WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind market applications

  1. Distributed Wind Market Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, T.; Baring-Gould, I.

    2007-11-01

    Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve pressure on the power grid while providing jobs and contributing to energy security for homes, farms, schools, factories, private and public facilities, distribution utilities, and remote locations. America pioneered small wind technology in the 1920s, and it is the only renewable energy industry segment that the United States still dominates in technology, manufacturing, and world market share. The series of analyses covered by this report were conducted to assess some of the most likely ways that advanced wind turbines could be utilized apart from large, central station power systems. Each chapter represents a final report on specific market segments written by leading experts in this field. As such, this document does not speak with one voice but rather a compendium of different perspectives, which are documented from a variety of people in the U.S. distributed wind field.

  2. Wind: new wind markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.

    2005-01-01

    The June 2005 edition of 'Wind Force 12' suggests that wind could generate 12% of global electricity requirements by 2020. But what moves a potential market into an emerging one? Geographical factors include a good wind resource, plenty of open space and the ability to get the generated electricity to end-users. A country's political framework is equally important, with fixed price systems, renewable quota systems and political will all playing a part. Some potential wind markets around the world are thought to have the conditions necessary to become key players in the wind industry. The emerging markets in countries such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan and the Philippines are highlighted as examples

  3. Canadian small wind market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhouse, E.

    2010-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed initiatives and strategies adopted by the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) to support the development of Canada's small wind market. The general public has shown a significant interest in small wind projects of 300 kW. Studies have demonstrated that familiarity and comfort with small wind projects can help to ensure the successful implementation of larger wind projects. Small wind markets include residential, farming and commercial, and remote community applications. The results of CanWEA market survey show that the small wind market grew by 78 percent in 2008 over 2007, and again in 2009 by 32 percent over 2008. The average turbine size is 1 kW. A total of 11,000 turbines were purchased in 2007 and 2008. Global small wind market growth increased by 110 percent in 2008, and the average turbine size was 2.4 kW. Eighty-seven percent of the turbines made by Canadian mid-size wind turbine manufacturers are exported, and there is now a significant risk that Canada will lose its competitive advantage in small wind manufacturing as financial incentives have not been implemented. American and Canadian-based small wind manufacturers were listed, and small wind policies were reviewed. The presentation concluded with a set of recommendations for future incentives, educational programs and legislation. tabs., figs.

  4. 2012 Market Report on Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    An annual report on U.S. wind power in distributed applications – expanded to include small, mid-size, and utility-scale installations – including key statistics, economic data, installation, capacity, and generation statistics, and more.

  5. Overcoming technical and market barriers for distributed wind applications : reaching the mainstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads-Weaver, H.; Forsyth, T.

    2006-01-01

    Technical and market barriers for distributed wind applications were reviewed. A renewable energy survey has recently suggested that while less than 10 per cent of survey respondents had installed wind turbines, 40 per cent indicated that they plan to use wind energy on-site in the future. It is estimated that global annual sales of wind systems have the potential to reach $110 million by 2010 under ideal conditions. Distributed wind market growth areas include residential grid-connected sites, schools, public facilities and farms, business and industry. Grid-connected wind projects are expected to grow from less than 5 per cent of the total small wind market to over 20 per cent by 2020. However, without a federal investment tax credit, more modest growth is anticipated. Drivers of the distributed wind market were identified as financial incentives and programs; favorable policies and regulations; and increasing retail electricity rates and loads. Challenges and barriers to distributed wind market growth included economics; lack of performance standards and ratings; difficult interconnection processes; prohibitive zoning rules; low manufacturing volumes; and low consumer awareness. While there has been a 5-fold increase in photovoltaics (PV) sales in the United States since 2000, small wind turbines sales have only grown by approximately 70 per cent over the same period. Market increases in distributed wind systems are anticipated with the introduction of hybrid wind/PV systems. Improved designs for small and mid-sized turbines, rotors and towers may help to overcome barriers to wind energy growth. Technology developments in remote-monitored controllers and improved computer tools for analyzing project economics may also help to overcome market barriers. However, significant cost reductions are needed to stimulate widespread market acceptance of distributed wind. It was concluded that distributed wind is well-positioned to play an important role in supplying clean

  6. Small wind power systems: market, applications, architectures and energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roboam, X.

    2005-01-01

    Context and stakes of small wind power systems are described in this paper by situating both supply and demand as well as the main application fields. Technical issues are then concerned in terms of system structure, energy management and network connection. (author)

  7. 2012 Market Report on U.S. Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C.; Flowers, L. T.; Gagne, M. N.; Pro, B. H.; Rhoads-Weaver, H. E.; Jenkins, J. O.; Sahl, K. M.; Baranowski, R. E.

    2013-08-06

    At the end of 2012, U.S. wind turbines in distributed applications reached a 10-year cumulative installed capacity of more than 812 MW from more than 69,000 units across all 50 states. In 2012 alone, nearly 3,800 wind turbines totaling 175 MW of distributed wind capacity were documented in 40 states and in the U.S. Virgin Islands, with 138 MW using utility-scale turbines (i.e., greater than 1 MW in size), 19 MW using mid-size turbines (i.e., 101 kW to 1 MW in size), and 18.4 MW using small turbines (i.e., up to 100 kW in size). Distributed wind is defined in terms of technology application based on a wind project’s location relative to end-use and power-distribution infrastructure, rather than on technology size or project size. Distributed wind systems are either connected on the customer side of the meter (to meet the onsite load) or directly to distribution or micro grids (to support grid operations or offset large loads nearby). Estimated capacity-weighted average costs for 2012 U.S. distributed wind installations was $2,540/kW for utility-scale wind turbines, $2,810/kW for mid-sized wind turbines, and $6,960/kW for newly manufactured (domestic and imported) small wind turbines. An emerging trend observed in 2012 was an increased use of refurbished turbines. The estimated capacity-weighted average cost of refurbished small wind turbines installed in 2012 was $4,080/kW. As a result of multiple projects using utility-scale turbines, Iowa deployed the most new overall distributed wind capacity, 37 MW, in 2012. Nevada deployed the most small wind capacity in 2012, with nearly 8 MW of small wind turbines installed in distributed applications. In the case of mid-size turbines, Ohio led all states in 2012 with 4.9 MW installed in distributed applications. State and federal policies and incentives continued to play a substantial role in the development of distributed wind projects. In 2012, U.S. Treasury Section 1603 payments and grants and loans from the U

  8. 2008 WIND TECHNOLOGIES MARKET REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Bolinger, Mark; Barbose, G.; Mills, A.; Rosa, A.; Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Tegen, S.; Musial, W.; Oteri, F.; Heimiller, D.; Rberts, B.; Belyeu, K.; Stimmel, R.

    2009-07-15

    domestic wind power market, including federal and state policy drivers, transmission issues, and grid integration. Finally, the report concludes with a preview of possible near- to medium-term market developments. This version of the Annual Report updates data presented in the previous editions, while highlighting key trends and important new developments from 2008. New to this edition is an executive summary of the report and an expanded final section on near- to medium-term market development. The report concentrates on larger-scale wind applications, defined here as individual turbines or projects that exceed 50 kW in size. The U.S. wind power sector is multifaceted, however, and also includes smaller, customer-sited wind turbines used to power the needs of residences, farms, and businesses. Data on these applications are not the focus of this report, though a brief discussion on Distributed Wind Power is provided on page 4. Much of the data included in this report were compiled by Berkeley Lab, and come from a variety of sources, including the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The Appendix provides a summary of the many data sources used in the report. Data on 2008 wind capacity additions in the United States are based on information provided by AWEA; some minor adjustments to those data may be expected. In other cases, the data shown here represent only a sample of actual wind projects installed in the United States; furthermore, the data vary in quality. As such, emphasis should be placed on overall trends, rather than on individual data points. Finally, each section of this document focuses on historical market information, with an emphasis on 2008; with the exception of the final section, the report does not seek to forecast future trends.

  9. 2016 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Foster, Nikolas F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) annual Distributed Wind Market Report provides stakeholders with statistics and analysis of the distributed wind market, along with insight into its trends and characteristics.

  10. 2016 Offshore Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwabe, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Spitsen, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report is intended to provide stakeholders with quantitative information about the offshore wind market, technology, and cost trends in the United States and worldwide.

  11. Market value of wind power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.E.S.; Shoeb, M.A.; Lopes Ferreira, H.M.; Kling, W.L.

    2013-01-01

    Variability and predictability constraints of wind hinder the cost-efficient integration of wind power generation into power markets. Within the framework of EIT KIC INNOENERGY Offwindtech project, a ‘Market Value’ tool is developed. Here, the market value of wind power generation can be assessed

  12. Technology, Performance, and Market Report of Wind-Diesel Applications for Remote and Island Communities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Dabo, M.

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes the current status of wind-diesel technology and its applications, the current research activities, and the remaining system technical and commercial challenges. System architectures, dispatch strategies, and operating experience from a variety of wind-diesel systems will be discussed, as well as how recent development to explore distributed energy generation solutions for wind generation can benefit from the performance experience of operating systems. The paper also includes a detailed discussion of the performance of wind-diesel applications in Alaska, where 10 wind-diesel stations are operating and additional systems are currently being implemented. Additionally, because this application represents an international opportunity, a community of interest committed to sharing technical and operating developments is being formed. The authors hope to encourage this expansion while allowing communities and nations to investigate the wind-diesel option for reducing their dependence on diesel-driven energy sources.

  13. Technology, Performance, and Market Report of Wind-Diesel Applications for Remote and Island Communities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Dabo, M.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the current status of wind-diesel technology and its applications, the current research activities, and the remaining system technical and commercial challenges. System architectures, dispatch strategies, and operating experience from a variety of wind-diesel systems will be discussed, as well as how recent development to explore distributed energy generation solutions for wind generation can benefit from the performance experience of operating systems. The paper also includes a detailed discussion of the performance of wind-diesel applications in Alaska, where 10 wind-diesel stations are operating and additional systems are currently being implemented. Additionally, because this application represents an international opportunity, a community of interest committed to sharing technical and operating developments is being formed. The authors hope to encourage this expansion while allowing communities and nations to investigate the wind-diesel option for reducing their dependence on diesel-driven energy sources.

  14. 2015 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rand, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This annual report--now in its tenth year--provides a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2015. The report begins with an overview of key installation trends and then covers an array of industry and technology trends. The report also discusses project performance, wind turbine prices, project costs, operations and maintenance expenses, and prices paid for wind power in the United States. The report examines policy and market factors impacting the domestic wind power market and provides a preview of possible near-term market developments, expenses, and prices paid for wind power in the United States. The report examines policy and market factors impacting the domestic wind power market and provides a preview of possible near-term market developments.

  15. 2010 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan Wiser, Mark Bolinger

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of trends in the U.S. wind power market in 2010. The report analyzes trends in wind power capacity, industry, manufacturing, turbines, installed project costs, project performance, and wind power prices. It also describes trends among wind power developers, project owners, and power purchasers, and discusses financing issues.

  16. Assembling Markets for Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine

    hand, as an economic good, wind power is said to suffer from (techno-economic) ‘disabilities’, such as high costs, fluctuating and unpredictable generation, etc. Therefore, because of its performance as a good, it is argued that the survival of wind power in the market is premised on different......This project studies the making of a market for wind power in France. Markets for wind power are often referred to as ‘political markets: On the one hand, wind power has the potential to reduce CO2-emissions and thus stall the effects of electricity generation on climate change; and on the other...... instruments, some of which I will refer to as ‘prosthetic devices’. This thesis inquires into two such prosthetic devices: The feed-in tariff and the wind power development zones (ZDE) as they are negotiated and practiced in France, and also the ways in which they affect the making of markets for wind power....

  17. Market survey China. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    The title survey presents an overview of the wind developments in China, an analysis of the key market players in this sector, and an assessment of the potential future market for wind-related activities in China. The survey is concluded with a number of conclusions and recommendations

  18. 2015 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Foster, Nikolas A.F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) annual Distributed Wind Market Report provides stakeholders with statistics and analysis of the market along with insights into its trends and characteristics. By providing a comprehensive overview of the distributed wind market, this report can help plan and guide future investments and decisions by industry, utilities, federal and state agencies, and other interested parties.

  19. Wind energy. Market prospects to 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckle, R.

    2002-01-01

    Renewable energy is becoming an increasingly significant source in the energy portfolio of most countries. Several sources of renewable energy are now being pursued commercially and wind energy is the most advanced in terms of installed electricity generation capacity. Of all types of renewable energy wind energy is the one with which there is the greatest experience - wind wheels and windmills have been used in various forms for hundreds of years. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the market study. Chapter 2 begins with a review of the wind energy industry. Topics included here are the case for wind energy (sustainability, security, non-polluting etc), market structure (the relationship between developers, operators, manufacturers, consortia etc) and environmental issues. This is followed by a discussion of the wind energy market for major countries in terms of installed wind power capacity. Within each country market there is an account of government policy, major wind energy programmes, major projects with information on developers and wind turbine manufacturers. A market analysis is given which includes an economic review, wind energy targets (where they exist) and forecasts to 2006. Chapter 3 is a review of wind turbine applications covering electricity generation for public supply networks, stand alone/community applications, water pumping and water desalination. Chapter 4 provides the basic principles of wind turbine operation and associated technologies. A brief account is given of the development of wind turbines and the main components such as the tower, rotor blades, gearbox, generator and electrical controls. Electricity generation and control are outlined and the challenge of electricity storage is also discussed. Meteorological factors (wind speed etc) and the move towards off-shore wind farms are also covered. Chapter 5 contains profiles of leading wind project developers and wind turbine manufacturers. A selection of existing and proposed wind farms

  20. 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orell, A; Foster, N.

    2015-08-01

    The cover of the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report.According to the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report, distributed wind reached a cumulative capacity of almost 1 GW (906 MW) in the United States in 2014, reflecting nearly 74,000 wind turbines deployed across all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. In total, 63.6 MW of new distributed wind capacity was added in 2014, representing nearly 1,700 units and $170 million in investment across 24 states. In 2014, America's distributed wind energy industry supported a growing domestic industrial base as exports from United States-based small wind turbine manufacturers accounted for nearly 80% of United States-based manufacturers' sales.

  1. 2013 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.; Barbose, G.; Darghouth, N.; Hoen, B.; Mills, A.; Weaver, S.; Porter, K.; Buckley, M.; Oteri, F.; Tegen, S.

    2014-08-01

    This annual report provides a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2013. This 2013 edition updates data presented in previous editions while highlighting key trends and important new developments. The report includes an overview of key installation-related trends; trends in wind power capacity growth; how that growth compares to other countries and generation sources; the amount and percentage of wind energy in individual states; the status of offshore wind power development and the quantity of proposed wind power capacity in various interconnection queues in the United States.

  2. Canadian wind energy technical and market potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templin, R.J.; Rangli, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    The current status of wind energy technology in Canada is reviewed, the technical potential of wind energy in Canada is estimated, and the economic market potential is assessed under several scenarios over about the next 25 years. The technical potential is seen to be large, with applications to water pumping on farms, the coupling of wind turbines to diesel-electric systems in remote communities where fuel costs are high, and the supply of electricity to main power grids. The main-grid application has greatest technical potential, but it cannot be economically exploited under the present utility buyback rate structure for intermittent power sources. A change in government policy toward market development of renewable energy sources, such as is already taking place in several European countries, would greatly increase market potential, decrease emissions of CO 2 and SO 2 , and benefit the Canadian wind energy industry. 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Wind Generators and Market Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misir, Nihat

    price thresholds are significantly higher when the monopolist at the peakload level owns both types of generators. Furthermore, when producing electricity with the peakload generator, the monopolist can avoid facing prices below marginal cost by owning a certain share of the wind generators.......Electricity production from wind generators holds significant importance in European Union’s 20% renewable energy target by 2020. In this paper, I show that ownership of wind generators affects market outcomes by using both a Cournot oligopoly model and a real options model. In the Cournot...... oligopoly model, ownership of the wind generators by owners of fossil-fueled (peakload) generators decreases total peakload production and increases the market price. These effects increase with total wind generation and aggregate wind generator ownership. In the real options model, start up and shut down...

  4. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C.; Rhoads-Weaver, H. E.; Flowers, Larry T.; Gagne, Matthew N.; Pro, Boyd H.; Foster, Nikolas AF

    2014-08-20

    The purpose of this report is to quantify and summarize the 2013 U.S. distributed wind market to help plan and guide future investments and decisions by industry stakeholders, utilities, state and federal agencies, and other interested parties.

  5. 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R; Bolinger, M.

    2015-08-01

    According to the 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report, total installed wind power capacity in the United States grew at a rate of eight percent in 2014, bringing the United States total installed capacity to nearly 66 gigawatts (GW), which ranks second in the world and meets 4.9 percent of U.S. end-use electricity demand in an average year. In total, 4,854 MW of new wind energy capacity were installed in the United States in 2014. The 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report also finds that wind energy prices are at an all-time low and are competitive with wholesale power prices and traditional power sources across many areas of the United States. Additionally, a new trend identified by the 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report shows utility-scale turbines with larger rotors designed for lower wind speeds have been increasingly deployed across the country in 2014. The findings also suggest that the success of the U.S. wind industry has had a ripple effect on the American economy, supporting 73,000 jobs related to development, siting, manufacturing, transportation, and other industries.

  6. An improved market penetration model for wind energy technology forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P D [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1996-12-31

    An improved market penetration model with application to wind energy forecasting is presented. In the model, a technology diffusion model and manufacturing learning curve are combined. Based on a 85% progress ratio that was found for European wind manufactures and on wind market statistics, an additional wind power capacity of ca 4 GW is needed in Europe to reach a 30 % price reduction. A full breakthrough to low-cost utility bulk power markets could be achieved at a 24 GW level. (author)

  7. An improved market penetration model for wind energy technology forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    An improved market penetration model with application to wind energy forecasting is presented. In the model, a technology diffusion model and manufacturing learning curve are combined. Based on a 85% progress ratio that was found for European wind manufactures and on wind market statistics, an additional wind power capacity of ca 4 GW is needed in Europe to reach a 30 % price reduction. A full breakthrough to low-cost utility bulk power markets could be achieved at a 24 GW level. (author)

  8. An improved market penetration model for wind energy technology forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P.D. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1995-12-31

    An improved market penetration model with application to wind energy forecasting is presented. In the model, a technology diffusion model and manufacturing learning curve are combined. Based on a 85% progress ratio that was found for European wind manufactures and on wind market statistics, an additional wind power capacity of ca 4 GW is needed in Europe to reach a 30 % price reduction. A full breakthrough to low-cost utility bulk power markets could be achieved at a 24 GW level. (author)

  9. 2015 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Electricity Markets and Policy Group; Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Electricity Markets and Policy Group; Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rand, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-03

    Annual wind power capacity additions in the United States surged in 2015 and are projected to continue at a rapid clip in the coming five years. Recent and projected near-term growth is supported by the industry’s primary federal incentive—the production tax credit (PTC)—having been extended for several years (though with a phase-down schedule, described further on pages 68-69), as well as a myriad of state-level policies. Wind additions are also being driven by improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technologies, yielding low power sales prices for utility, corporate, and other purchasers. At the same time, the prospects for growth beyond the current PTC cycle remain uncertain: growth could be blunted by declining federal tax support, expectations for low natural gas prices, and modest electricity demand growth. This annual report—now in its tenth year—provides a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2015. The report begins with an overview of key installation-related trends: trends in U.S. wind power capacity growth; how that growth compares to other countries and generation sources; the amount and percentage of wind energy in individual states; the status of offshore wind power development; and the quantity of proposed wind power capacity in various interconnection queues in the United States. Next, the report covers an array of wind power industry trends: developments in turbine manufacturer market share; manufacturing and supply-chain developments; wind turbine and component imports into and exports from the United States; project financing developments; and trends among wind power project owners and power purchasers. The report then turns to a summary of wind turbine technology trends: turbine size, hub height, rotor diameter, specific power, and IEC Class. After that, the report discusses wind power performance, cost, and pricing trends. In so doing, it describes

  10. 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. wind power industry experienced yet another record year in 2009, once again surpassing even optimistic growth projections from years past. At the same time, 2009 was a year of upheaval, with the global financial crisis impacting the wind power industry and with federal policy changes enacted to push the industry toward continued aggressive expansion. The year 2010, meanwhile, is anticipated to be one of some retrenchment, with expectations for fewer wind power capacity additions than seen in 2009. The rapid pace of development and change within the industry has made it difficult to keep up with trends in the marketplace, yet the need for timely, objective information on the industry and its progress has never been greater. This report - the fourth in an ongoing annual series - attempts to meet this need by providing a detailed overview of developments and trends in the United States wind power market, with a particular focus on 2009.

  11. 2016 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Wind Technologies Market Report provides an annual overview of trends in the U.S. wind power market. You can find the report, a presentation, and a data file on the Files tab, below. Additionally, several data visualizations are available in the Data Visualizations tab. Highlights of this year’s report include: -Wind power additions continued at a rapid clip in 2016: $13 billion was invested in new wind power plants in 2016. In 2016, wind energy contributed 5.6% of the nation’s electricity supply, more than 10% of total electricity generation in fourteen states, and 29% to 37% in three of those states—Iowa, South Dakota, and Kansas. -Bigger turbines are enhancing wind project performance: Increased blade lengths, in particular, have dramatically increased wind project capacity factors, one measure of project performance. For example, the average 2016 capacity factor among projects built in 2014 and 2015 was 42.6%, compared to an average of 32.1% among projects built from 2004 to 2011 and 25.4% among projects built from 1998 to 2001. -Low wind turbine pricing continues to push down installed project costs: Wind turbine prices have fallen from their highs in 2008, to $800–$1,100/kW. Overall, the average installed cost of wind projects in 2016 was $1,590/kW, down $780/kW from the peak in 2009 and 2010. -Wind energy prices remain low: After topping out at nearly 7¢/kWh for power purchase agreements (PPAs) executed in 2009, the national average price of wind PPAs has dropped to around 2¢/kWh—though this nationwide average is dominated by projects that hail from the lowest-priced Interior region of the country (such as Texas, Iowa, Oklahoma). These prices, which are possible in part due to federal tax support, compare favorably to the projected future fuel costs of gas-fired generation. -The supply chain continued to adjust to swings in domestic demand for wind equipment: Wind sector employment reached a new high of

  12. Breezing ahead: the Spanish wind energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, Felix; Cruz, I.C.

    2000-01-01

    This article traces the rapid increase in Spain's wind generating capacity, and examines Spain's wind strategy, the assessment of wind power potential at regional level, and the guaranteeing of the market price for power generators using wind energy with yearly reviews of the price of electricity from wind power. Prices payable for electricity generated from renewable sources are listed, and the regional distribution of wind energy production is illustrated. Recent wind power installations in Spain, target levels for wind energy installations, wind farms larger than 1MW installed in 1999, and the impact of the growth of the wind energy market on the manufacturing industry and the manufacturers are discussed. Details of the wind energy capacity in the provinces of Navarra and Galicia are given, and plans for wind energy projects in the New National Plan for Scientific research, Development and Technological innovation (2000-2003) are considered

  13. Wind power in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravn, Hans F.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes organisational and economic elements related to wind power in a deregulated market, it describes physical and technical characteristics of wind power and it describes how wind power is handled in daily operation as well as on the market. (author)

  14. Optimal electricity market for wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holttinen, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is about electricity market operation when looking from the wind power producers' point of view. The focus in on market time horizons: how many hours there is between the closing and delivering the bids. The case is for the Nordic countries, the Nordpool electricity market and the Danish wind power production. Real data from year 2001 was used to study the benefits of a more flexible market to wind power producer. As a result of reduced regulating market costs from better hourly predictions to the market, wind power producer would gain up to 8% more if the time between market bids and delivery was shortened from the day ahead Elspot market (hourly bids by noon for 12-36 h ahead). An after sales market where surplus or deficit production could be traded 2 h before delivery could benefit the producer almost as much, gaining 7%

  15. Market experiences with small wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Deijl, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the marketing experiences of Lagerwey Windturbines with the exploitation of small wind turbines. Attention is paid to the market mechanisms which effect the sale and implementation of small wind turbines: payback of surplus power, provincial and regional subsidies, grid connection costs, energy prices, and flexible solutions for grid connections. Also problems with municipalities with regard to regulations or construction licenses are discussed. Some recommendations are given to stimulate the market for small wind turbines. 1 fig., 1 ref

  16. Does wind energy mitigate market power in deregulated electricity markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Moshe, Ori; Rubin, Ofir D.

    2015-01-01

    A rich body of literature suggests that there is an inverse relationship between wind power penetration rate into the electricity market and electricity prices, but it is unclear whether these observations can be generalized. Therefore, in this paper we seek to analytically characterize market conditions that give rise to this inverse relationship. For this purpose, we expand a recently developed theoretical framework to facilitate flexibility in modeling the structure of the electric industry with respect to the degree of market concentration and diversification in the ownership of wind power capacity. The analytical results and their attendant numerical illustrations indicate that the introduction of wind energy into the market does not always depress electricity prices. Such a drop in electricity prices is likely to occur when the number of firms is large enough or the ownership of wind energy is sufficiently diversified, or most often a combination of the two. Importantly, our study defines the circumstances in which the question of which type of firm invests in wind power capacity is crucial for market prices. - Highlights: • Studies show that electricity prices decrease with increased wind power capacity. • We investigate market conditions that give rise to this inverse relationship. • Average prices for wind energy are systematically lower than average market prices. • Conventional generation firms may increase market power by investing in wind farms. • Energy policy should seek to diversify the ownership of wind power capacity

  17. International wind farm markets: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rackstraw, K. [American Wind Energy Association, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    More wind energy capacity was installed in 1995 than in any previous year. Two markets, Germany and India, accounted for nearly two-thirds of those installations, while the largest single market in the world historically, the US, ground nearly to a halt. Market supports in Germany and India, however, are vulnerable to political forces largely beyond the control of the wind industry. This paper examines the growth of international wind farm markets worldwide and notes that future markets will be more broadly based, leaving the industry less vulnerable to political changes. The paper also concludes that an additional 18,500 MW could be installed by the year 2005 even without assuming a dire ecological scenario that would create environmental drivers to accelerate wind market growth. 4 figs.

  18. Market for wind turbines in italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Wind power utilization in Italy has not been very popular until the privatization of the ENEL and introduction of subsidies for private electricity producers. The greatest interest is concentrated around large wind turbines. Therefore the Danish manufacturers with know-how within large wind turbines can establish themselves on the Italian market. Cooperation with one of the four local wind turbine manufacturers is advisable. (EG)

  19. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pinson, Pierre; Morais, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase...... their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional...... offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both...

  20. Wind energy market study Eastern Europe. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.

    1994-04-01

    The main objective of the THERMIE Associated Measure WE05 is to study market conditions and estimate the market for wind power in Eastern Europe. This report describes the results of a study of the conditions in Poland, which has been concentrated on the following areas: wind energy potential in Poland; data concerning the present structure of the power production system including costs; payback prices, subsidies, etc. with relation to renewable energy sources, especially wind power; information on existing wine turbines and their production in Poland; possibilities for co-production of wind turbines by Polish and EC factories, and rules and legislation pertaining to the establishment of wind turbines and to power production by wind, eg regulations related to grid connection, safety and environment. According to existing data there are possibilities for using the wind potential in certain parts of poland. The wind data have to be improved if particular sites are considered for wind parks. The current official plans concerning the energy system have taken renewable sources into consideration, including wind power that is estimated to contribute ∼ 1 GWh by 2005-2010. Wind turbines may be connected to the public grid with due regard to the strength of the line. Presently, the owner has to pay all the costs, however, new rules are under consideration. The conditions for the connection and operation of wind turbines have to be discussed with the particular utility on an an-hoc basis. (EG)

  1. Wind power and market power in competitive markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, Paul; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Average market prices for intermittent generation technologies are lower than for conventional generation. This has a technical reason but can be exaggerated in the presence of market power. When there is much wind smaller amounts of conventional generation technologies are required, and prices are lower, while at times of little wind prices are higher. This effect reflects the value of different generation technologies to the system. But under conditions of market power, conventional generators with market power can further depress the prices if they have to buy back energy at times of large wind output and can increase prices if they have to sell additional power at times of little wind output. This greatly exaggerates the effect. Forward contracting does not reduce the effect. An important consequence is that allowing market power profit margins as a support mechanism for generation capacity investment is not a technologically neutral policy.

  2. Wind power bidding in electricity markets with high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, Michael; Botterud, Audun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze the pricing systems and wind power trading in electricity markets. • We propose a model that captures the relation between market prices and wind power. • A probabilistic bidding model can increase profits for wind power producers. • Profit maximizing bidding strategies carry risks for power system operators. • We conclude that modifications of current market designs may be needed. - Abstract: Objective: The optimal day-ahead bidding strategy is studied for a wind power producer operating in an electricity market with high wind penetration. Methods: A generalized electricity market is studied with minimal assumptions about the structure of the production, bidding, or consumption of electricity. Two electricity imbalance pricing schemes are investigated, the one price and the two price scheme. A stochastic market model is created to capture the price effects of wind power production and consumption. A bidding algorithm called SCOPES (Supply Curve One Price Estimation Strategy) is developed for the one price system. A bidding algorithm called MIMICS (Multivariate Interdependence Minimizing Imbalance Cost Strategy) is developed for the two price system. Results: Both bidding strategies are shown to have advantages over the assumed “default” bidding strategy, the point forecast. Conclusion: The success of these strategies even in the case of high deviation penalties in a one price system and the implicit deviation penalties of the two price system has substantial implications for power producers and system operators in electricity markets with a high level of wind penetration. Practice implications: From an electricity market design perspective, the results indicate that further penalties or regulations may be needed to reduce system imbalance

  3. Marketing of wind power; Vermarktung von Windenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roon, Serafin von [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    With the integration of the fluctuating production in the system of power supply, there is the question about the impact on the electricity market. The special features of the commercialization of wind energy are: (1) The production exclusively takes place supply-dependent; (2) With fex exceptions, the supplied current is compensated according to the Renewable Energy Law; (3) The actual sale is performed by the operators of transmission systems; (4) The marginal cost are close to zero; (5) The day-ahead marketing solely based on a faulty prognosis. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the actors and the process of wind power marketing. The alternative of direct marketing and the associated barriers and opportunities are discussed. The impact of the marketing of wind power on pricing in the electricity market is shown by means of an empirical analysis. The compensation amounts are be quantified, and the resulting cost to the balance of the forecast error are estimated.

  4. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  5. 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walter; Beiter, Philipp; Schwabe, Paul; Tian, Tian; Stehly, Tyler; Spitsen, Paul; Robertson, Amy; Gevorgian, Vahan

    2017-08-08

    The 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide offshore wind policymakers, regulators, developers, researchers, engineers, financiers, and supply chain participants, with quantitative information about the offshore wind market, technology, and cost trends in the United States and worldwide. In particular, this report is intended to provide detailed information on the domestic offshore wind industry to provide context to help navigate technical and market barriers and opportunities. The scope of the report covers the status of the 111 operating offshore wind projects in the global fleet through December 31, 2016, and provides the status and analysis on a broader pipeline of 593 projects at some stage of development. In addition, this report provides a wider assessment of domestic developments and events through the second quarter of 2017 to provide a more up-to-date discussion of this dynamically evolving industry.

  6. 2014 Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Bruce [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2014-08-25

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market.This 3rd annual report focuses on new developments that have occurred in 2014. The report provides stakeholders with a reliable and consistent data source addressing entry barriers and U.S. competitiveness in the offshore wind market. Available for download are both the full report and the report's underlying data.

  7. Global Wind Report. Annual market update 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullen, A.; Sawyer, S.

    2011-04-01

    GWEC's annual report is the authoritative source of information on wind power markets around the world. The Global Wind 2010 Report contains installation figures for over 70 countries for the 2010 record year, as well as a five-year forecast up to 2015 and detailed chapters on the key countries.

  8. 2016 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Wind power capacity in the United States experienced strong growth in 2016. Recent and projected near-term growth is supported by the industry’s primary federal incentive—the production tax credit (PTC)—as well as a myriad of state-level policies. Wind additions have also been driven by improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technologies, yielding low power sales prices for utility, corporate, and other purchasers.

  9. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, T.; Pinson, P.; Morais, H.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both day- ahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors.

  10. Development of Danish wind power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Niels I.

    2004-01-01

    The modern phase of Danish wind power started after the oil crisis in 1973. Based on long traditions of Danish wind power dating back to the beginning of the century a new commercial phase was initiated by small industrial entrepreneurs with support by the Danish government, the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences and green organizations. During the eighties technological development resulted in increased cost efficiency, while the investment subsidies from the state were gradually phased out. Conflicts between utilities and wind power producers over tariffs and the costs of grid connections, then slowed down the penetration of wind power on the Danish market. In addition, many local municipalities were setting up administrative barriers for wind turbines. These barriers were removed by government intervention in the early nineties when favourable feed-in tariffs were introduced together with easy access to the grid, simple procedures for construction allowances and priority to green electricity. As a result wind power was booming in the Danish home market and Danish turbines achieved a global market share of around 50%. After a change of government in December 2001, however the Danish home market for wind power has more or less collapsed. (Author)

  11. 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Daghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hansen, Dana [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-06

    Wind power capacity additions in the United States rebounded in 2014, and continued growth through 2016 is anticipated. Recent and projected near-term growth is supported by the industry’s primary federal incentive—the production tax credit (PTC)—which is available for projects that began construction by the end of 2014. Wind additions are also being driven by recent improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technologies, which have resulted in the lowest power sales prices ever seen in the U.S. wind sector. Growing corporate demand for wind energy and state-level policies play important roles as well. Expectations for continued technological advancements and cost reductions may further boost future growth. At the same time, the prospects for growth beyond 2016 are uncertain. The PTC has expired, and its renewal remains in question. Continued low natural gas prices, modest electricity demand growth, and limited near-term demand from state renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have also put a damper on growth expectations. These trends, in combination with increasingly global supply chains, have limited the growth of domestic manufacturing of wind equipment. What they mean for wind power additions through the end of the decade and beyond will be dictated in part by future natural gas prices, fossil plant retirements, and policy decisions.

  12. 2011 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Fink, Sari [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The U.S. wind power industry is facing uncertain times. With 2011 capacity additions having risen from 2010 levels and with a further sizable increase expected in 2012, there are – on the surface – grounds for optimism. Key factors driving growth in 2011 included continued state and federal incentives for wind energy, recent improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technology, and the need to meet an end-of-year construction start deadline in order to qualify for the Section 1603 Treasury grant program. At the same time, the currently-slated expiration of key federal tax incentives for wind energy at the end of 2012 – in concert with continued low natural gas prices and modest electricity demand growth – threatens to dramatically slow new builds in 2013.

  13. 2008 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. wind industry experienced a banner year in 2008, once again surpassing even optimistic growth projections from years past. At the same time, the past year has been one of upheaval, with the global financial crisis impacting near-term growth prospects for the wind industry, and with significant federal policy changes enacted to push the industry toward continued aggressive expansion. This report examines key trends.

  14. Wind power investment within a market environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baringo, L.; Conejo, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The interaction of a wind power investor and the pool is represented via an MPEC. → The considered electricity pool is cleared through a network constrained auction. → Uncertainty of load and wind production is characterized by a moderate number of scenarios. → The investment model can be recast as a mixed integer linear programming problem. → Large instances of the considered model are computationally tractable. - Abstract: Within an existing transmission network, this paper considers the problem of identifying the wind power plants to be built by a wind power investor to maximize its profit. For this analysis a future target year is considered and the loads at different buses are represented by stepwise load-duration curves. The stochastic nature of both load and wind is represented via scenarios. The considered electric energy system operates under a pool-market arrangement and each producer/consumer is paid/pays the Local Marginal Price (LMP) of the bus at which it is located. The higher the wind penetration is, the lower the resulting LMPs. To tackle this problem a stochastic bilevel model is proposed, whose upper-level represents the wind investment and operation decisions with the target of maximizing profits; and its lower-level represents the market clearing under differing load and wind conditions and provides LMPs. This model can be recast as a mixed-integer linear programming problem solvable using commercially available branch-and-cut solvers. The proposed model is illustrated using an example and two case studies.

  15. Selling wind: Lessons in green niche marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Gregory Edward

    Concern about global warming, energy independence, and threats to oil supply have increased attention on wind and other forms of renewable energy. Yet after more than twenty years, the wind industry remains dependent on government interventions. This research examined the potential of renewable energy credits (RECs) to help wind energy become profitable. Messages used to promote wind and solar energy RECs were compared with those for sustainable building materials. Findings confirm a still immature approach to marketing and sales. None of those interviewed either recognized the value of or had taken action to ensure customer retention nor recognized the role socially conscious and active consumers might play in promoting and helping develop the industry. Recommended actions include continuing research on effective marketing strategies and development of a coordinated industry message.

  16. 2012 wind technologies market report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Weaver, Samantha [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Assoc., Columbia, MD (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Assoc., Columbia, MD (United States); Fink, Sari [Exeter Assoc., Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Annual wind power capacity additions in the United States achieved record levels in 2012, motivated by the then-planned expiration of federal tax incentives at the end of 2012 and recent improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technology. At the same time, even with a short-term extension of federal tax incentives now in place, the U.S. wind power industry is facing uncertain times. It will take time to rebuild the project pipeline, ensuring a slow year for new capacity additions in 2013. Continued low natural gas prices, modest electricity demand growth, and limited near-term demand from state renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have also put a damper on industry growth expectations. In combination with global competition within the sector, these trends continue to impact the manufacturing supply chain. What these trends mean for the medium to longer term remains to be seen, dictated in part by future natural gas prices, fossil plant retirements, and policy decisions, although recent declines in the price of wind energy have boost ed the prospects for future growth

  17. 2010 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Exeter Associates; National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Energetics Incorporated; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Barbose, Galen; Darghouth, Naim; Hoen, Ben; Mills, Andrew; Seel, Joachim; Porter, Kevin; Buckley, Michael; Fink, Sari; Oteri, Frank; Raymond, Russell

    2011-06-27

    The U.S. wind power industry experienced a trying year in 2010, with a significant reduction in new builds compared to both 2008 and 2009. The delayed impact of the global financial crisis, relatively low natural gas and wholesale electricity prices, and slumping overall demand for energy countered the ongoing availability of existing federal and state incentives for wind energy deployment. The fact that these same drivers did not impact capacity additions in 2009 can be explained, in part, by the 'inertia' in capital-intensive infrastructure investments: 2009 capacity additions were largely determined by decisions made prior to the economy-wide financial crisis that was at its peak in late 2008 and early 2009, whereas decisions on 2010 capacity additions were often made at the height of the financial crisis. Cumulative wind power capacity still grew by a healthy 15% in 2010, however, and most expectations are for moderately higher wind power capacity additions in 2011 than witnessed in 2010, though those additions are also expected to remain below the 2009 high.

  18. Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-08-27

    This report is the third annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market. It includes the following major sections: Section 1: key data on developments in the offshore wind technology sector and the global development of offshore wind projects, with a particular focus on progress in the United States; Section 2: analysis of policy developments at the federal and state levels that have been effective in advancing offshore wind deployment in the United States; Section 3: analysis of actual and projected economic impact, including regional development and job creation; Section 4: analysis of developments in relevant sectors of the economy with the potential to affect offshore wind deployment in the United States

  19. Offshore wind market outlook in Northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta de Miranda, Wilfried; Trulsson, Ola; Ekloef, Eva-Britt; Niemenen, Karel

    2010-08-15

    After more than 10 years of slow developments, the offshore wind market is now accelerating. Thanks to a sustained political drive from UK and Germany, the rest of Northern Europe is now following the path as offshore wind is being recognized as one of the key resources available to the EU to meet its renewable energy ambitions. Exposed to increasing technical issues, rising costs and the financial crisis, lessons learned are now being shared and integrated throughout Europe and appropriate regulatory and planning reforms are now being deployed to speed the deployment of offshore wind. (Author)

  20. Flexible reserve markets for wind integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alisha R.

    The increased interconnection of variable generation has motivated the use of improved forecasting to more accurately predict future production with the purpose to lower total system costs for balancing when the expected output exceeds or falls short of the actual output. Forecasts are imperfect, and the forecast errors associated with utility-scale generation from variable generators need new balancing capabilities that cannot be handled by existing ancillary services. Our work focuses on strategies for integrating large amounts of wind generation under the flex reserve market, a market that would called upon for short-term energy services during an under or oversupply of wind generation to maintain electric grid reliability. The flex reserve market would be utilized for time intervals that fall in-between the current ancillary services markets that would be longer than second-to-second energy services for maintaining system frequency and shorter than reserve capacity services that are called upon for several minutes up to an hour during an unexpected contingency on the grid. In our work, the wind operator would access the flex reserve market as an energy service to correct for unanticipated forecast errors, akin to paying the generators participating in the market to increase generation during a shortfall or paying the other generators to decrease generation during an excess of wind generation. Such a market does not currently exist in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) is the Mid-Atlantic electric grid case study that was used to examine if a flex reserve market can be utilized for integrating large capacities of wind generation in a lowcost manner for those providing, purchasing and dispatching these short-term balancing services. The following work consists of three studies. The first examines the ability of a hydroelectric facility to provide short-term forecast error balancing services via a flex

  1. WINS. Market Simulation Tool for Facilitating Wind Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-10-30

    Integrating 20% or more wind energy into the system and transmitting large sums of wind energy over long distances will require a decision making capability that can handle very large scale power systems with tens of thousands of buses and lines. There is a need to explore innovative analytical and implementation solutions for continuing reliable operations with the most economical integration of additional wind energy in power systems. A number of wind integration solution paths involve the adoption of new operating policies, dynamic scheduling of wind power across interties, pooling integration services, and adopting new transmission scheduling practices. Such practices can be examined by the decision tool developed by this project. This project developed a very efficient decision tool called Wind INtegration Simulator (WINS) and applied WINS to facilitate wind energy integration studies. WINS focused on augmenting the existing power utility capabilities to support collaborative planning, analysis, and wind integration project implementations. WINS also had the capability of simulating energy storage facilities so that feasibility studies of integrated wind energy system applications can be performed for systems with high wind energy penetrations. The development of WINS represents a major expansion of a very efficient decision tool called POwer Market Simulator (POMS), which was developed by IIT and has been used extensively for power system studies for decades. Specifically, WINS provides the following superiorities; (1) An integrated framework is included in WINS for the comprehensive modeling of DC transmission configurations, including mono-pole, bi-pole, tri-pole, back-to-back, and multi-terminal connection, as well as AC/DC converter models including current source converters (CSC) and voltage source converters (VSC); (2) An existing shortcoming of traditional decision tools for wind integration is the limited availability of user interface, i.e., decision

  2. Wind Energy in the United States: Market and Research Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, P.R.; Thresher, R.W.; Hock, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    U.S. market activity has increased over the last two years. In 1998, new capacity totaled about 150 MW and projected 1999 capacity additions are over 600 MW. As the electricity market continues to evolve under restructuring, the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Wind Energy Program has positioned itself to work with industry to meet current challenges and opportunities, and prepare for the market of tomorrow. Some opportunities include green power markets and distributed applications, although a primary challenge involves the fact that avoided cost payments to renewable generators are not high enough to economically support projects. A recently incorporated power exchange in California, APX, Inc., has demonstrated that green power does attract a premium over prices on the conventional power exchange. The key elements of the U.S. DOE Wind Program are (1) Applied Research, which is critical for achieving advanced turbine designs capable of competing in a restructured market that emphasizes low cost generation; (2) Turbine Research, which supports the U.S. industry in developing competitive, high performance, reliable wind turbine technology for global energy markets; and (3) Cooperative Research and Testing, under which standards development and certification testing are the key activities for the current year

  3. Market penetration of large wind/diesel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronborg, T.

    1992-01-01

    Burmeister ampersand Wain is developing a large size wind/diesel package in collaboration with Micon, the Danish wind turbine manufacturer, and the Danish utility NESA. The package comprises an initial calculation of the technical feasibility and the economic viability of an actual project, installing the optimum number of large wind turbines, and service, operation, and maintenance as needed. The concept should be seen as an addition to existing diesel-based power stations. Wind turbines are especially advantageous in smaller diesel-based electrical systems in the 1-20 MW range because such systems can have high fuel costs and expensive maintenance. Analysis of the market for the wind/diesel concept indicates islands and remote areas with limited population are likely candidates for implementation of wind/diesel systems. An example of an economic analysis of a wind/diesel application on an isolated island is presented, showing the cost savings possible. To obtain practical experience and to demonstrate the wind/diesel concept, a MW-size demonstration plant is being constructed in Denmark

  4. Small Wind Turbine Applications: Current Practice in Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Jim

    1999-01-01

    Numerous small wind turbines are being used by homeowners in Colorado. Some of these installations are quite recent while others date back to the federal tax-credit era of the early 1980s. Through visits with small wind turbine owners in Colorado, I have developed case studies of six small wind energy applications focusing on the wind turbine technology, wind turbine siting, the power systems and electric loads, regulatory issues, and motivations about wind energy. These case studies offer a glimpse into the current state-of-the-art of small-scale wind energy and provide some insight into issues affecting development of a wider market

  5. Latin America wind market assessment. Forecast 2013-2022

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-15

    Wind Power Activities by Country: Developers/Owners, Wind Plant Sizes, Wind Turbines Deployed, Commissioning Dates, Market Share, and Capacity Forecasts Latin American markets are a subject of intense interest from the global wind industry. Wind plant construction across Latin America is modest compared to the more established markets like the United States, Europe, and China, but it is an emerging market that is taking off at a rapid pace. The region has become the hottest alternative growth market for the wind energy industry at a time when growth rates in other markets are flat due to a variety of policy and macroeconomic challenges. Globalization is driving sustainable economic growth in most Latin American countries, resulting in greater energy demand. Wind is increasingly viewed as a valuable and essential answer to increasing electricity generation across most markets in Latin America. Strong wind resources, coupled with today's sophisticated wind turbines, are providing cost-effective generation that is competitive with fossil fuel generation. Most Latin American countries also rely heavily on hydroelectricity, which balances well with variable wind generation. Navigant Research forecasts that if most wind plants under construction with planned commissioning go online as scheduled, annual wind power installations in Latin America will grow from nearly 2.2 GW in 2013 to 4.3 GW by 2022. This Navigant Research report provides a comprehensive view of the wind energy market dynamics at play in Latin America. It offers a country-by-country analysis, outlining the key energy policies and development opportunities and barriers and identifying which companies own operational wind plants and which wind turbine vendors supplied those projects. Market forecasts for wind power installations, capacity, and market share in Latin America, segmented by country and company, extend through 2022. The report also offers an especially close analysis of Brazil and Mexico

  6. Wind energy: A review of technical and market issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrad, A.D. [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd., Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. The paper is divided into three sections: the market, the technology, and general conclusions. The market section compares European and US wind energy growth and contributing factors and barriers to growth. A technology overview discusses wind turbine concepts, mass reduction, blade structural flexibility, and growth in machine size. Political decisions, economic aspects, public acceptance, and technology limitations are assessed for their influence on the growth of wind energy. 11 figs.

  7. Changing winds. BTM's world market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.

    2006-01-01

    An update of what has happened in the past year in the worldwide wind energy market, and what is expected to happen in the near future, are given. In 2005, the USA was the world's single biggest wind market, installing 2431 MW. Data are also given for some European and Asian states, and Australasia. The increase in the USA was due to the reintroduction of the Production Tax Credit. Vestas maintained its position as world leader in turbine manufacture but its market share decreased from 34% to 27.9%. Data for all top ten manufacturers are given. In 2005, there were increases of up to 30% in the price of turbines due to an increase in cost of raw materials and increased profit margins in a seller's market. The increase in prices has had a marked impact on offshore systems where the economics were already marginal. Summaries of the future prospects of 15 individual countries are given, together with forecasts for 2011-2015

  8. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Lori [Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  9. Price volatility in wind dominant electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    High penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources causes price volatility in future electricity markets. This is specially the case in European countries that plan high penetration levels. This highlights the necessity for revising market regulations and mechanisms in accordance...... to generation combination portfolio. Proposed solutions should be able to tackle with emerging challenges which are mainly due to high variability and unpredictability of intermittent renewable resources. In this paper high price volatility will be introduced as an emerging challenge in wind dominant...... electricity markets. High price volatility is unappreciated because it imposes high financial risk levels to both electricity consumers and producers. Additionally high price variations impede tracking price signals by consumers in future smart grid and jeopardize implementation of demand response concepts...

  10. Sharing wind power forecasts in electricity markets: A numerical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exizidis, Lazaros; Pinson, Pierre; Kazempour, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    In an electricity pool with significant share of wind power, all generators including conventional and wind power units are generally scheduled in a day-ahead market based on wind power forecasts. Then, a real-time market is cleared given the updated wind power forecast and fixed day......-ahead decisions to adjust power imbalances. This sequential market-clearing process may cope with serious operational challenges such as severe power shortage in real-time due to erroneous wind power forecasts in day-ahead market. To overcome such situations, several solutions can be considered such as adding...... flexible resources to the system. In this paper, we address another potential solution based on information sharing in which market players share their own wind power forecasts with others in day-ahead market. This solution may improve the functioning of sequential market-clearing process through making...

  11. Prospects of the French offshore wind power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-12-01

    This market study about the French offshore wind power industry presents: 1 - the bases of the offshore wind power market: wind turbine operation principle, foundations and scale change; 2 - business model of offshore wind power projects: logistical, technical and financial challenges, cost structure and profitability of projects (investment, power generation costs, incentive mechanisms), project development time; 3 - European and French regulatory framework: the energy/climate package, the French 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' commitments for the development of renewable energies; 4 - start up of the French offshore wind power market: the onshore wind power market looking for growth relaying, the lateness of the offshore market, outlines of the call for bids and of the first phase launching (schedule, selected sites and candidates), market development stakes and opportunities; 5 - offshore wind power overview in Europe - lessons for the French market prospects: status of the European market (installed power/country, projects in progress), European leaders of the market (analysis of the British, Danish and German markets successful takeoff), specificities of the French market (are all favourable conditions present?); 6 - takeoff of the French market - what opportunities on the overall value chain?: front-end of the industry (manufacturers and component suppliers: industry structure, competition, R and D, subcontractors in France), back-end of the industry (developers/operators: sector analysis, ambitions, alliances, competences), specific French know-how in offshore installation and connection of wind turbines (reconversion of harbour areas, re-positioning of shipbuilding industry). (J.S.)

  12. Value of flexible resources, virtual bidding, and self-scheduling in two-settlement electricity markets with wind generation - Part II: ISO Models and Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazempour, Jalal; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2017-01-01

    In Part II of this paper, we present formulations for three two-settlement market models: baseline cost-minimization (Stoch-Opt); and two sequential market models in which an independent system operator (ISO) runs real-time (RT) balancing markets after making day-ahead (DA) generating unit...... commitment decisions based upon deterministic wind forecasts, while virtual bidders arbitrage the two markets (Seq and SeqSS). The latter two models differ in terms of whether some slow-start generators can self-schedule in the DA market while anticipating probabilities of RT prices. Models in Seq and Seq......-SS build on components of the two-settlement equilibrium model (Stoch-MP) defined in Part I of this paper [1]. We then provide numerical results for all four models. A simple single-node case illustrates the economic impacts of flexibility, virtual bidding, and self-schedules, and is followed by a larger...

  13. Wind power generation and dispatch in competitive power markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Lisias

    Wind energy is currently the fastest growing type of renewable energy. The main motivation is led by more strict emission constraints and higher fuel prices. In addition, recent developments in wind turbine technology and financial incentives have made wind energy technically and economically viable almost anywhere. In restructured power systems, reliable and economical operation of power systems are the two main objectives for the ISO. The ability to control the output of wind turbines is limited and the capacity of a wind farm changes according to wind speeds. Since this type of generation has no production costs, all production is taken by the system. Although, insufficient operational planning of power systems considering wind generation could result in higher system operation costs and off-peak transmission congestions. In addition, a GENCO can participate in short-term power markets in restructured power systems. The goal of a GENCO is to sell energy in such a way that would maximize its profitability. However, due to market price fluctuations and wind forecasting errors, it is essential for the wind GENCO to keep its financial risk at an acceptable level when constituting market bidding strategies. This dissertation discusses assumptions, functions, and methodologies that optimize short-term operations of power systems considering wind energy, and that optimize bidding strategies for wind producers in short-term markets. This dissertation also discusses uncertainties associated with electricity market environment and wind power forecasting that can expose market participants to a significant risk level when managing the tradeoff between profitability and risk.

  14. Potentials and market prospects of wind energy in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Vladimir A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of the wind energy potentials, technologies and market prospects in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, the region of Serbia with the most suitable location for exploitation of wind energy. The main characteristics of the region have been presented regarding wind energy and electric, road, railway and waterway infrastructure. The wind farm interconnection with the public grid is explained. The most suitable locations for the wind farms are presented, with present situation and future prospects of wind market in Vojvodina.

  15. Marketing strategy for retailing small-scale wind energy turbines in Indian markets

    OpenAIRE

    Harjula, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The study analyzes the small-scale wind energy markets in Mumbai, focusing on questions: How feasible is the wind energy for SME businesses in Mumbai, and what are the main challenges and opportunities of small-scale wind energy in Mumbai? The study is a qualitative case study, in which, the data has been collected through observing the markets by visiting wind energy sites and companies, interviewing and meeting potential customers and other stakeholders in the market. Theoretical frame...

  16. Wind generation systems for remote communities: market assessment and guidelines for wind turbines selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brothers, C.

    1993-06-01

    Wind technology and its market potential in remote communities of the Canadian North were discussed. These communities, unserviced by the main utility electricity grid, generate their own electricity using high quality, expensive diesel fuel to power diesel driven generators. The logistics of delivering fuel to these remote communities is an expensive operation. Wind resource in many of these communities is substantial and wind energy is seen as a prime candidate for supplying electricity to many potential sites in the Arctic and also areas in Quebec and Newfoundland. However, the severe service (i.e., cold climate, remote locations with limited facilities) requires special considerations to ensure that equipment installed performs reliably. This report described some demonstration projects in northern Canada over the last ten years, where an understanding of the special needs of wind turbines in remote areas has been developed. A guide which assessed the suitability of wind turbines for Arctic applications was included to assist organisations in preparing requirements to be used in acquiring wind turbines for use in cold regions. Refs., tabs., figs

  17. 2014-2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Aaron

    2015-11-18

    This presentation provides an overview of progress toward offshore wind cost reduction in Europe and implications for the U.S. market. The presentation covers an overview of offshore wind developments, economic and performance trends, empirical evidence of LCOE reduction, and challenges and opportunities in the U.S. market.

  18. Small wind rising? Is the market for building-mounted wind power about to pick up?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slowe, J.

    2006-01-01

    The potential market for small roof-mounted wind turbines is discussed. Should the technology prove popular, the market would be enormous. Delta Energy and Environment has prepared a study called, Roof Top Wind Turbines: A Product for Mass Markets? At present, the future for roof-mounted wind turbines is unclear: predictions range from little or no market at all to mass installations with a payback period of as little as five years. Several small roof-top turbines are described. A critical factor influencing the efficiency of a roof-mounted wind turbine is the air flow pattern over the roof which may in turn be affected by neighbouring buildings. (author)

  19. Integrating wind output with bulk power operations and wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, E.

    2002-01-01

    Wind farms have three characteristics that complicate their widespread application as an electricity resource: limited control, unpredictability and variability. Therefore the integration of wind output into bulk power electric systems is qualitatively different from that of other types of generators. The electric system operator must move other generators up or down to offset the time-varying wind fluctuations. Such movements raise the costs of fuel and maintenance for these other generators. Not only is wind power different, it is new. The operators of bulk power systems have limited experience in integrating wind output into the larger system. As a consequence, market rules that treat wind fairly - neither subsidizing nor penalizing its operation - have not yet been developed. The lack of data and analytical methods encourages wind advocates and sceptics to rely primarily on their biases and beliefs in suggesting how wind should be integrated into bulk power systems. This project helps fill this data and analysis gap. Specifically, it develops and applies a quantitative method for the integration of a wind resource into a large electric system. The method permits wind to bid its output into a short-term forward market (specifically, an hour-ahead energy market) or to appear in real time and accept only intrahour and hourly imbalance payments for the unscheduled energy it delivers to the system. Finally, the method analyses the short-term (minute-to-minute) variation in wind output to determine the regulation requirement the wind resource imposes on the electrical system. (author)

  20. Analysis of wind energy market and jobs in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perot, Olivier; Autier, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    This report presents an overview of wind energy production and of the wind energy sector in France. Illustrated by maps, graphs and tables, it notices and comments the steady situation of jobs, and the existence of a structured value chain, and a variety of actors. It describes and analyses job locations in metropolitan France and outlines that the wind energy sector is a lever for development and creates opportunities for regions. The second part addresses the wind energy market. It proposes an assessment of the French market (a new start in 2014, a competitive market with some dynamic regions) and a review of the technological evolution of the wind energy industry (continuous evolutions, strong emergence of wind farms, and an increasing production). Appendices propose presentations of actors per category (developers, operators, machine manufacturers, component manufacturer, public works and logistics, maintenance, consultants and experts), and sheets indicating the presence of actors, installed power and number of wind farms in the different French regions

  1. System and market integration of wind power in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Alberg Østergaard, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Denmark has more than 10 years’ of experience with a wind share of approximately 20 per cent. During these 10 years, electricity markets have been subject to developments with a key focus on integrating wind power as well as trading electricity with neighbouring countries. This article introduces...... a methodology to analyse and understand the current market integration of wind power and concludes that the majority of Danish wind power in the period 2004e2008 was used to meet the domestic demand. Based on a physical analysis, at least 63 per cent of Danish wind power was used domestically in 2008....... To analyse the remaining 37 per cent, we must apply a market model to identify cause-effect relationships. The Danish case does not illustrate any upper limit for wind power integration, as also illustrated by Danish political targets to integrate 50 per cent by 2020. In recent years, Danish wind power has...

  2. Review of Contemporary Wind Turbine Concepts and their Market Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A. D.; Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to investigate the market penetration and share of different wind turbine concepts during the years 1998-2002, a period when the increase in the wind power capacity is starting to mark an abrupt evolution. A detailed overview is performed based on suppliers market data...... and concept evaluation for each individual wind turbine type sold by the Top Ten suppliers over the selected five years?.....

  3. The Spanish Wind Energy Market. Balance and Outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, M.

    1999-01-01

    The present work accomplishes a revision to the situation of the wind market in Spain, its recent evolution, its regional distribution, the principal actors of the market (manufacturers, promoters). The balance includes a review of the programs of institutional support to wind energy, an analysis of the current installation costs and electricity production costs. Finally, other variables related the integration of wind energy are analysed, as the potential of employment generation or the associated environmental factors. (Author) 5 refs

  4. Equilibrium pricing in electricity markets with wind power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Ofir David

    Estimates from the World Wind Energy Association assert that world total wind power installed capacity climbed from 18 Gigawatt (GW) to 152 GW from 2000 to 2009. Moreover, according to their predictions, by the end of 2010 global wind power capacity will reach 190 GW. Since electricity is a unique commodity, this remarkable expansion brings forward several key economic questions regarding the integration of significant amount of wind power capacity into deregulated electricity markets. The overall dissertation objective is to develop a comprehensive theoretical framework that enables the modeling of the performance and outcome of wind-integrated electricity markets. This is relevant because the state of knowledge of modeling electricity markets is insufficient for the purpose of wind power considerations. First, there is a need to decide about a consistent representation of deregulated electricity markets. Surprisingly, the related body of literature does not agree on the very economic basics of modeling electricity markets. That is important since we need to capture the fundamentals of electricity markets before we introduce wind power to our study. For example, the structure of the electric industry is a key. If market power is present, the integration of wind power has large consequences on welfare distribution. Since wind power uncertainty changes the dynamics of information it also impacts the ability to manipulate market prices. This is because the quantity supplied by wind energy is not a decision variable. Second, the intermittent spatial nature of wind over a geographical region is important because the market value of wind power capacity is derived from its statistical properties. Once integrated into the market, the distribution of wind will impact the price of electricity produced from conventional sources of energy. Third, although wind power forecasting has improved in recent years, at the time of trading short-term electricity forwards, forecasting

  5. Wind Observatory 2017. Analysis of the wind power market, wind jobs and future of the wind industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    Two years after the enactment of the Energy Transition for Green Growth Act, wind power capacity continues to grow in France, exceeding 12 GWatt the end of 2016 and soon to account for 5% of France's electric power consumption. This vitality, which is set to continue in 2017, will help France achieve its objectives of an installed capacity of 15,000 MW in onshore wind by 2018 and 21,800 to 26,000 MW by 2023. The current pace will nevertheless have to be accelerated in order to reach the realistic objective of 26 GW by 2023 mentioned in the multi-annual energy plan (PPE). With 1,400 jobs created in one year and more than 3,300 over the last two years, the relevance of wind power as a driving force of sustainable job creation throughout the country is unequivocally confirmed: the increase in wind power capacity continues to contribute to the growth in employment in the country. Prepared in collaboration with the consulting firm BearingPoint, the 2017 edition of the Observatory aims to give the reader an overview of employment in the wind industry and the wind power market over the period under consideration. Any changes from the three previous editions are highlighted. It is based on a comprehensive census of all market participants on three themes: employment, the market and the future of wind power. The Observatory gives an accurate picture of how the wind energy industry is structured, thereby presenting a precise overview of the wind energy industry and all its components

  6. Sharing wind power forecasts in electricity markets: A numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exizidis, Lazaros; Kazempour, S. Jalal; Pinson, Pierre; Greve, Zacharie de; Vallée, François

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Information sharing among different agents can be beneficial for electricity markets. • System cost decreases by sharing wind power forecasts between different agents. • Market power of wind producer may increase by sharing forecasts with market operator. • Extensive out-of-sample analysis is employed to draw reliable conclusions. - Abstract: In an electricity pool with significant share of wind power, all generators including conventional and wind power units are generally scheduled in a day-ahead market based on wind power forecasts. Then, a real-time market is cleared given the updated wind power forecast and fixed day-ahead decisions to adjust power imbalances. This sequential market-clearing process may cope with serious operational challenges such as severe power shortage in real-time due to erroneous wind power forecasts in day-ahead market. To overcome such situations, several solutions can be considered such as adding flexible resources to the system. In this paper, we address another potential solution based on information sharing in which market players share their own wind power forecasts with others in day-ahead market. This solution may improve the functioning of sequential market-clearing process through making more informed day-ahead schedules, which reduces the need for balancing resources in real-time operation. This paper numerically evaluates the potential value of sharing forecasts for the whole system in terms of system cost reduction. Besides, its impact on each market player’s profit is analyzed. The framework of this study is based on a stochastic two-stage market setup and complementarity modeling, which allows us to gain further insights into information sharing impacts.

  7. The market value and impact of offshore wind on the electricity spot market: Evidence from Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ederer, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Market value of offshore wind based on feed-in and weather data is assessed. • Merit order effect caused by wind energy is simulated for 2006–2014. • Results indicate same impact of on- and offshore wind on market price and value. • Steadier wind resource offshore imposes less variability on market price. • Characteristic of variable wind feed-in cannot be blamed for price deterioration. - Abstract: Although the expansion of offshore wind has recently increased in Germany, as in other countries, it is still forced to defend its role in long-term energy policy plans, particularly against its onshore counterpart, to secure future expansion targets and financial support. The objective of this article is to investigate the economic effects of offshore wind on the electricity spot market and thus open up another perspective that has not been part of the debate about offshore vs. onshore wind thus far. A comprehensive assessment based on a large amount of market, feed-in and weather data in Germany revealed that the market value of offshore wind is generally higher than that of onshore wind. Simulating the merit order effect on the German day-ahead electricity market for the short term and long term in the years 2006–2014 aimed to identify the reason for this observation and show whether it is also an indication of a lower impact on the electricity spot market due to a steadier wind resource prevailing offshore. Although the results suggest no difference regarding the impact on market price and value, they indeed reveal that offshore wind imposes less variability on the spot market price than onshore wind. In addition, the long-term simulation proved that the ongoing price deterioration cannot be blamed on the characteristic of variable wind production

  8. Analysis of Ideal Towers for Tall Wind Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Joseph O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Innovation in wind turbine tower design is of significant interest for future development of wind power plants. First, wind turbine towers account for a large portion of overall capital expenditures for wind power projects. Second, for low wind-resource regions of the world, the use of low-cost tall-tower technology has the potential to open new markets for development. This study investigates the relative potential of various tower configurations in terms of mass and cost. For different market applications and hub heights, idealized tall towers are designed and compared. The results show that innovation in wind turbine controls makes reaching higher hub heights with current technology economically viable. At the same time, new technologies hold promise for reducing tower costs as these technologies mature and hub heights reach twice the current average.

  9. Analysis of Ideal Towers for Tall Wind Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Joseph O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-27

    Innovation in wind turbine tower design is of significant interest for future development of wind power plants. First, wind turbine towers account for a large portion of overall capital expenditures for wind power projects. Second, for low wind-resource regions of the world, the use of low-cost tall-tower technology has the potential to open new markets for development. This study investigates the relative potential of various tower configurations in terms of mass and cost. For different market applications and hub heights, idealized tall towers are designed and compared. The results show that innovation in wind turbine controls makes reaching higher hub heights with current technology economically viable. At the same time, new technologies hold promise for reducing tower costs as these technologies mature and hub heights reach twice the current average.

  10. Market integration of wind power in electricity system balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorknæs, Peter; Andersen, Anders N.; Tang, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In most countries markets for electricity are divided into wholesale markets on which electricity is traded before the operation hour, and real-time balancing markets to handle the deviations from the wholesale trading. So far, wind power has been sold only on the wholesale market and has been...... known to increase the need for balancing. This article analyses whether wind turbines in the future should participate in the balancing markets and thereby play a proactive role. The analysis is based on a real-life test of proactive participation of a wind farm in West Denmark. It is found...... that the wind farm is able to play a proactive role regarding downward regulation and thereby increase profits....

  11. Marketing Strategic Choices for Wind Technology in China : case: Chinese Domestic Wind Technology Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yi

    2011-01-01

    There are almost 80 wind turbine manufacturers in China. However, the supportive government policies are the fact behind the rapid growth of those case companies. In reality, there are less than 10 Chinese wind turbine manufacturers with actual production capacity. Most of them lack core technology and depend in many ways on state patronage. The current situation is worrisome. Therefore, the correct comprehension of wind power market conditions and the consequent adoption of right marketing s...

  12. Marketing strategic choice for wind power technology in China : case: Chinese domestic wind technology companies

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yi

    2011-01-01

    There are almost 80 wind turbine manufacturers in China. However, the supportive government policies are the fact behind the rapid growth of those case companies. In reality, there are less than 10 Chinese wind turbine manufacturers with actual production capacity. Most of them lack core technology and depend in many ways on state patronage. The current situation is worrisome. Therefore, the correct comprehension of wind power market conditions and the consequent adoption of right marketing s...

  13. Forecasting and decision-making in electricity markets with focus on wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Tryggvi

    This thesis deals with analysis, forecasting and decision making in liberalised electricity markets. Particular focus is on wind power, its interaction with the market and the daily decision making of wind power generators. Among recently emerged renewable energy generation technologies, wind power...... derivation of practically applicable tools for decision making highly relevant. The main characteristics of wind power differ fundamentally from those of conventional thermal power. Its effective generation capacity varies over time and is directly dependent on the weather. This dependency makes future...... has become the global leader in terms of installed capacity and advancement. This makes wind power an ideal candidate to analyse the impact of growing renewable energy generation capacity on the electricity markets. Furthermore, its present status of a significant supplier of electricity makes...

  14. The European market of the wind energy and its perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddebaud, D.

    2005-01-01

    This study presents a whole panorama of the wind energy market and its perspectives. It proposes an analysis of the strategical place of the main manufacturers and operators and presents the activities, the key data and the development strategies of 14 wind power market operators. It aims to answer the following questions: What are the new possibilities for the mature markets? What will be the impact of the offshore wind power? What is the future of the independent manufacturers and of the industrialists? (A.L.B.)

  15. 77 FR 57082 - Prairie Rose Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2542-000] Prairie Rose Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Rose Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  16. 76 FR 72697 - Heritage Garden Wind Farm I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-421-000] Heritage Garden Wind Farm I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Heritage Garden Wind Farm I, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  17. 75 FR 27339 - Blackstone Wind Farm II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1184-000] Blackstone Wind Farm II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Blackstone Wind Farm, LLCs application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  18. 75 FR 76727 - Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2201-000] Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  19. 78 FR 26771 - Mesa Wind Power Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Wind Power Corporation's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1346-000] Mesa Wind Power Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  20. 77 FR 62510 - Niagara Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Wind Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-17-000] Niagara Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  1. 75 FR 18201 - Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-975-000] Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  2. 75 FR 52321 - Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... proceeding, of Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1720-000] Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  3. 75 FR 42745 - Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1725-000] Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  4. 76 FR 41238 - Post Rock Wind Power Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3959-000] Post Rock Wind Power Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Rock Wind Power Project, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  5. 75 FR 68352 - Salmon Falls Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-1893-000] Salmon Falls Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Salmon Falls Wind Park, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  6. 75 FR 42744 - Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1637-000] Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  7. 76 FR 6614 - Elk Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2765-000] Elk Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Elk Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  8. 77 FR 21555 - Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1400-000] Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  9. 77 FR 47625 - Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2313-000] Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request For... Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  10. 75 FR 42743 - Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1673-000] Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...-referenced proceeding of Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC's application for market- based rate...

  11. 78 FR 62300 - Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER14-25-000] Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Breeze Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  12. 75 FR 57016 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2522-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...-referenced proceeding of Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  13. 77 FR 106 - California Ridge Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-645-000] California Ridge Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... California Ridge Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  14. 77 FR 41400 - Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2200-000] Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  15. 76 FR 69720 - NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. ER12-295-000] NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  16. 75 FR 71425 - North Wind Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... proceeding, of North Wind Turbines, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2108-000] North Wind Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  17. 75 FR 74039 - FPL Energy Montezuma Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... proceeding, of FPL Energy Montezuma Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2160-000] FPL Energy Montezuma Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  18. 76 FR 61687 - NextEra Energy Montezuma II Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4677-000] NextEra Energy Montezuma II Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of NextEra Energy Montezuma II Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  19. 75 FR 18202 - Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-956-000] Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Vantage Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  20. Financing wind power projects : perspectives from the US market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation outlined the recent assignments, core competencies and scope of services provided by Alyra Renewable Energy Finance Advisors. Renewable energy developers seek Alyra's assistance in developing strategies to achieve the most competitive solutions in finance and strategy. Alyra has broad finance expertise in renewable energy projects, a deep knowledge of markets and a significant wind industry network. Alyra identifies emerging issues, completes financing solutions and helps with contract negotiations. This presentation outlined the notable features of wind financing, wind assessment, offtake arrangements, equity considerations, US wind debt markets, long term bank financing, and combined bank and private placement financing. It also included recent debt market activity for seven large wind farms in the United States. tabs., figs

  1. Wind energy market study Eastern Europe. Czech and Slovak Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.

    1994-06-01

    The main objective of the THERMIE Associated Measure WE05 is to study the conditions for utilising wind power and estimate the market for wind power in Eastern Europe. This report describes the results of a study of the conditions in the Czech and Slovak republics, which has been concentrated on the following areas: A collection of information on the wind energy potential in these countries and the present structure of the power production system including costs; A search for information concerning payback prices, subsidies, etc. with relation to renewable energy sources, especially wind power, existing wind turbines and their production; An estimate of the possibilities for co-production of wind turbines by Czech, Slovak, and EC factories; A compilation of information on rules and legislation pertaining to the establishment of wind turbines and to power production by wind, e.g. regulations related to grid connections, safety, and environmental production. In order to promote the utilisation of wind power in the Czech and Slovak Republics, some recommendations based on this study may be put forward: the operation of pilot plants should be evaluated in order to compare the recorded production with that which is estimated theoretically based on measured wind data. Existing wind data should be supplemented with new measurements especially at sites that based on current knowledge may be suitable for establishing wind parks. The economic feasibility of wind power in these countries should be calculated based on the best available physical and economic data. (EG)

  2. 2014–2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron Smith, Tyler Stehly, Walt Musial

    2015-09-30

    This report provides data and analysis to assess the status of the U.S. offshore wind industry through June 30, 2015. It builds on the foundation laid by the Navigant Consortium, which produced three market reports between 2012 and 2014. The report summarizes domestic and global market developments, technology trends, and economic data to help U.S. offshore wind industry stakeholders, including policymakers, regulators, developers, financiers, and supply chain participants, to identify barriers and opportunities.

  3. Optimal contracts for wind power producers in electricity markets

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E.; Giani, A.; Rajagopal, R.; Varagnolo, D.; Khargonekar, P.; Poolla, K.; Varaiya, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is focused on optimal contracts for an independent wind power producer in conventional electricity markets. Starting with a simple model of the uncertainty in the production of power from a wind turbine farm and a model for the electric

  4. Market Prices in a Power Market with more than 50% Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Grohnheit, Poul Erik

    2018-01-01

    Denmark has the highest proportion of wind power in the world. Wind power provided a world record of 39.1% of the total annual Danish electricity consumption in 2014 with as much as 51.7% in Western Denmark. Many would argue that the present power markets are not designed for such high shares...... of wind power production and that it would be hard to get good and stable prices. However, analyses in this chapter show that the Nordic power market works, extreme events have been few, and the current infrastructure and market organization has been able to handle the amount of wind power installed so...... far. It is found that geographical bidding areas for the wholesale electricity market reflect external transmission constraints caused by wind power. The analyses in this chapter use hourly data from West Denmark—which has the highest share of wind energy in Denmark and which is a separate price area...

  5. Market Prices in a Power Market with more than 50% Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Grohnheit, Poul Erik

    2017-01-01

    Denmark has the highest proportion of wind power in the world. Wind power provided a world record of 39.1% of the total annual Danish electricity consumption in 2014 with as much as 51.7% in Western Denmark. Many would argue that the present power markets are not designed for such high shares...... of wind power production and that it would be hard to get good and stable prices. However, analyses in this chapter show that the Nordic power market works, extreme events have been few, and the current infrastructure and market organization has been able to handle the amount of wind power installed so...... far. It is found that geographical bidding areas for the wholesale electricity market reflect external transmission constraints caused by wind power. The analyses in this chapter use hourly data from West Denmark—which has the highest share of wind energy in Denmark and which is a separate price area...

  6. Potential market of wind farm in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pengfei Shi [Hydropower Planning General Inst., Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    Wind energy resources are abundant in China, in southeast coast area along with the rapid economic growth, electricity demand has been sharply increased, due to complex terrain detailed assessments are in urgent need. Advanced methodology and computer model should be developed. In this paper the existing wind farms, installed capacity, manufacturers share and projects in the near future are presented. For further development of wind farm in large scale, different ways of local manufacturing wind turbine generators (WTG) are going on. Current policy and barriers are analyzed. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Impact of Public Aggregate Wind Forecasts on Electricity Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exizidis, Lazaros; Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Following a call to foster a transparent and more competitive market, member states of the European transmission system operator are required to publish, among other information, aggregate wind power forecasts. The publication of the latter information is expected to benefit market participants...... by offering better knowledge of the market operation, leading subsequently to a more competitive energy market. Driven by the above regulation, we consider an equilibrium study to address how public information of aggregate wind power forecasts can potentially affect market results, social welfare as well...... as the profits of participating power producers. We investigate, therefore, a joint day-ahead energy and reserve auction, where producers offer their conventional power strategically based on a complementarity approach and their wind power at generation cost based on a forecast. In parallel, an iterative game...

  8. Development of Danish Wind Power Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2007-01-01

    The modern phase of Danish wind power started after the oil crisis in 1973. During the eighties technological development resulted in increased cost efficiency. In the early nineties favourable feed-in tariffs were introduced together with easy access to the grid. As a result wind power was booming...

  9. The Impact of Wind Power on European Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Due to its clean burning properties, low investment costs and flexibility in production, natural gas is often put forward as the ideal partner fuel for wind power and other renewable sources of electricity generation with strongly variable output. This working paper examines three vital questions associated with this premise: 1) Is natural gas indeed the best partner fuel for wind power? 2) If so, to what extent will an increasing market share of wind power in European electricity generation affect demand for natural gas in the power sector? and 3) Considering the existing European natural gas markets, is natural gas capable of fulfilling this role of partner for renewable sources of electricity?.

  10. Assembling markets for wind power. An inquiry into the making of market devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallesen, T.

    2013-04-15

    This project studies the making of a market for wind power in France. Markets for wind power, as well as markets for other renewable energies, are often referred to as 'political markets: On the one hand, wind power has the potential to reduce CO{sub 2}-emissions and thus stall the effects of electricity generation on climate change; and on the other hand, as an economic good, wind power is said to suffer from 'disabilities', such as high costs, fluctuating and unpredictable generation, etc. Therefore, because of its performance as a good, it is argued that the survival of wind power in the market is premised on different instruments, some of which I will refer to as 'prosthetic devices'. This thesis inquires into two such prosthetic devices: The feed-in tariff and the wind power development zones (ZDE) as they are negotiated and practiced in France, and the ways in which they affect the making of markets for wind power. In this thesis, it is argued that while the two devices frame the price of wind power and the location of turbines, they also affect and address questions of costs, profitability, and efficiency; and as such, they may be investigated as market devices. (Author)

  11. Wind's share in global energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, B.T.

    1997-01-01

    The question of how great of a contribution wind power can really make to the world's energy needs is discussed. Emphasis up until recently has been mainly on improving wind turbine technology and siting practices as it is these that will provide an answer. The International Energy Agency predicts that world energy demand will increase by 30-50% by 2010. More countries than ever are either using wind power now or are preparing for its use. Wind power continues to improve its price competitiveness. There is enough wind to cover our energy needs many times over, according to some reports twice the world's electricity supply could be met by utilizing just 5-10% of areas identified as having average wind speeds of 5 m/s or greater - ignoring population centers, forests and specially protected areas. But a major limiting factor to utilizing the available wind resource is the established grid systems, which can only base 20% of supply on wind power. It is concluded that wind can contribute significantly to the world's energy needs in the next century and beyond. If wind, which has taken giant leaps in improving its competitiveness over the past 20 hears, can be a major energy contributor by early next century, other renewables such as solar and biomass might also evolve to become major contributors too. If so, renewables, including hydro, could conceivably cover 50% of our energy needs by the middle of the next century. Much will depend on decision-makers at the centers of power. For Europe and certain other areas of the world, policies governing cross-border trade of electricity as well as the framework for environmental protection related to energy production will determine the final outcome

  12. Market protocols in ERCOT and their effect on wind generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Hurlbut, David

    2010-01-01

    Integrating wind generation into power systems and wholesale electricity markets presents unique challenges due to the characteristics of wind power, including its limited dispatchability, variability in generation, difficulty in forecasting resource availability, and the geographic location of wind resources. Texas has had to deal with many of these issues beginning in 2002 when it restructured its electricity industry and introduced aggressive renewable portfolio standards that helped spur major investments in wind generation. In this paper we discuss the issues that have arisen in designing market protocols that take account of these special characteristics of wind generation and survey the regulatory and market rules that have been developed in Texas. We discuss the perverse incentives some of the rules gave wind generators to overschedule generation in order to receive balancing energy payments, and steps that have been taken to mitigate those incentive effects. Finally, we discuss more recent steps taken by the market operator and regulators to ensure transmission capacity is available for new wind generators that are expected to come online in the future.

  13. Modelling of hydro and wind power in the regulation market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiviluoma, J.; Holttinen, H.; Meibom, P.

    2006-01-01

    The amount of required regulation capacity in the power system is affected by the wind power prediction errors. A model has been developed which can evaluate the monetary effects of prediction errors. The model can be used to evaluate (1) the regulation costs of wind power, (2) regulation market prices including effects related to the participation of power producers in the regulating power market, (3) value of accurate wind forecasts and (4) the effect of decreasing the length of the spot market clearance. This article discusses the problems related to developing a realistic model of the regulating power market including the interaction between the spot market and the regulating power market. There are several issues that make things complicated. (1) How to calculate the minimum amount of needed secondary (minute) reserves. Traditionally the Nordic TSOs have used an N-1 criteria in each country to determine the required amounts of positive secondary reserve, but as installed wind power capacity grows, it will become relevant to include the wind power prediction errors in the estimation of secondary reserves. (2) Consumption forecast errors and plant outages also contribute to activation of regulating power and should have stochastic input series besides wind power. (3) Risk premiums and transaction costs in the regulating power market are difficult to estimate as well as the effects of the possible use of market power. This is especially true in the Nordic system with the high share of hydro power, since the water value and hydrological limitations make things more complex than in a thermal system. (4) The available regulation capacity is not necessarily equal to the truly available capacity. All producers don't participate in the regulation market although in principle they could. (orig.)

  14. International wind energy development. World market update 2012. Forecast 2013-2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    areas, for operation in high altitudes or in cold climates. American, European and Indian manufacturers have pushed Chinese manufacturers out of the top five in 2012. Despite increasing its global market share by 1.1 percent in 2012, Vestas was displaced from the No. 1 position for the first time since claiming the top spot in 2000. Meanwhile, with a global market share of more than 15 percent in 2012, GE Wind ascended from the No. 3 to the No. 1 position, boosted by a rush to capitalize on the U.S. Production Tax Credit (PTC). For the second consecutive year, a reduction in market size is forecast for the upcoming 5-year period. The World Market Update 2012 forecasts that 241,620 MW will be added through 2017, 10 percent less than the forecast made in 2011. The lowering of the forecast growth rate is mainly due to a projected slowdown in wind turbine sales in 2013 and 2015. The average growth rate for new installations from 2013 to 2017 is expected to be 5.1 percent, with a decrease of more than 10 percent in 2013 compared to 2012. That decrease will be reflected in the U.S. market in 2013, as a result of 2012's last-minute one year extension of the federal production tax credit. The U.S. market will likely face additional political uncertainty when the PTC expires after 2013. Established European wind power markets, such as Spain and Italy, are expected to decline in coming years, while China, the world's largest wind market, will still be in transition from a period of breakneck growth to one of more stable development. Special Chapter on Cold Climate Turbines: As cold climate sites often provide favorable wind conditions, the deployment of wind energy in cold climate areas is growing rapidly. World Market Update 2012 reviews the challenges presented by cold climate, provides a geographical breakdown of cold climate wind turbine markets, analyzes the economics of cold climate technologies and projects, introduces the latest commercial applications developed

  15. Towards mass-market development of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palz, W.

    1996-01-01

    The wind turbine technologies employed in today's markets for wind energy are innovative, efficient and in many cases cost competitive. A world market of more than 1000 MW/year and with a turnover of 1 billion ECU has developed and 30,000 new jobs have been created, most of them in small and medium size enterprises. 80% of today's world production is European. The preferred turbine capacity of today is 500 kW. In the next few years a three-fold increase in the rated power of most commercial machines to 1.5 MW is expected. The new large machines have been achieved through the ''WEGA''-programme of the European Commission. Significant market penetration of wind power in the European Union is very recent. The 2500 MW installed wind capacity in Europe today accounts only for 1/2% of the total capacity available for electricity production. Markets of the future will depend on a better development of the economic integration issues of wind energy into large networks. A key is the cost of electric grids which conditions the opportunity cost for feeding wind power at any particular point into the grids. Also, better predictability of the wind resource will give higher value to wind power in the grid and improve its economics further. Various financing schemes have been set up throughout Europe. Financial support and incentives are vital for some more years to come to expand current markets and improve economics through economy of scale. The utilisation of wind turbines in off-grid situations is an important new field for technological innovations and deployment. (author)

  16. The U.S. wind market is back

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azua, C.R. de

    2000-01-01

    The recent growth in wind energy projects in the US was spurred by supportive policies in a few states, steadily improving economics, the federal wind energy Production Tax Credit and emerging green power programs. Wind farms are springing up around the US, providing clean energy as well as an economic boon to farmers and local communities. This year's headlines announced the rebirth of the US wind energy market, as wind farms were dedicated in local communities from coast to coast. At this year's exuberant pace of development, utility-scale wind energy seems well on its way to generating 5% of the nation's electricity by 2020, the target set by the Administration and announced by Energy Secretary Bill Richardson at the wind industry's annual conference earlier this year. Wind energy projects have mushroomed throughout the country, most notably in the Midwest. In the eighteen months from July 1998 to December 1999, the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) estimates that wind energy companies will have added almost 900 megawatts (MW) to the nation's generating capacity. At the same time, new, more efficient turbines replaced some 200 MW of aging equipment. In all, 1,096 MW of new wind generators were installed over that period, representing an investment of well over $1.1 billion and bringing American utility-scale generating capacity to over 2,500 MW

  17. Operation and sizing of energy storage for wind power plants in a market system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpaas, M.; Holen, A.T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the scheduling and operation of energy storage for wind power plants in electricity markets. A dynamic programming algorithm is employed to determine the optimal energy exchange with the market for a specified scheduling period, taking into account transmission constraints. During operation, the energy storage is used to smooth variations in wind power production in order to follow the scheduling plan. The method is suitable for any type of energy storage and is also useful for other intermittent energy resources than wind. An application of the method to a case study is also presented, where the impact of energy storage sizing and wind forecasting accuracy on system operation and economics are emphasized. Simulation results show that energy storage makes it possible for owners of wind power plants to take advantage of variations in the spot price, by thus increasing the value of wind power in electricity markets. With present price estimates, energy storage devices such as reversible fuel cells are likely to be a more expensive alternative than grid expansions for the siting of wind farms in weak networks. However, for areas where grid expansions lead to unwanted interference with the local environment, energy storage should be considered as a reasonable way to increase the penetration of wind power. (author)

  18. MARKETING MODELS APPLICATION EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Rymanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing models are used for the assessment of such marketing elements as sales volume, market share, market attractiveness, advertizing costs, product pushing and selling, profit, profitableness. Classification of buying process decision taking models is presented. SWOT- and GAPbased models are best for selling assessments. Lately, there is a tendency to transfer from the assessment on the ba-sis of financial indices to that on the basis of those non-financial. From the marketing viewpoint, most important are long-term company activities and consumer drawingmodels as well as market attractiveness operative models.

  19. Review of contemporary wind turbine concepts and their market penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, A.D.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.; Hansen, L.H.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to investigate the market penetration and share of different wind turbine concepts during the years 1998-2002, a period when the increase in the wind power capacity is starting to mark an abrupt evolution (more than two GW per year). A detailed overview is performed based on suppliers market data and concept evaluation for each individual wind turbine type sold by the Top Ten suppliers over the selected five years. The investigation is processing information on a total number of approximately 90 wind turbine types from 13 different manufacturers, which have been on the Top Ten list of wind turbine suppliers during 1998 to 2002. The analysis is based on very comprehensive data, which cover approximately 76% of the accumulated world wind power installed at the end of 2002. The paper also provides an overall perspective on the contemporary wind turbine concepts, classified with respect to both their speed control ability and to their power control type. Trends for wind turbine concepts are discussed. (author)

  20. Review of contemporary wind turbine concepts and their market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Hansen, Lars H.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to investigate the market penetration and share of different wind turbine concepts during the years 1998-2002, a period when the increase in the wind power capacity is starting to mark an abrupt evolution (more than two GW per year). A detailed overview is performed based on suppliers market data and concept evaluation for each individual wind turbine type sold by the Top Ten suppliers over the selected five years. The investigation is processing information on a total number of approximately 90 wind turbine types from 13 different manufacturers, which have been on the Top Ten list of wind turbine suppliers during 1998 to 2002. The analysis is based on very comprehensive data, which cover approximately 76% of the accumulated world wind power installed at the end of 2002. The paper also provides an overall perspective on the contemporary wind turbine concepts, classified with respect to both their speed control ability and to their power control type. Trends for wind turbine concepts are discussed. (Author)

  1. Electricity markets theories and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Electricity Markets: Theories and Applications offers students and practitioners a clear understanding of the fundamental concepts of the economic theories, particularly microeconomic theories, as well as information on some advanced optimization methods of electricity markets. The authors--noted experts in the field--cover the basic drivers for the transformation of the electricity industry in both the United States and around the world and discuss the fundamentals of power system operation, electricity market design and structures, and electricity market operations. The text also explores advanced topics of power system operations and electricity market design and structure including zonal versus nodal pricing, market performance and market power issues, transmission pricing, and the emerging problems electricity markets face in smart grid and micro-grid environments. The authors also examine system planning under the context of electricity market regime. They explain the new ways to solve problems with t...

  2. Wind power and the conditions at a liberalized power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    Wind power is undergoing a rapid development nationally as well as globally and in a number of countries covers an increasing part of the power supply. At the same time an ongoing liberalization of power markets is taking place and to an increasing extent the owners of wind power plants will themselves have to be responsible for trading the power at the spot market and financially handling the balancing. In the western part of Denmark (Jutland/Funen area), wind-generated power from time to time covers almost 100% of total power consumption. Therefore some examples are chosen from this area to analyse in more detail how well large amounts of wind power in the short-term are handled at the power spot market. It turns out that there is a tendency that more wind power in the system in the short run leads to relatively lower spot prices, while less wind power implies relatively higher spot prices, although, with the exception of December 2002, in general no strong relationship is found. A stronger relationship is found at the regulating market, where there is a fairly clear tendency that the more wind power produced, the higher is the need for down-regulation, and, correspondingly, the less wind power produced, the higher is the need for up-regulation. In general for the Jutland/Funen area the average cost of down-regulation is calculated as 1 2 c euros/kWh regulated for 2002, while the cost of up-regulation amounts to 0 7 c euros/kWh regulated. (author)

  3. Control the wind power market opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, D.; Gauthier, J.M.; Guenaire, M.; Fraisse, J.L.; Canini, J.M.; Ruer, J.; Kariniotakis, G.; Chevallaz Perrier, R.; Clavreul, R.; Ravetto, P.; Marais, V.; Guignard, E.; Turlan, F.; Hilmoine, J.J.; Kayser, F.; Beutin, Ph.; Boulze, J.P.; Verhaeghe, G.; Gras, E.; Standaert, N.; Couret, C.

    2003-03-01

    The following topics are successively discussed: what is the new economic, regulation, juridical and contractual framework to control; the problem of the electric network integration; the today technical solutions and the innovative solutions for the wind farms; the technical and administrative aspects of a project; economic and financial feasibility for a profitable project; cases studies. (A.L.B.)

  4. Strategic bidding for wind power producers in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kailash Chand; Bhakar, Rohit; Tiwari, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Game theoretic bidding strategy approach developed to optimize wind power producers bids. • Rival behavior modeled through Stochastic Cournot model. • Location based dual imbalance price mechanism proposed to obtain imbalance charges. • Proposed approach evaluated using two realistic case studies. • Proposed approach increases profit of strategic wind power producers significantly. - Abstract: In evolving electricity markets, wind power producers (WPPs) would increase their profit through strategic bidding. However, generated power by WPPs is highly random, which may result into heavy imbalance charges. In markets dominated by wind generators, they would optimize their offered bids, considering rival behavior. In oligopolistic day-ahead electricity markets, this strategic behavior can be represented as a Stochastic Cournot model. Wind uncertainty is represented by scenarios generated using Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model. With a consideration of wind power uncertainty and imbalance charges, strategic WPPs can maximize their expected payoff or profit through the proposed Nash equilibrium based bidding strategy. Nash equilibrium is obtained using payoff matrix approach. Proposed approach is evaluated on two realistic case studies considering different technical constraints. Obtained results shows that proposed bidding strategy mechanism offers quantum increase in profit for WPPs, when their behavior is modeled in a game theoretic framework. Flexibility of approach offers opportunities for its extension to associated challenges

  5. Energy Policy Case Study - Texas: Wind, Markets, and Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    This document presents a case study of energy policies in Texas related to power system transformation, renewable energy and distributed energy resources (DERs). Texas has experienced a dramatic increase in installed wind capacity, from 116 MW in 2000 to over 15,000 MW in 2015. This achievement was enabled by the designation of Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZs) and new transmission lines that transmit wind to load centers. This report highlights nascent efforts to include DERs in the ERCOT market. As costs decline and adoption rates increase, ERCOT expects distributed generation to have an increasing effect on grid operations, while bringing potentially valuable new resources to the wholesale markets.

  6. 2014-2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report provides data and analysis to assess the status of the U.S. offshore wind industry through June 30, 2015. It builds on the foundation laid by the Navigant Consortium, which produced three market reports between 2012 and 2014. The report summarizes domestic and global market developments, technology trends, and economic data to help U.S. offshore wind industry stakeholders, including policymakers, regulators, developers, financiers, and supply chain participants, to identify barriers and opportunities. Title page contains link to associated data tables posted at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy15osti/64283_data_tables.xlsx.

  7. Optimal contracts for wind power producers in electricity markets

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E.

    2010-12-01

    This paper is focused on optimal contracts for an independent wind power producer in conventional electricity markets. Starting with a simple model of the uncertainty in the production of power from a wind turbine farm and a model for the electric energy market, we derive analytical expressions for optimal contract size and corresponding expected optimal profit. We also address problems involving overproduction penalties, cost of reserves, and utility of additional sensor information. We obtain analytical expressions for marginal profits from investing in local generation and energy storage. ©2010 IEEE.

  8. Wind energy applications of synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Christiansen, M.

    2006-11-15

    Synthetic aperture radars (SAR), mounted on satellites or aircraft, have proven useful for ocean wind mapping. Wind speeds at the height 10 m may be retrieved from measurements of radar backscatter using empirical model functions. The resulting wind fields are valuable in offshore wind energy planning as a supplement to on site measurements, which are costly and sparse, and model wind fields, which are not fully validated. Two applications of SAR measurements in offshore wind energy planning are addressed here: the study of wind farm wake effects and the potential of using SAR winds in offshore wind resource assessment. Firstly, wind wakes behind two large offshore wind farms in Denmark Horns Rev and Nysted are identified. A region of reduced wind speed is found downstream of both wind farms from the SAR wind fields. The wake extent and magnitude depends on the wind speed, the atmospheric stability, and the fraction of turbines operating. Wind farm wake effects are detected up to 20 km downwind of the last turbine. This distance is longer than predicted by state-of-the art wake models. Wake losses are typically 10-20% near the wind farms. Secondly, the potential of using SAR wind maps in offshore wind resource assessment is investigated. The resource assessment is made through Weibull fitting to frequency observations of wind speed and requires at least 100 satellite observations per year for a given site of interest. Predictions of the energy density are very sensitive to the wind speed and the highest possible accuracy on SAR wind retrievals is therefore sought. A 1.1 m s{sup -1} deviation on the mean wind speed is found through comparison with mast measurements at Horns Rev. The accuracy on mean wind speeds and energy densities found from satellite measurements varies with different empirical model functions. Additional uncertainties are introduced by the infrequent satellite sampling at fixed times of the day. The accuracy on satellite based wind resource

  9. Statistical Analysis of the Impact of Wind Power on Market Quantities and Power Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Jónsson, Tryggvi; Zugno, Marco

    2012-01-01

    In view of the increasing penetration of wind power in a number of power systems and markets worldwide, we discuss some of the impacts that wind energy may have on market quantities and cross-border power flows. These impacts are uncovered through statistical analyses of actual market and flow data...... of load and wind power forecasts on Danish and German electricity markets....

  10. Wind power and market integration, comparative study of financing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    The financing scheme of renewable energies is a key factor for their development pace and cost. As some countries like France, Germany or Spain have chosen a Feed-in Tariff (FiT) scheme, there are in fact four possible financing schemes: FiT, ex-post prime, ex-ante prime, and quotas (green certificates). A market convergence is then supposed to meet two main objectives: the control of market distortions related to wind energy development, and the optimization of wind energy production with respect to market signals. The authors analyse the underlying economic challenges and the ability of financing schemes to meet these objectives within a short term horizon (2015). They present the different financing schemes, analyse the impact of three key economic factors (market distortion, production optimization, financing costs)

  11. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.R.; Johnson, B.L. III (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries'' (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study. 86 refs.

  12. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, W. R.; Johnson, B. L., III

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study.

  13. Wind turbines fundamentals, technologies, application, economics

    CERN Document Server

    Hau, Erich

    2013-01-01

    "Wind Turbines" addresses all those professionally involved in research, development, manufacture and operation of wind turbines. It provides a cross-disciplinary overview of modern wind turbine technology and an orientation in the associated technical, economic and environmental fields.  In its revised third edition, special emphasis has been given to the latest trends in wind turbine technology and design, such as gearless drive train concepts, as well as on new fields of application, in particular the offshore utilisation of wind energy. The author has gained experience over decades designing wind energy converters with a major industrial manufacturer and, more recently, in technical consulting and in the planning of large wind park installations, with special attention to economics.

  14. Can the regulated market help foster a free market for wind energy in Brazil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalbem, Marta Corrêa; Brandão, Luiz Eduardo Teixeira; Gomes, Leonardo Lima

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy has been negotiated in Brazil's regulated market through auctions organized by the government. Bilateral negotiations in the free market have been scarce. In 2011 wind farms were allowed to bid in ‘A minus 5 (A−5)' auctions, for energy with first delivery date 5 years ahead. This new design was expected to stimulate negotiations in the free market, as the 20-year contract in the regulated market eases financing while the 5-year grace period grants wind farms the option to sell whatever energy is generated beforehand in the free market. We modeled bidders' price decision in A−5 auctions as Real Options and concluded that given the low prices averaging USD 50/MW h, winners are tempted to defer investment, expecting more favorable equipment and energy prices, or a better knowledge of the wind site. Construction is likely to begin in 2–3 years, with little time left for the free market. Bidders that consider the option of eventually abandoning the project are more price competitive, increasing chances that some wind farms will never materialize. Therefore, this attempt to foster the free market may not pay-off and, moreover, it may have the unfavorable effect of turning Brazil's energy expansion planning a more difficult task. - Highlights: • Tight auction prices make winners exercise options to defer construction. • Investors that consider the option to abandon the project tend to win the auction. • High chances of default, when investors take abandonment options into account. • Auctioning wind farms for energy delivery 5 yr later will not foster a free market

  15. Impact of wind power uncertainty forecasting on the market integration of wind energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Aparicio, I.; Zucker, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Reduction wind power forecasting uncertainty for day ahead and intraday markets. • Statistical relationship between total load and wind power generation. • Accurately forecast expected revenues from wind producer’s perspective. - Abstract: The growing share of electricity production from variable renewable energy sources increases the stochastic nature of the power system. This has repercussions on the markets for electricity. Deviations from forecasted production schedules require balancing of a generator’s position within a day. Short term products that are traded on power and/or reserve markets have been developed for this purpose, providing opportunities to actors who can offer flexibility in the short term. The value of flexibility is typically modelled using stochastic scenario extensions of dispatch models which requires, as a first step, understanding the nature of forecast uncertainties. This study provides a new approach for determining the forecast errors of wind power generation in the time period between the closure of the day ahead and the opening of the first intraday session using Spain as an example. The methodology has been developed using time series analysis for the years 2010–2013 to find the explanatory variables of the wind error variability by applying clustering techniques to reduce the range of uncertainty, and regressive techniques to forecast the probability density functions of the intra-day price. This methodology has been tested considering different system actions showing its suitability for developing intra-day bidding strategies and also for the generation of electricity generated from Renewable Energy Sources scenarios. This methodology could help a wind power producer to optimally bid into the intraday market based on more accurate scenarios, increasing their revenues and the system value of wind.

  16. A small wind power producer on a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jari, Ihonen; Mikko, Jalas; Timo, Lahti

    2000-01-01

    Lumituuli Oy is a customer owned wind power producer in Finland. The company installed one wind turbine (Vestas V47/660kW) on an artificial island in Lumijoki in March 1999 and has sold electricity on the Finnish market since then. This document describes the experiences, which the company has gained in projecting the investment and operating of the turbine. A technical description of the special construction and erection technique, namely the ice road, is also included in this document. (author)

  17. Optimal Wind Power Uncertainty Intervals for Electricity Market Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhi; Botterud, Audun; Zhang, Kaifeng

    2018-01-01

    It is important to select an appropriate uncertainty level of the wind power forecast for power system scheduling and electricity market operation. Traditional methods hedge against a predefined level of wind power uncertainty, such as a specific confidence interval or uncertainty set, which leaves the questions of how to best select the appropriate uncertainty levels. To bridge this gap, this paper proposes a model to optimize the forecast uncertainty intervals of wind power for power system scheduling problems, with the aim of achieving the best trade-off between economics and reliability. Then we reformulate and linearize the models into a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) without strong assumptions on the shape of the probability distribution. In order to invest the impacts on cost, reliability, and prices in a electricity market, we apply the proposed model on a twosettlement electricity market based on a six-bus test system and on a power system representing the U.S. state of Illinois. The results show that the proposed method can not only help to balance the economics and reliability of the power system scheduling, but also help to stabilize the energy prices in electricity market operation.

  18. How does market power affect the impact of large scale wind investment in 'energy only' wholesale electricity markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, Oliver; Poletti, Stephen; Young, David

    2015-01-01

    In the short run, it is well known that increasing wind penetration is likely to reduce spot market electricity prices due to the merit order effect. The long run effect is less clear because there will be a change in new capacity investment in response to the wind penetration. In this paper we examine the interaction between capacity investment, wind penetration and market power by first using a least-cost generation expansion model to simulate capacity investment with increasing amounts of wind generation, and then using a computer agent-based model to predict electricity prices in the presence of market power. We find the degree to which firms are able to exercise market power depends critically on the ratio of capacity to peak demand. For our preferred long run generation scenario we show market power increases for some periods as wind penetration increases however the merit order counteracts this with the results that prices overall remain flat. Returns to peakers increase significantly as wind penetration increases. The market power in turn leads to inefficient dispatch which is exacerbated with large amounts of wind generation. - Highlights: • Increasing investment in wind generation is analyzed using an agent based model. • In an energy only market, increased total capacity reduces market power. • Increasing wind penetration results in more market power in some periods. • Market power causes dispatch inefficiencies, which grow as wind capacity increases.

  19. Stochastic Modeling of Wind Derivatives in Energy Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Espen Benth

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We model the logarithm of the spot price of electricity with a normal inverse Gaussian (NIG process and the wind speed and wind power production with two Ornstein–Uhlenbeck processes. In order to reproduce the correlation between the spot price and the wind power production, namely between a pure jump process and a continuous path process, respectively, we replace the small jumps of the NIG process by a Brownian term. We then apply our models to two different problems: first, to study from the stochastic point of view the income from a wind power plant, as the expected value of the product between the electricity spot price and the amount of energy produced; then, to construct and price a European put-type quanto option in the wind energy markets that allows the buyer to hedge against low prices and low wind power production in the plant. Calibration of the proposed models and related price formulas is also provided, according to specific datasets.

  20. Market Suitability and Performance Tradeoffs Offered by Commercial Wind Turbines across Differing Wind Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souma Chowdhury

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of turbine configurations to different wind resources has been traditionally restricted to considering turbines operating as standalone entities. In this paper, a framework is thus developed to investigate turbine suitability in terms of the minimum cost of energy offered when operating as a group of optimally-micro-sited turbines. The four major steps include: (i characterizing the geographical variation of wind regimes in the onshore U.S. market; (ii determining the best performing turbines for different wind regimes through wind farm layout optimization; (iii developing a metric to quantify the expected market suitability of available turbine configurations; and (iv exploring the best tradeoffs between the cost and capacity factor yielded by these turbines. One hundred thirty one types of commercial turbines offered by major global manufacturers in 2012 are considered for selection. It is found that, in general, higher rated power turbines with medium tower heights are the most favored. Interestingly, further analysis showed that “rotor diameter/hub height” ratios greater than 1.1 are the least attractive for any of the wind classes. It is also observed that although the “cost-capacity factor” tradeoff curve expectedly shifted towards higher capacity factors with increasing wind class, the trend of the tradeoff curve remained practically similar.

  1. Power Transformer Application for Wind Plant Substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, M. R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bloethe, W.G. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Bradt, M. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Brooks, C. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Camm, E H [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Dilling, W. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Goltz, B. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Li, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Niemira, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Nuckles, K. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Patino, J. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Reza, M [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Richardson, B. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Samaan, N. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Schoene, Jens [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Smith, Travis M [ORNL; Snyder, Isabelle B [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Walling, R. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group; Zahalka, G. [IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group

    2010-01-01

    Wind power plants use power transformers to step plant output from the medium voltage of the collector system to the HV or EHV transmission system voltage. This paper discusses the application of these transformers with regard to the selection of winding configuration, MVA rating, impedance, loss evaluation, on-load tapchanger requirements, and redundancy.

  2. Analysis of the imbalance price scheme in the Spanish electricity market: A wind power test case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno-Lorenzo, Miriam; Moreno, M. Ángeles; Usaola, Julio

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the interaction between wind power and electricity markets. The paper is focused on balancing markets pricing policies. The proposal of a new imbalance price scheme is included and conveniently evaluated. This proposed scheme tries to minimise the use of ancillary services to compensate for deviations in searching for a more efficient market design. The effectiveness of imbalance prices as market signals is also examined, and policy recommendations regarding imbalance services are discussed. Two test cases are included that analyse the participation of a wind power producer in the Spanish electricity market using a stochastic optimisation strategy. For this purpose, the uncertainty of the variables is considered, i.e., wind power production and prediction, intraday and imbalance prices. Test cases were run with real data for 10 months, and realistic results are presented along with a hypothetical test case. The regulation of the imbalance prices may not be adequate for the Spanish electricity market because an error drop is not sufficiently encouraged. Therefore, we suggest the application of a new imbalance price scheme, which includes an additional constraint. The conclusions of this paper can be assumed to be general policy recommendations

  3. On the market impact of wind energy forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Tryggvi; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of how day-ahead electricity spot prices are affected by day-ahead wind power forecasts. Demonstration of this relationship is given as a test case for the Western Danish price area of the Nord Pool's Elspot market. Impact on the average price behaviour is investigated as well as that on the distributional properties of the price. By using a non-parametric regression model to assess the effects of wind power forecasts on the average behaviour, the non-linearities and time variations in the relationship are captured well and the effects are shown to be quite substantial. Furthermore, by evaluating the distributional properties of the spot prices under different scenarios, the impact of the wind power forecasts on the price distribution is proved to be considerable. The conditional price distribution is moreover shown to be non-Gaussian. This implies that forecasting models for electricity spot prices for which parameters are estimated by a least squares techniques will not have Gaussian residuals. Hence the widespread assumption of Gaussian residuals from electricity spot price models is shown to be inadequate for these model types. The revealed effects are likely to be observable and qualitatively similar in other day-ahead electricity markets significantly penetrated by wind power. (author)

  4. Most promising flexible generators for the wind dominated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorushylo, I.; Keatley, P.; Hewitt, NJ

    2016-01-01

    The intermittent nature of wind power and other forms of variable renewable energy requires complementary dispatchable flexible generators in order to guarantee the efficient, reliable and secure operation of electricity systems. The most popular solution to date has been peaking plant, usually in the form of open-cycle-gas- turbines (OCGT). Energy storage technologies have so far been considered too expensive, however technology development, as well as challenging renewable targets could potentially make storage economically viable. Although new advanced flexible combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGT) have been developed by some manufacturers, they have not yet been investigated in electricity market models. This paper describes a techno-economic assessment of the most suitable flexible technologies for the wind-dominated all Ireland electricity market (the Single Electricity Market (SEM)). The analysis is conducted by considering the impact of a series of policy scenarios which are compared in an electricity market model. The comparison is quantified using three primary metrics: technical benefits to the system, economic advantages to the consumer and investment viability. Modelling results suggest that advanced CCGT and energy storage solutions are the most advantageous, however they need strong governmental support to attract potential investors and guarantee deployment in the market. - Highlights: •Future efficiency and stability of the wind dominated require flexible generators. •Energy storage systems are the most technically advantageous flexible generators. •The advanced flexible CCGT is the most efficient solution from an economic point of view. •Traditional peaking plants (OCGT) is the least advantageous flexible generator. •The governments will play a key role in integration of the flexible technologies.

  5. Danish wind power in Brazil. Part 1. The future of wind power in Brazil - market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husted Rich, N

    1996-04-01

    More than 95% of total energy produced in Brazil comes from highly efficient hydroelectric power plants but, faced with a serious shortage of energy after the year 2000, the country is now considering wind energy as one of the basic alternatives for energy supply. It is suggested that biomass, wind energy and biogas may be included in a future supply policy for the north-east region of the land. The structure of, the privatisation, legislation and the tariff system within the Brazilian power sector are described in addition to the present situation regarding wind energy in the country, including current and coming projects in this field, the excellent wind conditions in Northeastern Brazil and investment possibilities. The political activities in this field of the Danish Folkecenter for Renewable Energy are noted and future developments in Brazil are discussed. It is concluded that there are good prospects for Danish windmill technology on the Brazilian market. Wind measurement programs are presently being carried out in various areas of the country, though a number of impediments to the development of wind energy in Brazil remain. (AB)

  6. The electricity market - wind energy after NFFO and in liberalized markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    The paper will compare the benefits of leasing and other forms of asset based finance to the wind industry, as compared to conventional sources of finance for both the small and large developer. It will explore the attitudes of specialist and major leasing finance houses to the renewable energy industry in general and wind in particular. To date, leasing has been used more widely in municipal waste projects, although the UK tax regime means that there are also strong advantages to leasing for wind. The paper will examine the sensitivity of sources of leasing and debt finance to possible changes in the electricity markets in the UK, it will identify practical problems to be overcome in applying leasing and provide practical tips to developers. It will also examine some of the issues relevant to firms seeking to participate in overseas markets with the help of UK financiers. (Author)

  7. Stochastic Optimal Wind Power Bidding Strategy in Short-Term Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Due to the fluctuating nature and non-perfect forecast of the wind power, the wind power owners are penalized for the imbalance costs of the regulation, when they trade wind power in the short-term liberalized electricity market. Therefore, in this paper a formulation of an imbalance cost...... minimization problem for trading wind power in the short-term electricity market is described, to help the wind power owners optimize their bidding strategy. Stochastic optimization and a Monte Carlo method are adopted to find the optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the short-term electricity...... market in order to deal with the uncertainty of the regulation price, the activated regulation of the power system and the forecasted wind power generation. The Danish short-term electricity market and a wind farm in western Denmark are chosen as study cases due to the high wind power penetration here...

  8. High penetration wind generation impacts on spot prices in the Australian national electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, Nicholas J.; Boerema, Nicholas D.; MacGill, Iain F.; Outhred, Hugh R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores wind power integration issues for the South Australian (SA) region of the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) by assessing the interaction of regional wind generation, electricity demand and spot prices over 2 recent years of market operation. SA's wind energy penetration has recently surpassed 20% and it has only a limited interconnection with other regions of the NEM. As such, it represents an interesting example of high wind penetration in a gross wholesale pool market electricity industry. Our findings suggest that while electricity demand continues to have the greatest influence on spot prices in SA, wind generation levels have become a significant secondary influence, and there is an inverse relationship between wind generation and price. No clear relationship between wind generation and demand has been identified although some periods of extremely high demand may coincide with lower wind generation. Periods of high wind output are associated with generally lower market prices, and also appear to contribute to extreme negative price events. The results highlight the importance of electricity market and renewable policy design in facilitating economically efficient high wind penetrations. - Highlights: → In South Australia (SA) wind generation is having an influence on market prices. → Little or no correlation is found between wind generation and demand. → Wind farms in SA are receiving a lower average price than in other States. → The results highlight the importance of appropriate electricity market design.

  9. A Wind Forecasting System for Energy Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jennifer; Lynch, Peter; Sweeney, Conor

    2010-05-01

    probabilistic wind forecasts which will be invaluable in wind energy management. In brief, this method turns the ensemble forecasts into a calibrated predictive probability distribution. Each ensemble member is provided with a 'weight' determined by its relative predictive skill over a training period of around 30 days. Verification of data is carried out using observed wind data from operational wind farms. These are then compared to existing forecasts produced by ECMWF and Met Eireann in relation to skill scores. We are developing decision-making models to show the benefits achieved using the data produced by our wind energy forecasting system. An energy trading model will be developed, based on the rules currently used by the Single Electricity Market Operator for energy trading in Ireland. This trading model will illustrate the potential for financial savings by using the forecast data generated by this research.

  10. Analysis of Strategic Wind Power Participation in Energy Market using MASCEM simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    offering strategy for wind power plants to participate in both energy and ancillary services markets. MASCEM (Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets) is used to simulate and validate the impact of wind power plants in market equilibrium. A case study based on real and recent data...... technology, suggests that wind power plants may participate in both energy and ancillary services markets with strategic behavior to improve their benefits. Thus, wind power generation with strategic behavior may have impact on market equilibrium and pricing. This paper evaluates the impact of a proportional...

  11. Empowering wind power. On social and institutional conditions affecting the performance of entrepreneurs in the wind power supply market in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agterbosch, S.

    2006-01-01

    about the way in which social and institutional conditions affected the implementation capacity of different types of entrepreneurs in each of these periods. From the analysis it was concluded that no overall implementation capacity exists, and implementation capacities differ for entrepreneurial groups with different entrepreneurial features. The dynamic configuration of institutional and social conditions on different levels of government facilitates some and hinders other types of wind power entrepreneurs, and as a result determines the development and composition of the market. Various parties are dependent on each other in the production of wind energy. At the start of the 1990s the energy distribution companies dominated the market. Later agrarians led the pack and new independent wind power project developers emerged on the scene. According to the author, in the 1990s government policy focused far too long on large-scale applications by energy companies and ignored the limited motivation of this business group to invest in decentralised and fluctuating assets. The national wind policy also failed to take into account the societal and procedural problems of this business group at the subnational level. The fact that other entrepreneurial groups such as agrarians encountered far fewer problems in realising their projects, did not receive attention at a national level

  12. Market conditions for wind power and biofuel-based cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the prerequisites for biofuel-based cogeneration plants and for wind power, with special emphasis on following factors: 1/ The effect on the Swedish energy market of the opening of the power transmission networks for free competition within the electric power supply sector. 2/ A market model for the connection between the prices on fossil fuels, biomass fuels, electric power, and heating on the Swedish market. The analysis is made for three scenarios concerning carbon dioxide/energy taxation and the oil price development. The three scenarios are: A. Constant prices on heating oil and coal., B. An internationally uniform carbon dioxide tax, which successively is raised to SEK 0.40 per kilo carbon dioxide to the year 2010. In the year 2005 this will correspond to a doubling of the present prices on crude oil., C. An unilateral Swedish energy- and carbon dioxide tax of todays model (without exception for electric power generation), with constant import prices on heating oil and coal. The decisive factors for bio-cogeneration are construction- and operation costs, the costs of biofuels, and the sales price on electric power and heat. For wind power it is the construction- and operation costs that settle the conditions. 18 figs, 6 tabs

  13. The carbon fibre market and uses for composite wind blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, J R [Tenax Fibers Gmbh and Co. KG, Wuppertal (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    Due to its excellent fatigue properties, low weight and high stiffness, carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) is the ideal material to use for the manufacture of wind blades. The present use of CFRP in the wind energy sector however is very low in comparison to glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP) materials. The main reason for this low use of CFRP is cost since at present times carbon fibre is valued ten times as much as glass fibre. This paper introduces carbon fibre as an alternative material to glass and examines the use of CFRP components in other high fatigue applications. (au)

  14. Wind energy development in China - reality and market forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yinghua Han

    1999-01-01

    Economic reforms in China started in 1978, which led to profound changes as a result of a consistent structural adjustment and stabilisation policy. The national economy is now characterised with high growth and low inflation. In 1997, GDP was US$ 767 billion and foreign exchange reached US$ 140 billion. This paper examines the outstanding contribution of rural industries to rapid growth of national economy and the consequences of increase of energy consumption and its environmental impact. It also emphasises the necessity and benefit of using renewable energy and wind energy in particular. The paper also addresses the issue of joint venture in farm development in line with Chinese market economy. (Author)

  15. The role of co-located storage for wind power producers in conventional electricity markets

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E.; Rajagopal, R.; Khargonekar, P.; Poolla, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of optimizing contract offerings for an independent wind power producer (WPP) participating in conventional day-ahead forward electricity markets for energy. As wind power is an inherently variable source of energy

  16. Combined hydro-wind generation bids in a pool-based electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angarita, Jorge L.; Usaola, Julio; Martinez-Crespo, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Present regulatory trends are promoting the direct participation of wind energy in electricity markets. The final result of these markets sets the production scheduling for the operation time, including a power commitment from the wind generators. However, wind resources are uncertain, and the final power delivered usually differs from the initial power committed. This imbalance produces an overcost in the system, which must be paid by those who produce it, e.g., wind generators among others. As a result, wind farm revenue decreases, but it could increase by allowing wind farms to submit their bids to the markets together with a hydro generating unit, which may easily modify its production according to the expected imbalance. This paper presents a stochastic optimization technique that maximizes the joint profit of hydro and wind generators in a pool-based electricity market, taking into account the uncertainty of wind power prediction. (author)

  17. Trading wind energy on the basis of probabilistic forecasts both of wind generation and of market quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Jónsson, Tryggvi; Pinson, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    in liberalized electricity markets and to assess its performance. At first, the so-called optimal quantile strategy is revisited. It is proved that without market power, i.e. under the price-taker assumption, this strategy maximizes expected market revenues. Forecasts of wind power production, of day......-ahead and real-time market prices and of the system imbalance are inputs to this strategy. Subsequently, constraining of the bid that maximizes the expected revenues is proposed as a way to overcome the strategy's disregard of practical limitations and, at the same time, of risk. Two constraining techniques......Wind power is not easily predictable and non-dispatchable. Nevertheless, wind power producers are increasingly urged to participate in electricity market auctions in the same manner as conventional power producers. The aim of this paper is to propose an operational strategy for trading wind energy...

  18. Market analysis onshore wind farming; Marktanalyse Windenergie an Land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the EEG in 2014 is that 2,500 MW net amount of onshore wind farming per year are added. Depending on how many wind turbines will be dismantled, that means the new building of 3 - 5 GW per year in the period until 2035. The newly installed capacity underline, that currently sufficient areas are available. But there are fundamentally risks in the availability of land. The planning for the provision of suitable areas is usually corresponding to upstream licensing procedures and has a very high time requirement. The volume of the area development depends on a variety of requirements and is highly dependent on the local acceptance. The question of acceptance of the planning authorities is for the government side in particular the developers and investors of a great importance. The bandwidth of today's production costs is currently 6-9 cents / kWh, with the vast majority of today operating plants and the potentials determined range from 7.5 to 9 cents / kWh. From the initial project idea up to commissioning elapse an average of 5 years. The German wind energy market is very fragmented. So is the concentration of small wind farms with less than 6 plants over 60% of all wind turbines. Furthermore the market is characterized by a wide variety of participants. From this variety of participants gives a great Competition for suitable land, but at the same time a broad and diverse area development, which has et al reflected in current new capacities. Due to the different approaches to planning in the federal states and regions planning authorities have a particular importance. Human resources and the experience of the wind power planning significantly influence the spatial control of Wind energy. For the supra-regionally project developers and manufacturers there is a great knowledge of the German Market (cost, available areas, etc.). [German] Ziel des EEG 2014 ist es, dass 2.500 MW aus Wind an Land pro Jahr netto hinzugebaut werden. Je nachdem wie viele

  19. 2015 wind energy observatory. Analysis of market, jobs and future of the wind energy sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perot, Olivier; Autier, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    This Power Point presentation proposes graphs, figures, tables and comments on the status and evolution of jobs in the wind energy sector (a growing sector, analysis of job locations), of the wind energy market (assessment of a growing market, dynamic French regions, competitive context, evolution of technologies with higher machines, larger wind farms and a growing production), and on the future of wind energy (a growing number of training courses, an active R and D all over the country, a structuring sector). Sheets presenting actors per categories, and maps of regional activity location are provided in appendix

  20. Wind power systems. Applications of computational intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lingfeng [Toledo Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Singh, Chanan [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; Kusiak, Andrew (eds.) [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy sources such as wind power have attracted much attention because they are environmentally friendly, do not produce carbon dioxide and other emissions, and can enhance a nation's energy security. For example, recently more significant amounts of wind power are being integrated into conventional power grids. Therefore, it is necessary to address various important and challenging issues related to wind power systems, which are significantly different from the traditional generation systems. This book is a resource for engineers, practitioners, and decision-makers interested in studying or using the power of computational intelligence based algorithms in handling various important problems in wind power systems at the levels of power generation, transmission, and distribution. Researchers have been developing biologically-inspired algorithms in a wide variety of complex large-scale engineering domains. Distinguished from the traditional analytical methods, the new methods usually accomplish the task through their computationally efficient mechanisms. Computational intelligence methods such as evolutionary computation, neural networks, and fuzzy systems have attracted much attention in electric power systems. Meanwhile, modern electric power systems are becoming more and more complex in order to meet the growing electricity market. In particular, the grid complexity is continuously enhanced by the integration of intermittent wind power as well as the current restructuring efforts in electricity industry. Quite often, the traditional analytical methods become less efficient or even unable to handle this increased complexity. As a result, it is natural to apply computational intelligence as a powerful tool to deal with various important and pressing problems in the current wind power systems. This book presents the state-of-the-art development in the field of computational intelligence applied to wind power systems by reviewing the most up

  1. International wind energy development. World market update 2011. Forecast 2012-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-15

    The World Market Update 2011 is BTM Consult's seventeenth edition of this annual wind energy market report. The report includes more than 80 tables, charts and graphs illustrating global wind market development, as well as a wind market forecast for 2012 - 2016 and predictions for the wind market through 2021. The report delivers several views on the fast-growing wind market, including: 1) Record installation of 41.7 GW. 2) Strong presence of four Chinese wind turbine suppliers in the Top 10 list. 3) China maintains the No. 1 market position in the world, with 17.6 GW of new capacity. 4) Offshore wind is on track for increased contribution to wind power in Europe. 5) Market value will grow from Euro 52.2 billion in 2011 to Euro 86.3 billion in 2016. 6) Direct drive turbines now account for 21.2% of the world's supply of wind power capacity. 7) Wind power will deliver 2.26% of the world's electricity in 2012. 8) Forecasts and predictions to 2021 indicate that wind power can meet 8.0% of the world's consumption of electricity by 2021. International Wind Energy Development - World Update 2011 includes individual country wind market assessments, incentives around the world, and detailed analysis of both the demand and supply sides of the wind market in 2011. This year's report reviews the latest developments in hydraulic drivetrains, identifies the pros and cons, and compares the hydraulic technology to the industry's three currently established drivetrain technologies: conventional gear-, direct and hybrid-drivetrains. (Author)

  2. Are water markets globally applicable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Takahiro; Kakinuma, Kaoru; Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2018-03-01

    Water scarcity is a global concern that necessitates a global perspective, but it is also the product of multiple regional issues that require regional solutions. Water markets constitute a regionally applicable non-structural measure to counter water scarcity that has received the attention of academics and policy-makers, but there is no global view on their applicability. We present the global distribution of potential nations and states where water markets could be instituted in a legal sense, by investigating 296 water laws internationally, with special reference to a minimum set of key rules: legalization of water reallocation, the separation of water rights and landownership, and the modification of the cancellation rule for non-use. We also suggest two additional globally distributed prerequisites and policy implications: the predictability of the available water before irrigation periods and public control of groundwater pumping throughout its jurisdiction.

  3. Wind energy - The facts. Vol. 5: Market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Wind energy is becoming increasingly competitive with conventional sources. However, it is likely that some form of incentive will be required for the foreseeable future, at least until environmental costs are fully internalised or increased economies of scale and technological development makes wind power fully competitive with conventional sources, such as coal and gas, without the need to consider externalities. 'There are currently five main systems to support electricity from renewable energy sources in the EU member states: investment subsidies, fixed price systems, fixed premium systems, auctions, and certificates systems. The idea behind the mechanisms is to offset at least some of the competitive disadvantage for renewable as a consequence of electricity markets neglecting the environmental cost of production from conventional technologies. Low electricity prices are of little benefit if they lead to high costs to society as a whole through higher health care costs and environmental costs levied on current and future taxpayers and citizens. If the environmental costs of power production were reflected in European power prices, wind power and many other renewable energy technologies would not need support, as pointed out in the European Commission's Green Paper on Security of Supply. (au)

  4. Satellite information for wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Astrup, P.; Bay Hasager, C.

    2004-11-01

    An introduction to satellite information relevant for wind energy applications is given. It includes digital elevation model (DEM) data based on satellite observations. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is useful for regional scale wind resource studies. Comparison results from complex terrain in Spain and flat terrain in Denmark are found to be acceptable for both sites. Also land cover type information can be retrieved from satellite observations. Land cover type maps have to be combined with roughness data from field observation or literature values. Land cover type maps constitute an aid to map larger regions within shorter time. Field site observations of obstacles and hedges are still necessary. The raster-based map information from DEM and land cover maps can be converted for use in WASP. For offshore locations it is possible to estimate the wind resources based on ocean surface wind data from several types of satellite observations. The RWT software allows an optimal calculation of SAR wind resource statistics. A tab-file with SAR-based observed wind climate (OWC) data can be obtained for 10 m above sea level and used in WASP. RWT uses a footprint averaging technique to obtain data as similar as possible to mast observations. Maximum-likelihood fitting is used to calculate the Weibull A and k parameters from the constrained data set. Satellite SAR wind maps cover the coastal zone from 3 km and offshore with very detailed information of 400 m by 400 m grid resolution. Spatial trends in mean wind, energy density, Weibull A and k and uncertainty values are provided for the area of interest. Satellite scatterometer wind observations have a spatial resolution of 25 km by 25 km. These data typically represent a site further offshore, and the tab-file statistics should be used in WASP combined with topography and roughness information to assess the coastal wind power potential. Scatterometer wind data are observed {approx} twice per day, whereas SAR only

  5. Stochastic Optimal Regulation Service Strategy for a Wind Farm Participating in the Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    in the stochastic optimization to deal with the uncertainty of the up regulation price and the up regulation activation of the power system.The Danish short-term electricity market and a wind farm in western Denmark are chosen to evaluate the effect of the proposed strategy. Simulation results showthe proposed......As modern wind farmshave the ability to provideregulation service for the power system, wind power plant operators may be motivated to participate in the regulating market to maximize their profit.In this paper, anoptimal regulation servicestrategy for a wind farm to participate...... strategy can increase the revenue of wind farms by leavinga certain amount of wind powerfor regulation service....

  6. French and German Wind Market Perspectives. Senvion User Group 2014, Berlin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key figures about the French and German Wind energy Market: electricity production and Wind Power Capacity in France and Germany, the Goals for Renewable energies and the Goals for Wind Power and Job Perspectives in the French and German energy Transitions, the Political Framework and its Impacts on Wind Onshore Market and on the energy Transition in general, the French and German Models of Wind Power Financing, the commercial Models for Renewable energy Installations in Germany in 2013, the renewable energy sources (ReS) Financial Model and the Distribution of Costs, and the future challenges and difficulties of RES and Onshore Wind Power Development

  7. Assessment of Wind Production Impacts to a Power System and Market Formation in Baltic

    OpenAIRE

    Turcik, M; Obuševs, A; Oļeiņikova, I; Junghāns, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper is related to the topical problem of expanding wind production integration to the power system and electricity markets. The model for simulation of wind production curves according to the development of wind capacities in Baltic is proposed. In order to evaluate the effect of the wind power integration to the price formation as well as level of system penetration by wind, methodology and algorithms taking into account the development scenarios in Baltic are pre...

  8. Development of Data Acquisition System for Wind Energy Applications

    OpenAIRE

    西本,澄

    1992-01-01

    A Data acquisiton system developed for wind energy applications will be described in this paper. This system is composed of an anemometer with two blades downwind and a computer which processes wind data. Wind energy calculated from an average wind speed is inaccurate, since wind power increases with the cube of wind velocity. To decide the design and the site for a wind turbine system, it is very important to consider wind data on a long term basis, that is the total wind energy and distribu...

  9. A Comparison of Wind Flow Models for Wind Resource Assessment in Wind Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Landry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the accuracy of various coupled mesoscale-microscale wind flow modeling methodologies for wind energy applications. This is achieved by examining and comparing mean wind speeds from several wind flow modeling methodologies with observational measurements from several 50 m met towers distributed across the study area. At the mesoscale level, with a 5 km resolution, two scenarios are examined based on the Mesoscale Compressible Community Model (MC2 model: the Canadian Wind Energy Atlas (CWEA scenario, which is based on standard input data, and the CWEA High Definition (CWEAHD scenario where high resolution land cover input data is used. A downscaling of the obtained mesoscale wind climate to the microscale level is then performed, where two linear microscale models, i.e., MsMicro and the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP, are evaluated following three downscaling scenarios: CWEA-WAsP, CWEA-MsMicro and CWEAHD-MsMicro. Results show that, for the territory studied, with a modeling approach based on the MC2 and MsMicro models, also known as Wind Energy Simulation Toolkit (WEST, the use of high resolution land cover and topography data at the mesoscale level helps reduce modeling errors for both the mesoscale and microscale models, albeit only marginally. At the microscale level, results show that the MC2-WAsP modeling approach gave substantially better results than both MC2 and MsMicro modeling approaches due to tweaked meso-micro coupling.

  10. Analysis of a wind farm's revenue in the British and Spanish markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angarita-Marquez, Jorge L.; Hernandez-Aramburo, Carlos A.; Usaola-Garcia, Julio

    2007-01-01

    The composition of the revenue of a wind generation company (WGENCO) under two different European markets is estimated in this paper. The two markets under consideration (British and Spanish) have a very different structure; the Spanish market is a pool-based system while the British market encourages bilateral trading. These markets have also different ways to provide incentives to wind farms, and deal with the trading imbalances to which they are particularly susceptible given the variability of the resource. All these conditions are explained and accounted for in our study of a hypothetical WGENCO that can participate in the two markets. Real wind profiles, two wind-speed forecasting tools and market rules and conditions are used to estimate the WGENCO's revenue over a period of 3 months. Our results show that the net revenue would have been fairly similar under the two market structures; however, the composition of this revenue shows significant differences in terms of renewable incentives and generation revenue

  11. Emissions impacts of wind and energy storage in a market environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen

    2011-12-15

    This study examines the emissions impacts of adding wind and energy storage to a market-based electric power system. Using Texas as a case study, we demonstrate that market power can greatly effect the emissions benefits of wind, due to most of the coal-fired generation being owned by the two dominant firms. Wind tends to have less emissions benefits when generators exercise market power, since coal-fired generation is withheld from the market and wind displaces natural gas-fired generators. We also show that storage can have greater negative emissions impacts in the presence of wind than if only storage is added to the system. This is due to wind increasing on- and off-peak electricity price differences, which increases the amount that storage and coal-fired generation are used. We demonstrate that this effect is exacerbated by market power.

  12. Electricity market design for facilitating the integration of wind energy. Experience and prospects with the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGill, Iain

    2010-01-01

    Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental regulation. The Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) was established in 1999 and Australia also implemented one of the world's first renewable energy target schemes in 2001. With significant recent growth in wind generation, Australia provides an interesting case for assessing different approaches to facilitating wind integration into the electricity industry. Wind project developers in Australia must assess both potential energy market and Tradeable Green Certificate income streams when making investments. Wind-farm energy income depends on the match of its uncertain time varying output with the regional half hourly market price; a price that exhibits daily, weekly and seasonal patterns and considerable uncertainty. Such price signals assist in driving investments that maximize project value to the electricity industry as a whole, including integration costs and benefits for other participants. Recent NEM rule changes will formally integrate wind generation in the market's scheduling processes while a centralized wind forecasting system has also been introduced. This paper outlines experience to date with wind integration in the NEM, describes the evolution of market rules in response and assesses their possible implications for facilitating high future wind penetrations. (author)

  13. 1992 status report: U.S. sets new wind energy record as domestic market stagnates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, Paul

    1993-01-01

    The current status of the USA wind turbine industry is reviewed both in terms of its domestic market and the global market. Although performance in the domestic market continues to improve and costs continue to drop, the growing European market resulting from their national policies to encourage renewable energies threaten the previous US dominance in this field. It is argued that US national energy policy should aid wind energy development. (UK)

  14. Benefits for wind energy in electricity markets from using short term wind power prediction tools: a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usaola, J.; Ravelo, O.; Gonzalez, G.; Soto, F.; Davila, M.C.; Diaz-Guerra, B.

    2004-01-01

    One of the characteristics of wind energy, from the grid point of view, is its non-dispatchability, i.e. generation cannot be ordered, hence integration in electrical networks may be difficult. Short-term wind power prediction-tools could make this integration easier, either by their use by the grid System Operator, or by promoting the participation of wind farms in the electricity markets and using prediction tools to make their bids in the market. In this paper, the importance of a short-term wind power-prediction tool for the participation of wind energy systems in electricity markets is studied. Simulations, according to the current Spanish market rules, have been performed to the production of different wind farms, with different degrees of accuracy in the prediction tool. It may be concluded that income from participation in electricity markets is increased using a short-term wind power prediction-tool of average accuracy. This both marginally increases income and also reduces the impact on system operation with the improved forecasts. (author)

  15. Comparative Study between Two Market Clearing Schemes in Wind Dominant Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    High price volatility and excessive price reduction are introduced as two emerging problems in wind dominant electricity markets. In this study, an agent-based simulation methodology is employed to investigate the impact of two pricing mechanisms, uniform and pay-as-bid, on the mentioned problems....... According to the proposed agent-based approach, electricity market agents (here generation units) learn from their previous bidding experience to obtain maximum financial. A comparative study is then conducted to investigate the impact of mentioned pricing schemes on price volatility and average price level....... It is shown that these two pricing mechanisms cause different bidding behaviours for the generation units. This study suggests that this change in market agent behaviour, modifies the overall price volatility and system average price. The results indicate that a pay-as-bid pricing mechanism can alleviate...

  16. Empowering wind power; On social and institutional conditions affecting the performance of entrepreneurs in the wind power supply market in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterbosch, S.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on wind energy for electricity generation, analysing the evolution of the wind power supply market in the Netherlands. We analysed different kind of wind power entrepreneurs (energy distributors, small private investors, wind cooperatives and new independent wind power

  17. Satellite information for wind energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2004-01-01

    An introduction to satellite information relevant for wind energy applications is given. It includes digital elevation model (DEM) data based on satellite observations. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is useful for regional scale wind resourcestudies. Comparison results from complex...... terrain in Spain and flat terrain in Denmark are found to be acceptable for both sites. Also land cover type information can be retrieved from satellite observations. Land cover type maps have to be combined withroughness data from field observation or literature values. Land cover type maps constitute...... an aid to map larger regions within shorter time. Field site observations of obstacles and hedges are still necessary. The raster-based map information from DEMand land cover maps can be converted for use in WASP. For offshore locations it is possible to estimate the wind resources based on ocean surface...

  18. Large-scale utilization of wind power in China: Obstacles of conflict between market and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoli; Wang Feng; Wang Mei

    2012-01-01

    The traditional strict planning system that regulates China's power market dominates power industry operations. However, a series of market-oriented reforms since 1997 call for more decentralized decision-making by individual market participants. Moreover, with the rapid growth of wind power in China, the strict planning system has become one of the significant factors that has curtailed the generation of wind power, which contradicts with the original purpose of using the government's strong control abilities to promote wind power development. In this paper, we first present the reasons why market mechanisms are important for large-scale utilization of wind power by using a case analysis of the Northeast Grid, and then we illustrate the impact of conflicts between strict planning and market mechanisms on large-scale wind power utilization. Last, we explore how to promote coordination between markets and planning to realize large-scale wind power utilization in China. We argue that important measures include implementing flexible power pricing mechanisms instead of the current fixed pricing approach, formulating a more reasonable mechanism for distributing benefits and costs, and designing an appropriate market structure for large-scale wind power utilization to promote market liquidity and to send clear market equilibrium signals. - Highlights: ► We present the reasons why market is important for utilization of wind power. ► We discuss the current situation of the conflict between planning and market. ► We study the impact of conflict between planning and market on wind power output. ► We argue how to promote coordination between market and planning.

  19. International wind energy development. World market update 1997. Forecast 1998-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This is the third issue of the annual World Market Update from BTM Consult ApS, covering the year 1997. All figures in the status part refer to end of the year 1997, the past 3 years development is also assessed and the forecast looks 5 years ahead. The annual installation of new wind power capacity increased by 21% resulting in a cumulative installation by the end of 1997 of 7,636 MW. Approx. 84% of the new capacity (1,566 MW), was installed in Europe emphasizing this region as the leading market regarding utilisation of wind energy. India remains halted (since 1996) and it has been very difficult to get reliable figures from this market. The US market is still very slow, but some very big projects are under construction. The first two years of the five year forecast has been adjusted downwards compared to forecast presented last year. The main reason is due to the economic situation in Asia. The cumulative MW in the five year forecast shows a slight increase compared to last years 5 year forecast, justified by higher expectations to other markets. The surprising pace in the commercialization of MW-turbines and their projected use for offshore applications few years ahead is assessed in the report. A total of 129 turbines of 1-1.65 MW are already in operation - most of them in Germany. On the international arena it is expected, that the wind power development will gain benefits from the Kyoto-Protocol (December 1997) and the 'White Paper' from the EU commission, although it will take some years to transfer these political targets into operational schemes. This report can be found on Internet Web-pages: http://home4.inet.tele.dk/btmcwind/index.html. (EG)

  20. Short-term optimal wind power generation capacity in liberalized electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Roescher, Mark; Larisson, Carlos; Garces, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Mainly because of environmental concerns and fuel price uncertainties, considerable amounts of wind-based generation capacity are being added to some deregulated power systems. The rapid wind development registered in some countries has essentially been driven by strong subsidizing programs. Since wind investments are commonly isolated from market signals, installed wind capacity can be higher than optimal, leading to distortions of the power prices with a consequent loss of social welfare. In this work, the influence of wind generation on power prices in the framework of a liberalized electricity market has been assessed by means of stochastic simulation techniques. The developed methodology allows investigating the maximal wind capacity that would be profitably deployed if wind investments were subject to market conditions only. For this purpose, stochastic variables determining power prices are accurately modeled. A test system resembling the size and characteristics of the German power system has been selected for this study. The expected value of the optimal, short-term wind capacity is evaluated for a considerable number of random realizations of power prices. The impact of dispersing the wind capacity over statistical independent wind sites has also been evaluated. The simulation results reveal that fuel prices, installation and financing costs of wind investments are very influential parameters on the maximal wind capacity that might be accommodated in a market-based manner

  1. Market to facilitate wind and solar energy integration in the bulk power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Soeder, Lennart [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden); Holttinen, Hannele [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Clark, Charlton [U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC (United States); Pineda, Ivan [European Wind Energy Association, Brussels (Belgium); Collaboration: IEA Task 25 collaboration

    2012-07-01

    Wind and solar power will give rise to challenges in electricity markets regarding flexibility, capacity adequacy, and the participation of wind and solar generators to markets. Large amounts of wind power will have impacts on bulk power system markets and electricity prices. If the markets respond to increased wind power by increasing investments in low-capital-cost/high-marginal-cost power, the average price may remain in the same range. However, the experiences so far from Denmark, Germany, Spain, and Ireland are that the average market prices decreased because of wind power. This reduction in price may result in additional revenue insufficiency, which may be corrected with a capacity market; however, capacity markets are difficult to design. Further, the flexibility attributes of the capacity need to be considered. Markets facilitating wind and solar integration will include possibilities for trading close to delivery (either by shorter gate closure times or intraday markets). Time steps chosen for markets can enable more flexibility to be assessed. Experience from 5- and 10-minute markets has been encouraging. (orig.)

  2. Computation of Superconducting Generators for Wind Turbine Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Zermeno, Victor Manuel

    The idea of introducing a superconducting generator for offshore wind turbine applications has received increasing support. It has been proposed as a way to meet energy market requirements and policies demanding clean energy sources in the near future. However, design considerations have to take......, to the actual generators in the KW (MW) class with an expected cross section in the order of decimeters (meters). This thesis work presents cumulative results intended to create a bottom-up model of a synchronous generator with superconducting rotor windings. In a first approach, multiscale meshes with large...... of the generator including ramp-up of rotor coils, load connection and change was simulated. Hence, transient hysteresis losses in the superconducting coils were computed. This allowed addressing several important design and performance issues such as critical current of the superconducting coils, electric load...

  3. Wind up with continuous intra-day electricity markets? The integration of large-share wind power generation in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanfil, Fatih; Li, Yuanjing

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests an innovative idea to examine the functionality of an electricity intra-day market by testing causality among its fundamental components. As fluctuations of poorly predicted wind power generation are challenging the stability of the current electricity system, an intra-day market design can play an important role in managing wind forecast errors. Using Danish and Nordic data, it investigates the main drivers of the price difference between the intra-day and day-ahead markets, and causality between wind forecast errors and their counterparts. Our results show that the wind and conventional generation forecast errors significantly cause the intra-day price to differ from the day-ahead price, and that the relative intra-day price decreases with the unexpected amount of wind generation. Cross-border electricity exchanges are found to be important to handle wind forecast errors. Additionally, some zonal differences with respect to both causality and impulse responses are detected. This paper provides the first evidence on the persuasive functioning of the intra-day market in the case of Denmark, whereby intermittent production deviations are effectively reduced, and wind forecast errors are jointly handled through the responses from demand, conventional generation, and intra-day international electricity trade. (authors)

  4. Impact of Market Regulations on the Development of Wind Power - An International Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Thomas; Soeder, Lennart

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents and briefly evaluates the most important existing market regulations and market schemes regarding its influence on the development of wind power. The evaluation of the existing market regulations focuses on the incentives provided by the various instruments to reduce production costs. The instruments and schemes are: Feed-in Tariffs, Net Metering, Bidding Process, Fixed Quotas, Green Certificate Trading, Green Power Exchange, Green Pricing. In addition, the impact of market regulations for international electricity markets with a power exchange are investigated. The analysis showed that new wind power generation can faces significant market barriers. (author)

  5. The Spanish Wind Energy Market. Balance and Outlooks; El Mercado Eolico Espanol. Balance y Perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, M [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    The present work accomplishes a revision to the situation of the wind market in Spain, its recent evolution, its regional distribution, the principal actors of the market (manufacturers, promoters). The balance includes a review of the programs of institutional support to wind energy, an analysis of the current installation costs and electricity production costs. Finally, other variables related the integration of wind energy are analysed, as the potential of employment generation or the associated environmental factors. (Author) 5 refs.

  6. Price Forecasting of Electricity Markets in the Presence of a High Penetration of Wind Power Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Saber Talari; Miadreza Shafie-khah; Gerardo J. Osório; Fei Wang; Alireza Heidari; João P. S. Catalão

    2017-01-01

    Price forecasting plays a vital role in the day-ahead markets. Once sellers and buyers access an accurate price forecasting, managing the economic risk can be conducted appropriately through offering or bidding suitable prices. In networks with high wind power penetration, the electricity price is influenced by wind energy; therefore, price forecasting can be more complicated. This paper proposes a novel hybrid approach for price forecasting of day-ahead markets, with high penetration of wind...

  7. Wind turbine concept market penetration over 10 years (1995-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Anca D.; Hansen, Lars H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the market penetration and share of different wind turbine concepts during the years 1995-2004, a period that represents the maturational era of the modern wind power industry. A detailed overview is given based on suppliers' market data and concept evaluation for each individual wind turbine type sold by the Top Ten suppliers over the selected decade. The investigation is processing information on approximately 160 wind turbine types from 22 different manufacturers that have featured in the Top Ten list of wind turbine suppliers during 1995-2004. The analysis is based on comprehensive data covering approximately 97% of the cumulative wind power installed worldwide at the end of 2004. The article also provides an overall perspective on contemporary wind turbine concepts, classified with respect to both their speed control ability and power control type. Current and future trends for wind turbine concepts are discussed. (Author)

  8. The UK electricity market and the wind industry - a perspective of 1998 proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batley, S.L.; Twidell, J.W.; Gibbons, C.

    1997-01-01

    After April 1st 1998, the Public Electricity Supplier monopoly ( in England, Wales and Scotland) over their local franchise market will cease and all customers, regardless of size, will be able to choose their supplier. These changes will have a major impact on the UK wind energy industry. An increased number of Second Tier Suppliers will compete with existing market players for electricity purchase from generators and sale of electricity to consumers. Market changes should improve possibilities for wind generators to obtain a Second Tier Supplier licence and serve the domestic, small demand, market. There may also be market opportunities to sell to specialist 'green' suppliers. The post 1998 changes are of importance to the European Union 'Guarantee of Result' project, which aims to promote small scale wind systems through guaranteed quality and performance of systems. For the Guarantee of Results to be utilised in the UK, all markets for the generated electricity from a wind system must be considered and evaluated. (Author)

  9. Influence of wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production cost: analysis of the actual market trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laali, A.-R.; Meyer, J.-L.

    1996-01-01

    Several studies are undertaken in R and D Division of EDF in collaboration with ERASME association in order to have a good knowledge of the wind energy production costs. These studies are performed in the framework of a wind energy monitoring project and concern the influence of a few parameters like wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production costs, through an analysis of the actual market trend. Some 50 manufacturers and 140 different kind of wind turbines are considered for this study. The minimum production cost is situated at 800/900 kW wind turbine rated power. This point will probably move to more important powers in the future. This study is valid only for average conditions and some special parameters like particular climate conditions or lack of infrastructure for a special site that could modify the results shown on the curves. The variety of wind turbines (rated power as a function of rotor diameter, height and specific rated power) in the actual market is analysed. A brief analysis of the market trend is also performed. (author)

  10. Wind power in the Danish liberalised power market-Policy measures, price impact and investor incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, Jesper; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2008-01-01

    Wind power has a strong position at the Danish electricity market, mainly caused by high feed-in tariffs in the 1990s. Investments in new wind-power installations on land, however, have declined dramatically after the Danish electricity market was liberalised in 1999. First, the paper describes how policy measures directed towards wind power have been redesigned to match the liberalised market. Then, we estimate the impact of the redesigned tariffs on the electricity prices. Finally, we assess whether the new tariffs make an incentive to invest in wind power. The paper concludes that the new tariffs not by itself make evidence for the actual Danish recession in new wind-power installations after the electricity reform. The main causes could include a combination of problems in spatial planning, high risk aversion of new wind turbine investors and perhaps more favourable support schemes in other countries

  11. A Transmission-Cost-Based Model to Estimate the Amount of Market-Integrable Wind Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    are made to share the expenses in transmission derived from their integration, they may see the doors of electricity markets closed for not being competitive enough. This paper presents a model to decide the amount of wind resources that are economically exploitable at a given location from a transmission......In the pursuit of the large-scale integration of wind power production, it is imperative to evaluate plausible frictions among the stochastic nature of wind generation, electricity markets, and the investments in transmission required to accommodate larger amounts of wind. If wind producers......-cost perspective. This model accounts for the uncertain character of wind by using a modeling framework based on stochastic optimization, simulates market barriers by means of a bi-level structure, and considers the financial risk of investments in transmission through the conditional value-at-risk. The major...

  12. High resolution climatological wind measurements for wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    Measurements with a combined cup anemometer/wind vane instrument, developed at the Department of Meteorology in Uppsala, is presented. The instrument has a frequency response of about 1 Hz, making it suitable not only for mean wind measurements, but also for studies of atmospheric turbulence. It is robust enough to be used for climatological purposes. Comparisons with data from a hot-film anemometer show good agreement, both as regards standard deviations and the spectral decomposition of the turbulent wind signal. The cup anemometer/wind vane instrument is currently used at three sites within the Swedish wind energy research programme. These measurements are shortly described, and a few examples of the results are given. 1 ref, 10 figs

  13. Effects of interruptible load program on equilibrium outcomes of electricity markets with wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Xuena; Zhang, Shaohua; Li, Xue [Shanghai Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Power Station Automation Technology

    2013-07-01

    High wind power penetration presents a lot of challenges to the flexibility and reliability of power system operation. In this environment, various demand response (DR) programs have got much attention. As an effective measure of demand response programs, interruptible load (IL) programs have been widely used in electricity markets. This paper addresses the problem of impacts of the IL programs on the equilibrium outcomes of electricity wholesale markets with wind power. A Cournot equilibrium model of wholesale markets with wind power is presented, in which IL programs is included by a market demand model. The introduction of the IL programs leads to a non-smooth equilibrium problem. To solve this equilibrium problem, a novel solution method is proposed. Numerical examples show that IL programs can lower market price and its volatility significantly, facilitate the integration of wind power.

  14. Optimal Offering Strategies for Wind Power in Energy and Primary Reserve Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pinson, Pierre; Jensen, Tue Vissing

    2016-01-01

    generation from the turbines. These offering strategies aim at maximizing expected revenues from both market floors using probabilistic forecasts for wind power generation, complemented with estimated regulation costs and penalties for failing to provide primary reserve. A set of numerical examples, as well......Wind power generation is to play an important role in supplying electric power demand, and will certainly impact the design of future energy and reserve markets. Operators of wind power plants will consequently develop adequate offering strategies, accounting for the market rules...... and the operational capabilities of the turbines, e.g., to participate in primary reserve markets. We consider two different offering strategies for joint participation of wind power in energy and primary reserve markets, based on the idea of proportional and constant splitting of potentially available power...

  15. Power-Production Diagnostic Tools for Low-Density Wind Farms with Applications to Wake Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takle, E. S.; Herzmann, D.; Rajewski, D. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Rhodes, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Hansen (2011) provided guidelines for wind farm wake analysis with applications to "high density" wind farms (where average distance between turbines is less than ten times rotor diameter). For "low-density" (average distance greater than fifteen times rotor diameter) wind farms, or sections of wind farms we demonstrate simpler sorting and visualization tools that reveal wake interactions and opportunities for wind farm power prediction and wake steering. SCADA data from a segment of a large mid-continent wind farm, together with surface flux measurements and lidar data are subjected to analysis and visualization of wake interactions. A time-history animated visualization of a plan view of power level of individual turbines provides a quick analysis of wake interaction dynamics. Yaw-based sectoral histograms of enhancement/decline of wind speed and power from wind farm reference levels reveals angular width of wake interactions and identifies the turbine(s) responsible for the power reduction. Concurrent surface flux measurements within the wind farm allowed us to evaluate stability influence on wake loss. A one-season climatology is used to identify high-priority candidates for wake steering based on estimated power recovery. Typical clearing prices on the day-ahead market are used to estimate the added value of wake steering. Current research is exploring options for identifying candidate locations for wind farm "build-in" in existing low-density wind farms.

  16. Integration of wind power in the liberalized Dutch electricity market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ummels, B.C.; Gibescu, M.; Kling, W.L.; Paap, G.C.

    2006-01-01

    Wind power is becoming a large-scale electricity generation technology in a number of European countries, including the Netherlands.Owing to the variability and unpredictability of wind power production, large-scale wind power can be foreseen to have large consequences for balancing generation and

  17. Carbon price instead of support schemes: wind power investments by the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitet, Marie; Finon, Dominique; Janssen, Tanguy

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we study the development of wind power by the electricity market without any usual support scheme which is aimed at subsidizing non mature renewables, with the sole incentive of a significant carbon price. Long term electricity market and investment decisions simulation by system dynamics modelling is used to trace the electricity generation mix evolution over a 20-year period in a pure thermal system. A range of stable carbon price, as a tax could be, is tested in order to determine the value above which wind power development by market forces becomes economically possible. Not only economic competitiveness in terms of cost price, but also profitability against traditional fossil fuel technologies are necessary for a market-driven development of wind power. Results stress that wind power is really profitable for investors only if the carbon price is very significantly higher than the price required for making wind power MWh's cost price competitive with CCGT and coal-fired plants on the simplistic basis of levelized costs. In this context, the market-driven development of wind power seems only possible if there is a strong commitment to climate policy, reflected by the preference for a stable and high carbon price rather than a fuzzy price of an emission trading scheme. Besides, results show that market-driven development of wind power would require a sky-rocketing carbon price if the initial technology mix includes a share of nuclear plants even with a moratorium on new nuclear development. (authors)

  18. Can a wind farm with CAES survive in the day-ahead market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauch, Brandon; Carvalho, Pedro M.S.; Apt, Jay

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the economic viability of coupling a wind farm with compressed air energy storage (CAES) to participate in the day-ahead electricity market at a time when renewable portfolio standards are not binding and wind competes freely in the marketplace. In our model, the CAES is used to reduce the risk of committing uncertain quantities of wind energy and to shift dispatch of wind generation to high price periods. Other sources of revenue (capacity markets, ancillary services, price arbitrage) are not included in the analysis. We present a model to calculate profit maximizing day-ahead dispatch schedules based on wind forecasts. Annual profits are determined with dispatch schedules and actual wind generation values. We find that annual income for the modeled wind–CAES system would not cover annualized capital costs using market prices from the years 2006 to 2009. We also estimate market prices with a carbon price of $20 and $50 per tonne CO 2 and find that revenue would still not cover the capital costs. The implied cost per tonne of avoided CO 2 to make a wind–CAES profitable from trading on the day-ahead market is roughly $100, with large variability due to electric power prices. - Highlights: ► We modeled a wind farm participating in the day-ahead electricity market. ► We calculated optimal day-ahead market offers based on wind forecasts. ► Revenue is then calculated using measured wind power. ► We find that revenue is insufficient to cover capital costs at current market prices.

  19. Stochastic coordination of joint wind and photovoltaic systems with energy storage in day-ahead market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, I.L.R.; Pousinho, H.M.I.; Melício, R.; Mendes, V.M.F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal bid submission in a day-ahead electricity market for the problem of joint operation of wind with photovoltaic power systems having an energy storage device. Uncertainty not only due to the electricity market price, but also due to wind and photovoltaic powers is one of the main characteristics of this submission. The problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem. The optimal bids and the energy flow in the batteries are the first-stage variables and the energy deviation is the second stage variable of the problem. Energy storage is a way to harness renewable energy conversion, allowing the store and discharge of energy at conveniently market prices. A case study with data from the Iberian day-ahead electricity market is presented and a comparison between joint and disjoint operations is discussed. - • Joint wind and PV systems with energy storage. • Electricity markets. • Stochastic optimization. • Day-ahead market.

  20. Mobile Marketing Applications of Travel Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Selim Selvi

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the use of mobile devices in the marketing world is increasing parallel with technological advances. The main problem of this research is to determine agencies’ use of what type of mobile tools for what type of purposes in the marketing process. The aim of this research is to identify Mobile Marketing (MM) applications used by group A travel agencies, and to describe the attitudes towards MM applications of agencies. According to related law, it is only group A agencies give ...

  1. Synchrophasor Applications for Wind Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Y. C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Allen, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singh, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wan, Y. H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. power industry is undertaking several initiatives that will improve the operations of the electric power grid. One of those is the implementation of wide-area measurements using phasor measurement units to dynamically monitor the operations and status of the network and provide advanced situational awareness and stability assessment. The overviews of synchrophasors and stability analyses in this report are intended to present the potential future applications of synchrophasors for power system operations under high penetrations of wind and other renewable energy sources.

  2. Probabilistic decision model of wind power investment and influence of green power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillenwater, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a model of a representative wind power investor's decision making process using a Monte Carlo simulation of a project financial analysis. Data, in the form of probability distribution functions (PDFs) for key input variables were collected from interviews with investors and other professionals active in the U.S. wind power industry using a formal expert elicitation protocol. This study presents the first quantitative estimates of the effect of the U.S. voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) market on renewable energy generation. The results indicate that the investment decisions of wind power project developers in the United States are unlikely to have been altered by the voluntary REC market. The problem with the current voluntary REC market is that it does not offer developers a reliable risk-adjusted revenue stream. Consequently, the claims by U.S. green power retailers and promoters that voluntary market RECs result in additional wind power projects lack credibility. Even dramatic increases in voluntary market REC prices, in the absence of long-term contracts, were found to have only a small effect on investor behavior. - Highlights: • I use a formal expert elicitation to collect data from wind power investors. • I use a Monte Carlo model to look at the influence of Renewable Energy Certificates on investment. • Investment decisions are unlikely to have been altered by the voluntary REC market. • Claims that the U.S. green power market result in additional wind power lack credibility

  3. Adequate intraday market design to enable the integration of wind energy into the European power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christoph [University Duisburg-Essen, Chair for Energy Economics and Management Sciences, Universitaetsstrasse 12, 45 117 Essen (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    This contribution analyses the European electricity markets with respect to their aptitude to absorb large amounts of wind energy. Thereby in a first step the market designs of the major European power markets in France, Germany, Scandinavia, Spain and UK are reviewed, with a particular focus on liquidity in the spot and intraday markets. Then some key features of the short-term adjustments required by wind energy are discussed and the necessity of sufficient liquidity in intraday markets is highlighted. For the example of the German market subsequently the discrepancy between the physical short-term adjustment needs and the traded volumes on the intraday market is analyzed. This leads to an evaluation of proposals for improving the liquidity on the short-term market, including the use of continuous spot trading like in UK or the use of intraday auctions like in Spain. (author)

  4. Excessive price reduction and extreme volatility in wind dominant electricity markets; solutions and emerging challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Chen, Zhe; Mousavi, Omid Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    High intermittency in the nature of wind power emphasize conceptual revising in the mechanisms of electricity markets with high wind power penetration levels. This paper introduces overmuch price reduction and high price volatility as two adverse consequences in future wind dominant electricity...... is developed. The paper indicates discriminatory pricing approach can be beneficial in high penetration of wind power because it alleviates high price variations and spikiness in one hand and prevents overmuch price reduction in wind dominant electricity markets on the other hand....... markets. While high price volatility imposes elevated risk levels for both electricity suppliers and consumers, excessive price reduction of electricity is a disincentive for investment in new generation capacity and might jeopardizes system adequacy in long term. A comparative study between marginal...

  5. Large-scale offshore wind energy. Cost analysis and integration in the Dutch electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Noord, M.

    1999-02-01

    The results of analysis of the construction and integration costs of large-scale offshore wind energy (OWE) farms in 2010 are presented. The integration of these farms (1 and 5 GW) in the Dutch electricity distribution system have been regarded against the background of a liberalised electricity market. A first step is taken for the determination of costs involved in solving integration problems. Three different types of foundations are examined: the mono-pile, the jacket and a new type of foundation: the concrete caisson pile: all single-turbine-single-support structures. For real offshore applications (>10 km offshore, at sea-depths >20 m), the concrete caisson pile is regarded as the most suitable. The price/power ratios of wind turbines are analysed. It is assumed that in 2010 turbines in the power range of 3-5 MW are available. The main calculations have been conducted for a 3 MW turbine. The main choice in electrical infrastructure is for AC or DC. Calculations show that at distances of 30 km offshore and more, the use of HVDC will result in higher initial costs but lower operating costs. The share of operating and maintenance (O ampersand M) costs in the kWh cost price is approximately 3.3%. To be able to compare the two farms, a base case is derived with a construction time of 10 years for both. The energy yield is calculated for a wind regime offshore of 9.0 m/s annual mean wind speed. Per 3 MW turbine this results in an annual energy production of approximately 12 GWh. The total farm efficiency amounts to 82%, resulting in a total farm capacity factor of 38%. With a required internal rate of return of 15%, the kWh cost price amounts to 0.24 DFl and 0.21 DFl for the 1 GW and 5 GW farms respectively in the base case. The required internal rate of return has a large effect on the kWh cost price, followed by costs of subsystems. O ampersand M costs have little effect on the cost price. Parameter studies show that a small cost reduction of 5% is possible when

  6. Wind power planning and operational benefits and issues in evolving competitive markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the advantages of wind energy generators for both short periods (hours to days) and for longer periods. The value of wind power in the light of the increasing level of risk that owners of generators will face in the new electricity market is also discussed. It is claimed that only now are we beginning to understand the issues associated with the use of large-scale wind power plants in regulated markets and this is coming about through a combination of both experience and computer modelling. As the electric power market becomes increasingly competitive, it is necessary to adapt our knowledge base to cope with the new market structure and to appreciate the associated risks and how they can be mitigated by, say, good siting. The importance of power transmission from wind power generators is emphasised: only if transmission access is afforded to all technologies will the competition succeed

  7. Hybrid Pricing in a Coupled European Power Market with More Wind Power

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørndal, Endre; Bjørndal, Mette; Cai, Hong; Panos, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    In the European market, the promotion of wind power leads to more network congestion. Zonal pricing (market coupling), which does not take the physical characteristics of transmission into account, is the most commonly used method to relieve congestion in Europe. Zonal pricing fails to provide adequate locational price signals regarding the energy resource scarcity and thus creates a large amount of unscheduled cross-border flows originating from wind-generated power, making the interconne...

  8. From Non-market Support to Cost-Competitive Incentives. Wind Energy Commercialization in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenqiang, Liu; Xiliang, Zhang; Shuhua, Gu; Gan, Lin

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of wind energy in China. By examining the economics of windfarm development, it compares the economics of wind technology with other conventional energy technologies and analyzes the role of alternative policy instruments. Meanwhile, it identifies the major constraints of wind technology development and the defects of current non-market support from the government. It shows that the development of wind power will be directly subject to rational policy change, incentive mechanisms and institutional framework building. Particular importance is paid to market incentives to reach the objectives of commercialization and industrialization of wind power. The paper recommends some cost-competitive incentive measure and policies to drive the wind power market. It concludes that promising market incentives to speed up the development of wind energy include: (i) establish market competition mechanisms through standard power purchase agreement; (ii) adjust tax policies and government subsidies; (iii) stimulate investment incentive policies and regulations; and (iv) change governmental institutions and management modes. (author)

  9. TradeWind. Integrating wind. Developing Europe's power market for the large-scale integration of wind power. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-15

    Based on a single European grid and power market system, the TradeWind project explores to what extent large-scale wind power integration challenges could be addressed by reinforcing interconnections between Member States in Europe. Additionally, the project looks at the conditions required for a sound power market design that ensures a cost-effective integration of wind power at EU level. In this way, the study addresses two issues of key importance for the future integration of renewable energy, namely the weak interconnectivity levels between control zones and the inflexibility and fragmented nature of the European power market. Work on critical transmission paths and interconnectors is slow for a variety of reasons including planning and administrative barriers, lack of public acceptance, insufficient economic incentives for TSOs, and the lack of a joint European approach by the key stakeholders. (au)

  10. From wind ensembles to probabilistic information about future wind power production - results from an actual application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    on the wind power ensemble forecasts. Given measurements of power production, representing a region or a single wind farm, we have developed methods applicable for these two steps. While (ii) should in principle be a simple task we found that the probabilistic information contained in the wind power ensembles...... horizon we aim at supplying quantiles of the wind power production conditional on the information available at the time at which the forecast is generated. This involves: (i) transformation of meteorological ensemble forecasts into wind power ensemble forecasts and (ii) calculation of quantiles based....... The application use ECMWF-ensembles. One setup corresponds to an offshore wind farm (Nysted, Denmark) and one corresponds to regional forecasting (Western Denmark). In the paper we analyze the results obtained from 8 months of actual operation of this system. It is concluded that the demo-application produce...

  11. Challenges and solutions of implementing and supporting wind diesel applications in remote (AK) locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingree, B. [Northern Power Systems, Barre, VT (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the methods used by Northern Power Systems to install and support wind-diesel applications in remote locations in Alaska. Over 90 wind turbines have been installed in the state over the last 5 years. Drivers behind the increase in wind turbine installations include the recent energy crisis as well as the introduction of several financial incentives for renewable energy. The correct equipment is needed to overcome the technical challenges associated with wind-diesel systems in remote cold temperature areas. Multiple projects are synchronized within regions, and remote energy management software is used. Centralized power production is promoted where possible, and technicians are trained locally. The wind-diesel market has become successful in Alaska as a result of leadership, a streamline grant and permitting process, and a program that supports First Nations empowerment. Photographs of various Northern Power Systems projects in Alaska were included. tabs., figs.

  12. Utilizing a vanadium redox flow battery to avoid wind power deviation penalties in an electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turker, Burak; Arroyo Klein, Sebastian; Komsiyska, Lidiya; Trujillo, Juan José; Bremen, Lueder von; Kühn, Martin; Busse, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Vanadium redox flow battery utilized for wind power grid integration was studied. • Technical and financial analyses at single wind farm level were performed. • 2 MW/6 MW h VRFB is suitable for mitigating power deviations for a 10 MW wind farm. • Economic incentives might be required in the short-term until the VRFB prices drop. - Abstract: Utilizing a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) for better market integration of wind power at a single wind farm level was evaluated. A model which combines a VRFB unit and a medium sized (10 MW) wind farm was developed and the battery was utilized to compensate for the deviations resulting from the forecast errors in an electricity market bidding structure. VRFB software model which was introduced in our previous paper was integrated with real wind power data, power forecasts and market data based on the Spanish electricity market. Economy of the system was evaluated by financial assessments which were done by considering the VRFB costs and the amount of deviation penalty payments resulting from forecast inaccuracies

  13. Policy instruments for regulating the development of wind power in a liberated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Wind power is facing the dual challenge of entering a liberated electricity market and at the same time being one of the main contributors to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper analyses the importance of the existing standard payment schemes in the development of wind power, and how this might be affected by the introduction of a liberated electricity market. The existing Danish standard payment scheme has strongly encouraged investments in wind turbines. It has been and still is very effective in promoting a high wind power capacity development, but at a high economic cost to the Danish Government. Different models of conditions for wind power at an electricity exchange do exist, but all seem to introduce a higher risk to the individual wind turbine owner than seen with the present payment scheme. In short it might be stated that going from the existing standard payment system to a market based system, the political uncertainty is converted to a market risk for the individual wind turbine owner. (au)

  14. Policy instruments for regulating the development of wind power in a liberated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Wind power is facing the dual challenge of entering a liberated electricity market and at the same time being one of the main contributors to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper analyses the importance of the existing standard payment schemes in the development of wind power, and how this might be affected by the introduction of a liberated electricity market. The existing Danish standard payment scheme has strongly encouraged investments in wind turbines. It has been and still is very effective in promoting a high wind power capacity development, but at a high economic cost to the Danish Government. Different models of conditions for wind power at an electricity exchange do exist, but all seem to introduce a higher risk to the individual wind turbine owner than seen with the present payment scheme. In short it might be stated that going from the existing standard payment system to a market based system, the political uncertainty is converted to a market risk for the individual wind turbine owner. (author)

  15. Policy instruments for regulating the development of wind power in a liberated electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morthorst, P E [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Wind power is facing the dual challenge of entering a liberated electricity market and at the same time being one of the main contributors to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper analyses the importance of the existing standard payment schemes in the development of wind power, and how this might be affected by the introduction of a liberated electricity market. The existing Danish standard payment scheme has strongly encouraged investments in wind turbines. It has been and still is very effective in promoting a high wind power capacity development, but at a high economic cost to the Danish Government. Different models of conditions for wind power at an electricity exchange do exist, but all seem to introduce a higher risk to the individual wind turbine owner than seen with the present payment scheme. In short it might be stated that going from the existing standard payment system to a market based system, the political uncertainty is converted to a market risk for the individual wind turbine owner. (au)

  16. Siting guidelines for utility application of wind turbines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennell, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    Utility-oriented guidelines are described for identifying viable sites for wind turbines. Topics and procedures are also discussed that are important in carrying out a wind turbine siting program. These topics include: a description of the Department of Energy wind resource atlases; procedures for predicting wind turbine performance at potential sites; methods for analyzing wind turbine economics; procedures for estimating installation and maintenance costs; methods for anlayzing the distribution of wind resources over an area; and instrumentation for documenting wind behavior at potential sites. The procedure described is applicable to small and large utilities. Although the procedure was developed as a site-selection tool, it can also be used by a utility who wishes to estimate the potential for wind turbine penetration into its future generation mix.

  17. On the market of wind with hydro-pumped storage systems in autonomous Greek islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caralis, G.; Zervos, A.; Rados, K.

    2010-01-01

    In autonomous islands, the wind penetration is restricted due to technical reasons related with the safe operation of the electrical systems. The combined use of wind energy with pumped storage (WPS) is considered as a mean to exploit the abundant wind potential, increase the wind installed capacity and substitute conventional peak supply. In this paper, the experience gained from the analysis of WPS in three specific islands is used towards the estimation of the WPS market in autonomous Greek islands. Parameterized diagrams and a methodology towards the pre-dimensioning and initial design of the WPS are proposed and used towards the estimation of the market in autonomous Greek islands. The objective is to make an initial general prefeasibility study of WPS prospects in the autonomous Greek islands. Results show that there is a significant market for WPS in Greece and the development cost of WPS is competitive to the fuel cost of local power stations in autonomous islands. (author)

  18. Policies and market factors driving wind power development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Lori; Bolinger, Mark; Gagliano, Troy; Wiser, Ryan; Brown, Matthew; Parsons, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In the United States, there has been substantial recent growth in wind energy generating capacity, with growth averaging 24 percent annually during the past five years. About 1700 MW of wind energy capacity was installed in 2001, while another 410 MW became operational in 2002. During 2003, development activity has remained strong, with an estimated 1600 MW of capacity installed. With this growth, an increasing number of States are experiencing investment in wind energy projects: currently about half of all States host at least one wind power project. This paper explores the key factors at play in the 12 States in which a substantial amount of wind energy capacity has been developed or planned. Some of the factors that are examined include policy drivers, such as Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), Federal and State financial incentives; as well as market drivers, such as consumer demand for green power, natural gas price volatility, and wholesale market rules

  19. The Relationship Between Electricity Price and Wind Power Generation in Danish Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    of competitive electricity markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system. The relationship between the electricity price (both the spot price and the regulation price) and the wind power generation in an electricity market is investigated in this paper. The spot price, the down regulation price...... and the up regulation price generally decreases when the wind power penetration in the power system increases. The statistical characteristics of the spot price for different wind power penetration are analyzed. The findings of this paper may be useful for wind power generation companies to make the optimal...... bidding strategy and may be also useful for the optimal operation of modern power systems with high wind power penetrations....

  20. Wind energy applications of synthetic aperture radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete

    Synthetic aperture radars (SAR), mounted on satellites or aircraft, have proven useful for ocean wind mapping. Wind speeds at the height 10 m may be retrieved from measurements of radar backscatter using empirical model functions. The resulting windfields are valuable in offshore wind energy plan...

  1. 77 FR 24941 - Vantage Wind Energy LLC; Order Accepting Updated Market Power Analysis and Providing Direction on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-956-003] Vantage Wind.... 1. In this order, the Commission accepts an updated market power analysis filed by Vantage Wind Energy LLC (Vantage Wind). As discussed below, the Commission concludes that Vantage Wind continues to...

  2. The impact of wind forecast errors on the efficiency of the Ontario electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, H.

    2008-01-01

    Ontario's Independent System Operator (IESO) is currently involved in a number of wind projects in the province, and has developed both a resource commitment and dispatch timeline in relation to increased wind power penetration in the Ontario electricity grid. This presentation discussed the impacts of wind forecast errors on the province's electricity market. Day-ahead planning is used to commit fossil fuels and gas resources, while 3-hours ahead planning is used to commit generation in real time. Inter-ties are committed 1 hour ahead of dispatch. Over-forecasts for wind can cause market prices to increase in real-time, or cause markets to miss opportunities to schedule cheaper imports. The inefficient scheduling caused by overforecasts can also lead to exports not being purchases at high enough prices. Under-forecasts can cause market prices to decrease, and may cause imports to be scheduled that would not have been economic at lower prices. The scheduling difficulties related to under-forecasting can cause markets to miss opportunities to schedule efficient exports. Wind facility forecast errors typically improve closer to real-time. One-hour ahead wind forecast errors can reach approximately 12 per cent. The annual costs of overforecasting are under $200,000. Underforecasting costs are usually less than $30,000. The costs of the wind forecasting inefficiencies are relatively small in the $10 billion electricity market. It was concluded that system operators will continue to track forecast errors and inefficiencies as wind power capacity in the electric power industry increases. tabs., figs

  3. Windonomics. Empirical essays on the economics of wind power in the Nordic electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauritzen, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    From the introduction: The following chapters in this dissertation take up three topics surrounding the interaction of wind power investment in Denmark and the functioning of the deregulated Nordic electricity market. The first two chapters take up the issue of how wind power a affects prices in the deregulated market. I find that electricity price variation in the spot market is lower in days with more wind power. In the following chapter I extend this analysis to see how wind power in Denmark affects prices in neighbouring hydro power dominated Norway. I find that wind power affects the magnitude of trade between the countries asymmetrically - dependent on the net direction of trade. I also find that wind power has a slight but statistically significant negative effect on prices in Norway, likely due to a slackening of hydro power producers supply constraints. The last chapter starts with the observation that most turbines are scrapped in order to make room for a newer turbine. An opportunity cost that comes from the interaction of scarce land resources, technological change and government policy is then a dominant reason for the scrapping of wind turbines. This leads to the implication that turbines located on windier, better situated land have a higher risk of being scrapped. Policy is also shown to have a strong and in some respects unexpected effect on scrappings. Over the last two decades two major trends have taken place in power markets around the world. The first has been a movement towards market based power systems. Vertically integrated power companies have been split into component generation, transmission and retailing companies. Generation and retailing have been opened to competition. Increasingly, regulated prices and bilateral trade are being replaced by regulated markets that establish prices through auction mechanisms. The second trend has been investment in renewable and intermittent energy sources - notably wind power. What started as

  4. Reliability constrained generation expansion planning with consideration of wind farms uncertainties in deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmati, Reza; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Khodabakhshian, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Generation expansion planning is presented in deregulated electricity market. • Wind farm uncertainty is modeled in the problem. • The profit of each GENCO is maximized and also the safe operation of system is satisfied. • Salve sector is managed as an optimization programming and solved by using PSO technique. • Master sector is considered in pool market and Cournot model is used to simulate it. - Abstract: This paper addresses reliability constrained generation expansion planning (GEP) in the presence of wind farm uncertainty in deregulated electricity market. The proposed GEP aims at maximizing the expected profit of all generation companies (GENCOs), while considering security and reliability constraints such as reserve margin and loss of load expectation (LOLE). Wind farm uncertainty is also considered in the planning and GENCOs denote their planning in the presence of wind farm uncertainty. The uncertainty is modeled by probability distribution function (PDF) and Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS) is used to insert uncertainty into the problem. The proposed GEP is a constrained, nonlinear, mixed-integer optimization programming and solved by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. In this paper, Electricity market structure is modeled as a pool market. Simulation results verify the effectiveness and validity of the proposed planning for maximizing GENCOs profit in the presence of wind farms uncertainties in electricity market

  5. Well-functioning balancing markets. A prerequisite for wind power integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandezande, Leen; Meeus, Leonardo; Belmans, Ronnie; Saguan, Marcelo; Glachant, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the design of balancing markets in Europe taking into account an increasing wind power penetration. In several European countries, wind generation is so far not burdened with full balancing responsibility. However, the more wind power penetration, the less bearable for the system not to allocate balancing costs to the responsible parties. Given the variability and limited predictability of wind generation, full balancing exposure is however only feasible conditionally to well-functioning balancing markets. On that account, recommendations ensuring an optimal balancing market design are formulated and their impact on wind generation is assessed. Taking market-based or cost-reflective imbalance prices as the main objective, it is advised that: (1) the imbalance settlement should not contain penalties or power exchange prices, (2) capacity payments should be allocated to imbalanced BRPs via an additive component in the imbalance price and (3) a cap should be imposed on the amount of reserves. Efficient implementation of the proposed market design may require balancing markets being integrated across borders. (author)

  6. Five Basic Microcomputer Applications for Marketing Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Richard F.

    The microcomputer has five basic applications in marketing education--a remedial/tutorial application, instructional purposes, simulation, the project data base, and classroom management. Examples of word processing applications of a microcomputer are updating annual training plans and producing letters to advisory committee members, parents, and…

  7. Applications of wind turbines in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, P; Rangi, R S; Templin, R J

    1977-01-01

    There are differing views as to the role of wind energy in the overall requirements. While some people tend to ignore it there are others who think that wind could be a major source of energy. In this paper an effort has been made to determine the wind power potential and also the amount that is economically usable. From the existing wind data a map showing the distribution of wind power density has been prepared. This map shows that the maritime provinces and the west coast of Hudson Bay have high wind power potential. These figures show that the wind power potential is of the same order as the installed electrical generating capacity in Canada (58 x 10/sup 6/kW in 1974). However, in order to determine how much of this power is usable the economics of adding wind energy to an existing system must be considered. A computer program has been developed at NRC to analyze the coupling of wind turbines with mixed power systems. Using this program and making certain assumptions about the cost of WECS and fuel the maximum amount of usable wind energy has been calculated. It is shown that if an installed capacity of 420 megawatts of wind power was added to the existing diesel capacity it would result in a savings of 60,000,000 gallons of fuel oil per year. On the other hand it is shown that if the existing installed hydro electric capacity of 37,000 megawatts (1976) was increased to 60,000 megawatts without increasing the average water flow rate, an installed capacity of 60,000 megawatts of wind power could be added to the system. This would result in an average of 14,000 megawatts from the wind. Using projected manufacturing costs for vertical axis wind turbines, the average cost of wind energy could be in the range of 1.4 cents/kwh to 3.6 cents/kwh.

  8. New Zealand and Australia wind energy in a non subsidised market environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieshout, P. van [DesignPower New Zealand Ltd., Wellington (New Zealand)

    1996-12-31

    Significant preliminary work has been undertaken by New Zealand and Australian Power/Generation Companies regarding Wind Power. Turbines are installed in Australia and New Zealand to test the wind and the technical applicability in the Australian wind diesel and the New Zealand high wind speed environment. Projects in Esperance, Thursday Island and King Island illustrate hybrid wind diesel applications. A single Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) has been successfully operated in New Zealand for the last 3 years. A new 3.5 MW wind farm is operational and Resource Consent has been granted for a 65 MW wind farm in New Zealand. Design Power is very proud to be involved in many of the New Zealand and Australian projects. It is obvious that wind power is just starting here, however the start has been promising and it is expected that wind power is here to stay. This paper will address some of the issues associated with wind power in New Zealand and Australia, particularly those that are different from Europe and America. It shows the opportunities and challenges regarding the operation of WTGs in these countries. It addresses the non subsidized electrical pricing structure and the influence of the economically necessary high wind speeds or diesel systems on the choice of technology, particularly the control algorithm of WTGs and the subsystems. It reviews several of the issues associated with predicting the amount of energy that a WTG can generate, again taking into account the high wind speed control algorithms. It further addresses the issue of embedded generation and the influence that a wind farm might have on the electrical network. It continues to address issues associated with wind diesel systems. The paper concludes that wind power will be viable in the near future both in New Zealand and Australia, but also that care should be taken with data analysis and hardware choices during the next phase of implementation of wind power in New Zealand and Australia. 7 figs.

  9. International wind energy development. World market update 1998. Forecast 1999-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This is the fourth issue of the annual World Market Update from BTM Consult ApS, covering the year 1998. All figures in the status part refer to end of the year 1998, the past 3 years development is also assessed and the forecast looks 5 years ahead. The most significant figures and trends in 1998 were: The marketplace - The annual installation of new wind power capacity increased by 55% resulting in a cumulative installation by the end of 1998 of 10.153 MW. 1.766 MW was installed in Europe and the region is still the leading market regarding utilization of wind energy. The US market took a rapid pace and installed 577 MW during the year. The large Enron Wind Corp has taken the larger part of this market. On the supply side Danish NEG Micon A/S has consolidated the position as being the supplier of the most MW wind capacity in the world and the company has a world market share of 23,5 per cent. The company acquired the Danish Wind World af 1997 A/S which was among the larger companies in 1997. Also the Dutch manufacturer NedWind B.V. was acquired by NEG Micon A/S curing 1998. The group of 'other' manufactureres represents a minor percentage of deliveries than earlier and concentration in the industry seems to continue. The liberalized Energy Market and how to position the industry in this different economic environment will be a challenge for the wind industry way into the next century. In Europe, the European Commission's draft Directive with proposal for an outline of common rules for support of among other renewables wind energy has been set on another route which seems to delay the paper. In the US there are still hopes for a new period with PTC (Production Tax Credit). There are in some States hopes among the wind energy people that the 'Green Market Programs' will play a more dominant role in the future. In Asia the crises seems to halt the wind power development. Forecast and Technical trends - Based on the positive trends in the markets for wind power

  10. Manual to application of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinilla, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    The National Government of Colombia assigned to INEA (Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Alternative Energies), the paper of promotion, diffusion and utilization of sources of energy not - conventional, the one which includes the wind energy. These studies were accomplished mainly in winding zones as the Department La Guajira, area of the Eastern Plains and some sites of mountain chains of the Andes. Internationally, renewable energies utilization is widely used and is included as an important factor in the energetic strategic planning in some countries, where this renewable energy becomes more than 20% to total energy supply. An introduction to the wind energy in some aspects as: the wind resource, global traffic standards of the wind, calculation of the potential of the wind and methods for the calculation of speed measure of the wind are presented. The methodologies for the evaluation of the wind as an energy source, the wind energy technologies, the equipment to wind energy utilization and the implementation of small systems of energy conversion of wind are described

  11. Integration of large amounts of wind power. Markets for trading imbalances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neimane, Viktoria; Axelsson, Urban [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Gustafsson, Johan; Gustafsson, Kristian [Vattenfall Nordic Generation Management, Stockholm (Sweden); Murray, Robin [Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    The well-known concerns about wind power are related to its intermittent nature and difficulty to make exact forecasts. The expected increase in balancing and reserve requirements due to wind power has been investigated in several studies. This paper takes the next step in studying integration of large amounts of wind power in Sweden. Several wind power producers' and corresponding balance providers' perspective is taken and their imbalance costs modeled. Larger producers having wind power spread over larger geographical areas will have lower relative costs than producers having their units concentrated within limited geographical area. Possibilities of the wind power producers to reduce the imbalance costs by acting on after sales market are exposed and compared. (orig.)

  12. Thermodynamic performance assessment of wind energy systems: An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redha, Adel Mohammed; Dincer, Ibrahim; Gadalla, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of wind energy system is assessed thermodynamically, from resource and technology perspectives. The thermodynamic characteristics of wind through energy and exergy analyses are considered and both energetic and exergetic efficiencies are studied. Wind speed is affected by air temperature and pressure and has a subsequent effect on wind turbine performance based on wind reference temperature and Bernoulli's equation. VESTAS V52 wind turbine is selected for (Sharjah/UAE). Energy and exergy efficiency equations for wind energy systems are further developed for practical applications. The results show that there are noticeable differences between energy and exergy efficiencies and that exergetic efficiency reflects the right/actual performance. Finally, exergy analysis has been proven to be the right tool used in design, simulation, and performance evaluation of all renewable energy systems. -- Highlights: → In this research the performance of wind energy system is assessed thermodynamically, from resource and technology perspectives. → Energy and exergy equations for wind energy systems are further developed for practical applications. → Thermodynamic characteristics of wind turbine systems through energetic and exergetic efficiencies are evaluated from January till March 2010. → Exergy efficiency describes the system irreversibility and the minimum irreversibility exists when the wind speed reaches 11 m/s. → The power production during March was about 17% higher than the month of February and 66% higher than January.

  13. Optimal Bidding Strategies for Wind Power Producers in the Day-ahead Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind Power Producers (WPPs seek to maximize profit and minimize the imbalance costs when bidding into the day-ahead market, but uncertainties in the hourly available wind and forecasting errors make the bidding risky. This paper assumes that hourly wind power output given by the forecast follows a normal distribution, and proposes three different bidding strategies, i.e., the expected profit-maximization strategy (EPS, the chance-constrained programming-based strategy (CPS and the multi-objective bidding strategy (ECPS. Analytical solutions under the three strategies are obtained. Comparisons among the three strategies are conducted on a hypothetical wind farm which follows the Spanish market rules. Results show that bid under the EPS is highly dependent on market clearing price, imbalance prices, and also the mean value and standard deviation of wind forecast, and that bid under the CPS is largely driven by risk parameters and the mean value and standard deviation of the wind forecast. The ECPS combining both EPS and CPS tends to choose a compromise bid. Furthermore, the ECPS can effectively control the tradeoff between expected profit and target profit for WPPs operating in volatile electricity markets.

  14. Opportunities for wind resources in the future competitive California power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezgen, O.; Marnay, C.; Bretz, S.; Markel, R.; Wiser, R.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate the profitability of wind development in the future competitive California power market. The viability of possible wind sites is assessed using a geographic information system (GIS) to determine the cost of development and Elfin, an electric utility production costing and capacity expansion model, to estimate the possible revenues and profits of wind farms at the sites. This approach improves on a simple profitability calculation by using site specific development cost calculations and by taking the effect of time varying market prices on revenues into account. The first component of the work is the characterization of wind resources suitable for use in production costing and capacity expansion models such as Elfin that are capable of simulating competitive electricity markets. An improved representation of California wind resources is built, using information collected by the California Energy Commission in previous site evaluations, and by using a GIS approach to estimating development costs at 36 specific sites. These sites, which have been identified as favorable for wind development, are placed on Digital Elevation Models and development costs are calculated based on distances to roads and transmission lines. GIS is also used to develop the potential capacity at each site by making use of the physical characteristics of the terrain, such as ridge lengths. In the second part of the effort, using a previously developed algorithm for simulating competitive entry to the California electricity market, Elfin is used to gauge the viability of wind farms at the 36 sites. The results of this exercise are forecasts of profitable development levels at each site and the effects of these developments on the electricity system as a whole. Results suggest that by the year 2030, about 7.5 GW of potential wind capacity can be profitably developed assuming rising natural gas prices. This example demonstrates that an analysis based on a

  15. Wind farm production cost: Optimum turbine size and farm capacity in the actual market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laali, A.R.; Meyer, J.L.; Bellot, C. [Electricite de France, Chatou (France); Louche, A. [Espace de Recherche, Ajaccio (France)

    1996-12-31

    Several studies are undertaken in R&D Division of EDF in collaboration with ERASME association in order to have a good knowledge of the wind energy production costs. These studies are performed in the framework of a wind energy monitoring project and concern the influence of a few parameters like wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production costs, through an analysis of the actual market trend. Some 50 manufacturers and 140 different kind of wind turbines are considered for this study. The minimum production cost is situated at 800/900 kW wind turbine rated power. This point will probably move to more important powers in the future. This study is valid only for average conditions and some special parameters like particular climate conditions or lack of infrastructure for a special site the could modify the results shown on the curves. The variety of wind turbines (rated power as a function of rotor diameter, height and specific rated power) in the actual market is analyzed. A brief analysis of the market trend is also performed. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Electricity market participation of wind farms: the success story of the Spanish pragmatism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivier Abbad, Juan, E-mail: jrivier@iberdrola.e [Iberdrola Renovables, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    In the last 10 years, more than 15 GW of wind power (Asociacion Empresarial Eolica (Spanish Wind Energy Association), Nota de prensa (Press release) 17 de enero de 2008. (http://www.aeeolica.org/doc/NP_080117_Espana_supera_los_15000_MW_eolicos.pdf)) have been installed in Spain, of which more than 3.5 GW in 2007. Furthermore, plans are to reach 20 GW by 2010 and there are expectations of an installed capacity exceeding 40 GW by 2020. This article will present the innovative solutions for technical and economical integration that allow to reach such high level wind penetration objectives (the system peaks at around 44 GW and is almost isolated). It will be described how the regulation has evolved from a pure Feed-in-Tariff to a market+premium option, where technical and economic integration has been a priority. Today, approximately 97% of installed wind capacity accesses the Spanish wholesale electricity market. Market integration has been crucial, sending the correct signals to participants to look for the optimum technical solutions. Technical improvements have come from both wind power producers (fault-ride-through capabilities, visibility and controllability of wind power, power production forecasting, reactive power control) and the system operator (specific control centre dedicated to Renewable Energy Sources (RES), new security analysis tools, gaining technical confidence of wind capabilities).

  17. Electricity market participation of wind farms. The success story of the Spanish pragmatism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivier Abbad, Juan [Iberdrola Renovables, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    In the last 10 years, more than 15 GW of wind power (Asociacion Empresarial Eolica (Spanish Wind Energy Association), Nota de prensa (Press release) 17 de enero de 2008. http://www.aeeolica.org/doc/NP{sub 0}80117{sub E}spana{sub s}upera{sub l}os{sub 1}5000{sub M}W{sub e}olicos.pdf) have been installed in Spain, of which more than 3.5 GW in 2007. Furthermore, plans are to reach 20 GW by 2010 and there are expectations of an installed capacity exceeding 40 GW by 2020. This article will present the innovative solutions for technical and economical integration that allow to reach such high level wind penetration objectives (the system peaks at around 44 GW and is almost isolated). It will be described how the regulation has evolved from a pure Feed-in-Tariff to a market+premium option, where technical and economic integration has been a priority. Today, approximately 97% of installed wind capacity accesses the Spanish wholesale electricity market. Market integration has been crucial, sending the correct signals to participants to look for the optimum technical solutions. Technical improvements have come from both wind power producers (fault-ride-through capabilities, visibility and controllability of wind power, power production forecasting, reactive power control) and the system operator (specific control centre dedicated to Renewable Energy Sources (RES), new security analysis tools, gaining technical confidence of wind capabilities). (author)

  18. Stochastic reactive power market with volatility of wind power considering voltage security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kargarian, A.; Raoofat, M.

    2011-01-01

    While wind power generation is growing rapidly around the globe; its stochastic nature affects the system operation in many different aspects. In this paper, the impact of wind power volatility on the reactive power market is taken into account. The paper presents a novel stochastic method for optimal reactive power market clearing considering voltage security and volatile nature of the wind. The proposed optimization algorithm uses a multiobjective nonlinear programming technique to minimize market payment and simultaneously maximize voltage security margin. Considering a set of probable wind speeds, in the first stage, the proposed algorithm seeks to minimize expected system payment which is summation of reactive power payment and transmission loss cost. The object of the second stage is maximization of expected voltage security margin to increase the system loadability and security. Finally, in the last stage, a multiobjective function is presented to schedule the stochastic reactive power market using results of two previous stages. The proposed algorithm is applied to IEEE 14-bus test system. As a benchmark, Monte Carlo Simulation method is utilized to simulate the actual market of given period of time to evaluate results of the proposed algorithm, and satisfactory results are achieved. -- Highlights: →The paper proposes a new algorithm for stochastic reactive power market clearing. →The stochastic nature of the wind which impacts the system operation and market clearing process, is taken into account. →The paper suggests an expected voltage stability margin and optimizes it in conjunction with expected total market payment. →To clear the market with two mentioned objective functions, a three-stage multiobjective nonlinear programming is implemented. →Also, a simple method is suggested to determine a suitable priority coefficient between two individual objective functions.

  19. Uncooled LWIR imaging: applications and market analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasawa, Satomi

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of infrared (IR) imaging sensor technology for defense market has played an important role in developing commercial market, as dual use of the technology has expanded. In particular, technologies of both reduction in pixel pitch and vacuum package have drastically evolved in the area of uncooled Long-Wave IR (LWIR; 8-14 μm wavelength region) imaging sensor, increasing opportunity to create new applications. From the macroscopic point of view, the uncooled LWIR imaging market is divided into two areas. One is a high-end market where uncooled LWIR imaging sensor with sensitivity as close to that of cooled one as possible is required, while the other is a low-end market which is promoted by miniaturization and reduction in price. Especially, in the latter case, approaches towards consumer market have recently appeared, such as applications of uncooled LWIR imaging sensors to night visions for automobiles and smart phones. The appearance of such a kind of commodity surely changes existing business models. Further technological innovation is necessary for creating consumer market, and there will be a room for other companies treating components and materials such as lens materials and getter materials and so on to enter into the consumer market.

  20. U.S. small wind market 2010 report: developments and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, Larry

    2011-01-01

    As changes occur in the economy and in government policy, significant changes will also take place in the renewable energy market. In this presentation, the American Wind Energy Association discusses small wind developments that took place in the United States in 2010. The analysis included in the presentation illustrated that a shift had taken place from small wind to larger wind turbines connected to the grid. There were many other changes in the small wind sector in the United States, including the development of the institutional framework, the setting up of four wind test centers, and the adoption of a number of federal and state policies. Some of these policy changes included tax credits, grants, net metering, certifications, and incentives. The American Wind Energy Association also recognized that the small wind industry is facing a number of challenges, including the entry into the market of non-certified turbines, planning and zoning ordinances, resistance from the utilities, and a loss of environmental focus on the part of the public.

  1. Roadmap of retail electricity market reform in China: assisting in mitigating wind energy curtailment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dezhao; Qiu, Huadong; Yuan, Xiang; Li, Yuan; Shao, Changzheng; Lin, You; Ding, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Among the renewable energies, wind energy has gained the rapidest development in China. Moreover wind power generation has been penetrated into power system in a large scale. However, the high level wind curtailment also indicates a low efficiency of wind energy utilization over the last decade in China. One of the primary constraints on the utilization of wind energy is the lack of an electricity market, in which renewable energies can compete equally with traditional fossil fuel generation. Thus the new round electric power industry reform is essential in China. The reform involves implementing new pricing mechanism, introducing retail-side competition, promoting the consumption of renewable energy. The new round reform can be a promising solution for promoting the development and consumption of wind energy generation in China. Based on proposed reform policies of electric power industry, this paper suggests a roadmap for retail electricity market reform of China, which consists of three stages. Barriers to the efficient utilization of wind energy are also analysed. Finally, this paper introduces several efficient measures for mitigating wind curtailment in each stage of reform.

  2. Rotating transformers in wind turbine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylander, J. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Engstroem, S. [Aegir konsult AB, Lidingoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The power consumption of rotating electrical components is often supplied via slip-rings in wind turbines. Slip-ring equipment is expensive and need maintenance and are prone to malfunction. If the slip-rings could be replaced with contact-less equipment better turbines could be designed. This paper presents the design, some FE calculations and some measurements on a prototype rotating transformer. The proposed transformer consists of a secondary rotating winding and a stationary exciting primary winding. The results indicate that this transformer could be used to replace slip-rings in wind turbines. 4 refs, 3 figs

  3. Theoretical derivation of wind power probability distribution function and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altunkaynak, Abdüsselam; Erdik, Tarkan; Dabanlı, İsmail; Şen, Zekai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Derivation of wind power stochastic characteristics are standard deviation and the dimensionless skewness. ► The perturbation is expressions for the wind power statistics from Weibull probability distribution function (PDF). ► Comparisons with the corresponding characteristics of wind speed PDF abides by the Weibull PDF. ► The wind power abides with the Weibull-PDF. -- Abstract: The instantaneous wind power contained in the air current is directly proportional with the cube of the wind speed. In practice, there is a record of wind speeds in the form of a time series. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that takes into consideration the statistical parameters of such a time series. The purpose of this paper is to derive the general wind power formulation in terms of the statistical parameters by using the perturbation theory, which leads to a general formulation of the wind power expectation and other statistical parameter expressions such as the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation. The formulation is very general and can be applied specifically for any wind speed probability distribution function. Its application to two-parameter Weibull probability distribution of wind speeds is presented in full detail. It is concluded that provided wind speed is distributed according to a Weibull distribution, the wind power could be derived based on wind speed data. It is possible to determine wind power at any desired risk level, however, in practical studies most often 5% or 10% risk levels are preferred and the necessary simple procedure is presented for this purpose in this paper.

  4. Marketing prospect and assessment for local manufacture of wind converters in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakpahan, S.; Utami, N.S.

    1996-12-31

    Wind energy resources in Indonesia provide opportunities to improve the delivery of electricity consumption for small and medium scale applications particularly for rural and remote areas and will be developed as the part of national rural electrification programs. By proper selection of design, this kind of energy source has shown to be a technically proven and affordable means of providing electricity at those areas. The promotion of WECS technology have been initiated in Indonesia by establishing some pilot projects at selected areas while in commercialization efforts, several private companies are now being involved. Dissemination of WECS technology should be based on proper selection of WECS types including economic consideration and marketing programs; for obtaining this, manufacturing of some WECS components / parts have been initiating using available materials and components; while other components that`s still not producible in Indonesia will be produced by cooperation with industry. In addition, wind resource assessments will be extended sustainably in order to identify more potential areas and locations. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Evolution of local citizen participation schemes in the German wind market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzenberger, N.; Fichtner, W.; Rentz, O.

    2003-01-01

    Local citizen participation schemes like the German 'Buergerwindparks' (citizen wind farm) have been an important vehicle to develop the wind energy business to its present state of market maturity. This article discusses ownership as an integrated part of the economic project design for renewable energy projects. Different forms of local citizen participation are differentiated and strategic aspects related to the entrepreneurial decision of involving local citizens are highlighted. Then, the focus will be on a description of different role models for local citizen-financed wind energy projects. The paper also explains the evolution of two new role models: the merger of existing project companies to larger citizen-owned project portfolio companies and the role of closed-end wind funds as a new equity provision approach. Finally, the role of local citizen participation schemes in different market phases is discussed. (author)

  6. Production price of hydrogen from grid connected electrolysis in a power market with high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, Claus; Ropenus, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    In liberalized power markets, there are significant power price fluctuations due to independently varying changes in demand and supply, the latter being substantial in systems with high wind power penetration. In such systems, hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis can be cost optimized by operating an electrolyzer part time. This paper presents a study on the minimization of the hydrogen production price and its dependence on estimated power price fluctuations. The calculation of power price fluctuations is based on a parameterization of existing data on wind power production, power consumption and power price evolution in the West Danish power market area. The price for hydrogen is derived as a function of the optimal electrolyzer operation hours per year for four different wind penetration scenarios. It is found to amount to 0.41-0.45 EUR/Nm 3 . The study further discusses the hydrogen price sensitivity towards investment costs and the contribution from non-wind power sources. (author)

  7. Generator Rescheduling under Congested Power System with Wind Integrated Competitive Power Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhan Gope

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Integration of renewable energy like wind or solar energy creates a huge pressure to the system operator (SO to ensure the congestion free transmission network under deregulated power market. Congestion Management (CM with integration of wind farm in double auction electricity market are described in this work to minimize fuel cost, system losses and locational marginal price (LMP of the system. Location of Wind Farm (WF is identified based by using Bus sensitivity factor (BSF, which is also used for selection of load bus for double auction bidding (DAB. The impacts of wind farm in congested power system under deregulated environment have been investigated in this work. Modified 39-bus New England test system is used for demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented approach by using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP.

  8. Production price of hydrogen from grid connected electrolysis in a power market with high wind penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Claus [Materials Research Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ropenus, Stephanie [Systems Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2008-10-15

    In liberalized power markets, there are significant power price fluctuations due to independently varying changes in demand and supply, the latter being substantial in systems with high wind power penetration. In such systems, hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis can be cost optimized by operating an electrolyzer part time. This paper presents a study on the minimization of the hydrogen production price and its dependence on estimated power price fluctuations. The calculation of power price fluctuations is based on a parameterization of existing data on wind power production, power consumption and power price evolution in the West Danish power market area. The price for hydrogen is derived as a function of the optimal electrolyzer operation hours per year for four different wind penetration scenarios. It is found to amount to 0.41-0.45 EUR/Nm{sup 3}. The study further discusses the hydrogen price sensitivity towards investment costs and the contribution from non-wind power sources. (author)

  9. Production price of hydrogen from grid connected electrolysis in a power market with high wind penetration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Claus [Materials Research Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ropenus, Stephanie [Systems Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2008-10-15

    In liberalized power markets, there are significant power price fluctuations due to independently varying changes in demand and supply, the latter being substantial in systems with high wind power penetration. In such systems, hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis can be cost optimized by operating an electrolyzer part time. This paper presents a study on the minimization of the hydrogen production price and its dependence on estimated power price fluctuations. The calculation of power price fluctuations is based on a parameterization of existing data on wind power production, power consumption and power price evolution in the West Danish power market area. The price for hydrogen is derived as a function of the optimal electrolyzer operation hours per year for four different wind penetration scenarios. It is found to amount to 0.41-0.45 EUR/Nm{sup 3}. The study further discusses the hydrogen price sensitivity towards investment costs and the contribution from non-wind power sources. (author)

  10. Will there be room left for wind energy in the future energy market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, Renato

    2014-03-01

    After having noticed and outlined that the electricity market is now facing an unprecedented crisis, that its rules are not adapted to the new electric paradigm any more, that wind energy has now a positive impact on the French electric system, that the electricity market crisis puts wind energy and more generally renewable energies into question again, and that the whole world, after Europe, has largely chosen wind energy, this brief document outlines the results of a survey on the credit given by French people to renewable energies, and then defines four priorities for the development of wind energy in France: a clearer economic framework, a commitment on the long term, a simpler legal and technical framework, and the proposition of an industrial pact

  11. Wind structure during mid-latitude storms and its application in Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Du, Jianting; Bolanos, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    in Denmark. The extreme wind and wave conditions in the coastal area for wind energy application are important but have rarely been studied in the literature. Our experiments are done to the Danish coasts where the mid-latitude depression systems are causes of the extreme wind and wave conditions....... The numerical modeling is done through an atmosphere-wave coupled system, where the atmospheric model is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the wave model is the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) model. Measurements from offshore stations, Horns Rev and the FINO platform, as well as satellite...... and the modeling will be presented. Here the “key” is referring both to the application of wind energy and the wind-wave coupling system. The various parameterization of the interface parameter for the atmospheric and wave modeling, the roughness length, has been examined. Data analysis reveals the importance...

  12. Optimal offering and allocation policies for wind power in energy and reserve markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Jensen, Tue Vissing; Mazzi, Nicolo

    2017-01-01

    Cormick relaxation and piecewise linear decision rules are adapted and tested aiming to maximize the expected revenue for participating in both energy and reserve markets, while accounting for estimated balancing costs for failing to provide energy and reserve. A set of numerical examples, as well as a case study......Proliferation of wind power generation is increasingly making this power source an important asset in designs of energy and reserve markets. Intuitively, wind power producers will require the development of new offering strategies that maximize the expected profit in both energy and reserve markets...... of better forecast information from the different day-ahead and balancing stages, allowing different shares of energy and reserve in both stages. Under these assumptions, different mathematical methods able to deal with the uncertain nature of wind power generation, namely, stochastic programming, with Mc...

  13. Analysis of the Impact of Wind Power Participating in Both Energy and Ancillary Services Markets – The Danish Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a high penetration of wind power generation in power systems motivates need for an assessment of its inte raction with electricity markets. With the continuous evolution of wind turbines technology, wind farms have today the ability to provide certain ancillary services...... with appropriate levels of security and reliability . The participation of wind f arms i n ancillary service market s ought to rely on market designs and offering strategies that satisfy power system needs, as well as their operating characteristics . Here we evaluate the system impact of different offering...... strategies that wind farms employ on ene rgy and ancillary service market. A lready proposed Proportional Wind Reserve Strategy (PWRS) and a Continuo us Wind Reserve Strategy (CWRS) are used to determine the amount of available power for ancillary services. A case study based on real and recent dat...

  14. Social attitude towards wind energy applications in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    During the last 3 yr (1999-2002) a significant increase in the utilization of the existing wind power has taken place in Greece, after a long period (1993-1998) of inactivity. Unfortunately, the largest part of new scheduled installations is concentrated in a few geographical regions, in an attempt to take advantage of the existing electrical network capabilities and the acceptable infrastructure situation. This significant concentration of very large size wind turbines, rapidly installed in a few geographical areas, led to serious reactions from the local population, which in some cases even led to the complete cancellation of the wind power projects. In this context, an extensive study is conducted, concerning the public attitude towards wind energy applications, in several island and mainland Greek territories possessing high wind potential and investment interest. The results obtained significantly reveal acceptance of the existing wind parks, being, however, rather against new installations. More specifically, in the Greek islands the public attitude is clearly supportive, while in the Greek mainland the public attitude is either divided or definitely against wind power applications. The most troublesome outcome of this survey is the existence of a specific minority that is strongly against wind energy applications, disregarding any financial benefits. Among the primary conclusions drawn, one may underline the necessity of additional public information regarding the wind energy sector

  15. Design of Electricity Markets for Efficient Balancing of Wind Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Scharff, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Deploying wind power to a larger extent is one solution to reduce negative environmental impacts of electric power supply. However, various challenges are connected with increasing wind power penetration levels. From the perspective of transmission system operators, this includes balancing of varying as well as - to some extent - uncertain generation levels. From the perspective of power generating companies, changes in the generation mix will affect the market's merit order and, hence, their...

  16. Prospects for global market expansion of China’s wind turbine manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosens, Jorrit; Lu, Yonglong

    2014-01-01

    Emerging economies are increasingly contributing to global innovation, including clean-tech innovation. The development of China’s wind power sector has often been used to illustrate this point. China’s domestic wind power market is the largest in the world and is largely supplied by domestic manufacturers. Competition for market share in the domestic market may pressure firms to innovate, which consecutively improves prospects for global expansion. This paper reviews developments in China’s domestic wind turbine market using the Technological Innovation System framework. We analyze the pressure to innovate arising from market competition and assess the prospects for global expansion of Chinese wind turbine manufacturers. We conclude that domestic customers are not pressured or incentivized to perform with respect to power output, such that turbine manufacturers are not pressured to perform with respect to turbine efficiency or maintenance needs. Pressure to innovate is further reduced by formalizing connections between wind farm developers and turbine manufacturers. Chinese turbine manufacturers cannot yet compete with leading global brands in technological leadership. The prospects for exports are improved, however, by the preferential supply of project financing from institutional investors, such as the China Development Bank, from Chinese utilities that seek global expansion and from the manufacturers themselves. - Highlights: • We assess the pressure to innovate in the Chinese wind turbine market. • Customer demand is focused more strongly on turbine cost than quality. • Formalizing connections between users and suppliers reduce pressure to innovate. • Chinese manufacturers cannot yet compete globally in technological quality. • Preferential supplies of project finance may provide a vehicle for exports

  17. Survey of the small (300 W to 300 kW) wind turbine market in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The significant growth in the Canadian wind power industry over the past decade has resulted in an increased number of large utility-scale wind farms appearing across Canada. Although large wind turbines are often acknowledged as a mature technology that can provide clean, reliable and economically competitive power, smaller wind turbines have had relatively little documentation in comparison. The aim of this report was to provide a profile of the Canadian market for small wind turbines (SWTs), divided into 3 categories: mini wind turbines with a rated power output from 300 watts to 1000 watts; small wind turbines up to 30 kW; and medium-sized wind turbines up to 300 kW. Study findings were based on interviews with industry experts and a comprehensive survey of 135 companies involved in the Canadian SWT industry. Details of annual sales and total installed capacity were provided, as well as a summary of key SWT markets. An overview of Canadian market demand and international SWT manufacturing capacity was presented. Opportunities and barriers were examined. It was observed that experiences in the United States have indicated that SWTs are more successful when combined with enabling policies, market incentives, and education and awareness raising. The U.S. small wind industry has estimated that in the near future, the SWT industry could supply 50,000 MW, employ 10,000 people and generate $1 billion per year. A number of opportunities for the promotion of the small wind industry in Canada were reviewed, including the niche manufacturing sector in the 20 kW to 50 kW range. Issues concerning the economic benefits of a SWT manufacturing industry were examined. It was suggested that as the SWT markets grow and mature, turbine prices are expected to fall and turbine effectiveness and reliability will increase. An SWT promotional strategy was outlined with incentives in 4 areas: (1) market development; (2) policy development; (3) technology development; and (4) education

  18. A risk-averse optimization model for trading wind energy in a market environment under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pousinho, H.M.I.; Mendes, V.M.F.; Catalao, J.P.S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a stochastic programming approach is proposed for trading wind energy in a market environment under uncertainty. Uncertainty in the energy market prices is the main cause of high volatility of profits achieved by power producers. The volatile and intermittent nature of wind energy represents another source of uncertainty. Hence, each uncertain parameter is modeled by scenarios, where each scenario represents a plausible realization of the uncertain parameters with an associated occurrence probability. Also, an appropriate risk measurement is considered. The proposed approach is applied on a realistic case study, based on a wind farm in Portugal. Finally, conclusions are duly drawn. -- Highlights: → We model uncertainties on energy market prices and wind power production. → A hybrid intelligent approach generates price-wind power scenarios. → Risk aversion is also incorporated in the proposed stochastic programming approach. → A realistic case study, based on a wind farm in Portugal, is provided. → Our approach allows selecting the best solution according to the desired risk exposure level.

  19. The influence of spatial effects on wind power revenues under direct marketing rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grothe, Oliver; Müsgens, Felix

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, investments in renewable technologies have been accelerated by fixed feed-in tariffs for electricity from renewable energy sources (RES). While fixed tariffs accomplish this purpose, they lack incentives to align the RES production with price signals. Today, the intermittency of most RES increases the volatility of electricity prices and makes balancing supply and demand more complicated. Therefore, support schemes for RES have to be modified. Recently, Germany launched a scheme which gives wind power operators the monthly choice to either receive a fixed tariff or to risk a – subsidized – access to the wholesale electricity market. This paper quantifies revenues of wind turbines under this new subsidy and analyzes whether, when and where producers may profit. We find that the position of the wind turbine within the country significantly influences revenues in terms of EUR/MWh. The results are important for wind farm operators deciding whether electricity should be sold in the fixed feed-in tariff or in the wholesale market. However, no location is persistently, i.e., in every calendar month of the year, above the average. This limits the effect of the new subsidy scheme on investment locations and long term improvements in the aggregated wind feed-in profile. - Highlights: • Germany couples feed-in tariff for renewable energies to hourly market prices. • Analysis of position of wind turbines on relative revenues in EUR/MW. • Quantification of locational effect for policy makers and investors

  20. Certificate-Based Approach to Marketing Green Power and Constructing New Wind Energy Facilities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, E.; Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2002-05-01

    The availability of wind energy certificates in Pennsylvania's retail electricity market has made a critical difference in the economic feasibility of developing 140 MW of new wind energy projects in the region. Certificates offer important benefits to both green power suppliers and buyers by reducing transaction barriers and thus lowering the cost of renewable energy. Buyers also benefit through the increased flexibility offered by certificate products. The experience described in this paper offers important insights for selling green power certificates and achieving new wind energy development in other areas of the country.

  1. A certificate-based approach to marketing green power and constructing new wind energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, Eric; Bird, Lori; Swezey, Blair

    2003-01-01

    The availability of wind energy certificates in Pennsylvania's retail electricity market has made a critical difference in the economic feasibility of developing 140 MW of new wind energy projects in the region. Certificates offer important benefits to both green power suppliers and buyers by reducing transaction barriers. They thus lower the cost of renewable energy. Buyers also benefit through the increased flexibility offered by certificate products. The experience described in this paper offers important insights for selling green power certificates and achieving new wind energy development in other areas of the country. (Author)

  2. Practical methodologies for the calculation of capacity in electricity markets for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botero B, Sergio; Giraldo V, Luis Alfonso; Isaza C, Felipe

    2008-01-01

    Determining the real capacity of the generators in a power market is an essential task in order to estimate the actual system reliability, and to estimate the reward for generators due to their capacity in the firm energy market. In the wind power case, which is an intermittent resource, several methodologies have been proposed to estimate the capacity of a wind power emplacement, not only for planning but also for firm energy remuneration purposes. This paper presents some methodologies that have been proposed or implemented around the world in order to calculate the capacity of this energy resource.

  3. Multi-area market clearing in wind-integrated interconnected power systems: A fast parallel decentralized method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doostizadeh, Meysam; Aminifar, Farrokh; Lesani, Hamid; Ghasemi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A parallel-decentralized multi-area energy & reserve clearance model is proposed. • A fictitious area and joint variables coordinate & parallelize area market models. • Adjustable intervals of random variables compromise optimality and robustness. • The stochastic nature of problem is tackled in an efficient deterministic manner. • The model is compact and applicable in multi-area real-scale systems. - Abstract: The growing evolution of regional electricity markets and proliferation of wind power penetration underline the prominence of coordinated operation of interconnected regional power systems. This paper develops a parallel decentralized methodology for multi-area energy and reserve clearance under wind power uncertainty. Preserving the independency of regional markets while fully taking the advantages of interconnection is a salient feature of the new model. Additionally, the parallel procedure simultaneously clears regional markets for the sake of acceleration particularly in large-scale systems. In order to achieve the optimal solution in a distributed fashion, the augmented Lagrangian relaxation along with alternative direction method of multipliers are applied. The wind power intermittency and uncertainty are tackled through the interval optimization approach. Opposed to the conventional wisdom, adjustable intervals, as subsets of conventional predefined intervals, are introduced here to compromise the cost and conservatism of the solution. The confidence level approach is employed to accommodate the stochastic nature of wind power in a computationally efficient deterministic manner. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method are evaluated through several case studies on a two-area 6-bus and the modified three-area IEEE 118-bus test systems.

  4. Climate change drives wind turbines in China: case study of market based wind power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Yang [EET Consulting, Glen Waverley, Victoria (Australia)

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims at quantifying the impact of government policy and clean development mechanism (CDM) on wind power development in China. Firstly we review the background of Chinese wind power development and policy, as well as literature of climate change and CDM. We then present methodology, scenarios and data of a case study for the development of a large-scale grid-connected wind farm. We undertake project financial analysis under three scenarios. Our analysis results show that the project FIRR is 8.31% if CDM benefit is not taken into account, 8.72% if CDM benefit is considered with the price of the certified emission reduction (CER) at US dollars 4, and 10.28% if both the CDM benefit and government policy on cutting value added tax (VAT) by 50% are taken into account. This paper concludes that CDM and government preferential policy on value added tax will make wind power development financially viable in China. (author)

  5. Status of Wind-Diesel Applications in Arctic Climates: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Corbus, D.

    2007-12-01

    The rising cost of diesel fuel and the environmental regulation for its transportation, use, and storage, combined with the clear impacts of increased arctic temperatures, is driving remote communities to examine alternative methods of providing power. Over the past few years, wind energy has been increasingly used to reduce diesel fuel consumption, providing economic, environmental, and security benefits to the energy supply of communities from Alaska to Antarctica. This summary paper describes the current state of wind-diesel systems, reviews the operation of wind-diesel plants in cold climates, discusses current research activities pertaining to these systems, and addresses their technical and commercial challenges. System architectures, dispatch strategies, and operating experience from a variety of wind-diesel systems in Alaska will be reviewed. Specific focus will also be given to the control of power systems with large amounts of wind generation and the complexities of replacing diesel engine waste heat with excess wind energy, a key factor in assessing power plants for retrofit. A brief overview of steps for assessing the viability of retrofitting diesel power systems with wind technologies will also be provided. Because of the large number of isolated diesel minigrids, the market for adding wind to these systems is substantial, specifically in arctic climates and on islands that rely on diesel-only power generation.

  6. Area price and demand response in a market with 25% wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Andersen, Frits Møller; Larsen, Helge V.

    2011-01-01

    Denmark, east and west of the Great Belt are bidding areas with separate hourly area prices for the Nord Pool power exchange, covering four Nordic countries and parts of Germany. The share of wind power has now increased to 25% on an annual basis in western Denmark. This has a significant impact not only on the electricity wholesale prices, but also on the development of the market. Hourly market data are available from the website of Danish TSO from 1999. In this paper these data are analysed for the period 2004–2010. Electricity generators and customers may respond to hourly price variations, which can improve market efficiency, and a welfare gain is obtained. An important limitation for demand response is events of several consecutive hours with extreme values. The analysis in this paper is a summary and update of some of the issues covered by the EU RESPOND project. It shows that extreme events were few, and the current infrastructure and market organisation have been able to handle the amount of wind power installed so far. This recommends that geographical bidding area for the wholesale electricity market reflects external transmission constraints caused by wind power. - Highlights: ► More than 10 years of hourly electricity market data are available for western Denmark. ► Current infrastructure and market organisation could handle 25% wind power. ► Demand response to hourly electricity prices leads to limited welfare gain. ► Consecutive hours with high or low price, or high or low wind are relatively few.

  7. Modern wind energy technology for Russian applications. Main report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Winther-Jensen, Martin; Bindner, Henrik W.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the project is to establish a technical foundation for an intensified application of wind energy in Russia with medium to large wind turbines and transfer/adaptation of Danish and European wind turbine technology as a basis forfuture joint ventures and technology exports...... climate and in-land sites of Russia. As part of this work it is necessary to clarify the types of operationalconditions and requirements that are to be met by wind turbines operating in such conditions, and to outline suitable test procedures and test set-up’s for verifications of such adapted...

  8. The informed application of building-integrated wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breshears, J.; Briscoe, C. [Zimmer Gunsal Frasca Architects, Portland, OR (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on an exercise that was undertaken to integrate small-scale wind turbines into the design of an urban high-rise in Portland, Oregon. Wind behaviour in the urban environment is very complex, as the flow of wind over and around buildings often triggers multiple transitions of the air from laminar flow to turbulent. The study documented the process of moving beyond a simplistic approach to a truly informed application of building-integrated wind generation. The 4 key issues addressed in the study process were quantifying the geographical wind regime; predicting wind flow over the building; turbine selection; and pragmatics regarding the design of roof mounting to accommodate structural loads and mitigate vibration. The results suggested that the turbine array should produce in the range of only 1 per cent of the electrical load of the building. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  9. International wind energy development. World market update 2002. Forecast 2003-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    This report highlights the development of the international wind power market during 2002 and the new forecast up to 2007. The data presented includes both supply side and demand side information. With 7,227 MW of new installations the total installed capacity of wind power grew to over 32,000 MW. This is the highest figure ever in a single year. The growth rate of 6% over 2001, however, was the lowest since 1996. In spite of this modest figure, the average growth rate over the past five years (from 1997) has been much higher, at 35.7%, and last year's record growth (2001 over 2000) was 52%. The key features of development during 2002 were: 7,227 MW new installed wind power; cumulative installed capacity by the end of 2002 had reached 32,037 MW, consisting of around 61,500 wind turbines dispersed over more than 40 countries; A major share of new installations took place in Europe, with 85.4% of the total. Germany accounted for 53% of the European total; America fell back form its peak level of 1,745 MW in 2001 to a modest 494 MW in 2002, with the majority installed in the USA; Development in Asia was lower than in 2001; Of the emerging markets in the Far East/Pacific, China and Australia were the only two markets to show growth over 2001; The Top Ten markets in the world are headed by Germany, Spain, Denmark and the USA. Newcomers to the Top Ten markets ranking were Australia and the Netherlands; In terms of cumulative installation, the German market passed the 10,000 MW milestone and is by far the largest market in the world. There were 12,000 MW installed in Germany by end of 2002. Spain became No. 2 with 5,042 MW; Penetration of wind power in the world's electricity supply had reached 0.4% by end of 2002. Ten of the world's roughly 25 suppliers of wind turbines are responsible for more than 90% of total supply in the global market. This trend is continuing, with the Top Ten manufacturers in 2002 delivering 95% of the total record installation. Vestas Wind

  10. International wind energy development. World market update 2006. Forecast 2007-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    The report covers development in the international wind power market during 2006 and the new Forecast until 2011. Furthermore a long term Prediction is made up to 2016. With 15,016 MW of new installations, the total installed capacity of wind power grew to around 74,300 MW. This was an increase in cumulative installation of 25%. Looking at the annual installation of 15,016 MW there was an increase of 30%. This is on top of a 2005 growth of 42%. The key figures for development during 2006 were: a) 15,016 MW of newly installed wind power capacity. b)Cumulative installed capacity by the end of 2006 reached 74,306 MW, consisting of around 10,600 wind turbines dispersed in 36 countries. c) Europe maintained its role as the largest wind power continent. 51% of all new installation in 2006 took place in Europe. d) The Americas had a record year thanks to the development in the US, where 2,454 MW of new capacity was added. The reason is the PTC (Production Tax Credit) in the US market in force again and will be so until end of 2008. The Americas accounted for 23.4% of the world's installation in 2006. e) Asia showed significant growth. Including OECD Pacific, Asia doubled its installation, from 7,890 MW in 2005 to 11.601 MW by the end of 2006. India was by far the leading country, with 1,840 MW of new capacity in 2006. China also showed strong progress, with almost 1,334 MW of new installation. The region as a whole accounted for 24.7% of the year's world wide total. f) Among the Top Ten markets USA maintained its position as largest market in 2006. Germany, the world's largest market for a decade, increased its installation from 2005 to installing 2.233 MW, after three year on decline. It is, however, enough to maintain their position as no. 2 market in the world. France and Portugal showed remarkable growth. Spain is still No.2 market in Europe, with 1,587 MW of new installation. g) Penetration of wind power in the world's electricity supply reached 0.82% by the end of

  11. Improving weather forecasts for wind energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Merlinde; MacGill, Iain

    2010-08-01

    Weather forecasts play an important role in the energy industry particularly because of the impact of temperature on electrical demand. Power system operation requires that this variable and somewhat unpredictable demand be precisely met at all times and locations from available generation. As wind generation makes up a growing component of electricity supply around the world, it has become increasingly important to be able to provide useful forecasting for this highly variable and uncertain energy resource. Of particular interest are forecasts of weather events that rapidly change wind energy production from one or more wind farms. In this paper we describe work underway to improve the wind forecasts currently available from standard Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) through a bias correction methodology. Our study has used the Australian Bureau of Meteorology MesoLAPS 5 km limited domain model over the Victoria/Tasmania region, providing forecasts for the Woolnorth wind farm, situated in Tasmania, Australia. The accuracy of these forecasts has been investigated, concentrating on the key wind speed ranges 5 - 15 ms-1 and around 25 ms-1. A bias correction methodology was applied to the NWP hourly forecasts to help account for systematic issues such as the NWP grid point not being at the exact location of the wind farm. An additional correction was applied for timing issues by using meteorological data from the wind farm. Results to date show a reduction in spread of forecast error for hour ahead forecasts by as much as half using this double correction methodology - a combination of both bias correction and timing correction.

  12. Improving weather forecasts for wind energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Merlinde; MacGill, Iain

    2010-01-01

    Weather forecasts play an important role in the energy industry particularly because of the impact of temperature on electrical demand. Power system operation requires that this variable and somewhat unpredictable demand be precisely met at all times and locations from available generation. As wind generation makes up a growing component of electricity supply around the world, it has become increasingly important to be able to provide useful forecasting for this highly variable and uncertain energy resource. Of particular interest are forecasts of weather events that rapidly change wind energy production from one or more wind farms. In this paper we describe work underway to improve the wind forecasts currently available from standard Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) through a bias correction methodology. Our study has used the Australian Bureau of Meteorology MesoLAPS 5 km limited domain model over the Victoria/Tasmania region, providing forecasts for the Woolnorth wind farm, situated in Tasmania, Australia. The accuracy of these forecasts has been investigated, concentrating on the key wind speed ranges 5 - 15 ms -1 and around 25 ms -1 . A bias correction methodology was applied to the NWP hourly forecasts to help account for systematic issues such as the NWP grid point not being at the exact location of the wind farm. An additional correction was applied for timing issues by using meteorological data from the wind farm. Results to date show a reduction in spread of forecast error for hour ahead forecasts by as much as half using this double correction methodology - a combination of both bias correction and timing correction.

  13. Directly driven generators for wind power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampola, P [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics

    1996-12-31

    The article deals with an analysis of directly driven, low-speed wind generators. The generators studied were a permanent-magnet synchronous machine and an asynchronous machine. The machines were compared with a typical generator of a wind power plant. The electromagnetic optimization of the machines was done by the finite element method. The rated power of the generators was 500 kW and the rotational speed was 40 rpm. (author)

  14. Directly driven generators for wind power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampola, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics

    1995-12-31

    The article deals with an analysis of directly driven, low-speed wind generators. The generators studied were a permanent-magnet synchronous machine and an asynchronous machine. The machines were compared with a typical generator of a wind power plant. The electromagnetic optimization of the machines was done by the finite element method. The rated power of the generators was 500 kW and the rotational speed was 40 rpm. (author)

  15. International wind energy development. World market update 1996. Forecast 1997-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    It is intended topublish and update this report `International Wind Power Development - Market Update 1996` every year in March. The latest issue was published in December of 1995 by BTM Consult ApS. Market data for demand side does normally, where it has been possible, only include installed wind turbines which has been connected to the grid during 1996. Supply side data is based on collected information (reference lists) from the 12-15 largest wind turbine manufacturers in the world. Due to these circumstances there are some conflicts between demand side and supply side data. Another important factor is that all wind turbine manufacturers do not use the same methodology when they are making their reference lists. Some manufacturers include only installed and operating wind turbines, while others include all units shipped from the factory. This is another conflict that might cause some differences in the data. Lately another new issue has been added to the list of uncertain factors, which is: is a Nordex Balcke-Duerr wind turbine Danish or German? And is a Gamesa Eolica wind turbine Danish or Spanish? etc. To minimize annual variations, this report includes the last 3 years data for the largest markets and wind turbine manufacturers. The prognosis includes data for the next 5 years until the year 2001, and an estimate has also been included for development until the year 2005. This version of the report can be found on internet web-pages: http://home4.inet.tele.dk/btmcwind/index.html. (EG)

  16. International wind energy development. World market update 1996. Forecast 1997-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    It is intended topublish and update this report 'International Wind Power Development - Market Update 1996' every year in March. The latest issue was published in December of 1995 by BTM Consult ApS. Market data for demand side does normally, where it has been possible, only include installed wind turbines which has been connected to the grid during 1996. Supply side data is based on collected information (reference lists) from the 12-15 largest wind turbine manufacturers in the world. Due to these circumstances there are some conflicts between demand side and supply side data. Another important factor is that all wind turbine manufacturers do not use the same methodology when they are making their reference lists. Some manufacturers include only installed and operating wind turbines, while others include all units shipped from the factory. This is another conflict that might cause some differences in the data. Lately another new issue has been added to the list of uncertain factors, which is: is a Nordex Balcke-Duerr wind turbine Danish or German? And is a Gamesa Eolica wind turbine Danish or Spanish? etc. To minimize annual variations, this report includes the last 3 years data for the largest markets and wind turbine manufacturers. The prognosis includes data for the next 5 years until the year 2001, and an estimate has also been included for development until the year 2005. This version of the report can be found on internet web-pages: http://home4.inet.tele.dk/btmcwind/index.html. (EG)

  17. 2016 wind energy observatory. Analysis of market, of jobs, and of the future of wind energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Nicolas; Petit, Frederic; Autier, Emmanuel

    2016-09-01

    Illustrated by many graphs and tables of data, this publication first focuses on jobs in the wind energy sector as this sector keeps on growing (a stronger growth, a confirmed dynamics, a value chain in evolution, a diversity of actors all along the value chain) and keeps on creating jobs on the French territory (a fine meshing of the territory, a lever for regional development on the whole value chain). The second part focuses on the market and proposes an assessment of the wind energy market (a still growing market but still under objectives defined by the multi-annual energy programme or PPE, a competitive market which carries on its consolidation, a European growth with high discrepancies among countries) and a comment of the evolution of technologies (more powerful and more efficient machines, a concentrated technical offer, an always more important share in electricity production in France). The third part addresses the future of the sector by evoking adapted training programmes (training on all aspects, specialised training at all levels, a set of international training), research and development activities present on the whole French territory (a French sector strengthened by the offshore, new comers in the chain value), and the structuring of the sector with its multiple actors. Appendices respectively propose maps of locations of actors of the sector in French regions with additional information (number of jobs, main employer, distribution of jobs among the value chain, installed power, number of wind farms, main actors), and an analysis of the main characteristics of actors of different categories (developer or operator, machine manufacturer and maintenance activities, component manufacturer, civil or electric engineering and logistics, maintenance and subcontracting, engineering consulting and expertise)

  18. Between fragmented authoritarianism and policy coordination: Creating a Chinese market for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lema, Adrian; Ruby, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese grid-connected wind energy sector has undergone a number of fundamental changes during its 20 years of existence. The scope of this article is to track the reforms of the energy bureaucracy and its policy approach on the one hand and changes in wind energy installations on the other. By comparing three historically distinct phases of wind energy in China it is shown how policy reforms have changed largely from a state of 'fragmented authoritarianism' towards policy coordination. In the initial phase (1986-1993), wind energy was expanding very slowly with disjointed policy making and in the incremental phase (1994-1999), the energy authorities were in dispute over the strategy and launched conflicting policy initiatives with poor results in wind energy output. The latest coordinated phase (2000-2006), however, developed a coherent renewable energy agenda and policy regime for the wind power sector. It is found that this phase with coordinated market regulations and incentives has helped give birth to a take-off in Chinese wind energy installations and substantial cost reductions, although the latter is threatening the profitability of wind farms. The article contributes to the academic debate over the role of policy making in renewable energy development and argues that China should continue, and improve, the coordination of regulations and incentives

  19. Hydropower planning coordinated with wind power in areas with congestion problems for trading on the spot and the regulating market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matevosyan, Julija; Olsson, Magnus; Soeder, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a day-ahead planning algorithm for a multi-reservoir hydropower system coordinated with wind power is developed. Coordination applies to real situations, where wind power and hydropower are owned by different utilities, sharing the same transmission lines, though hydropower has priority for transmission capacity. Coordination is thus necessary to minimize wind energy curtailments during congestion situations. The planning algorithm accounts for the uncertainty of wind power forecasts and power market price uncertainty. Planning for the spot market and the regulating market is considered in the algorithm. The planning algorithm is applied to a case study and the results are summarized in the paper. (author)

  20. Markets to Facilitate Wind and Solar Energy Integration in the Bulk Power Supply: An IEA Task 25 Collaboration; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Soder, L.; Clark, C.; Pineda, I.

    2012-09-01

    Wind and solar power will give rise to challenges in electricity markets regarding flexibility, capacity adequacy, and the participation of wind and solar generators to markets. Large amounts of wind power will have impacts on bulk power system markets and electricity prices. If the markets respond to increased wind power by increasing investments in low-capital, high-cost or marginal-cost power, the average price may remain in the same range. However, experiences so far from Denmark, Germany, Spain, and Ireland are such that the average market prices have decreased because of wind power. This reduction may result in additional revenue insufficiency, which may be corrected with a capacity market, yet capacity markets are difficult to design. However, the flexibility attributes of the capacity also need to be considered. Markets facilitating wind and solar integration will include possibilities for trading close to delivery (either by shorter gate closure times or intraday markets). Time steps chosen for markets can enable more flexibility to be assessed. Experience from 5- and 10-minute markets has been encouraging.

  1. Price Forecasting of Electricity Markets in the Presence of a High Penetration of Wind Power Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Talari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Price forecasting plays a vital role in the day-ahead markets. Once sellers and buyers access an accurate price forecasting, managing the economic risk can be conducted appropriately through offering or bidding suitable prices. In networks with high wind power penetration, the electricity price is influenced by wind energy; therefore, price forecasting can be more complicated. This paper proposes a novel hybrid approach for price forecasting of day-ahead markets, with high penetration of wind generators based on Wavelet transform, bivariate Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA method and Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFN. To this end, a weighted time series for wind dominated power systems is calculated and added to a bivariate ARIMA model along with the price time series. Moreover, RBFN is applied as a tool to correct the estimation error, and particle swarm optimization (PSO is used to optimize the structure and adapt the RBFN to the particular training set. This method is evaluated on the Spanish electricity market, which shows the efficiency of this approach. This method has less error compared with other methods especially when it considers the effects of large-scale wind generators.

  2. The influence of spatial effects on wind power revenues under direct marketing rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grothe, Oliver [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economic and Social Statistics; Muesgens, Felix [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft

    2012-03-15

    In many countries worldwide, investment in renewable technologies has been accelerated by the introduction of fixed feed-in tariffs for electricity from renewable energy sources (RES). While fixed tariffs accomplish this purpose, they lack incentives to align the RES production with price signals. Today, due to a growing proportion of renewable electricity, the intermittency of most RES increases the volatility of electricity prices and might even prevent market clearing. Therefore, support schemes for RES have to be modified. Recently, Germany launched a market premium model which gives wind power operators the monthly choice to either receive a fixed feed-in tariff or to risk a - subsided - access to the wholesale electricity market. This paper quantifies the revenues of wind turbines under this new model and, in particular, analyzes whether, when and where producers may profit. We find that the position of the wind turbine within the country significantly influences revenues. The results are of interest and importance for wind farm operators deciding whether electricity should be sold in the fixed tariff or in the wholesale market.

  3. European Short-term Electricity Market Designs under High Penetration of Wind Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaves Avila, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The EU has ambitious policies for decarbonization of the electricity sector. Due to recent technological developments, wind power already represents a significant share of the generation mix in some European countries. As a result, short-term electricity markets and balancing arrangements must be

  4. Implementation of wind energy in the Netherlands. The (local) policy as drawback of the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agterbosch, S.

    2005-01-01

    A study has been carried out on the importance of political and social aspects of the development of the market for wind energy in the Netherlands. The results are briefly presented and discussed in this article, also based on discussions in workshops on the results of the study [nl

  5. The French market of wind energy and its perspectives. Which evolution for the competition landscape in a disrupting regulatory context?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at providing an overview of the development of wind energy in France after market lift-off, at assessing the influence of Grenelle II on this sector, at assessing the competitiveness of wind energy with respect to other production sources, and at analysing strategies of equipment manufacturers and operators on a market where competitive positions are from being fixed. The report proposes an overview of the French wind energy market (legal context, growth dynamics, market valorisation, cost structure and profitability, support measures), analyses the positions and challenges of wind turbine manufacturers (the front end of the sector) and of wind farm developers and operators (the back end of the sector). Several manufacturers (Areva, Enercon, Gamesa, GE Energy, Nordex, REpower, Siemens and Vestas) and developers and operators (Boralex, EDF Energies Nouvelles, EDP Renovavels, Eolfi, GDF Suez, Iberdrola Renovables, Poweo, Theolia) have been analysed

  6. The role of co-located storage for wind power producers in conventional electricity markets

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we study the problem of optimizing contract offerings for an independent wind power producer (WPP) participating in conventional day-ahead forward electricity markets for energy. As wind power is an inherently variable source of energy and is difficult to predict, we explore the extent to which co-located energy storage can be used to improve expected profit and mitigate the the financial risk associated with shorting on the offered contracts. Using a simple stochastic model for wind power production and a model for the electricity market, we show that the problem of determining optimal contract offerings for a WPP with co-located energy storage can be solved using convex programming.

  7. Wind erosion potential after land application of biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    PI, H.; Sharratt, B. S.; Schillinger, W. F.; Bary, A.; Cogger, C.

    2017-12-01

    The world population is currently 7.6 billion and, along with continued population growth, comes the challenge of disposing of wastewater and sewage sludge (biosolids). Applying biosolids to agricultural land to replace synthetic fertilizers represents a relatively safe method to recycle or sustainably use biosolids. While land application of biosolids is recognized as a sustainable management practice for enhancing soil health, no studies have determined the effects of biosolids on soil wind erosion. Wind erosion potential of a silt loam was assessed using a portable wind tunnel after applying synthetic and biosolid fertilizer to conventional and conservation tillage practices during the summer fallow phase of a winter wheat-summer fallow rotation in 2015 and 2016 in east-central Washington. Little difference in soil loss was observed between biosolid and synthetic fertilizer treatments, but this result appeared to be dependent on susceptibility of the soil to erosion. Regression analysis between soil loss from fertilizer or tillage treatments indicated that soil loss was lower from biosolid versus synthetic fertilizer and conservation versus conventional tillage at high erosion rates. This suggests that biosolids may reduce wind erosion under highly erodible conditions. Meanwhile, heavy metal concentrations in the windblown sediment were similar for the biosolid and synthetic fertilizer treatments whereas metal loss in windblown sediment was 10% lower from biosolid than synthetic fertilizer. Our results indicate that land application of biosolids did not accelerate the loss of metals or nutrients from soils during high winds. KeywordsLand application of biosolids; wind erosion; wind tunnel; sustainable agriculture

  8. ACHILLES AS A MARKETING TOOL FOR VIRTUAL HERITAGE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nabil Arafa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Reality technology has made it possible for people to visit places and enjoy different exciting experiences while remaining at home. It gives an opportunity to enjoy the past at its best. Virtual Reality was introduced in 1929 with interactive training devices that simulated fighter planes. In 1957, the Sensorama simulator was designed which could generate city smells and wind sensations. The need for tourism to become virtual becomes more urgent than ever before. Virtual Reality applications provide this chance, not only in place, but in time as well. This paper presents a guide to the heritage applications' builders and marketers to reach more online users. The paper helps the builder to understand the consumer behaviour for marketing research. The paper illustrates eight levels, with each one leading to the next. The author named the eight levels A.C.H.I.L.L.E.S. Each letter represents a level; beginning with the awareness and ending with the sustainability. ACHILLES represents a sequence that shows three main phases of mobile application usage. It aims for a better management for the online visitors' engagement. This aim can be accomplished through the understanding of the different stages that the online visitors go through. In addition, it shows the correlation between the users and the mobile application.

  9. Neuromarketing and its internal marketing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRAJDIERU (COMAN Ecaterina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to highlight the potential application of neuromarketing techniques in internal marketing, representing a qualitative and exploratory approach of specialized literature. The research results indicate that there are considerable advantages of using neuroscience research in internal marketing activities such as employee motivation, testing the job attractiveness, choosing the best candidates , promoting employer branding, employee retention and organizational career planning. The new field allows in- depth study of employee behaviour and the drawing up of strategies for their retention

  10. International wind energy development. World market update 2001. Forecast 2002-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    In the year 2001, the wind power development took another major step forward. Installed capacity set a new record with the addition of 6,824 MW of new generating capacity. This is 2,329 MW more than the record set in year 2000. Growth in new capacity is up from 15% in year 2000 to 52% in 2001. This confirmed that the trend of wind energy being the preferred technology over other technologies for new generating capacity is continuing. Europe is the leading region for wind power. Of the new capacity added in 2001, 4,527 MW was installed in Europe. Germany once more shows this country's potential as the single most active market with the installation of 2,627 MW in new capacity, nearly 1,000 MW more than in the previous year. Germany consolidated its position as the world's leading developer of wind energy. The market in the US is once again the second largest wind energy market ahead of Spain. The expiration of the PTC at the end of the year 2001 gave some rush in the installation at the end of the year. The Danish market is on a deroute and lost pace completely in a changed political climate which means that the development of windpower is slowing down. Denmark has a very high penetration of windpower. On the supplier side Vestas Wind Systems A/S maintained its position as being the world's largest manufacturer of wind turbines. Vestas Wind Systems is now followed by Enercon GmbH. Without counting the US market figures Vestas Wind Systems A/S and Enercon has become the very closed in terms of sold MW. In the 3rd place is the Danish company NEG Micon A/S. Newcomers in the Top Ten list are Mitsubishi (JP) and REpower (GE). The most significant technological trend in the market is the continuing upscaling of machines. From year 2001 the average size of WTGs is 915 kW (in 2000: 800kW). In the very near future there will be erected wind turbines mainly dedicated for the upcoming offshore market of 4.5-5.0 MW. On Offshore there is only 10 MW installed during the year 2001

  11. Side event from the Coordination office at Warsaw: Latest developments on the French Wind Power Market: New rules, new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassin, Fabrice; Elfassi, Paul; Froeding, Veronique; Petit, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    At the occasion of the 2010 edition of the European Wind energy Conference (EWEC 2010), the French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a Side event on the latest developments of the French Wind Power Market. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - The new regulatory framework under the 'Grenelle' laws: Wind energy planning. French National Action Plan: the wind energy challenge (Fabrice Cassin); 2 - The upcoming enforcement of the dangerous installations rules (ICPe) to wind power plants (Veronique Froeding); 3 - New tax system for wind energy projects and local acceptance (Jean-Francois Petit)

  12. Marketing plan for a mobile application : Marketing research and a plan for a mobile application of a startup company

    OpenAIRE

    Koljonen, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide an insight of the application market and to create a marketing plan for a new mobile application. The client is a startup company and they needed a marketing research and a marketing plan for their mobile application. The company does not have a person working with marketing and therefore they asked for this project. The application itself provides information about local bars and nightclubs. It will be launched first in southern Europe and after world...

  13. Modern wind energy technology for Russian applications. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Winther-Jensen, M., Bindner, H.W. [and others

    1999-05-01

    The general objective of the project is to establish a technical foundation for an intensified application of wind energy in Russia with medium to large wind turbines and transfer/adaptation of Danish and European wind turbine technology as a basis for future joint ventures and technology exports. More specifically, the objective is to develop and establish the basic knowledge and design criteria for adaptation and development of Danish wind turbine technology for application under Russian conditions. The research programme is envisaged to be carried out in three phases, the first phase being the project reported herein. The main purpose of phase 1 is to assess the needs for modifications and adaptations of established standard (in casu Danish) wind turbine designs for decentralised energy systems with a limited number of medium sized wind turbines and for grid connected wind turbines in cold climate and in-land sites of Russia. As part of this work it is necessary to clarify the types of operational conditions and requirements that are to be met by wind turbines operating in such conditions, and to outline suitable test procedures and test set-up is for verifications of such adapted and modified wind turbines. The reporting of this project is made in one main report and four topical reports, all of them issued as Risoe reports. This is the Main Report, (Risoe-R-1069), summing up the activities and findings of phase 1 and outlining a strategy for Russian-Danish cooperation in wind energy as agreed upon between the Russian and the Danish parties. (au)

  14. Integration of 18 GW Wind Energy into the Energy Market. Practical Experiences in Germany. Experiences with large-scale integration of wind power into power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, C.; Graeber, B.; Lange, M.; Focken, U.

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the integration of 18 GW of wind power into the German energy market. The focus lies on reporting practical experiences concerning the use of wind energy in Germany within the framework of the renewable energy act (EEG) and the immediate exchange of wind power between the four German grid control areas. Due to the EEG the demand for monitoring the current energy production of wind farms and for short-term predictions of wind power has significantly increased and opened a broader market for these services. In particular for trading on the intraday market ultra short term predictions in the time frame of 1 to 10 hours require different approaches than usual dayahead predictions because the large numerical meteorological models are not sufficiently optimized for very short time horizons. It is shown that for this range a combination of a statistical and a deterministic model leads to significant improvements and stable results as it unites the characteristics of the current wind power production with the synoptic-scale meteorological situation. The possible concepts of balancing the remaining differences between predicted and actual wind power generation are discussed. As wind power prediction errors and load forecasting errors are uncorrelated, benefits can arise from a combined balancing. Finally practical experiences with wind power fluctuations and large forecast errors are presented.

  15. THE MAIN APPLICATIONS OF THE INTERNET IN TOURISM MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice Sion; Cezar Mihălcescu

    2010-01-01

    The Internet as a marketing media can be of great benefit to virtual all areas of marketing, from marketing research, through market segmentation, targeting and positioning, to the effective use of the marketing mix, and marketing organisation and control. The following discussion does not attempt to provide an exhaustive list of the Net's use in tourism; rather, it simply intends to exemplify its common applications in and main implications for tourism marketing.

  16. Wind power merit-order and feed-in-tariffs effect: A variability analysis of the Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azofra, D.; Jiménez, E.; Martínez, E.; Blanco, J.; Saenz-Díez, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • M5P algorithm-based model determines influence of wind power on Spanish spot market. • Assessment of the wind power influence for different levels of wind resource. • Cost-benefit analysis is developed, accounting feed-in-tariffs and merit order effect. • The worst and best levels of wind power production for the system are determined. - Abstract: The incipient large-scale energy-storage technologies are not sufficiently developed yet, which means that the wind power production depends on the wind speed at every moment. This, along with the fact that the wind resource is not constant over time, makes wind power production quite variable. Therefore, an artificial intelligence-based technique (M5P algorithm) is applied to empirical hourly data to determine the influence of wind power technology on the spot market for different levels of wind resource in 2012. It concludes that wind power depressed the spot prices between 7.42 and 10.94 €/MW h for a wind power production of 90% and 110% of the real one, respectively. Furthermore, taking into account the important presence of wind power in the Spanish generation mix, the above range has been extended up to 0% in order to determine the worst and best level of wind power production for the Spanish electrical system (from an economical point of view). To do so, both feed-in-tariffs and wind power impact on spot market (merit order effect) have been accounted in accordance with the different levels of wind power production. Since empirical data from 2012 have been used to conduct the research, the results presented in this paper may provide policy makers with a worst and best-case scenario to discuss about the convenience of the last cutting expenses over wind power technology in Spain

  17. Variance Analysis of Wind and Natural Gas Generation under Different Market Structures: Some Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B.; Jenkin, T.; Lipowicz, D.; Arent, D. J.; Cooke, R.

    2012-01-01

    Does large scale penetration of renewable generation such as wind and solar power pose economic and operational burdens on the electricity system? A number of studies have pointed to the potential benefits of renewable generation as a hedge against the volatility and potential escalation of fossil fuel prices. Research also suggests that the lack of correlation of renewable energy costs with fossil fuel prices means that adding large amounts of wind or solar generation may also reduce the volatility of system-wide electricity costs. Such variance reduction of system costs may be of significant value to consumers due to risk aversion. The analysis in this report recognizes that the potential value of risk mitigation associated with wind generation and natural gas generation may depend on whether one considers the consumer's perspective or the investor's perspective and whether the market is regulated or deregulated. We analyze the risk and return trade-offs for wind and natural gas generation for deregulated markets based on hourly prices and load over a 10-year period using historical data in the PJM Interconnection (PJM) from 1999 to 2008. Similar analysis is then simulated and evaluated for regulated markets under certain assumptions.

  18. Market analysis offshore wind energy; Marktanalyse Windenergie auf See

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The North Sea has compared to the Baltic Sea due the available space offering a significantly larger Potential. Compared to the North Sea are the exploitable Potential of the Baltic Sea coast, however, significantly more closer to the coast, which not only for the network connection but also for the construction and operation of plants efficiency benefits may have. It is still unclear whether the available areas of the territorial sea Baltic Sea in relevant scale can be extended. The corresponding Spatial planning process was in 2014 by Mecklenburg- Vorpommern initiated. The analysis of the Federal Offshore Plan fixed Clusters of the offshore grid development plan in structured areas for the North and Baltic Seas (1-5), shows that at least in the expansion phase by 2025, possibly also 2030 the coastally zones 1 and 2 in North and Baltic provide a sufficient surface potential and at the same time with respect to an efficient and structured Network expansion should be developed. The expansion path up to 2020 allows the industry to realize the proposed decreasing trend of cost of over 30 percent. The recognizable today Cost reductions have so far have to take into account in the context of the development the tender design. This also applies to the question of optimal Park and plant designs for the energy industry View. In addition to each project internal difficulties at the network as at wind farm site there are significant interface problems between the wind farm and grid connection. This is, inter alia, due to the different implementation periods after commissioning. An acceleration or flexibilization of the grid connections (in particular DC) would substantially benefit to bring and could lead to a significant improvement of the competitive situation. The competition from sides of the wind turbine manufacturer is currently formed little heterogeneous. On the part of investors, there is in the meantime a relatively high number of potential future Investors which

  19. Mobile Marketing Applications of Travel Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Selim Selvi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of mobile devices in the marketing world is increasing parallel with technological advances. The main problem of this research is to determine agencies’ use of what type of mobile tools for what type of purposes in the marketing process. The aim of this research is to identify Mobile Marketing (MM applications used by group A travel agencies, and to describe the attitudes towards MM applications of agencies. According to related law, it is only group A agencies give all agency services. Therefore, it is thought that MM is more widely used by those agencies. Thus, this research was made only on the group A agencies. The population of study was consisted of 675 groups A agencies’ representatives deployed in the European and Asian sides of Istanbul. A questionnaire was used as data collection tool. Questionnaire form consisted of two parts. In the first part, questions concerning MM and in the second part, questions regarding demographic issues to managers and travel agents took place. The results were given as descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation on the tables. T-test and One Way ANOVA analysis were performed for the differences of mean among groups. In the study it was concluded that agencies use mobile phones mostly and mobile computers for increasing sales firstly and direct marketing. Thus, the main hypothesis established was confirmed partly.

  20. Mobile Marketing Applications of Travel Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Selim Selvi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of mobile devices in the marketing world is increasing parallel with technological advances. The main problem of this research is to determine agencies’ use of what type of mobile tools for what type of purposes in the marketing process. The aim of this research is to identify Mobile Marketing (MM applications used by group A travel agencies, and to describe the attitudes towards MM applications of agencies. According to related law, it is only group A agencies give all agency services. Therefore, it is thought that MM is more widely used by those agencies. Thus, this research was made only on the group A agencies. The population of study was consisted of 675 groups A agencies’ representatives deployed in the European and Asian sides of Istanbul. A questionnaire was used as data collection tool. Questionnaire form consisted of two parts. In the first part, questions concerning MM and in the second part, questions regarding demographic issues to managers and travel agents took place. The results were given as descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation on the tables. T-test and One Way ANOVA analysis were performed for the differences of mean among groups. In the study it was concluded that agencies use mobile phones mostly and mobile computers for increasing sales firstly and direct marketing. Thus, the main hypothesis established was confirmed partly.

  1. Assessing the Impact of Wind/PV Power Generation and Market Policies on Decentralized Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S.M. Arnoux, Luciana; Santiago, Leonardo

    In this paper, we offer a comprehensive approach to assess the impact of wind and photovoltaic power generation on decentralized hybrid systems. In particular, we focus on three performance measures of the energy system, namely reliability, costs, and efficiency. Most of the current studies focus...... level. Therefore, we appropriately assess the inherent uncertainty and design options. First, we use linear and quantile regression models to estimate the wind speed and solar insolation. Then, we use different quantiles as an input for the hybrid system design to assess market policies (e.g., net...

  2. Dead battery? Wind power, the spot market, and hydro power interaction in the Nordic electricity market

    OpenAIRE

    Mauritzen, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    It is well established within both the economics and power system engineering literature that hydro power can act as a complement to large amounts of intermittent energy. In particular hydro power can act as a "battery" where large amounts of wind power are installed. In this paper I use simple distributed lag models with data from Denmark and Norway. I find that increased wind power in Denmark causes increased marginal exports to Norway and that this effect is larger during periods of net ex...

  3. International wind energy development. World market update 2010. Forecast 2011-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-03-15

    This is the sixteenth edition of the annual World Market Update produced by BTM Consult ApS - a part of Navigant Consulting, and covers developments in the wind energy sector during 2010. As in previous editions, the report also assesses important changes over the last three years and forecasts progress for five years ahead. The special topic in this year's WMU is a review of Direct-Drive concept versus traditional Drive Train with gearbox. The global market for wind power produced a record for new installations in 2010 of 39.4 GW installed capacity, however, with a much lower growth rate than in the period 2005 to 2009. The rapid increase in the rate of installations in both Asia and the US was already clear in 2008-09. That trend has continued in China but the US experienced a significant slow-down in 2010. Europe stayed relatively stable - old markets stagnated but new emerging markets grew. Another new reality is that most of the world's manufacturing of wind turbines now takes place in China. Companies producing wind turbines there have experienced an explosive rate of growth. As a result four Chinese companies are among the world's Top Ten turbine manufacturers. An inevitable impact of this shift is that the market shares of the traditional industry leaders from the US and Europe have decreased significantly with Vestas and Siemens as exception in 2010. At the same time a rapid expansion of manufacturing capacity by European turbine makers has taken place in the US. Europe contributed 29.9% of the newly added capacity - 10,920 MW - taking the continent's total wind power generation capacity to 87,565 MW. The growth in Asia's markets has once again been staggering. With 21,130 MW of new installations, South and East Asia accounted for 53.6% of the global total in 2010.China was the major contributor, with 18,928 MW of new capacity, 37% over that of 2009. In terms of cumulative installed wind power, China surpassed the US in 2010, with

  4. EVENT-MARKETING – FEATURES OF APPLICATION IN MODERN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Vlasenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article analyzed the modern features of the development and using of event- marketing. Showed the conditions of the essence and characteristics of event management, its principles and methods of application. Characterized the features and importance of tourism and the benefits of application of event marketing as a promising method of indirect marketing communications. Used examples of practical application of event marketing activity. Determined correlation of event management and marketing and its subordination to the event marketing purposes. Key words: tourism, event-tourism, event-management, event-marketing, socio-cultural sphere. JEL: M 31

  5. A short-term ensemble wind speed forecasting system for wind power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya Roy, S.; Traiteur, J. J.; Callicutt, D.; Smith, M.

    2011-12-01

    This study develops an adaptive, blended forecasting system to provide accurate wind speed forecasts 1 hour ahead of time for wind power applications. The system consists of an ensemble of 21 forecasts with different configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting Single Column Model (WRFSCM) and a persistence model. The ensemble is calibrated against observations for a 2 month period (June-July, 2008) at a potential wind farm site in Illinois using the Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) technique. The forecasting system is evaluated against observations for August 2008 at the same site. The calibrated ensemble forecasts significantly outperform the forecasts from the uncalibrated ensemble while significantly reducing forecast uncertainty under all environmental stability conditions. The system also generates significantly better forecasts than persistence, autoregressive (AR) and autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models during the morning transition and the diurnal convective regimes. This forecasting system is computationally more efficient than traditional numerical weather prediction models and can generate a calibrated forecast, including model runs and calibration, in approximately 1 minute. Currently, hour-ahead wind speed forecasts are almost exclusively produced using statistical models. However, numerical models have several distinct advantages over statistical models including the potential to provide turbulence forecasts. Hence, there is an urgent need to explore the role of numerical models in short-term wind speed forecasting. This work is a step in that direction and is likely to trigger a debate within the wind speed forecasting community.

  6. A new self-scheduling strategy for integrated operation of wind and pumped-storage power plants in power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varkani, Ali Karimi; Daraeepour, Ali; Monsef, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A strategy for integrated operation of wind and pumped-storage plants is proposed. → Participation of both plants in energy and ancillary service markets is modeled. → The uncertainty of wind production is modeled by a novel probabilistic function. → The proposed strategy is tested on a real case in the Spanish electricity market. -- Abstract: Competitive structure of power markets causes various challenges for wind resources to participate in these markets. Indeed, production uncertainty is the main cause of their low income. Thus, they are usually supported by system operators, which is in contrast with the competitive paradigm of power markets. In this paper, a new strategy for increasing the profits of wind resources is proposed. In the suggested strategy, a Generation Company (GenCo), who owns both wind and pumped-storage plants, self-schedules the integrated operation of them regarding the uncertainty of wind power generation. For presenting an integrated self-schedule and obtaining a real added value of the strategy, participation of the GenCo in energy and ancillary service markets is modeled. The self-scheduling strategy is based on stochastic programming techniques. Outputs of the problem include generation offers in day-ahead energy market and ancillary service markets, including spinning and regulation reserve markets. A Neural Network (NN) based technique is used for modeling the uncertainty of wind power production. The proposed strategy is tested on a real wind farm in mainland, Spain. Moreover, added value of the strategy is presented in different conditions of the market.

  7. Application Of Artificial Intelligence To Wind Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ching F.; Steinle, Frank W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses potential use of artificial-intelligence systems to manage wind-tunnel test facilities at Ames Research Center. One of goals of program to obtain experimental data of better quality and otherwise generally increase productivity of facilities. Another goal to increase efficiency and expertise of current personnel and to retain expertise of former personnel. Third goal to increase effectiveness of management through more efficient use of accumulated data. System used to improve schedules of operation and maintenance of tunnels and other equipment, assignment of personnel, distribution of electrical power, and analysis of costs and productivity. Several commercial artificial-intelligence computer programs discussed as possible candidates for use.

  8. Wind energy systems. Application to regional utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This study developed a generic planning process that utilities can use to determine the feasibility of utilizing WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) as part of their future mix of equipment. While this is primarily an economic process, other questions dealing with WECS availability, capacity credit, operating reserve, performance of WECS arrays, etc., had to be addressed. The approach was to establish the worth, or breakeven value, of WECS to the utility and to determine the impact that WECS additions would have on the utilities mix of conventional source.

  9. A comparison between intraday market and capacity market to deal with wind power forecasting errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, W.W. de; Dekker, G.W.; Frunt, J.; Duvoort, M.R. [DNV-KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands); Jokic, A. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-07-01

    Future power systems with large amounts of renewable generation require more regulating power to guarantee reliability. The ancillary service market proposed in this paper guarantees both a contracted amount of regulating power in advance and an effective activation of those resources by means of the secondary controller of the TSO. Simulation results show that a certain reliability level can be maintained, depending on incentives the TSO uses to reduce remaining imbalances. This market design shows to be preferable in some aspects compared to an intraday market, which is suboptimal in balancing and a relative large remaining imbalance occurs. (orig.)

  10. International wind energy development. World market update 2009. Forecast 2010-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    This is the fifteenth edition of the annual World Market Update produced by BTM Consult ApS, and covers developments in the wind energy sector during 2009. As in previous editions, the report also assesses important changes over the last three years and forecasts progress for five years ahead. The special topic in this year's WMU is an evaluation of the aftermath of the COP-15 climate change negotiations in relation to future wind power development. The global market for wind power not only produced a record for new installations in 2009 of 38 GW installed capacity, it also created a new order in the balance of international wind power. The rapid increase in the rate of installations in both Asia and the US was already clear in 2008; that trend has continued at a faster pace in 2009. By far the largest number of new wind projects were seen in the US and China. Another new reality is that most of the world's manufacturing of wind turbines now takes place in China. As a result three Chinese companies are among the world's top ten turbine manufacturers. At the same time a rapid expansion of manufacturing capacity by European turbine makers has taken place in the US. Europe contributed 28.2% of the newly added capacity - 10,738 MW - taking the continent's total wind power generation capacity to 76,553 MW. The growth in Asia's markets has once again been staggering. With 14,991 MW of new installations, South and East Asia accounted for 39.4% of the global total in 2009. China was the major contributor, with 13,750 MW of new capacity, more than double that installed in 2008. In terms of cumulative installed wind power, the US is still the world leader, with 35,159 MW. China overtook Germany with a margin of less than 50 MW. China now has a total of 25,853 MW, followed by Germany's 25,813 MW. A new world order in wind power has become a reality. The forecast released in this WMU shows an average growth rate of 13.5% for the period 2010

  11. Application of SMES in wind farm to improve voltage stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.; Tang, Y.J.; Ren, L.; Li, J.D.; Chen, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    For the wind farms introducing doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs), voltage stability is an essential issue which influences their widely integration into the power grid. This paper proposes the application of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in the power system integrated with wind farms. SMES can control the active and reactive power flow, realizing the operation in four quadrants independently. The introducing of SMES can smooth the output power flow of the wind farms, and supply dynamic voltage support. Using MATLAB/SIMULINK, the models of the DFIG, the power grid connected and the SMES are created. Simulation results show that the voltage stability of the power system integrated with wind farms can be improved considerably

  12. Assessing the impact of wind generation on wholesale prices and generator dispatch in the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, Sam; MacGill, Iain

    2013-01-01

    Growing climate change and energy security concerns are driving major wind energy deployment in electricity industries around the world. Despite its many advantages, growing penetrations of this highly variable and somewhat unpredictable energy source pose new challenges for electricity industry operation. One issue receiving growing attention is the so-called ‘merit order effect’ of wind generation in wholesale electricity markets. Wind has very low operating costs and therefore tends to displace higher cost conventional generation from market dispatch, reducing both wholesale prices and conventional plant outputs. This paper extends the current literature on this effect through an empirical study employing a range of econometric techniques to quantify the impacts of growing wind penetrations in the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM). The results suggest that wind is having a marked impact on spot market prices and, while wind is primarily offsetting higher operating cost gas generation, it is now also significantly reducing dispatch of emissions intensive brown coal generation. Great care needs to be taken in extrapolating these results to longer-term implications, however, the study does propose a methodology for assessing this effect, highlights the impacts that wind is already having on NEM outcomes and suggests promising directions for future research. - Highlights: ► Proposes methodologies to estimate short run impact of wind on electricity markets. ► Quantifies the merit order effect of wind generation on wholesale spot price. ► Wind is found to be significantly effecting gas fired generation. ► Evidence is found for wind having a notable impact on baseload coal generation. ► Discusses the implications for development of wind generation in Australia

  13. EFFECTS OF THE PENETRATION OF WIND POWER IN THE BRAZILIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton M. Herrera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability has been the main driver for renewables in the Brazilian electricity market. This article analyzes the vulnerabilities of the dependence on hydropower in renewable energy production due to climate variation, as well as wind power penetration in Brazil, given a set of wind industry policies. Despite Brazilian renewable energy increase, the study shows the impact in energy supply in north region, due to the lack of transmission infrastructure. In Brazil, the potential trade-offs between renewables growth, and transmission infrastructure inconsistencies in terms of policy implementation are not yet well analyzed. Simulation results show the potential conflicts between energy policies aimed at increasing the wind power supply and boundaries in transmission infrastructure.

  14. Effects of the penetration of wind power in the brazilian electricity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton M. Herrera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability has been the main driver for renewables in the Brazilian electricity market. This article analyzes the vulnerabilities of the dependence on hydropower in renewable energy production due to climate variation, as well as wind power penetration in Brazil, given a set of wind industry policies. Despite Brazilian renewable energy increase, the study shows the impact in energy supply in north region, due to the lack of transmission infrastructure. In Brazil, the potential trade-offs between renewables growth, and transmission infrastructure inconsistencies in terms of policy implementation are not yet well analyzed. Simulation results show the potential conflicts between energy policies aimed at increasing the wind power supply and boundaries in transmission infrastructure.

  15. Earnings management and Stock Market Return: An Investigation of Lean against the Wind Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sajjad Khan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to investigate the “lean against the wind hypothesis”. For this purpose the relationship of earnings management to that of the aggregate stock market return was investigated. Data for the year 2005 to 2009 was examined and Panel Data techniques were applied on the data set. F-statistics were used to check for appropriateness of the model, Housman test were used to finally decide for fixed effect model. Results of the paper were against the existence of lean against the wind behavior of the firms towards the aggregate under valuation of stock market returns. These Results were in favor of the past study of Cohen and Zarowin (2011.Keywords: Earnings management, Discretionary accruals, Modified Jones model, KSE

  16. Facebook Marketing Strategy : Case: Pint Please Mobile Application

    OpenAIRE

    Pasma, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    This thesis was made to develop a Facebook marketing strategy for a mobile application start-up company Pint Please Ltd in order to improve their Facebook marketing in the United Kingdom. The aim of this thesis is to help the commissioner plan, implement, measure and improve their marketing activities in Facebook and support their marketing efforts in acquiring users for their craft beer application. The theory introduces marketing strategy development process and focuses on describing Facebo...

  17. Using simple wind-diesel systems without energy storage to obtain high penetration and market acceptance in the near future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundsager, P.; Sherwin, R.W. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A wind/diesel hybrid power system combines wind energy technology with diesel generation to provide continous AC electrical power with reduced fuel consumption. The objectives of this paper are to summarize the reasoning behind the simple Wind-Diesel system concept using low or negative load operation of the diesels, including the diesel backdrive technique proposed by Atlantic Orient, and to outline a strategy within an international framework to make simple Wind-Diesel systems with standard induction generator wind turbines commercially available and accepted by the market. (au) (11 refs.)

  18. Bridging the European Wind Energy Market and a Future Renewable Hydrogen-Inclusive Economy. A Dynamic Techno-economic Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, S.; Peteves, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    The study establishes the link between the growing wind market and the emerging hydrogen market of the European Union, in a so-called 'wind-hydrogen strategy'. It considers specifically the diversion of wind electricity, as a wind power control mechanism in high wind penetration situations, for the production of renewable electrolytic hydrogen - a potentially important component of a renewable hydrogen-inclusive economy. The analysis examines the long-term competitiveness of a wind-hydrogen strategy via cost-benefit assessment. It indicates the duration and extent to which (financial) support, if any, would need to be provided in support of such a strategy, and the influence over time of certain key factors on the outcome

  19. An All-Fiber, Modular, Compact Wind Lidar for Wind Sensing and Wake Vortex Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Sibell, Russ; Vetorino, Steve; Higgins, Richard; Tracy, Allen

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses an innovative, compact and eyesafe coherent lidar system developed for wind and wake vortex sensing applications. With an innovative all-fiber and modular transceiver architecture, the wind lidar system has reduced size, weight and power requirements, and provides enhanced performance along with operational elegance. This all-fiber architecture is developed around fiber seed laser coupled to uniquely configured fiber amplifier modules. The innovative features of this lidar system, besides its all fiber architecture, include pulsewidth agility and user programmable 3D hemispherical scanner unit. Operating at a wavelength of 1.5457 microns and with a PRF of up to 20 KHz, the lidar transmitter system is designed as a Class 1 system with dimensions of 30"(W) x 46"(L) x 60"(H). With an operational range exceeding 10 km, the wind lidar is configured to measure wind velocities of greater than 120 m/s with an accuracy of +/- 0.2 m/s and allow range resolution of less than 15 m. The dynamical configuration capability of transmitted pulsewidths from 50 ns to 400 ns allows high resolution wake vortex measurements. The scanner uses innovative liquid metal slip ring and is built using 3D printer technology with light weight nylon. As such, it provides continuous 360 degree azimuth and 180 degree elevation scan angles with an incremental motion of 0.001 degree. The lidar system is air cooled and requires 110 V for its operation. This compact and modular lidar system is anticipated to provide mobility, reliability, and ease of field deployment for wind and wake vortex measurements. Currently, this wind lidar is undergoing validation tests under various atmospheric conditions. Preliminary results of these field measurements of wind characteristics that were recently carried out in Colorado are discussed.

  20. Operational Strategies for a Portfolio of Wind Farms and CHP Plants in a Two-Price Balancing Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmers, Anna; Zugno, Marco; Skajaa, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we explore the portfolio effect of a system consisting of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant and a wind farm. The goal is to increase the overall profit of the portfolio by reducing imbalances, and consequently their implicit penalty in a two-price balancing market for electricity......-horizon fashion, so that forecasts for heat demand, wind power production and market prices are updated at each iteration. We conclude that the portfolio strategy is the most profitable due to the two-price structure of the balancing market. This encourages producers to handle their imbalances outside the market........ We investigate two different operational strategies, which differ in whether the CHP plant and the wind farm are operated jointly or independently, and we evaluate their economic performance on a real case study based on a CHP-wind system located in the western part of Denmark. We present...

  1. Small-wind-systems application analysis. Technical report and executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    A small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) analysis was conducted to estimate the potential market for SWEC, or wind machines smaller than 100 kW for five selected applications. The goals were to aid manufacturers in attaining financing by convincing venture capital investors of the potential of SWECS and to aid government planners in allocating R and D expenditures that will effectively advance SWECS commercialization. Based on these goals, the study: (1) provides a basis for assisting the DOE in planning R and D programs that will advance the state of SWECS industry; (2) quantifies estimates of market size vs. installed system cost to enable industry to plan expansion of capacity and product lines; (3) identifies marketing strategies for industry to use in attaining financing from investors and in achieving sales goals; and (4) provides DOE with data that will assist in determining actions, incentives, and/or legislation required to achieve a commercially viable SWECS industry. The five applications were selected through an initial screening and priority-ranking analysis. The year of analysis was 1985, but all dollar amounts, such as fuel costs, are expressed in 1980 dollars. The five SWECS applications investigated were farm residences, non-farm residences, rural electric cooperatives, feed grinders, and remote communities.

  2. Word of mouth marketing applications on the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Gülmez, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Word of mouth marketing, also called WOMM in English, is a marketing strategyform via oral or written in which consumers share&spread other people aboutproduct or firm. Word of mouth marketing is an extremely important factor in theconsumer’s final purchase decision in the conscious societies on the internet. Thispaper aims to evaluate word of mouth marketing applications on the internet.

  3. Choice and Application of Marketing Strategies of Selected Book ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to identity the type of marketing strategies employed by book publishers in Nigeria, the criteria for the choice and application of marketing strategies, being used to reach each segment of the market. The survey research method was adopted for the study. Forty market managers and 60 sales ...

  4. Technical and economical aspects of wind energy applications in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durstewitz, M; Hoppe-Kilpper, M; Kleinkauf, W [Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik e.V., Kassel (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The use of renewable energy for the continuously growing global population is becoming increasingly important. These forms of energy not only broaden the urgently needed resource base, but are also free from emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} etc. The Federal German Government early recognized this and has provided more than DEM 4000 million for this purpose since 1973. Together with Japan and the USA, Germany belongs to the three leading nations in the world in R and D on the application of renewable energy. It has by far the largest and most broadly based programme in Europe. The technical and economical progress of wind power is very promising in Germany. It has scale demonstration programme `250 MW Wind`. Since 1991 another important impetus has been the sources (wind power presently 0.1728 DEM/kWh). In 1994, the rated wind power capacity was doubled to 643 MW. Electricity production in 1994 was around 1000 million kWh or 0.2 % of total German electricity production. The often discussed goal of producing one or more per cent of the German electricity by wind power seems to be attainable on a medium time scale by modern medium scale wind turbines or even large scale turbines. This is based on the promise that various nontechnical barriers will be overcome. (author)

  5. Technical and economical aspects of wind energy applications in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durstewitz, M.; Hoppe-Kilpper, M.; Kleinkauf, W. [Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik e.V., Kassel (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The use of renewable energy for the continuously growing global population is becoming increasingly important. These forms of energy not only broaden the urgently needed resource base, but are also free from emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} etc. The Federal German Government early recognized this and has provided more than DEM 4000 million for this purpose since 1973. Together with Japan and the USA, Germany belongs to the three leading nations in the world in R and D on the application of renewable energy. It has by far the largest and most broadly based programme in Europe. The technical and economical progress of wind power is very promising in Germany. It has scale demonstration programme `250 MW Wind`. Since 1991 another important impetus has been the sources (wind power presently 0.1728 DEM/kWh). In 1994, the rated wind power capacity was doubled to 643 MW. Electricity production in 1994 was around 1000 million kWh or 0.2 % of total German electricity production. The often discussed goal of producing one or more per cent of the German electricity by wind power seems to be attainable on a medium time scale by modern medium scale wind turbines or even large scale turbines. This is based on the promise that various nontechnical barriers will be overcome. (author)

  6. Technical and economical aspects of wind energy applications in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durstewitz, M.; Hoppe-Kilpper, M.; Kleinkauf, W.

    1995-01-01

    The use of renewable energy for the continuously growing global population is becoming increasingly important. These forms of energy not only broaden the urgently needed resource base, but are also free from emission of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x etc. The Federal German Government early recognized this and has provided more than DEM 4000 million for this purpose since 1973. Together with Japan and the USA, Germany belongs to the three leading nations in the world in R and D on the application of renewable energy. It has by far the largest and most broadly based programme in Europe. The technical and economical progress of wind power is very promising in Germany. It has scale demonstration programme '250 MW Wind'. Since 1991 another important impetus has been the sources (wind power presently 0.1728 DEM/kWh). In 1994, the rated wind power capacity was doubled to 643 MW. Electricity production in 1994 was around 1000 million kWh or 0.2 % of total German electricity production. The often discussed goal of producing one or more per cent of the German electricity by wind power seems to be attainable on a medium time scale by modern medium scale wind turbines or even large scale turbines. This is based on the promise that various nontechnical barriers will be overcome. (author)

  7. 77 FR 28594 - Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1739-000] Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Bethel Wind...

  8. 77 FR 28593 - Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1740-000] Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Rippey Wind...

  9. An over painted oriental arts: Evaluation of the development of the Chinese renewable energy market using the wind power market as a model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, James; Ji, Fuxing; Zhang Ling; Chen Yushou

    2009-01-01

    China is now the largest CO 2 polluter in the world. However, the renewable energy policies in China are controversial and one can easily draw the wrong conclusions that Chinese renewable energy development has taken off from a surface assessment of the policies. By investigating and summarizing the first-hand experiences of participation in the Chinese renewable market (mainly wind farm development) in the past five years, this paper provides another dimension of policy analysis and independent review of the current issues facing the market. An investigation of policy changes and consequences clearly demonstrates the transformation of the Chinese renewable market. The domestic manufacturing quality and unprofessional design of wind farms made most developers' financial returns unrealistic in the wind market. Despite the difficulties and inconsistency in the system, China is tackling environmental issues seriously and heading in the right direction. With centrally controlled management, the Chinese strategies do not have to be justified financially. It is envisioned by the authors that re-organizing over 70 existing Chinese wind turbine manufacturers is unavoidable. Establishment of an internal renewable market, such as Renewable Obligation Certificate (ROC) system in the UK whose effectiveness is another subject of debate, would be an effective means by which the Chinese government in their post-2012 strategy could make the wind market more financially viable.

  10. Area price and demand response in a market with 25% wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Møller Andersen, Frits; Larsen, Helge V.

    2011-01-01

    Denmark, east and west of the Great Belt are bidding areas with separate hourly area prices for the Nord Pool power exchange, covering four Nordic countries and parts of Germany. The share of wind power has now increased to 25% on an annual basis in western Denmark. This has a significant impact...... not only on the electricity wholesale prices, but also on the development of the market. Hourly market data are available from the website of Danish TSO from 1999. In this paper these data are analysed for the period 2004–2010. Electricity generators and customers may respond to hourly price variations......, which can improve market efficiency, and a welfare gain is obtained. An important limitation for demand response is events of several consecutive hours with extreme values. The analysis in this paper is a summary and update of some of the issues covered by the EU RESPOND project. It shows that extreme...

  11. Strategic planning to reduce conflicts for offshore wind development in Taiwan: A social marketing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyun-Long; Liu, Hsiang-Hsi; Chuang, Ching-Ta

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to improve the current inefficiency and ineffectiveness of communications among stakeholders when planning and constructing offshore wind farms (OWFs). An analysis using a social marketing approach with segmentation techniques is used to identify the target market based on stakeholders' perceptions. The empirical results identify three stakeholder segments: (1) impact-attend group; (2) comprehensive group; and (3) benefit-attend group. The results suggest that communication should be implemented to alter stakeholders' attitudes toward the construction of OWFs. Furthermore, based on the results of segmentation, target markets are identified to plan the communication strategies for reducing the conflicts among stakeholders of OWF construction. The results also indicated that in the planning phase of construction for OWFs, effective stakeholder participation and policy communication can enhance the perception of benefits to reduce conflict with local communities and ocean users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decision 2010-021 : TransAlta Wind Ardenville wind plant and substation : application no. 1604970, proceeding ID 260

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    TransAlta Wind, a wholly owned subsidiary of TransAlta Corporation, filed an application in April 2009 to construct and operate the Ardenville wind farm and substation in Alberta. The wind farm consists of 23 wind turbines, each rated at 3 MW, for a total installed capacity of 69 MW. The wind farm would be connected to the Alberta Interconnected Electric System at the substation. TransAlta anticipates that a new 138-kV transmission line will be required and has contacted the transmission facilities for the future applications. The Alberta Utilities Commission issued a notice to all interested parties and landholders within 2 km of the proposed wind farm. Two residents raised concerns regarding the use of fossil fuels and alternative fuels, ecological impacts and aesthetic impacts of wind farms and land values. Upon review of information, the Commission was satisfied that approval of the application was in the public interest and that the wind farm complies with all regulatory requirements, including sound levels. Pursuant to sections 11, 14 and 15 of the Hydro and Electric Energy Act, the Commission approved the application and granted approval to TransAlta Wind to construct and operate the Ardenville wind power plant and substation.

  13. Potential Coir Fibre Composite for Small Wind Turbine Blade Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakri Bakri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been developed as reinforcement of composite to shift synthetic fibers. One of potential natural fibers developed is coir fiber. This paper aims to describe potential coir fiber as reinforcement of composite for small wind turbine blade application. The research shows that mechanical properties ( tensile, impact, shear, flexural and compression strengths of coir fiber composite have really similar to wood properties for small wind turbine blade material, but inferior to glass fiber composite properties. The effect of weathering was also evaluated to coir fiber composite in this paper.

  14. Application of relationship marketing in non-profit organisations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of relationship marketing in non-profit organisations involved in the provision of sport and recreational services. ... A variety of factors have over time contributed to a need for marketing in non-profit ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. Austria's wind energy potential – A participatory modeling approach to assess socio-political and market acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Höltinger, Stefan; Salak, Boris; Schauppenlehner, Thomas; Scherhaufer, Patrick; Schmidt, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Techno-economic assessments confirm the potential of wind energy to contribute to a low carbon bioeconomy. The increasing diffusion of wind energy, however, has turned wind energy acceptance into a significant barrier with respect to the deployment of wind turbines. This article assesses whether, and at what cost, Austrian renewable energy targets can be met under different expansion scenarios considering the socio-political and market acceptance of wind energy. Land-use scenarios have been defined in a participatory modeling approach with stakeholders from various interest groups. We calculated the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for all of the potential wind turbine sites, which we used to generate wind energy supply curves. The results show that wind energy production could be expanded to 20% of the final end energy demand in three out of four scenarios. However, more restrictive criteria increase LCOE by up to 20%. In contrast to common views that see local opposition against wind projects as the main barrier for wind power expansion, our participatory modeling approach indicates that even on the level of key stakeholders, the future possible contribution of wind energy to Austrian renewable energy targets reaches from almost no further expansion to very high shares of wind energy. - Highlights: • Including social barriers could reduce Austria’s wind potential from 92.78 to 3.89 TWh • Costs for attaining a 20% wind energy share vary by 20% between the scenarios • Socially acceptable wind area potential ranges from 0.1 to 3.9% of Austria’s total area • Excluding forest areas lowers the maximum wind energy potential by 45%

  16. A Market-Based Analysis on the Main Characteristics of Gearboxes Used in Onshore Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vázquez-Hernández

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Even though wind energy is one of the most mature renewable technologies, it is in continuous development not only because of the trend towards larger wind turbines but also because of the development of new technological solutions. The gearbox is one of the components of the drive train in which the industry is concentrating more effort on research and development. Larger rotor blades lead to more demanding requirements for this component as a consequence of a higher mechanical torque and multiplication ratio (due to lower rotational speed of blades while the rotational speed on the generator side remains at similar values. In addition, operating conditions become increasingly demanding in terms of reliability, performance, and compactness. This paper analyses the different gearbox arrangements that are implemented by manufacturers of onshore wind turbines, as well as their market penetration (including different aspects that affect the design of the gearbox, such as drive train configuration and turbine size. The analysis carried out shows a clear convergence towards gearboxes with three stages. However, there is a noticeable diversity in the types of gears used, depending to a large extent on the preferences of each manufacturer but also on the nominal power of the wind turbine and drive train configuration.

  17. The economic benefit of short-term forecasting for wind energy in the UK electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Murray, F.; Pryor, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    In the UK market, the total price of renewable electricity is made up of the Renewables Obligation Certificate and the price achieved for the electricity. Accurate forecasting improves the price if electricity is traded via the power exchange. In order to understand the size of wind farm for which short-term forecasting becomes economically viable, we develop a model for wind energy. Simulations were carried out for 2003 electricity prices for different forecast accuracies and strategies. The results indicate that it is possible to increase the price obtained by around pound 5/MWh which is about 14% of the electricity price in 2003 and about 6% of the total price. We show that the economic benefit of using short-term forecasting is also dependant on the accuracy and cost of purchasing the forecast. As the amount of wind energy requiring integration into the grid increases, short-term forecasting becomes more important to both wind farm owners and the transmission/distribution operators. (author)

  18. Simulation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer for Wind Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Nikola

    Energy production from wind is an increasingly important component of overall global power generation, and will likely continue to gain an even greater share of electricity production as world governments attempt to mitigate climate change and wind energy production costs decrease. Wind energy generation depends on wind speed, which is greatly influenced by local and synoptic environmental forcings. Synoptic forcing, such as a cold frontal passage, exists on a large spatial scale while local forcing manifests itself on a much smaller scale and could result from topographic effects or land-surface heat fluxes. Synoptic forcing, if strong enough, may suppress the effects of generally weaker local forcing. At the even smaller scale of a wind farm, upstream turbines generate wakes that decrease the wind speed and increase the atmospheric turbulence at the downwind turbines, thereby reducing power production and increasing fatigue loading that may damage turbine components, respectively. Simulation of atmospheric processes that span a considerable range of spatial and temporal scales is essential to improve wind energy forecasting, wind turbine siting, turbine maintenance scheduling, and wind turbine design. Mesoscale atmospheric models predict atmospheric conditions using observed data, for a wide range of meteorological applications across scales from thousands of kilometers to hundreds of meters. Mesoscale models include parameterizations for the major atmospheric physical processes that modulate wind speed and turbulence dynamics, such as cloud evolution and surface-atmosphere interactions. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used in this dissertation to investigate the effects of model parameters on wind energy forecasting. WRF is used for case study simulations at two West Coast North American wind farms, one with simple and one with complex terrain, during both synoptically and locally-driven weather events. The model's performance with different

  19. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the wind power. It presents the principles, the technology takes off, its applications and technology focus, the global market trends and the outlooks and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  20. Application scenario analysis of Power Grid Marketing Large Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Qianyu

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, large data has become an important strategic asset in the commercial economy, and its efficient management and application has become the focus of government, enterprise and academia. Power grid marketing data covers real data of electricity and other energy consumption and consumption costs and so on, which is closely related to each customer and the overall economic operation. Fully tap the inherent value of marketing data is of great significance for power grid company to make rapid and efficient response to the market demand and improve service level. The development of large data technology provides a new technical scheme for the development of marketing business under the new situation. Based on the study on current situation of marketing business, marketing information system and marketing data, this paper puts forward the application direction of marketing data and designed typical scenes for internal and external applications.

  1. Fixed-speed active-stall wind turbines in offshore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2005-01-01

    A large offshore wind farm in the East Danish power system was commissioned in 2003 at Rodsand. The power capacity of the wind farm is 165 MW divided between 72 wind turbines. For this large offshore application, robust and well-known wind technology has been chosen in the form of fixed-speed, ac...

  2. Large-scale Wind Power integration in a Hydro-Thermal Power Market

    OpenAIRE

    Trøtscher, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This master thesis describes a quadratic programming model used to calculate the spot prices in an efficient multi-area power market. The model has been adapted to Northern Europe, with focus on Denmark West and the integration of large quantities of wind power. In the model, demand and supply of electricity are equated, at an hourly time resolution, to find the spot price in each area. Historical load values are used to represent demand which is assumed to be completely inelastic. Supply i...

  3. Statistical wind analysis for near-space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, Jason A.

    2007-09-01

    Statistical wind models were developed based on the existing observational wind data for near-space altitudes between 60 000 and 100 000 ft (18 30 km) above ground level (AGL) at two locations, Akon, OH, USA, and White Sands, NM, USA. These two sites are envisioned as playing a crucial role in the first flights of high-altitude airships. The analysis shown in this paper has not been previously applied to this region of the stratosphere for such an application. Standard statistics were compiled for these data such as mean, median, maximum wind speed, and standard deviation, and the data were modeled with Weibull distributions. These statistics indicated, on a yearly average, there is a lull or a “knee” in the wind between 65 000 and 72 000 ft AGL (20 22 km). From the standard statistics, trends at both locations indicated substantial seasonal variation in the mean wind speed at these heights. The yearly and monthly statistical modeling indicated that Weibull distributions were a reasonable model for the data. Forecasts and hindcasts were done by using a Weibull model based on 2004 data and comparing the model with the 2003 and 2005 data. The 2004 distribution was also a reasonable model for these years. Lastly, the Weibull distribution and cumulative function were used to predict the 50%, 95%, and 99% winds, which are directly related to the expected power requirements of a near-space station-keeping airship. These values indicated that using only the standard deviation of the mean may underestimate the operational conditions.

  4. The impact of wind generation on the electricity spot-market price level and variance: The Texas experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Horowitz, I.; Moore, J.; Pacheco, A.

    2011-01-01

    The literature on renewable energy suggests that an increase in intermittent wind generation would reduce the spot electricity market price by displacing high fuel-cost marginal generation. Taking advantage of a large file of Texas-based 15-min data, we show that while rising wind generation does indeed tend to reduce the level of spot prices, it is also likely to enlarge the spot-price variance. The key policy implication is that increasing use of price risk management should accompany expanded deployment of wind generation. - Highlights: → Rising wind generation in ERCOT tends to reduce electricity spot prices. → Rising wind generation in ERCOT is also likely to enlarge the spot-price variance. → Increased price risk management should accompany expanded wind power deployment.

  5. Wind power, network congestion and hydro resource utilisation in the Norwegian power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foersund, Finn; Singh, Balbir; Jensen, Trond; Larsen, Cato

    2005-01-01

    Capacity constraints in electricity networks can have important impacts on utilization of new renewable energy (RE) capacity and incumbent generation resources. Neglect of such impacts in development of RE resources can result in crowding-out of incumbent generation. This trade-off is particularly problematic if the incumbent generation also consists of renewable sources, such as hydropower in the Norwegian electricity system. This paper presents a numerical analysis of the current wind-power development plans in North Norway and their impacts on utilization of hydropower. Policy simulations in paper are conducted using a dynamic partial equilibrium model that is calibrated to reflect the structure of the Nordic power market. The paper draws conclusion and policy implications for integration of RE resources in the Norwegian power market. (Author)

  6. The Efficient Market Hypothesis: Is It Applicable to the Foreign Exchange Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, James

    2004-01-01

    The study analyses the applicability of the efficient market hypothesis to the foreign exchange market by testing the profitability of the filter rule on the spot market. The significance of the returns was validated by comparing them to the returns from randomly generated shuffled series via bootstrap methods. The results were surprising. For the total period (1984-2003) small filter rules could deliver significant returns indicating an inefficient foreign exchange market. However, once the ...

  7. International wind energy development. World market update 2000. Forecast 2001-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    In the year 2000, the wind power development took another major step forward. Installed capacity set a new record with the additon of 4,495 MW of new generating capacity, this is 574 MW more than the record set in 1999. Growth in new capacity declined from 51% in 1999 to 15% in 2000. Nevertheless, the trend of wind energy being preferred over other technologies for new generating capacity is continuing. Europe remains the major market for wind power. Of the new capacity added in 2000, 86% was installed in Europe. Germany again took the lead as the single most active market with the installation of 1,665 MW in new capacity, 100 MW more than in the previous year. In doing so, Germany extended its reign as the world's leading developer of wind energy. Spain also took a major step towards meeting its renewable energy goals with the installation of some 1,024 MW of new wind generating capacity. Denmark replaced the United States as the world's third largest market. The Danes installed a new record of 603 MW. This was due to a last-minute rush of contracts signed at the end of 1999 in order to utilize attractive payment rates for new installations, which expired at the end of the year. The turbines were then installed in 2000. Market leaders among wind turbine manufacturers changed from previous years. Vestas Wind Systems A/S is now the world's largest manufacturer of wind turbines, followed by Gamesa S.A. of Spain (Vestas owns 40% of the shares in the Spanish company). Enercon GmbH has become the third largest manufacturer of wind turbines. It is interesting to note that Enercon GmbH made steady progress in sales to several emerging markets throughout the world. New on the Top-10 list is an Indian manufacturer. Suzlon Energy Ltd. installed 103 MW of capacity and thereby becomes the number 10 in the list of the worlds largest manufacturer. The cumulative installed capacity of 18,449 MW at the end of 2000 will supply approximately 37 TWh (37 billion kWh) per year. The

  8. Micro-economic analysis of the physical constrained markets: game theory application to competitive electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y. C.; Ragazzi, E.

    2006-03-01

    Competition has been introduced in the electricity markets with the goal of reducing prices and improving efficiency. The basic idea which stays behind this choice is that, in competitive markets, a greater quantity of the good is exchanged at a lower price, leading to higher market efficiency. Electricity markets are pretty different from other commodities mainly due to the physical constraints related to the network structure that may impact the market performance. The network structure of the system on which the economic transactions need to be undertaken poses strict physical and operational constraints. Strategic interactions among producers that game the market with the objective of maximizing their producer surplus must be taken into account when modeling competitive electricity markets. The physical constraints, specific of the electricity markets, provide additional opportunity of gaming to the market players. Game theory provides a tool to model such a context. This paper discussed the application of game theory to physical constrained electricity markets with the goal of providing tools for assessing the market performance and pinpointing the critical network constraints that may impact the market efficiency. The basic models of game theory specifically designed to represent the electricity markets will be presented. IEEE30 bus test system of the constrained electricity market will be discussed to show the network impacts on the market performances in presence of strategic bidding behavior of the producers.

  9. Micro-economic analysis of the physical constrained markets: game theory application to competitive electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y.C. [Politecnico di Torino, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Torino (Italy); Ragazzi, E. [CERIS, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth, CNR, National Research Council, Moncalieri, TO (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    Competition has been introduced in the electricity markets with the goal of reducing prices and improving efficiency. The basic idea which stays behind this choice is that, in competitive markets, a greater quantity of the good is exchanged at a lower price, leading to higher market efficiency. Electricity markets are pretty different from other commodities mainly due to the physical constraints related to the network structure that may impact the market performance. The network structure of the system on which the economic transactions needs to be undertaken poses strict physical and operational constraints. Strategic interactions among producers that game the market with the objective of maximizing their producer surplus must be taken into account when modeling competitive electricity markets. The physical constraints, specific of the electricity markets, provide additional opportunity of gaming to the market players. Game theory provides a tool to model such a context. This paper discussed the application of game theory to physical constrained electricity markets with the goal of providing tools for assessing the market performance and pinpointing the critical network constraints that may impact the market efficiency. The basic models of game theory specifically designed to represent the electricity markets will be presented. IEEE30 bus test system of the constrained electricity market will be discussed to show the network impacts on the market performances in presence of strategic bidding behavior of the producers. (authors)

  10. Wind Power Development and Energy Storage under China’s Electricity Market Reform—A Case Study of Fujian Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunguo Mou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on the Fujian provincial 500 kV grid and part of the 220 kV grid and the key power plants, including hydro, coal, nuclear, gas, wind and pumping and storage hydro powers (PSHP connected to the grid, constructs an independent electricity market model. Using data that are very close to reality about coal fired power production costs, along with data about power plants’ technical constraints, this paper studies the effect of wind power on Fujian’s provincial electricity market. Firstly, the paper analyzes the relationship between wind speed and wind power output and the effects of short-term power output fluctuation on frequency modulation and voltage regulation. Secondly, under supposition of the production costs following quadratic functions, the paper analyzes the effects of changes in wind power output on the electricity supply costs under optimal power flow. Thirdly, using the bidding model in the Australian Electricity Market Operator for reference and supposing that, in a competitive market, coal fired power plants can bid 6 price bands according to their capacity, the paper analyzes effects of wind power on electricity prices under optimal power flow, the stabilizing effects of PSHP and the minimum PSHP capacity needed to stabilize the electricity market. Finally, using a daily load curve, this paper simulates the electricity prices’ fluctuation under optimal power flow and PSHP’s stabilizing effect. The results show that, although PSHP has a large external social welfare effect, it can hardly make a profit. In the end, this paper puts forward some policy suggestions for Fujian province’s wind and nuclear power development, PSHP construction and electricity market development.

  11. Situational Marketing: Application for Higher Education Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Raymond E.; Reed, Rosetta R.

    1995-01-01

    Marketing higher education has been criticized for its consumer (interpreted as student) orientation. An alternative concept, situational marketing, considers the student as one of a number of environmental forces on which the marketing mix focuses. Other forces include funding and regulatory agencies, businesses, alumni, faculty, parents, the…

  12. Evaluation of the Impact of Wind Generation on the Electricity Market Prices and on the Profitability of New Wind Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A. J.; Saraiva, J. T.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a Dynamic Model of the electricity sector that can be used to simulate the evolution of some key variables on the long term, namely the evolution of the electricity price, of the demand and of the capacity factors of the technologies in the generation mix. This model can be used in different ways and by several agents, for instance to estimate the impact on the electricity price of the increasing presence of renewable power stations, namely using wind power and PV systems. In several countries these stations are paid feed-in tariffs with a fixed price but in some cases this scheme is under discussion and there are opinions that payments determined by the market price are more adequate and would bring fewer costs to final consumers. Such a change has to be carefully evaluated given that the presence of renewable stations bidding at an infra marginal price will affect the price itself. The model described in this paper can be used in a profitable way both by governmental agencies when preparing or studying alternative remuneration schemes to renewable stations or by promoters themselves to get more insight to the profitability of their investments, namely if the fixed feed-in tariffs in force in several countries are changed.

  13. Evaluation of the Impact of Wind Generation on the Electricity Market Prices and on the Profitability of New Wind Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraiva J. T.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a Dynamic Model of the electricity sector that can be used to simulate the evolution of some key variables on the long term, namely the evolution of the electricity price, of the demand and of the capacity factors of the technologies in the generation mix. This model can be used in different ways and by several agents, for instance to estimate the impact on the electricity price of the increasing presence of renewable power stations, namely using wind power and PV systems. In several countries these stations are paid feed-in tariffs with a fixed price but in some cases this scheme is under discussion and there are opinions that payments determined by the market price are more adequate and would bring fewer costs to final consumers. Such a change has to be carefully evaluated given that the presence of renewable stations bidding at an infra marginal price will affect the price itself. The model described in this paper can be used in a profitable way both by governmental agencies when preparing or studying alternative remuneration schemes to renewable stations or by promoters themselves to get more insight to the profitability of their investments, namely if the fixed feed-in tariffs in force in several countries are changed.

  14. Fuel cells niche market applications and design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Mainstream fuel cell markets such as stationary power and transport propulsion have already received considerable attention. However, the niche areas considered in this report also offer considerable markets that are considered potentially ready for exploitation. This report examines those markets and considers the broad issues for exploitation. This programme of work has been funded under the DTI's Advanced Fuel Cell Programme. The overall aim of this project was to identify and evaluate niche market applications that have the potential to provide early commercially competitive market opportunities for fuel cell systems. Battery replacement, portable, mobile auxiliary power and stationary applications for non-standard generation are covered. (author)

  15. Application of Data Mining in direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejana Pavlović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The key to successful business operations lies in good communication with clients. There are a growing number of brokers in the financial market who collect excess funds from the clients and perform transfers to those who need the funds. However, many external and internal factors influence the decision on disposal of available funds. This paper identifies and researches into clients’ satisfaction in the banking system. By application of the disclosure of data legality we will try to point to the factors that influence the clients' decision to invest their long-term deposits in the parent bank. Upon classification and clustering, we will interpret and indentify the strengths and weaknesses of the target results. This analysis provides the guidelines through the use of the decision-making tree, application of data mining and the possibility to use a large set of data increases the value and accuracy of this technique. The problem with this technique is accuracy of the data submitted by the client.

  16. The wind energy market in the U.K. and Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, D. [Lindley and Associates, Buckinghamshire (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The market for renewable energy projects has been created in England and Wales by measures established by the Electricity Act 1989 which created the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO). Identical market enablement mechanisms now exist for Scotland and Northern Ireland whilst yet another version of the NFFO mechanism has been established in Ireland. As a result, the UK now has 31 operational windfarms with a total rating of 195MW whilst the completion of the first windfarm in Ireland is expected in early 1997. This paper gives details of these mechanisms and the impact they have had on the creation of a renewables market. Current expectations are that additional wind energy capacity of about 900MW will be added in the UK and Ireland by the end of the millennium. This implies a market worth between US$525 million and US$600 million in turbine sales and a total turnkey investment cost of between US$1.2 billion and US$1.5 billion. 6 refs., 8 tabs.

  17. Multivariate analysis of marketing data - applications for bricolage market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FANARU Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By using concepts and analytical tools for computing, marketing is directly related to the quantitative methods of economic research and other areas where the efficiency of systems performances are studied. Any activity of the company must be programmed and carried out taking into account the consumer. Providing a complete success in business requires the entrepreneur to see the company and its products through the consumers eyes, to act as representative of its clients in order to acquire and satisfy their desires. Through its complex specific activities, marketing aims to provide goods and services the consumers require or right merchandise in the right quantity at the right price at the right time and place. An important consideration in capturing the link between marketing and multivariate statistical analysis is that it provides more powerful instruments that allow researchers to discover relationships between multiple configurations of the relationship between variables, configurations that would otherwise remain hidden or barely visible. In addition, most methods can do this with good accuracy, with the possibility of testing the statistical significance by calculating the level of confidence associated with the link validation to the entire population and not just the investigated sample.

  18. Strategic marketing applications of conjoint analysis: an HMO perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosko, M D; DeVita, M; McKenna, W F; Walker, L R

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how data from a conjoint analysis study can be used to help determine the most appropriate marketing mix for an operational HMO which is entering a new market--the geriatric population. Included are two features which are absent in previous articles on health care applications of conjoint analysis: external validation of results, and a demonstration of how conjoint analysis can be used to simulate market responses to changes in the provider's marketing mix.

  19. Revisiting short-term price and volatility dynamics in day-ahead electricity markets with rising wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuanjing

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the short-term price and volatility dynamics in day-ahead electricity markets in consideration of an increasing share of wind power, using an example of the Nord Pool day-ahead market and the Danish wind generation. To do so, a GARCH process is applied, and market coupling and the counterbalance effect of hydropower in the Scandinavian countries are additionally accounted for. As results, we found that wind generation weakly dampens spot prices with an elasticity of 0.008 and also reduces price volatility with an elasticity of 0.02 in the Nordic day-ahead market. The results shed lights on the importance of market coupling and interactions between wind power and hydropower in the Nordic system through cross-border exchanges, which play an essential role in price stabilization. Additionally, an EGARCH specification confirms an asymmetric influence of the price innovations, whereby negative shocks produce larger volatility in the Nordic spot market. While considering heavy tails in error distributions can improve model fits significantly, the EGARCH model outperforms the GARCH model on forecast evaluations. (author)

  20. THE APPLICATION OF GUERRILLA MARKETING IN KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaip BYTYÇI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Until the year 2000, the marketing in Kosovo used to be of a traditional form with the main focus on advertisements which can be considered outdated. We are all witnessing a continuous growth of television, radio, and print media; however as consumers we are tired of such communications and readings. We need something that creates immediate movement. In this direction different entrepreneurs in Kosovo have chosen different marketing strategies to meet their needs. Nowadays, when we have a technological development and a high mobility enabling access to Internet through different smart devices (smart phone, i-pad, etc. a more dynamic marketing is required compared to a traditional marketing. The traditional marketing is quite expensive and different organizations have been searching for less expensive forms of marketing, because most of organizations do not have the means to do traditional marketing. A form of marketing that fits well with the now days requirements as well as various economic opportunities to these organizations is "guerrilla marketing" without leaving aside the marketing of social networks. The guerrilla marketing is a marketing technique that does not require a lot of financial means and is suitable for the companies that can not afford to allocate a lot of their budget in marketing. Also, the current trends in line with the technological developments require aspects that are suitable for many enterprises in Kosovo, especially those of the private sector such as small and medium enterprises or organizations, associations and movements, which do not have a sufficient budget to make major traditional marketing campaigns..

  1. Wind power's coming of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the role that wind power has in meeting future energy demand. The topics of the article include demonstration of current technology, an overview of research and market activity, institutional and regulatory barriers and other issues, financing of wind power projects, incentives and penalties, current market experience, national trends in application of wind power plants, advanced technologies, intermittency, power quality, and transmission and distribution

  2. Web application for marketing of digital art works and services

    OpenAIRE

    Vatovec, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the diploma thesis is to create a web application for digital artworks and services marketing. The decision to undertake this task is based on the authors’ understanding of the field and assessment that current solutions do not satisfy completely the needs of digital artists who work on the market of online subcultures built on fantasy characters (commercial and artists’ own creations). The final application comprises an interactive web gallery, auction-based marketing system for s...

  3. Environmental Regulations, Market Structure and Technological Progress in Renewable Energy Technology — A Panel Data Study on Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Rübbelke; Pia Weiss

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of environmental regulations on the patent activities for wind turbines between 1980 and 2008. We explicitly control for energy market liberalisation and take a potential interaction between liberalisation and policy instruments into account. We find a strong and highly significant effect of environmental tax revenues, which we regard as a proxy for the extent to which energy prices changed in favour of renewable energies, as well as foreign demand for wind turbines on inn...

  4. Disturbance Accommodating Adaptive Control with Application to Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive control techniques are well suited to applications that have unknown modeling parameters and poorly known operating conditions. Many physical systems experience external disturbances that are persistent or continually recurring. Flexible structures and systems with compliance between components often form a class of systems that fail to meet standard requirements for adaptive control. For these classes of systems, a residual mode filter can restore the ability of the adaptive controller to perform in a stable manner. New theory will be presented that enables adaptive control with accommodation of persistent disturbances using residual mode filters. After a short introduction to some of the control challenges of large utility-scale wind turbines, this theory will be applied to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  5. TEKES Market opportunities for distributed generation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This summary provides the presents status of the Finnish companies, the evaluation of legislative and regulatory issues, main points of the market analysis, case studies of market entry strategies and the strategic direction required for targeted and effective decision-making in the proposed Programme. The items in this executive summary are discussed in more details in the main report. The project was carried out by Electrowatt-Ekono Oy and Frost and Sullivan. Frost and Sullivan undertook the country market analysis and the case studies. Electrowatt-Ekono carried out the legislation parts, the opportunities and barriers of the market in Finland, and the strategic implications

  6. Wind lens technology and its application to wind and water turbine and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Ohya Yuji; Karasudani Takashi; Nagai Tomoyuki; Watanabe Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Wind lens is a new type of wind power system consisting of a simple brimmed ring structure that surrounds the rotor causing greater wind to pass through the turbine. As a consequence, the turbine's efficiency of capturing energy from the wind gets dramatically increased. A Wind lens turbine can generate 2–5 times the power of an existing wind turbine given at the same rotor diameter and incoming wind speed. This fluid dynamical effect is also effective in the water. We have developed 1–3 kW W...

  7. The market of new electric energies. Wind, solar, biomass, hydroelectricity: which perspectives by 2015?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report highlights the consequences of the modification of the energy economic environment, the main trends of the sector, and predictable evolutions. A first part presents the situation of the French market of new electric energy sources in 2011 and its perspectives by 2015 for hydroelectricity, wind energy, photovoltaic energy, and biomass-based energy (production capacities, installations to be connected, electricity production and its share in electricity consumption), and discusses the main challenges faced by the profession. The second part proposes a comparison between these new energies and nuclear energy in terms of economic structure (number of companies, staff, turnover, public investment, and so on), synthetic sheets of the different renewable sectors, and an overview of the World and European markets of new electric energies. The third part identifies the existing actors. The fourth part analyses growth brakes and drivers (French energy policy, economic context for the 2011-2015 period, other factors which have influence on the market). The fifth part proposes a large set of economic and financial indicators for 200 actors of the sector

  8. Applicability Analysis of Bidding Strategy in Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Suyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the electricity market, competition has been introduced in the generation side. It is the overall development trend of the electricity market reformulation to optimize the allocation of different resources through bidding. Therefore, it is significant to research the bidding strategies of the generation companies and the large consumers. This paper reviews the existing research methods of bidding strategy. According to the different market mechanisms, the market participators will choose different bidding strategies based on their own cases. We analyze the applicability of bidding strategies under the different conditions, and give suggestions on how to select bidding strategy for the different market participators under different conditions.

  9. Game-theoretic equilibrium analysis applications to deregulated electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Manho

    This dissertation examines game-theoretic equilibrium analysis applications to deregulated electricity markets. In particular, three specific applications are discussed: analyzing the competitive effects of ownership of financial transmission rights, developing a dynamic game model considering the ramp rate constraints of generators, and analyzing strategic behavior in electricity capacity markets. In the financial transmission right application, an investigation is made of how generators' ownership of financial transmission rights may influence the effects of the transmission lines on competition. In the second application, the ramp rate constraints of generators are explicitly modeled using a dynamic game framework, and the equilibrium is characterized as the Markov perfect equilibrium. Finally, the strategic behavior of market participants in electricity capacity markets is analyzed and it is shown that the market participants may exaggerate their available capacity in a Nash equilibrium. It is also shown that the more conservative the independent system operator's capacity procurement, the higher the risk of exaggerated capacity offers.

  10. Applicability of Synthetic Aperture Radar Wind Retrievals on Offshore Wind Resources Assessment in Hangzhou Bay, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Rui; Zhu, Rong; Badger, Merete

    2014-01-01

    In view of the high cost and sparse spatial resolution of offshore meteorological observations, ocean winds retrieved from satellites are valuable in offshore wind resource assessment as a supplement to in situ measurements. This study examines satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images from...... ENVISAT advanced SAR (ASAR) for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 181 collected pairs of wind data from SAR wind maps and from 13 meteorological stations in Hangzhou Bay are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a standard...... density functions are compared at one meteorological station. The SAR-based results appear not to estimate the mean wind speed, Weibull scale and shape parameters and wind power density from the full in situ data set so well due to the lower number of satellite samples. Distributions calculated from...

  11. Conducting field research in subsistence markets, with an application to market orientation in the context of Ethiopian pastoralists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Tessema, W.K.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    The typical characteristics of subsistence markets challenge not only the generalizability of marketing theories but also the applicability and validity of the field researchmethods generally practiced by marketing researchers. This article discusses challenges inherent to field research in

  12. Alternative Approaches to Calculate Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market With Wind and Solar Energy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2012-06-01

    The anticipated increase in variable generation in the Western Interconnection over the next several years has raised concerns about how to maintain system balance, especially in smaller Balancing Authority Areas (BAAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. The consequent increase in variability and uncertainty that must be managed by the conventional generation fleet and responsive loads has resulted in a proposal for an Energy Imbalance Market (EIM). This paper extends prior work to estimate the reserve requirements for regulation, spinning, and non-spinning reserves with and without the EIM. We also discuss alternative approaches to allocating reserve requirements and show that some apparently attractive allocation methods have undesired consequences.

  13. Overview of the wind energy market and renewable energy policy in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioncel, C. P.; Tirian, G. O.; Gillich, N.; Hatiegan, C.; Spunei, E.

    2017-01-01

    The modern, developed society becomes aware of the necessity to conserve and protect the environment, increasing the gained benefits from a rational use of the natural resources. The pollution and the limitation of the fossil fuels, associated with the political situation worldwide that affects direct the energy strategies, have opened opportunities in the area of operation renewable energy sources. The development of the exploitation of renewable energy sources is directly linked to the energy politic, which, in terms of Romania, has the focus to integrate into the European Union energy strategy. The year 2014 brought in Romania many legislative changes to the renewable support scheme, that proves, once again, the legislative unpredictability and limitations introduced by the legislator ”during the game” that overthrew all economic profitability calculation of the existent and planned investments in this sector. The actual stage of the wind energy across Europe and the particular situation in Romania are highlighted; also a 2020 forecast for Romania tries to evaluate the perspective for the wind, and general, renewable energy market. The actual Romanian renewable energy support scheme, mainly regulated by “Law 220/2008” ends December 2016. The so-called “ready to build” projects especially wind- or hydropower, can’t be finalized until this deadline, being unable to qualify to the existing, mainly to inoperable, support scheme. Another legislation that has to clarify how investments in renewable energy will be supported is still not in place, blocking any project development, implementation and economical benefit of the producer. The paper presents in this respect an updated overview of the Romanian renewable energy sector and its perspective.

  14. A status report on international utility-scale wind energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rackstraw, K.; Vaupen, S. [American Wind Energy Association, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    AWEA`s latest ten-year projections for new installations of utility-scale wind turbines show nearly 30,000 new megawatts (MW) should be installed between the years 1997 and 2006. The study also briefly explores the potential impact of a significant event, such as a fossil fuel price spike or a strong move to slow global climate change, that could double installed new wind capacity to nearly 60,000 MW over the same period. This outlook is substantially more optimistic than last year`s (about 20,000 MW), but the numbers are somewhat skewed by rolling the outlook forward one year. In other words, the new projections cover a ten-year period beginning one year later than last year`s study. The skewing is a result of substituting the lowest year in last year`s study with the highest year in the new ten-year period (2006), when far more capacity additions can be expected. In addition, AWEA has adjusted upward the numbers for some countries, most notably Germany, Denmark, Spain, Italy, China and the US. Last year`s projections were decidedly, and purposefully, conservative but trends are such that greater optimism about future markets is justified.

  15. Exploring technology diffusion in emerging markets – the role of public policy for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friebe, Christian A.; Flotow, Paschen von; Täube, Florian A.

    2014-01-01

    This study challenges the implicit assumption of homogeneity in national institutional contexts made in past studies of (renewable) energy policy. We propose that institutional differences matter by focusing on several technology-specific and generic policy factors that can foster technology diffusion through private sector activity. More specifically, we explore perceptions of early adopters in emerging economy contexts using wind park project developers as an example. By applying a parsimonious method for our questionnaire as well as qualitative data we make several contributions: Methodologically, we introduce Maximum Difference Scaling to the energy policy domain. Empirically, we identify several public influences on private investment, and assess their relative importance. This leads to new insights challenging findings from industrialized economies; we identified additional institutional barriers to diffusion, hence, the requirement of a combination of technology-specific and generic policy measures. - Highlights: • Explorative qualitative and quantitative study of project developers in emerging markets. • Identifies influencing factors for technology diffusion regarding wind farms. • Predictable public authorities and well-implemented public processes attract intern. project developers. • Feed-in-Tariffs and grid access guarantees are particularly appealing

  16. Hedging tools and cross market applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, C.

    1997-01-01

    The nature of the basic tools of the market - put, call, and swap - their various combinations and how they are used in various market transactions were explained. The role and effect of the use of these tools on prices, price fluctuations and risks were outlined. Predictions for the future for producers (reduced use of price optimization and its replacement by price diversification strategies, realignment of risk management tools to be in accord with the changed marketing techniques), and for end users (focus on managing short term fluctuations in input costs, short-term price fixing, more frequent utilization of traditional option strategies and spread options), were summarized. For the electricity market in particular, the prominence of gas-fired generation units as options on the spread between gas and electricity, providing opportunities for outperformance options was predicted

  17. Twistact techno-economic analysis for wind turbine applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naughton, Brian Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koplow, Jeffrey P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Vanness, Justin William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maness, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report is the final deliverable for a techno-economic analysis of the Sandia National Laboratories-developed Twistact rotary electrical conductor. The U.S. Department of Energy Wind Energy Technologies Office supported a team of researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the potential of the Twistact technology to serve as a viable replacement to rare-earth materials used in permanent-magnet direct-drive wind turbine generators. This report compares three detailed generator models, two as baseline technologies and a third incorporating the Twistact technology. These models are then used to calculate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for three comparable offshore wind plants using the three generator topologies. The National Renewable Energy Laboratorys techno-economic analysis indicates that Twistact technology can be used to design low-maintenance, brush-free, and wire-wound (instead of rare-earth-element (REE) permanent-magnet), direct-drive wind turbine generators without a significant change in LCOE and generation efficiency. Twistact technology acts as a hedge against sources of uncertain costs for direct-drive generators. On the one hand, for permanent-magnet direct-drive (PMDD) generators, the long-term price of REEs may increase due to increases in future demand, from electric vehicles and other technologies, whereas the supply remains limited and geographically concentrated. The potential higher prices in the future adversely affect the cost competitiveness of PMDD generators and may thwart industry investment in the development of the technology for wind turbine applications. Twistact technology can eliminate industry risk around the uncertainty of REE price and availability. Traditional wire-wound direct-drive generators experience reliability issues and higher maintenance costs because of the wear on the contact brushes necessary for field excitation. The brushes experience

  18. Impact of High Levels of Wind Penetration on the Exercise of Market Power in the Multi-Area Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moiseeva, E.

    2017-01-01

    New European energy policies have set a goal of a high share of renewable energy in electricity markets. In the presence of high levels of renewable generation, and especially wind, there is more uncertainty in the supply. It is natural, that volatility in energy production induces the volatility in

  19. Editorial : Introduction to Energy Strategy Reviews theme issue “Future Energy Systems and Market Integration of Wind Power”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lund, H.; Weijermars, R.

    2013-01-01

    Energy Strategy Reviews (ESR) provides a peer-reviewed publication platformto evaluate strategy options for tomorrow’s energy systems. The focus in this special issue is on “Future Energy Systems and Market Integration of Wind Power” and possible solutions are highlighted from the strategy viewpoint

  20. The Financial Benefits of Various Catastrophic Failure Prevention Strategies in a Wind Farm: Two market studies (UK-Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yürüşen, N. Y.; Tautz-Weinert, J.; Watson, S. J.; Melero, J. J.

    2017-11-01

    Operation of wind farms is driven by the overall aim of minimising costs while maximising energy sales. However, in certain circumstances investments are required to guarantee safe operation and survival of an asset. In this paper, we discuss the merits of various catastrophic failure prevention strategies in a Spanish wind farm. The wind farm operator was required to replace blades in two phases: temporary and final repair. We analyse the power performance of the turbine in the different states and investigate four scenarios with different timing of temporary and final repair during one year. The financial consequences of the scenarios are compared with a baseline by using a discounted cash flow analysis that considers the wholesale electricity market selling prices and interest rates. A comparison with the UK electricity market is conducted to highlight differences in the rate of return in the two countries.

  1. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) – Best practice guide for application of WASA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Carsten; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Cronin, Tom

    The present report is a best practice guide for application of results from the Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA). A general description of the methodological framework – the wind atlas methodology – is given, including validation results of the numerical wind atlas at 10 measurement sites...

  2. Wind erosion potential of a winter wheat–summer fallow rotation after land application of biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    While land application of biosolids is recognized as a sustainable management practice for enhancing soil health, no studies have determined the effects of biosolids on soil wind erosion. Wind erosion potential of a silt loam was assessed using a portable wind tunnel after applying synthetic and bio...

  3. LINCOM wind flow model: Application to complex terrain with thermal stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunkerley, F.; Moreno, J.; Mikkelsen, T.

    2001-01-01

    LINCOM is a fast linearised and spectral wind flow model for use over hilly terrain. It is designed to rapidly generate mean wind field predictions which provide input to atmospheric dispersion models and wind engineering applications. The thermal module, LINCOM-T, has recently been improved to p...

  4. Application of Circulation Controlled Blades for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velissarios Kourkoulis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The blades of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT rotor see an inconsistent angle of attack through its rotation. Consequently, VAWT blades generally use symmetrical aerofoils with a lower lift-to-drag ratio than cambered aerofoils tailored to maximise horizontal axis wind turbine rotor performance. This paper considers the feasibility of circulation controlled (CC VAWT blades, using a tangential air jet to provide lift and therefore power augmentation. However CC blade sections require a higher trailing-edge thickness than conventional sections giving rise to additional base drag. The choice of design parameters is a compromise between lift augmentation, additional base drag as well as the power required to pump the air jet. Although CC technology has been investigated for many years, particularly for aerospace applications, few researchers have considered VAWT applications. This paper considers the feasibility of the technology, using Computational Fluid Dynamics to evaluate a baseline CC aerofoil with different trailing-edge ellipse shapes. Lift and drag increments due to CC are considered within a momentum based turbine model to determine net power production. The study found that for modest momentum coefficients significant net power augmentation can be achieved with a relatively simple aerofoil geometry if blowing is controlled through the blades rotation.

  5. Lidar-based reconstruction of wind fields and application for wind turbine control

    OpenAIRE

    Kapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis horizontal, upwind scanning lidar systems of the focused continuous-wave type are regarded for wind turbines. The theory of wind field reconstruction is extended to a five parameter model describing the inflow in non-uniform conditions more accurately. Sensor requirements are derived. A new approach to spherically scan the inflow area is studied experimentally. Expected inaccuracies of the averaged wind direction signal in a wind farm environment are quantified and spatial inho...

  6. A socio-political analysis of policies and incentives applicable to community wind in Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Yao

    2012-01-01

    As a new type of ownership structure, community owned wind projects are becoming more and more important in today's wind energy generation in the U.S. Unlike traditional large wind farms, community wind features local ownership and small-scale generation capacity. The goal of this paper is to identify policies, incentives, and regulations in place that are applicable to community wind projects in Oregon by interviewing project representatives and governmental officials and to depict the Oregon context from strategic, tactical, and operational perspectives for researchers, farmers, private businesses, government entities, and others who are interested in learning about the community wind in the state. - Highlights: ► We identified policies, incentives, and regulations applicable to community wind in Oregon. ► We interviewed project representatives and governmental officials. ► Results were analyzed from strategic, tactical, and operational perspectives. ► We concluded the paper by proposing policy prescriptions for community wind development.

  7. Wind Power Plant Voltage Control Optimization with Embedded Application of Wind Turbines and Statcom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Solanas, Jose Ignacio Busca; Zhao, Haoran

    2017-01-01

    Increasing wind power penetration and the size of wind power plants (WPPs) brings challenges to the operation and control of power systems. Most of WPPs are located far from load centers and the short circuit ratio at the point of common coupling (PCC) is low. The fluctuations of wind power...

  8. Wind lens technology and its application to wind and water turbine and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohya Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind lens is a new type of wind power system consisting of a simple brimmed ring structure that surrounds the rotor causing greater wind to pass through the turbine. As a consequence, the turbine's efficiency of capturing energy from the wind gets dramatically increased. A Wind lens turbine can generate 2–5 times the power of an existing wind turbine given at the same rotor diameter and incoming wind speed. This fluid dynamical effect is also effective in the water. We have developed 1–3 kW Wind lens turbines and a 100 kW Wind lens turbine. In addition to the enhanced output power, Wind lens turbine is quiet. The technology is now used in an offshore experiment with a hexagonal float 18 meters in diameter set off the coast of Hakata Bay in Fukuoka City. Moreover, we are now pursuing larger size Wind lens turbines through multi-rotor design consisting of multiple Wind lens turbines in a same vertical plane to embody larger total power output.

  9. Description of the North Sea wind climate for wind energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelingh, J.P.; Wijk, A.J.M. van; Cleijne, J.W.; Pleune, R.

    1992-01-01

    In The Netherlands it is foreseen that wind turbines will be installed on offshore locations in the North Sea before the year 2010. Therefore adequate knowledge of the offshore wind climate should be obtained, both for the estimation of energy yields and for the determination of wind load

  10. Price-Maker Wind Power Producer Participating in a Joint Day-Ahead and Real-Time Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Ordoudis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    The large scale integration of stochastic renewable energy introduces significant challenges for power system operators and disputes the efficiency of the current market design. Recent research embeds the uncertain nature of renewable sources by modelling electricity markets as a two...... Constraints (MPEC) that is reformulated as a single-level Mixed-Integer Linear Program (MILP), which can be readily solved. Our analysis shows that adopting strategic behaviour may improve producer’s expected profit as the share of wind power increases. However, this incentive diminishes in power systems...... where available flexible capacity is high enough to ensure an efficient market operation....

  11. Market analysis of APS/SCM applications and technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Prášil, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor thesis aims to describe a current worldwide market of APS/SCM technologies and applications , i.e. advanced planned scheduling /supply chain management. In the first part, the APS/SCM is described in theory. The APS/SCM is defined and its benefits and impacts on company are discussed. The next part of the work is focused on the market with APS/SCM and the distribution of forces in the market. The demand and supply of this market segment is analyzed. In the last part, solutions of...

  12. Applicability of Synthetic Aperture Radar Wind Retrievals on Offshore Wind Resources Assessment in Hangzhou Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Chang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In view of the high cost and sparse spatial resolution of offshore meteorological observations, ocean winds retrieved from satellites are valuable in offshore wind resource assessment as a supplement to in situ measurements. This study examines satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR images from ENVISAT advanced SAR (ASAR for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 181 collected pairs of wind data from SAR wind maps and from 13 meteorological stations in Hangzhou Bay are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a standard deviation (SD of 1.99 m/s and correlation coefficient of R = 0.67. The model wind directions, which are used as input for the SAR wind speed retrieval, show a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89 but a large standard deviation (SD = 42.3° compared to in situ observations. The Weibull probability density functions are compared at one meteorological station. The SAR-based results appear not to estimate the mean wind speed, Weibull scale and shape parameters and wind power density from the full in situ data set so well due to the lower number of satellite samples. Distributions calculated from the concurrent 81 SAR and in situ samples agree well.

  13. New players on the Dutch market for wind energy. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salverda, I.

    2007-01-01

    A brief overview is given of new developments in the Netherlands with respect to the wind turbine industry. In the first article on the subject attention is paid to DarwinD and Harakosan Europe. In this article a brief overview is given of two Dutch wind turbine manufacturers: Wind Energy Solutions (WES) and Emergya Wind Technology (EWT) [nl

  14. Artificial upwelling using offshore wind energy for mariculture applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Viúdez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind is proposed as an energy source to upwell nutrient-rich deep water to the ocean photic layers. A spar-buoy wind turbine with a rigid tube about 300 m long is proposed as a pipe to drive deep water up to the surface. The minimum energy required to uplift the water is the potential energy difference between surface waters inside and outside the pipe, which depends on the background density profile. The corresponding surface jump or hydraulic head, h, calculated for several analytical and experimental density profiles, is of the order of 10 cm. If the complete turbine power (of the order of several MW is used for raising the water (assuming a 100% pump efficiency, in a frictionless flow, very large water volumes, of the order of thousands of m3 s-1, will be transported to the photic layers. In a more realistic case, taking into account pipe friction in wide pipes, of the order of 10 m radius, and a power delivered to the fluid of 1 MW, the volume transport is still very large, about 500 m3 s-1. However, such a large amount of dense water could sink fast to aphotic layers due to vertical static instability (the fountain effect, ruining the enhancement of primary production. Hence, some ways to increase the turbulent entrainment and avoid the fountain effect are proposed. From the energetic viewpoint, artificial upwelling using offshore wind energy is a promising way to fertilize large open sea regions. This mariculture application is, however, severely subjected to atmosphere and ocean climatology, as well as to ecological dynamics. The general problem is multidisciplinary, and some important physical, engineering and ecological questions need to be seriously addressed to improve our confidence in the approach presented here.

  15. A marketing model: applications for dietetic professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, S C; Moody, D L

    1986-01-01

    Traditionally, dietitians have communicated the availability of their services to the "public at large." The expectation was that the public would respond favorably to nutrition programs simply because there was a consumer need for them. Recently, however, both societal and consumer needs have changed dramatically, making old communication strategies ineffective and obsolete. The marketing discipline has provided a new model and new decision-making tools for many health professionals to use to more effectively make their services known to multiple consumer groups. This article provides one such model as applied to the dietetic profession. The model explores a definition of the business of dietetics, how to conduct an analysis of the environment, and, finally, the use of both in the choice of new target markets. Further, the model discusses the major components of developing a marketing strategy that will help the practitioner to be competitive in the marketplace. Presented are strategies for defining and re-evaluating the mission of the profession, for using future trends to identify new markets and roles for the profession, and for developing services that make the profession more competitive by better meeting the needs of the consumer.

  16. The applicability of some marketing principles to the Gospel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Wolfaardt

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study irav to test the applicability of some marketing principles to the Gospel. The secondary objective was to ascertain a correlation between the growing and declining churches and their respective adherence to or rejection of marketing principles. A new concept of marketing - the stewardship marketing concept - had to be formulated to satisfy the unique character of the Gospel. This broadened stewardship marketing concept allows the Gospel to be described as an intangible product which can be promoted, distributed and exchanged for scarce resources. Man's inability to 'sell' an excellent product like the Gospel dearly asks for a new distribution system to promote the Gospel This new distribution system, defined as a multi-channel vertical marketing system, can supplement and does not necessarily become a substitute for existing church structures.

  17. Offshore wind power. Market opportunities for the Norwegian supply industry, and regulatory framework needed to realize these opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volden, G.; Bull-Berg, H.; Skjeret, F.; Finne, H.; Hofmann, M.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Offshore wind power has received much attention these last few years, from governments, NGOs as well as energy companies. There are still huge technological challenges to overcome, especially concerning floating constructions on deep water, but offshore wind has a potential to become an important energy source in the future. The main objective of our study was to build more knowledge about market opportunities for the Norwegian supply industry, most of which is closely related to offshore oil and gas activities. We started by mapping and quantifying the parts of the supply industry that could be relevant to offshore wind, which is actually most of it. Then, through interviews and questionnaires, we asked potential suppliers about their attitude and strategies towards offshore wind. An over-whelming majority was optimistic about future markets internationally, whereas there was less belief in large-scale power production on the Norwegian shelf. Suppliers do not necessarily find the lack of a Norwegian 'home market' to be a barrier. However many of them expressed that the risk is high and it may be crucial to establish a national demo program, for supplier to test new technological solutions at low cost, gain references and develop industrial relations with other suppliers. We argue that being part of an industrial cluster may be a success criterion within offshore wind. By using Michael Porter's 'Diamond Model' we analyse Norway's inherent competitiveness as a potential host for an offshore wind cluster - with or without energy producers. Norway's most important advantage is the existing industrial environment, with a strong maritime sector and engineering companies with special competence in floating and fixed installations for the oil industry. Norway also has disadvantages; such as lack of traditions within wind power and wind turbine manufacturing, as well as high salaries and lack of engineers. So far it is also

  18. Wind turbine control applications of turbine-mounted LIDAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossanyi, E A; Kumar, A; Hugues-Salas, O

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been much interest in the possible use of LIDAR systems for improving the performance of wind turbine controllers, by providing preview information about the approaching wind field. Various potential benefits have been suggested, and experimental measurements have sometimes been used to claim surprising gains in performance. This paper reports on an independent study which has used detailed analytical methods for two main purposes: firstly to try to evaluate the likely benefits of LIDAR-assisted control objectively, and secondly to provide advice to LIDAR manufacturers about the characteristics of LIDAR systems which are most likely to be of value for this application. Many different LIDAR configurations were compared: as a general conclusion, systems should be able to sample at least 10 points every second, reasonably distributed around the swept area, and allowing a look-ahead time of a few seconds. An important conclusion is that the main benefit of the LIDAR will be to enhance of collective pitch control to reduce thrust-related fatigue loads; there is some indication that extreme loads can also be reduced, but this depends on other considerations which are discussed in the paper. LIDAR-assisted individual pitch control, optimal C p tracking and yaw control were also investigated, but the benefits over conventional methods are less clear

  19. A concept of applications in the electronic commerce market

    OpenAIRE

    Oboyanskiy, Andrey; Shuvalova, Mariya

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the potential of mobile applications in the e-commerce. The current state of e-commerce has been considered. The Internet users' involvement in the e-commerce has been analyzed. Analyzed example of the most popular applications for further analysis sphere of e-commerce. The work analyzes the successful e-commerce site on the market. The different concepts for using mobile applications on e-commerce market. Examples of the use of augmented reality applications aimed at p...

  20. A New Battery Energy Storage Charging/Discharging Scheme for Wind Power Producers in Real-Time Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Y Nguyen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Under a deregulated environment, wind power producers are subject to many regulation costs due to the intermittence of natural resources and the accuracy limits of existing prediction tools. This paper addresses the operation (charging/discharging problem of battery energy storage installed in a wind generation system in order to improve the value of wind power in the real-time market. Depending on the prediction of market prices and the probabilistic information of wind generation, wind power producers can schedule the battery energy storage for the next day in order to maximize the profit. In addition, by taking into account the expenses of using batteries, the proposed charging/discharging scheme is able to avoid the detrimental operation of battery energy storage which can lead to a significant reduction of battery lifetime, i.e., uneconomical operation. The problem is formulated in a dynamic programming framework and solved by a dynamic programming backward algorithm. The proposed scheme is then applied to the study cases, and the results of simulation show its effectiveness.

  1. The French wind energy market by 2020. Market evolution and competition context within the sector. Analysis of business model and of financial performance of fleet operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    As the French wind energy sector has been recovering a good dynamics since 2014, notably for onshore production whereas some uncertainties remain present for offshore production, this report aims at assessing market perspectives by 2020, and at identifying business opportunities for the different involved actors. The first part identifies some determining factors for the sector activity, proposes an analysis of the activity for the 2002-2015 period (installed power, electricity production, turnover, equipment manufacturers, operators) and its perspectives by 2020 (evolution of determining factors, installed power, market share evolution for manufacturers, opportunities and threats on the medium term). The second part discusses the main elements of the operators' business models, and analyses fleet managers' financial data. Structural drivers and brakes are then discussed, as well as the French, European and World context (installed power, installed offshore power, electricity production, energy policy, law for energy transition, commitment of public authorities in favour of wind energy, competitiveness of wind energy). Some highlights and aspects of offer evolution are outlined: development of offshore wind energy, diversification of operators, international development, takeovers and capital increase, new financing modes. The last parts propose an analysis of the economic structure of the sector in France (types of interveners, staff, location, machine power evolution) and an overview of the main actors. Identity sheets of the main operators and equipment manufacturers are provided, as well as economic and financial data of 200 operators which can be compared through 5 key indicators

  2. Application of Boost Converter to Increase the Speed Range of Dual-stator Winding Induction Generator in Wind Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavousi, Ayoub; Fathi, S. Hamid; Milimonfared, Jafar

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a topology using a Dual-stator Winding Induction Generator (DWIG) and a boost converter is proposed for the variable speed wind power application. At low rotor speeds, the generator saturation limits the voltage of the DWIG. Using a boost converter, higher DC voltage can be produced...... while the DWIG operates at Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) even at low speed and low voltage conditions. Semiconductor Excitation Controller (SEC) of the DWIG utilizes Control-Winding Voltage Oriented Control (CWVOC) method to adjust the voltage, considering V/f characteristics. For the proposed...... topology, the SEC capacity and the excitation capacitor is optimized by analyzing the SEC reactive current considering wind turbine power-speed curve, V/f strategy, and the generator parameters. The method shows that the per-unit capacity of the SEC can be limited to the inverse of DWIG magnetizing...

  3. Study on optimal design of wind turbine blade airfoil and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Min Young; Kim, Dong Yong; Lim, Jae Kyoo

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out with two goals. One was the development of a model of a wind turbine blade airfoil and the other was the application of the folding blade. In general, in large sized (MW) wind turbines, damage is prevented in small wind turbines since equipment costs and maintenance costs are high, and therefore, the blade will cause serious damage. The wind turbine proposed in this study does not require maintenance, and the blades do not break during high winds because they are folded in accordance with changes in the wind speed. But generators are not cut out, while maintaining a constant angle will continue to produce. The focus of this study, the wind turbine is continued by folding blade system in strong winds and gusts without stopping production

  4. Study on optimal design of wind turbine blade airfoil and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Min Young; Kim, Dong Yong; Lim, Jae Kyoo [Chonbuk Nat' l Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    This study was carried out with two goals. One was the development of a model of a wind turbine blade airfoil and the other was the application of the folding blade. In general, in large sized (MW) wind turbines, damage is prevented in small wind turbines since equipment costs and maintenance costs are high, and therefore, the blade will cause serious damage. The wind turbine proposed in this study does not require maintenance, and the blades do not break during high winds because they are folded in accordance with changes in the wind speed. But generators are not cut out, while maintaining a constant angle will continue to produce. The focus of this study, the wind turbine is continued by folding blade system in strong winds and gusts without stopping production.

  5. An application of differential geometry to SSC magnet end winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    It is expected that a large fraction of the total cost of the proposed Superconducting Supercollider will be spent on magnets, and, as Leon Lederman has remarked, ''most of the cost of making a magnet is in the ends.'' Among the mechanical problems to be solved there is the construction of an end-configuration for the superconducting cables which will minimize their strain energy. The purpose of this paper is to promote the use of differential geometry in this minimization. The use will be illustrated by a specific application to the winding of dipole ends. The cables are assumed to be clamped so firmly that their strain is not altered by Lorentz stresses. 15 refs

  6. Implementation of wind power in the Norwegian market; the reason why some of the best wind resources in Europe were not utilised by 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blindheim, Bernt

    2013-01-01

    Norway has some of the best wind resources in Europe. In 1999, the Norwegian Parliament committed to attain an annual onshore wind power production goal of 3.0 TWh by 2010; however, in 2010, onshore wind power production measured only 1.0 TWh. This article discusses the reasons that this goal was not achieved. The analysis addresses the key figures on the strategic, tactical and operational levels. This model is combined with a time line that seeks to define when different actors should have secured concessions and funding to achieve the goal. After introducing the time line, a list of questions is introduced for these key actors. The three-level model, the time line and the questions constitute the analytical framework. Explanations for the failure to achieve the goal may be identified on all three levels. However, the primary explanatory factors were political uncertainty in the support scheme and wind power's role in the energy market in general; both of these factors are identified on the strategic level. Uncertainty on the strategic level influenced the lower levels, which led to bottlenecks in the concession process and jittery investors who thought that the risk of investment in wind power was too high. - Highlights: • Implementation of wind power in the Norwegian energy system up to 2010. • The concession process, the support scheme and the marked players are considered. • Uncertainty about the support scheme slowed down the implementation process. • The concession process has been a bottleneck. • The support scheme has only to a certain degree trigged investments

  7. Apparatus and method for using radar to evaluate wind flow fields for wind energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, John; Hirth, Brian; Guynes, Jerry

    2017-02-21

    The present invention provides an apparatus and method for obtaining data to determine one or more characteristics of a wind flow field using one or more radars. Data is collected from the one or more radars, and analyzed to determine the one or more characteristics of the wind flow field. The one or more radars are positioned to have a portion of the wind flow field within a scanning sector of the one or more radars.

  8. Advanced Control of Wind Electric Pumping System for Isolated Areas Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Barara; Abderrahim Bennassar; Ahmed Abbou; Mohammed Akherraz; Badre Bossoufi

    2014-01-01

    The supply water in remote areas of windy region is one of most attractive application of wind energy conversion .This paper proposes an advanced controller suitable for wind-electric pump in isolated applications in order to have a desired debit from variation of reference speed of the pump also the control scheme of DC voltage of SIEG for feed the pump are presented under step change in wind speed. The simulation results showed a good performance of the global proposed control system.

  9. Analysis of Wind Data, Calculation of Energy Yield Potential, and Micrositing Application with WAsP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Topaloğlu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The parameters required for building a wind power plant have been calculated using the fuzzy logic method by means of Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP in this study. Overall objectives of the program include analysis of raw data, evaluation of wind and climate, construction of a wind atlas, and estimation of wind power potential. With the analysis performed in the application, the average wind velocity, average power density, energy potential from micrositing, capacity factor, unit cost price, and period of redemption have been calculated, which are needed by the project developer during the decision-making stage and intended to be used as the input unit in the fuzzy logic-based system designed. It is aimed at processing the parameters calculated by the designed fuzzy logic-based decision-making system at the rule base and generating a compatibility factor that will allow for making the final decision in building wind power plants.

  10. The application of "integrated marketing communications" to social marketing and health communication: organizational challenges and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, G; Cole, G; Kirby, S; Freimuth, V; Caywood, C

    1998-01-01

    Influencing consumer behavior is a difficult and often resource-intensive undertaking, with success usually requiring identifying, describing, and understanding target audiences; solid product and/or service positioning relative to competitors; and significant media and communication resources. Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is a new way of organizing and managing persuasive communication tools and functions which involves realigning communications to consider the flow of information from an organization from the viewpoint of end consumers. Although the application of IMC to social marketing remains relatively unexplored, the IMC literature and recent efforts by the US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control suggest that integrated communication approaches have much to offer social marketing and health communication efforts. IMC, IMC and social marketing, and implications of IMC for public and private sector social marketing programs are discussed.

  11. Marketing research with respect to centralized electric power generation with wind turbines. Verkenning van de markt voor centrale elektriciteitsopwekking met windenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenstra, W.J.; Van den Doel, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The electric utilities so far are not eager to invest in wind power as long as the price per kWh wind power is higher than saved fuel costs. The price the electric utilities are willing to pay for surplus wind power still remains low. Combined with price expectations in the near future for fossil fuels the market does not show great prospects. Wind turbine manufacturers were asked about price-quantity curves of wind turbine types: 3 MW, 1 MW, and 300 kW respectively. Combining the demand and supply side of the market it seems possible in areas having a good wind regime to exploit wind power in a cost-effective way. For a market incentive a wind power capacity of 400 MW: 75-3 MW wind turbines, 120-1 MW wind turbines, 15-300 kW wind turbines and 50 MW for demonstration projects for proving the viability of the technology. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Electric utility application of wind energy conversion systems on the island of Oahu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, C.A.; Melton, W.C.

    1979-02-23

    This wind energy application study was performed by The Aerospace Corporation for the Wind Systems Branch of the Department of Energy. The objective was to identify integration problems for a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) placed into an existing conventional utility system. The integration problems included environmental, institutional and technical aspects as well as economic matters, but the emphasis was on the economics of wind energy. The Hawaiian Electric Company utility system on the island of Oahu was selected for the study because of the very real potential for wind energy on that island, and because of the simplicity afforded in analyzing that isolated utility.

  13. GPP Webinar: Market Outlook and Innovations in Wind and Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar reviewing the state of the renewable energy industry as a whole, with a focus on wind and solar power and exploring recent marketplace innovations in wind and solar power and renewable energy purchases.

  14. Estimation of uncertainty of wind energy predictions with application to weather routing and wind power generation

    CERN Document Server

    Zastrau, David

    2017-01-01

    Wind drives in combination with weather routing can lower the fuel consumption of cargo ships significantly. For this reason, the author describes a mathematical method based on quantile regression for a probabilistic estimate of the wind propulsion force on a ship route.

  15. Empirical models for predicting wind potential for wind energy applications in rural locations of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odo, F.C. [National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria); Akubue, G.U.; Offiah, S.U.; Ugwuoke, P.E. [National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we use the correlation between the average wind speed and ambient temperature to develop models for predicting wind potentials for two Nigerian locations. Assuming that the troposphere is a typical heterogeneous mixture of ideal gases, we find that for the studied locations, wind speed clearly correlates with ambient temperature in a simple polynomial of 3rd degree. The coefficient of determination and root-mean-square error of the models are 0.81; 0.0024 and 0.56; 0.0041, respectively, for Enugu (6.40N; 7.50E) and Owerri (5.50N; 7.00E). These results suggest that the temperature-based model can be used, with acceptable accuracy, in predicting wind potentials needed for preliminary design assessment of wind energy conversion devices for the locations and others with similar meteorological conditions.

  16. Application and verification of ECMWF seasonal forecast for wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žagar, Mark; Marić, Tomislav; Qvist, Martin; Gulstad, Line

    2015-04-01

    A good understanding of long-term annual energy production (AEP) is crucial when assessing the business case of investing in green energy like wind power. The art of wind-resource assessment has emerged into a scientific discipline on its own, which has advanced at high pace over the last decade. This has resulted in continuous improvement of the AEP accuracy and, therefore, increase in business case certainty. Harvesting the full potential output of a wind farm or a portfolio of wind farms depends heavily on optimizing operation and management strategy. The necessary information for short-term planning (up to 14 days) is provided by standard weather and power forecasting services, and the long-term plans are based on climatology. However, the wind-power industry is lacking quality information on intermediate scales of the expected variability in seasonal and intra-annual variations and their geographical distribution. The seasonal power forecast presented here is designed to bridge this gap. The seasonal power production forecast is based on the ECMWF seasonal weather forecast and the Vestas' high-resolution, mesoscale weather library. The seasonal weather forecast is enriched through a layer of statistical post-processing added to relate large-scale wind speed anomalies to mesoscale climatology. The resulting predicted energy production anomalies, thus, include mesoscale effects not captured by the global forecasting systems. The turbine power output is non-linearly related to the wind speed, which has important implications for the wind power forecast. In theory, the wind power is proportional to the cube of wind speed. However, due to the nature of turbine design, this exponent is close to 3 only at low wind speeds, becomes smaller as the wind speed increases, and above 11-13 m/s the power output remains constant, called the rated power. The non-linear relationship between wind speed and the power output generally increases sensitivity of the forecasted power

  17. Inverse load calculation procedure for offshore wind turbines and application to a 5-MW wind turbine support structure: Inverse load calculation procedure for offshore wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahn, T. [Pahn Ingenieure, Am Seegraben 17b 03051 Cottbus Germany; Rolfes, R. [Institut f?r Statik und Dynamik, Leibniz Universit?t Hannover, Appelstra?e 9A 30167 Hannover Germany; Jonkman, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden Colorado 80401 USA

    2017-02-20

    A significant number of wind turbines installed today have reached their designed service life of 20 years, and the number will rise continuously. Most of these turbines promise a more economical performance if they operate for more than 20 years. To assess a continued operation, we have to analyze the load-bearing capacity of the support structure with respect to site-specific conditions. Such an analysis requires the comparison of the loads used for the design of the support structure with the actual loads experienced. This publication presents the application of a so-called inverse load calculation to a 5-MW wind turbine support structure. The inverse load calculation determines external loads derived from a mechanical description of the support structure and from measured structural responses. Using numerical simulations with the software fast, we investigated the influence of wind-turbine-specific effects such as the wind turbine control or the dynamic interaction between the loads and the support structure to the presented inverse load calculation procedure. fast is used to study the inverse calculation of simultaneously acting wind and wave loads, which has not been carried out until now. Furthermore, the application of the inverse load calculation procedure to a real 5-MW wind turbine support structure is demonstrated. In terms of this practical application, setting up the mechanical system for the support structure using measurement data is discussed. The paper presents results for defined load cases and assesses the accuracy of the inversely derived dynamic loads for both the simulations and the practical application.

  18. Effects of increased wind power generation on Mid-Norway's energy balance under climate change: A market based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Martino, Sara; Tofte, Lena; Hingray, Benoit; Mo, Birger; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2017-04-01

    Thanks to its huge water storage capacity, Norway has an excess of energy generation at annual scale, although significant regional disparity exists. On average, the Mid-Norway region has an energy deficit and needs to import more electricity than it exports. We show that this energy deficit can be reduced with an increase in wind generation and transmission line capacity, even in future climate scenarios where both mean annual temperature and precipitation are changed. For the considered scenarios, the deficit observed in winter disappears, i.e. when electricity consumption and prices are high. At the annual scale, the deficit behavior depends more on future changes in precipitation. Another consequence of changes in wind production and transmission capacity is the modification of electricity exchanges with neighboring regions which are also modified both in terms of average, variability and seasonality. Keywords: Variable renewable energy, Wind, Hydro, Energy balance, Energy market

  19. A Convex Model of Risk-Based Unit Commitment for Day-Ahead Market Clearing Considering Wind Power Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ning; Kang, Chongqing; Xia, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The integration of wind power requires the power system to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate its forecast errors. In the market clearing process, the scheduling of flexibility relies on the manner in which the wind power uncertainty is addressed in the unit commitment (UC) model. This paper...... and are considered in both the objective functions and the constraints. The RUC model is shown to be convex and is transformed into a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem using relaxation and piecewise linearization. The proposed RUC model is tested using a three-bus system and an IEEE RTS79 system...... that the risk modeling facilitates a strategic market clearing procedure with a reasonable computational expense....

  20. Application of a ray theory model to the prediction of noise emissions from isolated wind turbines and wind parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospathopoulos, John M.; Voutsinas, Spyros G.

    2006-01-01

    Various propagation models have been developed to estimate the level of noise near residential areas. Predictions and measurements have proven that proper modelling of the propagation medium is of particular importance. In the present work, calculations are performed using a ray theory methodology. The ray trajectory and transport equations are derived from the linear acoustics equations for a moving medium in three dimensions. Ground and atmospheric absorption, wave refraction and diffraction and atmospheric turbulence are taken into account by introducing appropriate coefficients in the equations. In the case of a wind turbine (W/T) it is assumed that noise is produced by a point source located at the rotor centre. Given the sound power spectrum, the noise spectrum at the receiver is obtained by solving the axisymmetric propagation problem. The procedure consists of (a) finding the eigenrays, (b) calculating the energy losses along the eigenrays and (c) synthesizing the sound pressure level (SPL) by superposing the contributions of the eigenrays. In the case of a wind park the total SPL is calculated by superposing the contributions of all W/Ts. Application is made to five cases of isolated W/Ts in terrains of varying complexity. In flat or even smooth terrain the predictions agree well with the measurements. In complex terrain the predictions can be considered satisfactory, taking into account the assumption of constant wind velocity profile. Application to a wind park shows clearly the influence of the terrain on the wind velocity and consequently on the SPL. (Author)

  1. Market Potential for Non-electric Applications of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, T.; Kononov, S.; Kupitz, J.; McDonald, A.; Rogner, H.H.; Nisan, S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents results of a recent IAEA study to assess the market potential for non-electric applications of nuclear energy in the near (before 2020) and long term (2020-2050). The applications covered are district heating, desalination, industrial heat supply, ship propulsion, energy supply for spacecraft, and, to a lesser extent, 'innovative' applications such as hydrogen production, coal gasification, etc. While technical details are covered only briefly, emphasis is placed on economics and other factors that may promote or hinder the penetration of nuclear options in the markets for non-electric energy services. The study makes a distinction between the market size (demand for a given service) and the market potential for nuclear penetration (which may be smaller because of technical or non-technical constraints). Near-term nuclear prospects are assessed on the basis of on-going projects in the final stages of design or under construction. For the long term, use has been made of a qualitative scale ranging from 0 to 2 for five critical areas: market structure, demand pressure, technical basis, economic competitiveness, and public acceptance. The paper presents the resulting evaluation of long-term prospects for nuclear energy entering into non-electric markets. (authors)

  2. Small Wind Turbine Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, F.; Cruz Cruz, I.

    1999-01-01

    The result of the study carried out under the scope of the ATYCA project Test Plant of Wind Systems for Isolated Applications, about the state of art of the small wind turbine technology (wind turbines with swept area smaller than 40 m 2 ) is presented. The study analyzes the collected information on 60 models of wind turbines from 23 manufacturers in the worldwide market. Data from Chinese manufacturers, that have a large participation in the total number of small wind turbines in operation, are not included, due to the unavailability of the technical information. (Author) 15 refs

  3. Wind turbines application for energy savings in Gas transportation system

    OpenAIRE

    Mingaleeva, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The Thesis shows the perspectives of involving renewable energy resources into the energy balance of Russia, namely the use of wind energy for the purpose of energy supply for the objects of the Russian Gas transportation system. The methodology of the wind energy technical potential calculation is designed and the wind energy technical potential assessment for onshore and offshore zones of Russia is presented. The analysis of Russian Gas transportation system in terms of energy consumption i...

  4. High Resolution Atmospheric Modeling for Wind Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, M; Bulaevskaya, V; Glascoe, L; Singer, M

    2010-03-18

    The ability of the WRF atmospheric model to forecast wind speed over the Nysted wind park was investigated as a function of time. It was found that in the time period we considered (August 1-19, 2008), the model is able to predict wind speeds reasonably accurately for 48 hours ahead, but that its forecast skill deteriorates rapidly after 48 hours. In addition, a preliminary analysis was carried out to investigate the impact of vertical grid resolution on the forecast skill. Our preliminary finding is that increasing vertical grid resolution does not have a significant impact on the forecast skill of the WRF model over Nysted wind park during the period we considered. Additional simulations during this period, as well as during other time periods, will be run in order to validate the results presented here. Wind speed is a difficult parameter to forecast due the interaction of large and small length scale forcing. To accurately forecast the wind speed at a given location, the model must correctly forecast the movement and strength of synoptic systems, as well as the local influence of topography / land use on the wind speed. For example, small deviations in the forecast track or strength of a large-scale low pressure system can result in significant forecast errors for local wind speeds. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary baseline of a high-resolution limited area model forecast performance against observations from the Nysted wind park. Validating the numerical weather prediction model performance for past forecasts will give a reasonable measure of expected forecast skill over the Nysted wind park. Also, since the Nysted Wind Park is over water and some distance from the influence of terrain, the impact of high vertical grid spacing for wind speed forecast skill will also be investigated.

  5. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-11-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  6. The Application of TAPM for Site Specific Wind Energy Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlinde Kay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The energy industry uses weather forecasts for determining future electricity demand variations due to the impact of weather, e.g., temperature and precipitation. However, as a greater component of electricity generation comes from intermittent renewable sources such as wind and solar, weather forecasting techniques need to now also focus on predicting renewable energy supply, which means adapting our prediction models to these site specific resources. This work assesses the performance of The Air Pollution Model (TAPM, and demonstrates that significant improvements can be made to only wind speed forecasts from a mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP model. For this study, a wind farm site situated in North-west Tasmania, Australia was investigated. I present an analysis of the accuracy of hourly NWP and bias corrected wind speed forecasts over 12 months spanning 2005. This extensive time frame allows an in-depth analysis of various wind speed regimes of importance for wind-farm operation, as well as extreme weather risk scenarios. A further correction is made to the basic bias correction to improve the forecast accuracy further, that makes use of real-time wind-turbine data and a smoothing function to correct for timing-related issues. With full correction applied, a reduction in the error in the magnitude of the wind speed by as much as 50% for “hour ahead” forecasts specific to the wind-farm site has been obtained.

  7. Wind erosion potential of a winter wheat-summer fallow rotation after land application of biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Huawei; Sharratt, Brenton; Schillinger, William F.; Bary, Andrew I.; Cogger, Craig G.

    2018-06-01

    Conservation tillage is a viable management strategy to control soil wind erosion, but other strategies such as land application of biosolids that enhance soil quality may also reduce wind erosion. No studies have determined the effects of biosolids on wind erosion. Wind erosion potential of a silt loam was assessed using a portable wind tunnel after applying synthetic and biosolids fertilizer to traditional (disk) and conservation (undercutter) tillage practices during the summer fallow phase of a winter wheat-summer fallow (WW-SF) rotation in 2015 and 2016 in east-central Washington. Soil loss ranged from 12 to 61% lower for undercutter than disk tillage, possibly due to retention of more biomass on the soil surface of the undercutter versus disk tillage treatment. In contrast, soil loss was similar to or lower for biosolids as compared with synthetic fertilizer treatment. Our results suggest that biosolids applications to agricultural lands will have minimal impact on wind erosion.

  8. Five-Phase Five-Level Open-Winding/Star-Winding Inverter Drive for Low-Voltage/High-Current Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper work proposed a five-phase five-level open-/star-winding multilevel AC converter suitable for low-voltage/high-current applications. Modular converter consists of classical two-level five-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) with slight reconfiguration to serve as a multilevel converter...... for open-/star-winding loads. Elaborately, per phase of the VSI is built with one additional bi-directional switch (MOSFET/IGBT) and all five legs links to the neutral through two capacitors. The structure allows multilevel generation to five-level output with greater potential for fault tolerability under...

  9. Application of marketing mix in public administration

    OpenAIRE

    Szusciková, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Bakalářská práce je zaměřena na marketing, konkrétně na marketingový mix v jeho běžné formě a jeho adaptaci na prostředí veřejné správy v rámci samosprávy. Teoretická část se věnuje základním prvkům marketingu, marketingovému prostředí, získávání informací a jejich analýze i komplexnímu marketingovému mixu. Praktická část se zabývá analýzou faktorů v makroprostředí i mikroprostředí a obsahuje průzkum zaměřený na danou problematiku a návrh vhodných nástrojů marketingového mixu pro územní samos...

  10. Wind Power in Mexico: Simulation of a Wind Farm and Application of Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    C. Martín del Campo–Márquez; P.F. Nelson–Edelstein; M.Á. García–Vázquez

    2009-01-01

    The most important aspects of wind energy in Mexico, including the potential for generating electricity and the major projects planned are presented here. Inparticular, the generation costs are compared to those of other energy sources. The results from the simulation of a 100 MWwind farm in the Tehuantepec Isthmus are also presented. In addition, the environmental impacts related to the wind farm in the mentioned zone are analyzed. Finally, some benefits of using Probabilistic Safety Analysi...

  11. Wind Power in Mexico: Simulation of a Wind Farm and Application of Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Martín del Campo–Márquez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The most important aspects of wind energy in Mexico, including the potential for generating electricity and the major projects planned are presented here. Inparticular, the generation costs are compared to those of other energy sources. The results from the simulation of a 100 MWwind farm in the Tehuantepec Isthmus are also presented. In addition, the environmental impacts related to the wind farm in the mentioned zone are analyzed. Finally, some benefits of using Probabilistic Safety Analysis are discussed with respect to evaluating the risks associated with events that can occur in wind parks, being especially useful for design and maintenance of the parks and the wind turbines themselves. In particular, an event tree was developed to analyze possible accident sequences that could occur when the wind speed is too great. Also, fault trees were developed for each mitigating system considered, in order to determine the relative importance of the wind generator components to the failure sequences, in order to evaluate the yield of suggested improvements and the optimization of maintenance programs.

  12. Is candlestick continuation patterns applicable in Malaysian stock market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Chee-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Technical analysis is deemed to be an anathema to the modern finance theory as it contradicts with the efficient market hypothesis, typically the weak form market efficiency which forbids the utilization of past prices and trading volume data to predict future market movement. However, the technical indicator of candlestick trading strategy is widely applied by traders for short term investment. This study thus investigates on the predictive power of candlestick charting which concentrates on the application of continuation patterns in Malaysian stock market from 2000 to 2014. Skewness adjusted t-test is employed to test the statistical significance of candlesticks’ profitability. After taking into account the transaction costs, sub-sample, and out-of-sample test, the findings show that only Falling Window pattern after a prevailing downtrend shows predictive power with bearish signals indicated significantly during the 5-day holding period.

  13. International Diffusion of Renewable Energy Innovations: Lessons from the Lead Markets for Wind Power in China, Germany and USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Subtil Lacerda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The international diffusion of environmental innovations is getting increasing attention as an opportunity to improve competitiveness. Especially in the energy sector, countries use policy support to this end. A recent goal in this context is the formation of “lead markets”, which represents the idea that countries can build up first-mover advantages that will increase their competitiveness. Taking the lead in international diffusion of a particular innovation benefits a country’s industry through creating increasing returns of technological development and stimulating exports to expanding international markets. Interaction between national and international forces affecting renewable energy innovation and its diffusion has received fairly little attention so far. Here, we investigate the formation of lead markets for wind power technologies in China, Germany and the USA to see whether policy support of renewable energy innovation is capable of improving competitiveness. An extension of the current lead market framework is developed to include supply side factors and technology policy issues. The comparative analysis of lead market potential for wind power indicates a high level of internationalization of the industry with countries holding lead positions in specific parts the supply chain. Competitive advantages were built upon policy support but tended to shift among countries.

  14. Wind-Tunnel Balance Characterization for Hypersonic Research Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Keith C.; Commo, Sean A.; Parker, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Wind-tunnel research was recently conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center s 31-Inch Mach 10 Hypersonic Facility in support of the Mars Science Laboratory s aerodynamic program. Researchers were interested in understanding the interaction between the freestream flow and the reaction control system onboard the entry vehicle. A five-component balance, designed for hypersonic testing with pressurized flow-through capability, was used. In addition to the aerodynamic forces, the balance was exposed to both thermal gradients and varying internal cavity pressures. Historically, the effect of these environmental conditions on the response of the balance have not been fully characterized due to the limitations in the calibration facilities. Through statistical design of experiments, thermal and pressure effects were strategically and efficiently integrated into the calibration of the balance. As a result of this new approach, researchers were able to use the balance continuously throughout the wide range of temperatures and pressures and obtain real-time results. Although this work focused on a specific application, the methodology shown can be applied more generally to any force measurement system calibration.

  15. Automatic Voltage Control System with Market Price Employing Large Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth; Abildgaard, Hans

    2018-01-01

    of the voltage control service provided by the power plant owners. The benefit of employing the large offshore wind farms in this AVC system is investigated. The simulation based on the measurement data from the Danish electricity control center demonstrates the superiority of the proposed approach in terms...... of the cost minimization. The gained profit by employing the wind farms can be an argument to purchase the voltage control service provided by these wind farms....

  16. Application of genetic algorithm in electrical system optimization for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, M.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been widely used in solving optimization problem in different areas. This paper illustrates the application of GA in the electrical system design for offshore wind farms, where the main components of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input...

  17. Miniature horizontal axis wind turbine system for multipurpose application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, F.J.; Yuan, F.G.; Hu, J.Z.; Qiu, Y.P.

    2014-01-01

    A MWT (miniature wind turbine) has received great attention recently for powering WISP (Wireless Intelligent Sensor Platform). In this study, two MHAWTs (miniature horizontal axis wind turbines) with and without gear transmission were designed and fabricated. A physics-based model was proposed and the optimal load resistances of the MHAWTs were predicted. The open circuit voltages, output powers and net efficiencies were measured under various ambient winds and load resistances. The experimental results showed the optimal load resistances matched well with the predicted results; the MHAWT without gear obtained higher output power at the wind speed of 2 m/s to 6 m/s, while the geared MHAWT exhibited better performance at the wind speed higher than 6 m/s. In addition, a DCM (discontinuous conduction mode) buck-boost converter was adopted as an interface circuit to maximize the charging power from MHAWTs to rechargeable batteries, exhibiting maximum efficiencies above 85%. The charging power reached about 8 mW and 36 mW at the wind speeds of 4 m/s and 6 m/s respectively, which indicated that the MHAWTs were capable for sufficient energy harvesting for powering low-power electronics continuously. - Highlights: • Performance of the miniature wind turbines with and without gears was compared. • The physics-based model was established and proved successfully. • The interface circuit with efficiency of more than 85% was designed

  18. Industrial robots in Europe - market, applications and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraft, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Different companies involving a wide range of products and manufacturing processes were studied to define the requirements for industrial robots. A survey of all such automatic units offered on the world market was made to establish a data base. Principal applications include coating, spot welding, and loading and unloading operations.

  19. Non-destructive control: technologies, applications and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    A description of NDC - nondestructive controls - (acoustic emission, Eddy currents, infrared and thermal, liquid penetrants, magnetic particles, radiographic, ultrasonic, visual and optical techniques) is given with various industrial applications and market trends. Some research projects, contacts and a list of NDC systems main manufacturers are given. (A.B.). 37 figs. and tabs

  20. Short Term Energy Storage for Grid Support in Wind Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina; Diosi, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The penetration of wind power into the power system has been increasing in the recent years. Therefore, a lot of concerns related to the reliable operation of the power system have been addressed. An attractive solution to minimize the limitations faced by the wind power grid integration, and thus...... to increase the power system stability and the energy quality, is to integrate energy storage devices into wind power plants. This paper gives an overview of the state-of-the-art short-term energy storage devices and presents several applications which can be provided by the energy storage device - wind power...

  1. Market potential for non-electric applications of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this report is to assess the market potential for the non-electric applications of nuclear energy in the near (before 2020) and long (2020-2050) terms. The main non-electric applications are defined here as district heating, desalination (of sea, brackish and waste water), industrial heat supply, ship propulsion and the energy supply for spacecraft. This report is principally devoted to these applications, although a less detailed assessment of some innovative applications (e.g. hydrogen production and coal gasification) is also provided. While the technical details of these applications are covered briefly, emphasis is placed on the economic and other factors that may promote or hinder the penetration of the nuclear option into the market for non-electric energy services. The report is intentionally targeted towards expected demands. It is for this reason that its sections are structured by demand categories and not according to possible reactor types. At the same time, the orientation on the demand side can result in overlaps at the supply side, because the same nuclear reactor can often serve more than one type of demand. Such cases are noted as appropriate. Each section characterizes a specific non-electric application in terms of its market size, its prospects for nuclear technologies and the economic competitiveness of the technologies

  2. The power of community : the role of ownership in social marketing of wind projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscoe, D. [Scotian Windfields, Dartmouth, NS (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed the benefits of community ownership for wind power projects in Nova Scotia. The community economic development investment fund (CEDIF) is a pool of capital funds formed by selling shares to people within a defined community. CEDIFs are created to operate or invest in local business as part of a government initiative to provide incentives for local business development. Those eligible for CEDIFs include incorporated organizations with a minimum of 25 investors, and when 6 of the maximum 12 directors are from the local community. No investors may own more than 20 per cent. CEDIF incentives include pre-approved holdings for registered savings plans; a 30 per cent non-refundable equity tax credit against Nova Scotia taxes, and additional credits for maintaining investment. Local WindFields investors have invested in the Scotian WindFields in order to develop renewable energy projects. Community ownership of wind power projects can result in greater acceptance of wind power as well as increased economic prosperity and employment. Community ownership can also lead to improved land lease opportunities and relationships between contractors, local businesses, and federal and provincial governments. Details of wind power projects in Nova Scotia were provided. It was concluded that wind power developers should consider community ownership of wind projects. tabs., figs.

  3. Market and regulatory aspects of trans-national offshore electricity networks for wind power interconnection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggenkamp, Martha M.; Hendriks, Ralph L.; Ummels, Bart C.; Kling, Wil L.

    Subsea cable connections are an essential part of offshore wind power projects. Apart from direct connections between an offshore wind park to the national grid, several alternatives can be envisaged, including the connection to interconnectors between countries or direct connection to a country

  4. Application of lidars for assessment of wind conditions on a bridge site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, J. B.; Cheynet, Etienne; Snæbjörnsson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Wind measurement techniques based on remote optical sensing, extensively applied in wind energy, have been exploited in civil engineering only in a limited number of studies. The present paper introduces a novel application of wind lidars in bridge engineering, and presents the findings from...... characterization. The paper presents a promising comparison of the measurements obtained by the three different sets of instruments, and discusses their complementary value....... the pilot measurement campaign on the Lysefjord Bridge in the South-West Norway. A single long-range pulsed WindScanner lidar and two short-range continuous-wave WindScanner lidars were deployed, in addition to five sonic anemometers installed on the bridge itself, the latter for long-term wind...

  5. Fuel cell added value for early market applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Scott; Chandan, Amrit; Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Fuel Cells are often considered in the market place as just power providers. Whilst fuel cells do provide power, there are additional beneficial characteristics that should be highlighted to consumers. Due to the high price premiums associated with fuel cells, added value features need to be exploited in order to make them more appealing and increase unit sales and market penetration. This paper looks at the approach taken by two companies to sell high value fuel cells to niche markets. The first, SFC Energy, has a proven track record selling fuel cell power providers. The second, Bloom Energy, is making significant progress in the US by having sold its Energy Server to more than 40 corporations including Wal-Mart, Staples, Google, eBay and Apple. Further to these current markets, two prospective added value applications for fuel cells are discussed. These are fuel cells for aircraft APUs and fuel cells for fire prevention. These two existing markets and two future markets highlight that fuel cells are not just power providers. Rather, they can be used as solutions to many needs, thus being more cost effective by replacing a number of incumbent systems at the same time.

  6. A PROBABILISTIC DEMAND APPLICATION IN THE AMERICAN CRACKER MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutherford Cd. Johnson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the distribution of consumer buying strategies by producers may permit improved marketing strategies and improved ability to respond to volatile market conditions. In order to investigate potential ways of gaining such knowledge, this study extends the work of Kahneman, Russell, and Thaler through the application of a probabilistic demand framework using Choice Wave theory, based on the Schrödinger Wave Equation in quantum mechanics. Probabilistic variability of response to health information and its potential influence on buying strategies is also investigated, extending the work of Clement, Johnson, Hu, Pagoulatos, and Debertin. In the present study, the domestic cracker market within fourteen U.S. metropolitan areas is segmented, using the Choice Wave Probabilistic Demand approach, into two statistically independent “Consumer Types” of seven metropolitan areas each. The two Consumer Types are shown to have statistically different elasticities than each other and from the combined market as a whole. This approach may provide not only improved marketing strategies through improved awareness of consumer preferences and buying strategies, especially in the volatile agricultural sector, but also may be useful in aiding producers of store brand/private label products in finding desirable markets in which to compete against national brands. The results also suggest that supply/producer-side strategies should take into account the ways in which information, whether under the direct control of the producer or not, may influence and change consumer buying strategies.

  7. Energy Markets in the United States: The Influence of Politics, Regulations, and Markets on Energy Development in the Oil and Gas and Wind Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Karen Kay

    2011-12-01

    My dissertation focuses on the influence of politics, policies, and markets in determining oil and natural gas and wind energy development. In the first chapter, I examine the role of federal elected political influence and market factors in determining the acres of oil and natural gas leases issued on Bureau of Management (BLM) lands in the western United States between 1978 and 2008. I seek to determine if the political party and ideology of the federal political environment influence the number of acres that are leased and if there is disparate federal political influence in states that have a large amount of federal lands. Using a random effects Tobit model for a 17-state sample of the westernmost states in the contiguous United States, I find that more conservative federal political influence leads to additional leasing. The results are consistent across Senate committee leaders, Senate majority leadership, and the President's office. The further found that the influence of politics on leasing is not stronger in states with more federal lands. In the second chapter, I analyze the influence of state and federal political party changes and market factors on state oil and natural gas permitting. My findings, using a first-differenced empirical model for two samples, a 19-state sample, from 1990--2007, and a 14-state sample, from 1977--2007, indicate that the influence of state political party changes are trumped by economic factors. Oil and gas prices are the main drivers of permitting changes, while the state political party changes for the state legislatures and Governor's office are consistently not significant. In the third chapter I focus on the role of electricity markets and renewable energy regulation in wind development across the United States. My findings, using a random effects Tobit model with a 25-state sample, from 1994--2008, indicate that the implementation of state Renewables Portfolio Standards (RPS), the Federal Production Tax Credit (PTC

  8. Application and performance of remote bioventing systems powered by wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, D.; Hague, K.; Wilson, B.; Dillon, T. Jr.; Klein, J.; McLaughlin, J.; Olson, G.

    1995-01-01

    Wind-powered bioventing systems were designed to operate at remote locations in the absence of electrical power. Laboratory measurements of soil respiration under bioventing conditions indicated the biodegradation of up to 25 mg of weathered diesel per kg of site soil per day. Further testing demonstrated the potential for harnessing wind-power to stimulate air movement through vadose zone soil. A 12-in. attic turbine in a 10-mph wind was found to generate 0.025 in. of water vacuum with an airflow of approximately 2.5 ft 3 per min. Two wind-powered bioventing systems were installed near Nome, Alaska. In situ respiration tests and soil gas composition measurements indicated that the systems were capable of aerating the soil. Measurements of diesel-range organics (DRO) taken during installation and at the end of the treatment season show concentration reductions of 29 and 87% at the two sites

  9. Engineering models for merging wakes in wind farm optimization applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Murcia Leon, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The present paper deals with validation of 4 different engineering wake superposition approaches against detailed CFD simulations and covering different turbine interspacing, ambient turbulence intensities and mean wind speeds. The first engineering model is a simple linear superposition of wake ...

  10. Proceedings: Small Wind Turbine Systems, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Small wind turbine technology is discussed. Systems development, test programs, utility interface issues, safety and reliability programs, applications, and marketing are discussed. For individual titles, see N83-23723 through N83-23741.

  11. Value of Flexible Resources, Virtual Bidding, and Self-Scheduling in Two-Settlement Electricity Markets With Wind Generation – Part I: Principles and Competitive Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazempour, Jalal; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2017-01-01

    Part one of this two-part paper presents new models for evaluating flexible resources in two-settlement electricity markets (day-ahead and real-time) with uncertain net loads (demand minus wind). Physical resources include wind together with fast- and slow-start demand response and thermal...... of certain equivalencies of the four models. We show how virtual bidding enhances market performance, since, together with self-scheduling by slow-start generators, it can help deterministic day-ahead market to choose the most efficient unit commitment....

  12. Urban small wind turbine applications for reducing GHC emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullis, S.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' There are advantages to power generation at or near the points of consumption and this is still true for low carbon sustainable power sources, including wind. Consequently, there is interest in wind power generation in cities and suburbs. The potential now exists for realistic power small-scale generation in building mounted turbines. This presentation provides the benefits and obstacles to their use, as well as details of such turbines and the design and operations requirements for them. The main issues associated with locating turbines in cities and suburbs are: the highly turbulent, unsteady wind in the urban/suburban environment produces lower power outputs; vibration is a large concern on mounting turbines on buildings, and safety (turbine failure or even just ice shedding) with pedestrians below. Past and current thinking has just been straightforward in that it is not worth it, and the previous attempts at simply mounting small-scale turbines on rooftops has done more harm than good to the reputation of the small wind, and wind in general, industries. Recently there has been a reconsideration of urban small wind led by reputable companies such as Quiet Revolution (UK), Turby (NL) and Cleanfield (Canada) combined with academic research. A common feature of all of these companies is the use of vertical axis turbines (VAWTs) to help deal with the highly turbulent, unsteady urban winds. Large-scale VAWTs enjoyed a brief flurry of interest in the 1970s and 80s with large amounts of research done at Sandia and NRC in Canada. Vibration and fatigue in the large-scale turbines were among the issues that led to their decline. These, particularly vibration, remain issues for small-scale turbines, but there are some mitigating strategies available. These are now leading to the development of reputable, practical and reliable turbines that can become part of the urban/suburban environment. (author)

  13. Wind energy. From the garage workshop to a global market. 25 years scientific accompaniment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Berthold; Stuebig, Cornelia; Ponick, Bernd; Keller, Sarina; Felder, Martin; Jachmann, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The plant technology for the use of wind energy on land is so sophisticated that the WEA can be operated as ''normal'' power plants to the grid. Of course, there are still potential for development, for example, in terms of improved reliability, or concerning the fledgling offshore use, always with an emphasis on the simultaneous reduction in costs. Although from the former garages workshops is little remaining, the production techniques are another major issue in terms of quality and costs. The cost of electricity from wind energy is taking account of external costs are already competitive with conventional power generation. To limit the costs of the energy transition one to expect from the wind energy as of the other technologies cost reduction. Various studies show that the wind energy supply in the balance is sufficient several times to provide the expected contribution to supply. [de

  14. Shale oil specialty markets: Screening survey for United States applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    EG and G requested J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc. to carry out an initial screening study on the possibilities for producing specialty chemicals from oil shale. Raw shale oil is not an acceptable feedstock to refineries and there are not enough user of heavy fuel oil in the western oil shale region to provide a dependable market. The only alternatives are to hydrotreat the oil, or else ship it long distances to a larger market area. Either of these alternatives results in a cost penalty of several dollars per barrel. Instead of attempting to enter the large-volume petroleum products market, it was hypothesized that a small shale oil facility might be able to produce specialty chemicals with a high enough average value to absorb the high costs of shipping small quantities to distant markets and still provide a higher netback to the plant site than sales to the conventional petroleum products market. This approach, rather than attempting to refine shale oil or to modify its characteristics to satisfy the specifications for petroleum feedstocks or products, focuses instead on those particular characteristics which distinguish shale oil from petroleum, and attempts to identify applications which would justify a premium value for those distinctive characteristics. Because byproducts or specialty chemicals production has been a prominent feature of oil shale industries which have flourished for periods of time in various countries, a brief review of those industries provides a starting point for this study. 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  15. The facilitation of wind generation in Ireland's electricity market using demand response.

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed As part of a European Union climate change and energy package that aims to reduce greenhouse gases by 20%, reach 20% penetration of renewable energy, and improve energy efficiency by 20% by 2020, Ireland has committed to generating 40% of its electricity using indigenous renewable sources, primarily wind, by 2020. As wind is an intermittent energy source, a key challenge will be to increase the flexibility of the electricity system in order to maximise yields from th...

  16. The statistical prediction of offshore winds from land-based data for wind-energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, J.L.; Barthelmie, R.J.; Burrows, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    Land-based meteorological measurements at two locations on the Danish coast are used to predict offshore wind speeds. Offshore wind-speed data are used only for developing the statistical prediction algorithms and for verification. As a first step, the two datasets were separated into nine...... percentile-based bins, with a minimum of 30 data records in each bin. Next, the records were randomly selected with approximately 70% of the data in each bin being used as a training set for development of the prediction algorithms, and the remaining 30% being reserved as a test set for evaluation purposes....... The binning procedure ensured that both training and test sets fairly represented the overall data distribution. To base the conclusions on firmer ground, five permutations of these training and test sets were created. Thus, all calculations were based on five cases, each one representing a different random...

  17. Local non-market quality of life dynamics in new wind farms communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, Matthew E.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental benefits from generating electricity using renewable power are well known. Both wind farms and large scale solar installations require significant amounts of land to generate such power. Private land holders gain from leasing and selling land to renewable power generators but how are nearby neighbors and county residents affected? This study uses data from West Texas and documents that wind farm county's residents have gained from recent place based investments in wind farms. County property tax rates have fallen and public school quality has improved in those counties where wind farms have been built. Based on the local fiscal data, local school quality data and local ambient air pollution data, renewable power is a “better neighbor” than conventional fossil fuel fired power plants. - Highlights: • Rural counties with wind farms have lower property tax rates than neighbor counties. • Wind farm counties have lower student–teacher ratios. • Ambient air pollution levels are higher near fossil fuel fired power plants

  18. Impact of the future water value on wind-reversible hydro offering strategies in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez de la Nieta, A.A.; Contreras, J.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic mixed integer linear model is proposed to maximize the profit and the future water value. • Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR) is used for risk-hedging. • The offer strategies analyzed are single and separate, with and without a physical connection. • The effect of considering the future water value of the reservoirs is studied for several time horizons. - Abstract: A coordinated offering strategy between a wind farm and a reversible hydro plant can reduce wind power imbalances, improving the system efficiency whilst decreasing the total imbalances. A stochastic mixed integer linear model is proposed to maximize the profit and the future water value FWV of the system using Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR) for risk-hedging. The offer strategies analyzed are: (i) single wind-reversible hydro offer with a physical connection between wind and hydro units to store spare wind energy, and (ii) separate wind and reversible hydro offers without a physical connection between them. The effect of considering the FWV of the reservoirs is studied for several time horizons: one week (168 h) and one month (720 h) using an illustrative case study. Conclusions are duly drawn from the case study to show the impact of FWV in the results.

  19. The application of suction caisson technology to offshore wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    A mathematical model describing the behaviour of caisson foundations for offshore wind turbines has been developed. The model has been verified and calibrated through laboratory and field work. Simultaneously, conceptual designs of wind turbine foundations incorporating suction caissons were studied using the same model. It was concluded that much of the seabed around Britain is well suited to the use of caissons and monopod and quadropod structures are superior to tripods. Although suction caissons are vulnerable to scour, rock dumping can largely eliminate this potential problem. The next phase will be to install a fully instrumented full-scale prototype to monitor the effects of wind and waves. The main contractor was SLP Engineering Limited and about 75 per cent of the funding came from the DTI.

  20. Polymer Nanocomposites for Wind Energy Applications: Perspectives and Computational Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Zhou, H.W.; Peng, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    Strength and reliability of wind blades produced from polymer composites are the important preconditions for the successful development of wind energy. One of the ways to increase the reliability and lifetime of polymer matrix composites is the nanoengineering of matrix or fiber/matrix interfaces...... in these composites. The potential and results of nanoclay reinforcements for the improvement of the mechanical properties of polymer composites are investigated using continuum mechanics and micromechanics methods and effective phase model. It is demonstrated that nanoreinforcement allows to increase the stiffness...

  1. Examples of Applications of Vortex Methods to Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The current chapter presents wind-energy simulations obtained with the vortex code OmniVor (described in Chap. 44 ) and compared to BEM, CFD and measurements. The chapter begins by comparing rotor loads obtained with vortex methods, BEM and actuator-line simulations of wind turbines under uniform...... and yawed inflows. The second section compares wakes and flow fields obtained by actuator-disk simulations and a free-wake vortex code that uses vortex segments and vortex particles. The third section compares different implementations of viscous diffusion models and investigate their effects...

  2. Design and fabrication of radial flux permanent magnet generator for wind turbine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.M.; Malik, T.N.; Zafar, S.; Raja, U.N.

    2013-01-01

    Presently alternate energy resources are replacing conventional energy sources to produce electrical power to minimize the usage of fossil fuels. Wind power is one of the potential alternate energy resources and is being exploited and deployed actively. The wind energy system is basically composed of two core components: wind turbine and electrical generator. This paper presents the design and fabrication of permanent magnet generator for direct drive wind turbine applications. Radial flux permanent magnet generator (RFPMG) producing three phase alternating current voltage has been designed subject to satisfying the features of low operating shaft speed, higher power density , higher current density, cost effectiveness and compact structure. RFPMG design focuses on usage of neodymium permanent magnets for excitation instead of electromagnets to minimize the excitation arrangement challenges and losses. A 300 W prototype RFPMG has been fabricated. The performance of the generator has been evaluated on specially designed wind tunnel. The generator is directly coupled with wind turbine shaft to eliminate the gearbox losses. No load and load tests show that the performance of the machine is up to the mark. The improved design parameters of power density and current density are 73.2 W/kg and 5.9 A/mm 2 respectively. The same machine output has been rectified using bridge rectifier for battery charging application. The desired output voltages are obtained at minimum shaft speed of the generator. Thus the design of generator confirms its application with small scale domestic wind turbines produci ng direct current supply. (author)

  3. Branded smart phone applications: an efficient marketing strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Vaddé, Mathilde

    2012-01-01

    Advertising through smart phone applications is one of the fastest growing categories in advertising nowadays. Branded game-apps on mobile phones have several very innovative and attractive aspects, they physically engage their customers into a game, creating on a first level an entertainment but mainly they are advertising their products and the brand’s name. Many studies have been written on gaming, customer engagement and marketing strategies, but only few studies has been written on the c...

  4. Generalized Bogoliubov Polariton Model: An Application to Stock Exchange Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anh, Chu Thuy; Anh, Truong Thi Ngoc; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2016-01-01

    A generalized Bogoliubov method for investigation non-simple and complex systems was developed. We take two branch polariton Hamiltonian model in second quantization representation and replace the energies of quasi-particles by two distribution functions of research objects. Application to stock exchange market was taken as an example, where the changing the form of return distribution functions from Boltzmann-like to Gaussian-like was studied. (paper)

  5. Application of OMA to an Operating Wind Turbine: now including Vibration Data from the Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tcherniak, Dmitri; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2013-01-01

    due to the rotor rotation) as well as the considerable aerodynamic damping make OMA of operating wind turbines a difficult task. While in the previous works OMA was based on data provided by sensors mounted on the wind turbine tower and nacelle, we here attempt to improve the results by instrumenting......The presented study continues the work on application of Output Only Modal Analysis (OMA) to operating wind turbines. It is known from previous studies that issues like the time-varying nature of the equations of motion of an operating wind turbine (in particular the significant harmonic components...... discusses the technical challenges regarding blade instrumentation and data acquisition, data processing applied to eliminate the time-varying nature of an operating wind turbine in the resulting eigenvalue problem and, finally, it presents and discusses the initial results....

  6. Three dimensional winds: A maximum cross-correlation application to elastic lidar data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttler, William Tillman [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Maximum cross-correlation techniques have been used with satellite data to estimate winds and sea surface velocities for several years. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently using a variation of the basic maximum cross-correlation technique, coupled with a deterministic application of a vector median filter, to measure transverse winds as a function of range and altitude from incoherent elastic backscatter lidar (light detection and ranging) data taken throughout large volumes within the atmospheric boundary layer. Hourly representations of three-dimensional wind fields, derived from elastic lidar data taken during an air-quality study performed in a region of complex terrain near Sunland Park, New Mexico, are presented and compared with results from an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved laser doppler velocimeter. The wind fields showed persistent large scale eddies as well as general terrain-following winds in the Rio Grande valley.

  7. Wind-Climate Estimation Based on Mesoscale and Microscale Modeling: Statistical-Dynamical Downscaling for Wind Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Jake; Frank, Helmut; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a statistical dynamical method can be used to accurately estimate the wind climate at a wind farm site. In particular, postprocessing of mesoscale model output allows an efficient calculation of the local wind climate required for wind resource estimation at a wind...

  8. Application of Load Carrying Sandwich Elements in Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Fisker; Schultz, Jacob Pagh; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2005-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibilities and drawbacks when applying sandwich as opposed to single skin composites in the flanges of the load carrying spar in a future 180 m wind turbine rotor. FEA is applied to investigate two basic designs with single skin and sandwich flanges respectively...

  9. Optimal bidding in Turkey day ahead electricity market for wind energy and pumped storage hydro power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun Yıldız

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In electrical grid; when the demand power increases energy prices increase, when the demand decreases energy prices decrease. For this reason; to increase the total daily income, it is required to shift generations to the hours that high demand power values occurred. Wind Power Plants (WPP have unstable and uncontrollable generation characteristic. For this reason, energy storage systems are needed to shift the generations of WPPs in time scale. In this study, four wind power plants (WPP which are tied to the Turkish interconnected grid and a pumped hydro storage power plant (PSPP that meets the energy storage requirement of these power plants are investigated in Turkey day ahead energy market. An optimization algorithm is developed using linear programming technique to maximize the day ahead market bids of these plants which are going to generate power together. When incomes and generations of the plants that are operated with optimization strategy is analyzed, it is seen that annual income increased by 2.737% compared with WPPs ‘s alone operation and generations are substantially shifted to the high demand power occurred hours.

  10. Wind energy applications for municipal water services: Opportunities, situational analyses, and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miner-Nordstrom, L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2006-01-01

    As communities grow, greater demands are placed on water supplies, wastewater services, and the electricity needed to power the growing water services infrastructure. Water is also a critical resource for thermoelectric power plants. Future population growth in the United States is therefore expected to heighten competition for water resources. Especially in arid U.S. regions, communities may soon face hard choices with respect to water and electric power. Many parts of the United States with increasing water stresses also have significant wind energy resources. Wind power is the fastest-growing electric generation source in the United States and is decreasing in cost to be competitive with thermoelectric generation. Wind energy can potentially offer communities in water-stressed areas the option of economically meeting increasing energy needs without increasing demands on valuable water resources. Wind energy can also provide targeted energy production to serve critical local water-system needs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Technologies Program has been exploring the potential for wind power to meet growing challenges for water supply and treatment. The DOE is currently characterizing the U.S. regions that are most likely to benefit from wind-water applications and is also exploring the associated technical and policy issues associated with bringing wind energy to bear on water resource challenges.

  11. Application of an advanced cost model in the different design phases of an offshore wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, H.B.; Lindenburg, C.; Kooijman, H.J.T.; Bulder, B.H. [ECN Wind, Petten (Netherlands); Bozelie, J.; Madsen, J.B. [NEG Micon Holland, Rhenen (Netherlands); Halfschepel, R. [Van Oord ACZ, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Molenaar, W. [Ballast Nedam, Amstelveen (Netherlands); Van den Berg, R. [LM Glasfiber Holland, Heerhugowaard (Netherlands); Zaaijer, M. [TU-Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2001-09-01

    The goal of the Dutch Offshore Wind Energy Converter (DOWEC) consortium is to develop concepts and technology in order to make large scale offshore wind energy economically feasible. The overall DOWEC development comprises of the design, the construction, and the prototype testing. Onshore testing of a 3 MW research and development prototype is scheduled for the end of 2002. The DOWEC Concept Study aims at the choice of the optimal wind turbine concept. The wind turbine will not be treated as an isolated system. Designs of different wind turbine concepts will be evaluated as an integral part of the complete large-scale offshore wind farm. All significant properties like the structural loads, the power performance, the system reliability, the costs of the electric infrastructure, maintenance costs and installation costs is determined for the optimised designs. A quantitative ranking is then based on the cost of energy generated. Furthermore qualitative criteria like development risk and market potential will be taken into consideration when finalising the choice of concept. An advanced cost model is being developed to facilitate the above evaluation on basis of estimated energy generating costs for each concept. The same methodology will also be used in the system and detail design phase. This paper describes the DOWEC project in general, focusing at the cost modelling aspects including some preliminary results. 4 refs.

  12. 18 CFR 348.1 - Content of application for a market power determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content of application for a market power determination. 348.1 Section 348.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... OIL PIPELINE APPLICATIONS FOR MARKET POWER DETERMINATIONS § 348.1 Content of application for a market...

  13. Power factor controllers: their markets and performance. Applications and marketing report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattle, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The report presents the findings of a UK market investigation into the potential application for three phase power factor controllers (pfc's) in the range 0.375-150 kW. It looks in detail at various pieces of equipment which are commonly driven by case rotor induction motors (eg pumps, fans, compressors, machine tools) and provides estimates of the numbers of each such type of equipment in use in UK industry broken down by power band. It also provides guidelines concerning annual usages of such pieces of equipment and the motor loadings commonly associated with them. The importance of electricity as a source of energy and the pattern and type of motive power usage is then presented for a wide range of industry sectors in an attempt to identify the most promising prima facie markets for the pfc concept of motor control and energy saving. The report is one of a series.

  14. Optimization and comparison of superconducting generator topologies for a 10 MW wind turbine application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2017-01-01

    A direct-drive superconducting generator (DDSCG) is proposed for 10 MW wind turbines in the INNWIND.EU project. To fit the generator into the "king-pin" conceptual nacelle design, the generator structure with inner stationary superconducting (SC) field winding and outer rotating copper armature...... winding is investigated in the first research phase. Since the cost is an important performance indicator for this application, this paper presents a method to minimize the active material cost of the "king-pin" fitted DDSCG. In this method a relatively fast optimization program is developed with 2D non...

  15. Performance Analysis of Doubly Excited Brushless Generator with Outer Rotor for Wind Power Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchao Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel doubly excited brushless generator (DEBG with outer radial laminated magnetic barrier rotor (RLMB-rotor for wind power application was designed and analyzed. The DEBG has 10 rotor pole numbers with outer rotor. Its performance is investigated using the 2D transient finite element method. The magnetic fields, torque capability, end winding voltage characteristics, radial magnetic force and energy efficiency were analyzed. All studies in this paper show that the simplicity, reliability, high efficiency and low vibration and noise of the DEBG with outer rotor are attractive for variable speed constant frequency (VSCF wind power generation system.

  16. Study on Modelling Standardization of Double-fed Wind Turbine and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the standardized modelling of the International Modelling Team, study on double-fed induction generator (DFIG wind turbine is processed in this paper, aiming at capability of universally and reasonably reflecting key performance related to large scale system analysis. The standardized model proposed is of high degree of structural modularity, easy functional extension and universalization of control strategy and signal. Moreover, it is applicable for wind turbines produced by different manufacturers through model parameter adjustment. The complexity of the model can meet both needs of grid-connected characteristic simulation of wind turbine and large scale power system simulation.

  17. Wind energy program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This overview emphasizes the amount of electric power that could be provided by wind power rather than traditional fossil fuels. New wind power markets, advances in technology, technology transfer, and wind resources are some topics covered in this publication

  18. APPLICATION OF USABILITY CONCEPTS IN WINE MARKETING: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina CHIVU-DRAGHIA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown that the wine consumption decline in young generation could be influenced by the perception of wine as intimidating and difficult to understand, and by the lack of adaptability of the product’s communication strategy and packaging design to their lifestyle. Information available on the packaging is often complex and confusing for novice wine consumers and sometimes even irrelevant in regards to the intrinsic characteristics of the product. Furthermore, wine is seen by young adult consumers as old fashion, formal and mostly not associated with their relaxed attitude and “on the move” lifestyle. The objective of this paper is to analyse the usability key principles and heuristic and their applicability in wine marketing as a mean to improve the perception and increase understanding of wine for the young and/or novice consumers. The paper aims to review the existing knowledge and findings about the concept of usability (with special emphasis on Usability Engineering and Human Computer Interaction (HCI, in order to explore the aspects applicable in wine marketing. The usability concept proves useful in wine marketing to simplify the decision process, to make the meeting with the product less intimidating and more engaging, and to decrease the risk perception for the inexperienced wine consumers.

  19. Perspective for Fibre-Hybrid Composites in Wind Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the efficiency of wind turbines will be vital for the wind energy sector to continue growing. The drive for increased efficiency is pushing turbine manufacturers to shift from glass fibre composite blades towards carbon/glass fibre-hybrid composite blades. This shift brings significant challenges in terms of optimising the design and understanding the failure of these new blade materials. This review therefore surveys the literature on fibre-hybrid composites, with an emphasis on aspects that are relevant for turbine blade materials. The literature on tensile, flexural, compressive, and fatigue performance is critically assessed and areas for future research are identified. Numerical simulations of fibre-hybrid composites have reached a reasonable maturity for tensile failure, but significant progress is required for flexural, compressive, and fatigue failure. Fatigue failure of fibre-hybrid composites in particular, requires more careful attention from both a modelling and experimental point of view. PMID:29117126

  20. Indirect sensorless speed control of a PMSG for wind application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, S.A.; Silva, C.; Juliet, J.

    2009-01-01

    the method usually referred in the literature as indirect speed control (ISC). The principle of this method is the regulation of the generator torque as function of rotor speed such that the steady state operation is at the MPPT. This strategy normally requires the knowledge of the shaft speed to determinate...... in the whole wind generator system a sensorless scheme is proposed, thereby avoiding problems of electromagnetic interferences and failures in the position sensor. Usually, in wind drive system, the generator is not operated a very low speeds, therefore problems related to low back-emf for flux estimation...... the reference torque and rotor position for the orientation of the vector torque control of the PMSG. To achieve both, speed and position estimation, the sensorless technique based in back-emf estimation is proposed. Also in this paper, a laboratory set-up is described. The experimental bench is composed...