WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind monitoring stations

  1. Construction of research wind-solar monitoring station 'North-East Bulgaria'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateeva, Z.; Filipov, A.; Filipov, V.

    2008-01-01

    The rising energy prices, the lack of conventional energy sources, as well as the growing ecological problems, imposing the development of a new energy strategy of Bulgaria, are the prerequisites for the thorough researches in the field of wind-solar resources and the construction of experimental bases with modern equipment for the detailed investigations on the specificities of these resources with the view of their optimal utilization. The lack of homogenous covering of the territory of the country with meteorological stations, as well as the rather specific microclimatic conditions in the diverse physical-geographic localities in the country make the necessity of building experimental stations for meteo-monitoring under specific local conditions still more indispensable. This work presents the monitoring parameters of wind-solar resources in a real physical-geographic environment, for carrying out scientific-research, applied-practical and educational-training activity. A broad spectrum of scientific methods and approaches - instrumental, topographic, terrain, mathematical-statistical, numerical modeling, cartographic, educational and team-working, are envisaged for attaining the set objective. (author)

  2. Wind turbine power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-11-01

    The Countryside Council for Wales (CCW's) policy on wind turbine power stations needs to be read in the context of CCW's document Energy:Policy and perspectives for the Welsh countryside. This identifies four levels of action aimed at reducing emission of gases which contribute towards the risk of global warming and gases which cause acid deposition. These are: the need for investment in energy efficiency; the need for investment in conventional power generation in order to meet the highest environmental standards; the need for investment in renewable energy; and the need to use land use transportation policies and decisions to ensure energy efficiency and energy conservation. CCW views wind turbine power stations, along with other renewable energy systems, within this framework. CCW's policy is to welcome the exploitation of renewable energy sources as an element in a complete and environmentally sensitive energy policy, subject to the Environmental Assessment of individual schemes and monitoring of the long-term impact of the various technologies involved. (Author)

  3. Sources of the wind power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudivani, J.; Huettner, L.

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with problems of the wind power stations. Describes the basic properties of wind energy. Shows and describes the different types of electrical machines used as a source of electricity in the wind power stations. Shows magnetic fields synchronous generator with salient poles and permanent magnets in the program FEMM. Describes methods for assessing of reversing the effects of the wind power stations on the distribution network. (Authors)

  4. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  5. Efficiency of a small wind power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.; Christov, Ch.; Kozarev, N.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study is to obtain the optimal solution for wind station both by technical parameters and costs. The energetic characteristics of the wind as a renewable energy source are discussed and assessment of the economical efficiency is made. For the determination of the optimal wind parameters the method of integral wind curves is used. The low power wind generators (0.4 - 1.5 kW) are considered as optimal for the presented wind characteristics

  6. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  7. Mobile environmental radiation monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assido, H.; Shemesh, Y.; Mazor, T.; Tal, N.; Barak, D.

    1997-01-01

    A mobile environmental radiation monitoring station has been developed and established for the Israeli Ministry of Environment. The radiation monitoring station is ready for immediate placing in any required location, or can be operated from a vehicle. The station collects data Tom the detector and transfers it via cellular communication network to a Computerized Control Center for data storage, processing, and display . The mobile station is fully controlled from the. Routinely, the mobile station responses to the data request accumulated since the last communication session. In case of fault or alarm condition in the mobile station, a local claim is activated and immediately initiates communication with the via cellular communication network. (authors)

  8. Wind turbine control and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Ningsu; Acho, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the latest technical developments and trends involving wind turbine control and monitoring, fault diagnosis, and wind power systems, 'Wind Turbine Control and Monitoring' presents an accessible and straightforward introduction to wind turbines, but also includes an in-depth analysis incorporating illustrations, tables and examples on how to use wind turbine modeling and simulation software.   Featuring analysis from leading experts and researchers in the field, the book provides new understanding, methodologies and algorithms of control and monitoring, comput

  9. WIND SPEED Monitoring in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygina, O.; Korshunova, N. N.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The wind regime of Russia varies a great deal due to the large size of the country's territory and variety of climate and terrain conditions. Changes in the regime of surface wind are of great practical importance. They can affect heat and water balance. Strong wind is one of the most hazardous meteorological event for various sectors of economy and for infrastructure. The main objective of this research is to monitoring wind speed change in Northern Eurasia At meteorological stations wind speed and wind direction are measured at the height of 10-12 meters over the land surface with the help of wind meters or wind wanes. Calculations were made on the basis of data for the period of 1980-2015. It allowed the massive scale disruption of homogeneity to be eliminated and sufficient period needed to obtain sustainable statistic characteristics to be retained. Data on average and maximum wind speed measured at 1457 stations of Russia were used. The analysis of changes in wind characteristics was made on the basis of point data and series of average characteristics obtained for 18 quasi-homogeneous climatic regions. Statistical characteristics (average and maximum values of wind speed, prevailing wind direction, values of the boundary of the 90%, 95% and 99%-confidence interval in the distribution of maximum wind speed) were obtained for all seasons and for the year as a whole. Values of boundaries of the 95% and 99%-confidence interval in the distribution of maximum wind speed were considered as indicators of extremeness of the wind regime. The trend of changes in average and maximum wind speed was assessed with a linear trend coefficient. A special attention was paid to wind changes in the Arctic where dramatic changes in surface air temperature and sea ice extent and density have been observed during the past decade. The analysis of the results allowed seasonal and regional features of changes in the wind regime on the territory of the northern part of Eurasia to be

  10. Monitoring of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ull, E.; Labudda, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to create a process for undelayed automated detection and monitoring of accidents in the operation of nuclear power stations. According to the invention, this problem is solved by the relevant local measurements, such as radiation dose, components and type of radiation and additional relevant meteorological parameters being collected by means of wellknown data collection platforms, these being transmitted via transmission channels by means of satellites to suitable worldwide situated receiving stations on the ground, being processed there and being evaluated to recognise accidents. The local data collection platforms are used in the immediate vicinity of the nuclear power station. The use of aircraft, ships and balloons as data collection systems is also intended. (HWJ)

  11. Monitoring of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jonathan R.; Adams, Douglas E.; Paquette, Josh

    2017-07-25

    Method and apparatus for determining the deflection or curvature of a rotating blade, such as a wind turbine blade or a helicopter blade. Also, methods and apparatus for establishing an inertial reference system on a rotating blade.

  12. Establishing a mobile automatic monitoring station for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hsin-Fa

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A radiological/nuclear emergency event may cause environmental contamination. The emergency response works always need to plan an environmental survey programme incorporating the assessment results to see what is happening. The places where are assessed to have the highest radioactive contamination/radiation dose will catch more concern and need continuous monitoring. It will cause unnecessary dangers and dose to command that personnel conduct surveying in such places when the radiological/nuclear accident become more severe. A mobile automatic monitoring station has been established for emergency response by INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research) to solve the problem practically. The monitoring station involves a HPIC to monitor radiation dose, an anemometer to monitor wind speed and direction, a GPS to get position data, a GPRS/3G communication module to send monitoring and positioning data to the monitoring centre where can show the monitoring result directly on a map shown on the computer. These instruments are integrated in a trailer easy to be towed to the place need to be monitored. The electric power of the station is supplied by s a solar power energy system. It can supply the station working at least 10 days without extra electric power supply designed based on the expected time length of a nuclear power plant event. The HPIC is very sensitive and stable that can discriminate a 10 nSv/hr increasing of dose rate with the monitoring time period every ten seconds. Where the radiological dispersion device events happened is not predictable, it is difficult to get suitable wind monitoring data to assess the result of radiological dispersion device events. The anemometer added on the station can provide the real time wind monitoring data to help assessment works. (author)

  13. Wind hazard assessment for Point Lepreau Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullin, D.; Moland, M.; Sciaudone, J.C.; Twisdale, L.A.; Vickery, P.J.; Mizzen, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the CNSC Fukushima Action Plan, NB Power has embarked on a wind hazard assessment for the Point Lepreau Generating Station site that incorporates the latest up to date wind information and modeling. The objective was to provide characterization of the wind hazard from all potential sources and estimate wind-driven missile fragilities and wind pressure fragilities for various structures, systems and components that would provide input to a possible high wind Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The paper will discuss the overall methodology used to assess hazards related to tornadoes, hurricanes and straight-line winds, and site walk-down and hazard/fragility results. (author)

  14. Winds Measured by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) During the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover's Bagnold Dunes Campaign and Comparison with Numerical Modeling Using MarsWRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Claire E.; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Marin, Mercedes; Navarro, Sara; Torres, Josefina; Richardson, Mark I.; Battalio, J. Michael; Guzewich, Scott D.; Sullivan, Robert; de la Torre, Manuel; hide

    2016-01-01

    A high density of REMS wind measurements were collected in three science investigations during MSL's Bagnold Dunes Campaign, which took place over approx. 80 sols around southern winter solstice (Ls approx. 90deg) and constituted the first in situ analysis of the environmental conditions, morphology, structure, and composition of an active dune field on Mars. The Wind Characterization Investigation was designed to fully characterize the near-surface wind field just outside the dunes and confirmed the primarily upslope/downslope flow expected from theory and modeling of the circulation on the slopes of Aeolis Mons in this season. The basic pattern of winds is 'upslope' (from the northwest, heading up Aeolis Mons) during the daytime (approx. 09:00-17:00 or 18:00) and 'downslope' (from the southeast, heading down Aeolis Mons) at night (approx. 20:00 to some time before 08:00). Between these times the wind rotates largely clockwise, giving generally westerly winds mid-morning and easterly winds in the early evening. The timings of these direction changes are relatively consistent from sol to sol; however, the wind direction and speed at any given time shows considerable intersol variability. This pattern and timing is similar to predictions from the MarsWRF numerical model, run at a resolution of approx. 490 m in this region, although the model predicts the upslope winds to have a stronger component from the E than the W, misses a wind speed peak at approx. 09:00, and under-predicts the strength of daytime wind speeds by approx. 2-4 m/s. The Namib Dune Lee Investigation reveals 'blocking' of northerly winds by the dune, leaving primarily a westerly component to the daytime winds, and also shows a broadening of the 1 Hz wind speed distribution likely associated with lee turbulence. The Namib Dune Side Investigation measured primarily daytime winds at the side of the same dune, in support of aeolian change detection experiments designed to put limits on the saltation

  15. Enhanced Hourly Wind Station Data for the Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. Enhanced Hourly Wind Station Data is digital data set DSI-6421, archived at the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI; formerly National Climatic...

  16. GSFC contamination monitors for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosso, P. A.; Tveekrem, J. L.; Coopersmith, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the Work Package 3 activities in the area of neutral contamination monitoring for the Space Station. Goddard Space Flight Center's responsibilities include the development of the Attached Payload Accommodations Equipment (APAE), the Polar Orbiting Platform (POP), and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS). GSFC will also develop the Customer Servicing Facility (CSF) in Phase 2 of the Space Station.

  17. Atmospheric air contamination monitoring. Monitoring station ASS-500, GIG Katowice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, B.

    1993-01-01

    The results obtained during the period of 1991-1993 in monitoring station ASS-500 working in Katowice have been presented. The concentration of 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 40 K, 7 Be and dustiness in atmospheric air have been shown. Some proposals about the modifications of monitoring station ASS-500 have been introduced. 3 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Design of Wind Turbine Vibration Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubin Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure safety of wind turbine operation and to reduce the occurrence of faults as well as to improve the reliability of wind turbine operation, a vibration monitoring for wind turbine is developed. In this paper, it analyses the enlargement of all the parts of the structure and the working mechanism, the research method of wind turbine operation vibration is introduced, with the focus being the use of the sensor principle. Finally the hardware design and software of this system is introduced and the main function of this system is described, which realizes condition monitoring of the work state of wind turbines.

  19. Wide Area Wind Field Monitoring Status & Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Marchant; Jed Simmons

    2011-09-30

    Volume-scanning elastic has been investigated as a means to derive 3D dynamic wind fields for characterization and monitoring of wind energy sites. An eye-safe volume-scanning lidar system was adapted for volume imaging of aerosol concentrations out to a range of 300m. Reformatting of the lidar data as dynamic volume images was successfully demonstrated. A practical method for deriving 3D wind fields from dynamic volume imagery was identified and demonstrated. However, the natural phenomenology was found to provide insufficient aerosol features for reliable wind sensing. The results of this study may be applicable to wind field measurement using injected aerosol tracers.

  20. Weather-power station. Solar energy, wind energy, water energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatta, M

    1975-10-02

    A combined power station is described, which enables one to convert solar energy and wind energy into other forms of energy. The plant consists of a water-filled boiler, in which solar energy heats the water by concentration, solar cells, and finally wind rotors, which transform wind energy into electrical energy. The transformed energy is partly available as steam heat, partly as mechanical or electrical energy. The plant can be used for supplying heating systems or electrolysis equipment. Finally, by incorporating suitable motors, a mobile version of the system can be produced.

  1. Structural Monitoring of Wind Turbines using Sensors Connected via UTP Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru SPERMEZAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Unpredicted faults that may occur at the wind generators elements affect their economic operation. A promising approach that avoids these faults is the real-time vibrations monitoring. Data measured by the sensors can be transmitted to a monitoring station using wireless techniques, or optical fiber, or UTP cable. The last possibility is the cheapest, but it permits connecting the monitoring station at a limited distance with respect to the monitored turbine. The paper presents the components of the monitoring system and the experimental results related to the monitored wind turbine.

  2. Earth aeolian wind streaks: Comparison to wind data from model and stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Zada, A. L.; Maman, S.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2017-05-01

    Wind streak is a collective term for a variety of aeolian features that display distinctive albedo surface patterns. Wind streaks have been used to map near-surface winds and to estimate atmospheric circulation patterns on Mars and Venus. However, because wind streaks have been studied mostly on Mars and Venus, much of the knowledge regarding the mechanism and time frame of their formation and their relationship to the atmospheric circulation cannot be verified. This study aims to validate previous studies' results by a comparison of real and modeled wind data with wind streak orientations as measured from remote-sensing images. Orientations of Earth wind streaks were statistically correlated to resultant drift direction (RDD) values calculated from reanalysis and wind data from 621 weather stations. The results showed good agreement between wind streak orientations and reanalysis RDD (r = 0.78). A moderate correlation was found between the wind streak orientations and the weather station data (r = 0.47); a similar trend was revealed on a regional scale when the analysis was performed by continent, with r ranging from 0.641 in North America to 0.922 in Antarctica. At sites where wind streak orientations did not correspond to the RDDs (i.e., a difference of 45°), seasonal and diurnal variations in the wind flow were found to be responsible for deviation from the global pattern. The study thus confirms that Earth wind streaks were formed by the present wind regime and they are indeed indicative of the long-term prevailing wind direction on global and regional scales.

  3. Development of the Arctic radionuclide monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.E.; Phillips, G.W.; Aakenes, U.R.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, the world has learned about the dumping of nuclear reactors and other waste into the Arctic seas by the former Soviet Union. Most of the information on the present levels of radioactivity in the region has been obtained by oceanographic expeditions conducted during the brief Arctic summers. Year-round monitoring of the movement of radio-activity during dynamic seasonal and episodic chances is hampered by the difficulties caused by sea ice, logistics and communication constraints associated with deployment and maintenance of monitoring equipment in this remote region. We have designed an autonomous station to measure the benthic gamma-ray emitting radioactivity for periods of at least one year. The station is capable of detecting a 30 Bq/m 3 increase in the 137 Cs activity in a 24 hour period. After a year-long deployment, the station releases its anchor and rises to the surface to transmit the accumulated spectra and oceanographic data via an Argos satellite link. The design and performance characteristics of the prototype station will be discussed

  4. Development of the Arctic radionuclide monitoring station

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S. E.; Aakenes, U. R.; McCoy, K.; Phillips, G. W.

    1997-06-01

    The world has learned about the dumping of nuclear reactors and other waste into the Arctic seas by the former Soviet Union. Most of the information on the present levels of radioactivity in the region has been obtained by oceanographic expeditions conducted during the brief Arctic summers. Year-round monitoring of the movement of radioactivity during dynamic seasonal and episodic changes is hampered by the difficulties caused by sea ice, logistics and communication constraints associated with deployment and maintenance of monitoring equipment in this remote region. The authors have designed an autonomous station to measure the benthic gamma-ray emitting radioactivity for periods of at least one year. The station is capable of detecting a 30 Bq/m/sup 3/ increase in the /sup 137/Cs activity in a 24 hour period. After a year-long deployment, the station releases its anchor and rises to the surface to transmit the accumulated spectra and oceanographic data via an Argos satellite link. The design and performance characteristics of the prototype station are discussed.

  5. Limerick Nuclear Generating Station vibration monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulski, R.

    1988-01-01

    Philadelphia Electric Company utilizes a vibration monitoring computer system at its Limerick Nuclear Generating Station to evaluate machine performance. Performance can be evaluated through instantaneous sampling, online static and transient data. The system functions as an alarm monitor, displaying timely alarm data to the control area. The passage of time since the system's inception has been a learning period. Evaluation through continuous use has led to many enhancements in alarm handling and in the acquisition and display of machine data. Due to the system's sophistication, a routine maintenance program is a necessity. This paper describes the system's diagnostic tools and current utilization. System development and maintenance techniques will also be discussed

  6. Wind, photovoltaic and fuel cell energy for communication stations; Energia eolica, fotovoltaica e de celula a combustivel para estacoes de comunicacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Iolanda; Pereira, Jose; Alcobia, Hernani [Net Plan Telecomunicacoes e Energia, Lisboa (Portugal); Pereirinha, Paulo [Instituto Politecnico de Coimbra (Portugal); Instituto para Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores de Coimbra (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    This paper presents a hybrid system that provides power to a remote and autonomously telecommunications station by means of electrical solar generators, wind and hydrogen fuel cell. In the absence of sufficient sun and wind, a bank of batteries and hydrogen produced on-site guarantee the power supply. The station can still be remote monitored and managed.

  7. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF WIND-POWER STATIONS ON BIRDS: ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorlov P. I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The world experience of bird collisions with wind-power stations was analyzed. The detailcharacteristics of principal threats to the birds during building and exploitation of wind-power stations was done. Comparative analysis of factors caused annual birds mortality was performed. Some proposals of negative influence minimization were suggested for wind-power stations utilization.

  8. Wind rotor power station BONI-ShHV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotov, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    Wind rotor power station (WRPS) BONI-ShHV has following advantages : the increase of installation stability by rise of wind velocity and rotation speed of rotor due to gyroscopic effect; the absence noise and vibration; the safety for birds and animals; ability of compact installation and creation of series of wind power dams with higher capacity; the simplicity and fast assembling and putting into operation. The price of 1 k W of installing capacity is lower about 2.5-3 times compare to usual WRPS due to simple kinematic scheme. WRPS has high specific output of electrical energy due to use of low and long existing wind velocity and due to short storms, giving greater power. It has ability to be replayed when average annual wind velocity is above 5.5 m/s in comparison with propeller WRPS, which are never repaying. WRPS BONI-ShHV are made on the plants of Republic of Kazakhstan, and tested in wind velocity range up 45 m/s, have experience of 3 years of operation, showing their reliability and effectiveness. The repayment period of individual WRPS BONI-0.5/6 ShHV is from 10 month to 1 year depending on average annual velocity

  9. Integrated monitoring of wind plant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Matthew J.; Janoyan, Kerop D.; Qiu, Tong

    2008-03-01

    Wind power is a renewable source of energy that is quickly gaining acceptance by many. Advanced sensor technologies have currently focused solely on improving wind turbine rotor aerodynamics and increasing of the efficiency of the blade design and concentration. Alternatively, potential improvements in wind plant efficiency may be realized through reduction of reactionary losses of kinetic energy to the structural and substructural systems supporting the turbine mechanics. Investigation of the complete dynamic structural response of the wind plant is proposed using a large-scale, high-rate wireless sensor network. The wireless network enables sensors to be placed across the sizable structure, including the rotating blades, without consideration of cabling issues and the economic burden associated with large spools of measurement cables. A large array of multi-axis accelerometers is utilized to evaluate the modal properties of the system as well as individual members and would enable long-term structural condition monitoring of the wind turbine as well. Additionally, environmental parameters, including wind speed, temperature, and humidity, are wirelessly collected for correlation. Such a wireless system could be integrated with electrical monitoring sensors and actuators and incorporated into a remote multi-turbine centralized plant monitoring and control system.

  10. Crack Monitoring of Operational Wind Turbine Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Marcus; McAlorum, Jack; Fusiek, Grzegorz; Niewczas, Pawel; McKeeman, Iain; Rubert, Tim

    2017-08-21

    The degradation of onshore, reinforced-concrete wind turbine foundations is usually assessed via above-ground inspections, or through lengthy excavation campaigns that suspend wind power generation. Foundation cracks can and do occur below ground level, and while sustained measurements of crack behaviour could be used to quantify the risk of water ingress and reinforcement corrosion, these cracks have not yet been monitored during turbine operation. Here, we outline the design, fabrication and field installation of subterranean fibre-optic sensors for monitoring the opening and lateral displacements of foundation cracks during wind turbine operation. We detail methods for in situ sensor characterisation, verify sensor responses against theoretical tower strains derived from wind speed data, and then show that measured crack displacements correlate with monitored tower strains. Our results show that foundation crack opening displacements respond linearly to tower strain and do not change by more than ±5 μ m. Lateral crack displacements were found to be negligible. We anticipate that the work outlined here will provide a starting point for real-time, long-term and dynamic analyses of crack displacements in future. Our findings could furthermore inform the development of cost-effective monitoring systems for ageing wind turbine foundations.

  11. Urban Noise Recorded by Stationary Monitoring Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąkowski, Andrzej; Radziszewski, Leszek; Dekýš, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the analysis results of equivalent sound level recorded by two road traffic noise monitoring stations. The stations were located in Kielce (an example of a medium-size town in Poland) at the roads in the town in the direction of Łódź and Lublin. The measurements were carried out through stationary stations monitoring the noise and traffic of motor vehicles. The RMS values based on A-weighted sound level were recorded every 1 s in the buffer and the results were registered every 1 min over the period of investigations. The registered data were the basis for calculating the equivalent sound level for three time intervals: from 6:00 to 18:00, from 18:00 to 22:00 and from 22:00 to 6:00. Analysis included the values of the equivalent sound level recorded for different days of the week split into 24h periods, nights, days and evenings. The data analysed included recordings from 2013. The agreement of the distribution of the variable under analysis with normal distribution was evaluated. It was demonstrated that in most cases (for both roads) there was sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis at the significance level of 0.05. It was noted that compared with Łódź Road, in the case of Lublin Road data, more cases were recorded for which the null hypothesis could not be rejected. Uncertainties of the equivalent sound level measurements were compared within the periods under analysis. The standard deviation, coefficient of variation, the positional coefficient of variation, the quartile deviation was proposed for performing a comparative analysis of the obtained data scattering. The investigations indicated that the recorded data varied depending on the traffic routes and time intervals. The differences concerned the values of uncertainties and coefficients of variation of the equivalent sound levels.

  12. Energy Management for Automatic Monitoring Stations in Arctic Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Demian

    Automatic weather monitoring stations deployed in arctic regions are usually installed in hard to reach locations. Most of the time they run unsupervised and they face severe environmental conditions: very low temperatures, ice riming, etc. It is usual practice to use a local energy source to power the equipment. There are three main ways to achieve this: (1) a generator whose fuel has to be transported to the location at regular intervals (2) a battery and (3) an energy harvesting generator that exploits a local energy source. Hybrid systems are very common. Polar nights and long winters are typical of arctic regions. Solar radiation reaching the ground during this season is very low or non-existent, depending on the geographical location. Therefore, solar power generation is not very effective. One straightforward, but expensive and inefficient solution is the use of a large bank of batteries that is recharged during sunny months and discharged during the winter. The main purpose of the monitoring stations is to collect meteorological data at regular intervals; interruptions due to a lack of electrical energy can be prevented with the use of an energy management subsystem. Keeping a balance between incoming and outgoing energy flows, while assuring the continuous operation of the station, is the delicate task of energy management strategies. This doctoral thesis explores alternate power generation solutions and intelligent energy management techniques for equipment deployed in the arctic. For instance, harvesting energy from the wind to complement solar generation is studied. Nevertheless, harvested energy is a scarce resource and needs to be used efficiently. Genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic, and common sense are used to efficiently manage energy flows within a simulated arctic weather station.

  13. The Skipheia Wind Measurement Station. Instrumentation, Wind Speed Profiles and Turbulence Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasen, S E

    1995-10-01

    This thesis describes the design of a measurement station for turbulent wind and presents results from an analysis of the collected data. The station is located at Skipheia near the south-west end of Froeya, an island off the coast of Mid-Norway. The station is unique for studies of turbulent winds because of the large numbers of sensors, which are located at various heights above ground up to 100 m, a sampling rate of 0.85 Hz and storage of the complete time series. The frequency of lightning and atmospheric discharges to the masts are quite high and much effort has gone into minimizing the damage caused by lightning activity. A major part of the thesis deals with data analysis and modelling. There are detailed discussions on the various types of wind sensors and their calibration, the data acquisition system and operating experiences with it, the database, data quality control, the wind speed profile and turbulence. 40 refs., 78 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Hawaii Munitions Monitoring Station and Natural Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M.; Trimble, A. Z.; Rognstad, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of conventional munitions were fired into the ocean at military ranges or deliberately disposed at sea during the twentieth century. Potential contaminants from munitions and explosives of concern (MEC) affect virtually every coast in the United States, including Alaska, the Hawaiian Islands, Guam, American Samoa and other U.S. territories as well as inland waterways. It is necessary to develop methods to assess the concentrations of munitions constituents present at a site to address concerns about the presence of environmentally relevant concentrations and their potential impacts. Having a well-characterized site to test instruments and methods is important for continued development and refinement of technology. Most sites are too big to characterize comprehensively in three dimensions over time periods lasting days or longer. We are working to develop a monitoring station and natural laboratory near Oahu, Hawaii to create a cost-effective demonstration and validation natural laboratory where emerging technologies can be evaluated and compared. Ordnance Reef (OR) is an ideal location to establish a munitions monitoring station for historical, logistical and environmental reasons. OR is an area of shallow fringing reef measuring approximately 4.2 km by 2.2 km along the Waianae coast of Oahu that was used as a disposal area for military munitions following World War II. OR has been the subject of multiple investigations including an inventory of munitions conducted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2002 and a screening-level risk investigation conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the University of Hawaii in 2006. As a result, there are multiple datasets collected over the past fifteen years that can be leveraged to serve as a baseline for the natural laboratory. These extant datasets are being supplemented with data from integrated unmanned systems deployed at OR to characterize and visualize the

  15. Status of radionuclide monitoring stations in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ANSTO) first became involved in the monitoring of radionuclides in the environment in 1955 when assessing the effects on the Australian population of the radioactive releases associated with the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. (At that time ARPANSA was known as the Commonwealth X-ray and Radium Laboratory). The United Kingdom had tested weapons in Australia in 1952 and 1953 and in August 1954 entered into an agreement with the Australian Government to establish a test range at Maralinga in South Australia. The government established a Maralinga Safety Committee and through this Committee ARPANSA became involved in the surveillance of radioactive fallout over Australia. The primary function of this surveillance was to ensure that the nuclear trials would not adversely effect the health of the Australian population. A program was established to reliably assess the deposition of radioactive fallout over Australia so that exposure to the population could be estimated. This task was performed in conjunction with the Bureau of Meteorology and the Department of Supply. Measurements were made on daily samples of fallout dawn from 10 centres throughout Australia. A low level radiochemical facility was established in 1961 for the measurement of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in environmental samples so that the long term distribution of fallout could be tracked. In the 1960s the program was extended to measure fresh fission products reaching Australia from atmospheric testing in other countries, usually originating from test sites in the northern hemisphere. The sampling program that was established was designed so that it could be rapidly expanded when a new testing program started. At this time a permanent fallout monitoring network was established around Australia using high volume air samplers capable of sampling up to 10000 m 3 per week. Approximately six stations have been operated at any one time but the

  16. ICUD-0499 Low-cost remotely sensed environmental monitoring stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes with extensive research of applying low-cost remotely sensed monitoring stations to an urban environment. Design requirements are scrutinized, including applications for remote data access, hardware design, and monitoring network design. A network of 9 monitoring stations...... measuring stream water level is deployed during July 2017. Data is streamed to a web page using cellular-based data transmission. Monitoring network performance is quantified with respect to local physical and weather conditions....

  17. Environmental radiation monitoring system in nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Sadazumi; Tadachi, Katsuo; Endo, Mamoru; Yuya, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    At the time of the construction of nuclear power stations, prior to their start of operation, the state of environmental radiation must be grasped. After the start of the power stations, based on those data, the system of environmental radiation monitoring is established. Along with the construction of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. jointly with Fujitsu Ltd. has developed a high-reliability, environmental radiation monitoring system, and adopted ''optical data highways'' using optical fiber cables for communication. It consists of a central monitoring station and 11 telemeter observation points, for collecting both radiation and meteorological data. The data sent to the central station through the highways are then outputted on a monitoring panel. They are analyzed with a central processor, and the results are printed out. (Mori, K.)

  18. Slope Monitoring using Total Station: What are the Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... survey perspective on the typical problems that can be expected during slope monitoring using total station (also known as prism monitoring) and second, to suggest ways of mitigating such problems. The aim is to create awareness of the implications of incorrect use or negligence during slope monitoring surveys utilising ...

  19. Structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Mark A.; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2008-03-01

    As electric utility wind turbines increase in size, and correspondingly, increase in initial capital investment cost, there is an increasing need to monitor the health of the structure. Acquiring an early indication of structural or mechanical problems allows operators to better plan for maintenance, possibly operate the machine in a de-rated condition rather than taking the unit off-line, or in the case of an emergency, shut the machine down to avoid further damage. This paper describes several promising structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques that were recently exercised during a fatigue test of a 9 meter glass-epoxy and carbon-epoxy wind turbine blade. The SHM systems were implemented by teams from NASA Kennedy Space Center, Purdue University and Virginia Tech. A commercial off-the-shelf acoustic emission (AE) NDT system gathered blade AE data throughout the test. At a fatigue load cycle rate around 1.2 Hertz, and after more than 4,000,000 fatigue cycles, the blade was diagnostically and visibly failing at the out-board blade spar-cap termination point at 4.5 meters. For safety reasons, the test was stopped just before the blade completely failed. This paper provides an overview of the SHM and NDT system setups and some current test results.

  20. Wind Energy Based Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Sitting. A GIS/Wind Resource Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Xydis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transportation sector is severely correlated with major problems in environment, citizens’ health, climate and economy. Issues such as traffic, fuel cost and parking space have make life more difficult, especially in the dense urban environment. Thus, there is a great need for the development of the electric vehicle (EV sector. The number of cars in cities has increased so much that the current transportation system (roads, parking places, traffic lights, etc. cannot accommodate them properly. The increasing number of vehicles does not affect only humans but also the environment, through air and noise pollution. According to EPA, the 39.2% of total gas emissions in 2007 was caused by transportation activities. Studies have shown that the pollutants are not only gathered in the major roads and/or highways but can travel depending on the meteorological conditions leading to generic pollution. The promotion of EVs and the charging stations are both equally required to be further developed in order EVs to move out of the cities and finally confront the range problem. In this work, a wind resource and a GIS analysis optimizes in a wider area the sitting of wind based charging stations and proposes an optimizing methodology.

  1. Emergency protection and nuclear power station remote monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, K.; Wolf, H.

    1986-01-01

    The States of the Federal Republic of Germany are planning emergency protection measures for the environment of nuclear power stations based on their statutory duty of care. In this connection the paper explains to what extent remote monitoring of nuclear power stations practised by the Federal Supervisory Authorities may support the design and implementation of emergency protection measures. (orig.) [de

  2. Benzene monitoring at CPPI service stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted in which ambient airborne concentration levels of benzene were measured at a representative set of gasoline service stations in Toronto and Vancouver. Benzene is considered to be toxic under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). It is a component in gasoline (0.1 to 4.7 per cent by volume) and is present in vehicle evaporative and exhaust emissions. Measurements were made every 18 days at each station for one year. The objective of the study was to assess the ambient and employee exposure levels of benzene at service stations and to determine whether the levels were typical of those published in the literature. In a 1986 PACE (Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment) survey of exposure to gasoline hydrocarbon vapours at Canadian service stations, airborne benzene concentration data was inconsistent with similar ambient and personal exposure data in the international literature. It was concluded that both the mean ambient benzene concentration and the personal exposure level measurements in this study were generally lower than similar measurements made in other countries. The same observation was made with respect to ambient and personal exposure levels measured in this study vis-a-vis those measured during the PACE study conducted in 1985/86. . 31 refs., 24 tabs., 5 figs

  3. A 20-KW Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) at the Marine Corps Air Station, Kaneohe, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    of propellers and that vertical-axis wind turbines would be more efficient. Several turbines such as the Darrieus and gyro-mill, of this type are... wind turbines , wind systems siting, alternate energy systems, remote site power generation. 20 ABSTRACT (Con!,,u,. - r r... .. do I(3 lI - d #,d e...Corps Air Station (MCAS) Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. The wind turbine generator chosen for the evaluation was a horizontal-axis-propeller- downwind rotor

  4. Two-Stage Multi-Objective Collaborative Scheduling for Wind Farm and Battery Switch Station

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Jiang; Xueshan Han; Zhimin Li; Wenbo Li; Mengxia Wang; Mingqiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    In order to deal with the uncertainties of wind power, wind farm and electric vehicle (EV) battery switch station (BSS) were proposed to work together as an integrated system. In this paper, the collaborative scheduling problems of such a system were studied. Considering the features of the integrated system, three indices, which include battery swapping demand curtailment of BSS, wind curtailment of wind farm, and generation schedule tracking of the integrated system are proposed. In additio...

  5. Trends of chemical monitoring in power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Venz, H.

    1983-01-01

    Frequently, the state-of-the-art of chemical monitoring in power plants is still determined by conservative methods. A thorough rationalization requires not only modern analytical procedures, but also the consideration of chemically affected processes in complex process analyses and the combination of automatic analyzers with available process computers. Using some examples, ways of reducing monitoring efforts without impairing safety and economy of nuclear power plant operation are pointed out. (author)

  6. Slope Monitoring using Total Station: What are the Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afeni

    implications of incorrect use or negligence during slope monitoring surveys ... Data collection, processing and the presentation of results in a concise format ..... There are several software packages on the market for total station error propagation, ..... Thomas, H.G., 2011, Slope stability prism monitoring: A guide for practising ...

  7. The detection of wind turbine shaft misalignment using temperature monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Tonks, Oliver; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is a parameter increasingly monitored in wind turbine systems. This paper details a potential temperature monitoring technique for use on shaft couplings. Such condition monitoring methods aid fault detection in other areas of wind turbines. However, application to shaft couplings has not previously been widely researched. A novel temperature measurement technique is outlined, using an infra-red thermometer which can be applied to online condition monitoring. The method was va...

  8. Low-cost automatic station for compost temperature monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. L. Jordão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Temperature monitoring is an important procedure to control the composting process. Due to cost limitation, temperature monitoring is manual and with daily sampling resolution. The objective of this study was to develop an automatic station with US$ 150 dollars, able to monitor air temperature at two different points in a compost pile, with a 5-min time resolution. In the calibration test, the sensors showed an estimated uncertainty from ± 1 to ± 1.9 ºC. In the field validation test, the station guaranteed secure autonomy for seven days and endured high humidity and extreme temperature (> 70 °C.

  9. Wind-powered electrical systems : highway rest areas, weigh stations, and team section buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This project considered the use of wind for providing electrical power at Illinois Department of Transportation : (IDOT) highway rest areas, weigh stations, and team section buildings. The goal of the project was to determine : the extent to which wi...

  10. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-09-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS's) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS's. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS).

  11. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-01-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  12. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Holzheimer, Clous [ENVINET GmbH, Environmental Radiation Detection, Hans-Pinsel-Straße 4, 85540 Haar (Munich) (Germany)

    2014-09-30

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  13. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, microscale modelling has been carried out for 10 meteorological stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces. Wind speed and direction data from the ten 60-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application...... Program (WAsP 11). The wind-climatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and roughness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given...... of the data measured at the 10 masts, mainly for a 3-year reference period from October 2010 to September 2013. The main result of the microscale modelling is observational wind atlas data sets, which can be used for verification of the mesoscale modelling. In addition, the microscale modelling itself has...

  14. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  15. New Seismic Monitoring Station at Mohawk Ridge, Valles Caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Peter Morse [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-20

    Two new broadband digital seismic stations were installed in the Valles Caldera in 2011 and 2012. The first is located on the summit of Cerros del Abrigo (station code CDAB) and the second is located on the flanks of San Antonio Mountain (station code SAMT). Seismic monitoring stations in the caldera serve multiple purposes. These stations augment and expand the current coverage of the Los Alamos Seismic Network (LASN), which is operated to support seismic and volcanic hazards studies for LANL and northern New Mexico (Figure 1). They also provide unique continuous seismic data within the caldera that can be used for scientific studies of the caldera’s substructure and detection of very small seismic signals that may indicate changes in the current and evolving state of remnant magma that is known to exist beneath the caldera. Since the installation of CDAB and SAMT, several very small earthquakes have already been detected near San Antonio Mountain just west of SAMT (Figure 2). These are the first events to be seen in that area. Caldera stations also improve the detection and epicenter determination quality for larger local earthquakes on the Pajarito Fault System east of the Preserve and the Nacimiento Uplift to the west. These larger earthquakes are a concern to LANL Seismic Hazards assessments and seismic monitoring of the Los Alamos region, including the VCNP, is a DOE requirement. Currently the next closest seismic stations to the caldera are on Pipeline Road (PPR) just west of Los Alamos, and Peralta Ridge (PER) south of the caldera. There is no station coverage near the resurgent dome, Redondo Peak, in the center of the caldera. Filling this “hole” is the highest priority for the next new LASN station. We propose to install this station in 2018 on Mohawk Ridge just east of Redondito, in the same area already occupied by other scientific installations, such as the MCON flux tower operated by UNM.

  16. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on the form including location, site, sampling, and date parameters to filter and customize the returned results. The The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative service sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC) that integrates publicly available water quality data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) the EPA STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) Data Warehouse, and the USDA ARS Sustaining The Earth??s Watersheds - Agricultural Research Database System (STEWARDS).

  17. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, microscale modelling has been carried out for 10 meteorological stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces. Wind speed and direction data from the ten 60-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application...... Program (WAsP 11). The windclimatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and rough-ness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given...... of the data measured at the 10 masts, mainly for a 3-year reference period from October 2010 to September 2013. The main result of the microscale modelling is observational wind atlas data sets, which can be used for verification of the mesoscale modelling. In addition, the microscale modelling itself has...

  18. Atmosphere and water quality monitoring on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, William

    1990-01-01

    In Space Station Freedom air and water will be supplied in closed loop systems. The monitoring of air and water qualities will ensure the crew health for the long mission duration. The Atmosphere Composition Monitor consists of the following major instruments: (1) a single focusing mass spectrometer to monitor major air constituents and control the oxygen/nitrogen addition for the Space Station; (2) a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to detect trace contaminants; (3) a non-dispersive infrared spectrometer to determine carbon monoxide concentration; and (4) a laser particle counter for measuring particulates in the air. An overview of the design and development concepts for the air and water quality monitors is presented.

  19. A report on upgraded seismic monitoring stations in Myanmar: Station performance and site response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Hrin Nei; Min Htwe, Yin Myo; Kyaw, Tun Lin; Tun, Pa Pa; Min, Zaw; Htwe, Sun Hninn; Aung, Tin Myo; Lin, Kyaw Kyaw; Aung, Myat Min; De Cristofaro, Jason; Franke, Mathias; Radman, Stefan; Lepiten, Elouie; Wolin, Emily; Hough, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    Myanmar is in a tectonically complex region between the eastern edge of the Himalayan collision zone and the northern end of the Sunda megathrust. Until recently, earthquake monitoring and research efforts have been hampered by a lack of modern instrumentation and communication infrastructure. In January 2016, a major upgrade of the Myanmar National Seismic Network (MNSN; network code MM) was undertaken to improve earthquake monitoring capability. We installed five permanent broadband and strong‐motion seismic stations and real‐time data telemetry using newly improved cellular networks. Data are telemetered to the MNSN hub in Nay Pyi Taw and archived at the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center. We analyzed station noise characteristics and site response using noise and events recorded over the first six months of station operation. Background noise characteristics vary across the array, but indicate that the new stations are performing well. MM stations recorded more than 20 earthquakes of M≥4.5 within Myanmar and its immediate surroundings, including an M 6.8 earthquake located northwest of Mandalay on 13 April 2016 and the Mw 6.8 Chauk event on 24 August 2016. We use this new dataset to calculate horizontal‐to‐vertical spectral ratios, which provide a preliminary characterization of site response of the upgraded MM stations.

  20. Type of equipment in an air monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, F.

    1999-01-01

    This poster communication presents a general view of the station, the different materials used for the air and precipitations monitoring. The methods for gas measurements (tritium, krypton, iodine) are given. The collecting of dusts, dust and tritium mixed together, or rainwater and pluviometry are reviewed and the measurement of ambient radioactivity is made by beacon. (N.C.)

  1. An analysis of spatial representativeness of air temperature monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suhua; Su, Hongbo; Tian, Jing; Wang, Weizhen

    2018-05-01

    Surface air temperature is an essential variable for monitoring the atmosphere, and it is generally acquired at meteorological stations that can provide information about only a small area within an r m radius ( r-neighborhood) of the station, which is called the representable radius. In studies on a local scale, ground-based observations of surface air temperatures obtained from scattered stations are usually interpolated using a variety of methods without ascertaining their effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the spatial representativeness of ground-based observations of surface air temperature before conducting studies on a local scale. The present study used remote sensing data to estimate the spatial distribution of surface air temperature using the advection-energy balance for air temperature (ADEBAT) model. Two target stations in the study area were selected to conduct an analysis of spatial representativeness. The results showed that one station (AWS 7) had a representable radius of about 400 m with a possible error of less than 1 K, while the other station (AWS 16) had the radius of about 250 m. The representable radius was large when the heterogeneity of land cover around the station was small.

  2. Pilot Water Quality Monitoring Station in Dublin Bay : North Bank Station (NBMS), MATSIS Project Part I

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, Garvan; Joyce, Eileen; Silke, Joe; O'Boyle, Shane; McGovern, Evin

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the pilot development of an autonomous monitoring station in Dublin Bay and validation of the system. It presents results from initial deployments. Sensors were deployed for testing, including an optical sensor for measuring nitrate and sensors for measurement of salinity, temperature, fluorescence and dissolved oxygen. Automated water samplers enabled periodic, remote triggered and event triggered sampling for nutrient and phytoplankton samples.

  3. Wind profiler observations of a monsoon low-level jet over a tropical Indian station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. R. Kalapureddy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Three-year high-resolution wind observations of the wind profiler have been utilized to characterize the diurnal and seasonal features of the monsoon Low-Level Jet (LLJ over a tropical station, Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, with a focus on the diurnal variability of low-level winds. The Boreal summer monsoon winds show a conspicuously strong westerly LLJ with average wind speed exceeding 20 m s−1. The L-band wind profiler measurements have shown an advantage of better height and time resolutions over the conventional radiosonde method for diurnal wind measurements. An interesting diurnal oscillation of LLJ core has been observed. It is varying in the height range of 1.8±0.6 km with the maximum and minimum intensity noticed during the early morning and afternoon hours, respectively. The jet core (wind maxima height is observed to coincide with the inversion height. Strong wind shears are normally located beneath the LLJ core. The sole wind profiler observations are capable of identifying the monsoon phases, such as onset, break and active spells, etc. The mutual influence between the LLJ and the boundary layer has been discussed. One notices that the observed LLJ diurnal structures depend on the local convective activity, wind shears and turbulence activity associated with boundary layer winds. The day-to-day change in the LLJ structure depends on the latitudinal position of the LLJ core.

  4. Wind characteristics on the Yucatan Peninsula based on short term data from meteorological stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler-Bientz, Rolando; Watson, Simon; Infield, David

    2010-01-01

    Due to the availability of sparsely populated and flat open terrain, the Yucatan Peninsula located in eastern Mexico is a promising region from the perspective of wind energy development. Study of the diurnal and seasonal wind resource is an important stage in the move towards commercial exploitation of wind power in this Latin American region. An analysis of the characteristics of the wind resource of the Yucatan Peninsula is presented in this paper, based on 10 min averaged wind speed data from nine meteorological stations, between 2000 and 2007. Hourly and monthly patterns of the main environmental parameters have been examined. Highly directional behaviour was identified that reflects the influence of winds coming from the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The characteristics of the wind speed variation observed at the studied sites reflected their proximity to the coast and whether they were influenced by wind coming predominantly from over the land or predominantly from over the sea. The atmospheric stability over the eastern seas of the Yucatan Peninsula was also analysed to assess thermal effects for different wind directions. The findings were consistent with the variation in average wind speeds observed at the coastal sites where winds came predominantly from over the sea. The research presented here is to be used as a basis for a wind atlas for the Yucatan Peninsula.

  5. The central monitoring station of Indian Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network (IERMON): the architecture and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Saurabh; Ratheesh, M.P.; Mukundan, T.; Patel, M.D.; Nair, C.K.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2010-01-01

    The Indian Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network (IERMON) is being established across the country by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The network consists of stations with automated systems for environmental radiation monitoring with online data communication facility. Currently about 100 stations are operational and additional 500 stations are expected to be installed by March, 2012. The network is established with different objectives, the main objective being the detection and reporting of any nuclear emergency anywhere in the country. The central monitoring station of the network is established in Mumbai. This paper describes the architecture and functions of IERMON Central Station. The Central Station consists of server room for online data collection from remote stations and maintenance of databases for various applications; central monitoring room for user interaction with database and IERMON website maintenance and development room for the development of new applications. The functions of IERMON Central Station include detection and reporting of nuclear emergency, maintenance of remote stations, enhancement of public awareness on environmental radiation through public display systems and website, etc. The details on system layout and data protocols can be found in the paper. (author)

  6. A deflection monitoring system for a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A wind turbine blade comprising a system for monitoring the deflection of a wind turbine blade is described. The system comprises a wireless range-measurement system, having at least one wireless communication device located towards the root end of the blade and at least one wireless communication...

  7. A portable meteorological station plus nuclear radiation monitoring system using a basic-8052 micro-controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mohamad, A.; Aghabi, S.; Weiss, C.

    2002-01-01

    a portable meteorology station capable of measuring various atmospheric parameters (mainly ambient temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction) was designed and built. The physical quantities were converted to electrical signals using suitable sensors. These signals were then processed and transferred to digital values to be stored in suitable memories. A nuclear radiation alarm system was also built, on the main board, to monitor the nuclear radiation releases levels. The system consists of three main parts: control board, data acquisition board and signals conditioning board. the overall system is controlled by a BASIC-8052 micro-controller. (authors)

  8. Damage tolerance and structural monitoring for wind turbine blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugan, M; Pereira, G; Sørensen, B F; Toftegaard, H; Branner, K

    2015-02-28

    The paper proposes a methodology for reliable design and maintenance of wind turbine rotor blades using a condition monitoring approach and a damage tolerance index coupling the material and structure. By improving the understanding of material properties that control damage propagation it will be possible to combine damage tolerant structural design, monitoring systems, inspection techniques and modelling to manage the life cycle of the structures. This will allow an efficient operation of the wind turbine in terms of load alleviation, limited maintenance and repair leading to a more effective exploitation of offshore wind. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies: Technical Area 4 - Balance-of-Station Cost; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, D. A.; Strawmyer, K. R.; Conley, R. M.; Guidinger J. H.; Wilkie, D. C.; Zellman, T. F.

    2001-01-01

    DOE's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program explores the most advanced wind-generating technologies for improving reliability and decreasing energy costs. The first step in the WindPact program is a scaling study to bound the optimum sizes for wind turbines, to define size limits for certain technologies, and to scale new technologies. The program is divided into four projects: Composite Blades for 80-120-meter Rotors; Turbine, Rotor, and Blade Logistics; Self-Erecting Tower and Nacelle Feasibility; and Balance-of-Station Cost. This report discusses balance-of-station costs, which includes the electrical power collector system, wind turbine foundations, communications and controls, meteorological equipment, access roadways, crane pads, and the maintenance building. The report is based on a conceptual 50-megawatt (MW) wind farm site near Mission, South Dakota. Cost comparisons are provided for four sizes of wind turbines: 750 kilowatt (kW), 2.5 MW, 5.0 MW, and 10.0 MW

  10. System Identification of Wind Turbines for Structural Health Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena

    Structural health monitoring is a multi-disciplinary engineering field that should allow the actual wind turbine maintenance programmes to evolve to the next level, hence increasing safety and reliability and decreasing turbines downtime. The main idea is to have a sensing system on the structure...... cases are considered, two practical problems from the wind industry are studied, i.e. monitoring of the gearbox shaft torque and the tower root bending moments. The second part of the thesis is focused on the influence of friction on the health of the wind turbine and on the nonlinear identification...... that monitors the system responses and notifies the operator when damages or degradations have been detected. However, some of the response signals that contain important information about the health of the wind turbine components cannot be directly measured, or measuring them is highly complex and costly...

  11. Station-keeping control of an unmanned surface vehicle exposed to current and wind disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Sarda, Edoardo I.; Qu, Huajin; Bertaska, Ivan R.; von Ellenrieder, Karl D.

    2017-01-01

    Field trials of a 4 meter long, 180 kilogram, unmanned surface vehicle (USV) have been conducted to evaluate the performance of station-keeping heading and position controllers in an outdoor marine environment disturbed by wind and current. The USV has a twin hull configuration and a custom-designed propulsion system, which consists of two azimuthing thrusters, one for each hull. Nonlinear proportional derivative, backstepping and sliding mode feedback controllers were tested in winds of abou...

  12. WIND SPEED AND ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY TRENDS FOR SELECTED UNITED STATES SURFACE STATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Allen H. Weber, A

    2006-11-01

    Recently it has been suggested that global warming and a decrease in mean wind speeds over most land masses are related. Decreases in near surface wind speeds have been reported by previous investigators looking at records with time spans of 15 to 30 years. This study focuses on United States (US) surface stations that have little or no location change since the late 1940s or the 1950s--a time range of up to 58 years. Data were selected from 62 stations (24 of which had not changed location) and separated into ten groups for analysis. The group's annual averages of temperature, wind speed, and percentage of Pasquill-Gifford (PG) stability categories were fitted with linear least squares regression lines. The results showed that the temperatures have increased for eight of the ten groups as expected. Wind speeds have decreased for nine of the ten groups. The mean slope of the wind speed trend lines for stations within the coterminous US was -0.77 m s{sup -1} per century. The percentage frequency of occurrence for the neutral (D) PG stability category decreased, while that for the unstable (B) and the stable (F) categories increased in almost all cases except for the group of stations located in Alaska.

  13. Can Weather Radars Help Monitoring and Forecasting Wind Power Fluctuations at Large Offshore Wind Farms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trombe, Pierre-Julien; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The substantial impact of wind power fluctuations at large offshore wind farms calls for the development of dedicated monitoring and prediction approaches. Based on recent findings, a Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) was installed at Horns Rev with the aim of improving predictability, controlability...... and potentially maintenance planning. Additional images are available from a Doppler radar covering the same area. The parallel analysis of rain events detection and of regime sequences in wind (and power) fluctuations demonstrates the interest of employing weather radars for a better operation and management...... of offshore wind farms....

  14. Atmosphere composition monitor for space station and advanced missions application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Powell, F.T.

    1987-01-01

    Long-term human occupation of extraterrestrial locations may soon become a reality. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently completed the definition and preliminary design of the low earth orbit (LEO) space station. They are now currently moving into the detailed design and fabrication phase of this space station and are also beginning to analyze the requirements of several future missions that have been identified. These missions include, for example, Lunar and Mars sorties, outposts, bases, and settlements. A requirement of both the LEO space station and future missions are environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), which provide a comfortable environment for humans to live and work. The ECLSS consists of several major systems, including atmosphere revitalization system (ARS), atmosphere pressure and composition control system, temperature and humidity control system, water reclamation system, and waste management system. Each of these major systems is broken down into subsystems, assemblies, units, and instruments. Many requirements and design drivers are different for the ECLSS of the LEO space station and the identified advanced missions (e.g., longer mission duration). This paper discusses one of the ARS assemblies, the atmosphere composition monitor assembly (ACMA), being developed for the LEO space station and addresses differences that will exist for the ACMA of future missions

  15. Real-time trend monitoring of gas compressor stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hardeveld, T. (Nova, an Alberta Corp., AB (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    The authors' company has developed a machinery health monitoring system (MHealth) for short-term and long-term historical trending and analysis of data from its 40 gas compressor stations. The author discusses the benefits of real-time trending in troubleshooting operations, in preventative maintenance scheduling and cites specific applications in the startup operations of several new gas compressor/centrifugal compressor units.

  16. Structural monitoring and smart control of a wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterino, Nicola; Trinchillo, Francesco; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable growth in height of wind turbines in the last years - for a higher production of electricity - makes the issues of monitoring and control of such challenging engineering works pressing than ever. The research herein proposed is addressed to monitor the structural demand imposed to ...

  17. Solar Wind Monitor--A School Geophysics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Described is an established geophysics project to construct a solar wind monitor based on a nT resolution fluxgate magnetometer. Low-cost and appropriate from school to university level it incorporates elements of astrophysics, geophysics, electronics, programming, computer networking and signal processing. The system monitors the earth's field in…

  18. High-Speed Monitoring of Multiple Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Array Configurations and Supplementary Weather Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Matthew T

    2017-06-01

    Three grid-connected monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic arrays have been instrumented with research-grade sensors on the Gaithersburg, MD campus of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). These arrays range from 73 kW to 271 kW and have different tilts, orientations, and configurations. Irradiance, temperature, wind, and electrical measurements at the arrays are recorded, and images are taken of the arrays to monitor shading and capture any anomalies. A weather station has also been constructed that includes research-grade instrumentation to measure all standard meteorological quantities plus additional solar irradiance spectral bands, full spectrum curves, and directional components using multiple irradiance sensor technologies. Reference photovoltaic (PV) modules are also monitored to provide comprehensive baseline measurements for the PV arrays. Images of the whole sky are captured, along with images of the instrumentation and reference modules to document any obstructions or anomalies. Nearly, all measurements at the arrays and weather station are sampled and saved every 1s, with monitoring having started on Aug. 1, 2014. This report describes the instrumentation approach used to monitor the performance of these photovoltaic systems, measure the meteorological quantities, and acquire the images for use in PV performance and weather monitoring and computer model validation.

  19. Some studies of zonal and meridional wind characteristics at low latitude Indian stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, O. P.; Kumar, S.

    1985-12-01

    At the beginning of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP), it was decided that the preparation of consolidation reports of already available parameters for the middle atmosphere would be useful. Atmospheric wind data obtained by rockets and balloons constituted one such parameter which had to be consolidated. The present paper summaries the results of this consolidation study. Both zonal and meridional components of winds at four low latitude Indian stations namely Thumba, Shar, Hyderabad, and Balasore, have been analyzed to yield reference wind profiles for each month. The montly mean values have been used to bring out the amplitudes and phases of the annual, semiannual and quasi-biennial oscillations.

  20. Some studies of zonal and meridional wind characteristics at low latitude Indian stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, O. P.; Kumar, S.

    1985-01-01

    At the beginning of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP), it was decided that the preparation of consolidation reports of already available parameters for the middle atmosphere would be useful. Atmospheric wind data obtained by rockets and balloons constituted one such parameter which had to be consolidated. The present paper summaries the results of this consolidation study. Both zonal and meridional components of winds at four low latitude Indian stations namely Thumba, Shar, Hyderabad, and Balasore, have been analyzed to yield reference wind profiles for each month. The montly mean values have been used to bring out the amplitudes and phases of the annual, semiannual and quasi-biennial oscillations.

  1. The Dust Storm Index (DSI): A method for monitoring broadscale wind erosion using meteorological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loingsigh, T.; McTainsh, G. H.; Tews, E. K.; Strong, C. L.; Leys, J. F.; Shinkfield, P.; Tapper, N. J.

    2014-03-01

    Wind erosion of soils is a natural process that has shaped the semi-arid and arid landscapes for millennia. This paper describes the Dust Storm Index (DSI); a methodology for monitoring wind erosion using Australian Bureau of Meteorology (ABM) meteorological observational data since the mid-1960s (long-term), at continental scale. While the 46 year length of the DSI record is its greatest strength from a wind erosion monitoring perspective, there are a number of technical challenges to its use because when the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) recording protocols were established the use of the data for wind erosion monitoring was never intended. Data recording and storage protocols are examined, including the effects of changes to the definition of how observers should interpret and record dust events. A method is described for selecting the 180 long-term ABM stations used in this study and the limitations of variable observation frequencies between stations are in part resolved. The rationale behind the DSI equation is explained and the examples of temporal and spatial data visualisation products presented include; a long term national wind erosion record (1965-2011), continental DSI maps, and maps of the erosion event types that are factored into the DSI equation. The DSI is tested against dust concentration data and found to provide an accurate representation of wind erosion activity. As the ABM observational records used here were collected according to WMO protocols, the DSI methodology could be used in all countries with WMO-compatible meteorological observation and recording systems.

  2. Advantages on monitoring wind turbine nacelle oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi; Hilmisson, Reynir

    2015-01-01

    and vibrations on blades, tower and drive train components, which may jeopardize their working condition. The present paper deals with the comparison and analysis of vibration signals from wind turbines subjected to various failure modes and operating conditions, such as blade misalignment, pitch malfunction...

  3. Mobile and modular. BGR develops seismological monitoring stations for universal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, Erwin; Hanneken, Mark

    2016-01-01

    BGR seismologists often set up monitoring stations for testing purposes. The engineers from the Central Seismological Observatory have now developed a new type of mobile monitoring station which can be remotely controlled.

  4. Wind Turbine Gearbox Oil Filtration and Condition Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2015-10-25

    This is an invited presentation for a pre-conference workshop, titled advances and opportunities in lubrication: wind turbine, at the 2015 Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE) Tribology Frontiers Conference held in Denver, CO. It gives a brief overview of wind turbine gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring by highlighting typical industry practices and challenges. The presentation starts with an introduction by covering recent growth of global wind industry, reliability challenges, benefits of oil filtration and condition monitoring, and financial incentives to conduct wind operation and maintenance research, which includes gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring work presented herein. Then, the presentation moves on to oil filtration by stressing the benefits of filtration, discussing typical main- and offline-loop practices, highlighting important factors considered when specifying a filtration system, and illustrating real-world application challenges through a cold-start example. In the next section on oil condition monitoring, a discussion on oil sample analysis, oil debris monitoring, oil cleanliness measurements and filter analysis is given based on testing results mostly obtained by and at NREL, and by pointing out a few challenges with oil sample analysis. The presentation concludes with a brief touch on future research and development (R and D) opportunities. It is hoping that the information presented can inform the STLE community to start or redirect their R and D work to help the wind industry advance.

  5. Bidding Strategy of Virtual Power Plant with Energy Storage Power Station and Photovoltaic and Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the virtual power plants containing energy storage power stations and photovoltaic and wind power, the output of PV and wind power is uncertain and virtual power plants must consider this uncertainty when they participate in the auction in the electricity market. In this context, this paper studies the bidding strategy of the virtual power plant with photovoltaic and wind power. Assuming that the upper and lower limits of the combined output of photovoltaic and wind power are stochastically variable, the fluctuation range of the day-ahead energy market and capacity price is stochastically variable. If the capacity of the storage station is large enough to stabilize the fluctuation of the output of the wind and photovoltaic power, virtual power plants can participate in the electricity market bidding. This paper constructs a robust optimization model of virtual power plant bidding strategy in the electricity market, which considers the cost of charge and discharge of energy storage power station and transmission congestion. The model proposed in this paper is solved by CPLEX; the example results show that the model is reasonable and the method is valid.

  6. Novel wind powered electric vehicle charging station with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) connection capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The only wind powered EV charging station reported in the literature. • The charging station maximally converts wind energy into electric energy. • Novel fast and highly accurate MPPT technique implemented in the EV charging station. • The charging station is grid-connected type with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. • The charging station balances load demand in the grid connected to it. - Abstract: In this study, a novel grid-connected wind powered electric vehicle (EV) charging station with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology is designed and constructed. The wind powered EV charging station consists of a wind energy conversion system (WECS), a unidirectional DC/DC converter connected to the WECS, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller, 15 bidirectional DC/DC converters dedicated to 15 charging stations provided for charging EVs, and a three-phase bidirectional DC/AC inverter connected to the grid. The contribution of this work is that the grid-connected wind powered EV charging station presented in this work is the only constructed EV charging station reported in the literature that uses wind energy as a renewable resource to produce electric energy for charging EVs, and moreover, it maximally converts wind energy into electric energy because it uses a novel fast and highly accurate MPPT technique proposed in this study. Other works are only simulated models without any new MPPT consideration. It is demonstrated that the constructed wind powered EV charging station is a perfect charging station that not only produces electric energy to charge EVs but also balances load demand in the grid connected to it.

  7. Influence of wind turbines on seismic stations in the upper rhine graben, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Toni; Ritter, Joachim R. R.

    2018-01-01

    By analysing long- and short-term seismological measurements at wind farms close to the town of Landau, SW Germany, we present new insights into ground motion signals from wind turbines (WTs) at local seismic stations. Because of their need to be located in similar regions with sparsely anthropogenic activities, wind turbines impact seismic stations and their recordings in a way that is not yet fully understood by researchers. To ensure the undisturbed recording tasks of a regional seismic array or a single station by a protected area around those endangered stations, it is very important to investigate the behavior of WTs as a seismic source. For that reason, we calculate averaged one-hour long spectra of the power spectral density (PSD) before and after the installation of a new wind farm within the investigated area. These PSD are ordered according to the rotation speed. We observe a clear increase of the PSD level after the WT installation in a frequency range of 0.5 to 10 Hz up to a distance of 5.5 km away from the WT. By analysing seismic borehole data, we also observe a decrease of the PSD of wind dependent signals with depth. The impact of wind-dependent signals is found to be much more pronounced for the shallower station (150 m depth) than for the deeper one (305 m depth). Using short-term profile measurements, we fit a power-law decay proportional to 1/ r b to the main WT-induced PSD peaks and differentiate between near-field and far-field effects of ground motions. For low frequencies in the range from 1 to 4 Hz, we determine a b value of 0.78 to 0.85 for the far field, which is consistent with surface waves. The b value increases (up to 1.59) with increasing frequencies (up to 5.5 Hz), which is obviously due to attenuating effects like scattering or anelasticity. These results give a better understanding of the seismic wavefield interactions between wind turbines (or wind farms) with nearby seismic stations, including borehole installations, in a

  8. Fundamentals for remote condition monitoring of offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGugan, Malcolm; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Sørensen, Bent F.

    In the future, large wind turbines will be placed offshore in considerable numbers. Since access will be difficult and costly, it is preferable to use monitoring systems to reduce the reliance on manual inspection. The motivation for the effort reported here is to create the fundamental basis...... of the wind turbine blades that can integrate with existing SCADA tools to improve management of large offshore wind farms, and optimise the manual inspection/maintenance effort. Various sensor types, which have previously been identified as technically (and economically) capable of detecting the early...

  9. Monitoring of Electromagnetic Radiation from Cellular Base Stations in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Otaibi, A.H.; Al-Ajmi, D.; Williams, T.; McGee, D.; Dennis, J.A.; Beg, M.U.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of the radio frequency electromagnetic environment in Kuwait was carried out. The primary purpose of this survey was to monitor electromagnetic radiation (EMR) field strength levels emitted by cellular base stations installed and operated by the Kuwait Mobile Telecommunications Company (MTC). Measurements were made at 26 cellular-phone base stations, chosen as a representative sample to include 14 school sites, 2 residential sites, 2 hospital sites, 3 ministerial building sites, 3 commercial sites and 1 typical stand-alone site. On all the selected sites measurements were made with a spectrum analyser to determine the emission level in the frequency bands used by the base station transmitters (917-960 MHz). The results indicated that total field strength, specifically due to the MTC base stations, found in public access areas, varied generally between 0.05 and 1.13 V.m -1 . These values are in the order of between 40 and 800 times lower than the new pan-European CENELEC pre-standard ENV 50166-2 'Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields'. In terms of power density the highest observed value (0.34 μW.m -2 ) was more than a thousand times below the prescribed standards. (author)

  10. Variability of road traffic noise recorded by stationary monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąkowski, Andrzej; Radziszewski, Leszek

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the analysis results of equivalent sound level recorded by two road traffic noise monitoring stations. The stations were located in Kielce (an example of a medium-size town in Poland) at the roads out of the town in the direction of Kraków and Warszawa. The measurements were carried out through stationary stations monitoring the noise and traffic of motor vehicles. The RMS values based on A-weighted sound level were recorded every 1 s in the buffer and the results were registered every 1 min over the period of investigations. The registered data were the basis for calculating the equivalent sound level for three time intervals: from 6:00 to 18:00, from 18:00 to 22:00 and from 22:00 to 6:00. Analysis included the values of the equivalent sound level recorded for different days of the week split into 24h periods, nights, days and evenings. The data analysed included recordings from 2013. The coefficient of variation and positional variation were proposed for performing comparative analysis of the obtained data scattering. The investigations indicated that the recorded data varied depending on the traffic routes. The differences concerned the values of coefficients of variation of the equivalent sound levels.

  11. Converter Monitoring Unit for Retrofit of Wind Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rannestad, Bjorn; Maarbjerg, Anders Eggert; Frederiksen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    A Converter Monitoring Unit (CMU), which will enable condition monitoring of wind turbine converters is presented in this paper. Reducing the cost of corrective maintenance by means of condition monitoring is a way of lowering Operation & Maintenance (O&M) costs for wind turbine systems....... The CMU must be able to detect a broad range of failure modes related to Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) power modules and associated gate drives. IGBT collector-emitter on-state voltage (vceon) and current (ic) is sampled in the CMU and used for detection of emerging failures. A new method...... for compensation of unwanted inductive voltage drop in the vceon measurement path is presented, enabling retrofitting of CMUs in existing wind turbines. Finally, experimental results obtained on a prototype CMU are presented. Experimentally the vceon dependency to IGBT junction temperature and deterioration...

  12. Damage tolerance and structural monitoring for wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGugan, Malcolm; Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a methodology for reliable design and maintenance of wind turbine rotor blades using a condition monitoring approach and a damage tolerance index coupling the material and structure. By improving the understanding of material properties that control damage propagation it will b......The paper proposes a methodology for reliable design and maintenance of wind turbine rotor blades using a condition monitoring approach and a damage tolerance index coupling the material and structure. By improving the understanding of material properties that control damage propagation...

  13. Personal exposure versus monitoring station data for respirable particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sega, K; Fugas, M

    1982-01-01

    Personal exposure to respirable particles of 12 subjects working at the same location, but living in various parts of Zagreb, was monitored for 7 consecutive days and compared with simultaneously obtained data from the outdoor network station nearest to subject's home. Although personal exposure is related to the outdoor pollution, other sources play a considerable role. Indoor exposure takes, on the average, more than 80% of the total time. The ratio between average personal exposure and respirable particle levels in the outdoor air decreases with the increased outdoor concentration (r = -0.93), indicating that this relationship might serve as a basis for a rough estimate of possible personal exposure.

  14. Monitoring and optimization of energy consumption of base transceiver stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spagnuolo, Antonio; Petraglia, Antonio; Vetromile, Carmela; Formosi, Roberto; Lubritto, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    The growth and development of the mobile phone network has led to an increased demand for energy by the telecommunications sector, with a noticeable impact on the environment. Monitoring of energy consumption is a great tool for understanding how to better manage this consumption and find the best strategy to adopt in order to maximize reduction of unnecessary usage of electricity. This paper reports on a monitoring campaign performed on six BSs (Base Transceiver Stations) located central Italy, with different technology, typology and technical characteristics. The study focuses on monitoring energy consumption and environmental parameters (temperature, noise, and global radiation), linking energy consumption with the load of telephone traffic and with the air conditioning functions used to cool the transmission equipment. Moreover, using experimental data collected, it is shown, with a Monte Carlo simulation based on power saving features, how the BS monitored could save energy. - Highlights: • Energy consumption and environmental parameters of a base transceiver system have been monitored. • Energy consumption is related to the air conditioning functions and to the load of telephone traffic. • Energy saving can be obtained by careful choice of cooling parameters and by turn off BS transceivers. • Energy saving parameters can be estimated by a simulation Monte Carlo method

  15. Forecasting Cool Season Daily Peak Winds at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Short, David; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) for planning operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The morning outlook for peak speeds also begins the warning decision process for gusts ^ 35 kt, ^ 50 kt, and ^ 60 kt from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated that peak wind speeds are a challenging parameter to forecast during the cool season (October-April). The 45 WS requested that the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a tool to help them forecast the speed and timing of the daily peak and average wind, from the surface to 300 ft on KSC/CCAFS during the cool season. The tool must only use data available by 1200 UTC to support the issue time of the Planning Forecasts. Based on observations from the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network, surface observations from the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and CCAFS upper-air soundings from the cool season months of October 2002 to February 2007, the AMU created multiple linear regression equations to predict the timing and speed of the daily peak wind speed, as well as the background average wind speed. Several possible predictors were evaluated, including persistence, the temperature inversion depth, strength, and wind speed at the top of the inversion, wind gust factor (ratio of peak wind speed to average wind speed), synoptic weather pattern, occurrence of precipitation at the SLF, and strongest wind in the lowest 3000 ft, 4000 ft, or 5000 ft. Six synoptic patterns were identified: 1) surface high near or over FL, 2) surface high north or east of FL, 3) surface high south or west of FL, 4) surface front approaching FL, 5) surface front across central FL, and 6) surface front across south FL. The following six predictors were selected: 1) inversion depth, 2) inversion strength, 3) wind gust factor, 4) synoptic weather pattern, 5) occurrence of

  16. Stackelberg Game Model of Wind Farm and Electric Vehicle Battery Switch Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhe; Li, Zhimin; Li, Wenbo; Wang, Mingqiang; Wang, Mengxia

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a cooperation method between wind farm and Electric vehicle battery switch station (EVBSS) was proposed. In the pursuit of maximizing their own benefits, the cooperation between wind farm and EVBSS was formulated as a Stackelberg game model by treating them as decision makers in different status. As the leader, wind farm will determine the charging/discharging price to induce the charging and discharging behavior of EVBSS reasonably. Through peak load shifting, wind farm could increase its profits by selling more wind power to the power grid during time interval with a higher purchase price. As the follower, EVBSS will charge or discharge according to the price determined by wind farm. Through optimizing the charging /discharging strategy, EVBSS will try to charge with a lower price and discharge with a higher price in order to increase its profits. Since the possible charging /discharging strategy of EVBSS is known, the wind farm will take the strategy into consideration while deciding the charging /discharging price, and will adjust the price accordingly to increase its profits. The case study proved that the proposed cooperation method and model were feasible and effective.

  17. Monitoring of offshore wind farm using reliable communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, K.G.; Gajranib, K.; Bhargavac, A. [Rajasthan Technical Univ.. Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kota (India)

    2012-07-01

    Due to rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels, new renewable technologies for electricity generation are insisted upon to meet the continuous growing demand of energy all across the globe. Wind energy as a green energy is a favorable option, among other available renewable sources. The offshore wind farm capacity is growing rapidly, but it's uncertain and intermittent nature offers great challenges to power system engineers. The cost of repair and down time, results into extensive damage and reduced profitability. This necessitates the requirement of fast and reliable communication network for the monitoring and controlling of the wind farm. In this paper, we have proposed the communication network for medium offshore wind farm (160MW). The wind farm consists of four clusters; each cluster comprises of 10 Wind Turbines (WTs), each of capacity 4MW. A WT can be represented by nine logical nodes according to IEC-61400-25 standard. The functions of logical nodes are modeled in terms of analogue /status/control information. The wind farm has been modeled in OPNET modeler and the performance of the communication network is evaluated in terms of End to End delay and packet drop, using Synchronous Optical NETwork (SONET) standard. (Author)

  18. Monitoring of offshore wind farm using reliable communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, K G; Gajranib, K; Bhargavac, A [Rajasthan Technical Univ. Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kota (India)

    2012-07-01

    Due to rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels, new renewable technologies for electricity generation are insisted upon to meet the continuous growing demand of energy all across the globe. Wind energy as a green energy is a favorable option, among other available renewable sources. The offshore wind farm capacity is growing rapidly, but it's uncertain and intermittent nature offers great challenges to power system engineers. The cost of repair and down time, results into extensive damage and reduced profitability. This necessitates the requirement of fast and reliable communication network for the monitoring and controlling of the wind farm. In this paper, we have proposed the communication network for medium offshore wind farm (160MW). The wind farm consists of four clusters; each cluster comprises of 10 Wind Turbines (WTs), each of capacity 4MW. A WT can be represented by nine logical nodes according to IEC-61400-25 standard. The functions of logical nodes are modeled in terms of analogue /status/control information. The wind farm has been modeled in OPNET modeler and the performance of the communication network is evaluated in terms of End to End delay and packet drop, using Synchronous Optical NETwork (SONET) standard. (Author)

  19. International remote monitoring project Argentina Nuclear Power Station Spent Fuel Transfer Remote Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.; Lucero, R.; Glidewell, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Autoridad Regulataria Nuclear (ARN) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. A Remote Monitoring System for spent fuel transfer will be installed at the Argentina Nuclear Power Station in Embalse, Argentina. The system has been designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing gamma and neutron sensors. This project will test and evaluate the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguards efficiency. This paper provides a description of the monitoring system and its functions. The Remote Monitoring System consists of gamma and neutron radiation sensors, RF systems, and video systems integrated into a coherent functioning whole. All sensor data communicate over an Echelon LonWorks Network to a single data logger. The Neumann DCM 14 video module is integrated into the Remote Monitoring System. All sensor and image data are stored on a Data Acquisition System (DAS) and archived and reviewed on a Data and Image Review Station (DIRS). Conventional phone lines are used as the telecommunications link to transmit on-site collected data and images to remote locations. The data and images are authenticated before transmission. Data review stations will be installed at ARN in Buenos Aires, Argentina, ABACC in Rio De Janeiro, IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, and Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 2 refs., 2 figs

  20. Some aspects on wind turbines monitoring. General considerations and loads on horizontal wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuerva, A.

    1996-12-01

    The concept Monitoring applied to the Wind Energy technology is similar to the definition used in other branches of Science or Engineering, this is knowing values of variables which have to do with a mechanic system, in our case a wind turbine. These mentioned parameters may have different relationships to our wind turbine; some of them come from the environment the machine is operating in, others, are a measure of how properly the machine is working, and finally, the rest are an assessment of the ``system`s health`` during its ``life``. In this chapter we will answer questions such as: What do we need to measure? Why is Monitoring mandatory (from the different points of view of people involved in this world)? How can we measure a wind turbine depending on our objectives (Technic, tools, guidance, recommendations, etc)? And finally What can we expect in the near future?. The author wants the reader to keep the idea in mind that Monitoring means the richest and most accurate knowledge on wind turbine`s operation (Its environment, performances of health). This is the first step that allows us to optimize the operation mode of the machine and improve it (design, manufacturing, even the used modeling tools). When there is so much money involved, this fact becomes a must. (Author)

  1. Some aspects on wind turbines monitoring. General considerations and loads on horizontal wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuerva, A.

    1996-01-01

    The concept Monitoring applied to the Wind Energy technology is similar to the definition used in other branches of Science or Engineering, this is knowing values of variables which have to do with a mechanic system, in our case a wind turbine. These mentioned parameters may have different relationships to our wind turbine; some of them come from the environment the machine is operating in, others, are a measure of how properly the machine is working, and finally, the rest are an assessment of the systems health during its life. In this chapter we will answer questions such as: What do we need to measure? Why is Monitoring mandatory (from the different points of view of people involved in this world)? How can we measure a wind turbine depending on our objectives (Technic, tools, guidance, recommendations, etc.)? And finally What can we expect in the near future? The author wants the reader to keep the idea in mind that Monitoring means the richest and most accurate knowledge on wind turbine's operation (Its environment, performances or health). This is the first step that allows us to optimize the operation mode of the machine and improve it (design, manufacturing, even the used modeling tools). When there is so much money involved, this fact becomes a must. (Author)

  2. Two-Stage Multi-Objective Collaborative Scheduling for Wind Farm and Battery Switch Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to deal with the uncertainties of wind power, wind farm and electric vehicle (EV battery switch station (BSS were proposed to work together as an integrated system. In this paper, the collaborative scheduling problems of such a system were studied. Considering the features of the integrated system, three indices, which include battery swapping demand curtailment of BSS, wind curtailment of wind farm, and generation schedule tracking of the integrated system are proposed. In addition, a two-stage multi-objective collaborative scheduling model was designed. In the first stage, a day-ahead model was built based on the theory of dependent chance programming. With the aim of maximizing the realization probabilities of these three operating indices, random fluctuations of wind power and battery switch demand were taken into account simultaneously. In order to explore the capability of BSS as reserve, the readjustment process of the BSS within each hour was considered in this stage. In addition, the stored energy rather than the charging/discharging power of BSS during each period was optimized, which will provide basis for hour-ahead further correction of BSS. In the second stage, an hour-ahead model was established. In order to cope with the randomness of wind power and battery swapping demand, the proposed hour-ahead model utilized ultra-short term prediction of the wind power and the battery switch demand to schedule the charging/discharging power of BSS in a rolling manner. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed models was validated by case studies. The simulation results indicated that the proposed model could realize complement between wind farm and BSS, reduce the dependence on power grid, and facilitate the accommodation of wind power.

  3. 40 CFR 52.1080 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.1080 Section 52.1080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1080 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On March 24, 1994 Maryland's... Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2426 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.2426 Section 52.2426 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2426 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On November 23, 1994 Virginia's... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as...

  5. Using C-Band Dual-Polarization Radar Signatures to Improve Convective Wind Forecasting at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and NASA Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Corey G.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Roeder, William P.; McNamara, Todd M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    The United States Air Force's 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) is the organization responsible for monitoring atmospheric conditions at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and NASA Kennedy Space Center (CCAFS/KSC) and issuing warnings for hazardous weather conditions when the need arises. One such warning is issued for convective wind events, for which lead times of 30 and 60 minutes are desired for events with peak wind gusts of 35 knots or greater (i.e., Threshold-1) and 50 knots or greater (i.e., Threshold-2), respectively (Roeder et al. 2014).

  6. Nonlinear Cointegration Approach for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Zolna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of trends and removal of undesired trends from operational/process parameters in wind turbines is important for their condition monitoring. This paper presents the homoscedastic nonlinear cointegration for the solution to this problem. The cointegration approach used leads to stable variances in cointegration residuals. The adapted Breusch-Pagan test procedure is developed to test for the presence of heteroscedasticity in cointegration residuals obtained from the nonlinear cointegration analysis. Examples using three different time series data sets—that is, one with a nonlinear quadratic deterministic trend, another with a nonlinear exponential deterministic trend, and experimental data from a wind turbine drivetrain—are used to illustrate the method and demonstrate possible practical applications. The results show that the proposed approach can be used for effective removal of nonlinear trends form various types of data, allowing for possible condition monitoring applications.

  7. Environmental monitoring of a wind park during the construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castonguay, M.; Caron, F.

    2007-01-01

    Wind energy qualifies as green energy because of low gas emissions associated with energy production. However, in order to truly qualify as green, each phase of a wind energy project should be evaluated, including construction, the energy exploitation period, as well as the dismantling of the turbines. Environmental monitoring of wind turbine arrays during the construction and dismantling phases could reveal the environmental impact of a project. This article provided the example of a wind turbine array at l'Anse-a-Valleau, located in a forested territory on the north side of the Gaspe Peninsula along the St. Lawrence River in Quebec. The park was configured to have 67 wind turbines of 1.5 MW each, for a total of 100.5 MW. The project was evaluated at $164 million, with regional economic spending of $65.8 million. During the height of construction, the project employed 240 workers. Ten full-time jobs will be created for the operation phase, scheduled for the end of 2007. The environmental monitoring at the construction site is deemed both technical and social. Good working conditions and communication must be established between the environmental supervisor and the site manager. They must work jointly to ensure good conduct and progress of the work at the construction site. The environmental supervisor must have the necessary authority to stop work upon a breach of regulations in the deforesting phase, since 60 per cent of the territory is on public domain. Environmental monitoring also includes surveillance of the road construction, soil quality, transportation of equipment, air quality, noise pollution, and residual matter management. It was concluded that wind energy is a true form of green energy, and methods used by developers during construction demonstrate responsibility towards the environment. It was suggested that the key to success is to have good pre-planning and good communication between all parties concerned. 4 figs

  8. Operation of the Hoenoe wind power test station. Final report; Drift av Hoenoe provstation. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsen, Magnus; Carlson, Ola [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Engineering

    2002-04-01

    This project has made it possible to have autonomous operation of the Chalmers experimental wind turbine. By development of the optimal speed and stall control the energy production is good. The test station has been put in good order and is well prepared to been shown to visitors. The proposed research will focus on series capacitors for increasing the power output and better control of the damping valves to reduce vibrations.

  9. Sources of Wind Variability at a Single Station in Complex Terrain During Tropical Cyclone Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Mesoscale Prediction System CPA Closest point of approach ET Extratropical transition FNMOC Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center...forecasts. However, 2 the TC forecast tracks and warnings they issue necessarily focus on the large-scale structure of the storm , and are not...winds at one station. Also, this technique is a storm - centered forecast and even if the grid spacing is on order of one kilometer, it is unlikely

  10. Wind Turbine Bearing Diagnostics Based on Vibration Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, H. T.; Mahmood, F. H.; Resen, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    Reliability maintenance can be considered as an accurate condition monitoring system which increasing beneficial and decreasing the cost production of wind energy. Supporting low friction of wind turbine rotating shaft is the main task of rolling element bearing and it is the main part that suffers from failure. The rolling failures elements have an economic impact and may lead to malfunctions and catastrophic failures. This paper concentrates on the vibration monitoring as a Non-Destructive Technique for assessing and demonstrates the feasibility of vibration monitoring for small wind turbine bearing defects based on LabVIEW software. Many bearings defects were created, such as inner race defect, outer race defect, and ball spin defect. The spectra data were recorded and compared with the theoretical results. The accelerometer with 4331 NI USB DAQ was utilized to acquiring, analyzed, and recorded. The experimental results were showed the vibration technique is suitable for diagnostic the defects that will be occurred in the small wind turbine bearings and developing a fault in the bearing which leads to increasing the vibration amplitude or peaks in the spectrum.

  11. Pumping station design for a pumped-storage wind-hydro power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, John S.; Papantonis, Dimitris E.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the optimum sizing and design of a pumping station unit in a hybrid wind-hydro plant. The standard design that consists of a number of identical pumps operating in parallel is examined in comparison with two other configurations, using one variable-speed pump or an additional set of smaller jockey pumps. The aim is to reduce the amount of the wind generated energy that cannot be transformed to hydraulic energy due to power operation limits of the pumps and the resulting step-wise operation of the pumping station. The plant operation for a period of one year is simulated by a comprehensive evaluation algorithm, which also performs a detailed economic analysis of the plant using dynamic evaluation methods. A preliminary study of the entire plant sizing is carried out at first using an optimization tool based on evolutionary algorithms. The performance of the three examined pumping station units is then computed and analyzed in a comparative study. The results reveal that the use of a variable-speed pump constitutes the most effective and profitable solution, and its superiority is more pronounced for less dispersed wind power potential

  12. Monitoring of wind load and response for cable-supported bridges in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kai-yuen; Chan, Wai-Yee K.; Man, King-Leung

    2001-08-01

    Structural health monitoring for the three cable-supported bridges located in the West of Hong Kong or the Tsing Ma Control Area has been carried out since the opening of these bridges to public traffic. The three cable-supported bridges are referred to as the Tsing Ma (suspension) Bridge, the Kap Shui Mun (cable-stayed) Bridge and the Ting Kau (cable-stayed) Bridge. The structural health monitoring works involved are classified as six monitoring categories, namely, wind load and response, temperature load and response, traffic load and response, geometrical configuration monitoring, strains and stresses/forces monitoring and global dynamic characteristics monitoring. As wind loads and responses had been a major concern in the design and construction stages, this paper therefore outlines the work of wind load and response monitoring on Tsing Ma, Kap Shui Mun and Ting Kau Bridges. The paper starts with a brief description of the sensory systems. The description includes the layout and performance requirements of sensory systems for wind load and responses monitoring. Typical results of wind load and response monitoring in graphical forms are then presented. These graphical forms include the plots of wind rose diagrams, wind incidences vs wind speeds, wind turbulence intensities, wind power spectra, gust wind factors, coefficient of terrain roughness, extreme wind analyses, deck deflections/rotations vs wind speeds, acceleration spectra, acceleration/displacement contours, and stress demand ratios. Finally conclusions on wind load and response monitoring on the three cable-supported bridges are drawn.

  13. Effect of wind speed and solar irradiation on the optimization of a PV-Wind-Battery system to supply a telecommunications station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Lujano, Juan; Zubi, Ghassan [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Electrical Engineerign Dept.

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows the optimization of a PV-Wind hybrid system with batteries storage to supply the electrical power to a small telecommunications station. The load demanded by the station is 100 W continuously. We have considered 6 different wind speed profiles, from 2 m/s average speed (low wind speed in many places in Spain) to 8 m/s average (very high wind speed, in few places in Spain) and 3 different irradiation profiles, from the lowest average daily irradiation in Spain, about 2.5 kWh/m{sup 2}/day, to the highest one in Spain, about 5 kWh/m{sup 2}/day. Therefore we have considered 6 x 3 = 18 combinations of wind speed and irradiation profiles. For each combination of wind speed and irradiation profiles, we have optimized the PV-Wind-Battery system to supply the power demand, considering some different PV panels, wind turbines and batteries. We have also considered in the optimization non-hybrid systems (PV-Battery systems and Wind-Battery systems). The simulation of the system performance has been done hourly. The optimal system for each combination of wind speed and irradiation is the one which can supply the whole demand of the telecommunications station with the lowest Net Present Cost of the system. Simulation and optimization has been done using HOGA (Hybrid Optimization by Genetic Algorithms) software, developed by some of the authors. The results show that, with actual prices of PV panels and wind turbines, in 13 of the 18 combinations of wind speed and irradiation profiles the optimal system is a hybrid system (it includes PV panels, wind turbine and batteries). In the other 5 combinations (the ones with lowest wind speed and/or highest irradiation), the optimal system is PV-Battery, i.e., without wind turbine. We conclude that, in most of the places in Spain, the optimal system to supply the demand of a communications station (with continous demand profile) is a hybrid system (PV-Wind-Batteries) instead of a PV-Batteries system or a Wind

  14. Assessment of wind speed and wind power through three stations in Egypt, including air density variation and analysis results with rough set theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essa, K.S.M.; Embaby, M.; Marrouf, A.A.; Koza, A.M.; Abd El-Monsef, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the wind energy potential is proportional to both air density and the third power of the wind speed average over a suitable time period. The wind speed and air density have random variables depending on both time and location. The main objective of this work is to derive the most general wind energy potential of the wind formulation putting into consideration the time variable in both wind speed and air density. The correction factor is derived explicitly in terms of the cross-correlation and the coefficients of variation.The application is performed for environmental and wind speed measurements at the Cairo Airport, Kosseir and Hurguada, Egypt. Comparisons are made between Weibull, Rayleigh, and actual data distributions of wind speed and wind power of one year 2005. A Weibull distribution is the best match to the actual probability distribution of wind speed data for most stations. The maximum wind energy potential was 373 W/m 2 in June at Hurguada (Red Sea coast) where the annual mean value was 207 W/m 2 . By Using Rough Set Theory, We Find That the Wind Power Depends on the Wind Speed with greater than air density

  15. Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Round Robin Study - Vibration Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) tested two identical gearboxes. One was tested on the NWTCs 2.5 MW dynamometer and the other was field tested in a turbine in a nearby wind plant. In the field, the test gearbox experienced two oil loss events that resulted in damage to its internal bearings and gears. Since the damage was not severe, the test gearbox was removed from the field and retested in the NWTCs dynamometer before it was disassembled. During the dynamometer retest, some vibration data along with testing condition information were collected. These data enabled NREL to launch a Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Round Robin project, as described in this report. The main objective of this project was to evaluate different vibration analysis algorithms used in wind turbine condition monitoring (CM) and find out whether the typical practices are effective. With involvement of both academic researchers and industrial partners, the project sets an example on providing cutting edge research results back to industry.

  16. Monitoring the Dead Sea Region by Multi-Parameter Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, A.; Weber, M. H.; Kottmeier, C.; Asch, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Dead Sea Region is an exceptional ecosystem whose seismic activity has influenced all facets of the development, from ground water availability to human evolution. Israelis, Palestinians and Jordanians living in the Dead Sea region are exposed to severe earthquake hazard. Repeatedly large earthquakes (e.g. 1927, magnitude 6.0; (Ambraseys, 2009)) shook the whole Dead Sea region proving that earthquake hazard knows no borders and damaging seismic events can strike anytime. Combined with the high vulnerability of cities in the region and with the enormous concentration of historical values this natural hazard results in an extreme earthquake risk. Thus, an integration of earthquake parameters at all scales (size and time) and their combination with data of infrastructure are needed with the specific aim of providing a state-of-the-art seismic hazard assessment for the Dead Sea region as well as a first quantitative estimate of vulnerability and risk. A strong motivation for our research is the lack of reliable multi-parameter ground-based geophysical information on earthquakes in the Dead Sea region. The proposed set up of a number of observatories with on-line data access will enable to derive the present-day seismicity and deformation pattern in the Dead Sea region. The first multi-parameter stations were installed in Jordan, Israel and Palestine for long-time monitoring. All partners will jointly use these locations. All stations will have an open data policy, with the Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany) providing the hard and software for real-time data transmission via satellite to Germany, where all partners can access the data via standard data protocols.

  17. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2016 Meteorological, Radiological, and Wind Transported Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vicken [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if wind blowing across the Clean Slate sites is transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites.

  18. Analysis of time series exposure rates obtained at a monitoring station around nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, I.; Ogawa, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Honda, Y.; Nakashima, Y.; Yoshimoto, T.; Tsujimoto, T.

    1991-01-01

    From the investigation on the variation of AAD rates monitored in the natural environment around nuclear power station, it may be concluded; (1) Differences between monthly averaged air absorbed dose rates (AAD rates) given by all data obtained and those obtained in fine weather become larger in winter (from Dec. to Feb.) (2) Cummulative frequency distributions of AAD rates are very different among four seasons. Remarkably high AAD rates are observed by heavy rains in summer and snow falls or rains in winter. (3) Though the hypothesis that the frequency distribution of AAD rates fit to the lognormal distribution can not be accepted by chi-square test, higher part of the frequency distribution of AAD rates agree approximately with the lognormal one. (4) Identification of AAD rates due to plume exposure may be possible by statistical analysis assuming lognormal distribution of AAD rates as well as the discrimination method based on the reference standard using mean values and standard deviations of the data obtained in fine weather. (author)

  19. International Remote Monitoring Project Embalse Nuclear Power Station, Argentina Embalse Remote Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Sigfried L.; Glidewell, Donnie D.; Bonino, Anibal; Bosler, Gene; Mercer, David; Maxey, Curt; Vones, Jaromir; Martelle, Guy; Busse, James; Kadner, Steve; White, Mike; Rovere, Luis

    1999-01-01

    The Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear of Argentina (ARN), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), ABACC, the US Department of Energy, and the US Support Program POTAS, cooperated in the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This system was installed at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station last year to evaluate the feasibility of using radiation sensors in monitoring the transfer of spent fuel from the spent fuel pond to dry storage. The key element in this process is to maintain continuity of knowledge throughout the entire transfer process. This project evaluated the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguard efficiency. New technology has been developed to enhance the design of the system to include storage capability on board sensor platforms. This evaluation has led to design enhancements that will assure that no data loss will occur during loss of RF transmission of the sensors

  20. Gearbox Fatigue Load Estimation for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Pedersen, Bo Juul; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. Estimated loads can be further used for prediction of remaining operating lifetime of turbine components, detection of high stress level or fault detection. An augmented Kalman filter is chosen as the fatigue load estimator because its characteristics well suit......The focus of the paper is on a design of a fatigue load estimator for predictive condition monitoring systems (CMS) of wind turbines. In order to avoid high-price measurement equipment required for direct load measuring, an indirect approach is suggested using only measurements from supervisory...... for the real time application. This paper presents results of the estimation of the gearbox fatigue load, often called shaft torque, using simulated data of wind turbine. Noise sensitivity of the algorithm is investigated by assuming different levels of measurement noise. Shaft torque estimations are compared...

  1. FLAME MONITORING IN POWER STATION BOILERS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sujatha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2, excess oxygen (O2, Nitrogen dioxide (NOx, Sulphur dioxide (SOx and Carbon monoxide (CO emissions plus the flame temperature at the core of the fire ball, air/fuel ratio and the combustion quality. Higher the quality of combustion less will be the flue gases at the exhaust. The flame video was captured using an infrared camera. The flame video is then split up into the frames for further analysis. The video splitter is used for progressive extraction of the flame images from the video. The images of the flame are then pre-processed to reduce noise. The conventional classification and clustering techniques include the Euclidean distance classifier (L2 norm classifier. The intelligent classifier includes the Radial Basis Function Network (RBF, Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA and parallel architecture with RBF and BPA (PRBFBPA. The results of the validation are supported with the above mentioned performance measures whose values are in the optimal range. The values of the temperatures, combustion quality, SOx, NOx, CO, CO2 concentrations, air and fuel supplied corresponding to the images were obtained thereby indicating the necessary control action taken to increase or decrease the air supply so as to ensure complete combustion. In this work, by continuously monitoring the flame images, combustion quality was inferred (complete/partial/incomplete combustion and the air/fuel ratio can be automatically varied. Moreover in the existing set-up, measurements like NOx, CO and CO2 are inferred from the samples that are collected periodically or by

  2. Hybrid wind-PV grid connected power station case study: Al Tafila, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tous, Yousif [Department of Electrical Engineering/Faculty of Engineering Technology/ Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman, P.O.Box (15008), Marka Ashamalia (Jordan); Al-Battat, Saleh [Department of substation maintenance and protection, National Electric Power Company (NEPCO), Amman (Jordan); Abdel Hafith, Sandro [Department of technical support and project supervision/Integrated power systems co., Amman (Jordan)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we are providing an attempt to highlight the importance of renewable energy, more specifically, the one produced from a wind-solar hybrid system. This purpose will be achieved through providing a detailed case study for such system that would be applied in Al-Tafila, Jordan. First and foremost site assessment has been conducted based on an intensive literature review for the data available regarding the availability of wind and solar energy in Jordan and resulted in the selection of Al-Tafila 2 district as the best option among all. Then, the components of the power station and its size have been selected based on specific criteria that make the station as much efficient and competitive as possible. To obtain the output of the different components with respect to the demand for a period of 25 years, a system model was built using HOMER. Finally, the total capital cost of the system was calculated and resulted to be (63400168) $ and with a cost of energy of (0.053) $/kWh which is a very competitive and feasible cost compared to similar international projects and to the conventional energy price.

  3. Environmental Monitoring - Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davy, Thomas (Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to describe the environmental monitoring measures performed for the Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm and to summarize the results and conclusions. Construction work started in 2006 and the plant was energized in December 2007. At the time of construction Lillgrund was the third largest wind farm offshore in the world and the first large offshore wind farm in Sweden. The purpose of the environmental monitoring is to ensure that there are no negative impacts on the environment stemming from construction of the Lillgrund wind farm as well as to ensure that the conditions stated by the authorities and the Company's commitments are met. The aim is also to collect more information and knowledge on the possible environmental impact for future offshore wind farm projects. For the Lillgrund project, all monitoring programs were included in one document, Monitoring Program - Lillgrund. It was included as part of the procedures to ensure that the Swedish legal requirements on operators control were followed. The authorities approved the document before construction started. The monitoring measures performed during the construction phase included: - A feedback and monitoring program on dredging and spillage; - A feedback and monitoring program on flora and fauna; - Studies and inspections of the refilling and re-establishment of the sea bottom; - Procedure for operators control. The mean measured sediment spillage, as part of the monitoring program on dredging and spillage, varied between 4.6 - 4.8% depending on dredger used. The maximum value allowed by the conditions is 5%. In general, the calculated values for suspended material were limited and the critical value of 0.01 kg/m3 was exceeded only in minor areas for a very limited time. No corrective actions were required. The deposition of sediment was very low and even at the most effected sites it was only just over 1 mm. The largest dredging volumes were for the foundation work, in total 82

  4. Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring with AAKR and Moving Window Statistic Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Guo; Nan Bai

    2011-01-01

    Condition Monitoring (CM) of wind turbines can greatly reduce the maintenance costs for wind farms, especially for offshore wind farms. A new condition monitoring method for a wind turbine gearbox using temperature trend analysis is proposed. Autoassociative Kernel Regression (AAKR) is used to construct the normal behavior model of the gearbox temperature. With a proper construction of the memory matrix, the AAKR model can cover the normal working space for the gearbox. When the gearbox has a...

  5. Vibration monitoring of large generator stator and-winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffeau, F.; Bernard, P.

    1999-01-01

    Large generators of French Nuclear Power plants are equipped with a standardised vibration monitoring system. The first aim of these new systems is to protect the machines by generating alarms in the control room when predefined vibration thresholds have been over-passed. Secondly, this specially designed instrumentation permits to create a National data base allowing to compare different generators of the same technology. Additionally, statistical methods have been developed in order to 'guess' vibration level at several locations of the stator end-windings, depending on the actual operating parameters of the generator, i.e. reactive and active power load. So this paper presents the general concept of the vibration monitoring of EDF large generator stators and deals with a new method to predict vibrations in different locations under control. (authors)

  6. Meso- and Micro-scale Modelling in China: Wind atlas analysis for 12 meteorological stations in NE China (Dongbei)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Yang, Z.; Hansen, Jens Carsten

    As part of the “Meso-Scale and Micro-Scale Modelling in China” project, also known as the CMA component of the Sino-Danish Wind Energy Development Programme (WED), microscale modelling and analyses have been carried out for 12 meteorological stations in NE China. Wind speed and direction data from...... the twelve 70-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP 10). The wind-climatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and roughness length maps...... constructed from Google Earth satellite imagery. The maps have been compared to Chinese topographical maps and adjusted accordingly. Summaries are given of the data measured at the 12 masts for the reference period 2009. The main result of the microscale modelling is an observational wind atlas for NE China...

  7. Local seismic activity monitored at King Sejong Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Lee,Duk Kee; Kim,Yea Dong; Nam,Sang Heon; Jin,Young Keun

    1998-01-01

    Source location estimation from single station earthquake data collected at King Sejong Station (62°13'3l"N, 58°47'07"W) from 1995 to 1996 provides seismic activity around King Sejong Station. Analysis of local events, less than 1.5°in angular epicentral distance, finds epicenters located near the Shackleton Fracture Zone, the South Shetland Platform, Deception Island, and North Bransfield Basin. Estimated magnitudes range from 2.2 to 4.5 on the Richter scale, averaging 4.0 in North Bransfiel...

  8. Directory of Solar-Terrestrial Physics Monitoring Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-06

    5/-- ---- I sources Toc ated.ADDRE SO , ip j NFUAkTION A0/IT STATIO N . Space Environment Services Center EATA ROU TINIL P/BLISHED N............. O N...SENT TO ARC-C---- ------ DAA oEN TOC _a-A- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -DATA ARILARLE ON REQUEST--------- YES DATA -EN To-W...FOR INFORMATIOM ABOUT STATION --- N UOSI Dept of Con e Direction d Control de Oeratio Wal Field Station de Sistemas Redioelectritcos P.O. Box S8

  9. Water shortage and drought monitoring in Bačka region (Vojvodina, North Serbia: Setting-up measurement stations network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Mlađen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and drought, as the most important hydro-climatic hazards, cause significant damages in case of most continents including SE Europe. An experimental field established in Bačka region (Vojvodina Autonomous Province, North Serbia for the purpose of droughts/water shortage monitoring and remote sensing under ongoing IPA project 'Water shortage hazard and adaptive water management strategies in the Hungarian-Serbian cross-border region' (WAHASTRAT. The main objective of this project is to determine water shortage con­flicts on a local and regional level, and to reveal the frequency, extent and severity of future hydro-cli­matic hazards. The locations of eight measurement stations selected on the principle of representativeness in term of terrain configuration and soil cover. An area in which measurement stations were placed, covers about 1000 km2 (12% of total area of Bačka and includes geomorphic units which reliable represent the relief of the whole Bačka region. Measurement stations were placed on 4 out of 5 most common soil types in the Bačka and Vojvodina: chernozem, alluvial soils, smonitza and saline and alkali soils. A measurement equipment system was constructed for the requirements of the WAHASTRAT project. The aim was to design a user-friendly and affordable IT solution, which would enable continuous re­mote monitoring of meteorological parameters and soil moisture. Independent solar-powered meas­urement stations are able to automatically measure air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, wind di­rection, precipitation and soil moisture.

  10. Mobile and modular. BGR develops seismological monitoring stations for universal applications; Mobil und modular. BGR entwickelt universell einsetzbare seismologische Messstationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinz, Erwin; Hanneken, Mark [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany). Fachbereich ' ' Seismologisches Zentralobservatorium, Kernwaffenteststopp' '

    2016-05-15

    BGR seismologists often set up monitoring stations for testing purposes. The engineers from the Central Seismological Observatory have now developed a new type of mobile monitoring station which can be remotely controlled.

  11. Preliminary Design of Monitoring and Control Subsystem for GNSS Ground Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkyun Jeong

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System Ground Station monitors navigation satellite signal, analyzes navigation result, and uploads correction information to satellite. GNSS Ground Station is considered as a main object for constructing GNSS infra-structure and applied in various fields. ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute is developing Monitoring and Control subsystem, which is subsystem of GNSS Ground Station. Monitoring and Control subsystem acquires GPS and Galileo satellite signal and provides signal monitoring data to GNSS control center. In this paper, the configurations of GNSS Ground Station and Monitoring and Control subsystem are introduced and the preliminary design of Monitoring and Control subsystem is performed. Monitoring and Control subsystem consists of data acquisition module, data formatting and archiving module, data error correction module, navigation solution determination module, independent quality monitoring module, and system operation and maintenance module. The design process uses UML (Unified Modeling Language method which is a standard for developing software and consists of use-case modeling, domain design, software structure design, and user interface structure design. The preliminary design of Monitoring and Control subsystem enhances operation capability of GNSS Ground Station and is used as basic material for detail design of Monitoring and Control subsystem.

  12. Locations of Sampling Stations for Water Quality Monitoring in Water Distribution Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Shweta; Gupta, Rajesh

    2014-04-01

    Water quality is required to be monitored in the water distribution networks (WDNs) at salient locations to assure the safe quality of water supplied to the consumers. Such monitoring stations (MSs) provide warning against any accidental contaminations. Various objectives like demand coverage, time for detection, volume of water contaminated before detection, extent of contamination, expected population affected prior to detection, detection likelihood and others, have been independently or jointly considered in determining optimal number and location of MSs in WDNs. "Demand coverage" defined as the percentage of network demand monitored by a particular monitoring station is a simple measure to locate MSs. Several methods based on formulation of coverage matrix using pre-specified coverage criteria and optimization have been suggested. Coverage criteria is defined as some minimum percentage of total flow received at the monitoring stations that passed through any upstream node included then as covered node of the monitoring station. Number of monitoring stations increases with the increase in the value of coverage criteria. Thus, the design of monitoring station becomes subjective. A simple methodology is proposed herein which priority wise iteratively selects MSs to achieve targeted demand coverage. The proposed methodology provided the same number and location of MSs for illustrative network as an optimization method did. Further, the proposed method is simple and avoids subjectivity that could arise from the consideration of coverage criteria. The application of methodology is also shown on a WDN of Dharampeth zone (Nagpur city WDN in Maharashtra, India) having 285 nodes and 367 pipes.

  13. Proposed Construction of Boulder Seismic Station Monitoring Sites, Boulder, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    boreholes at the Boulder Seismic Station for research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E) as part of the U.S. Nuclear Treaty monitoring...14 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Location of the proposed Boulder Seismic Station, borehole locations and associated buffers...juncture of Spring Creek and Scab Creek Road (Figure 1). Currently, the Boulder Seismic Station has a 13-element array of seismometers on the property

  14. 2. All-Polish Seminar: Monitoring of Radioactive Environment Contamination Using ASS-500 and PMS Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    During last 10 years the modern system of radiological pollution monitoring has been developed in Poland. At the beginning it was composed of ASS-500 stations. At the end of 1995 five automatic PMS stations have been installed as the result of the collaboration between Polish and Danish governments. Several stations of both types were include later. The system is coordinated by Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The report reviews the meeting dedicated to problems and future developments of the system

  15. Evaluation of Lyse wind power station 1992-1995. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thor, S.E. [comp.] [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    The main aim of the project was to test and evaluate a new wind power technique, partly through detailed measurements of the NWP 400 and partly through comparisons with the Danish standard unit. At the same time, it was a demand that the two units of the Power Station could be run as a production plant once the evaluation was complete. The overall conclusion from operation, and from the various measurements and studies carried out, is that the new technique functions as intended and that the calculations and estimates made in connection with design work were largely correct. The evaluation confirms that the unit can meet expected production levels, that it can cope with different operation situations and that it can be expected to meet the demands set for loads and safety with regard to fatigue. The evaluation has also shown that the calculation tools used to design the unit and calculate the production capacity have given correct results and good estimates. Certain sub-systems did not, however, function as intended and modifications were required. Additional modifications may be required in a series production of NWP 400. In its present form the unit has difficulties at high wind speeds due to large teeter movements. According to calculations, it should be possible to further reduce these teeter movements and thus increase the availability. The comparison between the units shows that both of the units have largely achieved the expected production capacity. 83 figs, 17 tabs

  16. Wireless Concrete Strength Monitoring of Wind Turbine Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Perry

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine foundations are typically cast in place, leaving the concrete to mature under environmental conditions that vary in time and space. As a result, there is uncertainty around the concrete’s initial performance, and this can encourage both costly over-design and inaccurate prognoses of structural health. Here, we demonstrate the field application of a dense, wireless thermocouple network to monitor the strength development of an onshore, reinforced-concrete wind turbine foundation. Up-to-date methods in fly ash concrete strength and maturity modelling are used to estimate the distribution and evolution of foundation strength over 29 days of curing. Strength estimates are verified by core samples, extracted from the foundation base. In addition, an artificial neural network, trained using temperature data, is exploited to demonstrate that distributed concrete strengths can be estimated for foundations using only sparse thermocouple data. Our techniques provide a practical alternative to computational models, and could assist site operators in making more informed decisions about foundation design, construction, operation and maintenance.

  17. Wireless Concrete Strength Monitoring of Wind Turbine Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Marcus; Fusiek, Grzegorz; Niewczas, Pawel; Rubert, Tim; McAlorum, Jack

    2017-12-16

    Wind turbine foundations are typically cast in place, leaving the concrete to mature under environmental conditions that vary in time and space. As a result, there is uncertainty around the concrete's initial performance, and this can encourage both costly over-design and inaccurate prognoses of structural health. Here, we demonstrate the field application of a dense, wireless thermocouple network to monitor the strength development of an onshore, reinforced-concrete wind turbine foundation. Up-to-date methods in fly ash concrete strength and maturity modelling are used to estimate the distribution and evolution of foundation strength over 29 days of curing. Strength estimates are verified by core samples, extracted from the foundation base. In addition, an artificial neural network, trained using temperature data, is exploited to demonstrate that distributed concrete strengths can be estimated for foundations using only sparse thermocouple data. Our techniques provide a practical alternative to computational models, and could assist site operators in making more informed decisions about foundation design, construction, operation and maintenance.

  18. Monitoring the Performance of the Pedestrian Transfer Function of Train Stations Using Automatic Fare Collection Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Hoogenraad, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years all train stations in The Netherlands have been equipped with automatic fare collection gates and/or validators. All public transport passengers use a smart card to pay their fare. In this paper we present a monitor for the performance of the pedestrian function of train stations

  19. 40 CFR 52.2035 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.2035 Section 52.2035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) Pennsylvania § 52.2035 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On September 23, 1994... (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by section 182(c)(1) of the...

  20. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-05-01

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  1. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2005-07-01

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  2. Maintenance Planning of Offshore Wind Turbine using Condition Monitoring Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, José G. Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Deterioration processes such as fatigue and corrosion are typically affecting offshore structures. To "control" this deterioration, inspection and maintenance activities are developed. Probabilistic methodologies represent an important tool to identify the suitable strategy to inspect and control...... the deterioration in structures such as offshore wind turbines (OWT). Besides these methods, the integration of condition monitoring information (CMI) can optimize the mitigation activities as an updating tool. In this paper, a framework for risk-based inspection and maintenance planning (RBI) is applied for OWT....... With the integration of CMI by means Bayesian inference, a slightly change of first inspection times are coming up, influenced by the reduction of the uncertainty and harsher or milder external agents....

  3. A global condition monitoring system for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlechtingen, Meik

    the output signal is entirely reconstructed by using other correlated signals. Benefits in fault visibility and lead-time to failure estimatesare observed. A very important signal to monitor contained in the SCADA data is the wind turbine power output. The power output has a direct influence on the revenue...... proposed method to separate discrete (e.g. originating from gears) from random (e.g. originating from bearings) signal components is applied and validated in this research. This state of the art method named“signal pre-whitening” enhances the fault pattern visibility in the envelope spectra in a very...... developed leading to fully automated fault diagnosis. For this purpose a frequency content identifier is developed extracting the frequency content from the envelope spectrum building the basis for automated diagnosis. A modified parameter, namely the Kurtosis of the Amplitude Envelope Spectrum (KEAS...

  4. Environmental radiation monitoring data for Point Lepreau Generating Station, 1988. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J K

    1989-01-01

    Annual report presenting a compilation of the 1988 environmental radiation monitoring program data from samples collected around the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station (PLNGS) and at reference stations remote from PLNGS. About 1,700 analyses were made on 1,200 samples to monitor environmental radiation, including air filters, airborne water vapour, sea water, well water, milk, beach sediments, clams, fish, lobster, dulse, crabs, scallops and lichen. Background radiation is measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry.

  5. Environmental radiation monitoring data for Point Lepreau Generating Station, 1987. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J K

    1988-01-01

    Annual report presenting a compilation of the 1987 environmental radiation monitoring program data from samples collected around the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station (PLNGS) and at reference stations remote from PLNGS. About 1,800 analyses were made on 1,300 samples to monitor environmental radiation, including air filters, airborne water vapour, sea water, well water, milk, beach sediments, clams, fish, lobster, dulse, crabs, scallops and periwinkles. Background radiation is measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry.

  6. Ornithological monitoring of the wind farms of the Garrigue high plateau (Aude)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the monitoring of the premarital migration 2001 in the wind farm of Corbieres-Maritime on the Garrigue Haute plateau. It aims to study the wind turbines impacts and risks on the migration. In spite of a weak mortality, the number of observed modifications in the birds habits at the approach of the wind turbines confirms the necessity of taking into account the migration phenomena in the wind farms projects. (A.L.B.)

  7. An extensive evaluation of wind resource using new methods and strategies for development and utilizing wind power in Mah-shahr station in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedaei, Mojtaba; Assareh, Ehsanolah; Biglari, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In this research, results suggest that the Weibull distribution is the best function to model the wind data in Mah-shahr. • The compatibility of the wind data with three methods of estimating Weibull parameters was assessed. • An extreme analysis of wind in Mah-shahr was done to determine the maximum gust wind speeds over a 50-year return period. • An extensive economic evaluation of installing a wind park was performed on RETScreen® software. - Abstract: In this study, the 10-min period measured short-term wind speed data at 10 m and 40 m heights for Mah-shahr station in Iran was statistically analyzed to determine the potential of wind power generation. In addition in this paper different distribution functions are compared to each other in order to find the best distribution in Mah-shahr which is compatible with the wind data. It is found that the Weibull distribution is the best function to model the wind data in Mah-shahr. It should also be mentioned that the different methods for calculating Weibull parameters were used and compared to each other. Moreover an extreme analysis of wind data in Mah-shahr was carried out to determine the maximum gust wind speed over a 50-year return period (Ve50). Using the method of “periodic maxima” for analysis of extreme winds, it was revealed that the 50-year wind speed at 80 m in Mah-shahr which is 39.5 m/s is lower than usual values of Ve50 limits for different wind turbines. This means that the risk of extreme wind gusts in Mah-shahr might not be a problem for installation of wind turbines. From the primary evaluation of wind data in Mah-shahr it is found the studied site has an acceptable potential of wind power for electricity generation. Energy production of different wind turbines at different heights is determined. Then a simple economic evaluation carried out to determine whether studied site is suitable for development of commercial or small and residential wind turbines. It became clear

  8. Separation of dry and wet periods from regular weather station data for the analysis of wind erosion risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naeini, Mohammadali Saremi; Fister, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    importance, soil moisture content is often ignored in the analysis of wind data for wind erosion studies. The main reason most probably being the lack of soil moisture sensors in conventional climate stations. Soil moisture at a given point in time is determined by rain (e.g. rainfall amount, duration......), climate (e.g. air temperature, solar radiation, evaporation) and soil (e.g. infiltration rate, adhesion). The purpose of this study is to overcome the lack of soil moisture data for wind erosion risk assessment by developing a method to estimate the soil wetness based on easy available weather data......, such as daily precipitation, hourly/sub hourly ambient air temperature and hourly/sub hourly relative humidity. This new method was used to identify periods of wet and dry soil moisture conditions of a time series from 20 weather stations in Denmark. The length of the time series varied between 8 to 37 years...

  9. Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bisping, Lynn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rishel, Jeremy P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The environmental surveillance of background levels of radionuclides and, in particular, the siting of a background environmental surveillance (monitoring) station are examined. Many published works identify and stress the need for background monitoring; however, little definitive and comprehensive information for siting a station exists. A definition of an ideal background monitoring location and the generic criteria recommended for use in establishing such a background monitoring location are proposed. There are seven primary (mandatory) criteria described with two additional, optional criteria. The criteria are applied to the Richland, Washington (WA), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Campus, which currently uses background monitoring data from the nearby Hanford Site. Eleven potential background monitoring sites were identified, with one location in Benton City, WA found to meet all of the mandatory and optional criteria. It is expected that the new sampler will be installed and operating by the end of June, 2015.

  10. Vibration monitoring of large vertical pumps via a remote satellite station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.A.; Crowe, R.D.; Roblyer, S.P.; Toffer, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Hanford N Reactor is operated by UNC Nuclear Industries for the Department of Energy for the production of special isotopes and electric energy. The reactor has a unique design in which the equipment such as pumps, turbines, generators and diesel engines are located in separate buildings. This equipment arrangement has led to the conclusion that the most cost-effective implementation of a dedicated vibration monitoring system would be to install a computerized network system in lieu of a single analyzing station. In this approach, semi-autonomous micro processor based data collection stations referred to as satellite stations are located near each concentration of machinery to be monitored. The satellite stations provide near continuous monitoring of the machinery. They are linked to a minicomputer using voice grade telephone circuits and hardware and software specifically designed for network communications. The communications link between the satellite stations and the minicomputer permits data and programs to be transmitted between the units. This paper will describe the satellite station associated with large vertical pumps vibration monitoring. The reactor has four of these pumps to supply tertiary cooling to reactor systems. 4 figs

  11. Operability test procedure for the TK-900 effluent monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfels, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This procedure will verify that the 221-B liquid effluent monitoring system, installed near the east end of the 6-in. chemical sewer header, functions as intended by design. TK-900B was installed near stairwell 3 in the 221-B electrical gallery by Project W-007H. The system is part of BAT/AKART for the BCE liquid effluent system

  12. Pilot Water Quality Monitoring Station in Dublin Bay North Bank Monitoring Station (NBMS): MATSIS Project Part I

    OpenAIRE

    O Donnell, G.; Joyce, E.; O Boyle, S.; McGovern, E.

    2008-01-01

    The lack of short-term temporal resolution associated with traditional spot sampling for monitoring water quality of dynamic coastal and estuarine waters has meant that many organisations are interesting in autonomous monitoring technologies to provide near real-time semi-continuous data. Such approaches enable capturing short term episodic events (which may be missed or alternatively skew datasets when using spot samples) and provide early warning of water quality problems. New policy driver...

  13. Radioactive aerosol detection station for near real-time atmospheric monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.R.; Bohner, John D.

    1997-01-01

    A radionuclide aerosol detection station has been developed to measure radioactivity in the environment. The objective is to monitor the atmosphere for anthropogenic radioactivity that could be indicative of nuclear weapons tests to verify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Eighty stations will form the backbone of the International Monitoring System in which stations are linked to a central analysis facility called the International Data Centre. Data are transmitted to this centre in near real-time to facilitate rapid detection. Principal process of the field measurement are collection, separation, and assay. Collection of airborne radioactivity is achieved through high-volume air sampling. Aerosols separation is accomplished by high-efficiency particulate filtration. Radionuclides assay is achieved by in-situ high resolution gamma spectrometry. These modules are integrated into a unit that provides power, control, and communication support subsystems. Station operation is semi-automatic requiring only minimal human interaction. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Monitoring of radioactivity in the environs of Finnish nuclear power stations in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Sjoeblom, K.L.; Aaltonen, H.; Klemola, S.; Arvela, H.

    1987-06-01

    Results of the environmental programmes monitoring radioactivity around the Finnish nuclear power stations in 1986 are reported. After the end of April the fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident predominated in all samples taken from the environs of the two power stations Loviisa and Olkiluoto. Radionuclides originating from the Finnish power stations were detected mainly in samples taken from the aquatic environment. The concentrations of the locally discharged nuclides were very low in comparison with the fallout nuclides and their impact on the radiation doses of the population was insignificant. Both nuclear power stations are situated in the main fallout area in Finland. The results of these large monitoring programmes give a good picture of the behaviour of the Chernobyl fallout in the specific areas in Finland

  15. Wind Turbine Condition Monitoring Strategy through Multiway PCA and Multivariate Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Pozo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article states a condition monitoring strategy for wind turbines using a statistical data-driven modeling approach by means of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA data. Initially, a baseline data-based model is obtained from the healthy wind turbine by means of multiway principal component analysis (MPCA. Then, when the wind turbine is monitorized, new data is acquired and projected into the baseline MPCA model space. The acquired SCADA data are treated as a random process given the random nature of the turbulent wind. The objective is to decide if the multivariate distribution that is obtained from the wind turbine to be analyzed (healthy or not is related to the baseline one. To achieve this goal, a test for the equality of population means is performed. Finally, the results of the test can determine that the hypothesis is rejected (and the wind turbine is faulty or that there is no evidence to suggest that the two means are different, so the wind turbine can be considered as healthy. The methodology is evaluated on a wind turbine fault detection benchmark that uses a 5 MW high-fidelity wind turbine model and a set of eight realistic fault scenarios. It is noteworthy that the results, for the presented methodology, show that for a wide range of significance, α ∈ [ 1 % , 13 % ] , the percentage of correct decisions is kept at 100%; thus it is a promising tool for real-time wind turbine condition monitoring.

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Complexity and Urchin Abundance at Climate Stations of the Mariana Archipelago since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic complexity and urchin abundance monitoring effort provides baselines for tracking these variables at NCRMP climate stations. Climate stations are 3-4...

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Complexity and Urchin Abundance at Climate Stations of the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic complexity and urchin abundance monitoring effort provides baselines for tracking these variables at NCRMP climate stations. Climate stations are 3-4...

  18. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Complexity and Urchin Abundance at Climate Stations of American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic complexity and urchin abundance monitoring effort provides baselines for tracking these variables at NCRMP climate stations. Climate stations are 3-4...

  19. Application of the nonlinear time series prediction method of genetic algorithm for forecasting surface wind of point station in the South China Sea with scatterometer observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jian; Dong Gang; Sun Yimei; Zhang Zhaoyang; Wu Yuqin

    2016-01-01

    The present work reports the development of nonlinear time series prediction method of genetic algorithm (GA) with singular spectrum analysis (SSA) for forecasting the surface wind of a point station in the South China Sea (SCS) with scatterometer observations. Before the nonlinear technique GA is used for forecasting the time series of surface wind, the SSA is applied to reduce the noise. The surface wind speed and surface wind components from scatterometer observations at three locations in the SCS have been used to develop and test the technique. The predictions have been compared with persistence forecasts in terms of root mean square error. The predicted surface wind with GA and SSA made up to four days (longer for some point station) in advance have been found to be significantly superior to those made by persistence model. This method can serve as a cost-effective alternate prediction technique for forecasting surface wind of a point station in the SCS basin. (paper)

  20. Monitoring Method and Apparatus Using Asynchronous, One-Way Transmission from Sensor to Base Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A monitoring system is disclosed, which includes a base station and at least one sensor unit that is separate from the base station. The at least one sensor unit resides in a dormant state until it is awakened by the triggering of a vibration-sensitive switch. Once awakened, the sensor may take a measurement, and then transmit to the base station the measurement. Once data is transmitted from the sensor to the base station, the sensor may return to its dormant state. There may be various sensors for each base station and the various sensors may optionally measure different quantities, such as current, voltage, single-axis and/or three-axis magnetic fields.

  1. Research Based on the Acoustic Emission of Wind Power Tower Drum Dynamic Monitoring Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Penglin; Sang, Yuan; Xu, Yaxing; Zhao, Zhiqiang

    Wind power tower drum is one of the key components of the wind power equipment. Whether the wind tower drum performs safety directly affects the efficiency, life, and performance of wind power equipment. Wind power tower drum in the process of manufacture, installation, and operation may lead to injury, and the wind load and gravity load and long-term factors such as poor working environment under the action of crack initiation or distortion, which eventually result in the instability or crack of the wind power tower drum and cause huge economic losses. Thus detecting the wind power tower drum crack damage and instability is especially important. In this chapter, acoustic emission is used to monitor the whole process of wind power tower drum material Q345E steel tensile test at first, and processing and analysis tensile failure signal of the material. And then based on the acoustic emission testing technology to the dynamic monitoring of wind power tower drum, the overall detection and evaluation of the existence of active defects in the whole structure, and the acoustic emission signals collected for processing and analysis, we could preliminarily master the wind tower drum mechanism of acoustic emission source. The acoustic emission is a kind of online, efficient, and economic method, which has very broad prospects for work. The editorial committee of nondestructive testing qualification and certification of personnel teaching material of science and technology industry of national defense, "Acoustic emission testing" (China Machine Press, 2005.1).

  2. Lunar Atmosphere Probe Station: A Proof-of-Concept Instrument Package for Monitoring the Lunar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Burns, J. O.; Farrell, W. M.; Giersch, L.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Hicks, B. C.; Polisensky, E. J.; Hartman, J. M.; Nesnas, I.; Weiler, K.; Kasper, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent, the extent of contributions from volatile outgassing from the Moon, and its behavior over time, including response to the solar wind and modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, *in situ*, the vertical extent of the lunar exosphere over time. We provide an update on a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report or commercial ventures. The instrument concept is simple, consisting of an antenna implemented as a metal deposited on polyimide film and receiver. We illustrate various deployment mechanisms and performance of a prototype in increasing lunar analog conditions. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of dust impactors. The Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. Artist's impression of the Lunar Atmosphere Probe Station.

  3. Condition monitoring of rotor blades of modern wind power systems; Ueberwachung mit Hertz. Condition Monitoring von Rotorblaettern moderner Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, Nikolaus

    2010-06-15

    With seven wind turbines, the Austrian wind farm ''Sternwald'' is the biggest wind farm in Upper Austria. It is the only wind farm in a forest, and all turbines are therefore equipped with automatic fire fighting equipment. The mountain range on which the wind farm is located is about 1000 m high, with strong wind and much ice and snow in the winter season. For this reason, the owner decided to instal a condition monitoring system with ice detectors. The piezoelectric sensors are mounted directly on the rotor blades as measurements on the nacelle will always be incorrect. Installation on the rotor blades, on the other hand, makes high demands on the fastenings and sensors as the velocity of the blade tips may be up to 250 km per hour. (orig.)

  4. Monitoring of atmospheric 3H around Narora Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Y.P.; Sharma, A.K.; Sharma, S.; Rao, K.S.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, V.; Singh, B.; Kumar, A.; Hedge, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric tritium activity is measured regularly around Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) since gaseous waste, which contains tritium, is being released through a 145 m high stack at NAPS site. Atmospheric data collected during 2004-2008 shows a large variation of 3 H concentration in air, fluctuating in the range of ≤0.2-91.6 Bq m -3 . Significantly, higher tritium levels were measured in samples near the site boundary (1.6 km) of NAPS compared to off-site locations. The atmospheric dilution factor was found to be in the range of 1.1 x 10 -7 -7.3 x 10 -7 s m -3 . The scavenging ratio of NAPS site was found to be varying from 0.2 x 10 4 to 14.1 x 10 4 (Bq m -3 rain water per Bq m -3 air). The inhalation dose to a member of general public at different distances (1.6-30 km) from NAPS site was found to be ranged from 0.08-0.21 μSv year -1 . (author)

  5. Spectral characteristics of seismic noise using data of Kazakhstan monitoring stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlova, N.N.; Komarov, I.I.

    2006-01-01

    Spectral specifications of seismic noise research for PS23-Makanchi, Karatau, Akbulak, AS057-Borovoye and new three-component station AS059-Aktyubinsk was done. Spectral noise density models were obtained for day and night time and spectral density values variation. Noise close to low-level universal noise model is peculiar for all stations, which provides their high efficiency while seismic monitoring. Noise parameters dependence on seismic receivers installation conditions was investigated separately. Based on three stations (Makanchi, Borovoye, and Aktyubinsk), spectral density change features are shown after borehole equipment installation. (author)

  6. On maximizing profit of wind-battery supported power station based on wind power and energy price forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Muhammad; Aguilera, Ricardo P.; Savkin, Andrey V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework to develop an optimal power dispatch strategy for grid-connected wind power plants containing a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS). Considering the intermittent nature of wind power and rapidly varying electricity market price, short-term forecasting...... Dynamic Programming tool which can incorporate the predictions of both wind power and market price simultaneously as inputs in a receding horizon approach. The proposed strategy is validated using real electricity market price and wind power data in different scenarios of BESS power and capacity...... of these variables is used for efficient energy management. The predicted variability trends in market price assist in earning additional income which subsequently increase the operational profit. Then on the basis of income improvement, optimal capacity of the BESS can be determined. The proposed framework utilizes...

  7. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring station operating regime influence on radionuclide detection sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    International Monitoring System (IMS) stations are being deployed worldwide in support of the Comprehensive [Nuclear] Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The highly sensitive radionuclide monitoring stations regularly sample airborne radionuclide particulates to determine whether fission products are present in the atmosphere that may be indicative of a nuclear weapons test. Standards have been set for these stations regarding their operation regime and the minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) for specific radionuclides likely to be present after a nuclear weapons test. This study uses actual CTBT monitoring data to relate a subset of the specified operational standards with the listed MDC limits. It is determined that a relationship exists between the specified operational regime and the MDC values. Since the background radioactivity is largely a function of the radon and thoron progeny, longer decay operational regimes allow for a reduction in the background. For longer lived radionuclides, this corresponds to a reduction in MDC. (author)

  8. Coherent lidar wind measurements from the Space Station base using 1.5 m all-reflective optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbro, J. W.; Beranek, R. G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the space-based measurement of atmospheric winds from the point of view of the requirements of the optical system of a coherent CO2 lidar. A brief description of the measurement technique is given and a discussion of previous study results provided. The telescope requirements for a Space Station based lidar are arrived at through discussions of the desired system sensitivity and the need for lag angle compensation.

  9. The Antarctic permafrost as a testbed for REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station-Mars Science Laboratory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, B.; Ramos, M.; Sebastián, E.; Armiens, C.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Cabos, W.; de Pablo, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    The present climatic characteristics of Mars favor the presence of extense permafrost areas in this lonely planet. Therefore environmental parameters that are included in Martian Rover missions are also used for monitoring thermal soil surface evolution in order to study the permafrost active layer thickness and the energy balance in the soil-atmosphere boundary limit layer. The REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station) is an environmental station designed by the Centro de Astrobiología (CAB- Spain) with the collaboration of national and international partners (CRISA/EADS, UPC and FMI), which is part of the payload of the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) NASA mission to Mars (http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/overview/). This mission is expected to be launched in the final months of 2009, and mainly consists of a Rover, with a complete set of scientific instruments; the Rover will carry the biggest, most advanced suite of instruments for scientific studies ever sent to the Martian surface. Five sensors compose the REMS instrument: ground (GT-REMS) and air temperatures, wind speed and direction, pressure, humidity and ultraviolet radiation (UV-REMS). A simplified setup of the REMS was deployed on Antarctica in the surroundings of the Spanish Antarctic Stations on Livingston and Deception Islands (Maritime Antarctica), where the permafrost distribution is well-known. The aim of the experiment was to check REMS's sensors response against hard environmental conditions and calibrates their measures with standard Antarctic devices. The experimental apparatuses included some standard meteorological and thermopiles sensors corresponding to the REMS. All the sensors are mounted in a 1.8 m mast and include a Pt100 air temperature sensor with shield solar protection on the mast top, a Kipp and Zonnen CNR1 net radiometer for measuring infrared (5-50 μm) and short wave solar (305-2800 nm) radiation at 1.5 m high, GT-REMS sensor and its amplification box at 0.7 m high and finally

  10. Environmental radiation monitoring data for Point Lepreau Generating Station, 1990. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J K

    1991-01-01

    Annual report presenting a compilation of the 1990 environmental radiation monitoring program data from samples collected around the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station (PLNGS) and at reference stations remote from PLNGS. About 1,500 analyses were made on 1,100 samples to monitor environmental radiation, including air particulates, airborne water vapour, carbon dioxide in air, sea water, well water, milk, beach sediments, clams, fish, lobster, dulse, crabs, scallops, periwinkles, sea plants and lichen. Background radiation is measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry. Radon is not assessed.

  11. Optical monitoring and operational modal analysis of large wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özbek, M.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of the dynamic properties and the corresponding structural response of wind turbines is essential for optimizing the energy produced, ensuring safe and reliable operation and increasing the life-time of the system. As the sizes of modern wind turbines increase, their dynamic behaviors

  12. Wind Turbine Drivetrain Condition Monitoring During GRC Phase 1 and Phase 2 Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; Link, H.; LaCava, W.; van Dam, J.; McNiff, B.; Veers, P.; Keller, J.; Butterfield, S.; Oyague, F.

    2011-10-01

    This report will present the wind turbine drivetrain condition monitoring (CM) research conducted under the phase 1 and phase 2 Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) tests. The rationale and approach for this drivetrain CM research, investigated CM systems, test configuration and results, and a discussion on challenges in wind turbine drivetrain CM and future research and development areas, will be presented.

  13. A new oil debris sensor for online condition monitoring of wind turbine gearboxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Hui; Liu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Online Condition Monitoring (CM) is a key technology for the Operation and Maintenance (O&M) of wind turbines. Lubricating oil is the blood of the wind turbine gearbox. Metal debris in lubricating oil contains abundant information regarding the ageing and wear/damage of mechanical transmission sy...

  14. Monitoring and managing component fatigue at Point Lepreau Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.L.; Yetisir, M.; Scovil, A.; Slade, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many CANDU plants are now approaching the end of their design lives and are being considered for extended operation beyond their design life. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) has asked utilities to address component fatigue issues in plant life extension (PLEX) applications. In particular, environmental effects on fatigue was identified as an issue that needs to be addressed, similar to being addressed for license renewal for U.S. nuclear power plants. To address CNSC concerns, the CANDU Owners Group (COG) has initiated a program to help utilities develop component fatigue management programs for PLEX operation. A summary of a pilot study that was conducted at the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) is provided below: A plant-specific Recommendation Study provided a comprehensive review of the existing plant-specific systems, cycle counting procedures, and other fatigue-related requirements, and made some general recommendations on how best to implement a fatigue management system for PLEX. The plant-specific study determined that only 10 to 15% of the design transients have been used after 25 effective full power years (EFPY) of operation. Hence, a significant amount of original design margin for fatigue usage margin remains available for PLEX operation. Environmental fatigue considerations in heavy water (D 2 O) were included in the plant-specific assessment. Only warm-up transients were assessed to have dissolved oxygen concentrations that can result in a significant environmental effect for the ferritic steels used in the CANDU primary systems. Due to the low accumulation of transients and the absence of known thermal stratification mechanisms, thermal fatigue is not as significant an issue in CANDU plants as in pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) plants. The needs for implementing a comprehensive Fatigue Management Program for PLGS to satisfy PLEX requirements were defined, and specific direction and strategy for

  15. Monitoring and Mitigation Alternatives for Protection of North Atlantic Right Whales during Offshore Wind Farm Installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halvorsen, Michele B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matzner, Shari [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stavole, Jessica [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Progress report on defining and determining monitoring and mitigation measures for protecting North Atlantic Right Whales from the effects of pile driving and other activities associated with installation of offshore wind farms.

  16. Real-time monitoring, prognosis, and resilient control for wind turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiwei; Sheng, Shuangwen

    2018-02-01

    This special issue aims to provide a platform for academic and industrial communities to report recent results and emerging research in real-time monitoring, fault diagnosis, prognosis, and resilient control and design of wind turbine systems. After a strict peer-review process, 20 papers were selected, which represent the most recent progress of the real-time monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and resilient control methods/techniques in wind turbine systems.

  17. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF MONITORING AND CONTROL SUBSYSTEM FOR GNSS GROUND STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkyun Jeong

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS becomes more important and is applied to various systems. Recently, the Galileo navigation system is being developed in Europe. Also, other countries like China, Japan and India are developing the global/regional navigation satellite system. As various global/regional navigation satellite systems are used, the navigation ground system gets more important for using the navigation system reasonably and efficiently. According to this trend, the technology of GNSS Ground Station (GGS is developing in many fields. The one of purposes for this study is to develop the high precision receiver for GNSS sensor station and to provide ground infrastructure for better performance services on navigation system. In this study, we consider the configuration of GNSS Ground Station and analyze function of Monitoring and Control subsystem which is a part of GNSS Ground Station. We propose Monitoring and Control subsystem which contains the navigation software for GNSS Ground System to monitor and control equipments in GNSS Ground Station, to spread the applied field of navigation system, and to provide improved navigation information to user.

  18. Online identification of wind model for improving quadcopter trajectory monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniak, Ryszard; Gudzenko, Oleksandr

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we consider a problem of quadcopter control in severe weather conditions. One type of such weather conditions is a strong variable wind. In this paper, we ponder deterministic and stochastic models of winds at low altitudes with the quadcopter performing aggressive maneuvers. We choose an adaptive algorithm as our control algorithm. This algorithm might seem suitable one to solve the given problem, as it is able to adjust quickly to changing conditions. However, as shown in the paper, this algorithm is not applicable to rapidly changing winds and requires additional filters to smooth the impulse streams, so as not to lose the stability of the object.

  19. Online identification of wind model for improving quadcopter trajectory monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniak Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a problem of quadcopter control in severe weather conditions. One type of such weather conditions is a strong variable wind. In this paper, we ponder deterministic and stochastic models of winds at low altitudes with the quadcopter performing aggressive maneuvers. We choose an adaptive algorithm as our control algorithm. This algorithm might seem suitable one to solve the given problem, as it is able to adjust quickly to changing conditions. However, as shown in the paper, this algorithm is not applicable to rapidly changing winds and requires additional filters to smooth the impulse streams, so as not to lose the stability of the object.

  20. The computerized management for individual monitoring data in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shumou; Yang Xiaochen

    1995-01-01

    The authors report the individual monitoring data management system (IDOSE) at Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station. The components of the individual monitoring system, the design requirements of IDOSE, the characteristics and application of this computerized management system are mainly presented. Its application shows that IDOSE meets the requirements of the concerning occupational standards of the state and matches with the requirements of IAEA/ISOE

  1. Reliability-Based Design and Planning of Inspection and Monitoring of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio

    Maintaining and developing a sustainable wind industry is the main motivation of this PhD thesis entitled “Reliability-based design and planning of inspection and monitoring of offshore wind turbines”. In this thesis, statistical methods and probability theory are important mathematical tools used...... and offshore wind turbine foundations with the aim of improving the design, decreasing structural costs and increasing benefits. Recently, wind energy technology has started to adopt risk and reliability based inspection planning (RBI) as a methodology based on Bayesian decision theories together...

  2. Technical memorandum - Aamjiwnaang First Nation community air monitoring station - results for September 2008 to August 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-01-15

    In 2008, the provincial and federal governments, working with the Aamjiwnaang First Nation, established the Aamjiwnaang First Nation community air monitoring station. The station's purpose was to monitor a series of contaminants produced by local industry. In addition, through the collection and analysis of air quality information, the station provided useful input to air quality studies and community health assessments. This report presents the results from analysis of air quality information between September 1, 2008 and August 31, 2009. Overall the report finds that the local air quality is similar to that in surrounding communities during this period and there were no exceedances of any ministry standard or guideline recorded concerning the expectations for particulate matter and ozone. It will be possible in the future to use this air quality information for comparison and correlation with known point sources or modeled results.

  3. Monitoring and evaluation of Blyth Offshore Wind Farm. NAVAID (Navigational Aid) requirements for UK offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, L.

    2001-07-01

    The principle aim of this report is to review and evaluate the Navigational Aid (NAVAID) requirements for the Blyth Offshore Wind Farms as specified by Trinity House. The effectiveness of the NAVAIDs was monitored and reviewed by the project team with the assistance of the harbour master and the local vessel operators regularly using Blyth Harbour. This report particularly looks at the reasons for the NAVAID specification and the practicalities of using a similar system on larger offshore wind farms. The document not only describes the specification, but also reviews its effectiveness including any difficulties that were encountered during the installation. (author)

  4. 40 CFR 52.430 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.430 Section 52.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Natural Resources & Environmental Control submitted a plan for the establishment and implementation of a...

  5. Radioactivity in the vicinity of Sizewell nuclear power station: marine environmental monitoring, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Regular monitoring of radioactivity in the aquatic environment of the British Isles has continued. A report presents the results of this program in relation to the Sizewell nuclear power station for 1983, so as to supplement the most recently available full report which is for 1982. (author)

  6. 40 CFR 52.480 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Columbia's Department of Consumer and Regulatory Affairs submitted a plan for the establishment... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.480 Section 52.480 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  7. Aspects of structural health and condition monitoring of offshore wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadou, I; Dervilis, N; Papatheou, E; Maguire, A E; Worden, K

    2015-02-28

    Wind power has expanded significantly over the past years, although reliability of wind turbine systems, especially of offshore wind turbines, has been many times unsatisfactory in the past. Wind turbine failures are equivalent to crucial financial losses. Therefore, creating and applying strategies that improve the reliability of their components is important for a successful implementation of such systems. Structural health monitoring (SHM) addresses these problems through the monitoring of parameters indicative of the state of the structure examined. Condition monitoring (CM), on the other hand, can be seen as a specialized area of the SHM community that aims at damage detection of, particularly, rotating machinery. The paper is divided into two parts: in the first part, advanced signal processing and machine learning methods are discussed for SHM and CM on wind turbine gearbox and blade damage detection examples. In the second part, an initial exploration of supervisor control and data acquisition systems data of an offshore wind farm is presented, and data-driven approaches are proposed for detecting abnormal behaviour of wind turbines. It is shown that the advanced signal processing methods discussed are effective and that it is important to adopt these SHM strategies in the wind energy sector.

  8. Aspects of structural health and condition monitoring of offshore wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadou, I.; Dervilis, N.; Papatheou, E.; Maguire, A. E.; Worden, K.

    2015-01-01

    Wind power has expanded significantly over the past years, although reliability of wind turbine systems, especially of offshore wind turbines, has been many times unsatisfactory in the past. Wind turbine failures are equivalent to crucial financial losses. Therefore, creating and applying strategies that improve the reliability of their components is important for a successful implementation of such systems. Structural health monitoring (SHM) addresses these problems through the monitoring of parameters indicative of the state of the structure examined. Condition monitoring (CM), on the other hand, can be seen as a specialized area of the SHM community that aims at damage detection of, particularly, rotating machinery. The paper is divided into two parts: in the first part, advanced signal processing and machine learning methods are discussed for SHM and CM on wind turbine gearbox and blade damage detection examples. In the second part, an initial exploration of supervisor control and data acquisition systems data of an offshore wind farm is presented, and data-driven approaches are proposed for detecting abnormal behaviour of wind turbines. It is shown that the advanced signal processing methods discussed are effective and that it is important to adopt these SHM strategies in the wind energy sector. PMID:25583864

  9. [Hygienic problems in the location of modern wind electric power stations in their design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeva, I S; Makhniuk, V M; Akimenko, V Ia; Dumanskiĭ, Iu D; Semashko, P V

    2013-01-01

    Hygienic aspects of the placement of wind power plants (WPP) in connection with the intensive development of wind power and the lack of systematic information on their effects of the environment and living conditions of the population are becoming more actual. In the article there are considered results of the sanitary-epidemiological expertise of the construction project of three modern large wind farm (the South - Ukrainian, Tiligulskaya and Pokrovskaya) with a total capacity offrom 180 to 500 MW of wind farms with 2.3 MW power generators of wind turbines. It is shown that in the process of wind farm construction a contamination of the environment (air soil, ground water) may take place due to the working of construction equipment and vehicle, excavation, welding and other operations, in the exploitation of wind farm there can be created elevated levels of acoustic and electromagnetic pollution in the neighborhood and emergencies with the destruction of WPP in adverse weather conditions. Based on the calculations presented in the projects, and the analysis of data on the impact offoreign windfarm on the environment it was found that the limiting factor of the influence is the wind farm noise pollution in the audio frequency range that extends beyond the territory of wind fields, electromagnetic radiation is recorded within the hygienic standards and below only in the immediate vicinity of its sources (electrical equipment and power lines). For considered modern wind farms there was grounded sanitary protective zone with dimensions of 700 mfrom the outermost wind turbines by the noise and it was recommended compliance distance of200 mfrom the wind turbine to limit any activity and people staying in times of possible emergency situations in adverse weather conditions.

  10. Industrial wind turbine post-construction bird and bat monitoring: A policy framework for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisé, Jason; Walker, Tony R

    2017-10-01

    Electricity generation from wind energy has proliferated throughout North America and will continue to grow. Given Canada's expected increase in wind energy capacity, consideration of the potential adverse impacts to bird and bat populations is prudent given their sensitivity to these projects. The province of Ontario, Canada is currently the leading jurisdiction for wind energy development, and for provincial guidance on pre- and post-construction monitoring. With uniform monitoring guidance in Ontario, wind energy proponents, and third-party consultants, have developed post-construction monitoring protocols that meet provincial guidance, while also providing standardized reporting. In Atlantic Canada, post-construction guidelines vary between provinces, depending mostly on guidance from the Environment Canada Canadian Wildlife Service and relevant provincial agencies. To ensure quality post-construction monitoring results in Atlantic Canada and other provinces, it is imperative that all Canadian provinces adopt similar approaches to those employed in Ontario. This paper reviews major causes of bird and bat mortalities; reviews Canadian federal and Ontario provincial bird and bat monitoring guidelines to elucidate gaps between environmental assessment (EA) theory and application; summarizes post-construction monitoring protocols from eight bird and bat post-construction monitoring programs used in Ontario; and, proposes recommendations to support future wind development opportunities across Canada and specifically in Atlantic Canada. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using albedo to reform wind erosion modelling, mapping and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Adrian; Webb, Nicholas P.

    2016-12-01

    Wind erosion and dust emission models are used to assess the impacts of dust on radiative forcing in the atmosphere, cloud formation, nutrient fertilisation and human health. The models are underpinned by a two-dimensional geometric property (lateral cover; L) used to characterise the three-dimensional aerodynamic roughness (sheltered area or wakes) of the Earth's surface and calibrate the momentum it extracts from the wind. We reveal a fundamental weakness in L and demonstrate that values are an order of magnitude too small and significant aerodynamic interactions between roughness elements and their sheltered areas have been omitted, particularly under sparse surface roughness. We describe a solution which develops published work to establish a relation between sheltered area and the proportion of shadow over a given area; the inverse of direct beam directional hemispherical reflectance (black sky albedo; BSA). We show direct relations between shadow and wind tunnel measurements and thereby provide direct calibrations of key aerodynamic properties. Estimation of the aerodynamic parameters from albedo enables wind erosion assessments over areas, across platforms from the field to airborne and readily available satellite data. Our new approach demonstrated redundancy in existing wind erosion models and thereby reduced model complexity and improved fidelity. We found that the use of albedo enabled an adequate description of aerodynamic sheltering to characterise fluid dynamics and predict sediment transport without the use of a drag partition scheme (Rt) or threshold friction velocity (u∗t). We applied the calibrations to produce global maps of aerodynamic properties which showed very similar spatial patterns to each other and confirmed the redundancy in the traditional parameters of wind erosion modelling. We evaluated temporal patterns of predicted horizontal mass flux at locations across Australia which revealed variation between land cover types that would not

  12. Automated high-volume aerosol sampling station for environmental radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T.; Ilander, T.; Leppaenen, A.; Nikkinen, M.; Poellaenen, R.; Ylaetalo, S.

    1998-07-01

    An automated high-volume aerosol sampling station, known as CINDERELLA.STUK, for environmental radiation monitoring has been developed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Finland. The sample is collected on a glass fibre filter (attached into a cassette), the airflow through the filter is 800 m 3 /h at maximum. During the sampling, the filter is continuously monitored with Na(I) scintillation detectors. After the sampling, the large filter is automatically cut into 15 pieces that form a small sample and after ageing, the pile of filter pieces is moved onto an HPGe detector. These actions are performed automatically by a robot. The system is operated at a duty cycle of 1 d sampling, 1 d decay and 1 d counting. Minimum detectable concentrations of radionuclides in air are typically 1Ae10 x 10 -6 Bq/m 3 . The station is equipped with various sensors to reveal unauthorized admittance. These sensors can be monitored remotely in real time via Internet or telephone lines. The processes and operation of the station are monitored and partly controlled by computer. The present approach fulfils the requirements of CTBTO for aerosol monitoring. The concept suits well for nuclear material safeguards, too

  13. Retrofitting of an improved stack monitoring system in Rajasthan atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, K.

    1985-01-01

    The problems encountered in the measurement of inert gas activities, iodine activity and tritium activity released through the stack in RAPS are described and the considerations for the development of improved instruments outlined. The new approach provides for better accuracy of measurement of all the relevant radioactive parameters in the stack at one centralised place. The construction work in the station for the newly conceived stack activity monitoring system is completed and the earlier equipment used is installed in the room temporarily. Development prototypes of stack inert gas monitoring system and iodine monitoring system as described in Section 5 are made and evaluated. Fabrication of new equipment for retrofitting in RAPS is in progress and these will replace the equipment temporarily installed in the station

  14. Optimum Layout for Water Quality Monitoring Stations through Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Afshar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high cost of monitoring systems, budget limitations, and high priority given to water quality control in municipal networks, especially for unexpected events, optimum location of monitoring stations has received considerable attention during the last decade. An optimization model needs to be developed for the desirable location of monitoring stations. This research attempts to develop such a model using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO algorithm and tires to verify it through a bench-mark classical example used in previous researches. Selection of ACO as optimizer was fully justified due to discrete decision space and extensive number of binary variables in modeling system. Diversity of the policies derived from ACO may facilitate the process of decision making considering the social, physical, and economical conditions.

  15. Design of an off-grid hybrid PV/wind power system for remote mobile base station: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulualem T. Yeshalem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear challenge to provide reliable cellular mobile service at remote locations where a reliable power supply is not available. So, the existing Mobile towers or Base Transceiver Station (BTSs uses a conventional diesel generator with backup battery banks. This paper presents the solution to utilizing a hybrid of photovoltaic (PV solar and wind power system with a backup battery bank to provide feasibility and reliable electric power for a specific remote mobile base station located at west arise, Oromia. All the necessary modeling, simulation, and techno-economic evaluation are carried out using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software. The best optimal system configurations namely PV/Battery and PV/Wind/Battery hybrid systems are compared with the conventional stand-alone diesel generator (DG system. Findings indicated that PV array and battery is the most economically viable option with the total net present cost (NPC of $\\$$57,508 and per unit cost of electricity (COE of $\\$$0.355. Simulation results show that the hybrid energy systems can minimize the power generation cost significantly and can decrease CO2 emissions as compared to the traditional diesel generator only. The sensitivity analysis is also carried out to analysis the effects of probable variation in solar radiation, wind speed, diesel price and average annual energy usage of the system load in the optimal system configurations.

  16. Geomagnetic storm effects in ionospheric TEC at an euatorial station: contribution of EXB drifts and meridional neutral winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabas, R.S.; Jain, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    Storm-time variations in TEC measurements at the Indian station Ootacamund with IEC data for four stations in the anomaly region. Variations in Nsub(T)(OOTY) are found to be smaller compared to those observed at anomaly stations. The equatorial electrojet control of Nsub(T)(OOTY) is weaker compared to that of Nsub(m)F2. This result and absence of midday biteout in Nsub(T)(OOTY) are interpreted in terms of plasma exchange between ionosphere and plasmasphere which, to some extent, compensates the loss of plasma in the column due to E x B drifts. The anomaly depth is found to be well correlated with the electrojet strength. It is also noticed that for the same anomaly is weaker on a storm day than for quiet days. This is interpreted in terms of converging equatorward meridional winds. Thus, ionosphere-plasmasphere plasma exchange and, during disturbed period, the converging equatorward meridional winds also have significant effects on the distribution of ionization at these latitudes though the E x B drifts are most important in affecting the ionization distribution at low latitudes. (author)

  17. Tool for Forecasting Cool-Season Peak Winds Across Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily morning forecast for ground and space launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) must issue forecast advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect peak gusts for >= 25, >= 35, and >= 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. In Phase I of this task, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a cool-season (October - April) tool to help forecast the non-convective peak wind from the surface to 300 ft at KSC/CCAFS. During the warm season, these wind speeds are rarely exceeded except during convective winds or under the influence of tropical cyclones, for which other techniques are already in use. The tool used single and multiple linear regression equations to predict the peak wind from the morning sounding. The forecaster manually entered several observed sounding parameters into a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI), and then the tool displayed the forecast peak wind speed, average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, the timing of the peak wind and the probability the peak wind will meet or exceed 35, 50 and 60 kt. The 45 WS customers later dropped the requirement for >= 60 kt wind warnings. During Phase II of this task, the AMU expanded the period of record (POR) by six years to increase the number of observations used to create the forecast equations. A large number of possible predictors were evaluated from archived soundings, including inversion depth and strength, low-level wind shear, mixing height, temperature lapse rate and winds from the surface to 3000 ft. Each day in the POR was stratified in a number of ways, such as by low-level wind direction, synoptic weather pattern, precipitation and Bulk Richardson number. The most accurate Phase II equations were then selected for an independent verification. The Phase I and II forecast methods were

  18. CO2 Monitoring and Background Mole Fraction at Zhongshan Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background CO2 mole fraction and seasonal variations, measured at Zhongshan station, Antarctica, for 2010 through 2013, exhibit the expected lowest mole fraction in March with a peak in November. Irrespective of wind direction, the mole fraction of CO2 distributes evenly after polluted air from station operations is removed from the data sets. The daily range of average CO2 mole fraction in all four seasons is small. The monthly mean CO2 mole fraction at Zhongshan station is similar to that of other stations in Antarctica, with seasonal CO2 amplitudes in the order of 384–392 µmol∙mol−1. The annual increase in recent years is about 2 µmol∙mol−1∙yr−1. There is no appreciable difference between CO2 mole fractions around the coast of Antarctica and in the interior, showing that CO2 observed in Antarctica has been fully mixed in the atmosphere as it moves from the north through the southern hemisphere.

  19. Data-driven online monitoring of wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenbeek, T.; Kapodistria, S.; Di Bucchianico, A.

    2017-01-01

    Condition based maintenance is a modern approach to maintenance which has been successfully used in several industrial sectors. In this paper we present a concrete statistical approach to condition based maintenance for wind turbine by applying ideas from statistical process control. A specific

  20. Estimation of mesospheric vertical winds from a VHF meteor radar at King Sejong Station, Antarctica (62.2S, 58.8W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Lee, C.; Kim, J.; Jee, G.

    2013-12-01

    For the first time, vertical winds near the mesopause region were estimated from radial velocities of meteor echoes detected by a VHF meteor radar at King Sejong Station (KSS) in 2011 and 2012. Since the radar usually detects more than a hundred echoes every hour in an altitude bin of 88 - 92 km, much larger than other radars, we were able to fit measured radial velocities of these echoes with a 6 component model that consists of horizontal winds, spatial gradients of horizontal winds and vertical wind. The conventional method of deriving horizontal winds from meteor echoes utilizes a 2 component model, assuming that vertical winds and spatial gradients of horizontal winds are negligible. We analyzed the radar data obtained for 8400 hours in 2012 and 8100 hours in 2011. We found that daily mean values of vertical winds are mostly within +/- 1 m/s, whereas those of zonal winds are a few tens m/s mostly eastward. The daily mean vertical winds sometimes stay positive or negative for more than 20 days, implying that the atmosphere near the mesopause experiences episodically a large scale low and high pressure environments, respectively, like the tropospheric weather system. By conducting Lomb-normalized periodogram analysis, we also found that the vertical winds have diurnal, semidiurnal and terdiurnal tidal components with about equal significance, in contrast to horizontal winds that show a dominant semidiurnal one. We will discuss about uncertainties of the estimated vertical wind and possible reasons of its tidal and daily variations.

  1. Verification and implementation of microburst day potential index (MDPI) and wind INDEX (WINDEX) forecasting tools at Cape Canaveral Air Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Mark

    1996-01-01

    This report details the research, development, utility, verification and transition on wet microburst forecasting and detection the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) did in support of ground and launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). The unforecasted wind event on 16 August 1994 of 33.5 ms-1 (65 knots) at the Shuttle Landing Facility raised the issue of wet microburst detection and forecasting. The AMU researched and analyzed the downburst wind event and determined it was a wet microburst event. A program was developed for operational use on the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) weather system to analyze, compute and display Theta(epsilon) profiles, the microburst day potential index (MDPI), and wind index (WINDEX) maximum wind gust value. Key microburst nowcasting signatures using the WSR-88D data were highlighted. Verification of the data sets indicated that the MDPI has good potential in alerting the duty forecaster to the potential of wet microburst and the WINDEX values computed from the hourly surface data do have potential in showing a trend for the maximum gust potential. WINDEX should help in filling in the temporal hole between the MDPI on the last Cape Canaveral rawinsonde and the nowcasting radar data tools.

  2. Monitoring and studies of environmental cumulative dose of Guangdong Da Ya Bay nuclear-power station by thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Yusong; Li Shili; Yang Lin; Feng Zhanglin; Kong Lingfeng; Yu Jinglan

    1999-01-01

    The author presents the environmental γ radiation routine monitoring by TLD in Guangdong Da Ya Bay Nuclear Power Station and its peripheral 50 km area, which has been put into commercial operation since 1994. The year's monitoring result indicates that there is no obvious change of the total environmental γ radiation in Da Ya Bay Nuclear Power Station and its peripheral 50 km area. But the influence of gas release γ radiation was monitored in 1995 at the monitoring points in the area of 0∼1 km from the nuclear power station

  3. Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitterlin, Ian F [Emerson Network Power Ltd., Globe Park, Marlow, SL7 1YG (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-22

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) cells has made steady progress from the early days, when only the USA space program could afford to deploy them, to now, seeing them applied to roadside applications even in our Northern European climes. The manufacturing cost per watt has fallen and the daylight-to-power conversion efficiency increased. At the same time, the perception that the sun has to be directly shining on it for a PV array to work has faded. On some of those roadside applications, particularly for remote emergency telephones or for temporary roadwork signage where a utility electrical power connection is not practical, the keen observer will spot, usually in addition to a PV array, a small wind-turbine and an electrical cabinet quite obviously (by virtue of its volume) containing a storage battery. In the UK, we have the lions share (>40%) of Europe's entire wind power resource although, despite press coverage of the 'anti-wind' lobby to the contrary, we have hardly started to harvest this clean and free energy source. Taking this (established and proven) roadside solution one step further, we will consider higher power applications. A cellular phone system is one where a multitude of remote radio base stations (RBS) are required to provide geographical coverage. With networks developing into the so called '3G' technologies the need for base stations has tripled, as each 3G cell covers only 1/3 the geographical area of its '2G' counterpart. To cover >90% of the UK's topology (>97% population coverage) with 3G cellular technology will requires in excess of 12,000 radio base stations per operator network. In 2001, there were around 25,000 established sites and, with an anticipated degree of collocation by necessity, that figure is forecast to rise to >47,000. Of course, the vast majority of these sites have a convenient grid connection. However, it is easy to see that the combination of wind and PV power generation and an energy storage system may be an

  4. Technological and economic preconditions for the construction of wind power stations on inland sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapperfenne, W.

    1992-01-01

    In principle, wind power is perceived as a manageable and soft-type energy; nevertheless operators are advised against trying to design and build wind power plants based on their very own ideas since these will often be found to fall short of the stringent requirements of regulatory authorities for safety, wind technology and statics, and of the demand of knowledge in mechanical engineering, electronics and computer technology. In addition, the utilization of wind power is ruled by tax laws since a certain are of the power produced will have to be fed to the national grid which means that the plant operator is a producer subjected to value-added taxation with the right of reimbussement of prepaid taxes [de

  5. Hard bottom substrate monitoring Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S.B.; Pedersen, John

    2004-05-15

    Elsam and Eltra built the offshore demonstration wind farm at Horns Rev in the North Sea. Elsam is the owner and is responsible for the operation of the wind farm. Eltra is responsible for the connection of the wind farm to the national onshore grid. In the summer months of 2002, Elsam constructed the world's largest offshore wind farm off the Danish west coast. The wind farm is sited 14-20 km into the North Sea, west of Blaevands Huk. The first wind turbine was erected in May 2002 and the last wind turbine tower of a total of 80 was in place by August 2002. The construction work was completed with the last connecting cables sluiced down in September 2002. All the wind turbines were in production by December 2002. The expected impact of the wind farm will primarily be an alternation of habitats due to the introduction of hard bottom substrates as wind turbine towers and scour protections. A continuous development in the epifouling communities will be expected together with an introduction of new or alien species in the area. The indigenous benthic community in the area of Horns Rev can be characterised by infauna species belonging to the Goniadella-Spisula community. This community is typical of sandbanks in the North Sea area, although communities in such areas are very variable and site-specific. Character species used as indicators for environmental changes in the Horns Rev area are the bristle worms Goniadella bobretzkii, Ophelia borealis, Psione remota and Orbinia sertulata and the mussels Goodallia triangularis and Spisula solida. In connection with the implementation of the monitoring programme concerning the ecological impact of the introduction of hard substrate related to the Horns Rev Wind Farm, surveys on hard bottom substrate was conducted in March 2003 and in September 2003. This report describes the first year results of surveys on hard substrate after the completion of the offshore wind farm at Horns Rev. (au)

  6. Condition monitoring of a wind turbine doubly-fed induction generator through current signature analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigao, Estefania; Honrubia-Escribano, Andres; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio

    2017-11-01

    Operation and maintenance (O&M) of wind turbines is recently becoming the spotlight in the wind energy sector. While wind turbine power capacities continue to increase and new offshore developments are being installed, O&M costs keep raising. With the objective of reducing such costs, the new trends are moving from corrective and preventive maintenance toward predictive actions. In this scenario, condition monitoring (CM) has been identified as the key to achieve this goal. The induction generator of a wind turbine is a major contributor to failure rates and downtime where doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) are the dominant technology employed in variable speed wind turbines. The current work presents the analysis of an in-service DFIG. A one-year measurement campaign has been used to perform the study. Several signal processing techniques have been applied and the optimal method for CM has been identified. A diagnosis has been reached, the DFIG under study shows potential gearbox damage.

  7. Large-scale introduction of wind power stations in the Swedish grid: a simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, L

    1978-08-01

    This report describes a simulation study on the factors to be considered if wind power were to be introduced to the south Swedish power grid on a large scale. The simulations are based upon a heuristic power generation planning model, developed for the purpose. The heuristic technique reflects the actual running strategies of a big power company with suitable accuracy. All simulations refer to certain typical days in 1976 to which all wind data and system characteristics are related. The installed amount of wind power will not be subject to optimization. All differences between planned and real wind power generation is equalized by regulation of the hydro power. The simulations made differ according to how the installed amount of wind power is handled in the power generation planning. The simulations indicate that the power system examined could well bear an introduction of wind power up to a level of 20% of the total power installed. This result is of course valid only for the days examined and does not necessarily apply to the present day structure of the system.

  8. Report on radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring at nuclear power stations during 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, M.J.; Thomas, D.W.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents the details for 1991 of radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring at Nuclear Electric sites. In addition to the main section which summarises the discharges and monitoring at the Company's nuclear sites as a whole, appendices are presented covering the data in detail for individual sites. In each case the radiological impact on the general public has been estimated. Discharges generally were not substantially different from those of recent years. All radioactive effluent discharges from power stations were within authorised limits. Radiation doses to members of the public resulting from these discharges, and from direct radiation from the Stations, were in all cases less than the limit of 1 mSv per year which has been recommended by ICRP since 1985. (Author)

  9. Hard bottom substrate monitoring Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report. 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S.B.; Pedersen, John

    2005-05-15

    Elsam and Eltra have built the offshore demonstration wind farm at Horns Rev in the North Sea. Elsam is the owner and is responsible for the operation of the wind farm. Eltra is responsible for the connection of the wind farm to the national onshore grid. In the summer months of 2002, Elsam constructed the world's largest offshore wind farm at the Danish west coast. The wind farm is located 14-20 km into the North Sea, west of Blaevands Huk. The first wind turbine foundation was in place in March 2002 and the last mono-pile was in place in August 2002 for a total of 80. The construction work was completed with the last connecting cables sluiced down in September 2002. All the wind turbines were in production in December 2002. The expected impact from the wind farm will primarily be an alternation of habitats due to the introduction of hard bottom substrates as wind mono-piles and scour protections. A continuous development in the epifouling communities will be expected together with an introduction of new or alien species in the area. The indigenous benthic community in the area of Horn Rev can be characterised by infauna species belonging to the Goniadella-Spisula community. This community is typical of sandbanks in the North Sea area, although communities in such areas are very variable and site specific. Character species used as indicators for environmental changes in the Horns Rev area are the bristle worms Goniadella bobretzkii, Ophelia borealis, Psione remota and Orbinia sertulata and the mussels Goodallia triangularis and Spisula solida. In connection with the implementation of the monitoring programme concerning the ecological impact of the introduction of hard substrate related to the Horns Rev Wind Farm, surveys on hard bottom substrates were initialised in March 2003 with monitoring conducted in September 2003 and March and September 2004. This report describes the results from surveys on hard substrates in 2004. (au)

  10. Monitoring fatigue loads on wind turbines using cycle counting data acquisition systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H; Seifert, H [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany); Fragoulis, A; Vionis, P; Foussekis, D [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (Greece); Dahlberg, J A; Poppen, M [The Aeronautical Research Institue of Sweden (Sweden)

    1996-09-01

    As in any industrial application, the duration of a wind turbine`s life is a key parameter for the evaluation of its economic potential. Assuming a service life of 20 years, components of the turbine have to withstand a number of load cycles of up to 10{sup 8}. Such numbers of load cycles impose high demands on the fatigue characteristics of both, the used materials and the design. Nevertheless, fatigue loading of wind turbine components still remains a parameter of high uncertainty in the design of wind turbines. The specific features of these fatigue loads can be expected to vary with the type of turbine and the site of operation. In order to ensure the reliability of the next generation of larger scale wind turbines improved load assumptions will be of vital importance. Within the scope of the presented research program DEWI, C.R.E.S. and FFA monitored fatigue loads of serial produced wind turbines by means of a monitoring method that uses on-line cycle counting techniques. The blade root bending moments of two pitch controlled, variable speed wind turbines operating in the Hamswehrum wind farm, and also that of a stall controlled, fixed speed wind turbine operating in CRES` complex terrain test site, were measured by DEWI and CRES. In parallel FFA used their database of time series measurements of blade root bending moments on a stall controlled, fixed speed turbine at Alsvik Windfarm in order to derive semi-empirical fatigue load data. The experience gained from application of the on-line measurement technique is discussed with respect to performance, data quality, reliability and cost effectiveness. Investigations on the effects of wind farm and complex terrain operation on the fatigue loads of wind turbine rotor blades are presented. (au)

  11. Hard bottom substrate monitoring Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report. 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S B; Pedersen, John

    2005-05-15

    Elsam and Eltra have built the offshore demonstration wind farm at Horns Rev in the North Sea. Elsam is the owner and is responsible for the operation of the wind farm. Eltra is responsible for the connection of the wind farm to the national onshore grid. In the summer months of 2002, Elsam constructed the world's largest offshore wind farm at the Danish west coast. The wind farm is located 14-20 km into the North Sea, west of Blaevands Huk. The first wind turbine foundation was in place in March 2002 and the last mono-pile was in place in August 2002 for a total of 80. The construction work was completed with the last connecting cables sluiced down in September 2002. All the wind turbines were in production in December 2002. The expected impact from the wind farm will primarily be an alternation of habitats due to the introduction of hard bottom substrates as wind mono-piles and scour protections. A continuous development in the epifouling communities will be expected together with an introduction of new or alien species in the area. The indigenous benthic community in the area of Horn Rev can be characterised by infauna species belonging to the Goniadella-Spisula community. This community is typical of sandbanks in the North Sea area, although communities in such areas are very variable and site specific. Character species used as indicators for environmental changes in the Horns Rev area are the bristle worms Goniadella bobretzkii, Ophelia borealis, Psione remota and Orbinia sertulata and the mussels Goodallia triangularis and Spisula solida. In connection with the implementation of the monitoring programme concerning the ecological impact of the introduction of hard substrate related to the Horns Rev Wind Farm, surveys on hard bottom substrates were initialised in March 2003 with monitoring conducted in September 2003 and March and September 2004. This report describes the results from surveys on hard substrates in 2004. (au)

  12. Investigation of the stochastic subspace identification method for on-line wind turbine tower monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kaoshan; Wang, Ying; Lu, Wensheng; Ren, Xiaosong; Huang, Zhenhua

    2017-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) of wind turbines has been applied in the wind energy industry to obtain their real-time vibration parameters and to ensure their optimum performance. For SHM, the accuracy of its results and the efficiency of its measurement methodology and data processing algorithm are the two major concerns. Selection of proper measurement parameters could improve such accuracy and efficiency. The Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) is a widely used data processing algorithm for SHM. This research discussed the accuracy and efficiency of SHM using SSI method to identify vibration parameters of on-line wind turbine towers. Proper measurement parameters, such as optimum measurement duration, are recommended.

  13. Indicators for monitoring of safety operation and condition of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manova, D.

    2001-01-01

    A common goal of all employees in the nuclear power field is safety operation of nuclear power stations. The evaluation and control of NPP safety operation are a part of the elements of safety management. The present report is related only to a part of the total assessment and control of the plant safety operation, namely - the indicator system for monitoring of Kozloduy NPP operation and condition. (author)

  14. Position monitor of SR beam on XAFS experimental station in BSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xianneng; Xie Yaning; Hu Tiandou; Jin Yalan; Huang Daxian

    1995-01-01

    A monitor of density and position of SR (Synchrotron Radiation) beam is built on XAFS (X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) experimental station in BSRF (Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility). It is composed of the beam slit and its drivers, weak current amplifiers, computing amplifier for coordinate of the beam position and display with RS-232 interface. The equipment can be used for other measurement fields related with current and voltage

  15. Welding station condition monitoring using bluetooth enabled sensors and intelligent data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyers, D R; Grosvenor, R I; Prickett, P W [Intelligent Process Monitoring and Management (IPMM) Group, Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the first phase deployment of bluetooth enabled condition monitoring systems at a large multinational engineering company. The radio networking of sensor signals is a fast developing area and the facilities afforded by the Wisnet device were used in the monitoring of a welding station. This and any of the planned further monitoring systems had to comply to a carefully managed IT information plan at the company. For the example application, the development and testing of microcontoller-based pre-processing of data is reported. This includes further development of the Petri Net approach to provide event-based monitoring as a sensible alternative to the continuous transmission of the sensory data.

  16. A design proposal of real-time monitoring stations: implementation and performance in contrasting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of creating a real-time monitoring network for both oceanographic and meteorological data, a monitoring station conceptual design was developed. A common framework for software and electronics was adapted to different environmental conditions using two buoy approaches: one intended for oceanic waters, to be moored up to 30-40 m depth, where waves are the critical design factor, and one for continental waters (rivers, lakes and the inner part of estuaries, where currents are the critical design factor. When structures such as bridges are present in the area, the monitoring station can be installed on these structures, thus reducing its impact and increasing safety. In this paper, the design, implementation, operation and performance of these stations are described. A reliability index is calculated for the longest time series of the three related deployment options on the Galician coast: Cíes (oceanic buoy in front of the Ría de Vigo, Catoira (continental buoy in the Ulla river and Cortegada (installation in a bed in the Ría de Arousa.

  17. Infauna monitoring Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual state report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bech, M.; Frederiksen, R.; Pedersen, John; Leonhard, S.B.

    2005-04-15

    A total of 40 species were identified from the surveys in the Horns Rev area in September 2004 while 42 species were identified in 2003 and 47 species in September 2001. The decline in the number of species occurred both inside the wind farm and reference areas, which indicates that the decline could be a combination of changes in sediment characteristics and natural variation rather than an effect from the establishment of the wind farm. More species were not associated with the hard substrate at the turbine sites in 2004 compared to 2003, while in 2001, more species were associated with fine-grained sand. The median sediment grain size increased from 2001 to 2003 to 2004, which suggests that the velocity of the current increased, but modelling calculations on current speed predicted a 2% reduction in the wind farm area and up to a 15% reduction very close to the scour protection. These results agreed with the grain sizes found at the stations 5, 25 and 100 metres from the scour protection. At most stations, the medium grain size was 5 metres lower from the scour protection compared with the station 100 metres from the scour protection, which indicates that the velocity of the current was lower close to the scour protection. No significant impact on the infauna in the wind farm area was detectable concerning distance-related effects. Though general reductions in the population size of some of the character species in the surveyed areas might be related to changes in the sediment structure, the infauna community at Horns Rev showed no obvious sign of stress response as a consequence of possible impact from construction and operating activities. New species were observed in 2003 and 2004 and some of these might be a result of sediment characteristics, less predation or natural variation. The recording of other species might be a result of the introduction of hard bottom habitants in the wind farm area. The density of the most abundant bivalves and bristle worms was

  18. Infauna monitoring Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech, M.; Frederiksen, R.; Pedersen, John; Leonhard, S.B.

    2005-04-01

    A total of 40 species were identified from the surveys in the Horns Rev area in September 2004 while 42 species were identified in 2003 and 47 species in September 2001. The decline in the number of species occurred both inside the wind farm and reference areas, which indicates that the decline could be a combination of changes in sediment characteristics and natural variation rather than an effect from the establishment of the wind farm. More species were not associated with the hard substrate at the turbine sites in 2004 compared to 2003, while in 2001, more species were associated with fine-grained sand. The median sediment grain size increased from 2001 to 2003 to 2004, which suggests that the velocity of the current increased, but modelling calculations on current speed predicted a 2% reduction in the wind farm area and up to a 15% reduction very close to the scour protection. These results agreed with the grain sizes found at the stations 5, 25 and 100 metres from the scour protection. At most stations, the medium grain size was 5 metres lower from the scour protection compared with the station 100 metres from the scour protection, which indicates that the velocity of the current was lower close to the scour protection. No significant impact on the infauna in the wind farm area was detectable concerning distance-related effects. Though general reductions in the population size of some of the character species in the surveyed areas might be related to changes in the sediment structure, the infauna community at Horns Rev showed no obvious sign of stress response as a consequence of possible impact from construction and operating activities. New species were observed in 2003 and 2004 and some of these might be a result of sediment characteristics, less predation or natural variation. The recording of other species might be a result of the introduction of hard bottom habitants in the wind farm area. The density of the most abundant bivalves and bristle worms was

  19. Multi-criteria decision making on selection of solar–wind hybrid power station location: A case of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunna, Wu; Geng, Shuai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We summarize the evaluation attributes from the perspective of project management. • The duties of roles are defined in the decision process. • The decision framework can provide various rankings of alternatives. • A China’s solar–wind hybrid power station location selection case is study. - Abstract: Site selection plays an important role in the entire life cycle of solar–wind hybrid power station (SWHPS) project and is worthy to further study. There are problems in the present researches: first, the SWHPS site evaluation results are difficult to be understood by the project managers due to the evaluations of SWHPS site are few from the perspective of project management. Second, the independence of experts is difficult to be protected since the undefined duties of roles in the evaluation process Third, the project managers cannot consider the alternatives thoroughly because that the evaluation result is single. Hence the innovativeness of this paper is as follows: first, the evaluation attributes of SWHPS site selection are summarized from the perspective of project management; second, the duties of roles in the decision process are defined; third, according to the principle of practicality, a decision framework of SWHPS site selection is built based on the analytic hierarchy process method, the merits of this decision framework are that it can provide various rankings of alternatives and is easy to be used. Finally, a case study of China demonstrates the effectiveness of decision framework

  20. Monitoring, modeling and mitigating impacts of wind farms on local meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya Roy, Somnath; Traiteur, Justin; Kelley, Neil

    2010-05-01

    Wind power is one of the fastest growing sources of energy. Most of the growth is in the industrial sector comprising of large utility-scale wind farms. Recent modeling studies have suggested that such wind farms can significantly affect local and regional weather and climate. In this work, we present observational evidence of the impact of wind farms on near-surface air temperatures. Data from perhaps the only meteorological field campaign in an operational wind farm shows that downwind temperatures are lower during the daytime and higher at night compared to the upwind environment. Corresponding radiosonde profiles at the nearby Edwards Air Force Base WMO meteorological station show that the diurnal environment is unstable while the nocturnal environment is stable during the field campaign. This behavior is consistent with the hypothesis proposed by Baidya Roy et al. (JGR 2004) that states that turbulence generated in the wake of rotors enhance vertical mixing leading to a warming/cooling under positive/negative potential temperature lapse rates. We conducted a set of 306 simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to test if regional climate models can capture the thermal effects of wind farms. We represented wind turbines with a subgrid parameterization that assumes rotors to be sinks of momentum and sources of turbulence. The simulated wind farms consistently generated a localized warming/cooling under positive/negative lapse rates as hypothesized. We found that these impacts are inversely correlated with background atmospheric boundary layer turbulence. Thus, if the background turbulence is high due to natural processes, the effects of additional turbulence generated by wind turbine rotors are likely to be small. We propose the following strategies to minimize impacts of wind farms: • Engineering solution: design rotors that generate less turbulence in their wakes. Sensitivity simulations show that these turbines also increase the

  1. Analysis of technological innovation in Danish wind turbine industry - including the Test Station for Windturbines dual roll as research institution and certification authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannemand Andersen, P.

    1993-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to examine the interactions between the Danish wind turbine industry and the Test Station for Wind Turbines. Because these interactions are concerning technological innovation, it follows that the innovation processes within the enterprises must be analyzed and modelled. The study is carried out as an iterative model-developing process using case study methods. The findings from some less structured interviews are discussed with literature and forms a basis for models and new interviews. The thesis is based on interviews with 20 R and D engineers in the Danish wind turbine industry, 7 engineers at The Test Station and 7 people involved in wind power abroad (American and British). The theoretical frame for this thesis is sociology/organizational theory and industrial engineering. The thesis consists of five main sections, dealing with technology and knowledge, innovation processes, organizational culture, innovation and interaction between the Test Station's research activities and the companies' innovation processes, and finally interaction through the Test Stations certification activity. First a taxonomy for technology and knowledge is established in order to clarify what kind of technology the interactions are all about, and what kind of knowledge is transferred during the interactions. This part of the thesis also contains an analysis of the patents drawn by the Danish wind turbine industry. The analysis shows that the Danish wind turbine industry do not use patents. Instead the nature of the technology and the speed of innovation are used to protect the industry's knowledge. (EG) (192 refs.)

  2. Wind turbine condition monitoring based on SCADA data using normal behavior models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlechtingen, Meik; Santos, Ilmar; Achiche, Sofiane

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a system for wind turbine condition monitoring using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Interference Systems (ANFIS). For this purpose: (1) ANFIS normal behavior models for common Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) data are developed in order to detect abnormal behavior...... the applicability of ANFIS models for monitoring wind turbine SCADA signals. The computational time needed for model training is compared to Neural Network (NN) models showing the strength of ANFIS in training speed. (2) For automation of fault diagnosis Fuzzy Interference Systems (FIS) are used to analyze...

  3. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Station and Site Description Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, site inspection trips were carried out by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Risø DTU in April and June of 2011. A total of 10 sites featuring instrumented 60-m masts were visited; the present report summarises...... the findings of the site inspection teams. The main results are descriptions and documentation of the meteorological masts, instruments and site conditions. For each site, the location and magnetic declination have been determined, as well as the sensor boom directions on the mast. Elevation maps have been...... constructed to show the surrounding terrain and photos taken to document the land cover. Finally, the observed wind roses and wind speed distribution as of 1 October 2013 are shown....

  4. Fundamentals for remote condition monitoring of offshore wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGugan, Malcolm; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2007-01-01

    inspection, repair or replacement. The paper explores the requirements for the level of remote data Output that will allow an initial improvement in the overall management of offshore wind farms., and ultimately accurate estimates of remaining life for individual blades. The practical and theoretical...... knowledge synergy required to introduce a working system is also considered. Although the initial objectives of the present Study were simply to establish the fundamentals for such technology, with industrial collaboration to follow, it quickly became clear that the development of specific prototype...

  5. Infauna monitoring Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech, M.; Leonhars, S.B.; Pedersen, John

    2004-05-01

    ELSAM and ELTRA have established an offshore wind farm with an output of 160 MW in the waters of Horns Rev 1420 km off Blaevands Huk, which is the most westerly point of Denmark. The first phase of construction of the wind farm started in spring 2002. Before the construction activities took place, a baseline description of the benthos was conducted as a part of an environmental monitoring programme for the establishment of the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm. The baseline surveys for the present monitoring programme were conducted in the wind farm area on three occasions: spring 1999, spring 2001 and September 2001. In designated reference areas, surveys were conducted in spring 1999 and September 2001. The reference areas in 1999 and September 2001 were placed at two different geographical locations because the survey in September 2001 was planned to be a part of a fish monitoring programme. A comparison between the baseline study in spring 2001 and the baseline study in autumn 2001 clearly revealed that the biomass of most species increased considerably from spring to September. Despite the increase in biomass, the overall distribution of the species and their relative abundance did not change. In order to use the baseline data to investigate a possible impact after the construction of the wind farm, it was essential to arrange the monitoring programme either in spring or in September 2003, because the baseline studies were conducted in these periods. The monitoring programme was conducted in September 2003 after the wind farm had become operational, parallel with the survey on hard bottom substrates. The impacts of the wind farm on the benthic fauna (infauna) in the area were mainly expected to be due to the alteration of the local currents. As the changes in the currents are only minor, impacts on the water chemistry and on the benthic fauna resulting from hydrodynamic causes were expected to be limited or non-existent. The main objective of the present monitoring

  6. Infauna monitoring Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bech, M.; Leonhars, S.B.; Pedersen, John

    2004-05-15

    ELSAM and ELTRA have established an offshore wind farm with an output of 160 MW in the waters of Horns Rev 1420 km off Blaevands Huk, which is the most westerly point of Denmark. The first phase of construction of the wind farm started in spring 2002. Before the construction activities took place, a baseline description of the benthos was conducted as a part of an environmental monitoring programme for the establishment of the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm. The baseline surveys for the present monitoring programme were conducted in the wind farm area on three occasions: spring 1999, spring 2001 and September 2001. In designated reference areas, surveys were conducted in spring 1999 and September 2001. The reference areas in 1999 and September 2001 were placed at two different geographical locations because the survey in September 2001 was planned to be a part of a fish monitoring programme. A comparison between the baseline study in spring 2001 and the baseline study in autumn 2001 clearly revealed that the biomass of most species increased considerably from spring to September. Despite the increase in biomass, the overall distribution of the species and their relative abundance did not change. In order to use the baseline data to investigate a possible impact after the construction of the wind farm, it was essential to arrange the monitoring programme either in spring or in September 2003, because the baseline studies were conducted in these periods. The monitoring programme was conducted in September 2003 after the wind farm had become operational, parallel with the survey on hard bottom substrates. The impacts of the wind farm on the benthic fauna (infauna) in the area were mainly expected to be due to the alteration of the local currents. As the changes in the currents are only minor, impacts on the water chemistry and on the benthic fauna resulting from hydrodynamic causes were expected to be limited or non-existent. The main objective of the present monitoring

  7. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Station and Site Description Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, site inspection trips were carried out by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Risø DTU in April and June of 2011. A total of 10 sites featuring instrumented 60-m masts were visited; the present report summarises...

  8. Optimization of hybrid PV/wind power system for remote telecom station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, S.; Shrestha, J.N.; Neto, F.J.; Ferreira, J.A.F.; Adhikari, M.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid depletion of fossil fuel resources and environmental concerns has given awareness on generation of renewable energy resources. Among the various renewable resources, hybrid solar and wind energy seems to be promising solutions to provide reliable power supply with improved system

  9. Wind characteristics of CzeCOS’s ecosystem station Štítná

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guerra Torres, Patricio Carlos; Nguyen, Vinh Xuan; Pavelka, Marian; Yadav, Shilpi; Marek, Michal V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 1-2 (2017), s. 27-32 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : European beech * Fagus sylvatica * wind analysis Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences

  10. Effects of nearby surface features on wind speed at a nuclear plant meteorological station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, N.A.; Goodwin, R.J.; Pittman, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    There is a definite cause and effect relationship between the trees in the vicinity of the meteorological tower and the wind speed at the 10-meter level on the meteorological tower. For the affected directions, horizontal wind speed is significantly reduced below what it would be for that level if the trees were not present. This effect is only slightly less for the 10:1 exposure achieved with the 1977 tree clearing, which illustrates that meeting this commonly accepted distance to height ratio does not assure representativeness of 10-meter data collected at a nuclear plant site. The somewhat stronger effect for winds from the south through southwest directions may be partly attributable to the abrupt change in roughness and elevation encountered by air moving at an angle or directly across the reservoir, which is 3.5 to 5.0 kilometers wide at this site. This general reduction in wind speed values below what would be expected at the plant location will result in biased dispersion estimates. Calculated relative concentration values for releases treated as ground-level or building-wake releases would be larger than actual concentrations. While this would provide conservative concentration values, radioactive plume transport calculations would be nonconservative. The calculated, or predicted, transport rate would be slower than the actual transport rate. Such local biases affecting the spatial representativeness of airflow at 10 meters are a primary reason for TVA's decision to use 46-meter wind data for ground-level transport and diffusion modeling in its radiological emergency preparedness program

  11. Improving the monitoring of quantitative conditions of peacetime fuel stocks at pumping stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaviša M. Ilić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper has solved the problem of optimizing the existing inefficient and irrational system of the quantitative monitoring of the situation in peacetime fuel supplies at the pumping stations in the Army of Serbia. A study of existing organizational forms, military pumping stations as well as civilian ones, was carried out. Based on the completion of the survey by competent persons in the military, the methods of expert evaluation and the obtained quantitative indicator of the tested models, a multicriteria optimization was performed in order to select the optimal model. The optimization of the existing models, in terms of efficiency and economy, would be the rationalization and modernization - automation of military capacity and greater reliance on automated civilian pumping stations. Introduction Within the framework of the undergoing reform of the Serbian Army and in order to reduce the total costs, it is necessary to optimize the existing supply system that is technologically outdated, inefficient and uneconomic. The problem of research in this paper is reduced to the selection of an optimal model of the quantitative monitoring of the state of peacetime stocks of fuel at the pumping stations in the Serbian Army, in order to ensure economical operation and efficient monitoring of available and issued quantities, aiming at better decision making and management in the supply system as well as at achieving faster system response, with greater reliance on government logistics. Organization of work and monitoring the fuel quantitative status at pumping stations The existing system of monitoring the quantitative state of fuel pumping stations in the Army of Serbia has the following disadvantages: getting unreliable data, due to outdated equipment for fuel handling and measuring equipment, and manual collection of data; creation of unauthorized shortages (due to subjective human error or deception; inadequate engagement of respective material and

  12. Design and implementation of data acquisition, communication and monitoring system for photovoltaic power station in microgrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Wei; Pei, Wei; Qi, Zhiping; Kong, Li [Institute of Electrical Engineering, CAS, Beijing (China)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the design and realization of data acquisition, communication and monitoring system for photovoltaic power station. The data acquisition module including filter algorithm and signal modulation circuit uses the digital signal processor (DSP) as the main processor, it can realize accurate real-time data acquisition; The data communication module uses Ethernet as communication network between PV system and MicroGrid. The gateway using ARM microprocessor can realize protocol conversion and bidirectional communication between CAN Bus and Ethernet; The monitoring unit with friendly human-machine interface keeps real-time performance monitoring of PV system to realize automation control. The results of experiment show that the system is practicable and effective. (orig.)

  13. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; hide

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  14. Recent developments in water quality monitoring for Space Station reclaimed wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, John W.; Verostko, Charles E.; Linton, Arthur T.; Burchett, Ray

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent developments in water quality monitoring for Space Station reclaimed wastewaters. A preprototype unit that contains an ultraviolet absorbance organic carbon monitor integrated with pH and conductivity sensors is presented. The preprototype has provisions for automated operation and is a reagentless flow-through system without any gas/liquid interfaces. The organic carbon monitor detects by utraviolet absorbance the organic impurities in reclaimed wastewater which may be correlated to the organic carbon content of the water. A comparison of the preprototype organic carbon detection values with actual total organic carbon measurements is presented. The electrolyte double junction concept for the pH sensor and fixed electrodes for both the pH and conductivity sensors are discussed. In addition, the development of a reagentless organic carbon analyzer that incorporates ultraviolet oxidation and infrared detection is presented. Detection sensitivities, hardware development, and operation are included.

  15. Mini neutron monitor measurements at the Neumayer III station and on the German research vessel Polarstern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, B.; Galsdorf, D.; Herbst, K.; Gieseler, J.; Labrenz, J.; Schwerdt, C.; Walter, M.; Benadé, G.; Fuchs, R.; Krüger, H.; Moraal, H.

    2015-08-01

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based devices to measure the variation of cosmic ray intensities, and although being reliable they have two disadvantages: their size as well as their weight. As consequence, [1] suggested the development of a portable, and thus much smaller and lighter, calibration neutron monitor that can be carried to any existing station around the world [see 2; 3]. But this mini neutron monitor, moreover, can also be installed as an autonomous station at any location that provides ’’office” conditions such as a) temperatures within the range of around 0 to less than 40 degree C as well as b) internet and c) power supply. However, the best location is when the material above the NM is minimized. In 2011 a mini Neutron Monitor was installed at the Neumayer III station in Antarctica as well as the German research vessel Polarstern, providing scientific data since January 2014 and October 2012, respectively. The Polarstern, which is in the possession of the Federal Republic of Germany represented by the Ministry of Education and Research and operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research and managed by the shipping company Laeisz, was specially designed for working in the polar seas and is currently one of the most sophisticated polar research vessels worldwide. It spends almost 310 days a year at sea usually being located in the waters of Antarctica between November and March while spending the northern summer months in Arctic waters. Therefore, the vessel scans the rigidity range below the atmospheric threshold and above 10 GV twice a year. In contrast to spacecraft measurements NM data are influenced by variations of the geomagnetic field as well as the atmospheric conditions. Thus, in order to interpret the data a detailed knowledge of the instrument sensitivity with geomagnetic latitude (rigidity) and atmospheric pressure is essential. In order to determine the atmospheric response data from the

  16. Mini neutron monitor measurements at the Neumayer III station and on the German research vessel Polarstern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, B; Galsdorf, D; Herbst, K; Gieseler, J; Labrenz, J; Schwerdt, C; Walter, M; Benadé, G; Fuchs, R; Krüger, H; Moraal, H

    2015-01-01

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based devices to measure the variation of cosmic ray intensities, and although being reliable they have two disadvantages: their size as well as their weight. As consequence, [1] suggested the development of a portable, and thus much smaller and lighter, calibration neutron monitor that can be carried to any existing station around the world [see 2; 3]. But this mini neutron monitor, moreover, can also be installed as an autonomous station at any location that provides ’’office” conditions such as a) temperatures within the range of around 0 to less than 40 degree C as well as b) internet and c) power supply. However, the best location is when the material above the NM is minimized. In 2011 a mini Neutron Monitor was installed at the Neumayer III station in Antarctica as well as the German research vessel Polarstern, providing scientific data since January 2014 and October 2012, respectively. The Polarstern, which is in the possession of the Federal Republic of Germany represented by the Ministry of Education and Research and operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research and managed by the shipping company Laeisz, was specially designed for working in the polar seas and is currently one of the most sophisticated polar research vessels worldwide. It spends almost 310 days a year at sea usually being located in the waters of Antarctica between November and March while spending the northern summer months in Arctic waters. Therefore, the vessel scans the rigidity range below the atmospheric threshold and above 10 GV twice a year. In contrast to spacecraft measurements NM data are influenced by variations of the geomagnetic field as well as the atmospheric conditions. Thus, in order to interpret the data a detailed knowledge of the instrument sensitivity with geomagnetic latitude (rigidity) and atmospheric pressure is essential. In order to determine the atmospheric response data from the

  17. Supervision monitoring for radiation environment around Daya Bay and Lingao nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Naiming; Chen Zhidong; Song Haiqing; Deng Fei; Lin Qing; Huang Nairong; Zhou Ruidong; Mo Guanghua; Li Lingjuan; Liu Ying; Li Qiaoqin; Lai Liming; Zhou Xue

    2004-01-01

    This paper systematically introduces the supervision monitoring for radiation environment around the Guangdong Daya Bay and Ling Ao nuclear power station by the Guangdong Environmental Radiation Research and Monitoring Center. It includes the monitoring plan, methods, quality assurance, main results and conclusions. The results show that: (1) The gas discharge have not caused any detectable impacts to the terrestrial and atmospheric environment since their operation; (2) 110m Ag could only be detected in seawater in the West Daya Bay in 1995 and 1997 and in sediments in 1997. The maximum annual average in seawater was 3.1 Bq/m 3 , annual average of 110m Ag in sediments was 1.0 Bq/kg(dry). But it was always detectable in pearl oyster, gulfweed and cuttlefish in the West Daya Bay. The 110m Ag concentrations in halobios were relatively higher in 1994, 1996 and 1997. The maximum concentrations in pearl oyster, gulfweed and cuttlefish were 2.2, 1.7 and 5.8 Bq/kg (fresh) respectively. It has significantly decreased with decreasing discharge from the stations since 1997. (3) 137 Cs could be detected in almost all seawater samples in the West Daya Bay and the concentration were relatively higher from 1994-1998. The maximum annual average was laid in 1995 and it was 4.6 Bq/m 3 . After 1999, its concentration ranged in the background level. The concentrations in other marine samples were extremely low and changed in the range of the background. (4) 3 H in seawater in the West Daya Bay would go up as a pulse soon after 3 H discharge from the station and would go down to the background after 3-5 days. The annual average of monitoring results were between 0.8-3.4 Bq/L

  18. Microseismic monitoring of columnar jointed basalt fracture activity: a trial at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing-Rui; Li, Qing-Peng; Feng, Xia-Ting; Xiao, Ya-Xun; Feng, Guang-Liang; Hu, Lian-Xing

    2014-10-01

    Severe stress release has occurred to the surrounding rocks of the typically columnar jointed basalt after excavation at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, Jinsha River, China, where cracking, collapse, and other types of failure may take place occasionally due to relaxation fracture. In order to understand the relaxation fracture characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt in the entire excavation process at the diversion tunnel of the Baihetan Hydropower Station, real-time microseismic monitoring tests were performed. First, the applicability of a geophone and accelerometer was analyzed in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel, and the results show that the accelerometer was more applicable to the cracking monitoring of the columnar jointed basalt. Next, the waveform characteristics of the microseismic signals were analyzed, and the microseismic signals were identified as follows: rock fracture signal, drilling signal, electrical signal, heavy vehicle passing signal, and blast signal. Then, the attenuation characteristics of the microseismic signals in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel were studied, as well as the types and characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt fracture. Finally, location analysis was conducted on the strong rock fracture events, in which four or more sensors were triggered, to obtain the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics and laws of the columnar jointed basalt relaxation fracture after excavation. The test results are not only of important reference value to the excavation and support of diversion tunnel at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, but also of great referential significance and value to the conduction of similar tests.

  19. Life cycle management. Condition monitoring of wind power plants; Life-cycle-management. Zustandsueberwachung von Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, R. [cmc GmbH, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on maintenance strategies and condition monitoring in the field of wind energy. Beside the components in the drive train of wind turbines under consideration, the condition monitoring of the hardware systems and their software is explained. A brief overview of the field of machinery diagnosis and an explanation of the transmission of the measured data follow. Additional sensors such as sensors for the rotor blade monitoring, oil particles counter or oil quality sensors are described. In the field of diagnostic certainty, special follow-up studies such as video endoscopy, analysis of oil or grease, filter testing and material testing are discussed. The information from these thematic fields is used in the life-cycle management database for operationally relevant evaluations and considerations of economy of condition monitoring systems.

  20. Economic analysis of condition monitoring systems for offshore wind turbine sub-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Allan; MacMillan, David; Thöns, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The use of condition monitoring systems on offshore wind turbines has increased dramatically in recent times. However, their use is mostly restricted to vibration based monitoring systems for the gearbox, generator and drive train. A survey of commercially available condition monitoring systems...... year life cycle. The model uses Hidden Markov Models to represent both the actual system state and the observed condition monitoring state. The CM systems are modelled to include reduced failure types, false alarms, detection rates and 6 month failure warnings. The costs for system failures are derived...... and their associated costs has been completed for the blades, drive train, tower and foundation. This paper considers what value can be obtained from integrating these additional systems into the maintenance plan. This is achieved by running simulations on an operations and maintenance model for a wind farm over a 20...

  1. Control and Health Monitoring of Variable Speed Wind Power Generation Systems; Period of Performance: 10 July 1997 - 10 July 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y. D.; Bikdash, M.; Schulz, M. J.

    2001-09-01

    This document reports accomplishments on variable speed control, furling analysis, and health monitoring of wind turbines. There are three parts, prepared by Song, Bikdash, and Schulz, respectively. The first part discusses variable-speed control of wind turbines, exploring a memory-based method for wind speed prediction and wind turbine control. The second part addresses the yaw dynamics of wind turbines, including modeling, analysis, and control. The third part of the report discusses new analytical techniques that were developed and tested to detect initial damage to prevent failures of wind turbine rotor blades.

  2. A Diagnostic and Predictive Framework for Wind Turbine Drive Train Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach-Andersen, Martin

    Vast amount of data are collected minute by minute from wind turbines around the world. This thesis represents a focused research effort into discovering new ways of processing these data streams in order to gain insights which can be used to lower the maintenance costs of wind turbines and increase......, early fault identification based on analysis of complex vibration patterns which is a domain previously reserved for human experts, is shown to be solved with high accuracy using deep learning architecture strained in a fully supervised sense from the data collected in a large scale wind turbine...... monitoring platform. The research shows a way towards a fully automatized data-driven wind turbine diagnostic processing system that is highly scalable and requires little or no feature engineering and system modeling....

  3. Simultaneous Fault Detection and Sensor Selection for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenna Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Data collected from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA system are used widely in wind farms to obtain operation and performance information about wind turbines. The paper presents a three-way model by means of parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC for wind turbine fault detection and sensor selection, and evaluates the method with SCADA data obtained from an operational farm. The main characteristic of this new approach is that it can be used to simultaneously explore measurement sample profiles and sensors profiles to avoid discarding potentially relevant information for feature extraction. With K-means clustering method, the measurement data indicating normal, fault and alarm conditions of the wind turbines can be identified, and the sensor array can be optimised for effective condition monitoring.

  4. On the Value of Structural Health Monitoring Information for the Operation of Wind Parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Faber, Michael H.; Val, Dimitri V.

    2017-01-01

    wind turbine systems and its components is developed accounting for the wind park functionality, i.e. power production, its operation and its cascading damage and failure scenarios. This system model facilitates to quantify the expected benefits and risks throughout the service life accounting......In the present paper, an approach for the quantification of the Value of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Information building upon a framework for infrastructure system utility and decision analysis is developed and applied to the operation of wind parks. The quantification of the value of SHM...... facilitates a benefit and risk informed assessment and optimization of SHM strategies and encompasses models for the infrastructure functionality, the structural constituent and system risks and its management as well as the performance of SHM strategies. A wind park system model incorporating the structural...

  5. South Baltic representative coastal field surveys, including monitoring at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Schönhofer, Jan; Szmytkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    The paper contains a brief description of selected investigations carried out in the south Baltic coastal zone, with the particular focus on the history and recent activities conducted at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (CRS Lubiatowo), Poland. These activities comprise field investigations of nearshore hydrodynamic, lithodynamic, and morphodynamic processes. The study area is a sandy multi-bar shore with a mild slope, much exposed to the impact of waves approaching from NW-NE sector. The shore has a dissipative character which means that the wave energy is subject to gradual dissipation in the nearshore zone and only a small part of this energy is reflected by the shore. Due to the big wind fetch in N-NNE direction, the location of CRS Lubiatowo is favourable to registration of the maximum values of parameters of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes which occur in the Baltic during extreme storms.

  6. A Two-Stage Diagnosis Framework for Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Twomey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in high performance sensing technologies enable the development of wind turbine condition monitoring system to diagnose and predict the system-wide effects of failure events. This paper presents a vibration-based two stage fault detection framework for failure diagnosis of rotating components in wind turbines. The proposed framework integrates an analytical defect detection method and a graphical verification method together to ensure the diagnosis efficiency and accuracy. The efficacy of the proposed methodology is demonstrated with a case study with the gearbox condition monitoring Round Robin study dataset provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL. The developed methodology successfully picked five faults out of seven in total with accurate severity levels without producing any false alarm in the blind analysis. The case study results indicated that the developed fault detection framework is effective for analyzing gear and bearing faults in wind turbine drive train system based upon system vibration characteristics.

  7. Development of a Wireless System for Monitoring and Control of a Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian M. Durán-Acevedo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the use of a wireless communication technology through the ZigBee protocol, by implementing XBee S2B. Wireless communication was implemented on a wind turbine prototype (i.e. wind power generation in order to controlling variables automatically, such as: Direction of the wind, temperature, humidity and velocity engine. The XBee were conditioned using a Mega ADK Arduino card, which the signals generated were acquired by several sensors and subsequently sent wirelessly. The programming and monitoring of Arduino module with each of the variables was performed through Labview software. The study was also conducted in order to explore new technologies for wireless communication, which is useful in interoperable systems to monitor, control and automate different processes. As a result, the performance test with the wireless system was stable and data transmission was reliable.

  8. Analysis of the thermal monitoring data collected at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, A.J.; Gray, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental technical specifications program for Units 2 and 3 of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station was conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The study included an analysis of both the hydrothermal and ecological data collected from 1967 through 1976. This paper presents the details of the hydrothermal analysis performed under this program. The two primary methods used for temperature monitoring, during both the preoperational and operational periods of the program, are a fixed thermograph network and boat survey measurements. Analysis of the boat survey data provides a fine resolution demonstrating variations in ambient temperature in Conowingo Pond, as well as providing a qualitative picture of the thermal plume produced by the Peach Bottom thermal discharge. The data from 18 thermograph stations was used for a quantitative probability analysis

  9. 13th Workshop on Radiation Monitoring for the International Space Station - Final Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Workshop on Radiation Monitoring for the International Space Station (WRMISS) has been held annually since 1996. The major purpose of WRMISS is to provide a forum for discussion of technical issues concerning radiation dosimetry aboard the International Space Station. This includes discussion of new results, improved instrumentation, detector calibration, and radiation environment and transport models. The goal of WRMISS is to enhance international efforts to provide the best information on the space radiation environment in low-Earth orbit and on the exposure of astronauts and cosmonauts in order to optimize the radiation safety of the ISS crew. During the 13 th Annual WRMISS, held in the Institute of Nuclear Physics (Krakow, Poland) on 8-10 September 2008, participants presented 47 lectures

  10. Geo-enviromental monitoring system of the oil storages on petrol stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatol'evna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In large cities, fuel consumption is growing rapidly, and therefore the number of filling stations. And they are a source of anthropogenic impact on the environment and represent current scientific and practical task, because recently no research was conducted into the optimization of monitoring systems in the construction of gas station storage tanks, and no activity on replacing the obsolete design with new storage tanks. In this regard, much attention should be paid to the creation of geo-environmental systems integrated assessment of the environment, as well as modeling and forecasting various negative situations. In the modern world, the creation of such systems is possible with the help of modern computer tools such as geographic information systems.

  11. Monitoring and economics of a 60 kW wind turbine generator on a pig farm in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saluja, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    Low cost monitoring of a 60 kW wind turbine generator connected to an intensive pig farm in the Grampian area of Scotland is described. A method of calculating the economic implications of installing a small grid-connected wind turbine generator at a farm is based on monitored data, electricity bills and energy production is proposed. (author)

  12. Linking cluster analysis with synoptic meteorology to characterise chemical climates at six north-west European monitoring stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorling, S.R.; Davies, T.D. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Synoptic scale atmospheric circulation patterns are often good surrogates for the transport pathway to an individual monitoring station. Davies et al. (1990) supported this idea by showing that the chemistry of precipitation samples collected at United Kingdom monitoring stations were strongly related to the Lamb weather type index, a daily classification of the synoptic circulation influencing United Kingdom weather. Such a classification does not, however, optimise the distinction between airflow from different directions and thus over different pollution source regions.

  13. Using a noise monitoring station in a small quarry located in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichers, Michiel; Iramina, Wilson Siguemasa; de Eston, Sérgio Médici; Ayres da Silva, Anna Luiza Marques

    2017-12-22

    Mining plays an important role in Brazilian exports. On the other hand, large urban centers like São Paulo, with approximately 21 million inhabitants, also demand an increasing domestic consumption of natural resources, such as construction aggregate. There are many quarries located in the surroundings of urban centers in Brazil, competing with the growth of urbanized areas. Such proximity leads to a series of conflicts involving quarries and surrounding communities, where the increase in noise levels is highlighted. Operations in quarries, in general, are intermittent. Noisier equipment, such as drilling rigs and primary crushers, operates only a few hours during the day, while other operations, such as screening and secondary and tertiary crushing, are more constant. This paper presents a study carried out in a quarry located near São Paulo, where in addition to conventional short term noise measurements at surrounding receptors, one noise monitoring station was installed, allowing to identify the noisiest moments during the quarry operating time. Through data transmitted by wireless technology, it was possible to follow the noise variations emitted from mining activities in real time and observe the noisiest events that were recorded for events that exceeded the established standards. A mobile application associated to this monitoring station facilitated the quarry's manager and employees to access immediately the monitoring information. Therefore, by using this system, it was possible to evaluate the effectiveness of noise reduction measures already taken and indicate what steps still need to be held.

  14. Development of low cost wireless radiation monitoring station using GSM network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Aira Abd Rahman; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Nor Arymaswati Abdullah; Roslan Md Dan

    2006-01-01

    SMS or Short Message Service is a mean of GSM wireless communication that allow text messages to be sent to and from mobile cell phones. While SMS communication is mainly utilized at personal level or person to person basis; the usage of SMS can be extended into nuclear application specifically in radiation monitoring. This paper explains the development of a wireless station assembled by using a recycled Siemens M50 cell phone as substitutes to GSM modem, a PIC micro controller, and MINT-ISG home made digital survey meter at the remote transmitting site. While at the receiving end; an online monitoring system is set-up by using a Bluetooth enabled cell phone, a Bluetooth dongle, and a PC with Labview 8.0 software written as the Data logger which also served as the PC-Bluetooth interface platform. Wireless station at the remote area operates by continuously sending SMS in every 3 minutes to a predefined cellular number located at the monitoring system. The SMS consists of 6 data which individually is a survey meter readings recorded at each 30 seconds duration. At the receiver, Data logger program will retrieve the SMS from the cell phone via Bluetooth and extract the original 6 readings to be displayed on PC. The system has been successfully tested to detect and log radiation data for extended period of time. (Author)

  15. 25 years of monitoring the Waste Management Center of the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, O.C; Barboza, E.; Cardoso, S.N.M., E-mail: landocf@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: barboza@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: sergion@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Eletronuclear S.A (ELETONUCLEAR), Paraty, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao Ambiental

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present an assessment of 25 years of monitoring of the environment around the Waste Management Center (WMC) of the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station (AAANPS) since 1986 until 2011. The Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML) has, for purposes, to monitor the environment around the station to verify if there's a potential impact caused by the operation of the two units and to verify the dose rate levels around the waste deposits. The WMC is located in an area belonging to the AAANPS and receive solid waste of low and medium activities from Angra 1 NPP. The waste generated from Angra 2 NPP is stored inside the unit. The EML monitors the environment around the WMC to determine the environmental dose rate. The monitoring is made by direct measurement of the radiation using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Nowadays, the TLD are installed, at this time, in 6 points at the boundaries of WMC and are changed monthly. The locations of these points were already changed several times to allow the construction of new buildings. The constitution of the TLD are 4 crystals, being 3 crystals of Calcium Sulphate doped with Thulium (CaSO{sub 4}:Tm) with 3 shields and 1 crystal of Lithium Borate doped with Copper (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu) without shield. The results of the TLD measurements are normalized to a period of 30 days to compensate accidental statistical variations of the dose rates. The results, in these 25 years, show that the external area of the WMC is a supervised area, following the Norm CNEN-NN-3.01 - 'Diretrizes Basicas de Protecao Radiologica' - with access permitted only for authorized people. (author)

  16. 25 years of monitoring the Waste Management Center of the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, O.C; Barboza, E.; Cardoso, S.N.M.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present an assessment of 25 years of monitoring of the environment around the Waste Management Center (WMC) of the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station (AAANPS) since 1986 until 2011. The Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML) has, for purposes, to monitor the environment around the station to verify if there's a potential impact caused by the operation of the two units and to verify the dose rate levels around the waste deposits. The WMC is located in an area belonging to the AAANPS and receive solid waste of low and medium activities from Angra 1 NPP. The waste generated from Angra 2 NPP is stored inside the unit. The EML monitors the environment around the WMC to determine the environmental dose rate. The monitoring is made by direct measurement of the radiation using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Nowadays, the TLD are installed, at this time, in 6 points at the boundaries of WMC and are changed monthly. The locations of these points were already changed several times to allow the construction of new buildings. The constitution of the TLD are 4 crystals, being 3 crystals of Calcium Sulphate doped with Thulium (CaSO 4 :Tm) with 3 shields and 1 crystal of Lithium Borate doped with Copper (Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu) without shield. The results of the TLD measurements are normalized to a period of 30 days to compensate accidental statistical variations of the dose rates. The results, in these 25 years, show that the external area of the WMC is a supervised area, following the Norm CNEN-NN-3.01 - 'Diretrizes Basicas de Protecao Radiologica' - with access permitted only for authorized people. (author)

  17. Design of electric vehicle charging station based on wind and solar complementary power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li

    2018-05-01

    Electric vehicles have become a major trend in the development of the automobile industry. Green energy saving is an important feature of their development. At the same time, the related charging facilities construction is also critical. If we improve the charging measures to adapt to its green energy-saving features, it will be to a greater extent to promote its further development. This article will propose a highly efficient green energy-saving charging station designed for the electric vehicles.

  18. On-line gamma spectroscopy measuring station for cover gas monitoring at KNK II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, G.; Letz, K.D.

    1980-02-01

    An automated Ge-γ-spectrometer was developed for cover gas monitoring at KNK II which, by the gamma spectra measured, is to allow the following statements to be made on fuel cladding failure: Type, size, variation with time and subsequent development of the failure. In this report the hardware and software will be explained. Besides, an instruction manual was written for the measuring station, which allows to operate it without detailed knowledge of the manuals for the individual hardware components. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  19. The replacement gag vibration monitoring system for Hinkley Point 'B' power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwell, T.; Morrish, M.F.G.

    1985-01-01

    The original computerised system for monitoring the vibration of gags in each reactor channel of the Hinkley Point 'B' AGR Power Station did not meet the specification for a more stringent safety requirement. This paper describes the replacement of that original single processor system with an enhanced dual processor/multiple scanner computer system used to satisfy this new safety and reliability need. The specification and installation of the new hardware and software are discussed, and some of the problems encountered and their solutions are highlighted. (author)

  20. A low cost micro-station to monitor soil water potential for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannutelli, Edoardo; Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio; Renga, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    The RISPArMiA project (which stands for "reduction of water wastage through the continuous monitoring of agri-environmental parameters") won in 2013 the contest called "LINFAS - The New Ideas Make Sustainable Agriculture" and sponsored by two Italian Foundations (Fondazione Italiana Accenture and Fondazione Collegio Università Milanesi). The objective of the RISPArMiA project is to improve the irrigation efficiency at the farm scale, by providing the farmer with a valuable decision support system for the management of irrigation through the use of low-cost sensors and technologies that can easily be interfaced with Mobile devices. Through the installation of tensiometric sensors within the cropped field, the soil water potential can be continuously monitored. Using open hardware electronic platforms, a data-logger for storing the measured data will be built. Data will be then processed through a software that will allow the conversion of the monitored information into an irrigation advice. This will be notified to the farmer if the measured soil water potential exceed literature crop-specific tensiometric thresholds. Through an extrapolation conducted on the most recent monitored data, it will be also possible to obtain a simple soil water potential prevision in absence of rain events. All the information will be sent directly to a virtual server and successively on the farmer Mobile devices. Each micro-station is completely autonomous from the energy point of view, since it is powered by batteries recharged by a solar panel. The transmission modulus consists of a GSM apparatus with a SIM card. The use of free platforms (Arduino) and low cost sensors (Watermark 200SS tensiometers and soil thermocouples) will significantly reduce the costs of construction of the micro-station which are expected to be considerably lower than those required for similar instruments on the market today . Six prototype micro-stations are actually under construction. Their field testing

  1. FY 1994 ambient air monitoring report for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugar, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring performed during the 1994 fiscal year (FY 1994) in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Routine monitoring was performed during the 1993-1994 austral summer at three locations for airborne particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM-10) and at two locations for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO 2 , and NO x ). Selected PM-10 filters were analyzed for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Additional air samples were collected at three McMurdo area locations and at Black Island for determination of the airborne concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks

  2. Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring with AAKR and Moving Window Statistic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Guo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Condition Monitoring (CM of wind turbines can greatly reduce the maintenance costs for wind farms, especially for offshore wind farms. A new condition monitoring method for a wind turbine gearbox using temperature trend analysis is proposed. Autoassociative Kernel Regression (AAKR is used to construct the normal behavior model of the gearbox temperature. With a proper construction of the memory matrix, the AAKR model can cover the normal working space for the gearbox. When the gearbox has an incipient failure, the residuals between AAKR model estimates and the measurement temperature will become significant. A moving window statistical method is used to detect the changes of the residual mean value and standard deviation in a timely manner. When one of these parameters exceeds predefined thresholds, an incipient failure is flagged. In order to simulate the gearbox fault, manual temperature drift is added to the initial Supervisory Control and Data Acquisitions (SCADA data. Analysis of simulated gearbox failures shows that the new condition monitoring method is effective.

  3. The monitoring of the terrestrial environment around Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, P.G.; Souza, R.F.; Cardoso, S.N.M., E-mail: pgtares@eletronuclear.gov.b, E-mail: rfsouza@eletronuclear.gov.b, E-mail: sergion@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETROBRAS Eletronuclear S.A., Paraty, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao Ambiental

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the environmental monitoring around Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station after the beginning the operation of Unit II, in July 2000. The Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML) has, for purpose, to monitor the environment around the station to verify if there is a potential impact caused by the operation of the units. The EML collects several environmental samples and analyses radiometrically to determine the presence of artificial radionuclides. The types of the samples are marine samples (sea water, fish, algae, beach sand and sediments), terrestrial (milk, banana, soil, grass, superficial and underground water and river water and sediment) and aerial samples (rain water, airborne for iodine and particulate). This paper only describes the monitoring of terrestrial samples. At the EML, the samples are prepared and analysed following international procedures. The samples of milk, banana, soil, grass, surface and underground water, river water and river sediment are analysed by gamma spectrometry in a multi-channel analyser GENIE-2000 System with High-purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors to determine the activities of the detectable radionuclides. The EML also analyses tritium in surface water by liquid scintillation counting. In addition, analysis of {sup 89}Sr/{sup 90}Sr, by beta counting and {sup 131}I by gamma spectrometry are performed in the processed milk. The results are, then, compared with those obtained in pre-operational time of Angra 1 (1978 - 1982) and those obtained in operational time of the units until 2010. The results show us that, from 1982 until now, there is no impact in terrestrial environment caused by the operation neither of Angra 1 nor both Angra 1 and Angra 2. (author)

  4. The monitoring of the terrestrial environment around Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, P.G.; Souza, R.F.; Cardoso, S.N.M.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the environmental monitoring around Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station after the beginning the operation of Unit II, in July 2000. The Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML) has, for purpose, to monitor the environment around the station to verify if there is a potential impact caused by the operation of the units. The EML collects several environmental samples and analyses radiometrically to determine the presence of artificial radionuclides. The types of the samples are marine samples (sea water, fish, algae, beach sand and sediments), terrestrial (milk, banana, soil, grass, superficial and underground water and river water and sediment) and aerial samples (rain water, airborne for iodine and particulate). This paper only describes the monitoring of terrestrial samples. At the EML, the samples are prepared and analysed following international procedures. The samples of milk, banana, soil, grass, surface and underground water, river water and river sediment are analysed by gamma spectrometry in a multi-channel analyser GENIE-2000 System with High-purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors to determine the activities of the detectable radionuclides. The EML also analyses tritium in surface water by liquid scintillation counting. In addition, analysis of 89 Sr/ 9 0 Sr, by beta counting and 131 I by gamma spectrometry are performed in the processed milk. The results are, then, compared with those obtained in pre-operational time of Angra 1 (1978 - 1982) and those obtained in operational time of the units until 2010. The results show us that, from 1982 until now, there is no impact in terrestrial environment caused by the operation neither of Angra 1 nor both Angra 1 and Angra 2. (author)

  5. Cost-Effective Shaft Torque Observer for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Pedersen, Bo Juul

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of condition monitoring (CM) systems for wind turbines (WTs) and reduction of the cost of wind energy are possible if knowledge about the condition of different WT components is available. CM based on the WT drive train shaft torque signal can give a better understanding of the gearbox...... of the augmented Kalman filter with fading memory (AKFF) is compared with the augmented Kalman filter (AKF) using simulated data of theWT for different load conditions, measurement noise levels andWT fault scenarios. A multiple-model algorithm, based on a set of different Kalman filters, is designed for practical...

  6. Structural health monitoring tools for late and end of life management of offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGugan, Malcolm; McKirdy, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The late and end of life stages in an offshore wind turbines (OWT) life cycle have unique features that must be considered. The initial focus on risks associated with start-up issues due to design, manufacturing or process elements gives way to a stable period of operation and maintenance...... margins and the predominance of low redundancy structures, accurate structural health monitoring can play a strong role in safe management and enable increased operating time at end of life and decommissioning. Late life operations of offshore wind farms can pose significant challenges, balancing...

  7. Automated modal tracking and fatigue assessment of a wind turbine based on continuous dynamic monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation of a dynamic monitoring system at a 2.0 MW onshore wind turbine. The system is composed by two components aiming at the structural integrity and fatigue assessment. The first component enables the continuous tracking of modal characteristics of the wind turbine (natural frequency values, modal damping ratios and mode shapes in order to detect abnormal deviations of these properties, which may be caused by the occurrence of structural damage. On the other hand, the second component allows the estimation of the remaining fatigue lifetime of the structure based on the analysis of the measured cycles of structural vibration.

  8. Microseismic Monitoring of Strainburst Activities in Deep Tunnels at the Jinping II Hydropower Station, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, N. W.; Li, T. B.; Dai, F.; Zhang, R.; Tang, C. A.; Tang, L. X.

    2016-03-01

    Rockbursts were frequently encountered during the construction of deep tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station, Southwest China. Investigations of the possibility of rockbursts during tunnel boring machine (TBM) and drilling and blasting (D&B) advancement are necessary to guide the construction of tunnels and to protect personnel and TBM equipment from strainburst-related accidents. A real-time, movable microseismic monitoring system was installed to forecast strainburst locations ahead of the tunnel faces. The spatiotemporal distribution evolution of microseismic events prior to and during strainbursts was recorded and analysed. The concentration of microseismic events prior to the occurrence of strainbursts was found to be a significant precursor to strainbursts in deep rock tunnelling. During a 2-year microseismic investigation of strainbursts in the deep tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station, a total of 2240 strainburst location forecasts were issued, with 63 % correctly forecasting the locations of strainbursts. The successful forecasting of strainburst locations proved that microseismic monitoring is essential for the assessment and mitigation of strainburst hazards, and can be used to minimise damage to equipment and personnel. The results of the current study may be valuable for the construction management and safety assessment of similar underground rock structures under high in situ stress.

  9. Metropolitan garbage dumps: possible winter migratory raptor monitoring stations in peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter raptor migration and movement is poorly documented for peninsular India, mainly due to the lack of geographical bottlenecks. We describe, for the first time, the use of a garbage dump in a metropolitan city as an alternative visual winter raptor monitoring station. The daily count, adult to juvenile ratios and species composition of three migratory raptor species, Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis, Black-eared Kite Milvus migrans lineatus and Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax are presented. Ground temperatures at the garbage dump site and surrounding area, and the wing beat rate of migratory raptors before and after arrival in the early morning were measured. A total of 355 raptors migrating over a period of six observation days with 250 adults and 105 juveniles were recorded. The temperature of the garbage dump was significantly higher than the surrounding area, while the wing flapping rate was significantly lower over the garbage dump area. It is possible that migrating raptors use garbage dump thermals in the early morning to save energy with soaring and gliding flight (versus flapping flight. We propose that such sites may be used as visual winter migration monitoring stations in metropolitan cities in peninsular India.

  10. Project of a Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (NRTSSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, G.; Calore, D.; Mangano, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Favali, P.

    2011-12-01

    The INGV seismic network ensures reliable and continuous monitoring of the Italian territory. However, the peculiarity of the Italian peninsula, characterised by an intense offshore geodynamic and seismic activity, requires the extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea. The aim of this project is: - to identify bottleneck is related to the construction, installation and use of underwater seismic station; - to define the most appropriate and low-cost architecture to guarantee the minimum functionality required for a seismic station. In order to obtain reliable seafloor seismic signals integrated to land-based network, the requirements to be fulfill are: - an acceptable coupling with the seabed; - the orientation of the components with respect to the magnetic North and to the verticality; - the correct time stamp of the data; - the data transfer to the land for the integration. Currently, the optimal solution for offshore seismic station is a cable connection to power and real-time data transfer, like the case of Western Ionian Sea cabled observatory, one of the operative node of the EMSO research infrastructure (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory, http://emso-eu.org). But in the Mediterranean many seismic areas are located a few tens-hundreds of miles from the coast and cabled solutions are not feasible essentially for economic reasons. For this kind of installations EMSO research infrastructure foresees no-cabled solution, that requires a surface buoy deployed in the vicinity seafloor modules.This project plans to develop a surface buoy equipped with autonomous power supply system to power also the seafloor platforms and two-way communication system enabling the data transfer through latest generation of broadband radio communication or satellite link (Fig. 1). All the components of the prototype system are described.

  11. Cluster Control of Offshore Wind Power Plants Connected to a Common HVDC Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Ömer; Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Rapp, C. Andrea

    2016-01-01

    of offshore AC grid voltage control and onshore ancillary services provision, i.e. POD by the active power modulation of the cluster. The two cases are simulated using DIgSILENT PowerFactory, where the IEC 61400-27-1 wind turbine and WPP control models and a generic offshore layout with cluster of three WPPs......In this paper a coordinated control for cluster of offshore WPPs connected to the same HVDC connection is being implemented and analyzed. The study is targeting two cases as; coordination of reactive power flow between HVDC converter and the WPP cluster while providing offshore AC grid voltage...... control, and coordinated closed loop control between the HVDC and the WPPs while the cluster is providing Power Oscillation Damping ( POD) via active power modulation. It is shown that the coordinated cluster control helps to improve the steady-state and dynamic response of the offshore AC grid in case...

  12. Radiation monitoring using manned helicopter around the nuclear power station in the fiscal year 2015 (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Munakata, Masahiro; Mori, Airi; Ishizaki, Azusa; Shimada, Kazumasa; Hirouchi, Jun; Urabe, Yoshimi; Nakanishi, Chika; Yamada, Tsutomu; Iwai, Takeyuki; Matsunaga, Yuki; Toyoda, Masayuki; Tobita, Shinichiro; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Ishida, Mutsushi; Sato, Yoshiharu; Sasaki, Miyuki; Hirayama, Hirokatsu; Takamura, Yoshihide; Nishihara, Katsuya; Imura, Mitsuo; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kudo, Tamotsu; Nakayama, Shinichi

    2016-10-01

    By the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), caused by the East Japan earthquake and the following tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive materials was released from the NPS. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring using manned helicopter was conducted around FDNPS. In addition, background dose rate monitoring was conducted around the Sendai Nuclear Power Station. These results of the aerial radiation monitoring using the manned helicopter in the fiscal 2015 were summarized in the report. In addition, we developed the discrimination technique of the Rn-progenies and the evaluation of radiation attenuation by snow. (author)

  13. Monitoring equipment environment during nuclear plant operation at Salem and Hope Creek generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, A.; Smith, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Monitoring of environmental parameters has become a significant issue for operating nuclear power plants. While the long-term benefits of plant life extension programs are being pursued with comprehensive environmental monitoring programs, the potential effect of local hot spots at various plant locations needs to be evaluated for its effect on equipment degradation and shortening of equipment qualified life. A significant benefit can be experienced from temperature monitoring when a margin exists between the design versus actual operating temperature. This margin can be translated into longer equipment qualified life and significant reduction in maintenance activities. At PSE and G, the immediate need for monitoring environmental parameters is being accomplished via the use of a Logic Beach Bitlogger. The Bitlogger is a portable data loggings system consisting of a system base, input modules and a communication software package. Thermocouples are installed on selected electrical equipment and cables are run from the thermocouples to the input module of the Bitlogger. Temperature readings are taken at selected intervals, stored in memory, and downloaded periodically to a PC software program, i.e., Lotus. The data is formatted into tabular or graphical documents. Because of their versatility, Bitloggers are being used differently at the authors Nuclear facility. At the Salem Station (2 Units-4 loop Westinghouse PWR), a battery powered, fully portable, calibrated Bitlogger is located in an accessible area inside Containment where it monitors the temperature of various electrical equipment within the Pressurizer Enclosure. It is planned that close monitoring of the local hot spot temperatures in this area will allow them to adjust and reconcile the environmental qualification of the equipment

  14. Setup and Calibration of SLAC's Peripheral Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C.

    2004-09-03

    The goals of this project were to troubleshoot, repair, calibrate, and establish documentation regarding SLAC's (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's) PMS (Peripheral Monitoring Station) system. The PMS system consists of seven PMSs that continuously monitor skyshine (neutron and photon) radiation levels in SLAC's environment. Each PMS consists of a boron trifluoride (BF{sub 3}) neutron detector (model RS-P1-0802-104 or NW-G-20-12) and a Geiger Moeller (GM) gamma ray detector (model TGM N107 or LND 719) together with their respective electronics. Electronics for each detector are housed in Nuclear Instrument Modules (NIMs) and are plugged into a NIM bin in the station. All communication lines from the stations to the Main Control Center (MCC) were tested prior to troubleshooting. To test communication with MCC, a pulse generator (Systron Donner model 100C) was connected to each channel in the PMS and data at MCC was checked for consistency. If MCC displayed no data, the communication cables to MCC or the CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control) crates were in need of repair. If MCC did display data, then it was known that the communication lines were intact. All electronics from each station were brought into the lab for troubleshooting. Troubleshooting usually consisted of connecting an oscilloscope or scaler (Ortec model 871 or 775) at different points in the circuit of each detector to record simulated pulses produced by a pulse generator; the input and output pulses were compared to establish the location of any problems in the circuit. Once any problems were isolated, repairs were done accordingly. The detectors and electronics were then calibrated in the field using radioactive sources. Calibration is a process that determines the response of the detector. Detector response is defined as the ratio of the number of counts per minute interpreted by the detector to the amount of dose equivalent rate (in mrem per hour, either calculated

  15. Wind Turbine Condition Monitoring: State-of-the-Art Review, New Trends, and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Tchakoua

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the demand for wind energy continues to grow at exponential rates, reducing operation and maintenance (OM costs and improving reliability have become top priorities in wind turbine (WT maintenance strategies. In addition to the development of more highly evolved WT designs intended to improve availability, the application of reliable and cost-effective condition-monitoring (CM techniques offers an efficient approach to achieve this goal. This paper provides a general review and classification of wind turbine condition monitoring (WTCM methods and techniques with a focus on trends and future challenges. After highlighting the relevant CM, diagnosis, and maintenance analysis, this work outlines the relationship between these concepts and related theories, and examines new trends and future challenges in the WTCM industry. Interesting insights from this research are used to point out strengths and weaknesses in today’s WTCM industry and define research priorities needed for the industry to meet the challenges in wind industry technological evolution and market growth.

  16. Wind Turbine Tower Vibration Modeling and Monitoring by the Nonlinear State Estimation Technique (NSET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Guo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With appropriate vibration modeling and analysis the incipient failure of key components such as the tower, drive train and rotor of a large wind turbine can be detected. In this paper, the Nonlinear State Estimation Technique (NSET has been applied to model turbine tower vibration to good effect, providing an understanding of the tower vibration dynamic characteristics and the main factors influencing these. The developed tower vibration model comprises two different parts: a sub-model used for below rated wind speed; and another for above rated wind speed. Supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA data from a single wind turbine collected from March to April 2006 is used in the modeling. Model validation has been subsequently undertaken and is presented. This research has demonstrated the effectiveness of the NSET approach to tower vibration; in particular its conceptual simplicity, clear physical interpretation and high accuracy. The developed and validated tower vibration model was then used to successfully detect blade angle asymmetry that is a common fault that should be remedied promptly to improve turbine performance and limit fatigue damage. The work also shows that condition monitoring is improved significantly if the information from the vibration signals is complemented by analysis of other relevant SCADA data such as power performance, wind speed, and rotor loads.

  17. Identification of Homogeneous Stations for Quality Monitoring Network of Mashhad Aquifer Based on Nitrate Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Akbarzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For water resources monitoring, Evaluation of groundwater quality obtained via detailed analysis of pollution data. The most fundamental analysis is to identify the exact measurement of dangerous zones and homogenous station identification in terms of pollution. In case of quality evaluation, the monitoring improvement could be achieved via identifying homogenous wells in terms of pollution. Presenting a method for clustering is essential in large amounts of quality data for aquifer monitoring and quality evaluation, including identification of homogeneous stations of monitoring network and their clustering based on pollution. In this study, with the purpose of Mashhad aquifer quality evaluation, clustering have been studied based on Euclidean distance and Entropy criteria. Cluster analysis is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster are more similar (in some sense or another to each other than to those in other groups (clusters. SNI as a combined entropy measure for clustering calculated from dividing mutual information of two values (pollution index values to the joint entropy. These measures apply as similar distance criteria for monitoring stations clustering. Materials and Methods: First, nitrate data (as pollution index and electrical conductivity (EC (as covariate collected from the related locational situation of 287 wells in statistical period 2002 to 2011. Having identified the outlying data and estimating non-observed points by spatial-temporal Kriging method and then standardizes them, the clustering process was carried out. A similar distance of wells calculated through a clustering process based on Euclidean distance and Entropy (SNI criteria. This difference explained by characteristics such as the location of wells (longitude & latitude and the pollution index (nitrate. Having obtained a similar distance of each well to others, the hierarchical clustering

  18. GULF OF MEXICO SEAFLOOR STABILITY AND GAS HYDRATE MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Robin C. Buchannon

    2004-11-01

    The gas hydrates research Consortium (HRC), established and administered at the University if Mississippi's Center for Marine Research and Environmental Technology (CMRET) has been active on many fronts in FY 03. Extension of the original contract through March 2004, has allowed completion of many projects that were incomplete at the end of the original project period due, primarily, to severe weather and difficulties in rescheduling test cruises. The primary objective of the Consortium, to design and emplace a remote sea floor station for the monitoring of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005 remains intact. However, the possibility of levering HRC research off of the Joint Industries Program (JIP) became a possibility that has demanded reevaluation of some of the fundamental assumptions of the station format. These provisions are discussed in Appendix A. Landmark achievements of FY03 include: (1) Continuation of Consortium development with new researchers and additional areas of research contribution being incorporated into the project. During this period, NOAA's National Undersea Research Program's (NURP) National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST) became a Consortium funding partner, joining DOE and Minerals Management Service (MMS); (2) Very successful annual and semiannual meetings in Oxford Mississippi in February and September, 2003; (3) Collection of piston cores from MC798 in support of the effort to evaluate the site for possible monitoring station installation; (4) Completion of the site evaluation effort including reports of all localities in the northern Gulf of Mexico where hydrates have been documented or are strongly suspected to exist on the sea floor or in the shallow subsurface; (5) Collection and preliminary evaluation of vent gases and core samples of hydrate from sites in Green Canyon and Mississippi Canyon, northern Gulf of Mexico; (6) Monitoring of gas activity on the sea floor, acoustically

  19. WT-BIRD. Bird collision monitoring system for multi-megawatt wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggelinkhuizen, E.J.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Barhorst, S.A.M. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Den Boon, H.J. [E-Connection Project, Bunnik (Netherlands); Dirksen, S. [Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg (Netherlands)

    2007-05-15

    A new method for detection and registration of bird collisions has been developed that is suitable for continuous remote operation in both onshore and offshore wind farms. The characteristic sound of a collision is detected by sensors in the blades, which triggers the storage of video registrations and sends an alert message to the operator. A prototype has been tested successfully on a Nordex N80/2.5MW turbine at ECN's Wind turbine Test park Wieringermeer. Compared to other methods employed so far this monitoring system will reduce the uncertainty in the number of birds killed by collisions with wind turbines. Further, the system enables the operator to identify species and to study the collision mechanisms. It has been found that this system can also be used for monitoring of other events in order to save costs for inspection and repair after incidents. For offshore wind farms, the WT-Bird system is currently the only alternative to count the number of bird collisions. Functional tests with tennis balls that were shot against rotating blades showed that the majority of the impacts were detected. The flight track of these dummies and the collision events were clearly visible on the video registrations. During the monitoring period of about one year two bird collisions were detected. The video recordings confirmed that a collision took place and showed that the location of both collisions was near the blade root, which resulted that in both cases the bird was not (immediately) killed. Therefore no corpses could be found beneath the turbine after these events. Also during the rest of the monitoring period no corpses were found beneath the turbine.

  20. Environmental monitoring report for the Point Lepreau, New Brunswick nuclear generating station 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.W.P.; Ellis, K.M.; Smith, J.N.

    1986-07-01

    The Point Lepreau Environmental Monitoring Program (PLEMP) has been established within the Department of Fisheries and Oceans to assess the environmental impact of radioactive, thermal, and chemical releases from the Point Lepreau, N.B. Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) located on the Bay of Fundy. This report contains the results for the second year of the operational phase of the monitoring program. Emphasis has been placed on those areas where effects from the NGS operation were expected to be observed. Further studies were carried out on the characterization of the thermal plume during several pre-arranged tritium releases. Attention was given to tritium levels at the outfall, in the atmosphere and in biological samples. An initial attempt was made to relate the distribution of tritium in the Point Lepreau area in various phases to local meteorological conditions. Radionuclide levels in lichen, including, for the first time, aerial lichen on a regular basis, an efficient accumulator of atmospheric particulates were monitored. In addition, radionuclide measurements were made on samples collected during the pre-operational phase from the major environmental reservoirs and these radioactivity levels were compared to previous measurements to assess the impact of the operation of the NGS. The purpose of this program is to provide government with a comprehensive scientific basis upon which to assess the environmental implications of the operation of nuclear reactors in coastal regions

  1. Experience with the TUeV pipe monitoring system at the Grohnde nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmar, H.; Hofstoetter, P.

    1995-01-01

    A special pipe monitoring system has been developed by TUeV Rheinland during the construction, commissioning and operation of the Grohnde nuclear power station. On the basis of measurements during construction and commissioning a basic monitoring system has been developed, using not only a system of sophisticated sensors that had been permanently installed from the beginning but also a large number of quite simple additional sensors. Measurements were taken before, during and after inspections and led to the discovery of unexpected and high stresses during service as well as to long-term changes over a period of years.Special measurements were taken with high temperature strain gauges and thermocouples to identify problems such as temperature layering. A special on-line measuring device was developed and used for the continuous monitoring of temperatures during operation.All these measurements help to identify out areas with high stresses or service conditions giving rise to high loads, in order on the one hand to prevent damage and on the other hand to prove that the pipes are functioning within their design parameters without problems. ((orig.))

  2. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence monitoring system developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment in time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a graphical display, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, platform structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments based on the acceleration environment associated with a specific event. This monitoring system is focused primarily on detecting the vibratory disturbance sources, but could be used as well to detect some of the transient disturbance sources, depending on the events duration. The system has built-in capability to detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance sources. Several soft computing techniques such as Kohonen's Self-Organizing Feature Map, Learning Vector Quantization, Back-Propagation Neural Networks, and Fuzzy Logic were used to design the system.

  3. The JPL Electronic Nose: Monitoring Air in the US Lab on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M. A.; Manatt, K. S.; Gluck, S.; Shevade, A. V.; Kisor, A. K.; Zhou, H.; Lara, L. M.; Homer, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose with a sensor array of 32 conductometric sensors has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor breathing air in spacecraft habitat. The Third Generation ENose is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 oC, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The monitoring targets are anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids. The JPL ENose operated as a technology demonstration for seven months in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny during 2008-2009. Analysis of ENose monitoring data shows that there was regular, periodic rise and fall of humidity and occasional releases of Freon 218 (perfluoropropane), formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol. There were also several events of unknown origin, half of them from the same source. Each event lasted from 20 to 100 minutes, consistent with the air replacement time in the US Lab.

  4. The development of on-line thermal performance monitors in Nuclear Electric Company's stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines the economic benefits of using on-line monitoring techniques in assisting Station Staff with the task of optimising the efficient use of reactor fuel. The role of thermal performance monitoring for detecting changes in plant condition is also examined and the way in which the data can be used by engineers to assist with the preparation of operating and maintenance programmes. To enable genuine gradual changes in plant performance to be detected when operating against a background of changing plant signal accuracy conditions, plant transducers have to be calibrated on a regular basis. This can be both costly and labour intensive. To reduce this requirement for regular calibrations, an automatic software signal verification program has been developed for use in on-line monitoring schemes. It forms part of the total unit performance calculation package and uses a whole plant model to verify plant signals. All plant signals used to calculate unit heat rate are verified typically every 15 minutes with signals going outside predetermined limits being automatically reported to the user. The program is interactive allowing the user to interrogate the condition of the signal, with respect to both its error magnitude and rate of drift outside signal limits. The program runs in real time mode on a Workstation connected directly to the plant

  5. Maximizing the spatial representativeness of NO2 monitoring data using a combination of local wind-based sectoral division and seasonal and diurnal correction factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Aoife; Naughton, Owen; Misstear, Bruce; Broderick, Brian

    2016-10-14

    This article describes a new methodology for increasing the spatial representativeness of individual monitoring sites. Air pollution levels at a given point are influenced by emission sources in the immediate vicinity. Since emission sources are rarely uniformly distributed around a site, concentration levels will inevitably be most affected by the sources in the prevailing upwind direction. The methodology provides a means of capturing this effect and providing additional information regarding source/pollution relationships. The methodology allows for the division of the air quality data from a given monitoring site into a number of sectors or wedges based on wind direction and estimation of annual mean values for each sector, thus optimising the information that can be obtained from a single monitoring station. The method corrects for short-term data, diurnal and seasonal variations in concentrations (which can produce uneven weighting of data within each sector) and uneven frequency of wind directions. Significant improvements in correlations between the air quality data and the spatial air quality indicators were obtained after application of the correction factors. This suggests the application of these techniques would be of significant benefit in land-use regression modelling studies. Furthermore, the method was found to be very useful for estimating long-term mean values and wind direction sector values using only short-term monitoring data. The methods presented in this article can result in cost savings through minimising the number of monitoring sites required for air quality studies while also capturing a greater degree of variability in spatial characteristics. In this way, more reliable, but also more expensive monitoring techniques can be used in preference to a higher number of low-cost but less reliable techniques. The methods described in this article have applications in local air quality management, source receptor analysis, land-use regression

  6. Review of Offshore Wind Farm Impact Monitoring and Mitigation with Regard to Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfuss, Ursula K; Sparling, Carol E; Arnot, Charlie; Judd, Adrian; Coyle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and mitigation reports from 19 UK and 9 other European Union (EU) offshore wind farm (OWF) developments were reviewed, providing a synthesis of the evidence associated with the observed environmental impact on marine mammals. UK licensing conditions were largely concerned with mitigation measures reducing the risk of physical and auditory injury from pile driving. At the other EU sites, impact monitoring was conducted along with mitigation measures. Noise-mitigation measures were developed and tested in UK and German waters in German government-financed projects. We highlight some of the review's findings and lessons learned with regard to noise impact on marine mammals.

  7. Wireless AE Event and Environmental Monitoring for Wind Turbine Blades at Low Sampling Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Omar M.; Tian, Gui Y.; Cumanan, K.; Neasham, J.

    Integration of acoustic wireless technology in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications introduces new challenges due to requirements of high sampling rates, additional communication bandwidth, memory space, and power resources. In order to circumvent these challenges, this chapter proposes a novel solution through building a wireless SHM technique in conjunction with acoustic emission (AE) with field deployment on the structure of a wind turbine. This solution requires a low sampling rate which is lower than the Nyquist rate. In addition, features extracted from aliased AE signals instead of reconstructing the original signals on-board the wireless nodes are exploited to monitor AE events, such as wind, rain, strong hail, and bird strike in different environmental conditions in conjunction with artificial AE sources. Time feature extraction algorithm, in addition to the principal component analysis (PCA) method, is used to extract and classify the relevant information, which in turn is used to classify or recognise a testing condition that is represented by the response signals. This proposed novel technique yields a significant data reduction during the monitoring process of wind turbine blades.

  8. Direct monitoring of wind-induced pressure-pumping on gas transport in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laemmel, Thomas; Mohr, Manuel; Schindler, Dirk; Schack-Kirchner, Helmer; Maier, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Gas exchange between soil and atmosphere is important for the biogeochemistry of soils and is commonly assumed to be governed by molecular diffusion. Yet a few previous field studies identified other gas transport processes such as wind-induced pressure-pumping to enhance soil-atmosphere fluxes significantly. However, since these wind-induced non-diffusive gas transport processes in soil often occur intermittently, the quantification of their contribution to soil gas emissions is challenging. To quantify the effects of wind-induced pressure-pumping on soil gas transport, we developed a method for in situ monitoring of soil gas transport. The method includes the use of Helium (He) as a tracer gas which was continuously injected into the soil. The resulting He steady-state concentration profile was monitored. Gas transport parameters of the soil were inversely modelled. We used our method during a field campaign in a well-aerated forest soil over three months. During periods of low wind speed, soil gas transport was modelled assuming diffusion as transport process. During periods of high wind speed, the previously steady diffusive He concentration profile showed temporary concentration decreases in the topsoil, indicating an increase of the effective gas transport rate in the topsoil up to 30%. The enhancement of effective topsoil soil gas diffusivity resulted from wind-induced air pressure fluctuations which are referred to as pressure-pumping. These air pressure fluctuations had frequencies between 0.1 and 0.01 Hz and amplitudes up to 10 Pa and occurred at above-canopy wind speeds greater than 5 m s-1. We could show the importance of the enhancement of the gas transport rate in relation with the wind intensity and corresponding air pressure fluctuations characteristics. We directly detected and quantified the pressure-pumping effect on gas transport in soil in a field study for the first time, and could thus validate and underpin the importance of this non

  9. On Variable Reverse Power Flow-Part I: Active-Reactive Optimal Power Flow with Reactive Power of Wind Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aouss Gabash

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that using battery storage systems (BSSs to provide reactive power provision in a medium-voltage (MV active distribution network (ADN with embedded wind stations (WSs can lead to a huge amount of reverse power to an upstream transmission network (TN. However, unity power factors (PFs of WSs were assumed in those studies to analyze the potential of BSSs. Therefore, in this paper (Part-I, we aim to further explore the pure reactive power potential of WSs (i.e., without BSSs by investigating the issue of variable reverse power flow under different limits on PFs in an electricity market model. The main contributions of this work are summarized as follows: (1 Introducing the reactive power capability of WSs in the optimization model of the active-reactive optimal power flow (A-R-OPF and highlighting the benefits/impacts under different limits on PFs. (2 Investigating the impacts of different agreements for variable reverse power flow on the operation of an ADN under different demand scenarios. (3 Derivation of the function of reactive energy losses in the grid with an equivalent-π circuit and comparing its value with active energy losses. (4 Balancing the energy curtailment of wind generation, active-reactive energy losses in the grid and active-reactive energy import-export by a meter-based method. In Part-II, the potential of the developed model is studied through analyzing an electricity market model and a 41-bus network with different locations of WSs.

  10. Monitoring biofouling in the seawater tunnel of a coastal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasikumar, N.

    1994-01-01

    Water level difference (head loss) between the seawater intake and the forebay was used to determine the biofouling growth in the cooling-water tunnel of Madras atomic power station, India. During 1986-87, due to biofouling growth in the tunnel, the head loss dropped beyond the permissible limits required for operation of the power plant. The head loss showed an improvement during 1988 and 1989, after exomotive chlorination was adopted instead of shock chlorination. Fouling biomass estimated from the head loss showed a heavy biomass build-up of 535.52 ± 102 tonnes in the tunnel during 1992. The head loss showed a seasonal pattern, very similar to the settlement pattern of foulants in the coastal waters, with maximum values during summer months. On the basis of head-loss data, a suitable chlorination practice has been recommended to the power station. The experience suggested that a continuous monitoring of head loss is a simple and reliable method of estimating and controlling biofouling in power-plant cooling-water tunnels. (author)

  11. [Space-time water monitoring system at the Iriklinsk hydroelectric power station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriabin, D G; Poliakov, E G; Priakhina, A A; Karimov, I F

    2002-01-01

    The Microbiosensor B 17677 F test system was applied to make a space-time monitoring of the biotoxicity of water used for production and everyday purposes at the Iriklinsk hydroelectric power station (IHEPS) and to identify the leading causes determining the biotoxicity of tested samples. There were seasonal variations in the biotoxicity with the maximum in spring and with minimum in winter and spring and a relationship of the spring rise in the biotoxicity to water pH changes. There was also an association of the certain values of the biotoxicity of industrial water with the concentration of petroleum products that are major pollutants at the IHEPS. The datum points that characterize the maximum level of technogenic exposure were identified.

  12. Dynamic characteristics of background seismic noise according to records of nuclear monitoring seismic stations in Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashova, N.N.; Sinyova, Z.I.; Komarov, I.I.; Mikhailova, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    The seismic stations of Kazakstan, included into nuclear monitoring network (see fig.1) are equipped with broad hand seismometers; seismic data are recorded in digital format. All this allows to investigate spectral and time characteristics of seismic background noise in very large frequency diapason (more than 3-5 orders), for all three components of oscillation vector. The spectral density of background seismic noise for vertical and both horizontal components (fig.2) was calculated for all of the observation points. The regular features of structure of noise spectra, inherent for all of the studied observation points, as well as some features, specific for studied places were found. The curves of spectral noise density were compared with global noise model, determined by the data of Global Seismological Network (GSN)

  13. Summarization of radioactive effluent monitoring in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station 1994-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Junjie; Chen Yue

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the radioactive effluent monitoring systems, measurement and quality control methods used in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station from its commercial operation in 1994. The main work and experiences for the management of effluent release are discussed and analyzed. The radwaste data appear declining trend and are far blow the annual limit approved by the national Environmental Protection Bureau since 1995. The normalized release (unit GBq/GWa) of 9 years is as follows: liquid nuclides (except tritium) 11.1, liquid tritium 1.91 x 10 4 , noble gas 2.03 x 10 4 , halogen 0.13, aerosol 7.57 x 10 -3 . For 110m Ag, the average release from 1998 to 2002 has been reduced to 1/7 of the quantity in 1997

  14. Development and Characterization of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter for Radiation Monitoring in International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk-Won Nam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC can measure the Linear Energy Transfer (LET spectrum and calculate the equivalent dose for the complicated radiation field in space. In this paper, we developed and characterized a TEPC for radiation monitoring in International Space Station (ISS. The prototype TEPC which can simulate a 2 μm of the site diameter for micro-dosimetry has been tested with a standard alpha source (241Am, 5.5 MeV. Also, the calibration of the TEPC was performed by the 252Cf neutron standard source in Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS. The determined calibration factor was kf = 3.59×10-7 mSv/R.

  15. Association between air pollution and hospital admission: Case study at three monitoring stations in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Marina; Zin@Ibrahim, Wan Zawiah Wan; Ismail, Noriszura; Ni, Tan Hui

    2014-06-01

    The relationships between the exposure of pollutants towards hospitalized admission and mortality have been identified in several studies on Asian cities such as Taipei, Bangkok and Tokyo. In Malaysia, evidence on the health risks associated with exposure to pollutants is limited. In this study, daily time-series data were analysed to estimate risks of cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalized admissions associated with particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone concentrations in Klang Valley during 2004-2009. Daily counts of hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes were obtained from eleven hospitals while pollutants data were taken from several air quality monitoring stations located nearest to the hospitals. These data were fitted with Generalised Additive Poisson regression models. Additionally, temperature, humidity, and time data were also included to allow for potential effect of weather and time-varying influences on hospital admissions. CO showed the most significant (P Malaysia.

  16. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS, an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  17. Simplified conversions between specific conductance and salinity units for use with data from monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Reclamation, and the California Department of Water Resources maintain a large number of monitoring stations that record specific conductance, often referred to as “electrical conductivity,” in San Francisco Bay Estuary and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Specific conductance units that have been normalized to a standard temperature are useful in fresh waters, but conversion to salinity units has some considerable advantages in brackish waters of the estuary and Delta. For example, salinity is linearly related to the mixing ratio of freshwater and seawater, which is not the case for specific conductance, even when values are normalized to a standard temperature. The Practical Salinity Scale 1978 is based on specific conductance, temperature, and pressure measurements of seawater and freshwater mixtures (Lewis 1980 and references therein). Equations and data that define the scale make possible conversions between specific conductance and salinity values.

  18. Development of ICT for Leaching Monitoring in Taiwan Agricultural LTER Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankuang Chan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the groundwater subsidy from different cropping systems, leaching monitoring in Taiwan started in 2008 and implemented agricultural long-term ecological research (LTER stations. Initially, leaching data was received by lysimeters, and then collected manually by laborers in the field twice per month. The cost of data collection and transmission is high, real-time monitoring is not possible, and maintenance of instruments is inefficient. In this study, the goal is to develop a data transmission path. ICT (Information and Communication Technology with different data transmission schemes was applied to improve the efficiency and immediacy of data transfer from the field to the databases in labs. Between 2010 and 2017, four versions of ICT have been developed and applied in LTER stations. WiFi, 2.5G (General Packet Radio Service, GPRS, 3G/4G network transmission, and Arduino cores are applied in different ICT versions. The first version of data transmission used data loggers, developed by the original factory, with a lower cost of renovation of instruments. However, complicated transmission paths, diverse instruments, poor weather resistance, and lack of wireless functionality are the limitations of the first version. Those limitations had been overcome by the second and third versions by using 2.5G (GPRS and 3G/4G network transmission, respectively. Nevertheless, these versions are limited to the processes of data compression and encryption transmission which were developed by the system vendors. In addition, data can only be collected through the webpage provided by the vendors, instead of being received directly from the database using SQL (Structured Query Language. This is inappropriate for advanced data treatment, organization, and analysis. Finally, the fourth version of data transmission has been developed using Arduino. This system allows redesigning of the data loggers and transmission instrument with more feasibility and

  19. Monitoring of the operation of a nuclear power station with design problems in an importing country: The Almaraz power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reig, J.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the regulatory activities carried out in Spain as a result of the design problem occurring in the steam generators during operation of Unit I of the Almaraz nuclear power station. First, a brief introduction is given to the operating history and characteristics of Unit I of Almaraz. Particular attention is paid to the specific licences issued subsequent to commercial operation which place limitations on the operation of the station and to the operational incidents of which the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) has been notified. Next, a description is provided of the safety evaluation carried out by the CSN. Three aspects merit particular attention: methodology, evaluation and conclusions. The methodology applied by an importing country is normally based on that of the country of origin of the design, so that the overall evaluation by the NRC has been considered sufficiently representative of aspects specific to the Almaraz power station. In this regard the importance of international collaboration is clearly seen as a principal instrument for performing the evaluation. In the evaluation a distinction is made between general and specific aspects and between inspection programmes and quality assurance requirements. In addition, the conclusions leading to the requirement of the imposition of additional limitations on the operating licence are stated. Apart from the safety evaluation carried out by the CSN, other regulatory activities have been performed over this two-year period. These activities, which include site inspections, audits of the principal supplier company, other independent calculations and so on, are described. Lastly, the paper refers to the lessons learned from the operation of the above-mentioned unit, which are immediately applicable to other Spanish nuclear power stations. (author)

  20. Smart Sensor System for Structural Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines: 30 May 2002--30 April 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, M. J.; Sundaresan, M. J.

    2006-08-01

    This report describes the efforts of the University of Cincinnati, North Carolina A&T State University, and NREL to develop a structural neural system for structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades.

  1. Powering embedded electronics for wind turbine monitoring using multi-source energy harvesting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, S. R.; Taylor, S. G.; Raby, E. Y.; Farinholt, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    With a global interest in the development of clean, renewable energy, wind energy has seen steady growth over the past several years. Advances in wind turbine technology bring larger, more complex turbines and wind farms. An important issue in the development of these complex systems is the ability to monitor the state of each turbine in an effort to improve the efficiency and power generation. Wireless sensor nodes can be used to interrogate the current state and health of wind turbine structures; however, a drawback of most current wireless sensor technology is their reliance on batteries for power. Energy harvesting solutions present the ability to create autonomous power sources for small, low-power electronics through the scavenging of ambient energy; however, most conventional energy harvesting systems employ a single mode of energy conversion, and thus are highly susceptible to variations in the ambient energy. In this work, a multi-source energy harvesting system is developed to power embedded electronics for wind turbine applications in which energy can be scavenged simultaneously from several ambient energy sources. Field testing is performed on a full-size, residential scale wind turbine where both vibration and solar energy harvesting systems are utilized to power wireless sensing systems. Two wireless sensors are investigated, including the wireless impedance device (WID) sensor node, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and an ultra-low power RF system-on-chip board that is the basis for an embedded wireless accelerometer node currently under development at LANL. Results indicate the ability of the multi-source harvester to successfully power both sensors.

  2. Onshore-offshore wind energy resource evaluation based on synergetic use of multiple satellite data and meteorological stations in Jiangsu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xianglin; Duan, Yuewei; Liu, Yongxue; Jin, Song; Sun, Chao

    2018-05-01

    The demand for efficient and cost-effective renewable energy is increasing as traditional sources of energy such as oil, coal, and natural gas, can no longer satisfy growing global energy demands. Among renewable energies, wind energy is the most prominent due to its low, manageable impacts on the local environment. Based on meteorological data from 2006 to 2014 and multi-source satellite data (i.e., Advanced Scatterometer, Quick Scatterometer, and Windsat) from 1999 to 2015, an assessment of the onshore and offshore wind energy potential in Jiangsu Province was performed by calculating the average wind speed, average wind direction, wind power density, and annual energy production (AEP). Results show that Jiangsu has abundant wind energy resources, which increase from inland to coastal areas. In onshore areas, wind power density is predominantly less than 200 W/m2, while in offshore areas, wind power density is concentrates in the range of 328-500 W/m2. Onshore areas comprise more than 13,573.24 km2, mainly located in eastern coastal regions with good wind farm potential. The total wind power capacity in onshore areas could be as much as 2.06 x 105 GWh. Meanwhile, offshore wind power generation in Jiangsu Province is calculated to reach 2 x 106 GWh, which is approximately four times the electricity demand of the entire Jiangsu Province. This study validates the effective application of Advanced Scatterometer, Quick Scatterometer, and Windsat data to coastal wind energy monitoring in Jiangsu. Moreover, the methodology used in this study can be effectively applied to other similar coastal zones.

  3. Fundamentals for remote structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades - a preproject. Annex A. Cost-benefit for embedded sensors in large wind turbine blades

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, L.G.; Lading, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This report contains the results of a cost-benefit analysis for the use of embed-ded sensors for damage detection in large wind turbine blades - structural health monitoring - (in connection with remote surveillance) of large wind turbine placedoff-shore. The total operating costs of a three-bladed 2MW turbine placed offshore either without sensors or with sensors are compared. The price of a structural health monitoring system of a price of 100 000 DKK (per tur-bine) results in a break-event...

  4. Methods development for cost-effective marine environmental monitoring at offshore wind farms in Norwegian waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgren, Thomas; Schlaeppy, Marie-Lise; Olenin, Sergej; Shashkov, Alexej; Heggoey, Erling; Troedsson, Christofer

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Current understanding of the environmental impact from offshore wind farms and experiences in monitoring practices, are restricted to soft-bottom habitats. Due to the large expansion of this source of energy, and the national and international drive to place large parks offshore, there is at present a strong need to further increase our knowledge of the impact on the marine environment in a wider range of habitats. At a national level, it is of importance to develop monitoring methods that are suitable for Norwegian sites and that are adjusted to impact levels expected from wind parks. Biological data on the impact of offshore wind farms in marine ecosystems are predominantly focused on the southern Baltic and southern North Sea. It is shown that large wind farms do have an impact on the marine ecosystem. The most studied effects relate to the introduction of hard substrate (the turbine foundation and scour protection) in an area made exclusively of soft sediments. This leads to an introduction of a new category of fauna, a higher productivity and a shift in community structure and species composition. In addition, the construction of an offshore wind farm excludes other activities with potentially high negative impacts on the marine ecosystem such as bottom trawling. These findings are not necessary applicable to rocky shorelines such as those bordering the Norwegian coast and the first full-scale offshore wind farm, Havsul 1. The Havsul site borders an open ocean with high average yearly wind-speeds of more than 20 knots. A relatively narrow shelf and steep underwater topography creates waves of substantial heights and a benthic marine ecosystem that is fundamentally different from the shallow water, soft sediment substrates in the southern Baltic and North Seas. Instead, areas in Norway with water depths suitable for today.s design of offshore wind farms (down to a depth of about 30-50 m) have a complex topography and a mosaic of substrate types are

  5. Optical Multi-Gas Monitor Technology Demonstration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B,; Johnson, Michael D.; Mudgett, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    There are a variety of both portable and fixed gas monitors onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Devices range from rack-mounted mass spectrometers to hand-held electrochemical sensors. An optical Multi-Gas Monitor has been developed as an ISS Technology Demonstration to evaluate long-term continuous measurement of 4 gases. Based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy, this technology offers unprecedented selectivity, concentration range, precision, and calibration stability. The monitor utilizes the combination of high performance laser absorption spectroscopy with a rugged optical path length enhancement cell that is nearly impossible to misalign. The enhancement cell serves simultaneously as the measurement sampling cell for multiple laser channels operating within a common measurement volume. Four laser diode based detection channels allow quantitative determination of ISS cabin concentrations of water vapor (humidity), carbon dioxide, ammonia and oxygen. Each channel utilizes a separate vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) at a different wavelength. In addition to measuring major air constituents in their relevant ranges, the multiple gas monitor provides real time quantitative gaseous ammonia measurements between 5 and 20,000 parts-per-million (ppm). A small ventilation fan draws air with no pumps or valves into the enclosure in which analysis occurs. Power draw is only about 3 W from USB sources when installed in Nanoracks or when connected to 28V source from any EXPRESS rack interface. Internal battery power can run the sensor for over 20 hours during portable operation. The sensor is controlled digitally with an FPGA/microcontroller architecture that stores data internally while displaying running average measurements on an LCD screen and interfacing with the rack or laptop via USB. Design, construction and certification of the Multi-Gas Monitor were a joint effort between Vista Photonics, Nanoracks and NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC

  6. Small wind power plants : results of the Nordic wind diesel projects for large telecommunications companies; Implantation d'une centrale eolienne comme source d'energie d'appoint pour des stations de telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.L. [ATI Eolien, Rimouski, PQ (Canada); Thibault, G. [Entreprises MB, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Two wind-diesel generating stations have been installed at telecommunication towers in the remote communities of Kuujjuarapik and Lac Julien in northern Quebec. The use of wind power contributes to the sustainable development in these remote areas by lowering the reliance on costly helicopter-transported diesel fuel and by reducing the release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The technical characteristics of the Bergey 100 kW turbine with battery charger were presented along with the technical characteristics of the EolDie control panel that controls the supply of electricity from either the wind or diesel power generators. For the first time, the ATI-Wind technology system that was installed can supply the needs of the large telecommunication towers of Bell Canada and Telebec from either the wind or the diesel generators. The system is also capable of shutting down the diesel generators when wind energy is sufficient to take over. Early results from June 2005 showed that the diesel generators could be turned off for 55 per cent of the time. Preliminary results of these 2 projects were discussed by the firms in charge of the diesel and wind aspects and recommendations for improvements to the control systems were presented. 11 figs.

  7. Field Demonstration of Real-Time Wind Turbine Foundation Strain Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubert, Tim; Perry, Marcus; Fusiek, Grzegorz; McAlorum, Jack; Niewczas, Pawel; Brotherston, Amanda; McCallum, David

    2017-12-31

    Onshore wind turbine foundations are generally over-engineered as their internal stress states are challenging to directly monitor during operation. While there are industry drivers to shift towards more economical foundation designs, making this transition safely will require new monitoring techniques, so that the uncertainties around structural health can be reduced. This paper presents the initial results of a real-time strain monitoring campaign for an operating wind turbine foundation. Selected reinforcement bars were instrumented with metal packaged optical fibre strain sensors prior to concrete casting. In this paper, we outline the sensors' design, characterisation and installation, and present 67 days of operational data. During this time, measured foundation strains did not exceed 95 μ ϵ , and showed a strong correlation with both measured tower displacements and the results of a foundation finite element model. The work demonstrates that real-time foundation monitoring is not only achievable, but that it has the potential to help operators and policymakers quantify the conservatism of their existing design codes.

  8. Development of a Fault Monitoring Technique for Wind Turbines Using a Hidden Markov Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Hwan; Kim, SangRyul; Seo, Yun-Ho

    2018-06-02

    Regular inspection for the maintenance of the wind turbines is difficult because of their remote locations. For this reason, condition monitoring systems (CMSs) are typically installed to monitor their health condition. The purpose of this study is to propose a fault detection algorithm for the mechanical parts of the wind turbine. To this end, long-term vibration data were collected over two years by a CMS installed on a 3 MW wind turbine. The vibration distribution at a specific rotating speed of main shaft is approximated by the Weibull distribution and its cumulative distribution function is utilized for determining the threshold levels that indicate impending failure of mechanical parts. A Hidden Markov model (HMM) is employed to propose the statistical fault detection algorithm in the time domain and the method whereby the input sequence for HMM is extracted is also introduced by considering the threshold levels and the correlation between the signals. Finally, it was demonstrated that the proposed HMM algorithm achieved a greater than 95% detection success rate by using the long-term signals.

  9. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  10. Development and Testing of an Acoustoultrasonic Inspection Device for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGugan, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the wind energy industry has grown rapidly (23% per annum) to the stage where a modern turbine blade exceeds the wing span of an Airbus A380, where offshore wind farms of 300MW are a reality, and where an 800MW total level of European power production 15 years ago has become...... for this dynamic new industry. There is a need to understand the effect(s) of more advanced designs and manufacturing approaches, the prevalence and significance of production defects in material and structure, and the optimization of maintenance/inspection effort through monitoring. Described in this paper......-layered structure must meet the requirements of greater size and quality demanded by the industry, whilst matching the harsher environments of offshore placement, and providing improvements in reliability and an upgraded life-cycle maintenance approach. Non-destructive inspection technology is an important topic...

  11. Hard bottom substate monitoring Horns Rev offshore wind farm 2004. Survey report no. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederiksen, Rune

    2004-05-15

    In connection with the implementation of the monitoring programme concerning the ecological implication of the effect of the introduction of hard substrate related to the Horns Rev Wind Farm, the third survey was carried out in the period 2431 March 2004. The survey covered collection of fauna and flora samples from the scour protection and at the wind turbine towers at six turbine sites. Video recordings were planned at different sites to provide documentation, but due to poor visibility the video recordings were postponed. On request from Elsam Engineering A/S video inspections on technical installations were made at turbine '84 and 95. This report covers a short description of the methodology, sampling activities and site description. (au)

  12. Development and radiation evaluation of mobile station for personnel monitoring system based on indigenous plastic scintillator sensor rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, H.S.; Parihar, A.; Senwar, K.R.; Prakash, V.; Rathore, A.S.

    2018-01-01

    The Mobile Station for Personnel Monitoring (MSPM) system has been designed and developed for rapid screening of personnel with respect to radiation contamination during nuclear or radiological emergency; it can also be used for prevention of illicit movement of radioactive sources. The objective was to develop a modular, transportable and easily deployable gamma portal monitoring system based on indigenous DLJ developed plastic scintillator sensors. The Gamma radiation response of the system is presented here

  13. Continuous atmospheric monitoring of the injected CO2 behavior over geological storage sites using flux stations: latest technologies and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, George; Madsen, Rodney; Feese, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    Flux stations have been widely used to monitor emission rates of CO2 from various ecosystems for climate research for over 30 years [1]. The stations provide accurate and continuous measurements of CO2 emissions with high temporal resolution. Time scales range from 20 times per second for gas concentrations, to 15-minute, hourly, daily, and multi-year periods. The emissions are measured from the upwind area ranging from thousands of square meters to multiple square kilometers, depending on the measurement height. The stations can nearly instantaneously detect rapid changes in emissions due to weather events, as well as changes caused by variations in human-triggered events (pressure leaks, control releases, etc.). Stations can also detect any slow changes related to seasonal dynamics and human-triggered low-frequency processes (leakage diffusion, etc.). In the past, station configuration, data collection and processing were highly-customized, site-specific and greatly dependent on "school-of-thought" practiced by a particular research group. In the last 3-5 years, due to significant efforts of global and regional CO2 monitoring networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, Carbo-Europe, ICOS, etc.) and technological developments, the flux station methodology became fairly standardized and processing protocols became quite uniform [1]. A majority of current stations compute CO2 emission rates using the eddy covariance method, one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques [1]. Presently, over 600 such flux stations are in operation in over 120 countries, using permanent and mobile towers or moving platforms (e.g., automobiles, helicopters, and airplanes). Atmospheric monitoring of emission rates using such stations is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including carbon storage [2-8]. Emerging projects utilize flux stations to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and

  14. Proactive monitoring of a wind turbine array with lidar measurements, SCADA data and a data-driven RANS solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iungo, G.; Said, E. A.; Santhanagopalan, V.; Zhan, L.

    2016-12-01

    Power production of a wind farm and durability of wind turbines are strongly dependent on non-linear wake interactions occurring within a turbine array. Wake dynamics are highly affected by the specific site conditions, such as topography and local atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, contingencies through the life of a wind farm, such as turbine ageing and off-design operations, make prediction of wake interactions and power performance a great challenge in wind energy. In this work, operations of an onshore wind turbine array were monitored through lidar measurements, SCADA and met-tower data. The atmospheric wind field investing the wind farm was estimated by using synergistically the available data through five different methods, which are characterized by different confidence levels. By combining SCADA data and the lidar measurements, it was possible to estimate power losses connected with wake interactions. For this specific array, power losses were estimated to be 4% and 2% of the total power production for stable and convective atmospheric regimes, respectively. The entire dataset was then leveraged for the calibration of a data-driven RANS (DDRANS) solver for prediction of wind turbine wakes and power production. The DDRANS is based on a parabolic formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations with axisymmetry and boundary layer approximations, which allow achieving very low computational costs. Accuracy in prediction of wind turbine wakes and power production is achieved through an optimal tuning of the turbulence closure model. The latter is based on a mixing length model, which was developed based on previous wind turbine wake studies carried out through large eddy simulations and wind tunnel experiments. Several operative conditions of the wind farm under examination were reproduced through DDRANS for different stability regimes, wind directions and wind velocity. The results show that DDRANS is capable of achieving a good level of accuracy in prediction

  15. Review report 2004. The Danish offshore wind farm demonstration project: Horns Rev and Nysted offshore wind farms. Environmental impact assessment and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-15

    The present review report presents the two wind farms Horns Rev and Nysted with regard to environmental characteristics and the results of the environmental studies carried out in connection with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the baseline and monitoring programmes at the two sites. The descriptions of the programmes are based on extracts from the individual annual reports. Detailed information on method, programmes and conclusions can be found in these reports (see Appendix 1). This review report is divided into two parts. The first part contains a description of the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind farms and the potentially affected part of the environment. The second part includes a description of Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and the environmental studies carried out here until the end of 2003. Appendix I is a list of the literature published on the studies carried out at Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. Appendix II is a list of some of the literature relevant to the demonstration projects but not directly related to the projects. The offshore wind farm situated in the Roedsand area is officially denoted Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, and in the present report the denotation 'Nysted' will be used as well when referring to Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. The denotation Roedsand will be used when referring to the actual area Roedsand. (au)

  16. Review report 2003. The Danish offshore wind farm demonstration project: Horns Rev and Nysted offshore wind farms. Environmental impact assessment and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-15

    The present review report presents the two wind farms Homs Rev and Nysted, with regard to environmental characteristics and the results of the environmental studies carried out in connection with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the baseline and monitoring programmes at the two sites. The descriptions of the programmes are based on extracts from the individual annual reports. Detailed information on methods, programmes and conclusions can be found in these reports. This review report is divided into two parts. The first part contains a description of the potential environmentally impacts of offshore wind farms and the potentially affected part of the environment. The second part includes a description of Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and the environmental studies carried out here until the end of 2003. Appendix I is a list of the literature published on the studies carried out at Hors Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. Appendix II is a list of some of the literature relevant to the demonstration projects but not directly related to the projects. The offshore wind farm situated at the bdsand area is officially denoted Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, and in the present report the denotation 'Nysted' will be used as well when referring to Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. The denotation Roedsand will be used when referring to the actual area Roedsand. (au)

  17. Review report 2004. The Danish offshore wind farm demonstration project: Horns Rev and Nysted offshore wind farms. Environmental impact assessment and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-15

    The present review report presents the two wind farms Horns Rev and Nysted with regard to environmental characteristics and the results of the environmental studies carried out in connection with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the baseline and monitoring programmes at the two sites. The descriptions of the programmes are based on extracts from the individual annual reports. Detailed information on method, programmes and conclusions can be found in these reports (see Appendix 1). This review report is divided into two parts. The first part contains a description of the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind farms and the potentially affected part of the environment. The second part includes a description of Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and the environmental studies carried out here until the end of 2003. Appendix I is a list of the literature published on the studies carried out at Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. Appendix II is a list of some of the literature relevant to the demonstration projects but not directly related to the projects. The offshore wind farm situated in the Roedsand area is officially denoted Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, and in the present report the denotation 'Nysted' will be used as well when referring to Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. The denotation Roedsand will be used when referring to the actual area Roedsand. (au)

  18. Research on the optimization of air quality monitoring station layout based on spatial grid statistical analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Zhou, Xing Chen; Ikhumhen, Harrison Odion; Difei, An

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, with the significant increase in urban development, it has become necessary to optimize the current air monitoring stations to reflect the quality of air in the environment. Highlighting the spatial representation of some air monitoring stations using Beijing's regional air monitoring station data from 2012 to 2014, the monthly mean particulate matter concentration (PM10) in the region was calculated and through the IDW interpolation method and spatial grid statistical method using GIS, the spatial distribution of PM10 concentration in the whole region was deduced. The spatial distribution variation of districts in Beijing using the gridding model was performed, and through the 3-year spatial analysis, PM10 concentration data including the variation and spatial overlay (1.5 km × 1.5 km cell resolution grid), the spatial distribution result obtained showed that the total PM10 concentration frequency variation exceeded the standard. It is very important to optimize the layout of the existing air monitoring stations by combining the concentration distribution of air pollutants with the spatial region using GIS.

  19. Reliability-based design and planning of inspection and monitoring of offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez, Sergio Marquez

    When the wind is blowing fiercely, wind turbines must resist. Wind turbines have to withstand the rough environmental conditions in the most reliable manner and start to produce renewable energy when the wind becomes friendly again. Never give up ‘wind turbine’ face the winds and be proud of cont...... of probability and statistics for application in structural reliability-based risk inspections....

  20. Impacts on particles and ozone by transport processes recorded at urban and high-altitude monitoring stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolás, J.F., E-mail: j.nicolas@umh.es [Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution (LCA), Miguel Hernández University, Av. de la Universidad s/n, Edif. Alcudia, 03202 Elche (Spain); Crespo, J.; Yubero, E.; Soler, R. [Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution (LCA), Miguel Hernández University, Av. de la Universidad s/n, Edif. Alcudia, 03202 Elche (Spain); Carratalá, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Mantilla, E. [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Parque Tecnológico, C/Charles R. Darwin 14, E-46980 Paterna (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle transport episodes on particle number concentration temporal trends at both urban and high-altitude (Aitana peak-1558 m a.s.l.) stations, a simultaneous sampling campaign from October 2011 to September 2012 was performed. The monitoring stations are located in southeastern Spain, close to the Mediterranean coast. The annual average value of particle concentration obtained in the larger accumulation mode (size range 0.25–1 μm) at the mountain site, 55.0 ± 3.0 cm{sup − 3}, was practically half that of the value obtained at the urban station (112.0 ± 4.0 cm{sup − 3}). The largest difference between both stations was recorded during December 2011 and January 2012, when particles at the mountain station registered the lowest values. It was observed that during urban stagnant episodes, particle transport from urban sites to the mountain station could take place under specific atmospheric conditions. During these transports, the major particle transfer is produced in the 0.5–2 μm size range. The minimum difference between stations was recorded in summer, particularly in July 2012, which is most likely due to several particle transport events that affected only the mountain station. The particle concentration in the coarse mode was very similar at both monitoring sites, with the biggest difference being recorded during the summer months, 0.4 ± 0.1 cm{sup − 3} at the urban site and 0.9 ± 0.1 cm{sup − 3} at the Aitana peak in August 2012. Saharan dust outbreaks were the main factor responsible for these values during summer time. The regional station was affected more by these outbreaks, recording values of > 4.0 cm{sup − 3}, than the urban site. This long-range particle transport from the Sahara desert also had an effect upon O{sub 3} levels measured at the mountain station. During periods affected by Saharan dust outbreaks, ozone levels underwent a significant decrease (3–17%) with respect to its mean

  1. Impacts on particles and ozone by transport processes recorded at urban and high-altitude monitoring stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolás, J.F.; Crespo, J.; Yubero, E.; Soler, R.; Carratalá, A.; Mantilla, E.

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle transport episodes on particle number concentration temporal trends at both urban and high-altitude (Aitana peak-1558 m a.s.l.) stations, a simultaneous sampling campaign from October 2011 to September 2012 was performed. The monitoring stations are located in southeastern Spain, close to the Mediterranean coast. The annual average value of particle concentration obtained in the larger accumulation mode (size range 0.25–1 μm) at the mountain site, 55.0 ± 3.0 cm − 3 , was practically half that of the value obtained at the urban station (112.0 ± 4.0 cm − 3 ). The largest difference between both stations was recorded during December 2011 and January 2012, when particles at the mountain station registered the lowest values. It was observed that during urban stagnant episodes, particle transport from urban sites to the mountain station could take place under specific atmospheric conditions. During these transports, the major particle transfer is produced in the 0.5–2 μm size range. The minimum difference between stations was recorded in summer, particularly in July 2012, which is most likely due to several particle transport events that affected only the mountain station. The particle concentration in the coarse mode was very similar at both monitoring sites, with the biggest difference being recorded during the summer months, 0.4 ± 0.1 cm − 3 at the urban site and 0.9 ± 0.1 cm − 3 at the Aitana peak in August 2012. Saharan dust outbreaks were the main factor responsible for these values during summer time. The regional station was affected more by these outbreaks, recording values of > 4.0 cm − 3 , than the urban site. This long-range particle transport from the Sahara desert also had an effect upon O 3 levels measured at the mountain station. During periods affected by Saharan dust outbreaks, ozone levels underwent a significant decrease (3–17%) with respect to its mean value. - Highlights:

  2. Performance Evaluation of wastewater treatment plant of Noosh Azar company by online monitoring station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    leila haddadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background& Objective: One of the reuses of wastewater in industries is irrigation of green space. Therefore, with proper treatment and reduction of environmental pollution of wastewater and in compliance with environmental standards, it can be used for irrigation purposes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the performance of Noosh Azar Wastewater Treatment Plant by the online monitoring station in 2016.   Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed at Noosh Azar Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP in Tehran. The effluent outlet parameters include COD, BOD, TSS, TOC, Turbidity, pH and temperature which were measured 12 times/day by the online monitoring station of the refinery according to the standard methods (the Examinations of Water and Wastewater, and reported at the end of each month. Data were entered into SPSS software and analyzed using statistical indices including mean and standard deviation. Results: The average total of BOD/COD ratio in the wastewater was 0.8. The results of the study showed that the average concentration of COD, BOD and TSS of the wastewater was 1624.91 ±134.85, 1310±75.38 and 283.58± 39.76 mg/L, respectively. The average of total outlet parameters of turbidity, COD, BOD, TSS and TOC were 12.78±2.21, 83.73±12.90, 41.26±6.65, 6.70±2.14, 46.03±7.08 mg/L, and pH=7.80±0.35. The total average of removal efficiencies of COD, BOD and TSS were 93.92±3.62, 96.57±1.002 and 97.57±0.936, respectively. Conclusion: Regarding the proper performance of the activated sludge system of Noosh Azar Company, the effluent  parameters such as COD, BOD, TSS, TOC, turbidity and pH, were in accordance with the standard of the Iranian Environmental Protection Agency for irrigation use. However in order to ensure the quality of the wastewater for reuse, the microbial parameters should also be considered.

  3. Trends in Surface-Water Quality at Selected Ambient-Monitoring Network Stations in Kentucky, 1979-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Martin, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly complex water-management decisions require water-quality monitoring programs that provide data for multiple purposes, including trend analyses, to detect improvement or deterioration in water quality with time. Understanding surface-water-quality trends assists resource managers in identifying emerging water-quality concerns, planning remediation efforts, and evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet-Kentucky Division of Water, to analyze and summarize long-term water-quality trends of selected properties and water-quality constituents in selected streams in Kentucky's ambient stream water-quality monitoring network. Trends in surface-water quality for 15 properties and water-quality constituents were analyzed at 37 stations with drainage basins ranging in size from 62 to 6,431 square miles. Analyses of selected physical properties (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, and suspended solids), for major ions (chloride and sulfate), for selected metals (iron and manganese), for nutrients (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate), and for fecal coliform were compiled from the Commonwealth's ambient water-quality monitoring network. Trend analyses were completed using the S-Plus statistical software program S-Estimate Trend (S-ESTREND), which detects trends in water-quality data. The trend-detection techniques supplied by this software include the Seasonal Kendall nonparametric methods for use with uncensored data or data censored with only one reporting limit and the Tobit-regression parametric method for use with data censored with multiple reporting limits. One of these tests was selected for each property and water-quality constituent and applied to all station records so that results of the trend procedure could be compared among

  4. Optimal Site Selection of Wind-Solar Complementary Power Generation Project for a Large-Scale Plug-In Charging Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The wind-solar hybrid power generation project combined with electric vehicle charging stations can effectively reduce the impact on the power system caused by the random charging of electric cars, contribute to the in-situ wind-solar complementary system and reduce the harm arising from its output volatility. In this paper, the site selection index system of a landscape complementary power generation project is established by using the statistical methods and statistical analysis in the literature. Subsequently, using the Analytic Network Process to calculate the index weight, a cloud model was used in combination with preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluations to transform and sort uncertain language information. Finally, using the results of the decision-making for the location of the Shanghai wind-solar complementary project and by carrying out contrast analysis and sensitivity analysis, the superiority and stability of the decision model constructed in this study was demonstrated.

  5. Mesospheric Temperatures and Winds measured by a VHF Meteor Radar at King Sejong Station (62.2S, 58.8W), Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongha; Kim, Jeong-Han; Jee, Geonwha; Lee, Chang-Sup

    2010-05-01

    A VHF radar at King Sejong Station, Antarctica has been measuring meteor echoes since March 2007. Temperatures near the mesopause are derived from meteor decay times with an improved method of selecting meteor echo samples, and compared with airglow temperatures simultaneously observed by a spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI). The temperatures derived from meteor decay times are mostly consistent with the rotational temperatures of SATI OH(6-2) and O2(0-1) emissions from March through October. During southern summer when SATI cannot be operated due to brief night time, the meteor radar observation shows cold mesospheric temperatures, significantly lower than the CIRA86 model. The meteor radar observation also provides wind field information between 80 and 100 km of altitude. The measured meridional winds seem to follow the summer pole to winter pole circulation, and thus are correlated with the measured seasonal temperature change. However, the correlation between meridional winds and temperatures is not found in day by day base, as a previous study reported. Tidal characteristics of both zonal and meridional winds will also be compared with those of other Antarctic stations.

  6. Monitoring and evaluation of Blyth Offshore Wind Farm. Installation and commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, L.

    2001-07-01

    The principle aim of this report is to appraise the practical aspects of installation and commissioning of the offshore wind farm. The construction and installation activities of the project were monitored and reviewed by the project team to enable recommendations for future larger projects to be made. This report particularly looks at how the project progressed against the construction and installation schedule with regard to weather conditions and operational procedures. The document not only describes the methods of installation, assembly and cable laying, but also reviews the effectiveness of those methods including any difficulties that were encountered and the solutions that were found. (author)

  7. Model-Based Load Estimation for Predictive Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Pederen, Bo Juul; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    signal is performed online, and a Load Indicator Signal (LIS) is formulated as a ratio between current estimated accumulated fatigue loads and its expected value based only on a priori knowledge (WTG dynamics and wind climate). LOT initialisation is based on a priori knowledge and can be obtained using...... programme for pre-maintenance actions. The performance of LOT is demonstrated by applying it to one of the most critical WTG components, the gearbox. Model-based load CMS for gearbox requires only standard WTG SCADA data. Direct measuring of gearbox fatigue loads requires high cost and low reliability...... measurement equipment. Thus, LOT can significantly reduce the price of load monitoring....

  8. Rapid Monitoring of Bacteria and Fungi aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Damon, M.; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms within spacecraft have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growth of environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies or return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. Data obtained over the past 4 decades have enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach has been limited by the following factors: i) Many microorganisms (estimated > 95%) in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags (3-5 days for incubation and up to several months to return samples to ground); iii) Condensation in contact slides hinders colony counting by crew; and iv) Growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gramnegative bacteria and fungi, respectively. The technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device, known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). LOCADPTS was launched to the ISS in December 2006, and here we present data obtained from Mach 2007 until the present day. These data include a comparative study between LOCADPTS analysis and existing culture-based methods; and an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan throughout the ISS. While a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not be expected, we will suggest new requirements for microbial monitoring based upon culture-independent parameters measured by LOCAD-PTS.

  9. Evaluation of the Air Quality Monitor's Performance on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Ballard, Ken; Durham, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    The Air Quality Monitor (AQM) was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) as an experiment to evaluate its potential to replace the aging Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA), which ceased operations in August 2009. The AQM (Figure 1) is a small gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometer (GC/DMS) manufactured by Sionex. Data was presented at last year s ISIMS conference that detailed the preparation of the AQM for flight, including instrument calibration. Furthermore, initial AQM data was compared to VOA results from simultaneous runs of the two instruments. Although comparison with VOA data provided a measure of confidence in the AQM performance, it is the comparison with results from simultaneously acquired air samples (grab sample containers-GSCs) that will define the success (or failure) of the AQM performance. This paper will update the progress in the AQM investigation by comparing AQM data to results from the analyses of GSC samples, returned from ISS. Additionally, a couple of example will illustrate the AQM s ability to detect disruptions in the spacecraft s air quality. Discussion will also focus upon a few unexpected issues that have arisen and how these will be a addressed in the final operational unit now being built.

  10. Active vibration-based structural health monitoring system for wind turbine blade: Demonstration on an operating Vestas V27 wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tcherniak, Dmitri; Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti

    2017-01-01

    enough to be able to propagate the entire blade length. This article demonstrates the system on a Vestas V27 wind turbine. One blade of the wind turbine was equipped with the system, and a 3.5-month monitoring campaign was conducted while the turbine was operating normally. During the campaign, a defect......—a trailing-edge opening—was artificially introduced into the blade and its size was gradually increased from the original 15 to 45 cm. Using a semi-supervised learning algorithm, the system was able to detect even the smallest amount of damage while the wind turbine was operating under different weather......This study presents a structural health monitoring system that is able to detect structural defects of wind turbine blade such as cracks, leading/trailing-edge opening, or delamination. It is shown that even small defects of at least 15 cm size can be detected remotely without stopping the wind...

  11. Wind turbine rotor blade monitoring using digital image correlation: a comparison to aeroelastic simulations of a multi-megawatt wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winstroth, J; Ernst, B; Seume, J R; Schoen, L

    2014-01-01

    Optical full-field measurement methods such as Digital Image Correlation (DIC) provide a new opportunity for measuring deformations and vibrations with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, application to full-scale wind turbines is not trivial. Elaborate preparation of the experiment is vital and sophisticated post processing of the DIC results essential. In the present study, a rotor blade of a 3.2 MW wind turbine is equipped with a random black-and-white dot pattern at four different radial positions. Two cameras are located in front of the wind turbine and the response of the rotor blade is monitored using DIC for different turbine operations. In addition, a Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system is used in order to measure the wind conditions. Wind fields are created based on the LiDAR measurements and used to perform aeroelastic simulations of the wind turbine by means of advanced multibody codes. The results from the optical DIC system appear plausible when checked against common and expected results. In addition, the comparison of relative out-ofplane blade deflections shows good agreement between DIC results and aeroelastic simulations

  12. Wind turbine rotor blade monitoring using digital image correlation: a comparison to aeroelastic simulations of a multi-megawatt wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstroth, J.; Schoen, L.; Ernst, B.; Seume, J. R.

    2014-06-01

    Optical full-field measurement methods such as Digital Image Correlation (DIC) provide a new opportunity for measuring deformations and vibrations with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, application to full-scale wind turbines is not trivial. Elaborate preparation of the experiment is vital and sophisticated post processing of the DIC results essential. In the present study, a rotor blade of a 3.2 MW wind turbine is equipped with a random black-and-white dot pattern at four different radial positions. Two cameras are located in front of the wind turbine and the response of the rotor blade is monitored using DIC for different turbine operations. In addition, a Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system is used in order to measure the wind conditions. Wind fields are created based on the LiDAR measurements and used to perform aeroelastic simulations of the wind turbine by means of advanced multibody codes. The results from the optical DIC system appear plausible when checked against common and expected results. In addition, the comparison of relative out-ofplane blade deflections shows good agreement between DIC results and aeroelastic simulations.

  13. Development of Self-Powered Wireless Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for Wind Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong-Won

    Wind turbine blade failure can lead to unexpected power interruptions. Monitoring wind turbine blades is important to ensure seamless electricity delivery from power generation to consumers. Structural health monitoring (SHM) enables early recognition of structural problems so that the safety and reliability of operation can be enhanced. This dissertation focuses on the development of a wireless SHM system for wind turbine blades. The sensor is comprised of a piezoelectric energy harvester (EH) and a telemetry unit. The sensor node is mounted on the blade surface. As the blade rotates, the blade flexes, and the energy harvester captures the strain energy on the blade surface. Once sufficient electricity is captured, a pulse is sent from the sensing node to a gateway. Then, a central monitoring algorithm processes a series of pulses received from all three blades. This wireless SHM, which uses commercially available components, can be retrofitted to existing turbines. The harvested energy for sensing can be estimated in terms of two factors: the available strain energy and conversion efficiency. The available strain energy was evaluated using the FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) simulator. The conversion efficiency was studied analytically and experimentally. An experimental set-up was designed to mimic the expected strain frequency and amplitude for rotor blades. From a series of experiments, the efficiency of a piezoelectric EH at a typical rotor speed (0.2 Hz) was approximately 0.5%. The power requirement for sending one measurement (280 muJ) can be achieved in 10 minutes. Designing a detection algorithm is challenging due to this low sampling rate. A new sensing approach-the timing of pulses from the transmitter-was introduced. This pulse timing, which is tied to the charging time, is indicative of the structural health. The SHM system exploits the inherent triple redundancy of the three blades. The timing data of the three blades are

  14. Integrated Approach Using Condition Monitoring and Modeling to Investigate Wind Turbine Gearbox Design: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; Guo, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Vibration-based condition monitoring (CM) of geared utility-scale turbine drivetrains has been used by the wind industry to help improve operation and maintenance (O&M) practices, increase turbine availability, and reduce O&M cost. This study is a new endeavor that integrates the vibration-based CM technique with wind turbine gearbox modeling to investigate various gearbox design options. A teamof researchers performed vibration-based CM measurements on a damaged wind turbine gearbox with a classic configuration, (i.e., one planetary stage and two parallel stages). We observed that the acceleration amplitudes around the first-order sidebands of the intermediate stage gear set meshing frequency were much lower than that measured at the high-speed gear set, and similar difference wasalso observed in a healthy gearbox. One factor for a reduction at the intermediate stage gear set is hypothesized to be the soft sun-spline configuration in the test gearbox. To evaluate this hypothesis, a multibody dynamic model of the healthy test gearbox was first developed and validated. Relative percent difference of the first-order sidebands--of the high-speed and intermediate stagegear-meshing frequencies--in the soft and the rigid sun spline configurations were compared. The results verified that the soft sun-spline configuration can reduce the sidebands of the intermediate stage gear set and also the locating bearing loads. The study demonstrates that combining vibration-based CM with appropriate modeling can provide insights for evaluating different wind turbinegearbox design options.

  15. Integrated condition monitoring of a fleet of offshore wind turbines with focus on acceleration streaming processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsen, Jan; Gioia, Nicoletta; Peeters, Cédric; Jordaens, Pieter-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Particularly offshore there is a trend to cluster wind turbines in large wind farms, and in the near future to operate such a farm as an integrated power production plant. Predictability of individual turbine behavior across the entire fleet is key in such a strategy. Failure of turbine subcomponents should be detected well in advance to allow early planning of all necessary maintenance actions; Such that they can be performed during low wind and low electricity demand periods. In order to obtain the insights to predict component failure, it is necessary to have an integrated clean dataset spanning all turbines of the fleet for a sufficiently long period of time. This paper illustrates our big-data approach to do this. In addition, advanced failure detection algorithms are necessary to detect failures in this dataset. This paper discusses a multi-level monitoring approach that consists of a combination of machine learning and advanced physics based signal-processing techniques. The advantage of combining different data sources to detect system degradation is in the higher certainty due to multivariable criteria. In order to able to perform long-term acceleration data signal processing at high frequency a streaming processing approach is necessary. This allows the data to be analysed as the sensors generate it. This paper illustrates this streaming concept on 5kHz acceleration data. A continuous spectrogram is generated from the data-stream. Real-life offshore wind turbine data is used. Using this streaming approach for calculating bearing failure features on continuous acceleration data will support failure propagation detection. (paper)

  16. Structural Health Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blades: Acoustic Source Localization Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mabrok Bouzid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring (SHM is important for reducing the maintenance and operation cost of safety-critical components and systems in offshore wind turbines. This paper proposes an in situ wireless SHM system based on an acoustic emission (AE technique. By using this technique a number of challenges are introduced due to high sampling rate requirements, limitations in the communication bandwidth, memory space, and power resources. To overcome these challenges, this paper focused on two elements: (1 the use of an in situ wireless SHM technique in conjunction with the utilization of low sampling rates; (2 localization of acoustic sources which could emulate impact damage or audible cracks caused by different objects, such as tools, bird strikes, or strong hail, all of which represent abrupt AE events and could affect the structural health of a monitored wind turbine blade. The localization process is performed using features extracted from aliased AE signals based on a developed constraint localization model. To validate the performance of these elements, the proposed system was tested by testing the localization of the emulated AE sources acquired in the field.

  17. Elsam. Offshore Wind Turbines. Horns Rev. Annual status report for the environmental monitoring programme 1. January 2004 - 31. December 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    In 2001, the former Ministry of the Environment and Energy granted Elsam A/S and Eltra A.m.b.A. approval to establish a wind farm capable of producing 160 MW of electric power, at Horns Rev, west of Blaevandshuk at the west coast of Jutland. According to the conditions of the approval, Elsam and Eltra were required to monitor the environmental effects of the wind farm by performing monitoring before, during and after construction of the wind farm. The environmental monitoring programme is financed through Public Service Obligation (PSO). Analogue to the Horns Rev wind farm another offshore demonstrational wind farm was established in the Baltic sea south of Lolland by Energi E2 the Nysted 165 MW offshore wind farm. To coordinate the environmental monitoring at the two demonstration wind farms at Nysted and Horns Rev within the framework of the approved budget, the Environmental Group of Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Projects was set up. The group consists of representatives from the Danish Forest and Nature Agency, the Danish Energy Authority, Elsam and Energi E2. The Environmental Group initiates, monitors and evaluates the environmental programmes continuously with respect to possible improvements and intensifications to ensure that the design of the individual programmes is optimal. After evaluation, the monitoring programmes are proposed by the Environmental Group and carried out after final approval by the Danish Energy Authority. The Environmental Group considers if there is reason to adjust the issues and priorities of the programmes based on previous experience or other inputs eg from the international expert panel, IAPEME (International Advisory Panel of Experts on Marine Ecology). IAPEME evaluates the environmental monitoring programmes and makes valuable suggestions and recommendations to the Environmental Group. The programmes have concentrated on the monitoring of possible impacts before, during and after construction to investigate and

  18. Elsam. Offshore Wind Turbines. Horns Rev. Annual status report for the environmental monitoring programme 1. January 2004 - 31. December 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-15

    In 2001, the former Ministry of the Environment and Energy granted Elsam A/S and Eltra A.m.b.A. approval to establish a wind farm capable of producing 160 MW of electric power, at Horns Rev, west of Blaevandshuk at the west coast of Jutland. According to the conditions of the approval, Elsam and Eltra were required to monitor the environmental effects of the wind farm by performing monitoring before, during and after construction of the wind farm. The environmental monitoring programme is financed through Public Service Obligation (PSO). Analogue to the Horns Rev wind farm another offshore demonstrational wind farm was established in the Baltic sea south of Lolland by Energi E2 the Nysted 165 MW offshore wind farm. To coordinate the environmental monitoring at the two demonstration wind farms at Nysted and Horns Rev within the framework of the approved budget, the Environmental Group of Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Projects was set up. The group consists of representatives from the Danish Forest and Nature Agency, the Danish Energy Authority, Elsam and Energi E2. The Environmental Group initiates, monitors and evaluates the environmental programmes continuously with respect to possible improvements and intensifications to ensure that the design of the individual programmes is optimal. After evaluation, the monitoring programmes are proposed by the Environmental Group and carried out after final approval by the Danish Energy Authority. The Environmental Group considers if there is reason to adjust the issues and priorities of the programmes based on previous experience or other inputs eg from the international expert panel, IAPEME (International Advisory Panel of Experts on Marine Ecology). IAPEME evaluates the environmental monitoring programmes and makes valuable suggestions and recommendations to the Environmental Group. The programmes have concentrated on the monitoring of possible impacts before, during and after construction to investigate and

  19. The Ongoing Addition of Infrasound Sensors and the Flexette Wind-Noise Reducing System to Global Seismic Network Stations Operated by Project IDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, C. W.; Coon, C.

    2017-12-01

    Infrasound sensors are now being installed at Global Seismic Network (GSN) stations meeting certain infrastructure criteria. Manufactured by Hyperion Technology Group, Inc., these instruments (model IFS-3312) have a nominal sensitivity of 140 mV/Pa (at 1 Hz), a full-scale range of ±100 Pa, and a dynamic range of 120 dB. Low power consumption (750 mW at 12 VDC) and small size (153 mm x 178 mm) ease incorporation into the mix of existing GSN instrumentation. The accompanying flexible rosette ("Flexette") acoustic wind-noise reducing system, designed by Project IDA (International Deployment of Accelerometers-IDA), optimally includes 24 inlets, 4 secondary manifolds, and a single primary manifold. Each secondary manifold is connected to 6 inlets and to the primary manifold by 10-ft air hoses, thus eliminating stresses and the greater potential for leaks associated with the use of pipe. While the main design goal was to maximize the reduction of acoustic wind-noise over the widest range of wind speeds possible, consideration of additional criteria resulted in a Flexette base design easily tailored to meet individual station constraints and restrictions, made up of inexpensive (total cost Marshall Islands), in August 2017. During the next 6 months infrasound capability will be extended to IDA GSN stations BORG (Borganes, Iceland), EFI (Mount Kent, East Falkland Islands), and SACV (Santiago Island, Cape Verde).As with other data from GSN stations, real-time infrasound data are freely available from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology-Data Management Center (IRIS-DMC).

  20. Cost-benefit analysis of remote hybrid wind-diesel power stations: Case study Aegean Sea islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Kavadias, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    More than one third of world population has no direct access to interconnected electrical networks. Hence, the electrification solution usually considered is based on expensive, though often unreliable, stand-alone systems, mainly small diesel-electric generators. Hybrid wind-diesel power systems are among the most interesting and environmental friendly technological alternatives for the electrification of remote consumers, presenting also increased reliability. More precisely, a hybrid wind-diesel installation, based on an appropriate combination of a small diesel-electric generator and a micro-wind converter, offsets the significant capital cost of the wind turbine and the high operational cost of the diesel-electric generator. In this context, the present study concentrates on a detailed energy production cost analysis in order to estimate the optimum configuration of a wind-diesel-battery stand-alone system used to guarantee the energy autonomy of a typical remote consumer. Accordingly, the influence of the governing parameters-such as wind potential, capital cost, oil price, battery price and first installation cost-on the corresponding electricity production cost is investigated using the developed model. Taking into account the results obtained, hybrid wind-diesel systems may be the most cost-effective electrification solution for numerous isolated consumers located in suitable (average wind speed higher than 6.0 m/s) wind potential regions

  1. ERMS - Environmental Radiation Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vax, Eran; Sarusi, Benny; Sheinfeld, Mati; Levinson, Shmuel; Brandys, Irad; Sattinger, Danny; Wengrowicz, Udi; Tshuva, Avi; Tirosh, Dan

    2008-01-01

    A new Environmental Radiation Monitoring System (ERMS) has been developed in the NRCN as an extensive tool to be applied in case of nuclear malfunction or Nuclear Disposal Device (NDD) incident, as well as for routine radiation monitoring of the reactor's vicinity. The system collects real-time environmental data such as: gamma radiation, wind speed, wind direction, and temperature for monitoring purposes. The ERMS consists of a main Control Center and an array of monitoring stations. Fixed, environmental, gamma radiation monitoring stations are installed at the reactor's surroundings while portable stations can be posted rapidly along the wind direction, enhancing the spatial sampling of the radiation measurements and providing better hazard assessment at an emergency event. The presented ERMS, based on industrial standards for hardware and network protocols, is a reliable standalone system which upgrades the readiness to face a nuclear emergency event by supplying real-time, integrated meteorological and radiation data. (author)

  2. Elemental composition of aerosol particles from two atmospheric monitoring stations in the Amazon Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaxo, P.; Gerab, F.; Rabello, M.L.C.

    1993-01-01

    One key region for the study of processes that are changing the composition of the global atmosphere is the Amazon Basin tropical rain forest. The high rate of deforestation and biomass burning is emitting large amounts of gases and fine-mode aerosol particles to the global atmosphere. Two background monitoring stations are operating continuously measuring aerosol composition, at Cuiaba, and Serra do Navio. Fine- and coarse-mode aerosol particles are being collected using stacked filter units. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used to measure concentrations of up to 21 elements: Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, and Pb. The elemental composition was measured at the new PIXE facility from the University of Sao Paulo, using a dedicated 5SDH tandem Pelletron nuclear accelerator. Absolute principal factor analysis (APFA) has derived absolute elemental source profiles. At the Serra do Navio sampling site a very clean background aerosol is being observed. Biogenic aerosol dominates the fine-mode mass concentration, with the presence of K, P, S, Cl, Zn, Br, and FPM. Three components dominate the aerosol composition: Soil dust particles, the natural biogenic release by the forest, and a marine aerosol component. At the Cuiaba site, during the dry season, a strong component of biomass burning is observed. An aerosol mass concentration up to 120 μg/m 3 was measured. APFA showed three components: Soil dust (Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe), biomass burning (soot, FPM, K, Cl) and natural biogenic particles (K, S, Ca, Mn, Zn). The fine-mode biogenic component of both sites shows remarkable similarities, although the two sampling sites are 3000 km apart. Several essential plant nutrients like P, K, S, Ca, Ni and others are transported in the atmosphere as a result of biomass burning processes. (orig.)

  3. Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) Vegetation Volume Index: An assessment tool for marsh habitat focused on the three-dimensional structure at CRMS vegetation monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William B.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh A.; Hundy, Laura C.; McGinnis, Tommy E.

    2015-12-04

    A Vegetation Volume (VV) variable and Vegetation Volume Index (VVI) have been developed for the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS). The VV is a measure of the amount of three-dimensional vegetative structure present at each CRMS site and is based on vegetation data collected annually. The VV uses 10 stations per CRMS site to quantify four vegetation layers: carpet, herbaceous, shrub, and tree. For each layer an overall live vegetation percent cover and height are collected to create a layer volume; the individual layer volumes are then summed to generate a site vegetation volume profile. The VV uses the two-dimensional area of live vegetative cover (in square meters) multiplied by the height (in meters) of each layer to produce a volume (in cubic meters) for each layer present in a 2-meter by 2-meter station. These layers are additive, yielding a total volume for each of the 10 herbaceous vegetation stations and an overall CRMS marsh site average.

  4. Meso- and Micro-scale modelling in China: Wind measurements at 12 meteorological stations in NE China (Dongbei)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw-Marsden, Petter; Enevoldsen, Karen

    This report is part of the presentation of the results obtained during the CMA component of the Wind Energy Development (WED) program. It describes the techniques and results of the project “A02 Measurements” which produced wind measurements from mast mounted anemometers and vanes in Dongbei...

  5. Monitoring and evaluation of Blyth Offshore Wind Farm. Projected operation and maintenance costs of UK offshore wind farms based on the experience at Blyth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greig, E.

    2004-07-01

    This is the fifth of seven reports in this series on specific aspects of the monitoring and evaluation of the Blyth offshore wind farm project. The report assesses the operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for the wind farm in its first full year of operation, and extrapolates these costs to give indicative costs for larger projects. It identifies both planned regular costs and unplanned site maintenance costs; some costs can be attributed to 'troubleshooting' during installation and would not be expected in future years. The Blyth wind farm, the first in the UK, consists of two 2 MW wind turbines installed approximately 1 km from the coast in water about 6 m deep at low tide. The site is exposed to the full impact of the North Sea weather, breaking waves and a significant tidal range (about 5 m). Location, boat availability, weather and insurance are identified as the key factors affecting O and M costs for future offshore wind farms in the UK.

  6. A real-time deflection monitoring system for wind turbine blades using a built-in laser displacement sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Giri, Paritosh; Lee, Jung-Ryul [Korea Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and LANL-CBNU Engineering Inst.

    2012-07-01

    Renewable energy is considered a good alternative to deal with the issues related to fossil fuel and environmental pollution. Wind energy as one of such renewable energy alternatives has seen a substantial growth. With commercially viable global wind power potential, wind energy penetration is further expected to rise, and so will the related problems. One of the issues is the collision of wind blade and tower during operation. To improve safety during operation, to minimize the risk of sudden failure or total breakdown, and to ensure reliable power generation and reduce wind turbine life cycle costs, a structural health monitoring (SHM) technology is required. This study proposes a single laser displacement sensor (LDS) system, where all of the rotating blades could be evaluated effectively. The system is cost-effective as well, as the system costs only a mere thousand dollars. If the blade bolt loosening occurs, it causes deflection in the affected blade. In a similar manner, nacelle tilt or mass loss damage in the blade will result in change of blade's position and the proposed system can identify such problems with ease. With increased demand of energy, the sizes of wind blades are getting bigger and bigger due to which people are installing wind turbines very high above the ground level or offshore. It is impractical to monitor the deflection through wired connection in these cases and hence can be replaced by a wireless solution. This wireless solution is achieved using Zigbee technology which operates in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands, typically 2.4 GHz, 915 MHz and 868 MHz. The output from the LDS is fed to the microcontroller which acts as an analog to digital converter which in turn is connected to the Zigbee transceiver module, which transmits the data. At the other end, the Zigbee reads the data and displays on the PC from where user can monitor the condition of wind blades. (orig.)

  7. Fundamentals for remote structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades - a preproject. Annex A. Cost-benefit for embedded sensors in large wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.G.; Lading, Lars

    2002-01-01

    -bladed 2MW turbine placed offshore either without sensors or with sensors are compared. The price of a structural health monitoring system of a price of 100 000 DKK (per tur-bine) results in a break-eventime of about 3 years. For a price of 300 000 DKK the break-even time is about 8 years. However......This report contains the results of a cost-benefit analysis for the use of embed-ded sensors for damage detection in large wind turbine blades - structural health monitoring - (in connection with remote surveillance) of large wind turbine placedoff-shore. The total operating costs of a three......, the cost/benefit analysis has large uncertainties....

  8. Condition Monitoring for Roller Bearings of Wind Turbines Based on Health Evaluation under Variable Operating States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring (CM is used to assess the health status of wind turbines (WT by detecting turbine failure and predicting maintenance needs. However, fluctuating operating conditions cause variations in monitored features, therefore increasing the difficulty of CM, for example, the frequency-domain analysis may lead to an inaccurate or even incorrect prediction when evaluating the health of the WT components. In light of this challenge, this paper proposed a method for the health evaluation of WT components based on vibration signals. The proposed approach aimed to reduce the evaluation error caused by the impact of the variable operating condition. First, the vibration signal was decomposed into a set of sub-signals using variational mode decomposition (VMD. Next, the sub-signal energy and the probability distribution were obtained and normalized. Finally, the concept of entropy was introduced to evaluate the health condition of a monitored object to provide an effective guide for maintenance. In particular, the health evaluation for CM was based on a performance review over a range of operating conditions, rather than at a certain single operating condition. Experimental investigations were performed which verified the efficiency of the evaluation method, as well as a comparison with the previous method.

  9. Tool for Forecasting Cool-Season Peak Winds Across Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    Peak wind speed is important element in 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts issued by 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS). Forecasts issued for planning operations at KSC/CCAFS. 45 WS wind advisories issued for wind gusts greater than or equal to 25 kt. 35 kt and 50 kt from surface to 300 ft. AMU developed cool-season (Oct - Apr) tool to help 45 WS forecast: daily peak wind speed, 5-minute average speed at time of peak wind, and probability peak speed greater than or equal to 25 kt, 35 kt, 50 kt. AMU tool also forecasts daily average wind speed from 30 ft to 60 ft. Phase I and II tools delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). Phase II tool also delivered as Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) GUI. Phase I and II forecast methods were compared to climatology, 45 WS wind advisories and North American Mesoscale model (MesoNAM) forecasts in a verification data set.

  10. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The group is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station has always included the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. This possibility has recently received increased attention and the group of researchers working on the station has expanded to include several microbial biologists. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments are planned for fall 2005 and center about the use of the vessel M/V Ocean Quest and its two manned submersibles. The subs will be used to effect bottom surveys, emplace sensors and sea floor experiments and make connections between sensor data loggers and the integrated data power unit (IDP). Station/observatory completion is anticipated for 2007 following the

  11. First year post-construction monitoring of birds at Wind Turbine Test Centre Østerild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Groom, Geoffrey Brian

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University was commissioned by the DanishNature Agency to undertake a bird monitoring programme of a national testcentre for wind turbines near Østerild in Thy, Denmark. Here we present the results from the first year of the post-construction studies. Whooper...... swan, taiga bean goose, pink-footed goose, common crane, light-bellied brent goose, white-tailed eagle and nightjar were included as focal species in the ornithological investigations. In addition, species specific data on all bird species occurring regularly in the study area were collected....... On the basis of an intermediate assessment of collision risk, the potential impacts of the combined structures on the bird species occurring in the study area were considered unlikely to be significant. However, given the uncertainties in the assessment,  the post-construction programme will continue...

  12. Condition monitoring with wind turbine SCADA data using Neuro-Fuzzy normal behavior models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlechtingen, Meik; Santos, Ilmar

    2012-01-01

    System (ANFIS) models are employed to learn the normal behavior in a training phase, where the component condition can be considered healthy. In the application phase the trained models are applied to predict the target signals, e.g. temperatures, pressures, currents, power output, etc. The behavior......This paper presents the latest research results of a project that focuses on normal behavior models for condition monitoring of wind turbines and their components, via ordinary Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) data. In this machine learning approach Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Interference...... of the prediction error is used as an indicator for normal and abnormal behavior, with respect to the learned behavior. The advantage of this approach is that the prediction error is widely decoupled from the typical fluctuations of the SCADA data caused by the different turbine operational modes. To classify...

  13. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across American Samoa in...

  14. Global Monitoring of Mountain Glaciers Using High-Resolution Spotlight Imaging from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Green, J. J.; Bills, B. G.; Goguen, J.; Ansar, A.; Knight, R. L.; Hallet, B.; Scambos, T. A.; Thompson, L. G.; Morin, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain glaciers around the world are retreating rapidly, contributing about 20% to present-day sea level rise. Numerous studies have shown that mountain glaciers are sensitive to global environmental change. Temperate-latitude glaciers and snowpack provide water for over 1 billion people. Glaciers are a resource for irrigation and hydroelectric power, but also pose flood and avalanche hazards. Accurate mass balance assessments have been made for only 280 glaciers, yet there are over 130,000 in the World Glacier Inventory. The rate of glacier retreat or advance can be highly variable, is poorly sampled, and inadequately understood. Liquid water from ice front lakes, rain, melt, or sea water and debris from rocks, dust, or pollution interact with glacier ice often leading to an amplification of warming and further melting. Many mountain glaciers undergo rapid and episodic events that greatly change their mass balance or extent but are sparsely documented. Events include calving, outburst floods, opening of crevasses, or iceberg motion. Spaceborne high-resolution spotlight optical imaging provides a means of clarifying the relationship between the health of mountain glaciers and global environmental change. Digital elevation models (DEMs) can be constructed from a series of images from a range of perspectives collected by staring at a target during a satellite overpass. It is possible to collect imagery for 1800 targets per month in the ×56° latitude range, construct high-resolution DEMs, and monitor changes in high detail over time with a high-resolution optical telescope mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). Snow and ice type, age, and maturity can be inferred from different color bands as well as distribution of liquid water. Texture, roughness, albedo, and debris distribution can be estimated by measuring bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) and reflectance intensity as a function of viewing angle. The non-sun-synchronous orbit

  15. Near-IR spectroscopic monitoring of CLASS I protostars: Variability of accretion and wind indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connelley, Michael S. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Greene, Thomas P. [NASA Ames Research Center, M.S. 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We present the results of a program that monitored the near-IR spectroscopic variability of a sample of 19 embedded protostars. Spectra were taken on time intervals from 2 days to 3 yr, over a wavelength range from 0.85 μm to 2.45 μm, for 4-9 epochs of observations per target. We found that the spectra of all targets are variable and that every emission feature observed is also variable (although not for all targets). With one exception, there were no drastic changes in the continua of the spectra, nor did any line completely disappear, nor did any line appear that was not previously apparent. This analysis focuses on understanding the connection between accretion (traced by H Br γ and CO) and the wind (traced by He I, [Fe II], and sometimes H{sub 2}). For both accretion and wind tracers, the median variability was constant versus the time interval between observations; however, the maximum variability that we observed increased with the time interval between observations. Extinction is observed to vary within the minimum sampling time of 2 days, suggesting extinguishing material within a few stellar radii at high disk latitudes. The variability of [Fe II] and H{sub 2} were correlated for most (but not all) of the 7 young stellar objects showing both features, and the amplitude of the variability depends on the veiling. Although the occurrence of CO and Br γ emission are connected, their variability is uncorrelated, suggesting that these emissions originate in separate regions near the protostar (e.g., disk and wind). The variability of Br γ and wind tracers were found to be positively correlated, negatively correlated, or uncorrelated, depending on the target. The variability of Br γ, [Fe II], and H{sub 2} always lies on a plane, although the orientation of the plane in three dimensions depends on the target. While we do not understand all interactions behind the variability that we observed, we have shown that spectroscopic variability is a powerful tool

  16. Elsam. Offshore Wind Farm. Horns Rev. Annual status report for the environmental monitoring programme 1. January 2001 - 31. December 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-15

    As a result of the Danish Government's Energy Plan 21 a target of 5,500 MW wind power is to be erected in Denmark by 2030. 4,000 MW of these are to be placed offshore in special pointed areas with minimal impacts on the environment. In 1998 the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy ordered two power companies, Elsam and Energi E2, to establish each a demonstration wind farm at one of the five pointed areas. The intention was to follow the environmental impacts from the wind farm and to evaluate the possibility of setting up about 1,500 MW in each area with as little impact on the environment as possible. In 1999 the two power companies were given approval to begin pre-studies of each of the two wind farms and the work on the site construction as well as the environmental impact assessment related hereto was initiated. The authorities made a number of requirements for the EIA surveys according to the EU-directive for preparation of EIA reports. In the summer of 2000 the EIA report with project description was submitted to the authorities and the project was approved in the spring of 2001. During the summer and autumn of 2001 orders were placed for the components for the wind farm, i.e. foundations, towers, wind turbines, cables etc. After having finalised the EIA, monitoring programmes of the wind farms were initiated on basis of the results of the surveys carried out during the EIA. This means that continuous surveys have been implemented for most of the environmental parameters from 1999 and till today. This annual status report for 2001 is to present the results from the annual environmental monitoring programme (the baseline studies) at Horns Rev, which form part of the monitoring programme set up for the Horns Rev project. To get a complete picture of the Danish monitoring programme for the national demonstration wind farm project it is necessary to see the report for Horns Rev and for Roedsand as a whole. The report comprises a description of the wind

  17. Elsam. Offshore Wind Farm. Horns Rev. Annual status report for the environmental monitoring programme 1. January 2001 - 31. December 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    As a result of the Danish Government's Energy Plan 21 a target of 5,500 MW wind power is to be erected in Denmark by 2030. 4,000 MW of these are to be placed offshore in special pointed areas with minimal impacts on the environment. In 1998 the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy ordered two power companies, Elsam and Energi E2, to establish each a demonstration wind farm at one of the five pointed areas. The intention was to follow the environmental impacts from the wind farm and to evaluate the possibility of setting up about 1,500 MW in each area with as little impact on the environment as possible. In 1999 the two power companies were given approval to begin pre-studies of each of the two wind farms and the work on the site construction as well as the environmental impact assessment related hereto was initiated. The authorities made a number of requirements for the EIA surveys according to the EU-directive for preparation of EIA reports. In the summer of 2000 the EIA report with project description was submitted to the authorities and the project was approved in the spring of 2001. During the summer and autumn of 2001 orders were placed for the components for the wind farm, i.e. foundations, towers, wind turbines, cables etc. After having finalised the EIA, monitoring programmes of the wind farms were initiated on basis of the results of the surveys carried out during the EIA. This means that continuous surveys have been implemented for most of the environmental parameters from 1999 and till today. This annual status report for 2001 is to present the results from the annual environmental monitoring programme (the baseline studies) at Horns Rev, which form part of the monitoring programme set up for the Horns Rev project. To get a complete picture of the Danish monitoring programme for the national demonstration wind farm project it is necessary to see the report for Horns Rev and for Roedsand as a whole. The report comprises a description of the wind farm

  18. Ornithological monitoring of the wind farms of the Garrigue high plateau (Aude); Suivi ornithologique des parcs eoliens du Plateau de Garrigue Haute (Aude)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the monitoring of the premarital migration 2001 in the wind farm of Corbieres-Maritime on the Garrigue Haute plateau. It aims to study the wind turbines impacts and risks on the migration. In spite of a weak mortality, the number of observed modifications in the birds habits at the approach of the wind turbines confirms the necessity of taking into account the migration phenomena in the wind farms projects. (A.L.B.)

  19. Automatic Threshold Setting and Its Uncertainty Quantification in Wind Turbine Condition Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi; Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    Setting optimal alarm thresholds in vibration based condition monitoring system is inherently difficult. There are no established thresholds for many vibration based measurements. Most of the time, the thresholds are set based on statistics of the collected data available. Often times the underly......Setting optimal alarm thresholds in vibration based condition monitoring system is inherently difficult. There are no established thresholds for many vibration based measurements. Most of the time, the thresholds are set based on statistics of the collected data available. Often times...... the underlying probability distribution that describes the data is not known. Choosing an incorrect distribution to describe the data and then setting up thresholds based on the chosen distribution could result in sub-optimal thresholds. Moreover, in wind turbine applications the collected data available may...... not represent the whole operating conditions of a turbine, which results in uncertainty in the parameters of the fitted probability distribution and the thresholds calculated. In this study, Johnson, Normal, and Weibull distributions are investigated; which distribution can best fit vibration data collected...

  20. The Investigation of Hourly,Daily and Seasonal Changes of Duzce Air Quality Monitoring Station 2014 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Bolu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate data of air quality in the year 2004 in Duzce by days, hours and seasons. Method: In this study, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter levels, wind speed and wind direction values of Duzce city center obtained from the web page of Ministry of Envoriment and Planning between 1 January -31 December 2014 were studied. Data were examined by on the time of hours, days, days of the week, months and seasons. Results: Annual average PM10 was 106,42+/-102 and #956;g/m3 , SO2 concentration was 6,15+/-5,39 and #956;g/m3. Winter PM10 and SO2 measurements were significantly higher than summer season. Wind speed in the summer season had a higher average than the winter season. Highest average PM10 was at November 189,4 +/- 171,8 and #956;g/m3. The lowest PM10 was at June 58,0+/-24,5 and #956;g/m3. The highest average wind speed was at June, the lowest average wind speed is at December. PM10 and SO2 measurements were positively correlated with wind direction, shows a negative correlation with wind speed. The highest PM10 measurements in the summer season were on Thursdays, in the winter season on Wednesdays. The lowest PM10 measurements both in two seasons were on Sundays. Average PM10 was significantly higher on weekdays than weekends. The highest PM10 value of 146,6 +/- 131,3 and #956;g/m3 was measured at 23.00. The lowest PM10 value of 73,8+/-55,9 and #956;g/m3 was measured at 15.00. Conclusion: There is air pollution in Duzce both in the summer and winter. Continuous monitoring of the emissions of existing establishments in the industrial pollution control should be provided. The high PM10 measurements in the evening may be due to traffic during the day and fuel use for heating purposes. Widespread use of natural gas and creating socially conscious individual measures can be effective in reducing air pollution. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 387-393

  1. Present day geodynamics in Iceland monitored by a permanent network of continuous GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völksen, Christof; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Geirsson, Halldór; Valsson, Guðmundur

    2009-12-01

    Iceland is located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and thereby offers a rare opportunity to study crustal movements at a divergent plate boundary. Iceland is not only characterized by the divergence of the Eurasian and North American Plates, as several active volcanoes are located on the island. Moderate size earthquakes occur in the transform zones, causing measurable crustal deformation. In 1999 the installation of a permanent network of continuous GPS stations (ISGPS) was initiated in order to observe deformation due to unrest in the Hengill volcanic system and at the Katla volcano. The ISGPS network has been enlarged over the years and consists today of more than 25 CGPS stations. Most of the stations are located along the plate boundary, where most of the active deformation takes place. Uplift due to post-glacial rebound due to the melting of the largest glacier in Europe, Vatnajökull, is also detected by the ISGPS network. This study presents results from analysis of 9 years of data from the ISGPS network, in the global reference frame PDR05, which has been evaluated by the Potsdam-Dresden-Reprocessing group with reprocessed GPS data only. We thus determine subsidence or land uplift in a global frame. The horizontal station velocities clearly show spreading across the plate boundary of about 20 mm/a. Stations in the vicinity of the glacier Vatnajökull indicate uplift in the range of 12 mm/a, while a station in the central part of Iceland shows uplift rates of about 25 mm/a. Tide gauge readings in Reykjavik and current subsidence rates observed with CGPS agree also quite well.

  2. Meteorological and hydrographic monitoring data collected at Dauphin Island Station in Alabama from 1999-11-06 to 2001-03-01 (NODC Accession 0122658)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological and hydrographic data were collected from a monitoring station on Dauphin Island from Nov 1999 to Feb 2001. Variables measured include air...

  3. Seasonal, annual and inter-annual features of turbulence parameters over the tropical station Pune (18°32' N, 73°51' E observed with UHF wind profiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Singh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is specifically focused on the seasonal, annual and inter-annual variations of the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2 using three years of radar observations. Energy dissipation rates (ε during different seasons for a particular year are also computed over a tropical station, Pune. Doppler spectral width measurements made by the Wind Profiler, under various atmospheric conditions, are utilized to estimate the turbulence parameters. The refractive index structure parameter varies from 10−17.5 to 10−13 m−2/3 under clear air to precipitation conditions in the height region of 1.05 to 10.35 km. During the monsoon months, observed Cn2 values are up to 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than those during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Spectral width correction for various non-turbulent spectral broadenings such as beam broadening and shear broadening are made in the observed spectral width for reliable estimation of ε under non-precipitating conditions. It is found that in the lower tropospheric height region, values of ε are in the range of 10−6 to 10−3 m2 s−3. In summer and monsoon seasons the observed values of ε are larger than those in post-monsoon and winter seasons in the lower troposphere. A comparison of Cn2 observed with the wind profiler and that estimated using Radio Sonde/Radio Wind (RS/RW data of nearby Met station Chikalthana has been made for the month of July 2003.

  4. Numerical modeling and monitoring analysis of Heroísmo station, Metro do Porto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, P.; Sousa, T.; Silva, P.

    2007-01-01

    Metro do Porto is a major light rail infrastructure built in the city of Porto and surrounding municipalities. In Porto's downtown, classified by UNESCO as World Heritage, the metro was built underground. From a technical point of view, one of the most challenging underground metro stations due t...

  5. Characterization of selected volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds at a roadside monitoring station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K. F.; Lee, S. C.; Chiu, Gloria M. Y.

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), PAHs and carbonyl compounds are the major toxic components in Hong Kong. Emissions from motor vehicles have been one of the primary pollution sources in the metropolitan areas throughout Hong Kong for a long time. A 1-yr monitoring program for VOCs, PAHs and carbonyl compounds had been performed at a roadside urban station at Hong Kong Polytechnic University in order to determine the variations and correlations of each selected species (VOCs, PAHs and carbonyl compounds). This study is aimed to analyze toxic volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), two carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde), and selective polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The monitoring program started from 16 April 1999 to 30 March 2000. Ambient VOC concentrations, many of which originate from the same sources as particulate PAHs and carbonyls compounds, show significant quantities of benzene, toluene and xylenes. Correlations and multivariate analysis of selected gaseous and particulate phase organic pollutants were performed. Source identification by principle component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis allowed the identification of four sources (factors) for the roadside monitoring station. Factor 1 represents the effect of diesel vehicle exhaust. Factor 2 shows the contribution of aromatic compounds. Factor 3 explains photochemical products—formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Factor 4 explains the effect of gasoline vehicle exhaust.

  6. Multi-scale wind erosion monitoring and assessment for US rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a major resource concern for rangeland managers. Although wind erosion is a naturally occurring process in many drylands, land use activities, and land management in particular, can accelerate wind-driven soil loss – impacting ecosystem dynamics and agricultural production, air quali...

  7. Wind characteristics of CzeCOS’s ecosystem station Bílý Kříž

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nguyen, Vinh Xuan; Guerra Torres, Patricio Carlos; Yadav, Shilpi; Pavelka, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 1-2 (2017), s. 33-40 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Bílý Kříž * eddy- covariance * wind patterns * calm conditions Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  8. Electromagnetic sensors for monitoring of scour and deposition processes at bridges and offshore wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Panagiotis; Tarantino, Alessandro; Judd, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Recent increases in precipitation have resulted in severe and frequent flooding incidents. This has put hydraulic structures at high risk of failure due to scour, with severe consequences to public safety and significant economic losses. Foundation scour is the leading cause of bridge failures and one of the main climate change impacts to highway and railway infrastructure. Scour action is also being considered as a major risk for offshore wind farm developments as it leads to excessive excavation of the surrounding seabed. Bed level conditions at underwater foundations are very difficult to evaluate, considering that scour holes are often re-filled by deposited loose material which is easily eroded during smaller scale events. An ability to gather information concerning the evolution of scouring will enable the validation of models derived from laboratory-based studies and the assessment of different engineering designs. Several efforts have focused on the development of instrumentation techniques to measure scour processes at foundations. However, they are not being used routinely due to numerous technical and cost issues; therefore, scour continues to be inspected visually. This research project presents a new sensing technique, designed to measure scour depth variation and sediment deposition around the foundations of bridges and offshore wind turbines, and to provide an early warning of an impending structural failure. The monitoring system consists of a probe with integrated electromagnetic sensors, designed to detect the change in the surrounding medium around the foundation structure. The probe is linked to a wireless network to enable remote data acquisition. A developed prototype and a commercial sensor were evaluated to quantify their capabilities to detect scour and sediment deposition processes. Finite element modelling was performed to define the optimum geometric characteristics of the prototype scour sensor based on models with various permittivity

  9. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Tom McGee; Carol Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2006-06-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Every effort was made to locate and retain the services of a suitable vessel and submersibles or Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) following the storms and the loss of the contracted vessel

  10. Study and design of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air system for providing electricity to a remote telecommunication station; Etudes et conception d'un systeme hybride eolien-diesel-air comprime pour l'electrification d'une station de telecommunications isolee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, H.; Dimitrova, M. [TechnoCentre eolien Gaspesie-les Iles, Gaspe, PQ (Canada); Ilinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada); Perron, J. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This poster reported on a study that examined the feasibility of using a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air system to produce electricity at remote telecommunication stations. Low and high penetration wind-diesel hybrid systems were studied in order to reduce the diesel consumption. The use of a high penetration wind-diesel system together with compressed air energy storage (CAES) was shown to be a viable alternative to improve the overall percentage of renewable energy and reduce the cost of electricity in remote areas where a good wind resource is available. Different technical solutions for the CAES system were compared. refs., figs.

  11. Radioactivity monitoring by the official monitoring stations in North-Rhine Westphalia and the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This official report presents a governmental declaration of the prime minister of NRW, Mr. Rau, concerning the reactor accident at Chernobyl, and a joint declaration of ministers of NRW, concerning the impact of the accident on the Land NRW. These statements are completed by six official reports on radioactivity measurements carried out by the official monitoring stations of the Land and by the KFA Juelich. These reports inform about methods, scope, and results of the measuring campaigns accomplished by the Zentralstelle fuer Sicherheitstechnik (ZFS), the public materials testing office (MPA), the Chemisches Untersuchungsamt, the Landesamt fuer Wasser und Abfall, and the KFA Juelich. (DG) [de

  12. Results from utility wind resource assessment programs in Nebraska, Colorado, and Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drapeau, C.L. [Global Energy Concepts, Inc., Bothell, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Global Energy Concepts (GEC) has been retained by utilities in Colorado, Nebraska, and Arizona to site, install, and operate 21 wind monitoring stations as part of the Utility Wind Resource Assessment Program (U*WRAP). Preliminary results indicate wind speed averages at 40 meters (132 ft) of 6.5 - 7.4 m/s (14.5-16.5 mph) in Nebraska and 7.6 - 8.9 m/s (17.0-19.9 mph) in Colorado. The Arizona stations are not yet operational. This paper presents the history and current status of the 21 monitoring stations as well as preliminary data results. Information on wind speeds, wind direction, turbulence intensity, wind shear, frequency distribution, and data recovery rates are provided.

  13. Environmental Radiation Surveillance Results from over the Last Decade of Operational Experience at the Regional Radiation Monitoring Stations(RRMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae Young [Daegu Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Dong Han [Ulsan Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The objectives of the current program are to monitor environmental radiation/radioactivity level in Korea and to provide the base-line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity which will be useful in the case of radiological emergency situations. This program plays an important role in the view of protecting the public health against the potential hazards of radiation and maintaining a clean environment. This paper describes an introduction to the Regional Radiation Monitoring Stations (RRMS), and also presents some results of recent years (2001-2014). The environmental radiation surveillance results of years 2001-2014 have been described. It indicates normal levels of radiation in the past years. These kinds of studies are very important in providing references in understanding the environmental radioactivity level in a particular region.

  14. Condition monitoring and signature analysis techniques as applied to Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) [Paper No.: VIA - 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, V.; Suryanarayana, L.

    1981-01-01

    The technique of vibration signature analysis for identifying the machine troubles in their early stages is explained. The advantage is that a timely corrective action can be planned to avoid breakdowns and unplanned shutdowns. At the Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), this technique is applied to regularly monitor vibrations of equipment and thus is serving as a tool for doing corrective maintenance of equipment. Case studies of application of this technique to main boiler feed pumps, moderation pump motors, centrifugal chiller, ventilation system fans, thermal shield ventilation fans, filtered water pumps, emergency process sea water pumps, and antifriction bearings of MAPS are presented. Condition monitoring during commissioning and subsequent operation could indicate defects. Corrective actions which were taken are described. (M.G.B.)

  15. Brief communication: Structural monitoring for lifetime extension of offshore wind monopiles: can strain measurements at one level tell us everything?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ziegler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Operators need accurate knowledge on structural reserves to decide about lifetime extension of offshore wind turbines. Load monitoring enables us to directly compare design loads with real loading histories of the support structure in order to calculate its remaining useful lifetime. Monitoring of every hot spot is technically and financially not feasible. This paper presents a novel idea for load monitoring of monopiles. It requires strain measurements at only one level convenient for sensor installation, such as tower bottom. Measurements are converted into damage equivalent loads for 10 min time intervals. Damage equivalent loads are extrapolated to other locations of the structure with a simulation model and statistical algorithm. For this, structural loads at all locations of the monopile are calculated with aero-hydro-elastic software and updated finite element models. Damage equivalent loads at unmeasured locations are predicted from the simulation results with a k-nearest neighbor regression algorithm. The extrapolation was tested with numerical simulations of an 8 MW offshore wind turbine. Results show that damage can be predicted with an error of 1–3 % if this is done conditional on mean wind speed, which is very promising. The load monitoring concept is simple, cheap and easy to implement. This makes it ideal for making decisions on lifetime extension of monopiles.

  16. The capacity of radar, crowdsourced personal weather stations and commercial microwave links to monitor small scale urban rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijlenhoet, R.; de Vos, L. W.; Leijnse, H.; Overeem, A.; Raupach, T. H.; Berne, A.

    2017-12-01

    For the purpose of urban rainfall monitoring high resolution rainfall measurements are desirable. Typically C-band radar can provide rainfall intensities at km grid cells every 5 minutes. Opportunistic sensing with commercial microwave links yields rainfall intensities over link paths within cities. Additionally, recent developments have made it possible to obtain large amounts of urban in situ measurements from weather amateurs in near real-time. With a known high resolution simulated rainfall event the accuracy of these three techniques is evaluated, taking into account their respective existing layouts and sampling methods. Under ideal measurement conditions, the weather station networks proves to be most promising. For accurate estimation with radar, an appropriate choice for Z-R relationship is vital. Though both the microwave links and the weather station networks are quite dense, both techniques will underestimate rainfall if not at least one link path / station captures the high intensity rainfall peak. The accuracy of each technique improves when considering rainfall at larger scales, especially by increasing time intervals, with the steepest improvements found in microwave links.

  17. Atmospheric air density analysis with Meteo-40S wind monitoring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahariea Dănuţ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the wind potential of wind turbine sites, the wind resource maps can be used for mean annual wind speed, wind speed frequency distribution and mean annual wind power density determination. The general evaluation of the wind resource and the wind turbine ratings are based on the standard air density measured at sea level and at 15°C, ρs=1.225 kg/m3. Based on the experimental data obtained for a continental climate specific location, this study will present the relative error between the standard air density and the density of the dry and the moist air. Considering a cold day, for example on Friday 10th February 2017, on 1-second measurement rate and 10-minute measuring interval starting at 16:20, the mean relative errors obtained are 10.4145% for dry air, and 10.3634% for moist air. Based on these results, a correction for temperature, atmospheric air pressure and relative humidity should be always considered for wind resource assessment, as well as for the predicting the wind turbines performance.

  18. Application of Terrestrial Ecosystem Monitoring under the CAFF Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program: Designing and Implementing Terrestrial Monitoring to Establish the Canadian High Arctic Research Station as a Flagship Arctic Environmental Monitoring Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, D.; Kehler, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Canadian High Arctic Research Station (CHARS) is scheduled for completion in July 2017 and is the northern science component of Polar Knowledge Canada (POLAR). A mandated goal for POLAR is to establish the adjacent Experimental and Reference Area (ERA) as an Arctic Flagship monitoring site that will track change in Arctic terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. Situated in the community of Cambridge Bay, CHARS provides the opportunity to draw on the Indigenous Knowledge of local residents to help design and conduct the monitoring, and to operate 12 months a year. Monitoring at CHARS will be linked to networks nationally and internationally, and is being designed so that change in key indicators can be understood in terms of drivers and processes, modeled and scaled up regionally, and used to predict important changes in critical indicators. As a partner in the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP), the monitoring design for terrestrial ecosystems follows approaches outlined by the CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group, who have listed key monitoring questions and identified a list of important Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs). To link drivers to FECs we are proposing a multi-scaled approach: 1) an Intensive Monitoring Area to establish replicated monitoring plots that track change in snow depth and condition, active layer depth, soil temperature, soil moisture, and soil solution chemistry that are spatially and temporally linked to changes in microbiological activity, CO2/CH4 net ecosystem flux, vegetation relative frequency, species composition, growth and foliar nutrient concentration, arthropod abundance, lemming abundance and health, and shorebird/songbird abundance and productivity. 2) These intensive observations are supported by watershed scale measures that will monitor, during the growing season, lemming winter nest abundance, songbird, shorebird and waterfowl staging and nesting, and other observations; in the winter we will

  19. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  20. Detection of Atmospheric Explosions at IMS Monitoring Stations using Infrasound Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christie, Douglas R; Kennett, Brian L; Tarlowski, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Work is continuing on the development of infrasound techniques that can be used to improve detection, location and discrimination capability for atmospheric nuclear explosions at International Monitoring System (IMS...

  1. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations Source Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  2. Monitoring of Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition through Oil and Wear Debris Analysis: A Full-Scale Testing Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2016-10-01

    Despite the wind industry's dramatic development during the past decade, it is still challenged by premature turbine subsystem/component failures, especially for turbines rated above 1 MW. Because a crane is needed for each replacement, gearboxes have been a focal point for improvement in reliability and availability. Condition monitoring (CM) is a technique that can help improve these factors, leading to reduced turbine operation and maintenance costs and, subsequently, lower cost of energy for wind power. Although technical benefits of CM for the wind industry are normally recognized, there is a lack of published information on the advantages and limitations of each CM technique confirmed by objective data from full-scale tests. This article presents first-hand oil and wear debris analysis results obtained through tests that were based on full-scale wind turbine gearboxes rated at 750 kW. The tests were conducted at the 2.5-MW dynamometer test facility at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The gearboxes were tested in three conditions: run-in, healthy, and damaged. The investigated CM techniques include real-time oil condition and wear debris monitoring, both inline and online sensors, and offline oil sample and wear debris analysis, both onsite and offsite laboratories. The reported results and observations help increase wind industry awareness of the benefits and limitations of oil and debris analysis technologies and highlight the challenges in these technologies and other tribological fields for the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers and other organizations to help address, leading to extended gearbox service life.

  3. Long open-path TDL based system for monitoring background concentration for deployment at Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station- Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Valentin; van den Bergh, Hubert; Parlange, Marc

    2010-05-01

    A new, long open-path instrument for monitoring of path-averaged methane and water vapor concentrations will be presented. The instrument is built on the monostatic scheme (transceiver - distant retroreflector). A VCSEL tunable diode laser (TDL) with a central wavelength of 1654 nm is used as a light source. A specially designed, single-cell, hollow-cube retroreflector with 150 mm aperture will be installed at 1200 m from the transceiver in the final deployment at Jungfraujjoch and 100 mm retroreflectors will be used in the other applications. The receiver is built around a 20 cm Newtonian telescope. To avoid distortions in the shape of a methane line, caused by atmospheric turbulences, the line is scanned within 1 µs. Fast InGaAs photodiodes and 200 MHz are used to achieve this scanning rate. The expected concentration resolution for the above mentioned path lengths is of the order of 2 ppb. The instrument is developed at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology - Lausanne (EPFL) Switzerland and will be used within the GAW+ CH program for long-term monitoring of background methane concentration in the Swiss Alps. After completing the initial tests at EPFL the instrument will be installed in 2012 at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (HARSJ) located at 3580 m ASL. The HARSJ is one of the 24 global GAW stations and carries on continuous observations of a number of trace gasses, including methane. One of the goals of the project is to compare path-averaged to ongoing point measurements of methane in order to identify possible influence of the station. Future deployments of a copy of the instrument include the Colombian part of Amazonia and Siberian wetlands.

  4. Fundamentals for remote condition monitoring of offshore wind turbines. Summary report; Fjernovervaagning af vindmoellevingers tilstand (fase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGugan, M.; Larsen, Gunner C.; Soerensen, Bent F.; Borum, K.K.; Engelhardt, J.

    2008-04-15

    In the future, large wind turbines will be placed offshore in considerable numbers. Since access will be difficult and costly, it is preferable to use monitoring systems to reduce the reliance on manual inspection. The motivation for the effort reported here is to create the fundamental basis necessary for the use of sensors as a structural health monitoring system for wind turbine blades. This includes creating knowledge that will allow sensor signals to be used for remotely identifying the presence and position of any damage, the damage type and severity, and a structural condition assessment of the wind turbine blades that can integrate with existing SCADA tools to improve management of large offshore wind farms, and optimise the manual inspection/maintenance effort. Various sensor types, which have previously been identified as technically (and economically) capable of detecting the early development of significant damage in fibre reinforced composite, are investigated. In each case specific approaches have been proposed, developed and implemented in models or laboratory test specimens. The sensor approaches are based on acoustic emission (various passive and active applications including mobile sensors), fibre optics (including a new microbend transducer design and various Bragg-grating based applications), wireless approaches involving both battery and energy harvesting options, and inertia sensor based system identification approaches able to deal with linear periodic systems. In addition to the sensor investigations, a life-estimate approach for the wind turbines is described based on identifying and characterising critical material failure modes then integrating detailed models of damage progression rates into full scale models of the blade structure under operating loading regimes. The application of sensors is addressed during a full-scale blade test and recommendations are made regarding improvement to the commercial blade certification process of test

  5. Evaluation of The Data of Duzce Air Quality Monitoring Station Between 2007-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Senih Mayda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate air quality between the years 2007-2011 in the province of Duzce. Methods: Inthis cross-sectional study, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter levels, wind speed, air temperature, wind direction, relative humidity, air pressure values of Duzce city center obtained from the web page of Ministry of Envoriment and Planning between 2007-2011 were studied. Ontained measurements compared with the limit values of Air Quality Protection Regulation and the European Union. Results: Average PM10 was 90,5±1,9 (minimum 11,maximum 612 in Duzce Province from January 30, 2007 to December 2011. For PM10 long-term limit value for Turkey was 78 µg/mm3 and were exceeded all years. Winter seasons had higher average values of PM10 than summer seasons. The average SO2 was 12,5±0,3 (minimum 1, maximum 56. Long-term limit value and average annual values of Turkey for SO2 were not exceeded in any year. Conclusion:Duzce Directorate of Environment and Urban Planning should increase the controls in Duzce,especially due to higher values for PM10 parameter related to air pollution.In the days when warning theshold levels exceeded necessary measuress must be taken. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 11-18

  6. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenborn, R.; Breivik, K.; Eckhardt, S.; Lunder, C. R.; Manø, S.; Schlabach, M.; Stohl, A.

    2013-07-01

    A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land). As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007-2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard) in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar to observations for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound, with levels of around 22 pg m-3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART).

  7. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kallenborn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land. As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007–2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar to observations for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound, with levels of around 22 pg m−3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART.

  8. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 1.0: Networked Monitoring and Control of Small Interconnected Wind Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    edu, Janet. twomey@wichita. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)

    2010-04-30

    This report presents accomplishments, results, and future work for one task of five in the Wichita State University Sustainable Energy Solutions Project: To develop a scale model laboratory distribution system for research into questions that arise from networked control and monitoring of low-wind energy systems connected to the AC distribution system. The lab models developed under this task are located in the Electric Power Quality Lab in the Engineering Research Building on the Wichita State University campus. The lab system consists of four parts: 1. A doubly-fed induction generator 2. A wind turbine emulator 3. A solar photovoltaic emulator, with battery energy storage 4. Distribution transformers, lines, and other components, and wireless and wired communications and control These lab elements will be interconnected and will function together to form a complete testbed for distributed resource monitoring and control strategies and smart grid applications testing. Development of the lab system will continue beyond this project.

  9. First year post-construction monitoring of bats and birds at Wind Turbine Test Centre Østerild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University was commissioned by the Danish Nature Agency to undertake a bat and bird monitoring programme of a national test centre for wind turbines near Østerild in Thy, Denmark. Here we present the results from the first year of the post-construction studies...... and lakes. High activities were recorded throughout the monitoring period at ponds and lakes. Overall, the bat activity level was higher in 2013 than in 2011 at ponds and lakes. Bat activity was higher near the wind turbines than at nearby forest edges. These differences suggest that bats exploit the food...... resources that accumulate on the turbine towers some nights. Whooper swan, taiga bean goose, pink-footed goose, common crane, light-bellied brent goose, white-tailed eagle and nightjar were included as focal species in the ornithological investigations. In addition, species specific data on all bird species...

  10. Vestas V90-3MW Wind Turbine Gearbox Health Assessment Using a Vibration-Based Condition Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable monitoring for the early fault diagnosis of gearbox faults is of great concern for the wind industry. This paper presents a novel approach for health condition monitoring (CM and fault diagnosis in wind turbine gearboxes using vibration analysis. This methodology is based on a machine learning algorithm that generates a baseline for the identification of deviations from the normal operation conditions of the turbine and the intrinsic characteristic-scale decomposition (ICD method for fault type recognition. Outliers picked up during the baseline stage are decomposed by the ICD method to obtain the product components which reveal the fault information. The new methodology proposed for gear and bearing defect identification was validated by laboratory and field trials, comparing well with the methods reviewed in the literature.

  11. Monitoring of a Wind Turbine Rotor using a Multi-blade Coordinate Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    into the system. In the case of a wind turbine, an excitation signal is automatically generated by the rotation of the rotor in a turbulent wind eld. Using the multi-blade coordinate transformation, the detection of asymmetries in the rotor of the wind turbine is greatly improved.......In this paper a method to detect asymmetric faults in a wind turbine rotor is presented. The paper describes how fault diagnosis using an observer-based residual generator approach is able to distinguish between the nominal and faulty case by the injection of e.g. a sinusoidal excitation signal...

  12. Predictive monitoring and diagnosis of periodic air pollution in a subway station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YongSu; Kim, MinJung; Lim, JungJin; Kim, Jeong Tai; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop a predictive monitoring and diagnosis system for the air pollutants in a subway system using a lifting technique with a multiway principal component analysis (MPCA) which monitors the periodic patterns of the air pollutants and diagnoses the sources of the contamination. The basic purpose of this lifting technique was to capture the multivariate and periodic characteristics of all of the indoor air samples collected during each day. These characteristics could then be used to improve the handling of strong periodic fluctuations in the air quality environment in subway systems and will allow important changes in the indoor air quality to be quickly detected. The predictive monitoring approach was applied to a real indoor air quality dataset collected by telemonitoring systems (TMS) that indicated some periodic variations in the air pollutants and multivariate relationships between the measured variables. Two monitoring models--global and seasonal--were developed to study climate change in Korea. The proposed predictive monitoring method using the lifted model resulted in fewer false alarms and missed faults due to non-stationary behavior than that were experienced with the conventional methods. This method could be used to identify the contributions of various pollution sources. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A microcontroller-based data-acquisition system for meteorological station monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiek, S.; Batlles, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study of feasibility of different existing methodologies linked to field's data acquisition from remote meteorological stations. The data transmission serves to collect field's meteorological information, such as temperature, humidity and radiation. In our study the experimental data is registered in a weather station located about 100 km from University of Almeria. Various existing techniques are studied, especially Radio, GSM (global system of mobile communication) and GPRS (general packet radio service). In the result of these studies has been designed a system of field's data acquisition (herein referred as Meteologger) which we are going to present in this paper. The system is based on an ATmega 16 microcontroller, which scans 8 sensors together at any programmable intervals. This paper presents the study of the mentioned project, application and some main characteristics of the prototype system and its program. We attempt to implement the system, and subsequently present the performance of tests regarding the mentioned system. To verify its functioning some comparison of this measurement system with two others commercial data-acquisition system (Campbell and Hobo H8) has been carried out

  14. A microcontroller-based data-acquisition system for meteorological station monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosiek, S.; Batlles, F.J. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    This paper presents a study of feasibility of different existing methodologies linked to field's data acquisition from remote meteorological stations. The data transmission serves to collect field's meteorological information, such as temperature, humidity and radiation. In our study the experimental data is registered in a weather station located about 100 km from the University of Almeria. Various existing techniques are studied, especially Radio, GSM (global system of mobile communication) and GPRS (general packet radio service). In the result of these studies has been designed a system of field's data acquisition (herein referred as Meteologger) which we are going to present in this paper. The system is based on an ATmega 16 microcontroller, which scans 8 sensors together at any programmable intervals. This paper presents the study of the mentioned project, application and some main characteristics of the prototype system and its program. We attempt to implement the system, and subsequently present the performance of tests regarding the mentioned system. To verify its functioning some comparison of this measurement system with two others commercial data-acquisition system (Campbell and Hobo H8) has been carried out. (author)

  15. Evaluation of available analytical techniques for monitoring the quality of space station potable water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    To assure the quality of potable water (PW) on the Space Station (SS) a number of chemical and physical tests must be conducted routinely. After reviewing the requirements for potable water, both direct and indirect analytical methods are evaluated that could make the required tests and improvements compatible with the Space Station operation. A variety of suggestions are made to improve the analytical techniques for SS operation. The most important recommendations are: (1) the silver/silver chloride electrode (SB) method of removing I sub 2/I (-) biocide from the water, since it may interfere with analytical procedures for PW and also its end uses; (2) the orbital reactor (OR) method of carrying out chemistry and electrochemistry in microgravity by using a disk shaped reactor on an orbital table to impart artificial G force to the contents, allowing solution mixing and separation of gases and liquids; and (3) a simple ultra low volume highly sensitive electrochemical/conductivity detector for use with a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus. It is also recommended, since several different conductivity and resistance measurements are made during the analysis of PW, that the bipolar pulse measuring circuit be used in all these applications for maximum compatibility and redundancy of equipment.

  16. Periodic fluctuations in correlation-based connectivity density time series: Application to wind speed-monitoring network in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laib, Mohamed; Telesca, Luciano; Kanevski, Mikhail

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we study the periodic fluctuations of connectivity density time series of a wind speed-monitoring network in Switzerland. By using the correlogram-based robust periodogram annual periodic oscillations were found in the correlation-based network. The intensity of such annual periodic oscillations is larger for lower correlation thresholds and smaller for higher. The annual periodicity in the connectivity density seems reasonably consistent with the seasonal meteo-climatic cycle.

  17. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Minton, John M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time environmental monitoring on ISS is necessary to provide data in a timely fashion and to help ensure astronaut health. Current real-time water TOC monitoring provides high-quality trending information, but compound-specific data is needed. The combination of ETV with the AQM showed that compounds of interest could be liberated from water and analyzed in the same manner as air sampling. Calibration of the AQM using water samples allowed for the quantitative analysis of ISS archival samples. Some calibration issues remain, but the excellent accuracy of DMSD indicates that ETV holds promise for as a sample introduction method for water analysis in spaceflight.

  18. Monitoring for vertical creep in concrete in two silos at Wivenhoe pumped storage hydro power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M W [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). School of Surveying

    1997-12-31

    The need for structural monitoring is generated by expected or unexpected (newly discovered in the life of the structure) behaviour. Due to the long vertical driveshafts involved at Wivenhoe the phenomenon of `concrete creep` which, if it is occurring, could contribute to shaft misalignment and unscheduled bearing wear or failure, was used as a motivation to establish a vertical monitoring system. The particular system developed for this site is traceable, replaceable, expandable and inexpensive. Measurements are obtained by precise levelling and the use of specially calibrated vertically suspended tapes. The analysis of the vertical loops is performed using constrained variance estimation and `robust` inter-epoch comparison. (orig.)

  19. Hydrogeological monitoring (0-15 km of the Chernobyl' station affected zone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnikov, A.B.; Dzheko, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogeological monitoring (HM) is aimed at finding out the regularities of formation of subsurface water, as well as unfavorable phenomena and parameters used for forecasts. To the main objects of HM belong: surface storm run-off; soil moisture of the aeration zone; underground water; water-bearing horizons in Buchak and Senomazh depositions. Criteria for grounding the system of monitoring and control are presented. The elements of the system for tracking local HM in 10-15 km zone are given. Potential centres of unfavorable phenomena, as well as the objects to be protected are noted. 3 figs

  20. Monitoring for vertical creep in concrete in two silos at Wivenhoe pumped storage hydro power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M.W. [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). School of Surveying

    1996-12-31

    The need for structural monitoring is generated by expected or unexpected (newly discovered in the life of the structure) behaviour. Due to the long vertical driveshafts involved at Wivenhoe the phenomenon of `concrete creep` which, if it is occurring, could contribute to shaft misalignment and unscheduled bearing wear or failure, was used as a motivation to establish a vertical monitoring system. The particular system developed for this site is traceable, replaceable, expandable and inexpensive. Measurements are obtained by precise levelling and the use of specially calibrated vertically suspended tapes. The analysis of the vertical loops is performed using constrained variance estimation and `robust` inter-epoch comparison. (orig.)

  1. Diurnal and seasonal variability of TKE dissipation rate in the ABL over a tropical station using UHF wind profiler

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kalapureddy, MCR

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available . The turbulent variance is related to e by the following equation given by White et al. (1999). � ¼ s3turbð4p=AÞ3=2J�3=2, (1) 0 and p=2 for both spherical coordinates j and f. J has to be solved numerically with an estimate of the mean wind speed provided...National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, India fFrontier Observational Research System for Global Change, Yokohama, Japan Received 10 March 2006; received in revised form 30 October 2006; accepted 30 October 2006 Available online 16 January 2007 Abstract...

  2. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Carol Blanton Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2007-03-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. These delays caused scheduling and deployments difficulties but many

  3. Real-time monitoring and structural control of a wind turbine using a rocking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterino, Nicola; Spizzuoco, Mariacristina; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2016-01-01

    The design of a semi-active (SA) control system to mitigate wind induced structural demand to high wind turbine towers is discussed herein. A variable restraint at the base, able to modify in real time its mechanical properties according to the instantaneous response of the tower, is proposed...

  4. Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.; Tom, J.; Neumann, N.; Erickson, W. P.; Strickland, M. D.; Bourassa, M.; Bay, K. J.; Sernka, K. J.

    2005-08-01

    The primary objective of this study at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area was to estimate and compare bird utilization, fatality rates, and the risk index among factors including bird taxonomic groups, wind turbine and reference areas, wind turbine sizes and types, and geographic locations. The key questions addressed to meet this objective include: (1) Are there any differences in the level of bird activity, called ''utilization rate'' or ''use'', with the operating wind plant and within the surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; (2) Are there any differences in the rate of bird fatalities (or avian fatality) within the operating wind plant or the surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; (3) Does bird use, fatality rates, or bird risk index vary according to the geographic location, type and size of wind turbine, and/or type of bird within the operating wind plant and surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; and (4) How do raptor fatality rates at San Gorgonio compare to other wind projects with comparable data?

  5. Performance Analysis of Solar-Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Energy System for KLIA Sepang Station of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shezan, S. K. A.; Saidur, R.; Hossain, A.; Chong, W. T.; Kibria, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    A large number of populations of the world live in rural or remote areas those are geographically isolated. Power supply and uninterrupted fuel transportation to produce electrical power for these remote areas poses a great challenge. Using renewable energy in hybrid energy system might be a pathway to solve this problem. Malaysia is a large hilly land with the gift of renewable energy resources. There is a good chance to utilize these renewable resources to produce electrical power and to limit the dependency on the fossil fuel as well as reduce the carbon emissions. In this perspective, a research is carried out to analyze the performance of a solar-wind-diesel-battery hybrid energy system for a remote area named “KLIA Sepang station” in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. In this study, a 56 kW hybrid energy system has been proposed that is capable to support more than 50 households and 6 shops in that area. Real time field data of solar radiation and wind speed is used for the simulation and optimization of operations using “Homer” renewable energy software. The proposed system can reduce CO2 emission by about 16 tons per year compared to diesel generator only. In the same time the Cost of energy (COE) of the optimized system is USD 5.126/kWh.The proposed hybrid energy system might be applicable for other parts of the world where the climate conditions are similar.

  6. Monitoring and conservation of power station components; Ueberwachung der Konservierung von Kraftwerkskomponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.; Mohr, G. [Allianz-Zentrum fuer Technik GmbH (AZT), Ismaning (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    There are very many reasons why power station components should be treated and conserved as high-value industrial goods. Various considerations, such as transport type and distance and storage duration and location, then become important. This article deals with the special problems and considers the corresponding fundamentals on the basis of a specific example. Emphasis is given to the effects of atmosphere and climate but also to various corrosive mechanisms and to packing and conservation. (orig.) [German] Als hochwertige Industriegueter muessen Kraftwerkskomponenten aus unterschiedlichsten Gruenden konserviert werden. Dabei sind verschiedenerlei Gesichtspunkte massgeblich, wie Transportart und -weg sowie Lagerungsdauer und -ort. Hier wird anhand eines konkreten Beispiels ueber diese spezielle Problematik und die entsprechenden Grundlagen berichtet. Im Vordergrund stehen Einfluesse von Atmosphaere und Klima, aber auch diverse Korrosionsmechanismen sowie Verpackung und Konservierung. (orig.)

  7. Operation and maintenance of thermal power stations best practices and health monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Chanda, Pradip

    2016-01-01

    This book illustrates operation and maintenance practices/guidelines for economic generation and managing health of a thermal power generator beyond its regulatory life. The book provides knowledge for professionals managing power station operations, through its unique approach to chemical analysis of water, steam, oil etc. to identify malfunctioning/defects in equipment/systems much before the physical manifestation of the problem. The book also contains a detailed procedure for conducting performance evaluation tests on different equipment, and for analyzing test results for predicting maintenance requirements, which has lent a new dimension to power systems operation and maintenance practices. A number of real life case studies also enrich the book. This book will prove particularly useful to power systems operations professionals in the developing economies, and also to researchers and students involved in studying power systems operations and control. .

  8. Monitoring the risk of loss of heat sink during plant shutdowns at Bruce Generating Station 'A'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, K.S.; Mancuso, F.; Vecchiarelli, D.

    1996-01-01

    A relatively simple loss of shutdown heat sink fault tree model has been developed and used during unit outages at Bruce Nuclear Generation Station 'A' to assess, from a risk and reliability perspective, alternative heat sink strategies and to aid in decisions on allowable outage configurations. The model is adjusted to reflect the various unit configurations planned during a specific outage, and identifies events and event combinations leading to loss of fuel cooling. The calculated failure frequencies are compared to the limits consistent with corporate and international public safety goals. The importance measures generated by the interrogation of the fault tree model for each outage configuration are also used to reschedule configurations with high fuel damage frequency later into the outage and to control the configurations with relatively high probability of fuel damage to short intervals at the most appropriate time into the outage. (author)

  9. The development of a volatile organics concentrator for use in monitoring Space Station water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodek, Itamar; Ehntholt, Daniel J.; Stolki, Thomas J.; Valentine, James R.; Trabanino, Rudy; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    A breadboard concept of a volatile organics concentrator (VOC) is manufactured and tested for optimized water-quality analysis in a space environment. The VOC system is attached to a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to analyze the volatile chemicals relevant to the operation of Space Station Freedom. The preliminary tests include: (1) comparisons with analyses based on direct on-column injections of standards; (2) analyses of iodinated volatile organics; (3) comparisons of nitrogen vs helium as the chromatography carrier gas; and (4) measurements of collection efficiency. The VOC can analyze EPA method-624 analytes at comparable detection using flame-ionization detection and can analyze volatile iodinated compounds. The breadboard has good reproducibility and can use nitrogen as a carrier gas; good results are noted for the collection and concentration levels and for water removal.

  10. New seismic monitoring observation system and data accessibility at Syowa Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kanao

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The seismic observation system at Syowa Station, East Antarctica was fully replaced in the wintering season of the 38th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-38 in 1996-1998. The old seismographic vault constructed in 1970 was closed at the end of JARE-38 because of cumulative damage to the inner side of the vault by continuous flowing in of water from walls in summer and its freezing in winter. All the seismometers were moved to a new seismographic hut (69°00′24.0″S, 39°35′06.0″E and 20m above mean sea level in April 1997. Seismic signals of the short-period (HES and broadband (STS-1 seismometers in the new hut are transmitted to the Earth Science Laboratory (ESL via analog cable 600m in length. The new acquisition system was installed in the ESL with 6-channel 24-bit A/D converters for both sensor signals. All digitized data are automatically transmitted from the A/D converter to a workstation via TCP/IP protocol. After parallel observations with the old acquisition system by personal computers and the new system during the wintering season of JARE-38,the main system was changed to the new one, which has some advantages for both the reduction of daily maintenance efforts and the data transport/communication processes via Internet by use of LAN at the station. In this report, details of the new seismographic hut and the recording system are described. Additionally, the seismic data accessibility for public use, including Internet service, is described.

  11. An Enhanced Empirical Wavelet Transform for Features Extraction from Wind Turbine Condition Monitoring Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Shi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction from nonlinear and non-stationary (NNS wind turbine (WT condition monitoring (CM signals is challenging. Previously, much effort has been spent to develop advanced signal processing techniques for dealing with CM signals of this kind. The Empirical Wavelet Transform (EWT is one of the achievements attributed to these efforts. The EWT takes advantage of Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD in dealing with NNS signals but is superior to the EMD in mode decomposition and robustness against noise. However, the conventional EWT meets difficulty in properly segmenting the frequency spectrum of the signal, especially when lacking pre-knowledge of the signal. The inappropriate segmentation of the signal spectrum will inevitably lower the accuracy of the EWT result and thus raise the difficulty of WT CM. To address this issue, an enhanced EWT is proposed in this paper by developing a feasible and efficient spectrum segmentation method. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified by using the bearing and gearbox CM data that are open to the public for the purpose of research. The experiment has shown that, after adopting the proposed method, it becomes much easier and more reliable to segment the frequency spectrum of the signal. Moreover, benefitting from the correct segmentation of the signal spectrum, the fault-related features of the CM signals are presented more explicitly in the time-frequency map of the enhanced EWT, despite the considerable noise contained in the signal and the shortage of pre-knowledge about the machine being investigated.

  12. Monitoring and evaluation of Blyth Offshore wind farm: Health and Safety guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, L

    2002-07-01

    Experiences during the construction, operation and maintenance of the wind farm off the coast of Blyth in Northumberland are used to assess the practicality of implementing existing draft British Wind Energy Association (BWEA) guidelines. These best practice guidelines, which were drawn up in consultation with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) offer advice on health and safety issues specific to the wind industry in the UK. The guidelines are intended to cover both onshore and offshore sites; common advice is followed by advice specific to offshore sites. The Blyth Offshore project, the first offshore wind farm in the UK, features two 2 MW turbines installed on a submerged rocky outcrop about 1 km from the coast in a depth of about 6 m at low tide and a tidal range of about 5 m. The report concluded that, from the experience at Blyth, the draft guidelines will provide a useful tool for those involved in all stages of a wind farm project.

  13. Monitoring of radionuclides in the environs of the Finnish nuclear power stations in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemola, S.; Ilus, E.; Sjoeblom, K.L.; Arvela, H.; Blomqvist, L.

    1991-03-01

    Monitoring of radionuclides around Finnish nuclear power plants continued in 1988 with the regular programmes. About 1000 samples were analysed from both terrestrial and aquatic environments.The dominant artificial radioactive substances in the vicinity of power plants were still the fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident, but the concentrations in all the objects monitored are lower than in the previous year. Trace amounts of activation products originating from the airborne releases of local power plants were detected in some air and deposition samples. Discharged nuclides were more abundant in the aquatic environment, especially in samples of indicator organisms. However, their contribution to the radiation doses received by the the public was very small. (orig.)

  14. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S. [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)

    1993-12-31

    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  15. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)

    1994-12-31

    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Complexity and Urchin Abundance of Climate Stations at Wake Island from 2014-03-16 to 2014-03-20 (NCEI Accession 0159160)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic complexity and urchin abundance monitoring effort provides baselines for tracking these variables at NCRMP climate stations. Climate stations are 3-4...

  17. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-08-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to innovate research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. A year into the life of this cooperative agreement, we note the following achievements: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: (A) Software and hardware upgrades to the data logger for the prototype vertical line array, including enhanced programmable gains, increased sampling rates, improved surface communications, (B) Cabling upgrade to allow installation of positioning sensors, (C) Adaptation of SDI's Angulate program to use acoustic slant ranges and DGPS data to compute and map the bottom location of the vertical array, (D) Progress in T''0'' delay and timing issues for improved control in data recording, (E) Successful deployment and recovery of the VLA twice during an October, 2003 cruise, once in 830m water, once in 1305m water, (F) Data collection and recovery from the DATS

  18. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carol Lutken

    2006-09-30

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. The CMRET has conducted several research cruises during this reporting period

  19. Monitoring of a Wind Turbine Rotor using a Multi-blade Coordinate Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksen, Lars Christian; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a method to detect asymmetric faults in a wind turbine rotor is presented. The paper describes how fault diagnosis using an observer-based residual generator approach is able to distinguish between the nominal and faulty case by the injection of e.g. a sinusoidal excitation signal into the system. In the case of a wind turbine, an excitation signal is automatically generated by the rotation of the rotor in a turbulent wind eld. Using the multi-blade coordinate transformation, th...

  20. Using Data-Mining Approaches for Wind Turbine Power Curve Monitoring: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlechtingen, Meik; Santos, Ilmar; Achiche, Sofiane

    2013-01-01

    are built and their performance compared against literature. Recently developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy-interference system models are set up and their performance compared with the other models, using the same data. Literature models often neglect the influence of the ambient temperature and the wind...... direction. The ambient temperature can influence the power output up to 20%. Nearby obstacles can lower the power output for certain wind directions. The approaches proposed in literature and the ANFIS models are compared by using wind speed only and two additional inputs. The comparison is based...

  1. Reevaluation of air surveillance station siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, K.; Jannik, T.

    2016-01-01

    DOE Technical Standard HDBK-1216-2015 (DOE 2015) recommends evaluating air-monitoring station placement using the analytical method developed by Waite. The technique utilizes wind rose and population distribution data in order to determine a weighting factor for each directional sector surrounding a nuclear facility. Based on the available resources (number of stations) and a scaling factor, this weighting factor is used to determine the number of stations recommended to be placed in each sector considered. An assessment utilizing this method was performed in 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing SRS air-monitoring program. The resulting recommended distribution of air-monitoring stations was then compared to that of the existing site perimeter surveillance program. The assessment demonstrated that the distribution of air-monitoring stations at the time generally agreed with the results obtained using the Waite method; however, at the time new stations were established in Barnwell and in Williston in order to meet requirements of DOE guidance document EH-0173T.

  2. Reevaluation of air surveillance station siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-06

    DOE Technical Standard HDBK-1216-2015 (DOE 2015) recommends evaluating air-monitoring station placement using the analytical method developed by Waite. The technique utilizes wind rose and population distribution data in order to determine a weighting factor for each directional sector surrounding a nuclear facility. Based on the available resources (number of stations) and a scaling factor, this weighting factor is used to determine the number of stations recommended to be placed in each sector considered. An assessment utilizing this method was performed in 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing SRS air-monitoring program. The resulting recommended distribution of air-monitoring stations was then compared to that of the existing site perimeter surveillance program. The assessment demonstrated that the distribution of air-monitoring stations at the time generally agreed with the results obtained using the Waite method; however, at the time new stations were established in Barnwell and in Williston in order to meet requirements of DOE guidance document EH-0173T.

  3. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-09-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Noteworthy achievements six months into the extended life of this cooperative agreement include: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: Analysis and repair attempts of the VLA used in the deep water deployment during October 2003 have been completed; Definition of an interface protocol for the VLA DATS to the SFO has been established; Design modifications to allow integration of the VLA to the SFO have been made; Experience gained in the deployments of the first VLA is being applied to the design of the next VLAs; One of the two planned new VLAs being modified to serve as an Oceanographic Line Array (OLA). (2) Progress on the Sea Floor Probe: The decision to replace the Sea Floor Probe technology with the borehole emplacement of a geophysical array was reversed due to the 1300m water depth at the

  4. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-11-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Noteworthy achievements one year into the extended life of this cooperative agreement include: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: (1a) Repair attempts of the VLA cable damaged in the October >1000m water depth deployment failed; a new design has been tested successfully. (1b) The acoustic modem damaged in the October deployment was repaired successfully. (1c) Additional acoustic modems with greater depth rating and the appropriate surface communications units have been purchased. (1d) The VLA computer system is being modified for real time communications to the surface vessel using radio telemetry and fiber optic cable. (1e) Positioning sensors--including compass and tilt sensors--were completed and tested. (1f) One of the VLAs has been redesigned to collect near sea floor geochemical data. (2

  5. Testing of environmental radiation monitors using the Risø low-level radiation measurement stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    June, 1999. The chief aims of such experiments are to allow the participants to check their home calibrations of their detectors and to compare the responses of the individual environmental radiation measurement systems used in the different EU member states and making a link between the different...... a simulation of a radioactive plume passing over the monitors during a certain time was made using a specially designed source set up in the field that was able to vary the air kerma rate from low activity Cs-137 sources additional to the natural air kerma rate. It is demonstrated that a typical environmental...

  6. The Irish Wind Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R [Univ. College Dublin, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dublin (Ireland); Landberg, L [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The development work on the Irish Wind Atlas is nearing completion. The Irish Wind Atlas is an updated improved version of the Irish section of the European Wind Atlas. A map of the irish wind resource based on a WA{sup s}P analysis of the measured data and station description of 27 measuring stations is presented. The results of previously presented WA{sup s}P/KAMM runs show good agreement with these results. (au)

  7. Manufacturing technology of integrated textile-based sensor networks for in situ monitoring applications of composite wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haentzsche, Eric; Mueller, Ralf; Huebner, Matthias; Ruder, Tristan; Unger, Reimar; Nocke, Andreas; Cherif, Chokri

    2016-10-01

    Based on in situ strain sensors consisting of piezo-resistive carbon filament yarns (CFYs), which have been successfully integrated into textile reinforcement structures during their textile-technological manufacturing process, a continuous load of fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) components has been realised. These sensors are also suitable for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The two-dimensional sensor layout is made feasible by the usage of a modular warp yarn path manipulation unit. Using a functional model of a small wind turbine blade in thermoset composite design, the sensor function for basic SHM applications (e.g. static load monitoring) are demonstrated. Any mechanical loads along the pressure or suction side of the wind turbine blade can be measured and calculated via a correlative change in resistance of the CFYs within the textile reinforcement plies. Performing quasi-static load tests on both tensile specimen and full-scale wind turbine blade, elementary results have been obtained concerning electro-mechanical behaviour and spatial resolution of global and even local static stresses according to the CFY sensor integration length. This paper demonstrates the great potential of textile-based and textile-technological integrated sensors in reinforcement structures for future SHM applications of FRPs.

  8. A 1290 MHZ profiler with RASS for monitoring wind and temperature in the boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbart, D. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorol. Obs.; Steinhagen, H. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorol. Obs.; Goersdorf, U. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorol. Obs.; Lippmann, J. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorol. Obs.; Neisser, J. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorol. Obs.

    1996-02-01

    A boundary layer wind profiler with RASS is described operating at 1290 MHz in a quasi-operational mode at the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg of the German Weather Service (DWD). It provides vertical profiles of wind and temperature from the lower atmosphere with a height resolution of 50 m to 400 m and a time resolution of about 1 to 60 minutes. For an estimation of the system reliability, the availability of the measurements for all different height levels is analyzed. With regard to the data quality, a comparison of wind profiler/RASS and rawinsonde data is presented based on 856 wind and 451 temperature profiles. It reveals reasonable conformity of both sounding systems. Finally, case studies are shown, demonstrating the system ability to analyze some characteristic phenomena in the lower troposphere, which are unresolved temporally and spatially by the routine rawinsonde network. (orig.)

  9. Automated in situ monitoring of migratory birds at Germany's first offshore wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppack, Timothy; Kulemeyer, Christoph; Schulz, Axel; Steuri, Thomas; Liechti, Felix

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Offshore wind farms may negatively affect migrating birds, especially at night, by increased photo tactic attraction and risk of collision. Under favourable weather conditions (clear skies, tail wind) the majority of migrants probably fly well above the reach of wind turbine blades. Under unfavourable conditions (sea fog, precipitation, head wind), however, nocturnal migrants could get attracted by brightly lit wind farms, and the risk of collision would hence increase. To assess these potential effects, migration rates and collision probabilities need to be empirically quantified at existing wind farms. This is not an easy task, given the setting and dimension of an offshore wind farm and the sheer quantity and diversity of small-bodied birds potentially passing by. Nocturnal passerine migrants are impossible to count accurately over extended periods with observational methods, and even classic radar technology fails to pro-vide hard-wired information. Complementing the 'Standards for Environmental Impact Assessment' issued by Germany.s Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH), we have developed and installed a novel radar system (BirdScan) on the research platform FINO 1, situated around 50 km offshore next to the wind farm 'alpha ventus' in the German North Sea. BirdScan operates on the basis of defined detection volumes (fixed radar beam), allowing a precise quantification of passerine and non-passerine radar echoes. Our study design includes alternating measurements within and outside the wind farm in order to assess avoidance and/or photo tactic aggregation behaviour of migrants under various weather situations. At the same time, we are investigating the photo tactic attraction of birds at a smaller spatial scale using motion-controlled infrared cameras directly mounted on the nacelle and shaft of a wind turbine. Through this approach, disoriented birds (and even bats) can be automatically ground-proofed and set in

  10. Real-time monitoring of wind turbine generator shaft alignment using laser measurement.

    OpenAIRE

    Mankowski, O.; Wang, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Shaft Misalignment is one of the most common sources of trouble of wind turbine drive train when rigid couplings connect the shafts. Ideal alignment of the shaft is difficult to be obtained and the couplings attached to the shaft may present angular or parallel misalignment defined also as lateral and axially misalignment. Despite misalignment is often observed in the practice, there are relatively few studies on wind turbine shaft misalignment in the literature and their results are sometime...

  11. Impact of secondary inorganic aerosol and road traffic at a suburban air quality monitoring station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megido, L; Negral, L; Castrillón, L; Fernández-Nava, Y; Suárez-Peña, B; Marañón, E

    2017-03-15

    PM10 from a suburban site in the northwest of Spain was assessed using data from chemical determinations, meteorological parameters, aerosol maps and five-day back trajectories of air masses. Temporal variations in the chemical composition of PM10 were subsequently related to stationary/mobile local sources and long-range transport stemming from Europe and North Africa. The presence of secondary inorganic species (sulphates, nitrates and ammonium) in airborne particulate matter constituted one of the main focuses of this study. These chemical species formed 16.5% of PM10 on average, in line with other suburban background sites in Europe. However, a maximum of 47.8% of PM10 were recorded after several days under the influence of European air masses. Furthermore, the highest values of these three chemical species coincided with episodes of poor air circulation and influxes of air masses from Europe. The relationship between SO 4 2- and NH 4 + (R 2  = 0.57, p-valueforest fires. On isolated days, combustion was estimated to contribute up to 21.0 μg PM/m 3 (50.8% of PM10). The contribution from industrial processes to this source is also worth highlighting given the presence of Ni and Co in its profile. Furthermore, African dust outbreaks at the sampling site, characterised by an arc through the Atlantic Ocean, were usually associated with a higher concentration of Al 2 O 3 in PM10. Results evidenced the relevance of stationary (i.e., steelworks and thermal power station) and mobile sources in the air quality at the suburban site under study, with important apportionments of particulate matter coming from road traffic and as consequence of releasing precursor gases of secondary particles to the atmosphere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Full scale monitoring of wind and traffic induced response of a suspension bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheynet Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a full-scale analysis of wind and traffic-induced vibrations of a long-span suspension bridge in complex terrain. Several wind and acceleration sensors have been installed along the main span on Lysefjord Bridge in Norway. In the present study, three days of continuous records are analysed. Traffic-induced vibrations are dominant at low and moderated wind speed, with non-negligible effects on the overall bridge response for heavy vehicles only. Traffic and wind-induced vibrations are compared in terms of root mean square of the acceleration response, and three simples approaches are proposed to isolate records dominated by wind-induced vibration. The first one relies on the separation of nocturnal and diurnal samples. The second one is based on the evaluation of the time-varying root mean square of the acceleration response. The last one evaluates the relative importance of the high frequency domain of the acceleration bridge response. It appears that traffic-induced vibrations may have to be taken into account for the buffeting analysis of long-span bridge under moderated wind.

  13. Monitoring of radioactivity in the environs of Finnish nuclear power stations in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.-L.; Klemola, S.; Ilus, E.; Arvela, H.; Blomqvist, L.

    1989-06-01

    Results of the environmental programmes for monitoring radioactive contamination around Finnish nuclear power plants in 1987 are reported. Fallout from the Chernobyl accident, which took place in April 1986, was still dominating the artificial radiation situation in Finland. Thus, large amounts of 137 Cs and other long-lived fallout nuclides predominated in the environmental samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. The extremely small airborne releases from Finnish nuclear power plants were almost totally covered by fallout nuclides. The somewhat higher aquatic releases were easier to distinguish, and it was possible to follow their spread in the marine environment. The contribution of locally discharged nuclides to radiation doses of the population was insignificant

  14. Sensing loop performance monitoring in the safety systems of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colley, R.C.; Widmeyer, M.; Weiss, J.H.; Wiegle, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on plant technical specifications and NRC regulatory guides which require testing of sensing loops to detect degradation and failure. Industry efforts have focused on specific manual testing to detect individual failure modes such as increased response time and calibration drift. Recent work performed by EPRI and by others using instrument loop data, failure modes, and effects analyses (FMEAs), and experience with utility on-line sensor health monitoring programs has established qualitative physical models of the sensing loop. This methodology has demonstrated that sensing loop cross comparison techniques can provide equivalent indication of sensing loop performance. It also provides more frequent sensing loop health indication than manual testing and reduces the requirement for manual testing

  15. Evaluation of 25 Y of environmental monitoring data around Madras atomic power station (MAPS), Kalpakkam (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, S.; Brindha, J. T.; Sreedevi, K. R.; Manu, A.; Thilakavathi, A.; Ramkumar, S.; Santhanakrishnan, V.; Balagurunathan, M. R.; Jesan, T.; Kannan, V.; Hegde, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    The Environmental Survey Laboratory at Kalpakkam (India) carries out elaborate monitoring programme involving atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic samples for radioactivity to evaluate the impact of operating two pressurised heavy water reactors. This paper presents the evaluation of 25 y (1983-2008) data. Statistical analysis of the environmental data for different radionuclides showed that the data best fits log-normal distribution. The data analysed showed that fission products such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 131 I were due to global fallout only. A ratio of 0.2 was obtained for 90 Sr to 137 Cs in air filter samples, only during Chernobyl accident period. The transfer factor of 137 Cs and 90 Sr for rice was computed to be 0.23 and 0.03 and vegetables 0.25 and 0.10, respectively. Activation products 3 H and 41 Ar are the only radionuclides that are related to MAPS operation. A strong correlation (r = 0.9) was observed between 3 H activity in air and 3 H discharged to the atmosphere. A similar correlation (r = 0.8) was observed in 3 H concentration in seawater and 3 H discharged in the liquid waste. The annual internal dose due to 3 H and annual external dose due to 41 Ar evaluated in the last 25 y show that the members of the public received less than 2% of the dose limit (1 mSv y -1 ) set by ICRP 72. (authors)

  16. The use of cadmium telluride γ spectrometers in monitoring activity deposited in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.T.

    1977-01-01

    The ability to inspect and test key components and when necessary repair or replace them is a significant factor in the safety case submitted before consent is given for construction of a nuclear reactor. A knowledge of the probable rate of deposition and isotopic composition of radioactive contamination in these areas is necessary and since it is not always practicable to take samples away to the laboratory for analysis, direct gamma ray spectroscopy in the contaminated environment is sometimes used. The experience of direct monitoring with a cadmium telluride spectrometer in two such reactor situations is reported. In the first situation, a remotely cooled intrinsic Germanium spectrometer was used in equivalent positions and spectra from both systems are presented. The relative merits of the two systems are discussed. In the second situation, measurements were made in an environment at 70 deg C in radiation levels of 10Rh -1 . An improvised cooling system was used to maintain the Cadmium Telluride at about 20 deg C and Pile-up Rejection was used to enable count rates of about 10 5 s -1 to be handled. It is noted that the usually quoted detector parameters, resolution and crystal volume, are not necessarily the most important in practical spectrometry of mixed isotopes. As with germanium detectors, the most useful parameter is probably the Peak-to-Compton ratio

  17. Field experience with advanced methods of on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion degradation in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellwag, B.; Aaltonen, P.; Hickling, J.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced methods for on-line, in-situ water chemistry and corrosion monitoring in nuclear power stations have been developed during the past decade. The terms ''on-line'' and ''in-situ'' characterize approaches involving continuous measurement of relevant parameters in high temperature water, preferably directly in the systems and components and not in removed samples at room temperature. This paper describes the field experience to-date with such methods in terms of three examples: (1) On-line chemistry monitoring of the primary coolant during shutdown of a Type WWER-440 PWR. (2) Redox and corrosion potential measurements in final feedwater preheaters and steam generators of two large KWU PWRs over several cycles of plant operation. (3) Real-time, in-situ corrosion surveillance inside the calundia vault of a CANDU reactor. The way in which water chemistry sensors and corrosion monitoring sensors complement each other is outlined: on-line, in-situ measurement of pH, conductivity and redox potential gives information about the possible corrosivity of the environment. Electrochemical noise techniques display signals of corrosion activity under the actual environmental conditions. A common experience gained from separate use of these different types of sensors has been that new and additional information about plants and their actual process conditions is obtained. Moreover, they reveal the intimate relationship between the operational situation and its consequences for the quality of the working fluid and the corrosion behaviour of the plant materials. On this basis, the efficiency of the existing chemistry sampling and control system can be checked and corrosion degradation can be minimized. Furthermore, activity buildup in the primary circuit can be studied. Further significant advantages can be expected from an integration of these various types of sensors into a common water chemistry and corrosion surveillance system. For confirmation, a complete set of sensors

  18. Field experience with advanced methods of on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion degradation in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stellwag, B [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Aaltonen, P [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hickling, J [CML GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Advanced methods for on-line, in-situ water chemistry and corrosion monitoring in nuclear power stations have been developed during the past decade. The terms ``on-line`` and ``in-situ`` characterize approaches involving continuous measurement of relevant parameters in high temperature water, preferably directly in the systems and components and not in removed samples at room temperature. This paper describes the field experience to-date with such methods in terms of three examples: (1) On-line chemistry monitoring of the primary coolant during shutdown of a Type WWER-440 PWR. (2) Redox and corrosion potential measurements in final feedwater preheaters and steam generators of two large KWU PWRs over several cycles of plant operation. (3) Real-time, in-situ corrosion surveillance inside the calundia vault of a CANDU reactor. The way in which water chemistry sensors and corrosion monitoring sensors complement each other is outlined: on-line, in-situ measurement of pH, conductivity and redox potential gives information about the possible corrosivity of the environment. Electrochemical noise techniques display signals of corrosion activity under the actual environmental conditions. A common experience gained from separate use of these different types of sensors has been that new and additional information about plants and their actual process conditions is obtained. Moreover, they reveal the intimate relationship between the operational situation and its consequences for the quality of the working fluid and the corrosion behaviour of the plant materials. On this basis, the efficiency of the existing chemistry sampling and control system can be checked and corrosion degradation can be minimized. Furthermore, activity buildup in the primary circuit can be studied. Further significant advantages can be expected from an integration of these various types of sensors into a common water chemistry and corrosion surveillance system. (Abstract Truncated)

  19. Development of distributed topographical forecasting model for wind resource assessment using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, P.B. [Green Life Energy Solutions LLP, Secunderabad (India); Rao, S.S. [National Institute of Technology. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Warangal (India); Reddy, K.H. [JNT Univ.. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Anantapur (India)

    2012-07-01

    Economics of wind power projects largely depend on the availability of wind power density. Wind resource assessment is a study estimating wind speeds and wind power densities in the region under consideration. The accuracy and reliability of data sets comprising of wind speeds and wind power densities at different heights per topographic region characterized by elevation or mean sea level, is important for wind power projects. Indian Wind Resource Assessment program conducted in 80's consisted of wind data measured by monitoring stations at different topographies in order to measure wind power density values at 25 and 50 meters above the ground level. In this paper, an attempt has been made to assess wind resource at a given location using artificial neural networks. Existing wind resource data has been used to train the neural networks. Location topography (characterized by longitude, latitude and mean sea level), air density, mean annual wind speed (MAWS) are used as inputs to the neural network. Mean annual wind power density (MAWPD) in watt/m{sup 2} is predicted for a new topographic location. Simple back propagation based neural network has been found to be sufficient for predicting these values with suitable accuracy. This model is closely linked to the problem of wind energy forecasting considering the variations of specific atmospheric variables with time horizons. This model will help the wind farm developers to have an initial estimation of the wind energy potential at a particular topography. (Author)

  20. MONITORING AND CONTROLLING ON SURFACE SETTLEMENT IN SAND AND GRAVEL STRATA CAUSED BY SUBWAY STATION CONSTRUCTION APPLYING PIPE-ROOF PRE-CONSTRUCTION METHOD (PPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pipe-roof Pre-construction Method (PPM is regarded as a safer method to construct underground space, especially suitable for the construction sites with dense surface buildings, underground pipelines and complicated geological conditions. Xinleyizhi Station of Shenyang Metro constructed by PPM. In order to ensure safety in construction, the whole construction process was closely monitored. In this paper, monitoring results of surface settlement in PPM is analyzed. According to the monitoring results, the most serious settlement occurred in pipes jacking, which was the first and the most crucial step in PPM. The settlement reasons in each step are discussed, and controlling methods of surface settlement in each step are elaborated. Through close monitoring and timely control, the construction of Xinleyizhi Station completed smoothly. Because of the obvious advantages of PPM, the method will be used more widely in construction of shallow buried excavation under complicated surrounding and geological conditions.

  1. Wind resource assessment handbook: Fundamentals for conducting a successful monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, B.H.; McDonald, S.L.; Bernadett, D.W.; Markus, M.J.; Elsholz, K.V.

    1997-01-01

    This handbook presents industry-accepted guidelines for planning and conducting a wind resource measurement program to support a wind energy feasibility initiative. These guidelines, which are detailed and highly technical, emphasize the tasks of selecting, installing, and operating wind measurement equipment, as well as collecting and analyzing the associated data, once one or more measurement sites are located. The handbook's scope encompasses state-of-the-art measurement and analysis techniques at multiple heights on tall towers (e.g., 40 m) for a measurement duration of at least one year. These guidelines do not represent every possible method of conducting a quality wind measurement program, but they address the most important elements based on field-proven experience. The intended audience for this handbook is any organization or individual who desires the planning framework and detailed procedures for conducting a formally structured wind measurement program. Personnel from the management level to field technicians will find this material applicable. The organizational aspects of a measurement program, including the setting of clear program objectives and designing commensurate measurement and quality assurance plans, all of which are essential to ensuring the program's successful outcome, are emphasized. Considerable attention is also given to the details of actually conducting the measurement program in its many aspects, from selecting instrumentation that meets minimum performance standards to analyzing and reporting on the collected data. 5 figs., 15 tabs

  2. Monitoring surface-water quality in Arizona: the fixed-station network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Saeid

    2000-01-01

    Arizona is an arid State in which economic development is influenced largely by the quantity and quality of water and the location of adequate water supplies. In 1995, surface water supplied about 58 percent of total withdrawals in Arizona. Of the total amount of surface water used in 1995, about 89 percent was for agriculture, 10 percent for public supply, and 1 percent for industrial supply (including mining and thermoelectric; Solley and others, 1998). As a result of rapid population growth in Arizona, historic agricultural lands in the Phoenix (Maricopa County) and Tucson (Pima County) areas are now being developed for residential and commercial use; thus, the amount of water used for public supply is increasing. The Clean Water Act was established by U.S. Congress (1972) in response to public concern about water-pollution control. The act defines a process by which the United States Congress and the citizens are informed of the Nation’s progress in restoring and maintaining the quality of our waters. The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) is the State-designated agency for this process and, as a result, has developed a monitoring program to assess water quality in Arizona. The ADEQ is required to submit a water-quality assessment report to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) every 2 years. The USEPA summarizes the reports from each State and submits a report to the Congress characterizing water quality in the United States. These reports serve to inform Congress and the public of the Nation’s progress toward the restoration and maintenance of water quality in the United States (Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 1998).

  3. Nebraska wind resource assessment first year results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, P.J.F.; Vilhauer, R. [RLA Consulting, Inc., Bothell, WA (United States); Stooksbury, D. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the preliminary results from a wind resource assessment program in Nebraska sponsored by the Nebraska Power Association. During the first year the measured annual wind speed at 40 meters ranged from 6.5 - 7.5 m/s (14.6 - 16.8 mph) at eight stations across the state. The site selection process is discussed as well as an overview of the site characteristics at the monitoring locations. Results from the first year monitoring period including data recovery rate, directionality, average wind speeds, wind shear, and turbulence intensity are presented. Results from the eight sites are qualitatively compared with other midwest and west coast locations. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Safety analysis report: A comparison of incidents from Safety Years 2006 through 2010, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station Inventory and Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devon Donahue

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of 5 years of accident data for the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) Inventory and Monitoring (IM) Program that identifies past trends, allows for standardized self-comparison, and increases our understanding of the true costs of injuries and accidents. Measuring safety is a difficult task. While most agree that...

  5. Expert Water Quality Panel Review of Responses to the NASA Request for Information for the International Space Station On-Board Environmental Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Julianna L.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Packham, Nigel J.; Schultz, John R.; Straub, John E., II

    2005-01-01

    On August 9, 2003, NASA, with the cooperative support of the Vehicle Office of the International Space Station Program, the Advanced Human Support Technology Program, and the Johnson Space Center Habitability and Environmental Factors Office released a Request for Information, or RFI, to identify next-generation environmental monitoring systems that have demonstrated ability or the potential to meet defined requirements for monitoring air and water quality onboard the International Space Station. This report summarizes the review and analysis of the proposed solutions submitted to meet the water quality monitoring requirements. Proposals were to improve upon the functionality of the existing Space Station Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and monitor additional contaminants in water samples. The TOCA is responsible for in-flight measurement of total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total carbon, pH, and conductivity in the Space Station potable water supplies. The current TOCA requires hazardous reagents to accomplish the carbon analyses. NASA is using the request for information process to investigate new technologies that may improve upon existing capabilities, as well as reduce or eliminate the need for hazardous reagents. Ideally, a replacement for the TOCA would be deployed in conjunction with the delivery of the Node 3 water recovery system currently scheduled for November 2007.

  6. Condition monitoring of spar-type floating wind turbine drivetrain using statistical fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghane, Mahdi; Nejad, Amir Rasekhi; Blanke, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    Operation and maintenance costs are significant for large-scale wind turbines, and particularly so for offshore. A well-organized operation and maintenance strategy is vital to ensure the reliability, availability, and cost-effectiveness of a system. The ability to detect, isolate, estimate and p...

  7. A digital strategy for manometer dynamic enhancement. [for wind tunnel monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Application of digital signal processing techniques to improve the non-linear dynamic characteristics of a sonar-type mercury manometer is described. The dynamic enhancement strategy quasi-linearizes the manometer characteristics and improves the effective bandwidth in the context of a wind-tunnel pressure regulation system. Model identification data and real-time hybrid simulation data demonstrate feasibility of approach.

  8. Comparative analysis of neural network and regression based condition monitoring approaches for wind turbine fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlechtingen, Meik; Santos, Ilmar

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the research results of a comparison of three different model based approaches for wind turbine fault detection in online SCADA data, by applying developed models to five real measured faults and anomalies. The regression based model as the simplest approach to build a normal...

  9. Employing unmanned aerial vehicle to monitor the health condition of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yishuo; Chiang, Chih-Hung; Hsu, Keng-Tsang; Cheng, Chia-Chi

    2018-04-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can gather the spatial information of huge structures, such as wind turbines, that can be difficult to obtain with traditional approaches. In this paper, the UAV used in the experiments is equipped with high resolution camera and thermal infrared camera. The high resolution camera can provide a series of images with resolution up to 10 Megapixels. Those images can be used to form the 3D model using the digital photogrammetry technique. By comparing the 3D scenes of the same wind turbine at different times, possible displacement of the supporting tower of the wind turbine, caused by ground movement or foundation deterioration may be determined. The recorded thermal images are analyzed by applying the image segmentation methods to the surface temperature distribution. A series of sub-regions are separated by the differences of the surface temperature. The high-resolution optical image and the segmented thermal image are fused such that the surface anomalies are more easily identified for wind turbines.

  10. Wind monitoring of the Saylorville and Red Rock Reservoir Bridges with remote, cellular-based notifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Following a high wind event on January 24, 2006, at least five people claimed to have seen or felt the superstructure of the Saylorville Reservoir Bridge in central Iowa moving both vertically and laterally. Since that time, the Iowa Department of Tr...

  11. Shortlist masterplan wind. Ship-based monitoring of seabirds and cetaceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bemmelen, R.; Geelhoed, S.; Leopold, M. [Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies IMARES, Wageningen UR, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    During April 2010 - February 2011, monthly surveys of seabirds and marine mammals were conducted aboard ships engaged in plankton surveys. After many years of little or no effort in far offshore areas of the DCS (Dutch Continental Shelf), this series of surveys provided the first recent ship-based data on seabirds, covering a large area (the entire DCS, including some Belgian and British waters) almost year round. Due to changes in the design of the survey grid, the use of several ships, spells of bad weather conditions and seasonal differences in the number of daylight hours, the resulting coverage is not evenly spread in space and time. Still, both in terms of areas covered and detailed data gathered, this series of surveys complement the aerial surveys carried out under the same programme Shortlist Masterplan Wind. By surveying beyond the designated areas for round II offshore wind farms on the DCS, areas that might be targeted for round III, such as the shallow Dogger Bank area, got a first boost in T-zero survey effort. From April 2010 till February 2011 11 surveys, totalling to 48 at-sea days, 4610 5-minute counts were conducted over a distance of 9021 km. At a counting strip width of mostly 300 m (200 m over a very small percentage of the counts), this amounts to a total surveyed area of 2706 km{sup 2}. The surveys have provided rough data on seabird distribution in far offshore areas. In total, 54,593 individuals of 90 bird species were recorded, from which 15,003 individuals of 36 species were recorded within the counting strip. Marine mammals were represented by 616 individuals of seven species, of which 389 individuals of six species were seen within the counting strip. Flying heights were noted for 5044 clusters of individuals, covering 75 species. Behaviour was noted for 1790 (clusters of) individuals. Apart from birds and marine mammals, 352 balloons were counted (of which 164 were within the counting strip) and proved omnipresent in periods of

  12. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  13. DOSIS & DOSIS 3D: long-term dose monitoring onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on Earth, consisting mostly of highly energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on Earth for occupational radiation workers. Since the beginning of the space era, the radiation exposure during space missions has been monitored with various active and passive radiation instruments. Also onboard the International Space Station (ISS, a number of area monitoring devices provide data related to the spatial and temporal variation of the radiation field in and outside the ISS. The aim of the DOSIS (2009–2011 and the DOSIS 3D (2012–ongoing experiments was and is to measure the radiation environment within the European Columbus Laboratory of the ISS. These measurements are, on the one hand, performed with passive radiation detectors mounted at 11 locations within Columbus for the determination of the spatial distribution of the radiation field parameters and, on the other, with two active radiation detectors mounted at a fixed position inside Columbus for the determination of the temporal variation of the radiation field parameters. Data measured with passive radiation detectors showed that the absorbed dose values inside the Columbus Laboratory follow a pattern, based on the local shielding configuration of the radiation detectors, with minimum dose values observed in the year 2010 of 195–270 μGy/day and maximum values observed in the year 2012 with values ranging from 260 to 360 μGy/day. The absorbed dose is modulated by (a the variation in solar activity and (b the changes in ISS altitude.

  14. Thermal monitoring of hydrothermal activity by permanent infrared automatic stations: Results obtained at Solfatara di Pozzuoli, Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, G.; Vilardo, G.; Augusti, V.; Granieri, D.; Caliro, S.; Minopoli, C.; Terranova, C.

    2007-12-01

    A permanent automatic infrared (IR) station was installed at Solfatara crater, the most active zone of Campi Flegrei caldera. After a positive in situ calibration of the IR camera, we analyze 2175 thermal IR images of the same scene from 2004 to 2007. The scene includes a portion of the steam heated hot soils of Solfatara. The experiment was initiated to detect and quantify temperature changes of the shallow thermal structure of a quiescent volcano such as Solfatara over long periods. Ambient temperature is the main parameter affecting IR temperatures, while air humidity and rain control image quality. A geometric correction of the images was necessary to remove the effects of slow movement of the camera. After a suitable correction the images give a reliable and detailed picture of the temperature changes, over the period October 2004 to January 2007, which suggests that origin of the changes were linked to anthropogenic activity, vegetation growth, and the increase of the flux of hydrothermal fluids in the area of the hottest fumaroles. Two positive temperature anomalies were registered after the occurrence of two seismic swarms which affected the hydrothermal system of Solfatara in October 2005 and October 2006. It is worth noting that these signs were detected in a system characterized by a low level of activity with respect to systems affected by real volcanic crisis where more spectacular results will be expected. Results of the experiment show that this kind of monitoring system can be a suitable tool for volcanic surveillance.

  15. A system for radiation monitoring at the site for emergency planning and response in a nuclear station potentialities and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakov, V.; Moskovska, N.; Madzharov, M.; Angelov, V.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the existing system for radiation monitoring of the NPP region. The location of the devices puts a number of problems as maintenance of the radiometric equipment and urgent collecting and processing of the measuring data. Undeniably, to get an effective and timely decision, it is necessary to have on hand information as complete and prompt as possible, about the radiological situation in the regions, towns, villages and sites. As a result of daily observation and registration, an amount of enough in volume data could be accumulated. This data may be used as a base in case of a sudden change of the radiological situation and/or in case of arising of some local contaminations as a result of a volley type of emission, accidents at the nuclear power stations and releases fractions of radioactive and rare gases. The data obtained for a comparatively large region (about 700 square kilometers) with a high degree of gamma detectors distribution density are discussed. In the conditions of a progressively complicating radiological situation, they allow to determine the possible directions of the emission and also to undertake some response actions for protection of the population in time. (author)

  16. Fundamentals for remote structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades - a preproject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Lading, L.; Sendrup, P.

    2002-01-01

    transducer was found to work well for detectingadhesive failure. Modelling work shows that damage in a wind turbine blade causes a significant change in the modal shape when the damage is in the or-der of 0.5-1 m. Rough estimates of the prices of complete sensor systems were made. The system based onacoustic......-scale tests of a wind turbine blade developing damage: 1) detection of stress wave emission by acoustic emission, 2) measurement of modal shape changes byaccelerometers and 3) measurement of crack opening of adhesive joint by a fibre optics micro-bend displacement transducer that was developed in the project....... All types of sensor approaches were found to work satisfactory. The techniques were found tocomplement each other: Acoustic emission has the capability of detecting very small damages and can be used for locating the spatial position and size of evolving damages. The fibre optics displacement...

  17. Monitoring offshore wind farm power performance with SCADA data and an advanced wake model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mittelmeier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind farm underperformance can lead to significant losses in revenues. The efficient detection of wind turbines operating below their expected power output and immediate corrections help maximize asset value. The method, presented in this paper, estimates the environmental conditions from turbine states and uses pre-calculated lookup tables from a numeric wake model to predict the expected power output. Deviations between the expected and the measured power output ratio between two turbines are an indication of underperformance. The confidence of detected underperformance is estimated by a detailed analysis of the uncertainties of the method. Power normalization with reference turbines and averaging several measures performed by devices of the same type can reduce uncertainties for estimating the expected power. A demonstration of the method's ability to detect underperformance in the form of degradation and curtailment is given. An underperformance of 8 % could be detected in a triple-wake condition.

  18. Using a neural network approach and time series data from an international monitoring station in the Yellow Sea for modeling marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Juncheng; Vorontsov, A M; Hou, Guangli; Nikanorova, M N; Wang, Hongliang

    2014-01-01

    The international marine ecological safety monitoring demonstration station in the Yellow Sea was developed as a collaborative project between China and Russia. It is a nonprofit technical workstation designed as a facility for marine scientific research for public welfare. By undertaking long-term monitoring of the marine environment and automatic data collection, this station will provide valuable information for marine ecological protection and disaster prevention and reduction. The results of some initial research by scientists at the research station into predictive modeling of marine ecological environments and early warning are described in this paper. Marine ecological processes are influenced by many factors including hydrological and meteorological conditions, biological factors, and human activities. Consequently, it is very difficult to incorporate all these influences and their interactions in a deterministic or analysis model. A prediction model integrating a time series prediction approach with neural network nonlinear modeling is proposed for marine ecological parameters. The model explores the natural fluctuations in marine ecological parameters by learning from the latest observed data automatically, and then predicting future values of the parameter. The model is updated in a "rolling" fashion with new observed data from the monitoring station. Prediction experiments results showed that the neural network prediction model based on time series data is effective for marine ecological prediction and can be used for the development of early warning systems.

  19. Fundamentals for remote structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades - a pre-project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, B.F.; Lading, L.; Sendrup, P. (and others)

    2002-05-01

    This summary-report describes the results of a pre-project that has the aim of establishing the basic technical knowledge to evaluate whether remote surveillance of the rotor blades of large off-shore wind turbines has technical and economical potential. A cost-benefit analysis was developed, showing that it is economically attractive to use sensors embedded in the blade. Specific technical requirements were defined for the sensors capability to detect the most important damage types in wind turbine blades. Three different sensor types were selected for use in laboratory experiments and full-scale tests of a wind turbine blade developing damage: 1) detection of stress wave emission by acoustic emission, 2) measurement of modal shape changes by accelerometers and 3) measurement of crack opening of adhesive joint by a fibre optics micro-bend displacement transducer that was developed in the project. All types of sensor approaches were found to work satisfactory. The techniques were found to complement each other: Acoustic emission has the capability of detecting very small damages and can be used for locating the spatial position and size of evolving damages. The fibre optics displacement transducer was found to work well for detecting adhesive failure. Modelling work shows that damage in a wind turbine blade causes a significant change in the modal shape when the damage is in the order of 0.5-1 m. Rough estimates of the prices of complete sensor systems were made. The system based on acoustic emission was the most expensive and the one based on accelerometers was the cheapest. NDT methods (ultrasound scanning and X-ray inspection) were found to be useful for verification of hidden damage. Details of the work are described in annexes. (au)

  20. Tall Tower Wind Energy Monitoring and Numerical Model Validation in Northern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koracin, D. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Kaplan, M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Smith, C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, G. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Wolf, A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCord, T. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); King, K. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Belu, R. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horvath, K. [Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-10-01

    The main objectives of this project were to conduct a tall-tower and sodar field campaign in complex terrain, investigate wind properties relevant to wind energy assessment, and evaluate high-resolution models with fixed and adaptive grid structures. Two 60-m towers at Virginia Peak ridges near Washoe Valley, Nevada, were instrumented with cup and vane anemometers as well as sonic anemometers, and an acoustic sounder (hereafter sodar) was installed near one of the towers. The towers were located 2,700 m apart with a vertical distance of 140 m elevation between their bases. Each tower had a downhill exposure of rolling complex terrain, with the nearby valley floor 3,200 m to the west and 800 m below the summit. Cup anemometers were installed at both towers at 20, 40, and 60 m, wind vanes at 20 and 60 m, and sonic anemometers at 20 and 60 m. The sodar measurements were nominally provided every 10 m in vertical distance from 40 to 200 m with the quality of the data generally decreasing with height. Surface air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and radiation measurements were conducted at 1.5 m AGL at both of the towers. Although the plan was to conduct a 1-year period of data collection, we extended the period (October 5, 2012 through February 24, 2014) to cover for possible data loss from instrument or communication problems. We also present a preliminary analysis of the towers and sodar data, including a detailed inventory of available and missing data as well as outliers. The analysis additionally includes calculation of the Weibull parameters, turbulence intensity, and initial computation of wind power density at various heights.

  1. Simulations of the neutron energy-spectra at the Olympus Gate Environmental Monitoring Station due to historical Bevatron operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahue, R.J.; Thomas, R.H.; Zeman, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    Offsite neutron fluences resulting from Bevatron operations reached a maximum in 1959, prior to the addition of a permanent concrete roof shield, which was constructed in 1962. From the first operation of the Bevatron measurements of neutron fluence were made at locations around the perimeter of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) campus. Since the late 1950's measurements made at several locations, and particularly at the site of what is now called the Olympus Gate Environmental Monitoring Station, have been routinely reported and published. Early measurements were used to establish the shape of the neutron-energy spectrum from which an energy-averaged fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion coefficient could be derived. This conversion coefficient was then applied to a measured total neutron fluence to obtain the appropriate dose equivalent quantity required by regulation. Recent work by Thomas et al. (2000) have compared the early conversion coefficients used in the sixties with those accepted today and suggest suggested that ''the dose equivalents reported in the late fifties and early sixties were conservative by factors between two and four. In any current review of the historical data, therefore it would be prudent to reduce the reported dose equivalents by at least a factor of two.'' However, that analysis was based on the ''state of the art'' neutron energy-spectra of the '60s. This paper provides a detailed knowledge of the neutron energy spectrum at the site boundary paper thus removing any uncertainty in the analysis of Thomas et al., which might be caused by the use of the early neutron energy-spectra. Detailed Monte Carlo analyses of the interactions of 6.2 GeV protons in thick, medium-A targets are described. In the computer simulations, neutrons produced were allowed to scatter in the atmosphere. Detailed neutron energy spectra were calculated at a distance and elevation corresponding to the location of the Olympus Gate EMS. Both older

  2. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  3. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  4. Long open-path TDL based system for monitoring the background concentration for deployment at Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station- Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, V.; van den Bergh, H.; Parlange, M. B.

    2009-12-01

    A new long-open-path instrument developed at EPFL for methane and water vapor observation will be presented. The instrument is developed and will be used within the GAW+ CH program and aims at long-term monitoring of background methane concentration at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 mASL). The instrument is built on the monostatic scheme (transceiver -distant retroreflector) using a 1.65 nm tunable diode laser (TDL) and a retroreflector at 1200 m from the transceiver. The data will be compared with in-situ measurements to evaluate the effect of the station on the in-situ data.

  5. Contaminants and nutrients in variable sea areas (Canvas). Application of automatic monitoring stations in the German marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nies, H.; Bruegge, B.; Sterzenbach, D.; Knauth, H.D.; Schroeder, F.

    1999-01-01

    Permanent observation of parameters at sea stations can only be obtained by automatic sampling. The MERMAID technique developed in former projects provides a possibility to run automatic stations within the German MARNET measuring stations to obtain data on nutrients concentration on line and to collect organic micropollutants and the radionuclide 137 Cs by solid phase extraction from seawater and subsequent analysis in the laboratory. The BSH MARNET consists of ten stations located in the German Bight sector of the North Sea and the western Baltic. First results from the time series of nutrient and organic micropollutant concentrations has been presented

  6. Ecological monitoring of the construction phase of the Cold Northcott wind farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, S.

    1994-01-01

    This report outlines the advice provided during the pre-construction and construction periods and presents the results of the monitoring carried out over the whole construction period. The advice given aimed to ensure that the ecologically important areas, previously identified, were unaffected by the development. Where effects were unavoidable, the advice aimed to ensure that these were minimised and the monitoring undertaken quantified any damage that occurred. Monitoring of the recovery of affected areas also formed an important part of this study and provides valuable information for minimising the effects of similar developments in the future. (author)

  7. Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Speed Forecasts on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station: Phase I Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred C.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the results of the ANU's (Applied Meteorology Unit) Short-Range Statistical Forecasting task for peak winds. The peak wind speeds are an important forecast element for the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle programs. The Keith Weather Squadron and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group indicate that peak winds are challenging to forecast. The Applied Meteorology Unit was tasked to develop tools that aid in short-range forecasts of peak winds at tower sites of operational interest. A 7 year record of wind tower data was used in the analysis. Hourly and directional climatologies by tower and month were developed to determine the seasonal behavior of the average and peak winds. In all climatologies, the average and peak wind speeds were highly variable in time. This indicated that the development of a peak wind forecasting tool would be difficult. Probability density functions (PDF) of peak wind speed were calculated to determine the distribution of peak speed with average speed. These provide forecasters with a means of determining the probability of meeting or exceeding a certain peak wind given an observed or forecast average speed. The climatologies and PDFs provide tools with which to make peak wind forecasts that are critical to safe operations.

  8. Drive-train condition monitoring for offshore wind and tidal turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roshanmanesh, Sanaz; Hayati, Farzad; Kappatos, Vassilios

    are subject to several damage mechanisms which may lead to various failure modes including gear teeth damage, cracking of the gearbox case, shaft misalignment, wear or looseness of torque arm, loss of lubricant in lubrication system, bearing damage and shaft failure. This paper presents an experimental...... investigation assessing the effectiveness of Acoustic Emission (AE) and vibration analysis (VA) in identifying different types of faults in wind and tidal turbine drive-trains. Additionally the application of advanced signal processing techniques, such as Spectral Kurtosis (SK) and wavelet analysis have been...

  9. Incorporating Structural Health Monitoring in the design of slip formed concrete wind turbine towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Mads Knude

    , where the development of riskbased inspection for offshore structures has been economically motivated, the economic value added by SHM has been somewhat neglected. With a starting point in the business case of wind turbine towers made of concrete, this thesis sets up the framework for the assessing...... is different which require a different approach. As exact solution is intractable, various approximations using surrogate objective functions from detection theory, filters, decision rules and Limited Memory Influence Diagrams (LIMID) are investigated. The main focus is on damage detection but the value...

  10. Monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from an oil and gas station in northwest China for 1 year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huang; Kong, Shaofei; Xing, Xinli; Mao, Yao; Hu, Tianpeng; Ding, Yang; Li, Gang; Liu, Dantong; Li, Shuanglin; Qi, Shihua

    2018-04-01

    Oil and natural gas are important for energy supply around the world. The exploring, drilling, transportation and processing in oil and gas regions can release a lot of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To understand the VOC levels, compositions and sources in such regions, an oil and gas station in northwest China was chosen as the research site and 57 VOCs designated as the photochemical precursors were continuously measured for an entire year (September 2014-August 2015) using an online monitoring system. The average concentration of total VOCs was 297 ± 372 ppbv and the main contributor was alkanes, accounting for 87.5 % of the total VOCs. According to the propylene-equivalent concentration and maximum incremental reactivity methods, alkanes were identified as the most important VOC groups for the ozone formation potential. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis showed that the annual average contributions from natural gas, fuel evaporation, combustion sources, oil refining processes and asphalt (anthropogenic and natural sources) to the total VOCs were 62.6 ± 3.04, 21.5 ± .99, 10.9 ± 1.57, 3.8 ± 0.50 and 1.3 ± 0.69 %, respectively. The five identified VOC sources exhibited various diurnal patterns due to their different emission patterns and the impact of meteorological parameters. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) and concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) models based on backward trajectory analysis indicated that the five identified sources had similar geographic origins. Raster analysis based on CWT analysis indicated that the local emissions contributed 48.4-74.6 % to the total VOCs. Based on the high-resolution observation data, this study clearly described and analyzed the temporal variation in VOC emission characteristics at a typical oil and gas field, which exhibited different VOC levels, compositions and origins compared with those in urban and industrial areas.

  11. Studying wind energy/bird interactions: a guidance document. Metrics and methods for determining or monitoring potential impacts on birds at existing and proposed wind energy sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R.; Morrison, M.; Sinclair, K.; Strickland, D.; Davis, H.; Kendall, W.

    1999-01-01

    In the 1980s little was known about the potential environmental effects associated with large scale wind energy development. Although wind turbines have been used in farming and remote location applications throughout this country for centuries, impacts on birds resulting from these dispersed turbines had not been reported. Thus early wind energy developments were planned, permitted, constructed, and operated with little consideration for the potential effects on birds. In the ensuing years wind plant impacts on birds became a source of concern among a number of stakeholder groups. Based on the studies that have been done to date, significant levels of bird fatalities have been identified at only one major commercial wind energy development in the United States. Research on wind energy/bird interactions has spanned such a wide variety of protocols and vastly different levels of study effort that it is difficult to make comparisons among study findings. As a result there continues to be interest, confusion, and concern over wind energy development's potential impacts on birds. Some hypothesize that technology changes, such as less dense wind farms with larger, slower-moving turbines, will decrease the number of bird fatalities from wind turbines. Others hypothesize that, because the tip speed may be the same or faster, new turbines will not result in decreased bird fatalities but may actually increase bird impacts. Statistically significant data sets from scientifically rigorous studies will be required before either hypothesis can be tested.

  12. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  13. Overview of condition monitoring and operation control of electric power conversion systems in direct-drive wind turbines under faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shoudao; Wu, Xuan; Liu, Xiao; Gao, Jian; He, Yunze

    2017-09-01

    Electric power conversion system (EPCS), which consists of a generator and power converter, is one of the most important subsystems in a direct-drive wind turbine (DD-WT). However, this component accounts for the most failures (approximately 60% of the total number) in the entire DD-WT system according to statistical data. To improve the reliability of EPCSs and reduce the operation and maintenance cost of DD-WTs, numerous researchers have studied condition monitoring (CM) and fault diagnostics (FD). Numerous CM and FD techniques, which have respective advantages and disadvantages, have emerged. This paper provides an overview of the CM, FD, and operation control of EPCSs in DD-WTs under faults. After introducing the functional principle and structure of EPCS, this survey discusses the common failures in wind generators and power converters; briefly reviewed CM and FD methods and operation control of these generators and power converters under faults; and discussed the grid voltage faults related to EPCSs in DD-WTs. These theories and their related technical concepts are systematically discussed. Finally, predicted development trends are presented. The paper provides a valuable reference for developing service quality evaluation methods and fault operation control systems to achieve high-performance and high-intelligence DD-WTs.

  14. External gamma radiation monitoring in the environs of Kaiga Generating Station (KGS), using thermoluminescent dosimeters, during the period 1989-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A.S.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Mayya, Y.S.; Puranik, V.D.; Reji, T.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-05-01

    This publication reports the results of external gamma radiation monitoring using Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), in the environs of Kaiga Generating Station (KGS) during its preoperational survey between October 1989 and June 1998. The report also presents quarterly and annual values of air dose during the operational phase of the station between July 1998 and Dec. 2003 around the environmcnt of KGS. The results of TLD analysis, during the period October 1989-June 1998, indicate that the average annual air dose for the locations monitored, was 502± 91 μGy/a. The general background of the environs around Kaiga during the operational period, i.e. July 1998 and Dec. 2003, between 2.3 km. to 32km. has been found to be 509±74 μGy/a. The report discusses the methodology and different analyses carried out. (author)

  15. The NRPI multi-purpose on-line monitoring station for measurement of natural radioactivity in the ambient atmosphere and in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilek, K.; Slezakova, M.; Fronka, A.; Prokop, T.; Neubauer, L.

    2017-01-01

    During years 2010 12 an automated, on-line and wireless outdoor measurement station of atmospheric radon, gamma dose rate and meteorological parameters was realised at the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in Prague. At the turn of the year 2013 an expansion of the existing station was completed. Under the project funded by the Czech Technological Agency a new updated station was established, additionally equipped with modules for measurement of atmospheric radon/thoron short-lived decay products, radon in water and soil and radon exhalation rate from soil. After the introduction of the station updated key detection parameters and benefits, its use for atmospheric modelling and monitoring is demonstrated. There are summarised results from the 3-year measurement period in the NRPI outdoor area in Prague and from simultaneous annual measurement performed by another similar station located near uranium mud fields in DIAMO, state enterprise, Straz pod Ralskem. Observed seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric radon concentrations and variability of the equilibrium factor, F, are illustrated and compared. (authors)

  16. Technical evaluation report on the monitoring of electric power to the reactor-protection system for the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selan, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the monitoring of electric power to the reactor protection system (RPS) at the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station. The evaluation is to determine if the proposed design modification will protect the RPS from abnormal voltage and frequency conditions which could be supplied from the power supplies and will meet certain requirements set forth by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed design modifications will protect the RPS from sustained abnormal voltage and frequency conditions from the supplying sources

  17. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques. Part 2; Preliminary System Performance Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.; Weiss, Daniel S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary performance results of the artificial intelligence monitoring system in full operational mode using near real time acceleration data downlinked from the International Space Station. Preliminary microgravity environment characterization analysis result for the International Space Station (Increment-2), using the monitoring system is presented. Also, comparison between the system predicted performance based on ground test data for the US laboratory "Destiny" module and actual on-orbit performance, using measured acceleration data from the U.S. laboratory module of the International Space Station is presented. Finally, preliminary on-orbit disturbance magnitude levels are presented for the Experiment of Physics of Colloids in Space, which are compared with on ground test data. The ground test data for the Experiment of Physics of Colloids in Space were acquired from the Microgravity Emission Laboratory, located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The artificial intelligence was developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services Project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment of time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a dynamic graphical display, implemented in Java, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments, whenever that is an option, based on the acceleration magnitude and frequency sensitivity associated with that experiment. This monitoring system detects primarily the vibratory disturbance sources. The system has built-in capability to detect both known

  18. WindVOiCe, a Self-Reporting Survey: Adverse Health Effects, Industrial Wind Turbines, and the Need for Vigilance Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Carmen M. E.; Gillis, Lorrie; Kouwen, Nicholas; Aramini, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Industrial wind turbines have been operating in many parts of the globe. Anecdotal reports of perceived adverse health effects relating to industrial wind turbines have been published in the media and on the Internet. Based on these reports, indications were that some residents perceived they were experiencing adverse health effects. The purpose…

  19. Representivity of wind measurements for design wind speed estimations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goliger, Adam M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available of instrumentation sited according to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) requirements. With the advent of automatic weather station technology several decades ago, wind measurements have become much more cost-effective. While previously wind measurements were...

  20. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities of Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas McGee; Carol Lutken

    2008-05-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research that shared the need for a way to conduct investigations of gas hydrates and their stability zone in the Gulf of Mexico in situ on a more-or-less continuous basis. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor and to discover the configuration and composition of the subsurface pathways or 'plumbing' through which fluids migrate into and out of the hydrate stability zone (HSZ) to the sediment-water interface. Monitoring changes in this zone and linking them to coincident and perhaps consequent events at the seafloor and within the water column is the eventual goal of the Consortium. This mission includes investigations of the physical, chemical and biological components of the gas hydrate stability zone - the sea-floor/sediment-water interface, the near-sea-floor water column, and the shallow subsurface sediments. The eventual goal is to monitor changes in the hydrate stability zone over time. Establishment of the Consortium succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among those involved in gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Following extensive investigation into candidate sites, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) was chosen by consensus of the Consortium at their fall, 2004, meeting as the site most likely to satisfy all criteria established by the group. Much of the preliminary work preceding the establishment of the site - sensor development and testing, geophysical surveys, and laboratory studies - has been reported in

  1. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Hawaiian...

  2. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Mariana...

  3. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014 (NCEI Accession 0157759)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Mariana...

  4. The new Mediterranean background monitoring station of Ersa, Cape Corsica: A long term Observatory component of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulac, Francois

    2013-04-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) is a French initiative supported by the MISTRALS program (Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales, http://www.mistrals-home.org). It aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The major stake is an understanding of the future of the Mediterranean region in a context of strong regional anthropogenic and climatic pressures. The target of ChArMEx is short-lived particulate and gaseous tropospheric trace species which are the cause of poor air quality events, have two-way interactions with climate, or impact the marine biogeochemistry. In order to fulfill these objectives, important efforts have been put in 2012 in order to implement the infrastructure and instrumentation for a fully equipped background monitoring station at Ersa, Cape Corsica, a key location at the crossroads of dusty southerly air masses and polluted outflows from the European continent. The observations at this station began in June 2012 (in the context of the EMEP / ACTRIS / PEGASOS / ChArMEx campaigns). A broad spectrum of aerosol properties is also measured at the station, from the chemical composition (off-line daily filter sampling in PM2.5/PM10, on-line Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor), ground optical properties (extinction/absorption/light scattering coeff. with 1-? CAPS PMex monitor, 7-? Aethalometer, 3-? Nephelometer), integrated and vertically resolved optical properties (4-? Cimel sunphotometer and LIDAR, respective), size distribution properties (N-AIS, SMPS, APS, and OPS instruments), mass (PM1/PM10 by TEOM/TEOM-FDMS), hygroscopicity (CCN), as well as total insoluble deposition. So far, real-time measurement of reactive gases (O3, CO, NO, NO2), and off-line VOC measurements (cylinders, cartridges) are also

  5. Implementation of a Simplified State Estimator for Wind Turbine Monitoring on an Embedded System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Theis Bo; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2017-01-01

    system, including individual DER, is time consuming and numerically challenging. This paper presents the approach and results of implementing a simplified state estimator onto an embedded system for improving DER monitoring. The implemented state estimator is based on numerically robust orthogonal......The transition towards a cyber-physical energy system (CPES) entails an increased dependency on valid data. Simultaneously, an increasing implementation of renewable generation leads to possible control actions at individual distributed energy resources (DERs). A state estimation covering the whole...

  6. Five years of monitoring bird strike potential at a mountain-top wind turbine, Yukon Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mossop, D.H. [Yukon College, Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A five-year study was conducted to determine if birds were at risk of collision with an experimental wind turbine on a 1,500 metre mountain near the major Shakwak migration corridor used by many thousands of birds. More than 100 ground searches at the turbine site and about 80 hours of migration watch were conducted. In five years, six birds hit the control tower, none hit the turbine tower. All strikes were in winter and none of the birds killed were in migration. Waterfowl were found to navigate in the valley centre about 1,000 feet below the turbine. Small birds were rarely found at the altitude where the turbine was located. Raptors were the most common birds found near the site, but they were able to avoid the tower. It was concluded that birds using the migration corridor near Whitehorse were not at great risk of collision with towers above 1,200 metre altitude. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Solar Weather Ice Monitoring Station (SWIMS). A low cost, extreme/harsh environment, solar powered, autonomous sensor data gathering and transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, S.; Field, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic ocean's continuing decrease of summer-time ice is related to rapidly diminishing multi-year ice due to the effects of climate change. Ice911 Research aims to develop environmentally respectful materials that when deployed will increase the albedo, enhancing the formation and/preservation of multi-year ice. Small scale deployments using various materials have been done in Canada, California's Sierra Nevada Mountains and a pond in Minnesota to test the albedo performance and environmental characteristics of these materials. SWIMS is a sophisticated autonomous sensor system being developed to measure the albedo, weather, water temperature and other environmental parameters. The system (SWIMS) employs low cost, high accuracy/precision sensors, high resolution cameras, and an extreme environment command and data handling computer system using satellite and terrestrial wireless communication. The entire system is solar powered with redundant battery backup on a floating buoy platform engineered for low temperature (-40C) and high wind conditions. The system also incorporates tilt sensors, sonar based ice thickness sensors and a weather station. To keep the costs low, each SWIMS unit measures incoming and reflected radiation from the four quadrants around the buoy. This allows data from four sets of sensors, cameras, weather station, water temperature probe to be collected and transmitted by a single on-board solar powered computer. This presentation covers the technical, logistical and cost challenges in designing, developing and deploying these stations in remote, extreme environments. Image captured by camera #3 of setting sun on the SWIMS station One of the images captured by SWIMS Camera #4

  8. Practical experience with own monitoring of clay sealings on dumps for brown coal-fired power station residues. Erfahrungen mit der Eigenueberwachung an Tonabdichtungen der Deponien fuer Braunkohlenkraftwerksrueckstaende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, K

    1989-07-01

    In order to dispose of power station residues Rheinbraun erects dumps which are encased by a clay sealing. For the Fortuna dump 10 hectares sealing area, with a permeability that is lower than the required limit value of k = 5x10{sup -10} m/s, have so far been constructed. The quality of the sealing is monitored and ensured by graded checking. The practical experience gained so far with own monitoring (selection of material, supervision of construction site and own checking) on the finished clay sealings is discussed in the present paper. The system of testing the sealings has proved very satisfactory. The results of the tests carried out in the course of own monitoring show that processing work in the laboratory can be reduced by systematic selection of material and intensive expert supervision of the construction site. (orig.).

  9. Review of freeboard: Grand Rapids Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeneveld, J.L.; Harding, W.B.; Bonin, D.V.; Fuchs, D.M. [Acres Manitoba Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Warner, B.J. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    Constructed during the period 1960-1965, the Grand Rapids Generating Station is a 472 MW hydroelectric station located approximately 400 kilometres northwest of Winnipeg, Manitoba, on the Saskatchewan River. An intake structure, four penstocks, a four-unit plus house unit powerhouse, wing walls, extensive dyke structures and a four-bay spillway are the components of the generating station. A little over ten years ago, the Manitoba Hydro Dam Safety Program was initiated. The program included a detailed dam safety review of the Grand rapids Generating Station. A potential deficiency in the freeboard allowance for several of the earthen dykes was revealed by the review process. The dam safety guidelines sponsored by the Canadian Dam Association were not met. The occurrence of a 1:1000 year wind event from the critical direction when the reservoir was at or near its full supply level was compounded by the analysis. The establishment of a wind and wave monitoring program was included in the deficiency studies commissioned. The objective was to confirm the empirical estimates concerning wave height, the development and usage of a two dimensional numerical wave model, and additional freeboard analyses to refine estimates of the recurrence interval of the current level of protection. A statistical Monte Carlo analysis was performed in the case of the estimates of the recurrence interval to determine the joint probabilities of seasonal variations in wind direction, wind speed, and reservoir level. The estimate of the actual risk of overtopping was therefore refined, and the details pertaining to the methodology and the conclusions of the analysis are all included in the paper. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  10. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsevski, Peter [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States); Afjeh, Abdollah [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Jamali, Mohsin [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Bingman, Verner [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States)

    2014-04-04

    reduced the wake size and enhanced the vortices in the flow downstream of the turbine-tower compared with the tower alone case. Mean and rms velocity distributions from hot wire anemometer data confirmed that in a downwind configuration, the wake of the tower dominates the flow, thus the flow fields of a tower alone and tower-turbine combinations are nearly the same. For the upwind configuration, the mean velocity shows a narrowing of the wake compared with the tower alone case. The downwind configuration wake persisted longer than that of an upwind configuration; however, it was not possible to quantify this difference because of the size limitation of the wind tunnel downstream of the test section. The water tunnel studies demonstrated that the scale model studies could be used to adequately produce accurate motions to model the motions of a wind turbine platform subject to large waves. It was found that the important factors that affect the platform is whether the platform is submerged or surface piercing. In the former, the loads on the platform will be relatively reduced whereas in the latter case, the structure pierces the wave free surface and gains stiffness and stability. The other important element that affects the movement of the platform is depth of the sea in which the wind turbine will be installed. Furthermore, the wildlife biology component evaluated migratory patterns by different monitoring systems consisting of marine radar, thermal IR camera and acoustic recorders. The types of radar used in the project are weather surveillance radar and marine radar. The weather surveillance radar (1988 Doppler), also known as Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD), provides a network of weather stations in the US. Data generated from this network were used to understand general migratory patterns, migratory stopover habitats, and other patterns caused by the effects of weather conditions. At a local scale our marine radar was used to complement the datasets from NEXRAD and

  11. Wind-wave, and turbidity time-series data from Little Holland Tract (station HWC), Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Time series data of water surface elevation, wave height, and turbidity were collected in Little Holland Tract (LHT) beginning in December 2015 as part of “Wind-wave...

  12. Technical and economic analysis of grid-connected PV/Wind energy stations in the Republic of Serbia under varying climatic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bakić, Vukman V.; Pezo, Milada L.; Stojković, Saša M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper technical and economic analysis of grid-connected PV/Wind energy systems located in the Republic of Serbia are presented. The technical and economic data, of the various grid-connected PV/Wind hybrid energy systems for three different locations: Novi Sad, Belgrade and Kopaonik, using the transient simulations software TRNSYS and HOMER were obtained. The results obtained in this paper show that locations and technical characteristics of the energy systems have an important influe...

  13. DOSIS & DOSIS 3D: long-term dose monitoring onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berger, T.; Przybyla, B.; Matthia, D.; Reitz, G.; Burmeister, S.; Labrenz, J.; Bilski, P.; Horwacik, T.; Twardak, A.; Hajek, M.; Fugger, M.; Hofstatter, C.; Sihver, L.; Palfalvi, J. K.; Szabó, J.; Stradi, A.; Ambrožová, Iva; Kubančák, Ján; Brabcová, Kateřina; Vanhavere, F.; Cauwels, V.; Van Hoey, O.; Schoonjans, W.; Parisi, A.; Gaza, R.; Semones, E.; Yukihara, E.; Benton, E.; Doull, B. A.; Uchihori, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Kitamura, H.; Böhme, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, NOV (2016), č. článku A39. ISSN 2115-7251 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-16622Y Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : International Space Station * Columbus * space radiation * DOSIS * DOSIS 3D Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.446, year: 2016

  14. Program to determine space vehicle response to wind turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program was developed as prelaunch wind monitoring tool for Saturn 5 vehicle. Program accounts for characteristic wind changes including turbulence power spectral density, wind shear, peak wind velocity, altitude, and wind direction using stored variational statistics.

  15. Some aspects of the occurrence and behaviour of the crane Grus grus in Poland in light of pre-investment wind-farm monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ornithological pre-investment monitoring at planned wind farm sites is a standard and obligatory procedure in Poland and other EU countries. Pre-investment wind farm monitoring has a very important ‘side effect’ to its main goal (the safety of bird populations, namely the collection of valuable avifaunistic data from many localities that most probably would never be studied if not for the obligation to prepare environmental reports when wind energy investments are planned. The main aim of this paper is to show what we can learn from obligatory pre-investment monitoring when the standard field monitoring procedure and unified evaluation methodology are used. As an example the Common Crane Grus grus was selected, as a bird listed in Annex 1 of Directive 2009/147/EC and easy to identify and count. The data were collected at 155 controlled monitoring sites all over Poland, but mainly along the Baltic coast and in the Masurian Lake District. The methodology of the data collection and evaluation of results was strictly according to a paper by Busse (2013. The presentation of the results includes the numerical distribution of cranes in all seasons and some details of their behaviour - observations of birds on the ground and those using the air space: below the future rotor swept area of the wind turbines, at the rotor swept height, and flying above it. The estimated collision rates vary depending on the area, season and local heights of movements. It was concluded that such an evaluation of data already collected could be helpful in evaluating a particular site in comparison with other, previously studied localities.

  16. Ogoya old copper mine as a monitoring station for various fields of earth sciences and radon anomaly observed at Tatsunokuchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komura, Kazuhisa; Wataguchi, Teru; Yamazaki, Seiji [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    To utilize the tunnel of old Ogoya mine for measurement of low-level radioactivity, the intensity of cosmic ray have been determined at various points in the tunnel and basic data regarding radon level, wind velocity and temperature have been collected. Here, recent studies made in the underground laboratory in the tunnel were briefly outlined. The reciprocal of radon activity was found to be closely correlated with wind velocity. The mean activity was ca. 25 Bq/m{sup 3}, slightly higher than that in an ordinal house at the wind velocity of 0.4 m/sec and it was highest in the conditions of no wind. Thus, the tunnel was found to be suitable for the measurement of low-level radioactivity. Then, the effects of radon on the background level for the Ge-detector set in the underground laboratory were investigated and an attempt for their elimination was made using nitrogen gas. The peak counting rates of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi, both of which are daughter nuclides of radon were remarkably reduced by introducing the gas. Further, the radon level of the atmosphere upon the ground was determined using a radon detector with electrostatic trap aiming to catch the abnormality in radon level, which is regarded as an omen of earthquake. Thus, it was suggested that the radon anomaly observed in Tatsunokuchi during from Aug. 31 to Sep. 12 might be associated with the earthquake with a magnitude of 3.2 occurred 9 Km apart from the town on September 10. (M,N.)

  17. Technical evaluation report on the monitoring of electric power to the reactor protection system for the Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, Unit 1 (Docket No. 50-220)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selan, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the monitoring of electric power to the reactor protection system (RPS) at the Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station, Unit 1. The evaluation is to determine if the proposed design modification will protect the RPS from abnormal voltage and frequency conditions which could be supplied from the power supplies and will meet certain requirements set forth by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed design modifications will protect the RPS from sustained abnormal voltage and frequency conditions from the supplying sources

  18. IEEE Std 1205-1993: IEEE guide for assessing, monitoring, and mitigating aging effects on Class 1E equipment used in nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The guidelines are provided for assessing, monitoring, and mitigating degradation of Class 1E equipment used in nuclear power generating stations due to aging. The methods described can be used to identify the performance capability of Class 1E equipment beyond its qualified life. A discussion of stressors and aging mechanisms is included. If aging considerations have been satisfactorily addressed through other means (e.g., equipment qualification), then use of this guide may not be warranted. For some equipment, only partial application of this guide may be warranted

  19. N2 gas station and gas distribution system for TLD personnel monitoring gas based semi-automatic badge readers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chourasiya, G.; Pradhan, S.M.; Kher, R.K.; Bhatt, B.C

    2003-01-01

    Full text: New improvised hot gas based Auto TLD badge reader has several advantages over the earlier contact heating based manual badge reader. It requires constant supply of N 2 gas for its operation; The gas supplied using replaceable individual gas cylinders may have some safety hazards in their handling. It was therefore considered worthwhile to setup a N 2 gas assembly/ station outside the lab area and to bring regulated gas supply through network of tubes with proper regulation to the individual readers. The paper presents detailed description of the gas station and distribution system. The system is quite useful and offers several practical advantages for readout of TLD badges on the semiautomatic badge readers based on gas heating. Important advantage from dosimetric point of view is avoidance of gas flow rate fluctuations and corresponding variations in TL readouts

  20. Wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.D.; McNerney, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the impacts on the utility network including frequency stability, voltage stability, and power quality are discussed. The assessment of wind power station economics and the key economic factors that determine the economic viability of a wind power plant are presented