scenarios (e.g., in dependency of the risk-aversion of consumers or the forecast horizon) and demonstrate the practical benefits of load shifting. First, we introduce the novel methodology and compare it with existing approaches. Secondly, we show results of numerical simulations on the effects of load shifting: It supports the integration of PV power by providing a storage, which characteristics can be described as "daily" and provides a significant amount of balancing potential. Lastly, we propose an experimental setup to obtain empirical data on end-consumer load-shifting behaviour in response to price incentives. References [1] Brown, T., Schlachtberger, D., Kies. A., Greiner, M., Sector coupling in a highly renewable European energy system, Proc. of the 15th International Workshop on

  18. Research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power systems. Research on engineering methods for cost effective PV installation; Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Tashu secchi koho no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of engineering methods for photovoltaic power system installation in fiscal 1994. (1) On the survey on applicable fields, various application aspects, applicability, and problems on location and legal regulation were continuously studied for railway, river reservation, lake surface and public facility as promising locations after highway in the last fiscal year. The result pointed out relatively easy possibility of PV power generation of nearly 11,700MW except residence and building fields. (2) On installation technology of solar cell arrays, several models based on various installation conditions, construction methods and system configurations were studied, and various application aspects were proposed by combination of simple design conditions. (3) On test and evaluation of the structural design of array racks, wind tunnel experiments were conducted for structure wall, platform shed and highway sound insulation wall. (4) On basic design of various promising systems, the conceptual design of interconnection systems was carried out assuming applications to highway and railway. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Power and Energy Management with Battery Storage for a Hybrid Residential PV-Wind System – A Case Study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Zaharof, Andreea; Iov, Florin

    2018-01-01

    The energy generation paradigm is shifting from centralized fossil-fuel-based generation to distributed-based renewable generation. Thus, hybrid residential energy systems based on wind turbines, PV panels and/or micro-turbines are gaining more and more terrain. Nevertheless, such a system needs...... to be coupled with an energy storage solution, most often a battery, in order to mitigate its power generation variability and to ensure a stable and reliable operation. In this work, two power and energy management strategies for a hybrid residential PV-wind system with battery energy storage were evaluated...

  20. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - A guide to capacity building requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.; Gunning, R. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom); Stapleton, G. [Global Sustainable Energy Solutions Pty Ltd, GSES, Ulladulla 2539 (Australia)

    2003-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the topic of 'capacity building' in rural electrification projects. Capacity building is defined here as the development of an organisation's or individual's core knowledge, skills and capabilities in order to build and enhance the organisation's effectiveness and sustainability. This document identifies capacity building measures that should be undertaken as an integral component of a PV-based rural electrification implementation programme. Capacity building is to be facilitated through the provision of technical support activities, training, specific technical assistance and resource networking. The assessment of existing knowledge and the identification of training needs are discussed and training needs and their implementation by governmental and commercial players is discussed. Eleven case studies complete the report.

  1. Inventory PV-monitoring. Inventory and analysis of the monitoring of grid-connected photovoltaic systems in the Netherlands in the period 1995-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betcke, J.; Van Dijk, V.; Hirsch, D.

    2002-04-01

    The first aim of the title survey was to list all the activities with regard to the monitoring of photovoltaic (PV) systems that were installed in the Netherlands in the period 1995-2000. In this study 144 monitoring activities are categorized in 110 technical monitoring activities, and 42 market monitoring activities. The second aim of the survey was to analyze the state-of-the-art of monitoring. Activities are categorized under 8 main subjects: (1) energy yields; (2) electrotechnical performance; (3) constructional engineering performance; (4) market; (5) the attitude of participants; (6) ownership aspects; (7) financing aspects; and (8) policy. The third aim was to analyze the position of the Dutch monitoring activities compared to activities in Germany, Switzerland, Japan and the USA [nl

  2. Prospect of wind-PV-battery hybrid power system as an alternative to grid extension in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Sanjoy Kumar; Ghosh, Himangshu Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    A pre-feasibility of wind-PV-battery hybrid system has been performed for a small community in the east-southern part of Bangladesh. Solar radiation resources have been assessed from other meteorological parameters like sunshine duration and cloud cover as measured radiation data were not available at the site. The predicted monthly averaged daily global radiation over Chittagong is 4.36 kWh/m 2 /day. Measured wind speed at the site varies from 3 m/s to 5 m/s. For few months and hours the speed is below the cut in speeds of the available turbines in market. The hybrid system analysis has showed that for a small community consuming 53,317 kWh/year the cost energy is 0.47USD/kWh with 10% annual capacity of shortage and produces 89,151 kWh/year in which 53% electricity comes from wind and the remaining from solar energy. The sensitivity analysis showed that the hybrid system for the community is compatible with the 8 km-12 km grid extension depending on small variation of solar radiation and wind speed over the district whereas the proposed site is more away from the upper limit. Such a hybrid system will reduce about 25 tCO 2 /yr green house gases (GHG) emission in the local atmosphere.

  3. Development of units for change measurement of batteries at photovoltaic plant. Final report; Entwicklung von Einheiten zur Ladezustandserfassung von Batterien in PV-Anlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothert, M.; Knorr, R.; Willer, B.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the project was to contribute to enhanced service life and reliability of batteries in photovoltaic systems by developing further processes and components for charge measurement. The essential basic information in charge determination is the direct measurement of acid concentration in the electrolyte compartment of lead batteries and the evaluation and processing of this signal. Within the framework of this project, operative acidity sensors were developed and tested. They are accurate within an error margin of 0.5 per cent for short periods and of 2 per cent for long periods. A charge measurement unit based on the acid concentration reading was built and special algorithms for measuring charge were developed and tested. This unit stands out particularly because of the following: determination of dynamic charge, long-term stability, and automatic and regular adaptation to the type, size and age of the battery. Using this unit in combination with the acid concentration sensor in photovoltaic plant will permit more efficient plant operation and reliable protection of the battery. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Ziel des Vorhabens war es, Massnahmen zur Verbesserung der Lebensdauer und Zuverlaessigkeit von Batterien in PV-Anlagen durch die konkrete Weiterentwicklung von Verfahren und Komponenten zur Ladezustandserfassung aufzuzeigen, durchzufuehren und zu demonstrieren. Die direkte Messung der Saeuredichte im Elektrolytraum von Bleibatterien sowie die Auswertung und Weiterverarbeitung dieses Signals bildet dabei die wesentliche Basisinformation. Im Rahmen des Vorhabens wurden funktionstuechtige Saeuredichtesensoren entwickelt und erprobt. Die dabei erreichte Genauigkeit betraegt im Kurzzeitbereich 0,5% und im Langzeitbereich ca. 2%. Eine Ladezustandseinheit basierend auf dem Saeuredichtesignal wurde aufgebaut und spezielle Algorithmen zur Ladezustandserfassung entwickelt und getestet. Besonders die Bestimmung des dynamischen Ladezustands, die Langzeitstabilitaet sowie

  4. PV-WEB: internet-based PV information tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, P.

    2003-01-01

    This report gives details of a project to create a web-based information system on photovoltaic (PV) systems for the British PV Association (PV-UK) for use by decision makers in government, the utilities, and the housing and construction sectors. The project, which aims to provide an easily accessible tool for UK companies, promote PV technology, increase competitiveness, and identify market opportunities, is described. The design of the web site and its implementation and the evolution are discussed, along with the maintenance of the site by PV-UK and the opportunities offered to PV-UK Members

  5. Combined wind, hydropower and photovoltaic systems for generation of electric power and control of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, M.; Karimov, K.S.; Akhmedov, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the present day energy consumption and potentialities of utilization of wind- and hydropower resources in some Central and Southern Asian Republics, in particular, in the Republic of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Pakistan are presented. The maximum consumption of electric power is observed in winter time when hydropower is the minimum, but wind power is the maximum. At the same time water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those which use water for generation of electric power. It is proposed that the utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy will facilitate the proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia. In the future in Tajikistan, wind power systems with a capacity of 30-100 MW and more will be installed, providing power balance of the country in winter; hence saving water in reservoirs, especially in drought years. This will provide the integration of electricity generated by wind, hydroelectric power and photovoltaic system in the unified energy system of the country. (author)

  6. Research and photovoltaic industry at the United States; Recherche et industrie photovoltaique (PV) aux Etats-Unis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerouge, Ch.; Herino, R.; Delville, R.; Allegre, R

    2006-06-15

    For a big country as the United States, the solar energy can be a solution for the air quality improvement, the greenhouse gases fight and the reduction of the dependence to the imported petroleum and also for the economic growth by the increase of the employment in the solar industry sector. This document takes stock on the photovoltaic in the United States in the industrial and research domains. The american photovoltaic industry is the third behind the Japan and the Germany. (A.L.B.)

  7. A novel approach for evaluating the impact of fixed variables on photovoltaic (PV) solar installations using enhanced meta data analysis among higher education institutions in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hoyos, Diane N.

    The global demand for electric energy has continuously increased over the last few decades. Some mature, alternative generation methods are wind, power, photovoltaic panels, biogas and fuel cells. In order to find alternative sources of energy to aid in the reduction of our nation's dependency on non-renewable fuels, energy sources include the use of solar energy panels. The intent of these initiatives is to provide substantial energy savings and reduce dependence on the electrical grid and net metering savings during the peak energy-use hours. The focus of this study explores and provides a clearer picture of the adoption of solar photovoltaic technology in institutions of higher education. It examines the impact of different variables associated with a photovoltaic installation in an institutions of higher education in the United States on the production generations for universities. Secondary data was used with permission from the Advancement of Suitability in Higher Education (AASHE). A multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of different variables on the energy generation production. A Meta Data transformation analysis offered a deeper investigation into the impact of the variables on the photovoltaic installations. Although a review of a significant number of journal articles, dissertations and thesis in the area of photovoltaic solar installations are available, there were limited studies of actual institutions of higher education with the significant volume of institutions. However a study where the database included a significant number of data variables is unique and provides a researcher the opportunity to investigate different facets of a solar installation. The data of the installations ranges from 1993-2015. Included in this observation are the researcher's experience both in the procurement industry and as a team member of a solar institution of higher education in the southern portion of the United States.

  8. Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the photovoltaics. It presents the principles and the applications, the issues and the current technology, the challenges and the Group Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  9. Landfill waste and recycling: Use of a screening-level risk assessment tool for end-of-life cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyrs, William D.; Avens, Heather J.; Capshaw, Zachary A.; Kingsbury, Robert A.; Sahmel, Jennifer; Tvermoes, Brooke E.

    2014-01-01

    Grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) power is currently one of the fastest growing power-generation technologies in the world. While PV technologies provide the environmental benefit of zero emissions during use, the use of heavy metals in thin-film PV cells raises important health and environmental concerns regarding the end-of-life disposal of PV panels. To date, there is no published quantitative assessment of the potential human health risk due to cadmium leaching from cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV panels disposed in a landfill. Thus, we used a screening-level risk assessment tool to estimate possible human health risk associated with disposal of CdTe panels into landfills. In addition, we conducted a literature review of potential cadmium release from the recycling process in order to contrast the potential health risks from PV panel disposal in landfills to those from PV panel recycling. Based on the results of our literature review, a meaningful risk comparison cannot be performed at this time. Based on the human health risk estimates generated for PV panel disposal, our assessment indicated that landfill disposal of CdTe panels does not pose a human health hazard at current production volumes, although our results pointed to the importance of CdTe PV panel end-of-life management. - Highlights: • Analysis of possible human health risk posed by disposal of CdTe panels into landfills. • Qualitative comparison of risks associated with landfill disposal and recycling of CdTe panels. • Landfill disposal of CdTe panels does not pose a human health hazard at current production volumes. • There could be potential risks associated with recycling if not properly managed. • Factors other than concerns over toxic substances will likely drive the decisions of how to manage end-of-life PV panels

  10. Forces and Moments on Flat Plates of Small Aspect Ratio with Application to PV Wind Loads and Small Wind Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Ortiz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve knowledge of the wind loads on photovoltaic structures mounted on flat roofs at the high angles required in high latitudes, and to study starting flow on low aspect ratio wind turbine blades, a series of wind tunnel tests were undertaken. Thin flat plates of aspect ratios between 0.4 and 9.0 were mounted on a sensitive three-component instantaneous force and moment sensor. The Reynolds numbers varied from 6 × 104 to 2 × 105. Measurements were made for angles of attack between 0° and 90° both in the free stream and in wall proximity with increased turbulence and mean shear. The ratio of drag to lift closely follows the inverse tangent of the angle of incidence for virtually all measurements. This implies that the forces of interest are due largely to the instantaneous pressure distribution around the plate and are not significantly influenced by shear stresses. The instantaneous forces appear most complex for the smaller aspect ratios but the intensity of the normal force fluctuations is between 10% and 20% in the free-steam but can exceed 30% near the wall. As the wind tunnel floor is approached, the lift and drag reduce with increasing aspect ratio, and there is a reduction in the high frequency components of the forces. It is shown that the centre of pressure is closer to the centre of the plates than the quarter-chord position for nearly all cases.

  11. Energy modeling and economic optimization of a hybrid wind/photovoltaic system coupled with the grid and associated to an accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergaud, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals of the production of photovoltaic and wind electricity connected to the grid and having a storage. The principal interests of such a system are the clean production on the place of consumption, the mutualization of resources and energy storage, and the security of supply. Models are developed and compared successfully with reality thanks to an experimental device instrumented completion (2 kWp PV, 2 x 750 Wp wind generators, 15 kWh lead-acid battery). We obtain then a model that proves both accurate enough to distinguish energy transfers and fast enough to enable optimizing the sizing and handling of the system's energy transfers. Having energy, economic models and tools of dimensioning and management, we carried out a study of optimization based on simple cases of systems multi-production. To tackle this difficult problem, we then placed ourselves within the framework of a producer-consumer whose conditions weather with the site of production as its own consumption are supposed to be known, therefore deterministic. The problems were then the search for strategies of management of flows of energy and the fundamental characteristics of the elements of the installation optimal allowing the minimization of the energy cost. (author) [fr

  12. Some tests of flat plate photovoltaic module cell temperatures in simulated field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J. S.; Rathod, M. S.; Paslaski, J.

    1981-01-01

    The nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules is an important characteristic. Typically, the power output of a PV module decreases 0.5% per deg C rise in cell temperature. Several tests were run with artificial sun and wind to study the parametric dependencies of cell temperature on wind speed and direction and ambient temperature. It was found that the cell temperature is extremely sensitive to wind speed, moderately so to wind direction and rather insensitive to ambient temperature. Several suggestions are made to obtain data more typical of field conditions.

  13. Optimal Power Scheduling for a Grid-Connected Hybrid PV-Wind-Battery Microgrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a lineal mathematical model is proposed to schedule optimally the power references of the distributed energy resources in a grid-connected hybrid PVwind-battery microgrid. The optimization of the short term scheduling problem is addressed through a mixed-integer linear programming...... mathematical model, wherein the cost of energy purchased from the main grid is minimized and profits for selling energy generated by photovoltaic arrays are maximized by considering both physical constraints and requirements for a feasible deployment in the real system. The optimization model is tested...

  14. Photovoltaic System in Progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Sera, Dezso

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive update on photovoltaic (PV) technologies and the materials. In recent years, targeted research advancement has been made in the photovoltaic cell technologies to reduce cost and increase efficiency. Presently, several types of PV solar panels are commercially...

  15. The Photovoltaic Sector in France. National survey report Year 2010. National Survey Report of PV Power Applications in France 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Yvonnick; Jacquin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The cumulative photovoltaic power installed in France (mainland and overseas territories) was 180 MW at the end of 2008, and was in excess of 1 000 MW at the end of 2010; in other words, it has grown by a factor of 5 in 2 years. The procedures for the acceptance of requests for connection to the national grid have been simplified and the waiting times have been reduced. Thus, nearly 150 000 facilities have been connected to the national grid over the course of the year. However, at the end of December 2010, approximately 75 000 systems were awaiting connection over the entire country (metropolitan France and overseas territories) adding up to a total power of 4 150 MW. This increase marks an advance on the Grenelle Environment Forum targets defined at the end of 2007 (1 100 MW installed by the end of 2012 and 5 400 MW by 2020). In order to avoid windfall profits, the Government has, following gains in productivity and reduction in the costs of modules in the market, proceeded over the course of the year to revise the feed-in tariffs of photovoltaic electricity in order to adapt the support measures to the explosive growth in the number of facilities. Furthermore, a decree was promulgated on 9 December suspending the obligation to purchase photovoltaic electricity for three months. This suspension affects photovoltaic systems with a power of greater than 3 kW, where the producer has not notified the grid operator of their acceptance of the technical and financial proposal (PTF) for connection to the grid before 2 December 2010. By means of this moratorium, the government wished to start a forum to discuss the lowering of feed-in tariffs and the implementation of a system of quotas. Discussions brought together players in the photovoltaic segment, elected representatives, and representatives of consumer groups and environmental associations, who started the talks on 20 December in order to come up with a new regulatory framework during March 2011, thus ensuring

  16. Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy systems have the long range potential for supplying a significant part of the world's need for electricity Even today, such systems offer many benefits compared to other energy systems such as fossil fuel, nuclear and other renewable systems. These include: stability, reliability, require no water, no moving parts, environmentally benign, moderate efficiency, modular, universally usable, easy maintenance, and low power distribution costs. This paper will present information on present costs of the key system components, realistic cost projections and the results of a comparative study of three renewable approaches for a large system. (author), (tabs. 2)

  17. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  18. Effect of urban climate on building integrated photovoltaics performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Wei; Wang Yiping; Ren Jianbo; Zhu Li

    2007-01-01

    It is generally recognized that BIPV (building integrated photovoltaics) has the potential to become a major source of renewable energy in the urban environment. The actual output of a PV module in the field is a function of orientation, total irradiance, spectral irradiance, wind speed, air temperature, soiling and various system-related losses. In urban areas, the attenuation of solar radiation due to air pollution is obvious, and the solar spectral content subsequently changes. The urban air temperature is higher than that in the surrounding countryside, and the wind speed in urban areas is usually less than that in rural areas. Three different models of PV power are used to investigate the effect of urban climate on PV performance. The results show that the dimming of solar radiation in the urban environment is the main reason for the decrease of PV module output using the climatic data of urban and rural sites in Mexico City for year 2003. The urban PV conversion efficiency is higher than that of the rural PV system because the PV module temperature in the urban areas is slightly lower than that in the rural areas in the case. The DC power output of PV seems to be underestimated if the spectral response of PV in the urban environment is not taken into account based on the urban hourly meteorological data of Sao Paulo for year 2004

  19. Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 3: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems were evaluated in terms of their potential for terrestrial application A comprehensive overview of important issues which bear on photovoltaic (PV) systems development is presented. Studies of PV system costs, the societal implications of PV system development, and strategies in PV research and development in relationship to current energy policies are summarized.

  20. PV and PV/hybrid products for buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, H. P.; Hayter, S. J.; Martin, R. L., Pierce, L. K.

    2000-05-15

    Residential, commercial, and industrial buildings combined are the largest consumers of electricity in the United States and represent a significant opportunity for photovoltaic (PV) and PV/hybrid systems. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a phased research and product development program, Building Opportunities in the United States for Photovoltaics (PV:BONUS), focused on this market sector. The purpose of the program is to develop technologies and foster business arrangements integrating cost-effective PV or hybrid products into buildings. The first phase was completed in 1996 and a second solicitation, PV:BONUS2, was initiated during 1997. These projects are resulting in a variety of building-integrated products. This paper summarizes the recent progress of the seven firms and collaborative teams currently participating in PV:BONUS2 and outlines planned work for the final phase of their work.

  1. Wind and Photovoltaic Large-Scale Regional Models for hourly production evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinelli, Mattia; Maule, Petr; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents two large-scale regional models used for the evaluation of normalized power output from wind turbines and photovoltaic power plants on a European regional scale. The models give an estimate of renewable production on a regional scale with 1 h resolution, starting from a mesoscale...... mete- orological data input and taking in account the characteristics of different plants technologies and spatial distribution. An evalu- ation of the hourly forecasted energy production on a regional scale would be very valuable for the transmission system operators when making the long-term planning...... of the transmission system, especially regarding the cross-border power flows. The tuning of these regional models is done using historical meteorological data acquired on a per-country basis and using publicly available data of installed capacity....

  2. Detailed performance analysis of realistic solar photovoltaic systems at extensive climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ankit; Chauhan, Yogesh K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, solar energy has been considered as one of the principle renewable energy source for electric power generation. In this paper, single diode photovoltaic (PV) system and double/bypass diode based PV system are designed in MATLAB/Simulink environment based on their mathematical modeling and are validated with a commercially available solar panel. The novelty of the paper is to include the effect of climatic conditions i.e. variable irradiation level, wind speed, temperature, humidity level and dust accumulation in the modeling of both the PV systems to represent a realistic PV system. The comprehensive investigations are made on both the modeled PV systems. The obtained results show the satisfactory performance for realistic models of the PV system. Furthermore, an in depth comparative analysis is carried out for both PV systems. - Highlights: • Modeling of Single diode and Double diode PV systems in MATLAB/Simulink software. • Validation of designed PV systems with a commercially available PV panel. • Acquisition and employment of key climatic factors in modeling of the PV systems. • Evaluation of main model parameters of both the PV systems. • Detailed comparative assessment of both the modeled PV system parameters.

  3. Optimal allocation and sizing of PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery hybrid energy system for minimizing life cycle cost, carbon emission and dump energy of remote residential building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunjuyigbe, A.S.O.; Ayodele, T.R.; Akinola, O.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Genetic Algorithm is used for tri-objective design of hybrid energy system. • The objective is minimizing the Life Cycle Cost, CO 2 emissions and dump energy. • Small split diesel generators are used in place of big single diesel generator. • The split diesel generators are aggregable based on certain set of rules. • The proposed algorithm achieves the set objectives (LCC, CO 2 emission and dump). - Abstract: In this paper, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is utilized to implement a tri-objective design of a grid independent PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery hybrid energy system for a typical residential building with the objective of minimizing the Life Cycle Cost (LCC), CO 2 emissions and dump energy. To achieve some of these objectives, small split Diesel generators are used in place of single big Diesel generator and are aggregable based on certain set of rules depending on available renewable energy resources and state of charge of the battery. The algorithm was utilized to study five scenarios (PV/Battery, Wind/Battery, Single big Diesel generator, aggregable 3-split Diesel generators, PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery) for a typical load profile of a residential house using typical wind and solar radiation data. The results obtained revealed that the PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery is the most attractive scenario (optimal) having LCC of $11,273, COE of 0.13 ($/kW h), net dump energy of 3 MW h, and net CO 2 emission of 13,273 kg. It offers 46%, 28%, 82% and 94% reduction in LCC, COE, CO 2 emission and dump energy respectively when compared to a single big Diesel generator scenario.

  4. 2017 NREL Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-15

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Reliability Workshop (PVRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology -- both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  5. Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Integrating Solar and Wind Energy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2015-06-03

    As wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) increase in penetration it is increasingly important to examine enabling technologies that can help integrate these resources at large scale. Concentrating solar power (CSP) when deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) can provide multiple services that can help integrate variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and PV. CSP with TES can provide firm, highly flexible capacity, reducing minimum generation constraints which limit penetration and results in curtailment. By acting as an enabling technology, CSP can complement PV and wind, substantially increasing their penetration in locations with adequate solar resource.

  6. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some small scale irrigation systems (powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  7. Turbulence convective heat transfer for cooling the photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianmehr, Iman

    Solar PV (photovoltaic) is a rapidly advancing renewable energy technology which converts sunlight directly into electricity. One of the outstanding challenges of the current PV technology is the reduction in its conversion efficiency with increasing PV panel temperature, which is closely associated with the increase in solar intensity and the ambient temperature surrounding the PV panels. To more effectively capture the available energy when the sun is most intense, significant efforts have been invested in active and passive cooling research over the last few years. While integrated cooling systems can lead to the highest total efficiencies, they are usually neither the most feasible nor the most cost effective solutions. This work examines some simple passive means of manipulating the prevailing wind turbulence to enhance convective heat transfer over a heated plate in a wind tunnel.

  8. A Wavelet-Based Unified Power Quality Conditioner to Eliminate Wind Turbine Non-Ideality Consequences on Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Rahmani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The integration of renewable power sources with power grids presents many challenges, such as synchronization with the grid, power quality problems and so on. The shunt active power filter (SAPF can be a solution to address the issue while suppressing the grid-end current harmonics and distortions. Nonetheless, available SAPFs work somewhat unpredictably in practice. This is attributed to the dependency of the SAPF controller on nonlinear complicated equations and two distorted variables, such as load current and voltage, to produce the current reference. This condition will worsen when the plant includes wind turbines which inherently produce 3rd, 5th, 7th and 11th voltage harmonics. Moreover, the inability of the typical phase locked loop (PLL used to synchronize the SAPF reference with the power grid also disrupts SAPF operation. This paper proposes an improved synchronous reference frame (SRF which is equipped with a wavelet-based PLL to control the SAPF, using one variable such as load current. Firstly the fundamental positive sequence of the source voltage, obtained using a wavelet, is used as the input signal of the PLL through an orthogonal signal generator process. Then, the generated orthogonal signals are applied through the SRF-based compensation algorithm to synchronize the SAPF’s reference with power grid. To further force the remained uncompensated grid current harmonics to pass through the SAPF, an improved series filter (SF equipped with a current harmonic suppression loop is proposed. Concurrent operation of the improved SAPF and SF is coordinated through a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC. The DC-link capacitor of the proposed UPQC, used to interconnect a photovoltaic (PV system to the power grid, is regulated by an adaptive controller. Matlab/Simulink results confirm that the proposed wavelet-based UPQC results in purely sinusoidal grid-end currents with total harmonic distortion (THD = 1.29%, which leads to high

  9. Hybrid wind-PV grid connected power station case study: Al Tafila, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tous, Yousif [Department of Electrical Engineering/Faculty of Engineering Technology/ Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman, P.O.Box (15008), Marka Ashamalia (Jordan); Al-Battat, Saleh [Department of substation maintenance and protection, National Electric Power Company (NEPCO), Amman (Jordan); Abdel Hafith, Sandro [Department of technical support and project supervision/Integrated power systems co., Amman (Jordan)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we are providing an attempt to highlight the importance of renewable energy, more specifically, the one produced from a wind-solar hybrid system. This purpose will be achieved through providing a detailed case study for such system that would be applied in Al-Tafila, Jordan. First and foremost site assessment has been conducted based on an intensive literature review for the data available regarding the availability of wind and solar energy in Jordan and resulted in the selection of Al-Tafila 2 district as the best option among all. Then, the components of the power station and its size have been selected based on specific criteria that make the station as much efficient and competitive as possible. To obtain the output of the different components with respect to the demand for a period of 25 years, a system model was built using HOMER. Finally, the total capital cost of the system was calculated and resulted to be (63400168) $ and with a cost of energy of (0.053) $/kWh which is a very competitive and feasible cost compared to similar international projects and to the conventional energy price.

  10. Dynamic Analysis of a Hybrid Energy Storage System (H-ESS Coupled to a Photovoltaic (PV Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Barelli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays energy storage is strongly needed to allow grid safety and stability due to the wide penetration of renewable plants. Mainly economic and technological issues impede a relevant integration of conventional storage devices in the energy system. In this scenario, the hybridization of different storage technologies can be a techno-economic solution useful to overcome these issues and promote their diffusion. Hybridization allows multi-operation modes of the Energy Storage System (ESS, merging the positive features of base-technologies and extending their application ranges. This paper provides a dynamic analysis of a hybrid energy storage system (H-ESS consisting of a flywheel and a battery pack coupled to a photovoltaic generation plant and a residential load up to 20 kW. A dynamic model of the overall micro-grid (MG was developed implementing the H-ESS preliminary sizing and a suitable management algorithm. The instantaneous behavior of each component was evaluated. A brief summary of the MG performance at different weather and load conditions was provided together with a characterization of the impact of power fluctuations on the battery current and on the power exchange with the grid.

  11. German PV-producers - an overview. Look back in humility; Photovoltaik Fabriken in Deutschland- eine Uebersicht. Blick zurueck in Demut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iken, J.

    2001-03-01

    Three years are a long period of time in a growing field of industry like photovoltaic power generation. In January 1998, Sonne Wind and Waerme published the first list of German PV producers. The update is presented here. [German] Drei Jahre sind in einer Wachstumsbranche wie der Photovoltaik eine lange Zeit. Im Januar 1998 veroeffentlichte Sonne Wind and Waerme einen Ueberblick ueber die deutschen Photovoltaik-Fabriken. Hoechste Zeit also, die Uebersicht auf den neuesten Stand zu bringen. (orig.)

  12. An open source GIS tool to quantify the visual impact of wind turbines and photovoltaic panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minelli, Annalisa; Marchesini, Ivan; Taylor, Faith E.; De Rosa, Pierluigi; Casagrande, Luca; Cenci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Although there are clear economic and environmental incentives for producing energy from solar and wind power, there can be local opposition to their installation due to their impact upon the landscape. To date, no international guidelines exist to guide quantitative visual impact assessment of these facilities, making the planning process somewhat subjective. In this paper we demonstrate the development of a method and an Open Source GIS tool to quantitatively assess the visual impact of these facilities using line-of-site techniques. The methods here build upon previous studies by (i) more accurately representing the shape of energy producing facilities, (ii) taking into account the distortion of the perceived shape and size of facilities caused by the location of the observer, (iii) calculating the possible obscuring of facilities caused by terrain morphology and (iv) allowing the combination of various facilities to more accurately represent the landscape. The tool has been applied to real and synthetic case studies and compared to recently published results from other models, and demonstrates an improvement in accuracy of the calculated visual impact of facilities. The tool is named r.wind.sun and is freely available from GRASS GIS AddOns. - Highlights: • We develop a tool to quantify wind turbine and photovoltaic panel visual impact. • The tool is freely available to download and edit as a module of GRASS GIS. • The tool takes into account visual distortion of the shape and size of objects. • The accuracy of calculation of visual impact is improved over previous methods

  13. An open source GIS tool to quantify the visual impact of wind turbines and photovoltaic panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minelli, Annalisa, E-mail: Annalisa.Minelli@univ-brest.fr [Insitute Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Université de la Bretagne Occidentale, Rue Dumont D' Urville, 29280 Plouzané (France); Marchesini, Ivan, E-mail: Ivan.Marchesini@irpi.cnr.it [National Research Council (CNR), Research Insitute for Geo-hydrological Protection (IRPI), Strada della Madonna Alta 126, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Taylor, Faith E., E-mail: Faith.Taylor@kcl.ac.uk [Earth and Environmental Dynamics Research Group, Department of Geography, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); De Rosa, Pierluigi, E-mail: Pierluigi.Derosa@unipg.it [Physics and Geology Department, University of Perugia, Via Zefferino Faina 4, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Casagrande, Luca, E-mail: Luca.Casagrande@gfosservices.it [Gfosservices S.A., Open Source GIS-WebGIS Solutions, Spatial Data Infrastructures, Planning and Counseling, Via F.lli Cairoli 24, 06127 Perugia (Italy); Cenci, Michele, E-mail: mcenci@regione.umbria.it [Servizio Energia qualità dell' ambiente, rifiuti, attività estrattive, Regione Umbia, Corso Vannucci 96, 06121 Perugia (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Although there are clear economic and environmental incentives for producing energy from solar and wind power, there can be local opposition to their installation due to their impact upon the landscape. To date, no international guidelines exist to guide quantitative visual impact assessment of these facilities, making the planning process somewhat subjective. In this paper we demonstrate the development of a method and an Open Source GIS tool to quantitatively assess the visual impact of these facilities using line-of-site techniques. The methods here build upon previous studies by (i) more accurately representing the shape of energy producing facilities, (ii) taking into account the distortion of the perceived shape and size of facilities caused by the location of the observer, (iii) calculating the possible obscuring of facilities caused by terrain morphology and (iv) allowing the combination of various facilities to more accurately represent the landscape. The tool has been applied to real and synthetic case studies and compared to recently published results from other models, and demonstrates an improvement in accuracy of the calculated visual impact of facilities. The tool is named r.wind.sun and is freely available from GRASS GIS AddOns. - Highlights: • We develop a tool to quantify wind turbine and photovoltaic panel visual impact. • The tool is freely available to download and edit as a module of GRASS GIS. • The tool takes into account visual distortion of the shape and size of objects. • The accuracy of calculation of visual impact is improved over previous methods.

  14. Study on an optimum ratio of PV output energy to WG output energy in PV/WG hybrid system; Taiyoko/furyoku hybrid hatsuden system no saiteki yoryohi ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S. [Kandenko Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A photovoltaic power (PV) and wind generated power (WG) are an unlimited clean energy source, yet their output is unstable depending on the fluctuation of weather conditions such as solar radiation and wind velocity. Consequently, a large-scale power storage equipment is necessitated leading to a high cost especially in an independent system. As a solution, a method is available in which PV and WG are combined so that the effect may be utilized for stabilizing the output of a system as a whole, at a site where a fluctuation pattern is different between photovoltaic energy and wind energy. In building a hybrid system by PV and WG, sites with such supplementary effect existing were selected from the viewpoint of stabilizing the fluctuation of the power generation in the long run; and then, an examination was made on the optimum PV capacity ratio (%Ppo) in each site. As a result, it revealed that the %Ppo had great bearing on a ratio of PV energy fluctuation to WG, which was converted to a numerical formula. A comparatively simple examination by means of meteorological data also indicated that the share ratio was possibly optimized between the quantities of PV and WG energy. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. PV/T slates - Energy-efficiency optimisation for buildings using simulation and measurement - Back-ventilated photovoltaics as an example; PV/T-Schiefer. Optimierung der Energieeffizienz von Gebaeuden durch gegenseitige Ergaenzung von Simulation und Messung am Beispiel der Hinterlueftung gebaeudeintegrierter Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is the introductory report to a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. This introductory report summarises the findings of the project. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. A mathematical model for the calculation of the dynamic gain is described. Reports 1 and 2 deal with an experimental outdoor set-up and in-situ measurements made on the prototype of a ventilated PV-tile system (PV/T-Slates). In report 3 the simulation model for the dynamic calculation of the heat gain from the PV/T-Slates using climatic data available is described in detail. Measured data from reports 1 and 2 are compared with the simulation results. In the yield atlas (report 4) the heat gain expected is subdivided into classes of temperature and presented for three locations in different Swiss climatic regions. In report 5 it is shown with the help of the yield-atlas how the degree of utilisation can be estimated. Two promising applications (domestic hot water preheating for a hotel in Lugano and seasonal ground heat storage for a Minergie low energy consumption house in Davos) are selected for detailed investigation using the new numerical model.

  16. A thermal model for photovoltaic panels under varying atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, S.; Hurley, W.G.

    2010-01-01

    The response of the photovoltaic (PV) panel temperature is dynamic with respect to the changes in the incoming solar radiation. During periods of rapidly changing conditions, a steady state model of the operating temperature cannot be justified because the response time of the PV panel temperature becomes significant due to its large thermal mass. Therefore, it is of interest to determine the thermal response time of the PV panel. Previous attempts to determine the thermal response time have used indoor measurements, controlling the wind flow over the surface of the panel with fans or conducting the experiments in darkness to avoid radiative heat loss effects. In real operating conditions, the effective PV panel temperature is subjected to randomly varying ambient temperature and fluctuating wind speeds and directions; parameters that are not replicated in controlled, indoor experiments. A new thermal model is proposed that incorporates atmospheric conditions; effects of PV panel material composition and mounting structure. Experimental results are presented which verify the thermal behaviour of a photovoltaic panel for low to strong winds.

  17. Kepler-Chevreux: 100 billions invested in solar photovoltaic and wind energy produce more energy than with oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielo, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the calculation of a new index created by Kepler-Chevreux experts: the energy return on invested capital, EROCI. This index reveals the benefit of solar-energy and wind-energy based electro-mobility compared to the oil-based thermo-mobility. This index only takes economic issues into account, but not the benefits in terms of public health, environment, climate or geopolitics. It also outlines that whenever oil prices increase or decrease, the oil sector has reached a dead end, and that photovoltaic and wind energy present a growing interest among not only ecologists but also finance experts

  18. Scenario-based stochastic optimal operation of wind, photovoltaic, pump-storage hybrid system in frequency- based pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare Oskouei, Morteza; Sadeghi Yazdankhah, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-stage objective function is proposed for optimization problem. • Hourly-based optimal contractual agreement is calculated. • Scenario-based stochastic optimization problem is solved. • Improvement of system frequency by utilizing PSH unit. - Abstract: This paper proposes the operating strategy of a micro grid connected wind farm, photovoltaic and pump-storage hybrid system. The strategy consists of two stages. In the first stage, the optimal hourly contractual agreement is determined. The second stage corresponds to maximizing its profit by adapting energy management strategy of wind and photovoltaic in coordination with optimum operating schedule of storage device under frequency based pricing for a day ahead electricity market. The pump-storage hydro plant is utilized to minimize unscheduled interchange flow and maximize the system benefit by participating in frequency control based on energy price. Because of uncertainties in power generation of renewable sources and market prices, generation scheduling is modeled by a stochastic optimization problem. Uncertainties of parameters are modeled by scenario generation and scenario reduction method. A powerful optimization algorithm is proposed using by General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS)/CPLEX. In order to verify the efficiency of the method, the algorithm is applied to various scenarios with different wind and photovoltaic power productions in a day ahead electricity market. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Modeling and sizing optimization of hybrid photovoltaic/wind power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Mohammad-Ali

    2014-03-01

    The rapid industrialization and growth of world's human population have resulted in the unprecedented increase in the demand for energy and in particular electricity. Depletion of fossil fuels and impacts of global warming caused widespread attention using renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar energies. Energy security under varying weather conditions and the corresponding system cost are the two major issues in designing hybrid power generation systems. In this paper, the match evaluation method (MEM) is developed based on renewable energy supply/demand match evaluation criteria to size the proposed system in lowest cost. This work is undertaken with triple objective function: inequality coefficient, correlation coefficient, and annualized cost of system. It provides optimum capacity of as many numbers of supplies as required to match with a load demand in lowest investment, so it can handle large-scale design problems. Meteorological data were collected from the city of Zabol, located in south-east of Iran, as a case study. Six types of wind turbine and also six types of PV modules, with different output powers and costs, are considered for this optimization procedure. A battery storage system is used to even out irregularities in meteorological data. A multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm has been used for the prediction of an optimized set of design based on the MEM technique. The results of this study are valuable for evaluating the performance of future stand-alone hybrid power system. It is worth mentioning that the proposed methodology can be effectively employed for any composition of hybrid energy systems in any locations taking into account the meteorological data and the consumer's demand.

  20. The impact of attribute preferences on adoption timing: The case of photo-voltaic (PV) solar cells for household electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Towhidul; Meade, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    We are concerned with micro-generation, individual households generating electricity using a renewable technology. We focus on modeling the adoption probability of photo-voltaic solar panels by households. Using data from Ontario, Canada where a generous feed-in-tariff is available to households generating electricity from solar panels, we measure household level preferences for panels and use these preferences along with household characteristics to predict adoption time intentions. We use discrete choice experiments to measure household level preferences and establish a causal link between the attributes of the technology and adoption time intentions using discrete time survival mixture analysis. Significant preferences included lower cost, greater energy savings and lower fossil fuel inflation. The conditional (hazard) probability of adoption at a particular time given no previous adoption showed that the attribute preferences had intuitively reasonable effects. The hazard probabilities allow us to compute the cumulative probability of adoption over a 10-year period per household. Technology awareness has a significant effect on the adoption probability, reinforcing the need for effective education. Our approach indicates the level of heterogeneity in preferences, particularly high for investment criteria and CO 2 emissions. These findings suggest that education campaigns should explain more about investment criteria, feed-in tariffs and environmental effects. - Highlights: ► To model the adoption probability of PV solar panels by households. ► Data from Ontario, province of Canada, with generous feed-in tariff for solar households. ► Estimation of adoption probability using attribute preferences and social covariates. ► Wide range of household adoption probability within 10 years median value 52%. ► Promotions should explain investment criteria, tariffs and environmental effects

  1. PENGEMBANGAN LAMPU LED DENGAN TEKNOLOGI PHOTOVOLTAIC (LED-PV SEBAGAI ALAT BANTU PENGUMPUL IKAN PADA PERIKANAN BAGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Arief Sofijanto

    2015-03-01

    mengetahui perbedaan jumlah hasil tangkapan pada bagan tancap akibat perlakuan warna lampu LED yang berbeda. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskriptif dan experimental fishing dimana rancangan penelitiannya adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan perlakuan warna lampu LED sebanyak 5 jenis warna yaitu merah (A, kuning (B, hijau (C, biru (D, dan putih (E dengan 6 kali ulangan. Secara deskriptif hasil penelitian menunjukkan lampu LED dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan lampu petromaks dan lampu LHE. Diperoleh 17 jenis ikan laut yang tertarik pada cahaya lampu LED yang digunakan. Hasil analisis statistik menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan nyata terhadap hasil tangkapan bagan dengan perlakuan warna lampu LED. Berdasarkan Uji Nyata Terkecil dinyatakan bahwa bagan yang menggunakan warna lampu LED biru mendapatkan hasil tangkapan tertinggi kemudian diikuti oleh warna kuning, hijau, putih dan merah.  The set ‘bagan’ (liftnet fishing gear is a kind of fishing gears which using atificial light as fishes gathering. This fishing gear uses an electric generator to turn on the energy saving lamp which hang on under the set ‘bagan’. The price of gasoline more expensive due to the Indonesia government’s fuel subsidy reduced and this make fishing operation costs more expensive for fishermen. This research using the LED lamps that do not use gasoline as fuel because the LED lamps can use the photovoltaic technology (solar cell system. The purposes of this study were: 1 to find out whether the LED lamps can replace the kerosene lamps and saving energy lamps, 2 to know the different in cath using different colours of LED lamps. The reserach methods are descriptive and experimental fishing which used Completely Randomized Design with LED lamps colour treatments i.e: red (A, yellow (B, green (C, blue (D, and white (E, the number of replications are 6 times. LED lamps can be used to replace the kerosene and saving energy lamps. There were 17 species of

  2. Exploring the macro-scale CO2 mitigation potential of photovoltaics and wind energy in Europe's energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usubiaga, Arkaitz; Acosta-Fernández, José; McDowall, Will; Li, Francis G.N.

    2017-01-01

    Replacing traditional technologies by renewables can lead to an increase of emissions during early diffusion stages if the emissions avoided during the use phase are exceeded by those associated with the deployment of new units. Based on historical developments and on counterfactual scenarios in which we assume that selected renewable technologies did not diffuse, we conclude that onshore and offshore wind energy have had a positive contribution to climate change mitigation since the beginning of their diffusion in EU27. In contrast, photovoltaic panels did not pay off from an environmental standpoint until very recently, since the benefits expected at the individual plant level were offset until 2013 by the CO 2 emissions related to the construction and deployment of the next generation of panels. Considering the varied energy mixes and penetration rates of renewable energies in different areas, several countries can experience similar time gaps between the installation of the first renewable power plants and the moment in which the emissions from their infrastructure are offset. The analysis demonstrates that the time-profile of renewable energy emissions can be relevant for target-setting and detailed policy design, particularly when renewable energy strategies are pursued in concert with carbon pricing through cap-and-trade systems. - Highlights: • There is a time gap between the deployment of renewables and net CO2 mitigation. • Offshore wind energy contributes to net emission reductions in the EU27 since 2004. • PV panels contribute to net emission reductions in the EU27 since 2013. • The time-profile of renewable energy emissions is not usually considered in policy-design. • But it is important when renewable energy strategies are combined with carbon pricing.

  3. Photovoltaic and Wind Turbine Integration Applying Cuckoo Search for Probabilistic Reliable Optimal Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Swief

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient Cuckoo Search Optimization technique to improve the reliability of electrical power systems. Various reliability objective indices such as Energy Not Supplied, System Average Interruption Frequency Index, System Average Interruption, and Duration Index are the main indices indicating reliability. The Cuckoo Search Optimization (CSO technique is applied to optimally place the protection devices, install the distributed generators, and to determine the size of distributed generators in radial feeders for reliability improvement. Distributed generator affects reliability and system power losses and voltage profile. The volatility behaviour for both photovoltaic cells and the wind turbine farms affect the values and the selection of protection devices and distributed generators allocation. To improve reliability, the reconfiguration will take place before installing both protection devices and distributed generators. Assessment of consumer power system reliability is a vital part of distribution system behaviour and development. Distribution system reliability calculation will be relayed on probabilistic reliability indices, which can expect the disruption profile of a distribution system based on the volatility behaviour of added generators and load behaviour. The validity of the anticipated algorithm has been tested using a standard IEEE 69 bus system.

  4. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid systems for remote power supply. Workshop. [Selected Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz, J. M.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document include the papers of the RIER Workshop that was hold in Cancun, Mexico, on 21-25 April 1997. This Workshop was organized by the Non-Conventional Energy Unit of the Electrical Research Institute of Mexico (IIE), with the financial contributions from the Mexican National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT) and the Iberoamerican Network for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy (RIER) of the Program Science and Technology for Development (CYTED). The purpose of this Workshop was to present works developed on the technology of Photovoltaic-Wind Hybrid Systems, and to discuss both technical and non-technical factors that could foster or inhibit the widespread application this technology [Espanol] Este documento incluye los articulos tecnicos del taller de trabajo RIER, realizado en Cancun, Mexico, del 21 al 25 de abril de 1997. Este taller de trabajo fue organizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), con la contribucion financiera del Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT) y de la Red de Trabajo Iberoamericana para la Electrificacion Rural con Energia Renovable (RIER) del programa Ciencia y Tecnologia para el Desarrollo (CYTED). El proposito de este taller fue presentar trabajos desarrollados sobre la tecnologia de sistemas hibridos fotovoltaicos y de viento, y discutir los factores tecnicos y no tecnicos que pudieran fomentar o detener la amplia aplicacion de esta tecnologia

  5. Photovoltaics information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  6. A Practical Optimization Method for Designing Large PV Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Koutroulis, E.; Eyigun, S.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays Photovoltaic (PV) plants have multi MW sizes, the biggest plants reaching tens of MW of capacity. Such large-scale PV plants are made up of several thousands of PV panels, each panel being in the range of 150-350W. This means that the design of a Large PV power plant is a big challenge...

  7. Operating capability as a PQ/PV node of a direct-drive wind turbine based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, L.M.; Garcia, C.A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Cadiz, EPS Algeciras, Avda. Ramon Puyol s/n,11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Jurado, F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Jaen, EPS Linares, C/ Alfonso X n . 28, 23700 Linares (Jaen) (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    This paper describes the modelling and control system of a direct-drive PMSG wind turbine for effective active and reactive power generation control and voltage control at the grid connection point. This study focuses on the maximum power capability of the wind turbine, which is limited by its generator and power converter. The ability of this model and control strategy are assessed by means of simulations and discussed at length. The results of our study show that a PMSG wind turbine is able to actively participate in grid operation because it can independently control active and reactive power production (operating as a PQ node) or the active power and voltage at the connection node (operating as a PV node). (author)

  8. The PV market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper forecasts the photovoltaic (PV) market growth for the 1990s. Ten years of PV history are reviewed and used to establish market trends in terms of average selling price (ASP) and kilowatts shipped by market segment. The market is segmented into indoor consumer, stand-alone, and grid-connected applications. Indoor consumer presently represents a saturated market and is fairly predictable. The stand-alone market (i.e. not connected to the utility grid) is fairly stable and predictable. The utility PV market however is highly dependent on a number of market factors such as the cost of conventional energy the cost of PV systems utility acceptance of PV and regulatory controls. Government and institutional regulations, environmental issues, and OPEC and Middle East politics will have the greatest impact on the cost of conventional fuels. Private and federal investment in PV technology development could have a significant impact on the cost of PV systems. Forecasts are provided through the year 2000 for indoor consumer stand-alone and utility markets

  9. Georgetown University Photovoltaic Higher Education National Exemplar Facility (PHENEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N.

    1984-01-01

    Several photographs of this facility using photovoltaic (PV) cells are shown. An outline is given of the systems requirements, system design and wiring topology, a simplified block design, module electrical characteristics, PV module and PV module matching.

  10. Optimization of Electric Power Systems for Off-Grid Domestic Applications: An Argument for Wind/Photovoltaic Hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, W.; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal configuration of home power systems relevant to different regions in the United States. The hypothesis was that, regardless of region, the optimal system would be a hybrid incorporating wind technology, versus a photovoltaic hybrid system without the use of wind technology. The method used in this research was HOMER, the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables. HOMER is a computer program that optimizes electrical configurations under user-defined circumstances. According to HOMER, the optimal system for the four regions studied (Kansas, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Arizona) was a hybrid incorporating wind technology. The cost differences between these regions, however, were dependent upon regional renewable resources. Future studies will be necessary, as it is difficult to estimate meteorological impacts for other regions.

  11. Assessment of MPPT Techniques During the Faulty Conditions of PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhukya Krishna Naick

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Distributed Generation (DG systems like wind energy systems and solar Photovoltaic (PV systems on the generation of electricity has increased. Out of these DG systems, the PV systems have gained wide popularity, because of the availability of solar energy throughout the day. Depending on the size of PV installations, a large number of PV modules can be interconnected in the form of series and parallel connection. Since a large number of modules are interconnected, it is possible for the faults in a PV array to occur due to the failure of protection system, which can cause damage to the PV module and also the decrease in the output power. This paper presents the tracking of a maximum power point under the faulty conditions of 12x5 PV array. The fault conditions that have been considered in the PV array are open circuit fault, line to ground, line to line and failure of bypass diodes. Perturb and observe, incremental conductance and fuzzy logic controller are the maximum power point tracking techniques that have been implemented. For each of the fault conditions, the results have been presented in terms of the maximum power tracked, tracking time and tracking efficiency.

  12. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, Thomas; Catalano, Anthony

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  13. Photovoltaic programme - edition 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules and building integration, system technologies, planning and operating aids is summarised. Also, PV for applications in developing countries, thermo-photovoltaics and international co-operation are commented on. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and noise barriers as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and further PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents the abstracts of reports made by the project managers of 73 research and pilot and demonstration projects in these areas for 2002.

  14. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission’s Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...

  15. Photovoltaic energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In 1989, the U.S. photovoltaic industry enjoyed a growth rate of 30 percent in sales for the second year in a row. This sends a message that the way we think about electricity is changing. Instead of big energy projects that perpetuate environmental and economic damage, there is a growing trend toward small renewable technologies that are well matched to end-user needs and operating conditions. As demand grows and markets expand, investment capital will be drawn to the industry and new growth trends will emerge. The photovoltaic industry around the world achieved record shipments also. Worldwide shipments of photovoltaic (PV) modules for 1989 totaled more than 40 megawatts (MW), nearly a 20 percent increase over last year's shipments. The previous two years showed increases in worldwide shipments of 23 and 25 percent, respectively. If this growth rate continues through the 1990s, as industry back orders would indicate, 300 to 1000 MW of PV-supplied power could be on line by 2000. Photovoltaic systems have low environmental impact and they are inexpensive to operate and maintain. Using solid-state technology, PV systems directly convert sunlight to electricity without high-temperature fluids or moving parts that could cause mechanical failure. This makes the technology very reliable.

  16. A technical, economic, and environmental performance of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power system in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheb-Koussa, Djohra; Koussa, Mustapha; Said, Nourredine

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power systems.

  17. Optimal coordinated scheduling of combined heat and power fuel cell, wind, and photovoltaic units in micro grids considering uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornapour, Mosayeb; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Khodabakhshian, Amin; Parastegari, Moein

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a stochastic model is proposed for coordinated scheduling of combined heat and power units in micro grid considering wind turbine and photovoltaic units. Uncertainties of electrical market price; the speed of wind and solar radiation are considered using a scenario-based method. In the method, scenarios are generated using roulette wheel mechanism based on probability distribution functions of input random variables. Using this method, the probabilistic specifics of the problem are distributed and the problem is converted to a deterministic one. The type of the objective function, coordinated scheduling of combined heat and power, wind turbine, and photovoltaic units change this problem to a mixed integer nonlinear one. Therefore to solve this problem modified particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed. The mentioned uncertainties lead to an increase in profit. Moreover, the optimal coordinated scheduling of renewable energy resources and thermal units in micro grids increase the total profit. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, its performance is executed on modified 33 bus distributed system as a micro grid. - Highlights: • Stochastic model is proposed for coordinated scheduling of renewable energy sources. • The effect of combined heat and power is considered. • Maximizing profits of micro grid is considered as objective function. • Considering the uncertainties of problem lead to profit increasing. • Optimal scheduling of renewable energy sources and thermal units increases profit.

  18. A Technical, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Grid-Connected Hybrid (Photovoltaic-Wind Power System in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djohra Saheb-Koussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind power systems.

  19. A roadmap for photovoltaic-thermal panels. Combination of techniques offers many advantages; Een roadmap voor pv-thermische panelen. Combinatie van technieken biedt vele voordelen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zondag, H.A.; Van Helden, W.G.J.; Bakker, M. [ECN Energie Gebouwde Omgeving en Netten, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-10-15

    In PVT technology, heat is extracted from PV cells. In this way, a device is made that produces both electricity and heat. In the EU funded coordination action PV-Catapult, workshops on PVT were organised at the PVSEC 2004 Conference in Paris and the Eurosun 2004 conference in Freiburg, to obtain active participation of the PV and solar thermal communities. Currently, the results of the workshops are used in the drafting of a roadmap for the large scale introduction of PVT technology on the market. First results will be presented here. [Dutch] Zonnepanelen (oftewel pv-panelen) produceren elektriciteit uit zonlicht. In de volle zon kan de temperatuur van zonnepanelen flink oplopen. Gewone zonnepanelen maken van deze warmte geen gebruik, maar in PVT-modules (pv-thermische modules) wordt deze warmte benut voor de productie van warm water of warme lucht. Het resultaat is een apparaat dat zowel warmte als stroom produceert uit zonlicht.

  20. Power of design - the future of building-integrated PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Cinzia

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses strategies to make building integrated photovoltaic (PV) systems more acceptable and to allow PV material to compete with conventional construction material. The history of developments in building integration and difficulties encountered by architects wishing to use PV products are explored, and the Dutch Amersfoot project in Utrecht involving a new suburb of 501 house covered with PV panels is described. Questions raised regarding architectural integration of PV systems, and PV systems and the construction market are discussed. The Italian PV programme, financial and political constraints, and the positioning of PV on existing structures are reported

  1. A Novel Numerical Algorithm for Optimal Sizing of a Photovoltaic/Wind/Diesel Generator/Battery Microgrid Using Loss of Load Probability Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A. Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for determining optimal sizes of PV array, wind turbine, diesel generator, and storage battery installed in a building integrated system. The objective of the proposed optimization is to design the system that can supply a building load demand at minimum cost and maximum availability. The mathematical models for the system components as well as meteorological variables such as solar energy, temperature, and wind speed are employed for this purpose. Moreover, the results showed that the optimum sizing ratios (the daily energy generated by the source to the daily energy demand for the PV array, wind turbine, diesel generator, and battery for a system located in Sohar, Oman, are 0.737, 0.46, 0.22, and 0.17, respectively. A case study represented by a system consisting of 30 kWp PV array (36%, 18 kWp wind farm (55%, and 5 kVA diesel generator (9% is presented. This system is supposed to power a 200 kWh/day load demand. It is found that the generated energy share of the PV array, wind farm, and diesel generator is 36%, 55%, and 9%, respectively, while the cost of energy is 0.17 USD/kWh.

  2. PV potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinkopf, K.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the state of the art in photovoltaics and the need to develop a market for the renewable energy technology that enjoys the most federal support at this time. The topics of the article include a technology assessment, applications for photovoltaics, trends in the industry, cutting the cost of photovoltaics, growing public acceptance of the technology, and growth of the photovoltaic market

  3. Combat climat change with competetive photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeyron, P.J.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Zietek, G.

    2009-01-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) offer a promising solution for CO2 emission reductions and climate change combat. However, before its wide spread on the market, PV needs to find new approaches to make solar cells competitive with respect to conventional electricity sources.

  4. Photovoltaic energy program overview: Fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This is the 1994 overview for the Photovoltaic Energy Program. The topics of this overview include cooperative research projects to improve PV systems and develop pre-commercial prototypes of new PV products, expanding understanding of the fundamental mechanisms governing the formation and performance of PV materials, and helping US industry enhance its leadership position in the PV market.

  5. 2015 NREL Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-14

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  6. 2016 NREL Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology - both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  7. Thermal modelling of PV module performance under high ambient temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diarra, D.C.; Harrison, S.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Solar Calorimetry Lab; Akuffo, F.O. [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    When predicting the performance of photovoltaic (PV) generators, the actual performance is typically lower than test results conducted under standard test conditions because the radiant energy absorbed in the module under normal operation raises the temperature of the cell and other multilayer components. The increase in temperature translates to a lower conversion efficiency of the solar cells. In order to address these discrepancies, a thermal model of a characteristic PV module was developed to assess and predict its performance under real field-conditions. The PV module consisted of monocrystalline silicon cells in EVA between a glass cover and a tedlar backing sheet. The EES program was used to compute the equilibrium temperature profile in the PV module. It was shown that heat is dissipated towards the bottom and the top of the module, and that its temperature can be much higher than the ambient temperature. Modelling results indicate that 70-75 per cent of the absorbed solar radiation is dissipated from the solar cells as heat, while 4.7 per cent of the solar energy is absorbed in the glass cover and the EVA. It was also shown that the operating temperature of the PV module decreases with increased wind speed. 2 refs.

  8. Thermal performances of vertical hybrid PV/T air collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, I.; Touafek, K.; Bellel, N.; Khelifa, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, numerical analyses and the experimental validation of the thermal behavior of a vertical photovoltaic thermal air collector are investigated. The thermal model is developed using the energy balance equations of the PV/T air collector. Experimental tests are conducted to validate our mathematical model. The tests are performed in the southern Algerian region (Ghardaïa) under clear sky conditions. The prototype of the PV/T air collector is vertically erected and south oriented. The absorber upper plate temperature, glass cover temperature, air temperature in the inlet and outlet of the collector, ambient temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation are measured. The efficiency of the collector increases with increase in mass flow of air, but the increase in mass flow of air reduces the temperature of the system. The increase in efficiency of the PV/T air collector is due to the increase in the number of fins added. In the experiments, the air temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet of the PV/T air collector reaches 10 ° C on November 21, 2014, the interval time is between 10:00 and 14:00, and the temperature of the upper plate reaches 45 ° C at noon. The mathematical model describing the dynamic behavior of the typical PV/T air collector is evaluated by calculating the root mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. A good agreement between the experiment and the simulation results is obtained.

  9. Valuation of the quantity of electric output from photovoltaic generation system in case of PV module applied to installing to vertical direction; Taiyo denchi wo suichoku ni haichishita baai no hatsudenryo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, K. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In general, it is most efficient and economical to install photovoltaic (PV) modules with proper slope. There are room spaces on the wall except ground or roof. The PV modules were installed on the vertical wall, to consider the compensative method for this weak point. When modules were installed vertically, there is an advantage that reflecting solar light as well as incident solar light can be utilized compared with the installation with slope. The PV modules were installed on the roof of building with inclination of 90{degree} facing to south using the roof material as a reflecting material (S90), and with inclination of 15{degree} facing to south (S15), to compare their output. The output ratio, S90/S15 was 0.42. When it was very fine, this value increased to 0.60. When using plated steel plate as the reflecting material, this value increased to 0.74, which provided 10 to 30% larger output than the roof material. From these results, about 50% of module output of S15 can be expected for S90. If receiving larger reflection, there would only a slight difference in the module output between S15 and S90. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Photovoltaic sources modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Petrone, Giovanni; Spagnuolo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive guide surveys all available models for simulating a photovoltaic (PV) generator at different levels of granularity, from cell to system level, in uniform as well as in mismatched conditions. Providing a thorough comparison among the models, engineers have all the elements needed to choose the right PV array model for specific applications or environmental conditions matched with the model of the electronic circuit used to maximize the PV power production.

  11. Urban photovoltaic electricity policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at urban photovoltaic electricity policies. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy as a significant and sustainable renewable energy option. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The goal of the study presented was to evaluate a standardised basis for urban policies regarding photovoltaic integration in a set of cities in the countries participating in the IEA's Task 10, Urban Scale PV. The investigation was focused on three topics: the present state of the policies, the prospects for future policies fostering photovoltaic deployment and the prospects for future policies to cope with large-scale photovoltaic integration. The first section analyses the state of the policies; this analysis is then confirmed in section 2, which deals with present obstacles to PV deployment and solutions to overcome them. The third section investigates future prospects for PV deployment with the question of mastering large scale integration. The report concludes that cities could formulate urban solutions by developing integrated, specific provisions for PV deployment in their urban infrastructure planning.

  12. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 3: Renewable energy plant: reports on wind, photovoltaics and biomas energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoha, Bruno; Cohen, Martin [Electricite de France (France)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 3 (WG3). WG3 will promote the introduction of performance indicators for renewable energy generating plant (wind, geothermal, solar and biomass) developed by the Committee. It will also assess selected transitional technology issues and environmental factors related to non-conventional technologies. The WG3 report includes sections on Wind Energy Today, Photovoltaics Energy Today, Biomass Electricity Today and appendices.

  13. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zamzam, Ahmed S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Market transparency refers to the degree of customer awareness of product options and fair market prices for a given good. In The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets, we use residential solar photovoltaic (PV) quote data to study the value of transparency in distributed solar PV markets. We find that improved market transparency results in lower installation offer prices. Further, the results of this study suggest that PV customers benefit from gaining access to more PV quotes.

  14. Global PV Market Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    2009-01-01

    The dawn of 2009 saw several events which caused major turbulence in the global photovoltaic industry. In 2008 the Spanish PV market grew beyond all expectations and even outranked Germany as the world's number one market. However, the promotion scheme was modified and a market cap was introduced in 2009, cutting back the maximum capacity to be installed to about the level of 2007. In addition, the industry is facing an oversupply of PV modules and a harsh recession which is significantly affecting the traditionally strong PV markets. International photovoltaic companies are challenged by a changing market situation: all of a sudden, competition has increased significantly, pushing the customer to the fore. As a result, a consolidation process is expected within the PV industry worldwide. However, the story is not all negative. In the U.S., the election of Barack Obama may be seen as the starting signal for a massive expansion in PV, likely to bring the country to first place globally within the next five years. Furthermore, different markets and market segments are being opened up - especially in Europe - thanks to the gradual arrival of generation parity and new PV support mechanisms. EuPD Research has observed and studied international PV markets since its foundation. The information included in the presentation is based on a wide range of quantitative and qualitative studies that EuPD Research has conducted in the key markets since 2002. Florian Schmidt, EuPD Research's Head of Product Management, will give an overview of the global PV market and how it is developing in this crucial year 2009. Aspects such as technology development, production capacities and the demand side will be included, with a special emphasis on the European PV markets. So far Chinese PV companies have often benefited from the booming PV markets in Europe, above all Germany and Spain. Due to the lack of domestic market, the Chinese industry strongly depends on the export and is

  15. Optimal design of PV and HP system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepper-Rasmussen, Bjarke Christian; Rasmussen, Theis Bo

    2015-01-01

    electric energy demand of the HP to hours where excess PV power is present. The self-consumption of the PV energy affects the overall net present value (NPV). In this paper, a method which maximizes the NPV by finding the cost-optimal combination of PV, HP and BT sizes, is proposed. Results show......Methods of utilizing residential produced photovoltaic (PV) power by converting to thermal energy through heat pumps (HP) are present in literature, where thermal energy is dispersed as either heat or hot water at the instant moment of PV production. In this paper an alternative solution...

  16. Photovoltaic energy program overview, fiscal year 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 to FY 1995 builds on the accomplishments of the past 5 years and broadens the scope of program activities for the future. The previous plan emphasized materials and PV cell research. Under the balanced new plan, the PV Program continues its commitment to strategic research and development (R&D) into PV materials and processes, while also beginning work on PV systems and helping the PV industry encourage new markets for photovoltaics. A major challenge for the program is to assist the US PV industry in laying the foundation for at least 1000 MW of installed PV capacity in the United States and 500 MW internationally by 2000. As part of the new plan, the program expanded the scope of its activities in 1991. The PV Program is now addressing many new aspects of developing and commercializing photovoltaics. It is expanding activities with the US PV industry through the PV Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, designed to address US manufacturers' immediate problems; providing technical assistance to potential end users such as electric utilities; and the program is turning its attention to encouraging new markets for PV. In 1991, for example, the PV Program initiated a new project with the PV industry to encourage a domestic market for PV applications in buildings and began cooperative ventures to support other countries such as Mexico to use PV in their rural electrification programs. This report reviews some of the development, fabrication and manufacturing advances in photovoltaics this year.

  17. Improvements in the predictions for the photovoltaic system performance of the Mediterranean regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvoni, M.; Fiore, M.C.; Maggiotto, G.; Mancarella, L.; Quarta, R.; Radice, V.; Congedo, P.M.; De Giorgi, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Perez model returns PV energy predictions higher than the Hay/Davies model. • Suitable weather data is needed when meteo data on-site are not available. • The geographic area of the meteo station impacts on the PV energy estimations. • The rural areas are more suitable to plan new solar systems. • A wind speed up to 4 m/s may increase PV energy output up to 1%. - Abstract: The performance assessment of photovoltaic (PV) systems is a complex process. Several meteorological data sources are available to evaluate the PV system generation. Different computing models can be applied to determinate the solar irradiance on the plane of the array (POA). The cooling effect of the PV module due to the wind speed should not be neglected. The present study may support several users to perform more accurate PV energy predictions, providing important suggestions to develop future PV system projects with more high reliability. Perez and Hay-Davies models for the computing of the irradiance on tilted surfaces are combined with three meteorological datasets, characterized by different monitoring period and meteo station location, to estimate the POA irradiance, the module temperature and PV energy output for a PV system located in the Mediterranean climate area. Prediction results are performed by the PVsyst tool and compared with the actual data. Simulations are carried out taking into account the wind effects on the PV module performance. Results demonstrate that the geographic features of the location, in which the weather station is located, have higher impact on the estimations of the PV system performance than the distance between the PV system and the meteo station. Perez and Hay-Davies models provide predictions of the PV energy and the module temperature with a difference up to 3% and 1% respectively. Yearly average wind speed in the range 2–4 m/s fosters a cooling effect up to 3% higher than one due to the wind magnitude less of 2 m/s, increasing

  18. PHOTOVOLTAICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1998. REPORT ON THE WORKSHOP PHOTOVOLTAICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FTHENAKIS,V.; ZWEIBEL,K.; MOSKOWITZ,P.

    1999-02-01

    The objective of the workshop ``Photovoltaics and the Environment'' was to bring together PV manufacturers and industry analysts to define EH and S issues related to the large-scale commercialization of PV technologies.

  19. PV–wind hybrid power option for a low wind topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Subhadeep; Acharya, Shantanu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimally harness the wind energy by unification of solar resource. • Analysis of PV–wind hybrid system with tangible experience. • Cost of generation and renewable fraction are $0.488/kWh and 0.90 respectively. • Maximum wind penetration is observed to be 32.75% with installed PV–wind system. • Indicative annual grid electricity conservation is 90%. - Abstract: Solar and wind are clean energy sources with enormous potential to alleviate grid dependence. The paper aims to optimally harness the wind resource with the support of solar energy through hybrid technology for a north-east Indian state Tripura (low wind topography). Techno-economic analysis of a photovoltaic (PV)-wind hybrid simulation model has been performed for small scale application in an educational building. The study also evaluates the tangible performance of a similar plant in practical condition of the site. It has emerged from the study that major energy generation is turning out from PV segment which is promising almost all round the year. Nonetheless, a considerable amount of wind power is found to be generated during half of the year when average PV power production is comparatively less. The cost of electricity from the simulation model is found to be $0.488/kWh while renewable fraction in the total electricity share is obtained to be 0.90. From the actual performance of the plant, maximum wind penetration is observed to be 32.75%

  20. Data book on new energy technology development in FY 1997. Installations of photovoltaic (PV) power generation; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Taiyoko hatsuden jireishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The present survey places particular emphasis on the field of PV power generation systems, and intends to collect data on solar cell application products and PV power generation system installation cases, to classify them according to their usage and to compile a collection of case records including photographs. For the data collection, two formats have been adopted. A format for the solar cell-based products includes a picture of the product, and information on solar cell output and commercialization status. Another format for the installation of PV power systems includes a picture of the installation, and information on location, output level, system type, PV module type, owner, and date of installation. The application of solar cells was classified into 14 fields, i.e., consumer appliances, road and traffic, railroad, general industries, housing related, automobiles, agriculture, ocean development, disaster prevention and safety, amenity, developing countries, buildings, public facilities, and environment. A total of 241 valid cases have been collected. Overseas products and installation cases are often characterized by new applications and innovative design, and contain a lot of useful suggestions for promoting the spread of PV technology in Japan

  1. Artist Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-Yang Lien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a full-color photovoltaic (PV module, called the artist PV module, is developed by laser processes. A full-color image source is printed on the back of a protective glass using an inkjet printer, and a brightened grayscale mask is used to precisely define regions on the module where colors need to be revealed. Artist PV modules with 1.1 × 1.4 m2 area have high a retaining power output of 139 W and an aesthetic appearance making them more competitive than other building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV products. Furthermore, the installation of artist PV modules as curtain walls without metal frames is also demonstrated. This type of installation offers an aesthetic advantage by introducing supporting fittings, originating from the field of glass technology. Hence, this paper is expected to elevate BIPV modules to an art form and generate research interests in developing more functional PV modules.

  2. Overview of renewable energies during the first six-month period of 2013. Wind energy, Photovoltaic energy, Connection schemes (S3REnR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Illustrated by maps, graphs and tables, the first part of this document presents and comments data related to wind energy production. It addresses the status of the wind energy production stock (connected stock in June 2013, regional distribution, distribution in terms of power range, evolution of wind turbine and wind farm power), growth perspectives, and the role of wind energy production in the supply-demand balance (production and load factor, regional distribution of production and load factor, share in consumption coverage, wind energy production flow management). Using the same kind of presentation and the same issues, the second part presents and comments data related to photovoltaic energy production in France: photovoltaic stock (connected stock in June 2013, regional distribution, distribution in terms of power range), growth perspectives, and role of photovoltaic energy production in the supply-demand balance (production and load factor, production and load factor regional distribution, role in consumption coverage). The third part briefly presents data related to Regional Schemes of Connection to the renewable energy network (S3REnR) which ensure conditions of connection to the electric grid of all renewable energies

  3. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  4. NREL Photovoltaic Program. FY 1994 annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontracted research and development activities under the National renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaics (PV) program for fiscal year 1994. Research is organized under the following areas; PV program management; crystalline silicon and advanced devices; thin-film PV technologies; PV manufacturing; PV module and system performance and engineering; and PV applications and markets.

  5. A solar PV augmented hybrid scheme for enhanced wind power generation through improved control strategy for grid connected doubly fed induction generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adikanda Parida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a wind power generation scheme using a grid connected doubly fed induction generator (DFIG augmented with solar PV has been proposed. A reactive power-based rotor speed and position estimation technique with reduced machine parameter sensitivity is also proposed to improve the performance of the DFIG controller. The estimation algorithm is based on model reference adaptive system (MRAS, which uses the air gap reactive power as the adjustable variable. The overall generation reliability of the wind energy conversion system can be considerably improved as both solar and wind energy can supplement each other during lean periods of either of the sources. The rotor-side DC-link voltage and active power generation at the stator terminals of the DFIG are maintained constant with minimum storage battery capacity using single converter arrangement without grid-side converter (GSC. The proposed scheme has been simulated and experimentally validated with a practical 2.5 kW DFIG using dSPACE CP1104 module which produced satisfactory results.

  6. A Simple Power Management Scheme with Enhanced Stability for a Solar PV/Wind/Fuel Cell/Grid Fed Hybrid Power Supply Designed for Industrial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new power conditioner topology with an intelligent power management controller that integrates multiple renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, and fuel cell energy with battery and AC grid supply as backup to make the best use of their operating characteristics with better reliability than that could be obtained by single renewable energy source based power supply. The proposed embedded controller is programmed to perform MPPT for solar PV panel and WTG, SOC estimation and battery, maintaining a constant voltage at PCC and power flow control by regulating the reference currents of the controller in an instantaneous basis. The instantaneous variation in reference currents of the controller enhances the controller response as it accommodates the effect of continuously varying solar insolation and wind speed in the power management. It also prioritizes the sources for consumption to achieve maximum usage of green energy than grid energy. The simulation results of the proposed power management system with real-time solar radiation and wind velocity data collected from solar centre, KEC, and experimental results for a sporadically varying load demand are presented in this paper and the results are encouraging from reliability and stability perspectives.

  7. Impedance characterization of PV modules in outdoor conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oprea, Matei-lon; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Spataru, Sergiu

    2016-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy (IS) has been used for laboratory characterizations of photovoltaic (PV) technologies under well controlled conditions. This work applies IS for outdoor characterization of PV panels, in order to observe the effect of irradiance (G) and temperature (T) on the PV module...

  8. Voltage rise mitigation for solar PV integration at LV grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guangya; Marra, Francesco; Juamperez Goñi, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy from photovoltaic (PV) is among the fastest developing renewable energy systems worldwide. Driven by governmental subsidies and technological development, Europe has seen a fast expansion of solar PV in the last few years. Among the installed PV plants, most of them are situated at t...

  9. parameter extraction and estimation based on the pv panel outdoor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    PV panel under varying weather conditions to estimate the PV parameters. Outdoor performance of the PV module (AP-PM-15) was carried out for several times. The .... Performance. Analysis of Different Photovoltaic. Technologies Based on MATLAB. Simulation. In Northwest University. Science, Faculty of Science Annual.

  10. Voltage Gain Derivation Based on Energy-Balanced Criterion for a Novel Hybrid-Input PV-Wind Power Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies energy-balanced criterion to a novel hybrid-input PV-wind power conversion system (HPWPCS for voltage gain derivation. With the energy-balanced concept, complicated mathematical problems related to voltage gain derivation can be readily resolved. Based on the derived results, it is proven that the proposed HPWPCS is able to process two different kinds of renewable energy resources simultaneously. Even though the HPWPCS includes seven capacitors and three magnetic components, its voltage gain still can be found by the mathematical analysis. In the theoretical derivation, only the energy status of output inductor is dealt with such that complicated derivation procedure is avoided. This analysis method can also be applied to other hybrid green-energy conversion systems. In this paper, a 200 W 50 kHz prototype of HPWPCS is built and examined to verify the mathematical results.

  11. Calibration and Rating of Photovoltaics: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.

    2012-06-01

    Rating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules is critical to determining the cost per watt, and efficiency is useful to assess the relative progress among PV concepts. Procedures for determining the efficiency for PV technologies from 1-sun to low concentration to high concentration are discussed. We also discuss the state of the art in primary and secondary calibration of PV reference cells used by calibration laboratories around the world. Finally, we consider challenges to rating PV technologies and areas for improvement.

  12. Influence of Special Weather on Output of PV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zele

    2018-01-01

    The output of PV system is affected by different environmental factors, therefore, it is important to study the output of PV system under different environmental conditions. Through collecting data on the spot, collecting the output of photovoltaic panels under special weather conditions, and comparing the collected data, the output characteristics of the photovoltaic panels under different weather conditions are obtained. The influence of weather factors such as temperature, humidity and irradiance on the output of photovoltaic panels was investigated.

  13. PSCAD Modules Representing PV Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-08-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPs) have been growing in size, and the installation time is very short. With the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels dropping in recent years, it can be predicted that in the next 10 years the contribution of PVPs to the total number of renewable energy power plants will grow significantly. In this project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a dynamic modeling of the modules to be used as building blocks to develop simulation models of single PV arrays, expanded to include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), expanded to include PV inverter, or expanded to cover an entire PVP. The focus of the investigation and complexity of the simulation determines the components that must be included in the simulation. The development of the PV inverter was covered in detail, including the control diagrams. Both the current-regulated voltage source inverter and the current-regulated current source inverter were developed in PSCAD. Various operations of the PV inverters were simulated under normal and abnormal conditions. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults were simulated, presented, and discussed. Both the three-phase analysis and the symmetrical component analysis were included to clarify the understanding of unsymmetrical faults. The dynamic model validation was based on the testing data provided by SCE. Testing was conducted at SCE with the focus on the grid interface behavior of the PV inverter under different faults and disturbances. The dynamic model validation covers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.

  14. Use of the renewable wind and photovoltaic sources, for the recharge of a fleet of electric taxis in Havana, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez Torres, Yamir

    2017-01-01

    Electrification of the transportation sector seems to be one of the alternatives in terms of restriction of pollutant from that sector. However, it is necessary to study the GHG (Green House Gas) emissions from Generation Power Plants (EGPP) because could be more or less the same of that from the vehicles. Furthermore, Centralized GPP supply would result in distribution losses, bigger fuel consumption and more pollution. Thus, EVs development should be considered as a sustainable solution if powered by electricity systems with considerable share of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). In this paper, the study of the recharge of an EV taxi fleet during night, using photovoltaic and wind mills RES in Havana, Cuba, is analyzed. This work is aiming to find a feasible operational synergy between cited intermittent RES electricity generation and EVs taxi fleet recharge. (author)

  15. Effects of Solar Photovoltaic Panels on Roof Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, A.; Klessl, J.; Samady, M.; Luvall, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Building Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is a major contributor to urban energy use. In single story buildings with large surface area such as warehouses most of the heat enters through the roof. A rooftop modification that has not been examined experimentally is solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays. In California alone, several GW in residential and commercial rooftop PV are approved or in the planning stages. With the PV solar conversion efficiency ranging from 5-20% and a typical installed PV solar reflectance of 16-27%, 53-79% of the solar energy heats the panel. Most of this heat is then either transferred to the atmosphere or the building underneath. Consequently solar PV has indirect effects on roof heat transfer. The effect of rooftop PV systems on the building roof and indoor energy balance as well as their economic impacts on building HVAC costs have not been investigated. Roof calculator models currently do not account for rooftop modifications such as PV arrays. In this study, we report extensive measurements of a building containing a flush mount and a tilted solar PV array as well as exposed reference roof. Exterior air and surface temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation were measured and thermal infrared (TIR) images of the interior ceiling were taken. We found that in daytime the ceiling surface temperature under the PV arrays was significantly cooler than under the exposed roof. The maximum difference of 2.5 C was observed at around 1800h, close to typical time of peak energy demand. Conversely at night, the ceiling temperature under the PV arrays was warmer, especially for the array mounted flat onto the roof. A one dimensional conductive heat flux model was used to calculate the temperature profile through the roof. The heat flux into the bottom layer was used as an estimate of the heat flux into the building. The mean daytime heat flux (1200-2000 PST) under the exposed roof in the model was 14.0 Watts per square meter larger than

  16. Photovoltaic Energy Program overview, fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Photovoltaic Energy Program fosters the widespread acceptance of photovoltaic (PV) technology and accelerates commercial use of US PV products. The Program is founded on a collaborative strategy involving industry, the research and development community, potential users, utilities, and state and federal agencies. There are three main Program elements: Systems Engineering and Applications, Technology Development, and Research and Development.

  17. Generation of electric power through wind-diesel hybrid system for a hospital; Geracao de energia eletrica atraves de sistema hibrido diesel-eolico para um hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de; Freire, Raphael Lopes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: silvioa@gmail.com, e-mail: raphaellfreire@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a wind-diesel hybrid power simulation using the software Homer. The model is applied to the case study of Hospital das Clinicas da UNICAMP Analysis of several alternative energy facilities like wind, photovoltaic (PV), and connection of the isolated system with the grid is done. The costs used in the simulation indicated that the best results were obtained with the wind-diesel system. The payback period for the investment in the system is 8 years. (author)

  18. Photovoltaics for appliances and small systems. Enhancement of the PVS for Windows simulation program for development and simulation of PV appliances and small systems. Final report; Photovoltaik fuer Geraete und Kleinsysteme. Erweiterung des Simulationsprogramms PVS fuer Windows zur Entwicklung und Simulation von PV-versorgten Geraeten und Kleinsystemen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R.; Imann, C.; Jung, V.

    2002-06-28

    The PVS simulation program for Windows was to be extended to the development and simulation of PV-supported equipment and small systems. The following new functions were to be integrated: a) Simulation and dimensioning of indoor power supply of systems with different light sources and independent outdoor systems. b)Integration of small wind generators in the simulation and dimensioning of isolated autonomous systems, including wind data and a component database for small wind turbines; c) Differentiation of the PVS battery model for different battery types (lead, Ni/Cd, Li etc.), optimized operating strategies and flexible dimensioning including an additional component database for battery types; d) Extensive cost analysis for PV-supported appliances and small systems, from investments to consumption, operation and maintenance. This will facilitate investment decisions and help systems of this type along in the market. All program components were designed for high flexibility. Users should be able to vary as many parameters as possible, and to generate and modify their own records. The current project focused on the user interface, i.e. input, data processing, and output. Parallel to this, the Fraunhofer ISE Institute worked on modifications of the computer hardware. [German] Das Projekt zielte auf eine Erweiterung des Simulationsprogramms PVS fuer Windows zur Entwicklung und Simulation von PV-versorgten Geraeten und Kleinsystemen hin. Das Entwicklungsprodukt sollte zusaetzlich zu den bisherigen Funktionen insbesondere Folgendes leisten: (a) Simulation und Dimensionierung der Energieversorgung von Geraeten im Indoor-Bereich, wobei unterschiedliche Lichtquellen verarbeitet werden muessen, sowie von sonstigen netzfreien (Outdoor-) Kleinsystemen. (b) Einbindung kleiner Windgeneratoren in die Simulation und Dimensionierung von netzfernen Systemen (Insel-Anlagen), einschliesslich Bereitstellung der Wind-Daten und einer zusaetzlichen Komponenten-Datenbank fuer kleine

  19. Analysis of the Photovoltaic Market 2001. Cost of PV Components and Systems; Analisis del Mercado Fotovoltaico 2001. Coste de Componentes y Sistemas Fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balenzategui Manzanares, J. L.

    2002-07-01

    This document tries to study the development and evolution of the photovoltaic market at a national land international scale, and to analyse its current status at the end of 2001. The paper broaches the study from different points of view. At the first step, the actual great expansion of the global market is analysed by means of the data for international sales and shipments of photovoltaic modules which are completed with figures of the main countries and manufacturing companies involved in the market, the end-use applications, the installed power per country, the technologies used and the evolution of the cost of the modules. By using the same kind of parameters, the particular conditions of the Spanish market is then analysed, and the current national norms and plans for promotion and their short-term perspectives are reviewed and discussed. As a complementary/aspect , a simple cost analysis of the main components of a photovoltaic system in the Spanish market is carried out, together with the costs of complete installations. The average values for components and systems are obtained and are compared with those from preceding years. These data allow evaluating in practice how the global situations is reflected in the final cost of the photovoltaic devices for consumers. (Author) 56 refs.

  20. National survey report on PV power applications in Switzerland 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesser, P.; Hostettler, T.

    2007-01-01

    This annual report was published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) as part of the International Energy Agency's work on the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems (PVPS). The political situation in Switzerland with regard to the promotion of photovoltaics (PV) and new legislation in the energy area is discussed. The report provides information on installed PV power, costs and prices and the Swiss PV industry. Examples of PV applications are presented and data on the cumulative installed PV power in various application sectors is presented and discussed. Highlights, major projects and various demonstration and field-test programmes are dealt with, as are public budgets for market stimulation. Figures on the development, production and prices of PV cells and modules are presented. Swiss balance-of-system products are reviewed, as are PV-related services and the value of the Swiss PV business. A review of non-technical factors and new initiatives completes the report.

  1. Photovoltaic sources modeling and emulation

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Maria Carmela Di

    2012-01-01

    This book offers an extensive introduction to the modeling of photovoltaic generators and their emulation by means of power electronic converters will aid in understanding and improving design and setup of new PV plants.

  2. Outdoor PV Degradation Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D. C.; Smith, R. M.; Osterwald, C. R.; Gelak, E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output; may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined; accurately. At the Performance and Energy Rating Testbed (PERT) at the Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) at the; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) more than 40 modules from more than 10 different manufacturers; were compared for their long-term outdoor stability. Because it can accommodate a large variety of modules in a; limited footprint the PERT system is ideally suited to compare modules side-by-side under the same conditions.

  3. Three integrated photovoltaic/sound barrier power plants. Construction and operational experience; Drei integrierte PV-Schallschutz Versuchsfelder. Bau und Erprobung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordmann, T.; Froelich, A.; Clavadetscher, L.

    2002-07-01

    After an international ideas competition by TNC Switzerland and Germany in 1996, six companies where given the opportunity to construct a prototype of their newly developed integrated PV-sound barrier concepts. The main goal was to develop highly integrated concepts, allowing the reduction of PV sound barrier systems costs, as well as the demonstration of specific concepts for different noise situations. This project is strongly correlated with a German project. Three of the concepts of the competition are demonstrated along a highway near Munich, constructed in 1997. The three Swiss installations had to be constructed at different locations, reflecting three typical situations for sound barriers. The first Swiss installation was the world first Bi-facial PV-sound barrier. It was built on a highway bridge at Wallisellen-Aubrugg in 1997. The operational experience of the installation is positive. But due to the different efficiencies of the two cell sides, its specific yield lies somewhat behind a conventional PV installation. The second Swiss plant was finished in autumn 1998. The 'zig-zag' construction is situated along the railway line at Wallisellen in a densely inhabited area with some local shadowing. Its performance and its specific yield is comparatively low due to a combination of several reasons (geometry of the concept, inverter, high module temperature, local shadows). The third installation was constructed along the motor way A1 at Bruettisellen in 1999. Its vertical panels are equipped with amorphous modules. The report show, that the performance of the system is reasonable, but the mechanical construction has to be improved. A small trial field with cells directly laminated onto the steel panel, also installed at Bruettisellen, could be the key development for this concept. This final report includes the evaluation and comparison of the monitored data in the past 24 months of operation. (author)

  4. PV System Component Fault and Failure Compilation and Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Lavrova, Olga; Gooding, Renee Lynne

    2018-02-01

    This report describes data collection and analysis of solar photovoltaic (PV) equipment events, which consist of faults and fa ilures that occur during the normal operation of a distributed PV system or PV power plant. We present summary statistics from locations w here maintenance data is being collected at various intervals, as well as reliability statistics gathered from that da ta, consisting of fault/failure distributions and repair distributions for a wide range of PV equipment types.

  5. Techno-economic feasibility of the irrigation system for the grassland and farmland conservation in China: Photovoltaic vs. wind power water pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, Pietro Elia; Li, Hailong; Yan, Jinyue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel design procedure for photovoltaic and wind power water pumping systems for irrigation is proposed. • The design procedure is proved conducting dynamic simulations of the water supply and water demand. • The technical and economic effectiveness of photovoltaic water pumping systems is proved simulating the crop yield response. - Abstract: Photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) and wind power water pumping (WPWP) systems for irrigation represent innovative solutions for the restoration of degraded grassland and the conservation of farmland in remote areas of China. The present work systematically compares the technical and economic suitability of such systems, providing a general approach for the design and selection of the suitable technology for irrigation purposes. The model calculates the PVWP and WPWP systems sizes based on irrigation water requirement (IWR), solar irradiation and wind speed. Based on the lowest PVWP and WPWP systems components costs, WPWP systems can compete with PVWP systems only at high wind speed and low solar irradiation values. Nevertheless, taking into account the average specific costs both for PVWP and WPWP systems, it can be concluded that the most cost-effective solution for irrigation is site specific. According to the dynamic simulations, it has also been found that the PVWP systems present better performances in terms of matching between IWR and water supply compared to the WPWP systems. The mismatch between IWR and pumped water resulted in a reduction of crop yield. Therefore, the dynamic simulations of the crop yield are essential for economic assessment and technology selection

  6. Optimal control of a fuel cell/wind/PV/grid hybrid system with thermal heat pump load

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sichilalu, S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal energy management strategy for a grid-tied photovoltaic–wind-fuel cell hybrid power supply system. The hybrid system meets the load demand consisting of an electrical load and a heat pump water heater supplying thermal...

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions inventory for photovoltaic and wind systems in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Frischknecht, R.

    1997-01-01

    The paper provides a detailed comparative data on greenhouse gases emissions like methane and carbon dioxide from various energy sources including hydro power, wind power, solar power and fossil fuel power plants

  8. Photovoltaics moving into the terawatt age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Eicke R.

    2017-08-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology has experienced an amazing development during the last decade, driven by the rapidly decreasing cost at even more rapidly increasing production volumes. This development is discussed from both perspectives, the global PV market and the technology developments accompanying this process. An outlook is given for the possible size of the global PV installations in 2030 and 2050.

  9. Design and components of photovoltaic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the various aspects of photovoltaic (PV) system components and design. The basic performance of cells, modules, and inverters and how this is used in PV system design is described. Two case studies illustrating PV system design are presented: a hybrid system on

  10. The power of transformation wind, sun and the economics of flexible power systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Wind power and solar photovoltaics (PV) are crucial to meeting future energy needs while decarbonising the power sector. Deployment of both technologies has expanded rapidly in recent years, one of the few bright spots in an otherwise bleak picture of clean energy progress. However, the inherent variability of wind power and solar PV raises unique and pressing questions. Can power systems remain reliable and cost-effective while supporting high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE)? And if so, how?. Based on a thorough review of the integration challenge, this publication gauges the econom

  11. Experimental investigations of hybrid PV/Spiral flow thermal collector system performance using Al2O3/water nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadevi, R.; Vinayagam, B. K.; Senthilraja, S.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the PV/T (Photovoltaic thermal unit) system is investigated experimentally to examine the thermal, electrical and overall efficiency by circulating Al2O3/water nanofluid of 1wt% and 2wt% with an optimum flow rate of 40L/H. The overall efficiency of PVT system is largely influenced by various factors such as heat due to photovoltaic action; energy radiated at the infrared wavelength of the solar spectrum, solar irradiance, mounting structure, tilt angle, wind speed direction, Ambient temperature and panel material composition. However, the major factor is considered in this study to extract the heat generated in the PV panel by using nanofluid as a coolant to increase the overall system efficiency. Therefore, the result shows that by using 2 wt% Al2O3/water nanofluid the electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency and overall efficiency of the PVT system enhanced by 13%, 45%, and 58% respectively compared with water.

  12. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Kim, H.C.; Alsema, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416258

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004–2006, this study presents the life-cycle

  13. Design of Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Mathe, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy has become very important both worldwide and on the European market, mainly due to the decrease in the photovoltaic (PV) system cost (up to 75%) during the last decade. PV installations worldwide have reached 227 GW at the end of 2015 with a predicted extra 50 GW of new installat...

  14. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report reviews the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R&D) activities under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaic (PV) Program from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1993 (fiscal year [FY] 1993). The NREL PV Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 - FY 1995. The FY 1993 budget authority (BA) for carrying out the NREL PV Program was $40.1 million in operating funds and $0.9 million in capital equipment funds. An additional $4.8 million in capital equipment funds were made available for the new Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF) that will house the in-house PV laboratories beginning in FY 1994. Subcontract activities represent a major part of the NREL PV Program, with more than $23.7 million (nearly 59%) of the FY 1993 operating funds going to 70 subcontractors. In FY 1993, DOE assigned certain other PV subcontracting efforts to the DOE Golden Field Office (DOE/GO), and assigned responsibility for their technical support to the NREL PV Program. An example is the PV:BONUS (Building Opportunities in the U.S. for Photovoltaics) Project. These DOE/GO efforts are also reported in this document.

  15. Probabilistic Forecasting of Photovoltaic Generation: An Efficient Statistical Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Lin, Jin; Song, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    This letter proposes a novel efficient probabilistic forecasting approach to accurately quantify the variability and uncertainty of the power production from photovoltaic (PV) systems. Distinguished from most existing models, a linear programming based prediction interval construction model for PV...

  16. Transmission System Performance Analysis for High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achilles, S.; Schramm, S.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This study is an assessment of the potential impact of high levels of penetration of photovoltaic (PV) generation on transmission systems. The effort used stability simulations of a transmission system with different levels of PV generation and load.

  17. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2012: February 28 - March 1, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  18. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2011: February 16-17, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  19. Impedance estimation of photovoltaic modules for inverter start-up ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Starting-up of photovoltaic (PV) inverters involves pre-charging of the input dc bus capacitance. Ideally, direct pre-charging of this capacitance from the PV modules is possible as the PV modules are current limited. Practically, the parasitic elements of the system such as the PV module capacitance, effective wire inductance ...

  20. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2014: February 25-26, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2014-02-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  1. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2010: February 18-19, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  2. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2013: February 26-27, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-10-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  3. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

  4. Techno economic analysis of a wind-photovoltaic-biomass hybrid renewable energy system for rural electrification: A case study of Kallar Kahar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Jameel; Imran, Muhammad; Khalid, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    system. The total load has been optimally shared among generated power through wind, photovoltaic and biomass resources and surplus power is supplied to the national grid in case of low local demand of the load. The results of techno-economic feasibility study show that hybrid power system can generate......This paper focuses on the techno-economic feasibility of a grid-tied hybrid microgrid system for local inhabitants of Kallar Kahar near Chakwal city of Punjab province in Pakistan and investigates the potential for electricity generation through hybrid wind, photovoltaic and biomass system...... more than 50 MW. The cost of energy based on peak load demand profiles are considered for both residential and commercial sectors. The cost of hybrid system for peak load of 73.6 MW is 180.2 million USD and levelized cost of energy is 0.05744 $/kWh....

  5. An overview of the photovoltaic, wind power, solar water heating and small-scale hydropower supply industries in South Africa up to 1994/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stassen, G.; Holm, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper contains a broad overview of the South African photovoltaic, solar water heating, wind power and small-scale hydropower industries. Against the general lack of a comprehensive national database on renewable energy supply and demand, this overview attempts to provide general background information on these commercial industries, market trends, local sales figures, export volumes and installed capacity estimates. It also identifies the industry's major constraints, as well as their future outlook. (author). 12 refs., 13 tabs., 4 figs

  6. Conception et dimensionnement de Systèmes Photovoltaïques : introduction des Modules PV en couches minces dans le logiciel PVsyst

    OpenAIRE

    Mermoud, André

    2005-01-01

    Les nouvelles générations de capteurs photovoltaïques en couches minces (capteurs au silicium amorphe, et autres technologies CIS, CdTe, etc), apparaissent progressivement sur le marché. Certes, ces capteurs présentent des performances (en termes d'efficacité) inférieures aux capteurs classiques, constitués de tranches de silicium mono- ou poly-cristallin. Ils nécessitent donc de plus grandes surfaces de captage pour la même puissance installée. Cependant, leurs techniques de fabrication prés...

  7. AET III 100 kWp photovoltaic installation in Riazzino - Results of monitoring; Monitoraggio dell'impianto PV da 100 kWp AET III a Riazzino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezzonico, S.; Bura, E.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a monitoring project that monitored the performance of the 100 kWp, grid-connected photovoltaic installation in Riazzino in southern Switzerland. The original installation, dating from 1992, was refurbished with three new inverters and new cabling. The results of a three-year monitoring project are presented and discussed. Figures are presented on the plant's power production, which illustrate the improved performance of the new inverters. Further investigations made on the power ratings of the modules and the results of infrared examination are discussed.

  8. Design to improve photoelectric efficiency for photovoltaic cell array for laser power beaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojiang; Li, Beibei

    2017-02-01

    Photovoltaic cell (PV) array is a photovoltaic conversion device for laser power beaming, and uneven distribution of laser beam energy will have negative influence on the photovoltaic efficiency of PV array. In order to improve the photovoltaic efficiency under uneven laser irradiation, an optimized and efficient parallel-series PV array is designed. Based on the mathematical model and MATLB/Simulink simulation model of PV array , the influencing factors of photovoltaic efficiency are analyzed, and the concept and scheme to improve the photovoltaic efficiency of parallel-series PV array are proposed. Finally, compared with typical PV array, the effects improving efficiency of optimized array is simulated and analyzed. The simulation results show that under uneven laser irradiation, the optimized parallel-series PV array can obtain higher photovoltaic efficiency.

  9. Applied photovoltaics as a practical education in renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, Mitko

    2009-01-01

    The optional course „Applied Photovoltaic” for MEng students specializing in Electronics at the Faculty of Electronics and Automation, TU-Plovdiv is presented. The main topics of the advanced PV course as a modern sustainable energetic based on the photovoltaic effect and energy from Sun as a renewable energy source; materials and technologies in photovoltaic; design of solar cells and PV modules and PV generators up to 100 kWp; BIPV and CIPV systems; hybrid PV systems; PV mounting; monitoring of PV systems and EC regulations for PV systems connected to the utility grid are discussed. The advanced teaching method by online e-platform with virtual resources is presented. Key words: PV education, PV technologies, applied photovoltaic, e-platform

  10. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Sun, Yize; Xu, Yang [College of Mechanical Engineering, Donghua University NO.2999, North Renmin Road, Shanghai (China)

    2013-07-01

    It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000. Root mean square error (RMSE) between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE) is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  11. A reduced-form approach for representing the impacts of wind and solar PV deployment on the structure and operation of the electricity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nils; Strubegger, Manfred; McPherson, Madeleine; Parkinson, Simon C.; Krey, Volker; Sullivan, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    In many climate change mitigation scenarios, integrated assessment models of the energy and climate systems rely heavily on renewable energy technologies with variable and uncertain generation, such as wind and solar PV, to achieve substantial decarbonization of the electricity sector. However, these models often include very little temporal resolution and thus have difficulty in representing the integration costs that arise from mismatches between electricity supply and demand. The global integrated assessment model, MESSAGE, has been updated to explicitly model the trade-offs between variable renewable energy (VRE) deployment and its impacts on the electricity system, including the implications for electricity curtailment, backup capacity, and system flexibility. These impacts have been parameterized using a reduced-form approach, which allows VRE integration impacts to be quantified on a regional basis. In addition, thermoelectric technologies were updated to include two modes of operation, baseload and flexible, to better account for the cost, efficiency, and availability penalties associated with flexible operation. In this paper, the modeling approach used in MESSAGE is explained and the implications for VRE deployment in mitigation scenarios are assessed. Three important stylized facts associated with integrating high VRE shares are successfully reproduced by our modeling approach: (1) the significant reduction in the utilization of non-VRE power plants; (2) the diminishing role for traditional baseload generators, such as nuclear and coal, and the transition to more flexible technologies; and (3) the importance of electricity storage and hydrogen electrolysis in facilitating the deployment of VRE.

  12. Basic photovoltaic principles and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.

    1982-02-01

    This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)

  13. PV-Developer. A Concept Paper. Version 4.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    The market for Photovoltaic Energy systems is developing very rapidly with annual growth rates in the range of 20-40%. The growth creates new business opportunities for project development. The markets are immature and the competitiveness of PV is increasing, whereby it is important to develop the business concept within the next few years if the long-term aim is to become a major player in the field of PV-project development. Like in the field of wind energy, which has grown to a large-scale business area within the last decade, the long-term perspectives of photovoltaic energy will depend upon the market development, interest groups and stake holders. The solar power developers might be catalysts for high growth rates like in the wind energy field. The concern for global warming leads the international energy policies in favour of renewable energy incentives followed by the technological development of PV-equipment, which constantly improves the cost level of PV-produced electricity. The markets for PV-systems are geographically widespread and the way to implement systems goes to a large extent via financing from international governmental as well as non-governmental lateral and bilateral aid organisations. Lead times to develop projects are counted in years, and the time from the first project idea to the final commissioning of the installed plants might take 3-5 years. More specific studies of market segments and business opportunities, development of market penetration and design of strategy must be carried out. Organisation seems to be a major issue as the complexity of the projects and the project location in 3rd world countries as well as in the industrialised countries combined with high proportion of donor funding will require a high level of organisation and coordination. In general a detailed study should be made in order to create a business plan. The business plan must contain budgets, volume estimates, sensitivity analyses, organisational proposals

  14. Generation of large-scale PV scenarios using aggregated power curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño Martinez, Edgar; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of solar photovoltaic (PV) power to the generation is becoming more relevant in modern power system. Therefore, there is a need to model the variability large-scale PV generation accurately. This paper presents a novel methodology to generate regional PV scenarios based on aggreg......The contribution of solar photovoltaic (PV) power to the generation is becoming more relevant in modern power system. Therefore, there is a need to model the variability large-scale PV generation accurately. This paper presents a novel methodology to generate regional PV scenarios based...

  15. Lightning protection of PV systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pons, Enrico; Tommasini, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning strikes can affect photovoltaic (PV) generators and their installations, involving also the inverter's electronics. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the risk connected to lightning strikes in order to adopt the correct protective measures for the system. The Standard IEC (EN) 62305-2 reports the procedures for the risk calculation and for the choice of proper lightning protection systems. Usually the technical guidelines suggest protecting with SPDs (surge protective devices) b...

  16. Exergetic Optimization of a Solar Photovoltaic Array

    OpenAIRE

    Sarhaddi, Faramarz; Farahat, Said; Ajam, Hossein; Behzadmehr, Amin

    2009-01-01

    An exergetic optimization is developed to determine the optimal performance and design parameters of a solar photovoltaic (PV) array. A detailed energy and exergy analysis is carried out to evaluate the electrical performance, exergy destruction components, and exergy efficiency of a typical PV array. The exergy efficiency of a PV array obtained in this paper is a function of climatic, operating, and design parameters such as ambient temperature, solar radiation intensity, PV array temperatur...

  17. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  18. An Improved Interval Fuzzy Modeling Method: Applications to the Estimation of Photovoltaic/Wind/Battery Power in Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Gia Minh Thao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved interval fuzzy modeling (imIFML technique based on modified linear programming and actual boundary points of data. The imIFML technique comprises four design stages. The first stage is based on conventional interval fuzzy modeling (coIFML with first-order model and linear programming. The second stage defines reference lower and upper bounds of data using MATLAB. The third stage initially adjusts scaling parameters in the modified linear programming. The last stage automatically fine-tunes parameters in the modified linear programming to realize the best possible model. Lower and upper bounds approximated by the imIFML technique are closely fitted to the reference lower and upper bounds, respectively. The proposed imIFML is thus significantly less conservative in cases of large variation in data, while robustness is inherited from the coIFML. Design flowcharts, equations, and sample MATLAB code are presented for reference in future experiments. Performance and efficacy of the introduced imIFML are evaluated to estimate solar photovoltaic, wind and battery power in a demonstrative renewable energy system under large data changes. The effectiveness of the proposed imIFML technique is also compared with the coIFML technique.

  19. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidul Hoque Samrat

    Full Text Available Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  20. Environmental/Economic Operation Management of a Renewable Microgrid with Wind/PV/FC/MT and Battery Energy Storage Based on MSFLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Haghshenas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microgrids (MGs are local grids consisting of Distributed generators, energy storage systems and dispersed loads which may operate in both grid-connected and islanded modes. This paper aims to optimize the operation of a typical grid-connected MG which comprises a variety of DGs and storage devices in order to minimize both total operation cost and environmental impacts resulted from supplying local demands. Furthermore we will try to achieve an intelligent schedule to charge and discharge storage devices that provides the opportunity to benefit from market price fluctuations. The presented optimization framework is based on multiobjective modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm (MSFLA. To solve environmental/economic operation management (EEOM problem using MSFLA, a new frog leaping rule, associated with a new strategy for frog distribution into memeplexes, is proposed to improve the local exploration and performance of the ordinary shuffled frog leaping algorithm. The proposed method is examined and tested on a grid-connected MG including fuel cell, wind turbine, photovoltaic, gas-fired microturbine, and battery energy storage devices. The simulation results for three scenarios involving the economic operation management of MG, environmental operation management of MG, and environmental/economic operation management of MG are presented separately. The obtained results compared with results of well-known methods reported in the literature and prove the efficiency of the proposed approach to solve the both single objective and multiobjective operation management of the MG.

  1. Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.

    1998-11-19

    The motivation to develop thin film technologies dates back to the inception of photovoltaics. It is an idea based on achieving truly low-cost photovoltaics appropriate for mass production and energy significant markets. The key to the idea is the use of pennies worth of active materials. Since sunlight carries relatively little energy in comparison with combustion-based energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) modules must be cheap to produce energy that can be competitive. Thin films are presumed to be the answer to that low-cost requirement. But how cheap do they have to be? The following is an oversimplified analysis that allows some insight into this question.

  2. Survey of photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In developing this survey of photovoltaic systems, the University of Alabama in Huntsville assembled a task team to perform an extensive telephone survey of all known photovoltaic manufacturers. Three US companies accounted for 77% of the total domestic sales in 1978. They are Solarex Corporation, Solar Power Croporation, and ARCO Solar, Inc. This survey of solar photovoltaic (P/V) manufacturers and suppliers consists of three parts: a catalog of suppliers arranged alphabetically, data sheets on specific products, and typical operating, installation, or maintenance instructions and procedures. This report does not recommend or endorse any company product or information presented within as the results of this survey.

  3. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fthenakis, Vasilis M; Kim, Hyung Chul; Alsema, Erik

    2008-03-15

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004-2006, this study presents the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, criteria pollutant emissions, and heavy metal emissions from four types of major commercial PV systems: multicrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, and thin-film cadmium telluride. Life-cycle emissions were determined by employing average electricity mixtures in Europe and the United States during the materials and module production for each PV system. Among the current vintage of PV technologies, thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV emits the least amount of harmful air emissions as it requires the least amount of energy during the module production. However, the differences in the emissions between different PV technologies are very small in comparison to the emissions from conventional energy technologies that PV could displace. As a part of prospective analysis, the effect of PV breeder was investigated. Overall, all PV technologies generate far less life-cycle air emissions per GWh than conventional fossil-fuel-based electricity generation technologies. At least 89% of air emissions associated with electricity generation could be prevented if electricity from photovoltaics displaces electricity from the grid.

  4. Apparatuses to support photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2017-08-22

    Methods and apparatuses to support photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. A saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. A grounding washer has a first portion to couple to a support; and a second portion coupled to the first portion to provide a ground path to a PV module. A PV system has a saddle bracket; a PV module over the saddle bracket; and a grounding washer coupled to the saddle bracket and the PV module. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets.

  5. Optimum Design Of On Grid Pv System Using Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mansour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The fossil fuel is a main issue in the world due to the increase of fossil fuel cost and the depletion of the fossil fuel with continuous increasing demand on electricity. With continuous decrease of PV panels cost it is interesting to consider generation of electricity from PV system. To provide electric energy to a load in a remote area where electric grid utility is not available or connection with grid utility is available there are two approaches of photovoltaic system PV without tracking system Fixed System and PV with tracking systems. The result shows that the energy production by using PV with tracking system generates more energy in comparison with fixed panels system. However the cost per produced KWH is less in case of using fixed panels. This is the backbone in choice between two approaches of photovoltaic system. In this work a system design and cost analysis for two approaches of photovoltaic system are considered.

  6. Hybrid Power Forecasting Model for Photovoltaic Plants Based on Neural Network with Air Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dependency on photovoltaic (PV power, but its random nature poses a challenge for system operators to precisely predict and forecast PV power. The conventional forecasting methods were accurate for clean weather. But when the PV plants worked under heavy haze, the radiation is negatively impacted and thus reducing PV power; therefore, to deal with haze weather, Air Quality Index (AQI is introduced as a parameter to predict PV power. AQI, which is an indication of how polluted the air is, has been known to have a strong correlation with power generated by the PV panels. In this paper, a hybrid method based on the model of conventional back propagation (BP neural network for clear weather and BP AQI model for haze weather is used to forecast PV power with conventional parameters like temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and an extra parameter of AQI as input. The results show that the proposed method has less error under haze condition as compared to conventional model of neural network.

  7. Redrawing the solar map of South Africa for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munzhedzi, R.; Sebitosi, A.B. [Electrical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rm 522.2 Menzies Building, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-01-15

    The South African solar map has been redrawn to make it applicable to photovoltaic installations. This has been done with the aim of reducing the cost of solar PV installations in South Africa through accurate energy resource assessment and competent system design. Climate data software as well as solar design software was used to aid this process. The new map provides an alternative to the map in current use, which only considers radiation, whereas many more factors affect the output of a panel, such as wind, cloud cover and humidity. All these are taken into account when drawing the new map. (author)

  8. Modelling the Photovoltaic Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanevakis, Markos

    2011-01-01

    This paper refers into various ways in simulation the Photovoltaic (PV) module behaviour under any combination of solar irradiation and ambient temperature. There are three different approaches presented here briefly and one of them is chosen because of its good accuracy and relatively low...

  9. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrig, L. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  10. The possibility of developing hybrid PV/T solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Zivkovic, P.; Babic, V.

    2017-05-01

    An alternative and cost-effective solution to developing integrated PV system is to use hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system. The temperature of PV modules increases due to the absorbed solar radiation that is not converted into electricity, causing a decrease in their efficiency. In hybrid PV/T solar systems the reduction of PV module temperature can be combined with a useful fluid heating. In this paper we present the possibility of developing a new hybrid PV/T solar system. Hybrid PV/T system can provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation. We developed PV/T prototype consisted of commercial PV module and thermal panel with our original solution of aluminium absorber with special geometric shapes. The main advantages of our combined PV/T system are: removing of heat from the PV panel; extending the lifetime of photovoltaic cells; excess of the removing heat from PV part is used to heat the fluid in the thermal part of the panel; the possibility of using on the roof and facade constructions because less weight.

  11. Artificial intelligence techniques for sizing photovoltaic systems. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellit, A. [Department of Electronics, Faculty of Science Engineering, LAMEL Laboratory, Jijel University, P.O. Box 98, Oulad Aissa, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Kalogirou, S.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Cyprus University of Technology, P.O. Box 50329, Limassol 3603 (Cyprus); Hontoria, L. [Grupo Investigacion y Desarrollo en Energia Solar y Automatica, Dpto. de Electronica, E.P.S. Jaen, Universidad de Jaen, Avda., Madrid, 35, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Shaari, S. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2009-02-15

    Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are becoming useful as alternate approaches to conventional techniques or as components of integrated systems. They have been used to solve complicated practical problems in various areas and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. AI-techniques have the following features: can learn from examples; are fault tolerant in the sense that they are able to handle noisy and incomplete data; are able to deal with non-linear problems; and once trained can perform prediction and generalization at high speed. AI-based systems are being developed and deployed worldwide in a myriad of applications, mainly because of their symbolic reasoning, flexibility and explanation capabilities. AI have been used and applied in different sectors, such as engineering, economics, medicine, military, marine, etc. They have also been applied for modeling, identification, optimization, prediction, forecasting, and control of complex systems. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the AI-techniques for sizing photovoltaic (PV) systems: stand-alone PVs, grid-connected PV systems, PV-wind hybrid systems, etc. Published literature presented in this paper show the potential of AI as a design tool for the optimal sizing of PV systems. Additionally, the advantage of using an AI-based sizing of PV systems is that it provides good optimization, especially in isolated areas, where the weather data are not always available. (author)

  12. Application of Floating Photovoltaic Energy Generation Systems in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hee Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to mitigate air pollution problems caused mainly by the excessive emission of carbon dioxide, in 2012, the South Korean government decided to introduce a renewable portfolio standards (RPS program that requires electricity providers to gradually increase their production of renewable energy. In order to meet the government’s target through this RPS program, electricity providers in Korea have looked to various types of new and renewable energy resources, such as biomass, wind, and solar. Recently, floating photovoltaic (PV systems have attracted increased interest in Korea as a desirable renewable energy alternative. This paper provides a discussion of recent research into floating PV systems and the installation of floating PV power plants in Korea from 2009 to 2014. To date, thirteen floating PV power plants have been installed in Korea, and several plans are underway by many different organizations, including government-funded companies, to install more floating PV power plants with various generation capacities. These building trends are expected to continue due to the Korean government’s RPS program.

  13. Análise operacional de um sistema fotovoltaico de bombeamento de água Operational analysis of a photovoltaic water pumping (PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro M. Kolling

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O bombeamento de água é uma das atividades mais difundidas quanto ao emprego da energia solar fotovoltaica. Porém, apesar de se apresentar como alternativa interessante, o alto custo, a baixa eficiência dos sistemas e os projetos inadequados restringem sua aplicação. O uso racional, baseado na utilização mais eficiente de seus equipamentos, está vinculado ao conhecimento do comportamento operacional desses sistemas. No presente trabalho, teve-se o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de um sistema fotovoltaico de bombeamento de água diretamente acoplado, sob diferentes condições de irradiância solar, por meio da montagem de uma bancada de testes, submetendo-o a diferentes alturas manométricas e determinando-se a vazão fornecida. A análise dos resultados permitiu estabelecer um modelo de regressão para estimativa de vazão do sistema em função da irradiância e altura manométrica. Concluiu-se que a potência gerada pelo painel e a vazão fornecida pela motobomba estão diretamente relacionadas à irradiância solar e à altura manométrica e influenciam na eficiência do sistema. A máxima eficiência do painel foi de 8%, 39% para a motobomba e 2,3% na interação dos componentes.The pumping of water is one of the activities most diffused to the employment of the photovoltaic solar energy, in spite of coming as an interesting alternative, the high cost and it lowers efficiency of the systems with the inadequate projects, still restricts its application. The rational use, based on the most efficient use of its equipments is linked to the knowledge of the operational behavior of these systems. The present work objectified to evaluate the operational behavior of a photovoltaic water pumping directly coupled operating in different conditions of solar irradiance, by means of the assembly of supported tests, submitting to different manometer elevation and determining the supplied rate flux of water. The analysis of the results

  14. Dynamic analysis of combined photovoltaic source and synchronous generator connected to power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabal, Divya

    In the world of expanding economy and technology, the energy demand is likely to increase even with the global efforts of saving and increasing energy efficiency. Higher oil prices, effects of greenhouse gases, and concerns over other environmental impacts gave way to Distributed Generation (DG). With adequate awareness and support, DG's can meet these rising energy demands at lower prices compared to conventional methods. Extensive research is taking place in different areas like fuel cells, photovoltaic cells, wind turbines, and gas turbines. DG's when connected to a grid increase the overall efficiency of the power grid. It is believed that three-fifth of the world's electricity would account for renewable energy by middle of 21st century. This thesis presents the dynamic analysis of a grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system and synchronous generator. A grid is considered as an infinite bus. The photovol-taic system and synchronous generator act as small scale distributed energy resources. The output of the photovoltaic system depends on the light intensity, temperature, and irradiance levels of sun. The maximum power point tracking and DC/AC converter are also modeled for the photovoltaic system. The PV system is connected to the grid through DC/AC system. Different combinations of PV and synchronous generator are modeled with the grid to study the dynamics of the proposed system. The dynamics of the test system is analyzed by subjecting the system to several disturbances under various conditions. All modules are individually modeled and con-nected using MATLAB/Simulink software package. Results from the study show that, as the penetration of renewable energy sources like PV increases into the power system, the dynamics of the system becomes faster. When considering cases such as load switching, PV cannot deliver more power as the performance of PV depends on environmental conditions. Synchronous generator in power system can produce the required amount of

  15. On Distributed PV Hosting Capacity Estimation, Sensitivity Study, and Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry

    2017-07-01

    This paper first studies the estimated distributed PV hosting capacities of seventeen utility distribution feeders using the Monte Carlo simulation based stochastic analysis, and then analyzes the sensitivity of PV hosting capacity to both feeder and photovoltaic system characteristics. Furthermore, an active distribution network management approach is proposed to maximize PV hosting capacity by optimally switching capacitors, adjusting voltage regulator taps, managing controllable branch switches and controlling smart PV inverters. The approach is formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear optimization problem and a genetic algorithm is developed to obtain the solution. Multiple simulation cases are studied and the effectiveness of the proposed approach on increasing PV hosting capacity is demonstrated.

  16. Technologies to Increase PV Hosting Capacity in Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Gotseff, Peter

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies the distributed photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity in distribution feeders by using the stochastic analysis approach. Multiple scenario simulations are conducted to analyze several factors that affect PV hosting capacity, including the existence of voltage regulator, PV location, the power factor of PV inverter and Volt/VAR control. Based on the conclusions obtained from simulation results, three approaches are then proposed to increase distributed PV hosting capacity, which can be formulated as the optimization problem to obtain the optimal solution. All technologies investigated in this paper utilize only existing assets in the feeder and therefore are implementable for a low cost. Additionally, the tool developed for these studies is described.

  17. Multifunctional a-Si PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peippo, K.; Lund, P.; Vartiainen, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The optimal use of the various forms of solar energy (passive, active, daylighting, photovoltaics) in buildings calls for an optimal integration of the technologies. As energy conservation potential in space heating may soon be exhausted, electricity efficiency and on-site generation will play an increasing role in energy-conscious building design. There, dispersed PV systems integrated into buildings show a significant market potential, due to a number of benefits: no extra land area is required, PV-array may replace conventional cladding materials and become a building element. Moreover, the produced PV-electricity is more valuable for the building owner than for an electric utility

  18. The merit order effect of wind and photovoltaic electricity generation in Germany 2008–2016: Estimation and distributional implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cludius, Johanna; Hermann, Hauke; Matthes, Felix Chr.; Graichen, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Generation from renewable energy sources in Germany has experienced a considerable uptake in recent years. Mainly responsible for this development is the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz, EEG). This paper considers redistributive implications of the EEG for different electricity consumers. Using time-series regression analysis, we show that electricity generation by wind and PV has reduced spot market prices considerably by 6 €/MWh in 2010 rising to 10 €/MWh in 2012. We use these results to build a near-term forecasting tool for merit order effects, projected to reach 14-16 €/MWh in 2016. On the other hand, the costs of the EEG are passed forward to consumers in the form of a surcharge. Our findings highlight significant redistributive transfers under the current design of the EEG. In particular, some energy-intensive industries are benefiting from lower wholesale electricity prices whilst being largely exempted from contributing to the costs of the scheme. We also highlight implications of our results for other areas for reform of the EEG, such as adequate remuneration mechanisms that ensure efficient operation and investment decisions are made under the scheme. More generally, these findings suggest that policy makers need to integrate distributional assessments into policy design and implementation. - Highlights: • The German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) has important distributional impacts on different electricity consumers. • Likely wealth transfers from households and small business to energy-intensive industry. • Merit order effects of around 10 €/MWh in 2012 are set to rise to 14–16 €/MWh in 2016. • These effects likely overcompensate exempt industry for contribution to cost of the EEG. • Implications for short- and long-term reform of the EEG and the design of renewable energy policy in general

  19. Introduction effect of a load levelling system in an electric power system with a photovoltaic and wind system; Taiyoko/furyoku hatsuden wo donyu shita denryoku keito ni okeru fuka heijunka shisutemu no donyu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1998-12-05

    Introduction effect of load levelling system by a battery in an electric power system by a battery in an electric power system with a PV and wind system is investigated. Charge and discharge power of the battery are determined from a load curve and every hour data of PV and wind output. Annual cost of the power system is calculated from the generating power and the capacity of each source via the installed utility capacity and the capacity factor. It is found that (1) the battery system reduces the maximum demand and improves the load factor, (2) the cost effect of the battery system when introducing the PV system is higher than that when introducing the wind system. (author)

  20. A grid-tied PV system for commercial load and peak load reduction: South African case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Senatla, Mamahloko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV) systems are increasingly being installed globally for various reasons including reducing the carbon footprint, improving energy access, for supply and demand side management purposes. The price of PV has been going down in recent...

  1. Mapping public regulation measures for photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Karl; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Hvelplund, Frede

    2011-01-01

    There is a relatively large potential for the use of photovoltaic (PV) technologies in the Nordic countries, including Denmark. Optimally designed PV support policies are a main prerequisite for the utilisation of this potential. The paper provides an overview of the main (financial) public regul...... and to enter the diffusion phase, the current net metering scheme may actually not be appropriate to facilitate such a transition.......There is a relatively large potential for the use of photovoltaic (PV) technologies in the Nordic countries, including Denmark. Optimally designed PV support policies are a main prerequisite for the utilisation of this potential. The paper provides an overview of the main (financial) public...

  2. PV-CAD: an integrated tool for designing PV facades; PV-CAD - Ein integriertes Werkzeug zur Auslegung von PV-Fassaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, H.; Viotto, M. [Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET) e.V., Kassel (Germany); Esser, M.; Pukrop, D. [Univ. Oldenburg (Germany). Abt. Energie- und Halbleiterforschung; Stellbogen, D. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    PV-CAD provides PV system planners with a practice-oriented tool for an efficient design of PV facades. Being compatible with the standard programmes of the architects` and electrical engineering sectors it can be used on already existing systems and allows the user to draw on previously acquired knowedge. Its open interfaces permit the integration of further design tools. PV CAD works under Microsoft Windows for which it has the necessary graphic user interface. Its compliance to PC standards opens up a wide range of applications and permits its use also on inexpensive computers. Thanks to its promotion by the Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research, and Technology under the research project ``Computer programmes for the design of photovoltaic facades`` PV-CAD is available at a moderate price. PV-CAD permits an efficient planning of solar facades and therefore has the potential to stimulate the use of PV on buildings. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit PV-CAD steht dem Anlagenplaner ein anwendungsorientiertes Werkzeug zur Verfuegung, das eine rationelle Auslegung von PV-Fassaden ermoeglicht. Die Kompatibilitaet zu Standardprogrammen aus dem Architektur- und Elektrosektor erlaubt die Nutzung bereits vorhandener Systeme und damit erworbener Kenntnisse. Offene Schnittstellen gestatten die Einbindung weiterer Entwurfswerkzeuge. PV-CAD arbeitet unter Microsoft-Windows und verfuegt ueber die entsprechende grafische Benutzerschnittstelle. Die Kompatibilitaet zum PC-Standard eroeffnet eine sehr breite Anwenderbasis und ermoeglicht den Einsatz des Programms auch auf preiswerten Rechnern. Aufgrund der Foerderung durch das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie im Rahmen des Forschungsprojekts `Rechnerprogramm zur Auslegung von Photovoltaik-Fassaden` steht PV-CAD preiswert zur Verfuegung. PV-CAD ermoeglicht eine effiziente Planung von Solarfassaden und kann daher dem PV-Einsatz in Gebaeuden weitere Impulse geben. (orig.)

  3. Grid Support in Large Scale PV Power Plants using Active Power Reserves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are in the 3rd place in the renewable energy market, after hydro and wind power. The increased penetration of PV within the electrical power system has led to stability issues of the entire grid in terms of its reliability, availability and security of the supply...... (ENTSO-E) to continuously upgrade their Network Codes (NCs), moving their focus to grid stabilization features. Considering the technical challenges present in the nowadays power systems, the work presented in this thesis focuses on frequency and power ramp control strategies provided by LPVPPs...... method targets the limitation of power fluctuation directly at the production site and, consequently, reduces the ramping stress of the participating plants. The aforementioned ancillary services rely on the use of APRs, a crucial element in their security of the supply. The thesis examines the use...

  4. Data acquisition and PV module power production in upgraded TEP/AzRISE solar test yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Whit E.; Fishgold, Asher D.; Lai, Teh; Potter, Barrett G.; Simmons-Potter, Kelly

    2017-08-01

    The Tucson Electric Power (TEP)/University of Arizona AzRISE (Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy) solar test yard is continuing efforts to improve standardization and data acquisition reliability throughout the facility. Data reliability is ensured through temperature-insensitive data acquisition devices with battery backups in the upgraded test yard. Software improvements allow for real-time analysis of collected data, while uploading to a web server. Sample data illustrates high fidelity monitoring of the burn-in period of a polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module test string with no data failures over 365 days of data collection. In addition to improved DAQ systems, precision temperature monitoring has been implemented so that PV module backside temperatures are routinely obtained. Weather station data acquired at the test yard provides local ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed, and irradiance measurements that have been utilized to enable characterization of PV module performance over an extended test period

  5. Power Ramp Limitation capabilities of Large PV Power Plants with Active Power Reserves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdan, Craciun; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    Power Ramp Limitation (PRL) is likely to become a requirement for large scale photovoltaic power plants (LPVPPs) in order to allow the increase of PV penetration levels. Especially in islands with reduced inertia capability, this problem is more stringent: high power ramp can be caused by either...... fast irradiance changes or other participant generators for example wind power, or loads. In order to compensate for the power mismatch, LPVPPs must use Active Power Reserve (APR), by either curtailment or auxiliary storage. The paper proposes a PRL control structure for dynamic APR sizing...... and deployment. The selected test case is the power system of Puerto Rico (PREPA), modeled using the modified IEEE 12 bus benchmark system, with different levels of PV penetration. It is shown that LPVPP with PRL can effectively reduce the ramping rate of the participating generators. Considering that the large...

  6. System engineering and design of LSC-PV for outdoor lighting applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viswanathan, B.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.; De Boer, D.K.G.; Ras, A.; Zahn, H.; Desmet, L.

    2012-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic outdoor lighting applications usually comprise flat plate PV modules mounted on top of a light pole. In our paper instead, it is thought of to design the light pole as a luminescent solar concentrator photovoltaic (LSC-PV) module with solar cell strips and hence reduce costs of

  7. Performance investigation of a wind turbine–solar photovoltaic panels–fuel cell hybrid system installed at İncek region – Ankara, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devrim, Yılser; Bilir, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid system with a wind turbine, photovoltaic panels and a fuel cell was studied. • 3 kW wind turbine, 17.97 m 2 photovoltaics, 1.2 kW fuel cell and 4.7 kW electrolyzer was used. • The system can meet the entire demand of a residential house in Ankara, Turkey. • Only exception is in November, when the energy lack can be compensated from the grid. - Abstract: Renewable energy use in the world increases year by year. However, in many cases it is not possible to cover the electrical energy need of even a single house using only one renewable energy resource due to its intermittent nature. At this point, hybrid systems are applied to overcome this problem. This study focuses on the combination of photovoltaic solar panels, a small scale wind turbine, an electrolyzer and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell hybrid system for electrical power generation for an average house of 150 m 2 located at İncek region of Ankara, Turkey. Solar and wind energies were used as primary sources and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is used as the backup power. The hybrid system was modeled and the results indicate that the use of the selected wind turbine with a 3 kW capacity along with photovoltaic panels with 17.97 m 2 area is sufficient to provide the required 5 h operation of the electrolyzer, which in turn provides the necessary hydrogen and oxygen to the fuel cell. Since the daily energy needed by the investigated house was taken as 5 kW h, the fuel cell with a net power output of 1 kW supplies all electrical demand with its 5 h operation. The outcomes show that the hybrid system is capable to provide all electrical need of the house all year round, except November. The electrical energy production of the proposed system is considerably higher than the demand in many months and this surplus electricity can be used in order to support the cooling and heating system of the considered house.

  8. National Energy with Weather System Simultator (NEWS) Sets Bounds on Cost Effective Wind and Solar PV Deployment in the USA without the Use of Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A. D.; Xie, Y.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of weather-driven renewable energies for the United States energy portfolio is growing. The main perceived problems with weather-driven renewable energies are their intermittent nature, low power density, and high costs. In 2009, we began a large-scale investigation into the characteristics of weather-driven renewables. The project utilized the best available weather data assimilation model to compute high spatial and temporal resolution power datasets for the renewable resources of wind and solar PV. The weather model used is the Rapid Update Cycle for the years of 2006-2008. The team also collated a detailed electrical load dataset for the contiguous USA from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for the same three-year period. The coincident time series of electrical load and weather data allows the possibility of temporally correlated computations for optimal design over large geographic areas. The past two years have seen the development of a cost optimization mathematic model that designs electric power systems. The model plans the system and dispatches it on an hourly timescale. The system is designed to be reliable, reduce carbon, reduce variability of renewable resources and move the electricity about the whole domain. The system built would create the infrastructure needed to reduce carbon emissions to 0 by 2050. The advantages of the system is reduced water demain, dual incomes for farmers, jobs for construction of the infrastructure, and price stability for energy. One important simplified test that was run included existing US carbon free power sources, natural gas power when needed, and a High Voltage Direct Current power transmission network. This study shows that the costs and carbon emissions from an optimally designed national system decrease with geographic size. It shows that with achievable estimates of wind and solar generation costs, that the US could decrease its carbon emissions by up to 80% by the early 2030s, without an

  9. The value of electric energy storage in electricity systems with high shares of wind and solar PV: the case of France in the energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    levels. Second, wind and PV increase their surplus at the expense of profit reductions of baseload conventional technologies. Third, peak-load capacity is reduced but the capacity remuneration mechanism (CRM) allows covering up fixed costs to attain the zero profit condition. Fourth, EES lowers the cost of VRE integration which under the assumption of a complete cost retrofitting to consumers, made them significantly better-off, benefiting from a less constrained system. Fifth, an important dynamic inconsistency exists concerning the investment path to optimally attain both 2020 and 2030 targets, which urgently requires a decision at the policy level for prioritizing or target harmonization. (author)

  10. A Practical Irradiance Model for Bifacial PV Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, Bill; MacAlpine, Sara; Deline, Chris; Asgharzadeh, Amir; Toor, Fatima; Riley, Daniel; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford

    2017-06-21

    A model, suitable for a row or multiple rows of photovoltaic (PV) modules, is presented for estimating the backside irradiance for bifacial PV modules. The model, which includes the effects of shading by the PV rows, is based on the use of configuration factors to determine the fraction of a source of irradiance that is received by the backside of the PV module. Backside irradiances are modeled along the sloped height of the PV module, but assumed not to vary along the length of the PV row. The backside irradiances are corrected for angle-of-incidence losses and may be added to the front side irradiance to determine the total irradiance resource for the PV cell. Model results are compared with the measured backside irradiances for NREL and Sandia PV systems, and with results when using ray tracing software.

  11. A Practical Irradiance Model for Bifacial PV Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, Bill; MacAlpine, Sara; Deline, Chris; Asgharzadeh, Amir; Toor, Fatima; Riley, Daniel; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford

    2017-06-15

    A model, suitable for a row or multiple rows of photovoltaic (PV) modules, is presented for estimating the backside irradiance for bifacial PV modules. The model, which includes the effects of shading by the PV rows, is based on the use of configuration factors (CFs) to determine the fraction of a source of irradiance that is received by the backside of the PV module. Backside irradiances are modeled along the sloped height of the PV module, but assumed not to vary along the length of the PV row. The backside irradiances are corrected for angle-of-incidence losses and may be added to the front side irradiance to determine the total irradiance resource for the PV cell. Model results are compared with the measured backside irradiances for NREL and Sandia PV systems, and with results when using the RADIANCE ray tracing program.

  12. Core Abilities Evaluation Index System Exploration and Empirical Study on Distributed PV-Generation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin He

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In line with the constraints of environmental problems and economic development, large-scale renewable-generation projects have been planned and constructed in recent years. In order to achieve sustainable power development and improve the power supply structure, China’s government has focused on distributed photovoltaic (PV generation projects due to their advantages of clean emission and local consumption. However, their unstable output power still brings a series of problems concerning reliability, investment income, and available substitution proportion to traditional power, and so on. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the competitive development abilities of distributed PV generation projects and measure them effectively. First, through various investigation methods such as literature reviews, feasibility report analysis and expert interviews, the factors that influence the core abilities of distributed PV-generation projects were explored based on the micro-grid structure. Then, with the indexed exploration results, the factors were classified into 6 dimensions, i.e., investment and earning ability, production and operation ability, power-grid coordination ability, energy-conservation and emission-reduction ability, sustainable development ability, and society-serving ability. Meanwhile, an evaluation index system for core abilities of distributed PV-generation project was constructed using all quantitative indicators. Third, for examining the availability of the evaluation index system, combination weighting and techniques for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS methods were adopted to assess the practical distributed PV-generation projects. The case study results showed that installed capacity, local economy development, and grid-connected power quantity will influence the core abilities of distributed PV-generation project, obviously. The conclusions of the evaluation analysis on core abilities can

  13. Photovoltaic programme, edition 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration areas in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in future solar cell technologies as well as in the area of modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links and is completed with a collection of project abstracts.

  14. Dynamic programming for reduction of fuel consumption in a photovoltaic/wind/diesel generating system; Doteki keikakuho ni yoru taiyoko/furyoku/diesel hatsuden system no nenryo shohiryo no sakugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, K.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Dynamic programming is employed in the study of the operation of the diesel engine in a photovoltaic/wind-force/diesel-engine power generating system, which aims at reduction in the system fuel consumption and at determining an optimum system constitution. The parameters set in this system are the photovoltaic/wind-force supply rate, photovoltaic/wind-force power generation ratio, and battery capacity. An island in Ise Bay, with an annual load power of approximately 1.59-million kWh and mean daily load power of approximately 4336kWh is assumed as the location for the system. Observation data of Ommaezaki Weather Station are utilized for the calculation of the amount of photovoltaic/wind-force power generation. It is found as the result that the fuel consumption of the diesel engine in this system decreases to 82-84% when the natural energy supply rate is 20%. It is also found that the fuel consumption of the system records the minimum at a photovoltaic/wind-force ratio of 60/40, irrespective of the battery capacity or natural energy supply rate, and this ratio is the optimum ratio. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. PV O&M Cost Model and Cost Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Andy

    2017-03-15

    This is a presentation on PV O&M cost model and cost reduction for the annual Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop (2017), covering estimating PV O&M costs, polynomial expansion, and implementation of Net Present Value (NPV) and reserve account in cost models.

  16. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented...

  17. Photovoltaic systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Messenger, Roger A

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundPopulation and Energy DemandEnergy UnitsCurrent World Energy Use PatternsExponential GrowthHubbert's Gaussian ModelNet Energy, Btu Economics, and the Test for SustainabilityDirect Conversion of Sunlight to Electricity with PhotovoltaicsThe SunThe Solar SpectrumThe Effect of Atmosphere on SunlightSunlight SpecificsCapturing SunlightIntroduction to PV SystemsThe PV CellThe PV ModuleThe PV ArrayEnergy StoragePV System LoadsPV System AvailabilityAssociated System Electronic ComponentsGeneratorsBalance of System (BOS) ComponentsGrid-Connected Utility-Interactive PV SystemsApplicable Codes and StandardsDesign Considerations for Straight Grid-Connected PV SystemsDesign of a System Based on Desired Annual System PerformanceDesign of a System Based on Available Roof SpaceDesign of a Microinverter-Based SystemDesign of a Nominal 21 kW System that Feeds a Three-Phase Distribution PanelDesign of a Nominal 250 kW SystemSystem Performance MonitoringMechanical ConsiderationsImportant Properties of MaterialsEstabli...

  18. Estimating Solar Irradiation Absorbed by Photovoltaic Panels with Low Concentration Located in Craiova, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel L. Alboteanu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar irradiation is one of the important parameters that should be taken into consideration for the design and utilization of a photovoltaic system. Usually, the input parameters of a photovoltaic system are solar irradiation, the ambient environment temperature and the wind speed, and as a consequence most photovoltaic systems are equipped with sensors for measuring these parameters. This paper presents several mathematical models for solar irradiation assessment. The starting point is represented by the mathematical model of extraterrestrial irradiation, and resulting finally in the model for solar irradiation, absorbed by a low concentration photovoltaic panel. These estimating models of solar irradiation have been particularized for the Craiova, Romania, and have been verified through numerical simulation. Regarding terrestrial solar irradiation, four mathematical models have been adopted, namely Adnot, Haurwitz, Kasten and Empirical (EIM. Of these, the most appropriate for the Craiova location were the models Adnot and Empirical. Consequently, for the calculation of the solar irradiation absorbed by the photovoltaic (PV panels with low concentration, these models have been taken into consideration. In this study, a comparative analysis was also carried out with respect to the solar irradiation absorbed by the PV panels without concentration and those with collectedness of the solar radiation. This analysis was based on the results of numerical simulation and experimental tests.

  19. Department of Energy: Photovoltaics program - FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The National Photovoltaic Program supports efforts to make PV an important part of the US economy through three main program elements: Research and Development, Technology Development, and Systems Engineering and Applications. (1) Research and Development activities generate new ideas, test the latest scientific theories, and push the limits of PV efficiencies in laboratory and prototype materials and devices. (2) Technology Development activities apply laboratory innovations to products to improve PV technology and the manufacturing techniques used to produce PV systems for the market. (3) Systems Engineering and Applications activities help improve PV systems and validate these improvements through tests, measurements, and deployment of prototypes. In addition, applications research validates, sales, maintenance, and financing mechanisms worldwide. (4) Environmental, Health, Safety and Resource Characterization activities help to define environmental, health and safety issues for those facilities engaged in the manufacture of PV products and organizations engaged in PV research and development. All PV Program activities are planned and executed in close collaboration and partnership with the U.S. PV industry. The overall PV Program is planned to be a balanced effort of research, manufacturing development, and market development. Critical to the success of this strategy is the National Photovoltaic Program`s effort to reduce the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaic. The program is doing this in three primary ways: by making devices more efficient, by making PV systems less expensive, and by validating the technology through measurements, tests, and prototypes.

  20. Power Management Based Current Control Technique for Photovoltaic-Battery Assisted Wind-Hydro Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.

    2013-07-01

    This article proposes new power management based current control strategy for integrated wind-solar-hydro system equipped with battery storage mechanism. In this control technique, an indirect estimation of load current is done, through energy balance model, DC-link voltage control and droop control. This system features simpler energy management strategy and necessitates few power electronic converters, thereby minimizing the cost of the system. The generation-demand (G-D) management diagram is formulated based on the stochastic weather conditions and demand, which would likely moderate the gap between both. The features of management strategy deploying energy balance model include (1) regulating DC-link voltage within specified tolerances, (2) isolated operation without relying on external electric power transmission network, (3) indirect current control of hydro turbine driven induction generator and (4) seamless transition between grid-connected and off-grid operation modes. Furthermore, structuring of the hybrid system with appropriate selection of control variables enables power sharing among each energy conversion systems and battery storage mechanism. By addressing these intricacies, it is viable to regulate the frequency and voltage of the remote network at load end. The performance of the proposed composite scheme is demonstrated through time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  1. Design for Reliability of Power Electronics for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Power electronics is the enabling technology for optimizing energy harvesting from renewable systems like Photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems, and also for interfacing grid-friendly energy systems. Advancements in the power semiconductor technology (e.g., wide band-gap devices) have pushed...... for maintenance and reputation, thus affecting the cost of PV energy. Today's PV power conversion applications require the power electronic systems with low failure rates during a service life of 20 years or even more. To achieve so, it is vital to know the main life-limiting factors of power electronic systems...... as well as to design for high reliability at an early stage. Knowhow of the loading in power electronics in harsh operating environments (e.g., fluctuating ambient temperature and solar irradiance) is important for life-time prediction, as the prerequisite of Deign for Reliability (DfR). Hence...

  2. Interband Cascade Photovoltaic Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui Q. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Santos, Michael B. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Johnson, Matthew B. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2014-09-24

    In this project, we are performing basic and applied research to systematically investigate our newly proposed interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) cells [1]. These cells follow from the great success of infrared IC lasers [2-3] that pioneered the use of quantum-engineered IC structures. This quantum-engineered approach will enable PV cells to efficiently convert infrared radiation from the sun or other heat source, to electricity. Such cells will have important applications for more efficient use of solar energy, waste-heat recovery, and power beaming in combination with mid-infrared lasers. The objectives of our investigations are to: achieve extensive understanding of the fundamental aspects of the proposed PV structures, develop the necessary knowledge for making such IC PV cells, and demonstrate prototype working PV cells. This research will focus on IC PV structures and their segments for utilizing infrared radiation with wavelengths from 2 to 5 μm, a range well suited for emission by heat sources (1,000-2,000 K) that are widely available from combustion systems. The long-term goal of this project is to push PV technology to longer wavelengths, allowing for relatively low-temperature thermal sources. Our investigations address material quality, electrical and optical properties, and their interplay for the different regions of an IC PV structure. The tasks involve: design, modeling and optimization of IC PV structures, molecular beam epitaxial growth of PV structures and relevant segments, material characterization, prototype device fabrication and testing. At the end of this program, we expect to generate new cutting-edge knowledge in the design and understanding of quantum-engineered semiconductor structures, and demonstrate the concepts for IC PV devices with high conversion efficiencies.

  3. Costs of solar and wind power variability for reducing CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Colleen; Cohen, Gilbert E; Apt, Jay

    2012-09-04

    We compare the power output from a year of electricity generation data from one solar thermal plant, two solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, and twenty Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) wind farms. The analysis shows that solar PV electricity generation is approximately one hundred times more variable at frequencies on the order of 10(-3) Hz than solar thermal electricity generation, and the variability of wind generation lies between that of solar PV and solar thermal. We calculate the cost of variability of the different solar power sources and wind by using the costs of ancillary services and the energy required to compensate for its variability and intermittency, and the cost of variability per unit of displaced CO(2) emissions. We show the costs of variability are highly dependent on both technology type and capacity factor. California emissions data were used to calculate the cost of variability per unit of displaced CO(2) emissions. Variability cost is greatest for solar PV generation at $8-11 per MWh. The cost of variability for solar thermal generation is $5 per MWh, while that of wind generation in ERCOT was found to be on average $4 per MWh. Variability adds ~$15/tonne CO(2) to the cost of abatement for solar thermal power, $25 for wind, and $33-$40 for PV.

  4. Evaluation of measuring data of small photovoltaic power systems within the framework of the German Federal-State 1000 Roofs PV programme. Final report; 1000-Daecher Mess- und Auswerteprogramm. Auswertung der Messdaten von photovoltaischen Kleinanlagen im Rahmen des Bund-Laender-1000 Daecher-Photovoltaik-Programms. Wissenschaftlicher Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, V.U. [comp.; Erge, T.; Kiefer, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Becker, H. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Rheinland e.V., Duesseldorf (Germany); Decker, B.; Grochowski, J. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH (ISFH), Hannover (Germany); Heilscher, G. [Ist EnergieCom GmbH, Augsburg (Germany); Riess, H. [WIP Energie und Umwelt, Muenchen (Germany); Rindelhardt, U. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany)

    1998-10-16

    Within the framework of the German Federal-State 1000 Roofs Photovoltaic Programme monthly measuring data and verbal comments on the PV system operation (reports on failures and defects) have been collected, stored in a databank and evaluated for the period 1991 to 1997 for a differing number of PV systems. In addition to this came along data of initially 100, then 40 intensively measured systems. The results of the measuring data evaluation as well as the results of further accompanying research projects to the Federal-State 1000 Roofs Photovoltaic Programme (e.g. low energy yield analysis, on-site inspections and measuring of nominal powers) are summarised. Starting from the gained results, conclusions and recommendations are given for the design, installation and operation for future grid-connected PV-systems. Also it is pointed to the remaining need for optimisation and R and D. Additional part of the report are the Annual Journal (published in a large print run) and the comprehensive final reports of the involved institutions (listed in Appendix 2). (orig.)

  5. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  6. Detection of arcing location on photovoltaic systems using filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay

    2018-02-20

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic systems capable of identifying the location of an arc-fault. In particular, such systems include a unique filter connected to each photovoltaic (PV) string, thereby providing a unique filtered noise profile associated with a particular PV string. Also described herein are methods for identifying and isolating such arc-faults.

  7. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume II. Photovoltaic systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This volume of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a photovoltaic energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The form of the presentation allows the reader to use more accurate storage system cost data as they become available. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Candidate storage concepts studied include (1) above ground and underground pumped hydro, (2) underground compressed air, (3) electric batteries, (4) flywheels, and (5) hydrogen production and storage. (WHK)

  8. Outdoor Performance Comparison of Concentrator Photovoltaic and Flat Plate Photovoltaic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hidaka Yoshihide; Imai Kenta; Ota Yasuyuki; Nishioka Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Output characteristics of tracking type concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) system, multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) PV system, CIGS PV system, and amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV system were analyzed in the data period of a year from August 2013 to July 2014. In this study, we analyzed the influence of environmental factors using average photon energy (APE) and temperature of solar cell (Tcell). The characteristics of 14 kW CPV system, 50 kW mc-Si PV system, 60 kW CIGS PV system, 1.35 kW a-Si PV sy...

  9. ANFIS-based estimation of PV module equivalent parameters: application to a stand-alone PV system with MPPT controller

    OpenAIRE

    KULAKSIZ, Ahmet Afşin

    2012-01-01

    The performance and system cost of photovoltaic (PV) systems can be improved by employing high-efficiency power conditioners with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods. Fast implementation and accurate operation of MPPT controllers can be realized by modeling the characteristics of PV modules, obtaining equivalent parameters. In this study, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFISs) have been used to obtain 3 of the parameters in a single-diode model of PV cells, namely serie...

  10. Impact of Rooftop Solar PV on Residential Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    Increased environmental awareness in recent years has encouraged rapid growth of renewable energy sources especially solar PV and wind. Among them, small scale solar PV has been gaining more momentum especially at residential level. Even today moderate penetration of grid tied rooftop solar PV has...

  11. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  12. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  13. Method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl

    2013-11-05

    One embodiment of the invention relates to a segmented photovoltaic (PV) module which is manufactured from laminate segments. The segmented PV module includes rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped PV laminates and further includes non-rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped and approximately-triangular-shaped PV laminates. The laminate segments are mechanically joined and electrically interconnected to form the segmented module. Another embodiment relates to a method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module from laminate segments of various shapes. Other embodiments relate to processes for providing a photovoltaic array for installation at a site. Other embodiments and features are also disclosed.

  14. Photovoltaic applications for rural areas in North-East Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.; Faninger-Lund, H.

    1997-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) markets have grown in the EU by ca 25 % per year during the past decade. World-wide the production of photovoltaic cells has exceeded the 80 MW e /a limit. The costs of PV modules have dropped by a factor of 5 during the last ten years and is now at the level of 4-5 USD/W p . The cost reductions mean on the hand new market segments for PV in the future. The market potential of photovoltaics, the financial issues connected to this, the PV system technology, the basic system design and the examples of typical projects are discussed in the presentation

  15. Efficient design and simulation of an expandable hybrid (wind-photovoltaic) power system with MPPT and inverter input voltage regulation features in compliance with electric grid requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skretas, Sotirios B.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios P. [Electrical Machines Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritos University of Thrace (DUTH), 12 V. Sofias, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper an efficient design along with modeling and simulation of a transformer-less small-scale centralized DC - bus Grid Connected Hybrid (Wind-PV) power system for supplying electric power to a single phase of a three phase low voltage (LV) strong distribution grid are proposed and presented. The main components of the hybrid system are: a PV generator (PVG); and an array of horizontal-axis, fixed-pitch, small-size, variable-speed wind turbines (WTs) with direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) having an embedded uncontrolled bridge rectifier. An overview of the basic theory of such systems along with their modeling and simulation via Simulink/MATLAB software package are presented. An intelligent control method is applied to the proposed configuration to simultaneously achieve three desired goals: to extract maximum power from each hybrid power system component (PVG and WTs); to guarantee DC voltage regulation/stabilization at the input of the inverter; to transfer the total produced electric power to the electric grid, while fulfilling all necessary interconnection requirements. Finally, a practical case study is conducted for the purpose of fully evaluating a possible installation in a city site of Xanthi/Greece, and the practical results of the simulations are presented. (author)

  16. A novel quasi-master-slave control frame for PV-storage independent microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jian; Yuan, Wenbin; Sun, Yao

    2018-01-01

    In microgrid, photovoltaic (PV) and storage are always combined as a droop-controlled ideal source, which is not very practical. Alternatively, this paper introduces a PV-storage independent system via allocating the PV-storage separately. For this structure, a novel quasi-master-slave control...

  17. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program. Annual report, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  18. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorensen, Neil R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The continued exponential growth of photovoltaic technologies paves a path to a solar-powered world, but requires continued progress toward low-cost, high-reliability, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) systems. High reliability is an essential element in achieving low-cost solar electricity by reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and extending system lifetime and availability, but these attributes are difficult to verify at the time of installation. Utilities, financiers, homeowners, and planners are demanding this information in order to evaluate their financial risk as a prerequisite to large investments. Reliability research and development (R&D) is needed to build market confidence by improving product reliability and by improving predictions of system availability, O&M cost, and lifetime. This project is focused on understanding, predicting, and improving the reliability of PV systems. The two areas being pursued include PV arc-fault and ground fault issues, and inverter reliability.

  19. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -- formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  20. Coupled thermal model of photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid panel for sample cities in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Sera, Dezso; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2016-01-01

    of the hybrid system under different weather conditions. The model takes into account solar irradiation, wind speed and ambient temperature as well as convective and radiated heat losses from the front and rear surfaces of the panel. The model is developed for three sample cities in Europe with different......In general, modeling of photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV/TEG) hybrid panels have been mostly simplified and disconnected from the actual ambient conditions and thermal losses from the panel. In this study, a thermally coupled model of PV/TEG panel is established to precisely predict performance...... weather conditions. The results show that radiated heat loss from the front surface and the convective heat loss due to the wind speed are the most critical parameters on performance of the hybrid panel performance. The results also indicate that, with existing thermoelectric materials, the power...