WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind load measurements

  1. Assessment of wind turbine load measurement instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfiadakis, E; Papadopoulos, K [CRES (Greece); Borg, N van der [ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Petersen, S M [Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Seifert, H [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    In the framework of Sub-Task3 `Wind turbine load measurement instrumentation` of EU-project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development`, the load measurement techniques have been assessed by laboratory, full scale and numerical tests. The existing methods have been reviewed with emphasis on the strain gage application techniques on composite materials and recommendations are provided for the optimisation of load measurement techniques. (au) EU. 14 refs.

  2. Influence of wind conditions on wind turbine loads and measurement of turbulence using lidars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathe, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Variations in wind conditions influence the loads on wind turbines significantly. In order to determine these loads it is important that the external conditions are well understood. Wind lidars are well developed nowadays to measure wind profiles upwards from the surface. But how turbulence can be

  3. A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, N. D.

    1995-01-01

    The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

  4. Measuring power output intermittency and unsteady loading in a micro wind farm model

    OpenAIRE

    Bossuyt, Juliaan; Howland, Michael; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan

    2016-01-01

    In this study porous disc models are used as a turbine model for a wind-tunnel wind farm experiment, allowing the measurement of the power output, thrust force and spatially averaged incoming velocity for every turbine. The model's capabilities for studying the unsteady turbine loading, wind farm power output intermittency and spatio temporal correlations between wind turbines are demonstrated on an aligned wind farm, consisting of 100 wind turbine models.

  5. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  6. Performance Enhancement and Load Reduction on Wind Turbines Using Inflow Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard

    . The load variations on a wind turbine can be alleviated using either yaw or pitch actuation. A method is presented for alleviating load variations using yaw control, and it is shown how the method can be efficiently applied for decreasing the load variations that are caused by a vertical wind shear...... wind energy research is focused on decreasing the cost of the energy that can be produced from the wind. The cost of energy can for example be decreased by ensuring that wind turbines are operated in a way that ensures that the maximum amount of energy is extracted, and that the turbines are not loaded...... excessively. The operation of a wind turbine is governed by a number of controllers that are based on a series of sensors and actuators. Classical wind turbine control utilizes sensors for measuring turbine parameters such as rotor speed, power and shaft torque, as well as actuators for applying generator...

  7. Calibration procedures for improved accuracy of wind turbine blade load measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.Aa. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Johansson, Hjalmar [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    External loads acting on wind turbine blades are mainly transferred via the hub to the rest of the structure. It is therefore a normal approach to measure the loads acting on the turbine by load measurements in the blade roots. The load measurement is often accomplished by measurements of strain on the surface of the blade or the hub. The strain signals are converted to loads by applying calibration factors to the measurements. This paper deals with difficulties associated with load measurements on two different wind turbines; one with strain gauges applied to a steel hub where a linear stress-load relationship is expected and the other with strain gauges applied to the GFRP blade close to the bearings where strong non-linearity`s and temperature effects are expected. This paper suggests calibration methods to overcome these problems. 2 refs, 11 figs

  8. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...

  9. Power and loads for wind turbines in yawed conditions. Analysis of field measurements and aerodynamic predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorsma, K. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    A description is given of the work carried out within the framework of the FLOW (Far and Large Offshore Wind) project on single turbine performance in yawed flow conditions. Hereto both field measurements as well as calculations with an aerodynamic code are analyzed. The rotors of horizontal axis wind turbines follow the changes in the wind direction for optimal performance. The reason is that the power is expected to decrease for badly oriented rotors. So, insight in the effects of the yaw angle on performance is important for optimization of the yaw control of each individual turbine. The effect of misalignment on performance and loads of a single 2.5 MW wind turbine during normal operation is investigated. Hereto measurements at the ECN Wind Turbine Test Site Wieringermeer (EWTW) are analyzed from December 2004 until April 2009. Also, the influence of yaw is studied using a design code and results from this design code are compared with wind tunnel measurements.

  10. Performance enhancement and load reduction on wind turbines using inflow measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abildgaard Kragh, K.

    2013-06-15

    Wind energy is being applied at a larger and larger scale worldwide, and is one of the technologies eligible for accommodating the increasing demand for renewable energy. However, wind energy is still not competitive compared to technologies that are based on fossil energy sources. Therefore, much wind energy research is focused on decreasing the cost of the energy that can be produced from the wind. The cost of energy can for example be decreased by ensuring that wind turbines are operated in a way that ensures that the maximum amount of energy is extracted, and that the turbines are not loaded excessively. The operation of a wind turbine is governed by a number of controllers that are based on a series of sensors and actuators. Classical wind turbine control utilizes sensors for measuring turbine parameters such as rotor speed, power and shaft torque, as well as actuators for applying generator torque and collective pitch angle changes. Thus, classical wind turbine control schemes are based on measurements of the effects of the inflow on the turbine. Therefore, the reactions of the control system to the inflow changes are inherently delayed compared to the actual inflow changes. Because of the inherent delay of the control system, the ability of the system to react promptly to inflow changes is limited. Control schemes that are based on inflow measurements have been developed to overcome the limitations of the classical wind turbine control system. By measuring the inflow directly, actuation can be initiated instantly as the inflow changes. If the inflow is measured upstream of the turbine, actuation can be initiated prior to the occurrence of a wind speed change at the turbine. Hereby, even the actuator delay can be compensated for. Upstream inflow measurements could for example be acquired using ''Light Detection and Ranging''. In this thesis, the potentials for improving the power production and decreasing the load variations of horizontal axis upwind turbines

  11. Validation of Simplified Load Equations Through Loads Measurement and Modeling of a Small Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana, Scott [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Dam, Jeroen J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-24

    As part of an ongoing effort to improve the modeling and prediction of small wind turbine dynamics, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) tested a small horizontal-axis wind turbine in the field at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine was a 2.1-kW downwind machine mounted on an 18-m multi-section fiberglass composite tower. The tower was instrumented and monitored for approximately 6 months. The collected data were analyzed to assess the turbine and tower loads and further validate the simplified loads equations from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61400-2 design standards. Field-measured loads were also compared to the output of an aeroelastic model of the turbine. In particular, we compared fatigue loads as measured in the field, predicted by the aeroelastic model, and calculated using the simplified design equations. Ultimate loads at the tower base were assessed using both the simplified design equations and the aeroelastic model output. The simplified design equations in IEC 61400-2 do not accurately model fatigue loads and a discussion about the simplified design equations is discussed.

  12. Extreme Design Loads Calibration of Offshore Wind Turbine Blades through Real Time Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Vesth, Allan; Lamata, Rebeca Rivera

    2014-01-01

    Blade Root flap and Edge moments are measured on the blades of a 3.6MW offshore wind turbine in normal operation. Ten minute maxima of the measurements are sampled to determine the extreme blade root flap moment, edge moment and resultant moment over six month duration. A random subset of the mea......Blade Root flap and Edge moments are measured on the blades of a 3.6MW offshore wind turbine in normal operation. Ten minute maxima of the measurements are sampled to determine the extreme blade root flap moment, edge moment and resultant moment over six month duration. A random subset...... of the measurements over a week is taken as input to stochastic load extrapolation whereby the one year extrapolated design extreme is obtained, which are then compared with the maximum extremes obtained from direct measurements over a six month period to validate the magnification in the load levels for the blade...... root flap moment, edge moment obtained by extrapolation. The validation yields valuable information on prescribing the slope of the local extrapolation curve at each mean wind speed. As an alternative to determining the contemporaneous loads for each primary extrapolated load, the blade root resultant...

  13. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...... a three parameter Weibull distribution to the measured on-shore and off-shore data for wind speed variations. Specific recommendations on off-shore design turbulence intensities are lacking in the presentIEC-code. Based on the present analysis of the off-shore wind climate on two shallow water sites...

  14. Wind Climate Parameters for Wind Turbine Fatigue Load Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Site-specific assessment of wind turbine design requires verification that the individual wind turbine components can survive the site-specific wind climate. The wind turbine design standard, IEC 61400-1 (third edition), describes how this should be done using a simplified, equivalent wind climate...... climate required by the current design standard by comparing damage equivalent fatigue loads estimated based on wind climate parameters for each 10 min time-series with fatigue loads estimated based on the equivalent wind climate parameters. Wind measurements from Boulder, CO, in the United States...

  15. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurement Analysis and Feed-Forward Blade Pitch Control for Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines: January 2010--January 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, F.; Simley, E.; Pao, L.Y.

    2011-10-01

    This report examines the accuracy of measurements that rely on Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to wind turbine feed-forward control systems and discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feed-forward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. The first half of this report examines the accuracy of different measurement scenarios that rely on coherent continuous-wave or pulsed Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to feed-forward control. In particular, the impacts of measurement range and angular offset from the wind direction are studied for various wind conditions. A realistic case involving a scanning LIDAR unit mounted in the spinner of a wind turbine is studied in depth with emphasis on choices for scan radius and preview distance. The effects of turbulence parameters on measurement accuracy are studied as well. Continuous-wave and pulsed LIDAR models based on typical commercially available units were used in the studies present in this report. The second half of this report discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Combined feedback/feed-forward blade pitch control is compared to industry standard feedback control when simulated in realistic turbulent above-rated winds. The feed-forward controllers are designed to reduce fatigue loads, increasing turbine lifetime and therefore reducing the cost of energy. Three feed-forward designs are studied: non-causal series expansion, Preview Control, and optimized FIR filter. The input to the feed-forward controller is a measurement of

  16. Tower Based Load Measurements for Individual Pitch Control and Tower Damping of Wind Turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A A; Hugues-Salas, O; Savini, B; Keogh, W

    2016-01-01

    The cost of IPC has hindered adoption outside of Europe despite significant loading advantages for large wind turbines. In this work we presented a method for applying individual pitch control (including for higher-harmonics) using tower-top strain gauge feedback instead of blade-root strain gauge feedback. Tower-top strain gauges offer hardware savings of approximately 50% in addition to the possibility of easier access for maintenance and installation and requiring a less specialised skill-set than that required for applying strain gauges to composite blade roots. A further advantage is the possibility of using the same tower-top sensor array for tower damping control. This method is made possible by including a second order IPC loop in addition to the tower damping loop to reduce the typically dominating 3P content in tower-top load measurements. High-fidelity Bladed simulations show that the resulting turbine spectral characteristics from tower-top feedback IPC and from the combination of tower-top IPC and damping loops largely match those of blade-root feedback IPC and nacelle- velocity feedback damping. Lifetime weighted fatigue analysis shows that the methods allows load reductions within 2.5% of traditional methods. (paper)

  17. Full scale measurements of wind loads on stand-off photovoltaic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Borri, C.

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy systems are becoming increasingly popular. A large potential for these systems is found on buildings, in particular on roofs. For existing buildings with pitched roofs, stand-off systems, which can be applied as retrofit solutions, are frequently applied. Wind loads for such systems are

  18. Measurement of Unsteady Aerodynamics Load on the Blade of Field Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Yasunari; Maeda, Takao; Naito, Keita; Ouchi, Yuu; Kozawa, Masayoshi

    This paper describes an experimental field study of the rotor aerodynamics of wind turbines. The test wind turbine is a horizontal axis wind turbine, or: HAWT with a diameter of 10m. The pressure distributions on the rotating blade are measured with multi point pressure transducers. Sectional aerodynamic forces are analyzed from pressure distribution. Blade root moments are measured simultaneously by a pair of strain gauges. The inflow wind is measured by a three component sonic anemometer, the local inflow of the blade section are measured by a pair of 7 hole Pitot tubes. The relation between the aerodynamic moments on the blade root from pressure distribution and the mechanical moment from strain gauges is discussed. The aerodynamic moments are estimated from the sectional aerodynamic forces and show oscillation caused by local wind speed and direction change. The mechanical moment shows similar oscillation to the aerodynamic excepting the short period oscillation of the blade first mode frequency. The fluctuation of the sectional aerodynamic force triggers resonant blade oscillations. Where stall is present along the blade section, the blade's first mode frequency is dominant. Without stall, the rotating frequency is dominant in the blade root moment.

  19. Wind loads on solar energy roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the wind loads on roofs, equipped with solar energy products, so called Active Roofs. Values given in this paper have been based on wind tunnel and full scale measurements, carried out at TNO, and on an interpretation of existing rules and guidelines. The results

  20. Load prediction of stall regulated wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerck, A.; Dahlberg, J.Aa. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Carlen, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Marine Structural Engineering; Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentua (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Measurements of blade loads on a turbine situated in a small wind farm shows that the highest blade loads occur during operation close to the peak power i.e. when the turbine operates in the stall region. In this study the extensive experimental data base has been utilised to compare loads in selected campaigns with corresponding load predictions. The predictions are based on time domain simulations of the wind turbine structure, performed by the aeroelastic code VIDYN. In the calculations a model were adopted in order to include the effects of dynamic stall. This paper describes the work carried out so far within the project and key results. 5 refs, 10 figs

  1. Model of wind shear conditional on turbulence and its impact on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Natarajan, Anand; Kelly, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    proposed for flat terrain and that can significantly decrease the uncertainty associated with fatigue load predictions for wind turbines with large rotors. An essential contribution is the conditioning of wind shear on the 90% quantile of wind turbulence, such that the appropriate magnitude of the design...... fatigue load is achieved. The proposed wind shear model based on the wind measurements is thereby probabilistic in definition, with shear jointly distributed with wind turbulence. A simplified model for the wind shear exponent is further derived from the full stochastic model. The fatigue loads over...... is most pronounced on the blade flap loads. It is further shown that under moderate wind turbulence, the wind shear exponents may be over-specified in the design standards, and a reduction of wind shear exponent based on the present measurements can contribute to reduced fatigue damage equivalent loads...

  2. Fluidic load control for wind turbines blades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeije, C.S.; Vries, de H.; Cleine, I.; Emden, van E.; Zwart, G.G.M.; Stobbe, H.; Hirschberg, A.; Hoeijmakers, H.W.M.; Maureen Hand, xx

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the initial steps into the investigation of the possibility of reducing fatigue loads on wind turbine blades by the application of fluidic jets. This investigation involves static pressure measurements as well as numerical simulations for a non-rotating NACA-0018 airfoil. The

  3. Load Extrapolation During Operation for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In the recent years load extrapolation for wind turbines has been widely considered in the wind turbine industry. Loads on wind turbines during operations are normally dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. All these parameters...... must be taken into account when characteristic load effects during operation are determined. In the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1 a method for load extrapolation using the peak over threshold method is recommended. In this paper this method is considered and some of the assumptions are examined...

  4. Wind and load variability in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holttinen, Hannele; Rissanen, Simo; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    the three years analysed in this publication there were few storm incidents and they did not produce dramatic wind power ramps in the Nordic region. Wind and load variations are not correlated between the countries, which is beneficial from the viewpoint of wind integration. The smoothing effect is shown......This publication analysed the variability of wind production and load in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and the Nordic region as a whole, based on real data measured from large-scale wind power during 2009–2011. The Nordic-wide wind power time series was scaled up such that Sweden had same amount...... of wind power production than Denmark, and Finland and Norway only 50% of the wind power production in Denmark. Wind power production in Denmark and Sweden is somewhat correlated (coefficient 0.7) but less correlation is found between the other countries. The variations from one hour to the next are only...

  5. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution is applied to a frozen wind field used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements are also evaluated with a large eddy simulation of a stable boundary layer provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Simulation results show the combined effects of LIDAR errors and wind evolution for realistic turbine-mounted LIDAR measurement scenarios.

  6. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields (nonsteady winds)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques to predict the dynamic response and the structural dynamic loads of flat plate photovoltaic arrays due to wind turbulence were analyzed. Guidelines for use in predicting the turbulent portion of the wind loading on future similar arrays are presented. The dynamic response and the loads dynamic magnification factor of the two array configurations are similar. The magnification factors at a mid chord and outer chord location on the array illustrated and at four points on the chord are shown. The wind tunnel test experimental rms pressure coefficient on which magnification factors are based is shown. It is found that the largest response and dynamic magnification factor occur at a mid chord location on an array and near the trailing edge. A technique employing these magnification factors and the wind tunnel test rms fluctuating pressure coefficients to calculate design pressure loads due to wind turbulence is presented.

  7. Wind and load variability in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Rissanen, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Larsen, X. [Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Lyngby (Denmark); Loevholm, A. L. [Kjeller Vindteknikk (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    This publication analysed the variability of wind production and load in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and the Nordic region as a whole, based on real data measured from large-scale wind power during 2009-2011. The Nordic-wide wind power time series was scaled up such that Sweden had same amount of wind power production than Denmark, and Finland and Norway only 50% of the wind power production in Denmark. Wind power production in Denmark and Sweden is somewhat correlated (coefficient 0.7) but less correlation is found between the other countries. The variations from one hour to the next are only weakly correlated between all countries, even between Denmark and Sweden. Largest variations occur when the production is approximately 30-70% of installed capacity and variability is low during periods of light winds. The variability in shorter time scales was less than the hourly variations. During the three years analysed in this publication there were few storm incidents and they did not produce dramatic wind power ramps in the Nordic region. Wind and load variations are not correlated between the countries, which is beneficial from the viewpoint of wind integration. The smoothing effect is shown as reduction of variability from a single country to Nordic-wide wind power. The impact of wind power on the variability that the system experiences is evaluated by analysing the variability of net load with different wind power penetration levels. The Nordic-wide wind power production increases the highest hourly ramps by 2.4% (up) and -3.6% (down) of installed wind power capacity when there is 20% wind power penetration and by 2.7% (up) and -4.7% (down) for 30% wind penetration. These results assess the impacts of variability only. The next step will be assessing the uncertainty from forecast errors. The timing of ramp events, and occurrence of high-wind and low-load are studied. With current wind penetration, low production levels (2-5% of installed wind power) can occur in a

  8. Preview-based Asymmetric Load Reduction of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mathias; Filsø, Jakob; Soltani, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Controller (MPC) developed is based on a model with individual blade pitching to utilize the LIDAR measurements. The MPC must also maintain a given power reference while satisfying a set of actuator constraints. The designed controller was tested on a 5 MW wind turbine in the FAST simulator and compared......Fatigue loads on wind turbines caused by an asymmetric wind field become an increasing concern when the scale of wind turbines increases. This paper presents a model based predictive approach to reduce asymmetric loads by using Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) measurements. The Model Predictive...

  9. Wind inflow observation from load harmonics

    OpenAIRE

    Marta, Bertelè; Bottasso, Carlo L.; Cacciola, Stefano; Fabiano Daher Adegas,; Sara, Delport

    2017-01-01

    The wind field leaves its fingerprint on the rotor response. This fact can be exploited by using the rotor as a sensor: by looking at the rotor response, in the present case in terms of blade loads, one may infer the wind characteristics. This paper describes a wind state observer that estimates four wind parameters, namely the vertical and horizontal shears and the yaw and upflow misalignment angles, from out-of-plane and in-plane blade bending moments. The resulting observ...

  10. Effects of Icing on Wind Turbine Fatigue Loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohboese, Peter; Anders, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The external conditions occurring at cold climate sites will affect wind turbines in different ways. The effects of ice accretion on wind turbines and the influence on the turbine fatigue loads are examined. The amount of icing prior to turbine installation needs to be estimated by using standard measurement data and considering the geometry of the proposed turbine. A procedure to calculate the expected ice accretion on wind turbines out of standard measurement data is explained and the results are discussed. Different parameters to describe the accreted ice on the turbine are examined separately in a fatigue load calculation. The results of the fatigue load calculation are discussed and selected cases are presented

  11. Wind inflow observation from load harmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bertelè

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The wind field leaves its fingerprint on the rotor response. This fact can be exploited by using the rotor as a sensor: by looking at the rotor response, in the present case in terms of blade loads, one may infer the wind characteristics. This paper describes a wind state observer that estimates four wind parameters, namely the vertical and horizontal shears and the yaw and upflow misalignment angles, from out-of-plane and in-plane blade bending moments. The resulting observer provides on-rotor wind inflow characteristics that can be exploited for wind turbine and wind farm control. The proposed formulation is evaluated through extensive numerical simulations in turbulent and nonturbulent wind conditions using a high-fidelity aeroservoelastic model of a multi-MW wind turbine.

  12. Combining Unsteady Blade Pressure Measurements and a Free-Wake Vortex Model to Investigate the Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in Wind Turbine Aerodynamic Blade Loads in Yaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutaz Elgammi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of the unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomenon on wind turbines is challenging and still subject to considerable uncertainty. Under yawed rotor conditions, the wind turbine blades are subjected to unsteady flow conditions as a result of the blade advancing and retreating effect and the development of a skewed vortical wake created downstream of the rotor plane. Blade surface pressure measurements conducted on the NREL Phase VI rotor in yawed conditions have shown that dynamic stall causes the wind turbine blades to experience significant cycle-to-cycle variations in aerodynamic loading. These effects were observed even though the rotor was subjected to a fixed speed and a uniform and steady wind flow. This phenomenon is not normally predicted by existing dynamic stall models integrated in wind turbine design codes. This paper couples blade pressure measurements from the NREL Phase VI rotor to a free-wake vortex model to derive the angle of attack time series at the different blade sections over multiple rotor rotations and three different yaw angles. Through the adopted approach it was possible to investigate how the rotor self-induced aerodynamic load fluctuations influence the unsteady variations in the blade angles of attack and induced velocities. The hysteresis loops for the normal and tangential load coefficients plotted against the angle of attack were plotted over multiple rotor revolutions. Although cycle-to-cycle variations in the angles of attack at the different blade radial locations and azimuth positions are found to be relatively small, the corresponding variations in the normal and tangential load coefficients may be significant. Following a statistical analysis, it was concluded that the load coefficients follow a normal distribution at the majority of blade azimuth angles and radial locations. The results of this study provide further insight on how existing engineering models for dynamic stall may be improved through

  13. Validation of wind loading codes by experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.

    1998-01-01

    Between 1994 and 1997, full scale measurements of the wind and wind induced pressures were carried out on the main building of Eindhoven University of Technology. Simultaneously, a comparative wind tunnel experiment was performed in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. In this paper, the

  14. The Dutch wind tunnel guideline for wind loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, van C.A.; Willemsen, E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses questions that arose during development and application of the Dutch guideline for wind tunnel testing to determine wind loads on buildings. This guideline (CUR 103) is being used since 2005, and a first revision is foreseen. Within this revision, the relation with Eurocode EN

  15. Design Load Basis for Offshore Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Wang, Shaofeng

    2016-01-01

    DTU Wind Energy is not designing and manufacturing wind turbines and does therefore not need a Design Load Basis (DLB) that is accepted by a certification body. However, to assess the load consequences of innovative features and devices added to existing offshore turbine concepts or new offshore...... turbine concept developed in our research, it is useful to have a full DLB that follows the current design standard and is representative of a general DLB used by the industry. It will set a standard for the offshore wind turbine design load evaluations performed at DTU Wind Energy, which is aligned...... with the challenges faced by the industry and therefore ensures that our research continues to have a strong foundation in this interaction. Furthermore, the use of a full DLB that follows the current standard can improve and increase the feedback from the research at DTU Wind Energy to the international...

  16. The nature of wind turbine fatigue loads in wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Larsen, Torben J.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to further validate the predictive capability of the DWM/HAWC2 package for simulation of structural loadings in wind farms. The validation in particular focus on tower fatigue loading characteristics (i.e. equivalent moments) as function of turbine relative positio...

  17. Analysis of extreme wind events at Høvsøre and the effect on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannesdóttir, Ásta; Kelly, Mark C.; Mann, Jakob

    used to simulate wind turbine response in time domain. The simulations are made for the DTU 10 MW reference wind turbine. Load analysis shows that the maximum tilt moment on the tower yaw bearing correlates well with the wind shear of the measurements. When these loads are compared with the extreme...... wind shear load case of the IEC standards, it is seen that they are of similar magnitude and in one case even higher....

  18. Database on wind characteristics - Analyses of wind turbine design loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.; Hansen, K.S.

    2004-06-01

    The main objective of IEA R and D Wind Annex XVII - Database on Wind Characteristics - has been to provide wind energy planners, designers and researchers, as well as the international wind engineering community in general, with a source of actual wind field data (time series and resource data) observed in a wide range of different wind climates and terrain types. Connected to an extension of the initial Annex period, the scope for the continuation was widened to include also support to the international wind turbine standardisation efforts.. The project partners are Sweden, Norway, U.S.A., The Netherlands and Denmark, with Denmark as the Operating Agent. The reporting of the continuation of Annex XVII falls in two separate parts. Part one accounts in details for the available data in the established database bank, and part two describes various data analyses performed with the overall purpose of improving the design load cases with relevance for to wind turbine structures. The present report constitutes the second part of the Annex XVII reporting. Both fatigue and extreme load aspects are dealt with, however, with the main emphasis on the latter. The work has been supported by The Ministry of Environment and Energy, Danish Energy Agency, The Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (NOVEM), The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE), The Swedish National Energy Administration (STEM) and The Government of the United States of America. (au)

  19. Gearbox Fatigue Load Estimation for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Pedersen, Bo Juul; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. Estimated loads can be further used for prediction of remaining operating lifetime of turbine components, detection of high stress level or fault detection. An augmented Kalman filter is chosen as the fatigue load estimator because its characteristics well suit......The focus of the paper is on a design of a fatigue load estimator for predictive condition monitoring systems (CMS) of wind turbines. In order to avoid high-price measurement equipment required for direct load measuring, an indirect approach is suggested using only measurements from supervisory...... for the real time application. This paper presents results of the estimation of the gearbox fatigue load, often called shaft torque, using simulated data of wind turbine. Noise sensitivity of the algorithm is investigated by assuming different levels of measurement noise. Shaft torque estimations are compared...

  20. Sensor comparison study for load alleviating wind turbine pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    As the size of wind turbines increases, the load alleviating capabilities of the turbine controller are becoming increasingly important. Load alleviating control schemes have traditionally been based on feedback from load sensor; however, recent developments of measurement technologies have enabled...... control on the basis of preview measurements of the inflow acquired using, e.g., light detection and ranging. The potential of alleviating load variations that are caused by mean wind speed changes through feed-forward control have been demonstrated through both experiments and simulations in several...... studies, whereas the potential of preview control for alleviating the load variations caused by azimuth dependent inflow variations is less described. Individual or cyclic pitch is required to alleviate azimuth dependent load variations and is traditionally applied through feedback control of the blade...

  1. Wind Loads on Ships and Offshore Structures Estimated by CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Christian; Hvid, S.L.; Hughes, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Wind loads on ships and offshore structures could until recently be determined only by model tests, or by statistical methods based on model tests. By the development of Computational Fluid Dynamics or CFD there is now a realistic computational alternative available. In this paper, wind loads...... on a seagoing ferry and on a semisubmersible offshore platform have been estimated by CFD. The results have been compared with wind tunnel model tests and, for the ferry, a few full-scale measurements, and good agreement is obtained. The CFD method offers the possibility of a computational estimate of scale...... effects related to wind tunnel model testing. An example of such an estimate on the ferry is discussed. Due to the time involved in generating the computational mesh and in computing the solution, the CFD method is not at the moment economically competitive to routine wind tunnel model testing....

  2. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J. (University of California, Davis, CA)

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  3. Wind effects on long-span bridges: Probabilistic wind data format for buffeting and VIV load assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, K.; Srouji, R. G.; Hansen, S. O.

    2017-12-01

    The technology development within the structural design of long-span bridges in Norwegian fjords has created a need for reformulating the calculation format and the physical quantities used to describe the properties of wind and the associated wind-induced effects on bridge decks. Parts of a new probabilistic format describing the incoming, undisturbed wind is presented. It is expected that a fixed probabilistic format will facilitate a more physically consistent and precise description of the wind conditions, which in turn increase the accuracy and considerably reduce uncertainties in wind load assessments. Because the format is probabilistic, a quantification of the level of safety and uncertainty in predicted wind loads is readily accessible. A simple buffeting response calculation demonstrates the use of probabilistic wind data in the assessment of wind loads and responses. Furthermore, vortex-induced fatigue damage is discussed in relation to probabilistic wind turbulence data and response measurements from wind tunnel tests.

  4. Using wind speed from a blade-mounted flow sensor for power and load assessment on modern wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads M.; Larsen, Torben J.; Madsen, Helge Aa

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an alternative method to evaluate power performance and loads on wind turbines using a blade-mounted flow sensor is investigated. The hypothesis is that the wind speed measured at the blades has a high correlation with the power and loads such that a power or load assessment can...... be performed from a few hours or days of measurements. In the present study a blade-mounted five-hole pitot tube is used as the flow sensor as an alternative to the conventional approach, where the reference wind speed is either measured at a nearby met mast or on the nacelle using lidar technology or cup...... anemometers. From the flow sensor measurements, an accurate estimate of the wind speed at the rotor plane can be obtained. This wind speed is disturbed by the presence of the wind turbine, and it is therefore different from the free-flow wind speed. However, the recorded wind speed has a high correlation...

  5. Inverse load calculation procedure for offshore wind turbines and application to a 5-MW wind turbine support structure: Inverse load calculation procedure for offshore wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahn, T. [Pahn Ingenieure, Am Seegraben 17b 03051 Cottbus Germany; Rolfes, R. [Institut f?r Statik und Dynamik, Leibniz Universit?t Hannover, Appelstra?e 9A 30167 Hannover Germany; Jonkman, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden Colorado 80401 USA

    2017-02-20

    A significant number of wind turbines installed today have reached their designed service life of 20 years, and the number will rise continuously. Most of these turbines promise a more economical performance if they operate for more than 20 years. To assess a continued operation, we have to analyze the load-bearing capacity of the support structure with respect to site-specific conditions. Such an analysis requires the comparison of the loads used for the design of the support structure with the actual loads experienced. This publication presents the application of a so-called inverse load calculation to a 5-MW wind turbine support structure. The inverse load calculation determines external loads derived from a mechanical description of the support structure and from measured structural responses. Using numerical simulations with the software fast, we investigated the influence of wind-turbine-specific effects such as the wind turbine control or the dynamic interaction between the loads and the support structure to the presented inverse load calculation procedure. fast is used to study the inverse calculation of simultaneously acting wind and wave loads, which has not been carried out until now. Furthermore, the application of the inverse load calculation procedure to a real 5-MW wind turbine support structure is demonstrated. In terms of this practical application, setting up the mechanical system for the support structure using measurement data is discussed. The paper presents results for defined load cases and assesses the accuracy of the inversely derived dynamic loads for both the simulations and the practical application.

  6. CFD simulations of wind loads on a container ship : Validation and impact of geometrical simplifactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, W.D.; Blocken, B.J.E.; van Wijhe, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing windage area of container ships, wind loads are playing a more important role in navigating the ship at open sea and especially through harbor areas. This paper presents 3D steady RANS CFD simulations of wind loads on a container ship, validation with wind-tunnel measurements

  7. Database on wind characteristics - Analyses of wind turbine design loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    the design load cases with relevance for to wind turbine structures. The present report constitutes thesecond part of the Annex XVII reporting. Both fatigue and extreme load aspects are dealt with, however, with the main emphasis on the latter. The work has been supported by The Ministry of Environment...... and Energy, Danish Energy Agency, The NetherlandsAgency for Energy and the Environment (NOVEM), The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE), The Swedish National Energy Administration (STEM) and The Government of the United States of America....

  8. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    This section presents the results obtained during the experimental campaign that was conducted in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov from August 16th to 26th, 2010. The goal of this study is to validate the so-called TNO trailing edge noise model through measurements of the boundary...... layer turbulence characteristics and the far-field noise generated by the acoustic scattering of the turbulent boundary layer vorticies as they convect past the trailing edge. This campaign was conducted with a NACA0015 airfoil section that was placed in the wind tunnel section. It is equipped with high...

  9. Dependence of offshore wind turbine fatigue loads on atmospheric stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K S; Larsen, G C; Ott, S

    2014-01-01

    The stratification of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is classified in terms of the M-O length and subsequently used to determine the relationship between ABL stability and the fatigue loads of a wind turbine located inside an offshore wind farm. Recorded equivalent fatigue loads, representing blade-bending and tower bottom bending, are combined with the operational statistics from the instrumented wind turbine as well as with meteorological statistics defining the inflow conditions. Only a part of all possible inflow conditions are covered through the approximately 8200 hours of combined measurements. The fatigue polar has been determined for an (almost) complete 360° inflow sector for both load sensors, representing mean wind speeds below and above rated wind speed, respectively, with the inflow conditions classified into three different stratification regimes: unstable, neutral and stable conditions. In general, impact of ABL stratification is clearly seen on wake affected inflow cases for both blade and tower fatigue loads. However, the character of this dependence varies significantly with the type of inflow conditions – e.g. single wake inflow or multiple wake inflow

  10. Mean and peak wind load reduction on heliostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterka, J.A.; Tan, L.; Bienkiewcz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated both mean and peak forces, and moments. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved. In addition, a preliminary review of wind loads on parabolic dish collectors was conducted, resulting in a recommended research program for these type collectors. 42 refs., 38 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A final step towards the European wind loading code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staalduinen, P.C. van; Geurts, C.P.W.

    1999-01-01

    The process of the transition of national wind loading codes into a European Prestandard ENV 1991-2-4 for wind loading is being discussed. Backgrounds of this undertaking are being explained and specific technical issues to be resolved when drafting the final version of a European Standard for Wind

  12. Blade-Pitch Control for Wind Turbine Load Reductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lio, Alan Wai Hou

    Large wind turbines are subjected to the harmful loads that arise from the spatially uneven and temporally unsteady oncoming wind. Such loads are the known sources of fatigue damage that reduce the turbine operational lifetime, ultimately increasing the cost of wind energy to the end-users. In re...

  13. Wind load modeling for topology optimization of continuum structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakhama, R.; Abdalla, M.M.; Gürdal, Z.; Smaoui, H.

    2010-01-01

    Topology optimization of two and three dimensional structures subject to dead and wind loading is considered. The wind loading is introduced into the formulation by using standard expressions for the drag force, and a strategy is devised so that wind pressure is ignored where there is no surface

  14. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This "rotating balance" was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  15. Assessment of Wind Parameter Sensitivity on Extreme and Fatigue Wind Turbine Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Amy N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Wind turbines are designed using a set of simulations to ascertain the structural loads that the turbine could encounter. While mean hub-height wind speed is considered to vary, other wind parameters such as turbulence spectra, sheer, veer, spatial coherence, and component correlation are fixed or conditional values that, in reality, could have different characteristics at different sites and have a significant effect on the resulting loads. This paper therefore seeks to assess the sensitivity of different wind parameters on the resulting ultimate and fatigue loads on the turbine during normal operational conditions. Eighteen different wind parameters are screened using an Elementary Effects approach with radial points. As expected, the results show a high sensitivity of the loads to the turbulence standard deviation in the primary wind direction, but the sensitivity to wind shear is often much greater. To a lesser extent, other wind parameters that drive loads include the coherence in the primary wind direction and veer.

  16. Assessment of Wind Parameter Sensitivity on Ultimate and Fatigue Wind Turbine Loads: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Amy N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    Wind turbines are designed using a set of simulations to ascertain the structural loads that the turbine could encounter. While mean hub-height wind speed is considered to vary, other wind parameters such as turbulence spectra, sheer, veer, spatial coherence, and component correlation are fixed or conditional values that, in reality, could have different characteristics at different sites and have a significant effect on the resulting loads. This paper therefore seeks to assess the sensitivity of different wind parameters on the resulting ultimate and fatigue loads on the turbine during normal operational conditions. Eighteen different wind parameters are screened using an Elementary Effects approach with radial points. As expected, the results show a high sensitivity of the loads to the turbulence standard deviation in the primary wind direction, but the sensitivity to wind shear is often much greater. To a lesser extent, other wind parameters that drive loads include the coherence in the primary wind direction and veer.

  17. A wind-tunnel investigation of wind-turbine wakes in different yawed and loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastankhah, Majid; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Wind-turbine wakes have negative effects on wind-farm performance. They are associated with: (a) the velocity deficit, which reduces the generated power of downwind turbines; and (b) the turbulence level, which increases the fatigue loads on downwind turbines. Controlling the yaw angle of turbines can potentially improve the performance of wind farms by deflecting the wake away from downwind turbines. However, except for few studies, wakes of yawed turbines still suffer from the lack of systematic research. To fill this research gap, we performed wind-tunnel experiments in the recirculating boundary-layer wind tunnel at the WIRE Laboratory of EPFL to better understand the wakes of yawed turbines. High-resolution stereoscopic particle image-velocimetry (S-PIV) was used to measure three velocity components in a horizontal plane located downwind of a horizontal-axis, three-blade model turbine. A servo-controller was connected to the DC generator of the turbine, which allowed us to apply different loadings. The power and thrust coefficients of the turbine were also measured for each case. These power and thrust measurements together with the highly-resolved flow measurements enabled us to study different wake characteristics such as the energy entrainment from the outer flow into the wake, the wake deflection and the helicoidal tip vortices for yawed turbines.

  18. Can Wind Lidars Measure Turbulence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob; Gottschall, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of the systematic errors in the second-order moments of wind speeds measured by continuous-wave (ZephIR) and pulsed (WindCube) lidars is presented. These lidars use the conical scanning technique to measure the velocity field. The model captures the effect of volume illumination and coni...

  19. Work package 1B.2 under the European Commission: Integrated wind turbine design (UPWIND): Specification of long-term load measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Cutululis, N.; Soerensen, Poul

    2007-02-15

    The present report is the 12 month intermediate report of the UPWIND WP1B2 transmission and conversion. It describes the developed measurement technique for long-term load measurement technique, presents the hardware details, type of sensors and location, data storage and data analysis technique to verify design load assumptions. (au)

  20. Load alleviation of wind turbines by yaw misalignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2014-01-01

    Vertical wind shear is one of the dominating causes of load variations on the blades of a horizontal axis wind turbine. To alleviate the varying loads, wind turbine control systems have been augmented with sensors and actuators for individual pitch control. However, the loads caused by a vertical...... wind shear can also be affected through yaw misalignment. Recent studies of yaw control have been focused on improving the yaw alignment to increase the power capture at below rated wind speeds. In this study, the potential of alleviating blade load variations induced by the wind shear through yaw...... misalignment is assessed. The study is performed through simulations of a reference turbine. The study shows that optimal yaw misalignment angles for minimizing the blade load variations can be identified for both deterministic and turbulent inflows. It is shown that the optimal yaw misalignment angles can...

  1. Damping Wind and Wave Loads on a Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Bak, Thomas; Knudsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind speeds at sea. To enable deployment of wind turbines in deep-water locations, structures are being explored, where wind turbines are placed on a floating platform. This combined structure presents a new control problem, due......, and we show the influence that both wind speed, wave frequencies and misalignment between wind and waves have on the system dynamics. A new control model is derived that extends standard turbine models to include the hydrodynamics, additional platform degrees of freedom, the platform mooring system...

  2. Comparison of loads for wind turbine down-regulation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiangsheng; Ma, Kuichao; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    For wind farm active power setpoint tracking, both farm level and turbine level down regulation strategies should to be optimized. Several down regulation strategies are chosen to analyse the wind turbine load performance according to different wind speed and power reference. In this paper we...... suggest appropriate down regulation strategy to control wind turbine for active power reference tracking. we compare four different control strategies, namely Const-Ω, Const-λ, Max-Ω and Min-Ct and discuss the loads on main components and downwind speed by presenting analysis of several wind scenarios...

  3. Numerical simulation of wind loads on solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kao-Chun; Chung, Kung-Ming; Hsu, Shu-Tsung

    2018-05-01

    Solar panels mounted on the roof of a building or ground are often vulnerable to strong wind loads. This study aims to investigate wind loads on solar panels using computational fluid dynamic (CFD). The results show good agreement with wind tunnel data, e.g. the streamwise distribution of mean surface pressure coefficient of a solar panel. Wind uplift for solar panels with four aspect ratios is evaluated. The effect of inclined angle and clearance (or height) of a solar panel is addressed. It is found that wind uplift of a solar panel increases when there is an increase in inclined angle and the clearance above ground shows an opposite effect.

  4. Validation of SWAY Wind Turbine Response in FAST, with a Focus on the Influence of Tower Wind Loads: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, J. H.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Driscoll, R.; Yin Kwee Ng, E.

    2015-04-23

    Need to modify simulated system behavior to the measured data, but the tower wind loads improved the comparison for nonoperating conditions. the SWAY system in both turbine operating and nonoperating conditions. Mixed results were observed when comparing the simulated system behavior to the measured data, but the tower wind loads improved the comparison for nonoperating conditions. without the new tower-load capability to examine its influence on the response characteristics of the system. This is important in situations when the turbine is parked in survival conditions. The simulation results were then compared to measured data from the SWAY system in both turbine operating and nonoperating conditions. Mixed results were observed when comparing the simulated system behavior to the measured data, but the tower wind loads improved the comparison for nonoperating conditions.

  5. Online wind turbine measurement laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.S.; Helgesen Pedersen, K.O.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.

    2006-01-01

    conditions, 3) electrical quantities and 4) mechanical loads in terms of strain gauge signals. The data acquisition system has been designed and implemented by Risø together with students and teachers from DTU. It is based on LabVIEW© combined with a MySQL database for data management. The system enables...... calculations and extreme loads estimation in basic wind turbine courses. Power quality analysis is carried out based on high speed sampled, three-phase voltage and current signals. The wide spectrum of sensors enables a detailed study of the correlation between meteorological, mechanical and electrical...

  6. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an experimental analysis (boundary layer wind tunnel test) of the aerodynamic forces resulting from winds acting on flat plate photovoltaic arrays are presented. Local pressure coefficient distributions and normal force coefficients on the arrays are shown and compared to theoretical results. Parameters that were varied when determining the aerodynamic forces included tilt angle, array separation, ground clearance, protective wind barriers, and the effect of the wind velocity profile. Recommended design wind forces and pressures are presented, which envelop the test results for winds perpendicular to the array's longitudinal axis. This wind direction produces the maximum wind loads on the arrays except at the array edge where oblique winds produce larger edge pressure loads. The arrays located at the outer boundary of an array field have a protective influence on the interior arrays of the field. A significant decrease of the array wind loads were recorded in the wind tunnel test on array panels located behind a fence and/or interior to the array field compared to the arrays on the boundary and unprotected from the wind. The magnitude of this decrease was the same whether caused by a fence or upwind arrays.

  7. 3D WindScanner lidar measurements of wind and turbulence around wind turbines, buildings and bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Sjöholm, M.; Angelou, N.; Mann, J.

    2017-12-01

    WindScanner is a distributed research infrastructure developed at DTU with the participation of a number of European countries. The research infrastructure consists of a mobile technically advanced facility for remote measurement of wind and turbulence in 3D. The WindScanners provide coordinated measurements of the entire wind and turbulence fields, of all three wind components scanned in 3D space. Although primarily developed for research related to on- and offshore wind turbines and wind farms, the facility is also well suited for scanning turbulent wind fields around buildings, bridges, aviation structures and of flow in urban environments. The mobile WindScanner facility enables 3D scanning of wind and turbulence fields in full scale within the atmospheric boundary layer at ranges from 10 meters to 5 (10) kilometers. Measurements of turbulent coherent structures are applied for investigation of flow pattern and dynamical loads from turbines, building structures and bridges and in relation to optimization of the location of, for example, wind farms and suspension bridges. This paper presents our achievements to date and reviews briefly the state-of-the-art of the WindScanner measurement technology with examples of uses for wind engineering applications.

  8. Load flow analysis for variable speed offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Menghua; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    factors such as the different wind farm configurations, the control of wind turbines and the power losses of pulse width modulation converters are considered. The DC/DC converter model is proposed and integrated into load flow algorithm by modifying the Jacobian matrix. Two iterative methods are proposed...... and integrated into the load flow algorithm: one takes into account the control strategy of converters and the other considers the power losses of converters. In addition, different types of variable speed wind turbine systems with different control methods are investigated. Finally, the method is demonstrated......A serial AC-DC integrated load flow algorithm for variable speed offshore wind farms is proposed. It divides the electrical system of a wind farm into several local networks, and different load flow methods are used for these local networks sequentially. This method is fast, more accurate, and many...

  9. Representivity of wind measurements for design wind speed estimations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goliger, Adam M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available of instrumentation sited according to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) requirements. With the advent of automatic weather station technology several decades ago, wind measurements have become much more cost-effective. While previously wind measurements were...

  10. Monitoring fatigue loads on wind turbines using cycle counting data acquisition systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H; Seifert, H [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany); Fragoulis, A; Vionis, P; Foussekis, D [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (Greece); Dahlberg, J A; Poppen, M [The Aeronautical Research Institue of Sweden (Sweden)

    1996-09-01

    As in any industrial application, the duration of a wind turbine`s life is a key parameter for the evaluation of its economic potential. Assuming a service life of 20 years, components of the turbine have to withstand a number of load cycles of up to 10{sup 8}. Such numbers of load cycles impose high demands on the fatigue characteristics of both, the used materials and the design. Nevertheless, fatigue loading of wind turbine components still remains a parameter of high uncertainty in the design of wind turbines. The specific features of these fatigue loads can be expected to vary with the type of turbine and the site of operation. In order to ensure the reliability of the next generation of larger scale wind turbines improved load assumptions will be of vital importance. Within the scope of the presented research program DEWI, C.R.E.S. and FFA monitored fatigue loads of serial produced wind turbines by means of a monitoring method that uses on-line cycle counting techniques. The blade root bending moments of two pitch controlled, variable speed wind turbines operating in the Hamswehrum wind farm, and also that of a stall controlled, fixed speed wind turbine operating in CRES` complex terrain test site, were measured by DEWI and CRES. In parallel FFA used their database of time series measurements of blade root bending moments on a stall controlled, fixed speed turbine at Alsvik Windfarm in order to derive semi-empirical fatigue load data. The experience gained from application of the on-line measurement technique is discussed with respect to performance, data quality, reliability and cost effectiveness. Investigations on the effects of wind farm and complex terrain operation on the fatigue loads of wind turbine rotor blades are presented. (au)

  11. Aeroelastic Ground Wind Loads Analysis Tool for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Launch vehicles are exposed to ground winds during rollout and on the launch pad that can induce static and dynamic loads. Of particular concern are the dynamic loads caused by vortex shedding from nearly-cylindrical structures. When the frequency of vortex shedding nears that of a lowly-damped structural mode, the dynamic loads can be more than an order of magnitude greater than mean drag loads. Accurately predicting vehicle response to vortex shedding during the design and analysis cycles is difficult and typically exceeds the practical capabilities of modern computational fluid dynamics codes. Therefore, mitigating the ground wind loads risk typically requires wind-tunnel tests of dynamically-scaled models that are time consuming and expensive to conduct. In recent years, NASA has developed a ground wind loads analysis tool for launch vehicles to fill this analytical capability gap in order to provide predictions for prelaunch static and dynamic loads. This paper includes a background of the ground wind loads problem and the current state-of-the-art. It then discusses the history and significance of the analysis tool and the methodology used to develop it. Finally, results of the analysis tool are compared to wind-tunnel and full-scale data of various geometries and Reynolds numbers.

  12. Noise measurements in 4 wind turbine farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zuylen, E.J.; Koerts, M.

    1993-02-01

    The title wind turbine arrays are situated in Herbayum (Newinco 23PI250), Callantsoog (Bouma 160/20), Noordoostpolder (Windmaster WM300), and Ulketocht (Newinco 500 kW). Measurements were carried out by means of the so-called Ecofys Correlating Noise Meter to determine the source level of the wind turbines. The resulting source level as a function of the wind speed is interpolated to a source level for a wind speed of 8 m/s at 10 m height, on the basis of which the noise contours can be calculated. The noise contours are determined to analyze the noise load for people living in the neighbourhood of the wind parks. The source levels are compared with values as indicated in certificates, which are granted on the basis of a so-called Restricted Quality Certificate (BKC, abbreviated in Dutch) or the new standard NNI 6096/2 for the above-mentioned wind turbines. In general the results of this study agree quite well with the certified values. 12 figs., 7 tabs., 6 refs

  13. Characterization of the wind loads and flow fields around a gable-roof building model in tornado-like winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hui; Yang, Zifeng; Sarkar, Partha [Iowa State University, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ames, IA (United States); Haan, Fred [Iowa State University, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ames, IA (United States); Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2011-09-15

    An experimental study was conducted to quantify the characteristics of a tornado-like vortex and to reveal the dynamics of the flow-structure interactions between a low-rise, gable-roof building model and swirling, turbulent tornado-like winds. The experimental work was conducted by using a large-scale tornado simulator located in the Aerospace Engineering Department of Iowa State University. In addition to measuring the pressure distributions and resultant wind loads acting on the building model, a digital Particle Image Velocimetry system was used to conduct detailed flow field measurements to quantify the evolution of the unsteady vortices and turbulent flow structures around the gable-roof building model in tornado-like winds. The effects of important parameters, such as the distance between the centers of the tornado-like vortex and the test model and the orientation angles of the building model related to the tornado-like vortex, on the evolutions of the wake vortices and turbulent flow structures around the gable-roof building model as well as the wind loads induced by the tornado-like vortex were assessed quantitatively. The detailed flow field measurements were correlated with the surface pressure and wind load measurements to elucidate the underlying physics to gain further insight into flow-structure interactions between the gable-roof building model and tornado-like winds in order to provide more accurate prediction of wind damage potential to built structures. (orig.)

  14. Validated Loads Prediction Models for Offshore Wind Turbines for Enhanced Component Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koukoura, Christina

    To improve the reliability of offshore wind turbines, accurate prediction of their response is required. Therefore, validation of models with site measurements is imperative. In the present thesis a 3.6MW pitch regulated-variable speed offshore wind turbine on a monopole foundation is built...... are used for the modification of the sub-structure/foundation design for possible material savings. First, the background of offshore wind engineering, including wind-wave conditions, support structure, blade loading and wind turbine dynamics are presented. Second, a detailed description of the site...

  15. Adaptive pitch control for load mitigation of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Tang, J.

    2015-04-01

    In this research, model reference adaptive control is examined for the pitch control of wind turbines that may suffer from reduced life owing to extreme loads and fatigue when operated under a high wind speed. Specifically, we aim at making a trade-off between the maximum energy captured and the load induced. The adaptive controller is designed to track the optimal generator speed and at the same time to mitigate component loads under turbulent wind field and other uncertainties. The proposed algorithm is tested on the NREL offshore 5-MW baseline wind turbine, and its performance is compared with that those of the gain scheduled proportional integral (GSPI) control and the disturbance accommodating control (DAC). The results show that the blade root flapwise load can be reduced at a slight expense of optimal power output. The generator speed regulation under adaptive controller is better than DAC.

  16. Wind loads on post-panamax container ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of the container configuration on the deck of a 9000+ TEU container ship on wind forces has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests with a 1:450 scale model. An analysis of earlier studies was used to select a series of appropriate loading conditions...

  17. Load calculation methods for offshore wind turbine foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passon, Patrik; Branner, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Calculation of design loads for offshore wind turbine (OWT) foundations is typically performed in a joint effort between wind turbine manufactures and foundation designers (FDs). Ideally, both parties would apply the same fully integrated design tool and model for that purpose. However, such solu...

  18. Loads on Wind Turbines Access Platforms with Gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper deals with loads on wind turbine access platforms. The many planned new wind turbine parks together with the observed damages on platforms in several existing parks make the topic very important. The paper gives an overview of recently developed design formulae for different types...

  19. Predicting Ultimate Loads for Wind Turbine Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, P. H.; Pierce, K.; Buhl, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the statistical uncertainty of loads prediction using structural dynamics simulation codes and the requirements for the number and duration of simulations for obtaining robust load estimates

  20. Operation and Equivalent Loads of Wind Turbines in Large Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Soren Juhl; Sorensen, Jens Norkaer; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2017-11-01

    Wind farms continue to grow in size and as the technology matures, the design of wind farms move towards including dynamic effects besides merely annual power production estimates. The unsteady operation of wind turbines in large wind farms has been modelled with EllipSys3D(Michelsen, 1992, and Sørensen, 1995) for a number of different scenarios using a fully coupled large eddy simulations(LES) and aero-elastic framework. The turbines are represented in the flow fields using the actuator line method(Sørensen and Shen, 2002), where the aerodynamic forces and deflections are derived from an aero-elastic code, Flex5(Øye, 1996). The simulations constitute a database of full turbine operation in terms of both production and loads for various wind speeds, turbulence intensities, and turbine spacings. The operating conditions are examined in terms of averaged power production and thrust force, as well as 10min equivalent flapwise bending, yaw, and tilt moment loads. The analyses focus on how the performance and loads change throughout a given farm as well as comparing how various input parameters affect the operation and loads of the wind turbines during different scenarios. COMWIND(Grant 2104-09- 067216/DSF), Nordic Consortium on Optimization and Control of Wind Farms, Eurotech Greentech Wind project, Winds2Loads, and CCA LES. Ressources Granted on SNIC and JESS. The Vestas NM80 turbine has been used.

  1. Thermal loading of wind power converter considering dynamics of wind speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baygildina, Elvira; Peltoniemi, Pasi; Pyrhönen, Olli

    2013-01-01

    The thermal loading of power semiconductors is a crucial performance related to the reliability and cost of the wind power converter. However, the thermal loading impacts by the variation of wind speeds have not yet been clarified, especially when considering the aerodynamic behavior of the wind...... turbines. In this paper, the junction temperatures in the wind power converter are studied under not only steady state, but also turbulent wind speed conditions. The study is based on a 1.5 MW direct-driven turbine system with aerodynamic model described by Unsteady Blade Element Momentum Method (BEMM......), and the thermal stress of power devices is investigated from the frequency spectrum point of view of wind speed. It is concluded that because of the strong inertia effects by the aerodynamic behavior of wind turbines, thermal stress of the semiconductors is relatively more stable and only influenced by the low...

  2. Wind simulation for extreme and fatigue loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Larsen, G.C.; Mann, J.; Ott, S.; Hansen, K.S.; Pedersen, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric turbulence have been studied and found to deviate from a Gaussian process, in particular regarding the velocity increments over small time steps, where the tails of the pdf are exponential rather than Gaussian. Principles for extreme event counting and the occurrence of cascading events are presented. Empirical extreme statistics agree with Rices exceedence theory, when it is assumed that the velocity and its time derivative are independent. Prediction based on the assumption that the velocity is a Gaussian process underpredicts the rate of occurrence of extreme events by many orders of magnitude, mainly because the measured pdf is non-Gaussian. Methods for simulation of turbulent signals have been developed and their computational efficiency are considered. The methods are applicable for multiple processes with individual spectra and probability distributions. Non-Gaussian processes are simulated by the correlation-distortion method. Non-stationary processes are obtained by Bezier interpolation between a set of stationary simulations with identical random seeds. Simulation of systems with some signals available is enabled by conditional statistics. A versatile method for simulation of extreme events has been developed. This will generate gusts, velocity jumps, extreme velocity shears, and sudden changes of wind direction. Gusts may be prescribed with a specified ensemble average shape, and it is possible to detect the critical gust shape for a given construction. The problem is formulated as the variational problem of finding the most probable adjustment of a standard simulation of a stationary Gaussian process subject to relevant event conditions, which are formulated as linear combination of points in the realization. The method is generalized for multiple correlated series, multiple simultaneous conditions, and 3D fields of all velocity components. Generalization are presented for a single non-Gaussian process subject to relatively

  3. Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation Model Validation with Wind Farm Measurements and Uncertainty Quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koukoura, Christina; Natarajan, Anand; Krogh, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The variation in simulated monopile substructure loads is quantified by validating an aero-hydro-servo-elastic design tool with offshore foundation load measurements. A three bladed 3.6MW pitch controlled variable speed wind turbine for offshore monopile foundations is modeled in the HAWC2...

  4. Dependence of offshore wind turbine fatigue loads on atmospheric stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ott, Søren

    2014-01-01

    The stratification of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is classified in terms of the M-O length and subsequently used to determine the relationship between ABL stability and the fatigue loads of a wind turbine located inside an offshore wind farm. Recorded equivalent fatigue loads, representi...... conditions. In general, impact of ABL stratification is clearly seen on wake affected inflow cases for both blade and tower fatigue loads. However, the character of this dependence varies significantly with the type of inflow conditions – e.g. single wake inflow or multiple wake inflow....

  5. A review of the wind loading zones for flat roofs in code provisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Kopp, G.A.; Morrison, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The provisions for wind loads on flat roofs differ considerably between current wind loading standards in different jurisdictions. For a number of major wind loading codes, both the definition of roof zones, and the values applied to determine the wind loads are discussed. This paper concentrates on

  6. Multi-objective Extremum Seeking Control for Enhancement of Wind Turbine Power Capture with Load Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Li, Yaoyu; Rotea, Mario A.

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective in below rated wind speed (Region 2) is to maximize the turbine's energy capture. Due to uncertainty, variability of turbine characteristics and lack of inexpensive but precise wind measurements, model-free control strategies that do not use wind measurements such as Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) have received significant attention. Based on a dither-demodulation scheme, ESC can maximize the wind power capture in real time despite uncertainty, variabilities and lack of accurate wind measurements. The existing work on ESC based wind turbine control focuses on power capture only. In this paper, a multi-objective extremum seeking control strategy is proposed to achieve nearly optimum wind energy capture while decreasing structural fatigue loads. The performance index of the ESC combines the rotor power and penalty terms of the standard deviations of selected fatigue load variables. Simulation studies of the proposed multi-objective ESC demonstrate that the damage-equivalent loads of tower and/or blade loads can be reduced with slight compromise in energy capture.

  7. Effects of normal and extreme turbulence spectral parameters on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Natarajan, Anand; Mann, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    the recommended values in the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 that is used for wind turbine design. The present paper investigates the impact of Mann turbulence model parameter variations on the design loads envelope for 5 MW and 10 MW reference wind turbines. Specific focus is made on the blade root loads, tower top moments...... of design loads is investigated with a focus on the commonly used Mann turbulence model. Quantification of the Mann model parameters is made through wind measurements acquired from the Høvsøre site. The parameters of the Mann model fitted to site specific observations can differ significantly from...... and tower base loads under normal turbulence and extreme turbulence, whereby the change in operating extreme and fatigue design loads obtained through turbulence model parameter variations is compared with corresponding variations obtained from random seeds of turbulence. The investigations quantify...

  8. Model-Based Load Estimation for Predictive Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Pederen, Bo Juul; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    signal is performed online, and a Load Indicator Signal (LIS) is formulated as a ratio between current estimated accumulated fatigue loads and its expected value based only on a priori knowledge (WTG dynamics and wind climate). LOT initialisation is based on a priori knowledge and can be obtained using...... programme for pre-maintenance actions. The performance of LOT is demonstrated by applying it to one of the most critical WTG components, the gearbox. Model-based load CMS for gearbox requires only standard WTG SCADA data. Direct measuring of gearbox fatigue loads requires high cost and low reliability...... measurement equipment. Thus, LOT can significantly reduce the price of load monitoring....

  9. Work Package 1B.2 under the European Commission, Integrated Wind Turbine Design (UPWIND): Verification of long-term load measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.

    2011-02-15

    The present report is the final effort of tasks carried out under UPWIND WP1B2 transmission and conversion, which describes: 1) results and recommendations developed in the course of developing the long-term load measurement technique. 2) the hardware details, type of sensors and location, data storage and. 3) data analysis technique to verify design load assumptions. The work is carried out under Contract no 019945 (SES6) 'UPWIND' within the European Commission The interaction between the mechanical and electrical generator subsystems is described rudimentarily, based primarily on HAWC2 simulations below stall of the mechanical system with simple generator and gearbox systems. The electrical system simulations were not carried out as intended in DOW[2], but indications of the conditions for establishing the interaction have been described by measurements and by argument, that this might have an effect as indicated. The hypothesis stating, that the power signal can be utilized as a basic signal for extended analysis of mechanical as well as electrical power signal with static and dynamic features, has been demonstrated on performance and dynamic bandwidth capability. It is however from present analysis obvious that improved signal conditions could be achieved with other mechanical joint solutions than with the present torque signal as measured with the cardan joint. For the reasons mentioned, the comparison with a signal showing the mechanical properties could be improved, with a likely gain on the accuracy as a result. (Author)

  10. Design of a wind tunnel scale model of an adaptive wind turbine blade for active aerodynamic load control experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulskamp, A.W.; Beukers, A.; Bersee, H.E.N.; Van Wingerden, J.W.; Barlas, T.

    2007-01-01

    Within wind energy research there is a drive towards the development of a “smart rotor”; a rotor of which the loading can be measured and controlled through the application of a sensor system, a control system and an aerodynamic device. Most promising solutions from an aerodynamic point of view are

  11. VisibleWind: wind profile measurements at low altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Tom; Bradford, Bill; Marchant, Alan; Apedaile, Tom; Wright, Cordell

    2009-09-01

    VisibleWindTM is developing an inexpensive rapid response system, for accurately characterizing wind shear and small scale wind phenomena in the boundary layer and for prospecting suitable locations for wind power turbines. The ValidWind system can also collect reliable "ground truth" for other remote wind sensors. The system employs small (0.25 m dia.) lightweight balloons and a tracker consisting of an Impulse 200 XL laser rangefinder coupled to a PC for automated data recording. Experiments on balloon trajectories demonstrate that the laser detection of range (+/- 0.5 m), together with measured azimuth and altitude, is an inexpensive, convenient, and capable alternative to other wind tracking methods. The maximum detection range has been increased to 2200 meters using micro-corner-cube retroreflector tape on balloons. Low power LEDs enable nighttime tracking. To avoid large balloon gyrations about the mean trajectory, we use balloons having low ascent rates and subcritical Reynolds numbers. Trajectory points are typically recorded every 4 - 7 seconds. Atmospheric features observed under conditions of inversions or "light and variable winds" include abrupt onsets of shear at altitudes of 100-250 m, velocity changes of order 1-3 m/s within layers of 10-20 m thickness, and veering of the wind direction by 180 degrees or more as altitude increases from 300 to 500 m. We have previously reported comparisons of balloon-based wind profiles with the output of a co-located sodar. Even with the Impulse rangefinder, our system still requires a "man in the loop" to track the balloon. A future system enhancement will automate balloon tracking, so that laser returns are obtained automatically at 1 Hz. While balloon measurements of large-scale, high altitude wind profiles are well known, this novel measurement system provides high-resolution, real-time characterization of the fluctuating local wind fields at the bottom of the boundary layer where wind power turbines and other

  12. Model of analysis of maximum loads in wind generators produced by extreme winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera – Sánchez, Omar; Schellong, Wolfgang; González – Fernández, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    The use of the wind energy by means of the wind turbines in areas of high risk of occurrence of Hurricanes comes being an important challenge for the designers of wind farm at world for some years. The wind generator is not usually designed to support this type of phenomena, for this reason the areas of high incidence of tropical hurricanes of the planning are excluded, that which, in occasions disables the use of this renewable source of energy totally, either because the country is very small, or because it coincides the area of more potential fully with that of high risk. To counteract this situation, a model of analysis of maxims loads has been elaborated taken place the extreme winds in wind turbines of great behavior. This model has the advantage of determining, in a chosen place, for the installation of a wind farm, the micro-areas with higher risk of wind loads above the acceptable for the standard classes of wind turbines. (author)

  13. Individual pitch control of NREL 5MW wind turbine blade for load reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, Yo Han; Nam, Yoon Su; Hoon, Son Jae

    2012-01-01

    As the size of a wind turbine increases, the rotor diameter increases. Rotor blades experience mechanical loads caused by the wind shear and the tower shadow effect. These mechanical loads reduce the life of the wind turbine. Therefore, with increasing size of the wind turbine, wind turbine control system design for the mitigation of mechanical loads is important. In this study, Individual Pitch Control in introduced for reducing the mechanical loads of rotor blades, and a simulation for IPC performance verification is discussed

  14. Wind load effects on high rise buildings in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamani, Z.; Thang, K. C.; Haider, B.; Shariff, M.

    2018-04-01

    Wind is a randomly varying dynamic phenomenon composed of a multitude of eddies of varying sizes and rotational characteristics along a general stream of air moving relative to the ground. These eddies give wind its gustiness, creating fluctuation and results in a complex flow characteristics. The wind vector at any point can be regarded as the sum of mean wind vector and the fluctuation components. These components not only vary with height but also dependant on the approach terrain and topography. Prevailing wind exerts pressure onto the structural surfaces. The effects of wind pressure in the form of shear and bending moments are found to be a major problem in structural failure. This study aims to study the effects of wind load on a fifteen-storey high rise building using EN 1991-1-4 code and MS1553:2002. The simulation results showed that by increasing the wind speed, the storey resultant forces, namely storey shear and storey moment increases significantly. Furthermore, simulation results according to EN 1991-1-4 yield higher values compared to the simulation results according to MS1553:2002.

  15. Using wind speed from a blade-mounted flow sensor for power and load assessment on modern wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pedersen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an alternative method to evaluate power performance and loads on wind turbines using a blade-mounted flow sensor is investigated. The hypothesis is that the wind speed measured at the blades has a high correlation with the power and loads such that a power or load assessment can be performed from a few hours or days of measurements.In the present study a blade-mounted five-hole pitot tube is used as the flow sensor as an alternative to the conventional approach, where the reference wind speed is either measured at a nearby met mast or on the nacelle using lidar technology or cup anemometers. From the flow sensor measurements, an accurate estimate of the wind speed at the rotor plane can be obtained. This wind speed is disturbed by the presence of the wind turbine, and it is therefore different from the free-flow wind speed. However, the recorded wind speed has a high correlation with the actual power production as well as the flap-wise loads as it is measured close to the blade where the aerodynamic forces are acting.Conventional power curves are based on at least 180 h of 10 min mean values, but using the blade-mounted flow sensor both the observation average time and the overall assessment time can potentially be shortened. The basis for this hypothesis is that the sensor is able to provide more observations with higher accuracy, as the sensor follows the rotation of the rotor and because of the high correlation between the flow at the blades and the power production. This is the research question addressed in this paper.The method is first tested using aeroelastic simulations where the dependence of the radial position and effect of multiple blade-mounted flow sensors are also investigated. Next the method is evaluated on the basis of full-scale measurements on a pitch-regulated, variable-speed 3.6 MW wind turbine.It is concluded that the wind speed derived from the blade-mounted flow sensor is highly correlated with the

  16. Grid faults' impact on wind turbine structural loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.; Cutululis, N.A.; Soerensen, P.; Larsen, T.J. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Wind Energy Dept. (Denmark); Iov, F.

    2007-11-15

    The objective of this work is to illustrate the impact of the grid faults on the wind turbine structural loads. Grid faults are typically in detailed power system simulation tools, which by applying simplified mechanical models, are not able to provide a throughout insight on the structural loads caused by sudden disturbances on the grid. On the other hand, structural loads of the wind turbine are typically assessed in advanced aeroelastic computer codes, which by applying simplified electrical models do not provide detailed electrical insight. This paper presents a simulation strategy, where the focus is on how to access a proper combination of two complementary simulation tools, such as the advanced aeroelastic computer code HAWC2 and the detailed power system simulation tool DIgSILENT, in order to provide a whole overview of both the structural and the electrical behaviour of the wind turbine during grid faults. The effect of a grid fault on the wind turbine flexible structure is assessed for a typical fixed speed wind turbine, equipped with an induction generator. (au)

  17. H∞ Based Control for Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron Pujana-Arrese

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates a strategy to design multivariable and multi-objective controllers based on the H∞ norm reduction applied to a wind turbine. The wind turbine model has been developed in the GH Bladed software and it is based on a 5 MW wind turbine defined in the Upwind European project. The designed control strategy works in the above rated power production zone and performs generator speed control and load reduction on the drive train and tower. In order to do this, two robust H∞ MISO (Multi-Input Single-Output controllers have been developed. These controllers generate collective pitch angle and generator torque set-point values to achieve the imposed control objectives. Linear models obtained in GH Bladed 4.0 are used, but the control design methodology can be used with linear models obtained from any other modelling package. Controllers are designed by setting out a mixed sensitivity problem, where some notch filters are also included in the controller dynamics. The obtained H∞ controllers have been validated in GH Bladed and an exhaustive analysis has been carried out to calculate fatigue load reduction on wind turbine components, as well as to analyze load mitigation in some extreme cases. The analysis compares the proposed control strategy based on H∞ controllers to a baseline control strategy designed using the classical control methods implemented on the present wind turbines.

  18. Wind Speed Preview Measurement and Estimation for Feedforward Control of Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simley, Eric J.

    Wind turbines typically rely on feedback controllers to maximize power capture in below-rated conditions and regulate rotor speed during above-rated operation. However, measurements of the approaching wind provided by Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) can be used as part of a preview-based, or feedforward, control system in order to improve rotor speed regulation and reduce structural loads. But the effectiveness of preview-based control depends on how accurately lidar can measure the wind that will interact with the turbine. In this thesis, lidar measurement error is determined using a statistical frequency-domain wind field model including wind evolution, or the change in turbulent wind speeds between the time they are measured and when they reach the turbine. Parameters of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 5-MW reference turbine model are used to determine measurement error for a hub-mounted circularly-scanning lidar scenario, based on commercially-available technology, designed to estimate rotor effective uniform and shear wind speed components. By combining the wind field model, lidar model, and turbine parameters, the optimal lidar scan radius and preview distance that yield the minimum mean square measurement error, as well as the resulting minimum achievable error, are found for a variety of wind conditions. With optimized scan scenarios, it is found that relatively low measurement error can be achieved, but the attainable measurement error largely depends on the wind conditions. In addition, the impact of the induction zone, the region upstream of the turbine where the approaching wind speeds are reduced, as well as turbine yaw error on measurement quality is analyzed. In order to minimize the mean square measurement error, an optimal measurement prefilter is employed, which depends on statistics of the correlation between the preview measurements and the wind that interacts with the turbine. However, because the wind speeds encountered by

  19. High resolution climatological wind measurements for wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    Measurements with a combined cup anemometer/wind vane instrument, developed at the Department of Meteorology in Uppsala, is presented. The instrument has a frequency response of about 1 Hz, making it suitable not only for mean wind measurements, but also for studies of atmospheric turbulence. It is robust enough to be used for climatological purposes. Comparisons with data from a hot-film anemometer show good agreement, both as regards standard deviations and the spectral decomposition of the turbulent wind signal. The cup anemometer/wind vane instrument is currently used at three sites within the Swedish wind energy research programme. These measurements are shortly described, and a few examples of the results are given. 1 ref, 10 figs

  20. Validation of Sodar Measurements for Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2006-01-01

    the project and a new remote power system has been designed. A direct comparison between SODAR and cup measurements revealed a limitation for the SODAR measurements during different weather conditions, especially since the SODAR was not able to measure wind speeds above 15 m/s due to an increasing back-ground......A ground-based SODAR has been tested for 1½ years together with a traditional measurement set-up consisting of cups and vanes for measuring wind data for wind power assessment at a remote location. Many problems associated to the operation of a remote located SODAR have been solved during...... noise. Instead, using the SODAR as a profiler to establish representative wind speed profiles was successful. These wind speed profiles are combined with low height reference measurements to establish reliable hub height wind speed distributions. Representative wind speed profiles can be establish...

  1. Optimized Control Strategy For Over Loaded Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Knudsen, Torben; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    controller tuning for a given wind turbine. It also enables a very safe and robust comparison between a new control strategy and the present one. Main body of abstract Is it true that power de-rating indeed the best way to reduce loads? The power de-rating approach has the drawback of only indirectly...

  2. Assessment of load extrapolation methods for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, H.S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Veldkamp, D.

    2010-01-01

    an approximate analytical solution for the distribution of the peaks is given by Rice. In the present paper three different methods for statistical load extrapolation are compared with the analytical solution for one mean wind speed. The methods considered are global maxima, block maxima and the peak over...

  3. Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Veldkamp, Dick

    2011-01-01

    , an approximate analytical solution for the distribution of the peaks is given by Rice. In the present paper, three different methods for statistical load extrapolation are compared with the analytical solution for one mean wind speed. The methods considered are global maxima, block maxima, and the peak over...

  4. Application of Load Carrying Sandwich Elements in Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Fisker; Schultz, Jacob Pagh; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2005-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibilities and drawbacks when applying sandwich as opposed to single skin composites in the flanges of the load carrying spar in a future 180 m wind turbine rotor. FEA is applied to investigate two basic designs with single skin and sandwich flanges respectively...

  5. Aerodynamic load control strategy of wind turbine in microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangming; Liu, Heshun; Chen, Yanfei

    2017-12-01

    A control strategy is proposed in the paper to optimize the aerodynamic load of the wind turbine in micro-grid. In grid-connection mode, the wind turbine adopts a new individual variable pitch control strategy. The pitch angle of the blade is rapidly given by the controller, and the pitch angle of each blade is fine tuned by the weight coefficient distributor. In islanding mode, according to the requirements of energy storage system, a given power tracking control method based on fuzzy PID control is proposed. Simulation result shows that this control strategy can effectively improve the axial aerodynamic load of the blade under rated wind speed in grid-connection mode, and ensure the smooth operation of the micro-grid in islanding mode.

  6. Model Predictive Control for Load Frequency Control with Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable load frequency (LFC control is crucial to the operation and design of modern electric power systems. Considering the LFC problem of a four-area interconnected power system with wind turbines, this paper presents a distributed model predictive control (DMPC based on coordination scheme. The proposed algorithm solves a series of local optimization problems to minimize a performance objective for each control area. The scheme incorporates the two critical nonlinear constraints, for example, the generation rate constraint (GRC and the valve limit, into convex optimization problems. Furthermore, the algorithm reduces the impact on the randomness and intermittence of wind turbine effectively. A performance comparison between the proposed controller with and that without the participation of the wind turbines is carried out. Good performance is obtained in the presence of power system nonlinearities due to the governors and turbines constraints and load change disturbances.

  7. Structural investigation of composite wind turbine blade considering various load cases and fatigue life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, C.; Bang, J.; Sugiyama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This study proposes a structural design for developing a medium scale composite wind turbine blade made of E-glass/epoxy for a 750 kW class horizontal axis wind turbine system. The design loads were determined from various load cases specified at the IEC61400-1 international specification and GL regulations for the wind energy conversion system. A specific composite structure configuration, which can effectively endure various loads such as aerodynamic loads and loads due to accumulation of ice, hygro-thermal and mechanical loads, was proposed. To evaluate the proposed composite wind turbine blade, structural analysis was performed by using the finite element method. Parametric studies were carried out to determine an acceptable blade structural design, and the most dominant design parameters were confirmed. In this study, the proposed blade structure was confirmed to be safe and stable under various load conditions, including the extreme load conditions. Moreover, the blade adapted a new blade root joint with insert bolts, and its safety was verified at design loads including fatigue loads. The fatigue life of a blade that has to endure for more than 20 years was estimated by using the well-known S-N linear damage theory, the service load spectrum, and the Spera's empirical equations. With the results obtained from all the structural design and analysis, prototype composite blades were manufactured. A specific construction process including the lay-up molding method was applied to manufacturing blades. Full-scale static structural test was performed with the simulated aerodynamic loads. From the experimental results, it was found that the designed blade had structural integrity. In addition, the measured results of deflections, strains, mass, and radial center of gravity agreed well with the analytical results. The prototype blade was successfully certified by an international certification institute, GL (Germanisher Lloyd) in Germany

  8. Fault Detection and Load Distribution for the Wind Farm Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchersen, Anders Bech; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a fault detection system and a fault tolerant controller for a wind farm model is designed and tested. The wind farm model is taken from the wind farm challenge which is a public available challenge where a wind farm consisting of nine turbines is proposed. The goal of the challenge...... normal and faulty conditions. Thus a fault detection system and a fault tolerant controller has been designed and combined. The fault tolerant control system has then been tested and compared to the reference system and shows improvement on all measures....

  9. Grid faults' impact on wind turbine structural loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Iov, F.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to illustrate the impact of the grid faults on the wind turbine structural loads. Grid faults are typically simulated in detailed power system simulation tools, which by applying simplified mechanical models, are not able to provide a throughout insight...... on the structural loads caused by sudden disturbances on the grid. On the other hand, structural loads of the wind turbine are typically assessed in advanced aerolastic computer codes, which by applying simplified electrical models do not provide detailed electrical insight. This paper presents a simulation...... strategy, where the focus is on how to access a proper combination of two complimentary simulations tools, such as the advanced aeroelastic computer code HAWC2 and the detailed power system simulation tool DIgSILENT, in order to provide a whole overview of both the structural and the electrical behaviour...

  10. Reducing Turbine Mechanical Loads Using Flow Model-Based Wind Farm Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazda, Jonas; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    Cumulated O&M costs of offshore wind farms are comparable with wind turbine CAPEX of such wind farm. In wind farms, wake effects can result in up to 80% higher fatigue loads at downstream wind turbines [1] and consequently larger O&M costs. The present work therefore investigates to reduce...... these loads during the provision of grid balancing services using optimal model-based wind farm control. Wind farm controllers coordinate the operating point of wind turbines in a wind farm in order to achieve a given objective. The investigated objective of the control in this work is to follow a total wind...... farm power reference while reducing the tower bending moments of the turbines in the wind farm. The wind farm controller is tested on a 8 turbine array, which is representative of a typical offshore wind farm. The operation of the wind farm is simulated using the dynamic wind farm simulation tool S imWind...

  11. Validation of the dynamic wake meander model for loads and power production in the Egmond aan Zee wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates wake effects on load and power production by using the dynamic wake meander (DWM) model implemented in the aeroelastic code HAWC2. The instationary wind farm flow characteristics are modeled by treating the wind turbine wakes as passive tracers transported downstream using...... a meandering process driven by the low frequent cross-wind turbulence components. The model complex is validated by comparing simulated and measured loads for the Dutch Egmond aan Zee wind farm consisting of 36 Vestas V90 turbine located outside the coast of the Netherlands. Loads and production are compared...... for two distinct wind directions—a free wind situation from the dominating southwest and a full wake situation from northwest, where the observed turbine is operating in wake from five turbines in a row with 7D spacing. The measurements have a very high quality, allowing for detailed comparison of both...

  12. A systematic hub loads model of a horizontal wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazacoks, Romans; Jamieson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The wind turbine industry has focused offshore on increasing the capacity of a single unit through up-scaling their machines. There is however a lack of systematic studies on how loads vary due to properties of a wind turbine and scaling of wind turbines. The purpose of this paper is to study how applied blade modifications, with similarities such as mass, stiffness and dimensions, influence blade root moments and lifetime damage equivalent loads (DELs) of the rotor blades. In order to produce fatigue load blade root moment trends based on the applied modifications. It was found that a linear trend of lifetime DELs based on the applied modifications of blades, which have effect on the natural frequency of blade of the original or reference model. As the control system was tuned for the specific frequency of the reference model. The linear trend of lifetime DELs was generated as long as the natural frequency of the reference model was preserved. For larger modifications of the wind turbine the controller would need retuning

  13. Small-Signal Stability of Wind Power System With Full-Load Converter Interfaced Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygaard; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2012-01-01

    Small-signal stability analysis of power system oscillations is a well established field within power system analysis, but not much attention has yet been paid to systems with a high penetration of wind turbines and with large wind power plants (WPP). In this paper a comprehensive analysis...... is presented which assesses the impact of full-load converter interfaced wind turbines on power system small-signal stability. The study is based on a 7 generator network with lightly damped inter-area modes. A detailed wind turbine (WT) model with all grid relevant control functions is used in the study....... The WT is, furthermore, equipped with a park level WPP voltage controller and comparisons are presented. The WT model for this work is a validated dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power WT. The study is based on modal analysis which is complemented with time domain simulations on the nonlinear...

  14. Predicting the Extreme Loads on a Wind Turbine Considering Uncertainty in Airfoil Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Imad; Natarajan, Anand; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    The sources contributing to uncertainty in a wind turbine blade static airfoil data include wind tunnel testing, CFD calculations, 3D rotational corrections based on CFD or emprircal models, surface roughness corrections, Reynolds number corrections, expansion to the full 360-degree angle of attack...... range, validation by full scale measurements, and geometric distortions of the blade during manufacturing and under loading. In this paper a stochastic model of the static airfoil data is proposed to supplement the prediction of extreme loads effects for large wind turbines. It is shown...... that the uncertainty in airfoil data can have e significant impact on the prediction of extreme loads effects depending on the component, and the correlation along the span of the blade....

  15. Floating wind generators offshore wind farm: Implications for structural loads and control actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.; Morant F, Quiles E.; Correcher, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the work currently carried out in the design of floating wind generators and their involvement in the future development of power generation in marine farms in depths exceeding 20 m. We discuss the main issues to be taken into account in the design of floating platforms, including the involvement of structural loads they bear. Also from a standpoint of control engineering are discussed strategies to reduce structural loads such a system to ensure adequate durability and therefore ensuring their economic viability. Finally, the abstract modeling tools for floating wind turbines that can be used in both structural design and the design of appropriate control algorithms

  16. AC-DC integrated load flow calculation for variable speed offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a sequential AC-DC integrated load flow algorithm for variable speed offshore wind farms. In this algorithm, the variable frequency and the control strategy of variable speed wind turbine systems are considered. In addition, the losses of wind turbine systems and the losses...... of converters are also integrated into the load flow algorithm. As a general algorithm, it can be applied to different types of wind farm configurations, and the load flow is related to the wind speed....

  17. Wind integration in self-regulating electric load distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, Simon; Wang, Dan; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned [University of Victoria, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, STN CSC, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2012-12-15

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and assess an alternative method of mitigating short-term wind energy production variability through the control of electric loads. In particular, co-located populations of electric vehicles and heat pumps are targeted to provide regulation-based ancillary services, as the inherent operational flexibility and autonomous device-level control strategy associated with these load-types provide an ideal platform to mitigate enhanced variability within the power system. An optimal control strategy capable of simultaneously balancing these grid-side objectives with those typically expected on the demand-side is introduced. End-use digital communication hardware is used to track and control population dynamics through the development of online aggregate load models equivalent to conventional dispatchable generation. The viability of the proposed load control strategy is assessed through model-based simulations that explicitly track end-use functionality of responsive devices within a power systems analysis typically implemented to observe the effects of integrated wind energy systems. Results indicate that there is great potential for the proposed method to displace the need for increased online regulation reserve capacity in systems considering a high penetration of wind energy, thereby allowing conventional generation to operate more efficiently. (orig.)

  18. High resolution wind measurements for offshore wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son Van (Inventor); Neumann, Gregory (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method, apparatus, system, article of manufacture, and computer readable storage medium provide the ability to measure wind. Data at a first resolution (i.e., low resolution data) is collected by a satellite scatterometer. Thin slices of the data are determined. A collocation of the data slices are determined at each grid cell center to obtain ensembles of collocated data slices. Each ensemble of collocated data slices is decomposed into a mean part and a fluctuating part. The data is reconstructed at a second resolution from the mean part and a residue of the fluctuating part. A wind measurement is determined from the data at the second resolution using a wind model function. A description of the wind measurement is output.

  19. Wind Simulation for Extreme and Fatigue Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Mann, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    by many orders of magnitude, mainly because the measured pdf is non-Gaussian. Methods for simulation of turbulent signals have been developed and theircomputational efficiency are considered. The methods are applicable for multiple processes with individual spectra and probability distributions. Non...... is formulated as the variational problem of finding the most probable adjustment of a standard simulation of a stationary Gaussian process subject to relevant event conditions, which are formulated as linear combination of pointsin the realization. The method is generalized for multiple correlated series......Measurements of atmospheric turbulence have been studied and found to deviate from a Gaussian process, in particular regarding the velocity increments over small time steps, where the tails of the pdf are exponential rather than Gaussian. Principles forextreme event counting and the occurrence...

  20. Proportional resonant individual pitch control for mitigation of wind turbines loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe; Cheng, Ming

    2013-01-01

    attenuation. The individual pitch control (IPC) is a promising way to reduce the wind turbine loads. This study presents a proportional resonant (PR) IPC, which does not need the measurement of blade azimuth angle and multiple complex Coleman transformations between rotational coordinate frame and stationary...... coordinate frame. The new strategy can attenuate the 1p and higher harmonics on the wind turbine blades as well as 3p on the hub without any filters. The wind turbine code fatigue, aerodynamics, structures and turbulence is applied to a doubly fed induction generator-based wind power generation system....... The simulations are performed on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1.5 MW upwind reference wind turbine model. The simulation results are presented and discussed to demonstrate the capability and effectiveness of the proposed PR IPC method....

  1. Shear and Turbulence Estimates for Calculation of Wind Turbine Loads and Responses Under Hurricane Strength Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovic, B.; Bryan, G. H.; Haupt, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Schwartz et al. (2010) recently reported that the total gross energy-generating offshore wind resource in the United States in waters less than 30m deep is approximately 1000 GW. Estimated offshore generating capacity is thus equivalent to the current generating capacity in the United States. Offshore wind power can therefore play important role in electricity production in the United States. However, most of this resource is located along the East Coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico, areas frequently affected by tropical cyclones including hurricanes. Hurricane strength winds, associated shear and turbulence can affect performance and structural integrity of wind turbines. In a recent study Rose et al. (2012) attempted to estimate the risk to offshore wind turbines from hurricane strength winds over a lifetime of a wind farm (i.e. 20 years). According to Rose et al. turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons. They concluded that there is "substantial risk that Category 3 and higher hurricanes can destroy half or more of the turbines at some locations." More robust designs including appropriate controls can mitigate the risk of wind turbine damage. To develop such designs good estimates of turbine loads under hurricane strength winds are essential. We use output from a large-eddy simulation of a hurricane to estimate shear and turbulence intensity over first couple of hundred meters above sea surface. We compute power spectra of three velocity components at several distances from the eye of the hurricane. Based on these spectra analytical spectral forms are developed and included in TurbSim, a stochastic inflow turbulence code developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/preprocessors/turbsim/). TurbSim provides a numerical simulation including bursts of coherent turbulence associated with organized turbulent structures. It can generate realistic flow conditions that an operating turbine

  2. Wind loads on stand-off photovoltaic systems on pitched roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Blackmore, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Stand-off photovoltaic systems are a popular measure for retrofitting of existing pitched roofs. Panels are generally mounted parallel to the existing roof coverings, usually roofing tiles. Full scale and wind tunnel experiments have been performed to determine the net uplift loads on these systems,

  3. Load mitigation of unbalanced wind turbines using PI-R individual pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Cheng, Ming; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the load mitigation of unbalanced wind turbines, including balanced and unbalanced loads. Regarding the wind turbine load reduction, it has been shown that individual pitch control (IPC) is more promising in comparison with collective pitch control. However, wind turbine......) controller and two resonant (R) compensators is presented. The PI-R regulator is implemented in the hub reference frame to reduce both the balanced and unbalanced loads of the turbine. The wind turbine code FAST (fatigue, aerodynamics, structures and turbulence) is used for the wind turbine load modelling....... The simulations are conducted on the NREL upwind 1.5 MW wind turbine model. Elimination of both the balanced and unbalanced loads of the wind turbine has been achieved, so that PI-R IPC is demonstrated as an effective means for load mitigation of unbalanced wind turbines....

  4. Wind measurement via direct detection lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afek, I.; Sela, N.; Narkiss, N.; Shamai, G.; Tsadka, S.

    2013-10-01

    Wind sensing Lidar is considered a promising technology for high quality wind measurements required for various applications such as hub height wind resource assessment, power curve measurements and advanced, real time, forward looking turbine control. Until recently, the only available Lidar technology was based on coherent Doppler shift detection, whose market acceptance has been slow primarily due to its exuberant price. Direct detection Lidar technology provides an alternative to remote sensing of wind by incorporating high precision measurement, a robust design and an affordable price tag.

  5. Calculating the sensitivity of wind turbine loads to wind inputs using response surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinker, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to calculate wind turbine load sensitivities to turbulence parameters through the use of response surfaces. A response surface is a highdimensional polynomial surface that can be calibrated to any set of input/output data and then used to generate synthetic data at a low computational cost. Sobol sensitivity indices (SIs) can then be calculated with relative ease using the calibrated response surface. The proposed methodology is demonstrated by calculating the total sensitivity of the maximum blade root bending moment of the WindPACT 5 MW reference model to four turbulence input parameters: a reference mean wind speed, a reference turbulence intensity, the Kaimal length scale, and a novel parameter reflecting the nonstationarity present in the inflow turbulence. The input/output data used to calibrate the response surface were generated for a previous project. The fit of the calibrated response surface is evaluated in terms of error between the model and the training data and in terms of the convergence. The Sobol SIs are calculated using the calibrated response surface, and the convergence is examined. The Sobol SIs reveal that, of the four turbulence parameters examined in this paper, the variance caused by the Kaimal length scale and nonstationarity parameter are negligible. Thus, the findings in this paper represent the first systematic evidence that stochastic wind turbine load response statistics can be modeled purely by mean wind wind speed and turbulence intensity. (paper)

  6. Isolated systems with wind power. Results of measurements in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Saleh, L.; Hafiez, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    different sites. Three of the sites were in Hurghada, where the power system is rather large. The last two measurement sites were at village systems: one large system and one with only power ca. five hours perday. The measured load profiles were quite different at the different sites. The power quality...... at the different sites was adequate even at the small village sites where the load is almost constant. The impact of different load profiles on the technicaland economic performance of a wind diesel system in the feasibility phase was investigated. The results indicate that when the profile has low values...

  7. Active aerodynamic load control on wind turbines : Aeroservoelastic modeling and wind tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlas, A.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates particular concepts and technologies that can alleviate fatigue loads on wind turbines by using distributed active aerodynamic devices on the blades, a concept briefly referred to as `smart blades'. Firstly, published research work on smart control devices is reviewed, and

  8. Active load reduction by means of trailing edge flaps on a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, Ian; Castaignet, Damien; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the blade fatigue load reduction achieved with a trailing edge flap during a full scale test on a Vestas V27 wind turbine. A frequency-weighted linear model predictive control (MPC) is tuned to decrease flapwise blade root fatigue loads at the frequencies where most of the blade...... damage occurs, i.e. the 1P and 2P frequencies (respectively 1 and 2 events per revolution). Frequency-weighted MPC is chosen for its ability to handle constraints on the trailing edge flap deflection and to optimise its actuation in order to decrease wear and tear of the actuator. The controller...... was first tested in aero-servo-elastic simulations, before being implemented on a Vestas V27 wind turbine. Consistent load reduction is achieved during the full-scale test. An average of 14% flapwise blade root fatigue load reduction is measured....

  9. Study on Determination Method of Fatigue Testing Load for Wind Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Gaohua; Wu, Jianzhong

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the load calculation method of the fatigue test was studied for the wind turbine blade under uniaxial loading. The characteristics of wind load and blade equivalent load were analyzed. The fatigue property and damage theory of blade material were studied. The fatigue load for 2MW blade was calculated by Bladed, and the stress calculated by ANSYS. Goodman modified exponential function S-N curve and linear cumulative damage rule were used to calculate the fatigue load of wind turbine blades. It lays the foundation for the design and experiment of wind turbine blade fatigue loading system.

  10. Wake-Effect Minimising Optimal Control of Wind Farms, with Load Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchersen, Anders Bech; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Sivabalan, Senthuran

    2014-01-01

    A power generating wind turbine causes a speed reduction and an added turbulence to the wind. Wind turbines in wind farms are often caught in these wakes and are found to have a higher structural load than non affected wind turbines. This article investigates the possibility of designing a contro...

  11. Effects of gain-scheduling methods in a classical wind turbine controller on wind turbine aeroservoelastic modes and loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaldi, Carlo; Henriksen, Lars Christian; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2014-01-01

    The eects of dierent gain-scheduling methods for a classical wind turbine controller, operating in full load region, on the wind turbine aeroservoelastic modes and loads are investigated in this work. The dierent techniques are derived looking at the physical problem to take into account the chan......The eects of dierent gain-scheduling methods for a classical wind turbine controller, operating in full load region, on the wind turbine aeroservoelastic modes and loads are investigated in this work. The dierent techniques are derived looking at the physical problem to take into account...

  12. Participation of Flexible Loads in Load Frequency Control to Support High Wind Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uslu, Umur; Zhang, Boyang; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2016-01-01

    The increasing amount of fluctuating wind power penetration in power systems presents many challenges to its operation and control. The new wind power plants are replacing many of the conventional large power plants that ensure power balancing and ancillary services for stable and reliable...... operation of the grid. Therefore, new solutions for power balancing reserves have to be explored and utilized by the grid utilities. To meet these challenges, large sizable loads like alkaline electrolysers, heat pumps and electric vehicles which are gaining popularity can provide system support to the grid...... through their inherent flexibility and energy storage characteristics. This paper investigates the possibilities and potential of such flexible loads to participate in power system frequency regulation in a wind dominated power system. The results show that these consumption units provide better...

  13. Simulation of wind loads on facades - Out in the wind; Simulation von Windlasten auf Fassaden. Vom Winde umstroemt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menti, U.-P.; Pluess, I.

    2007-07-01

    This illustrated article discusses the wind loads experienced by buildings at exposed locations and, in particular, the correct design of their facades. The various numerical methods such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) available for this purpose are introduced and explained. The validation of the models is discussed and the simulation of wind loads on the new revolving restaurant on the Hohe Kasten mountain in eastern Switzerland is looked at. Here winds with speeds of up to 250 km/h from various directions can be expected. Illustrations are provided of the results obtained. Practical results obtained from the simulations such as the design of the building's facades and the correct placing of air vents are presented and discussed.

  14. Monitoring of wind load and response for cable-supported bridges in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kai-yuen; Chan, Wai-Yee K.; Man, King-Leung

    2001-08-01

    Structural health monitoring for the three cable-supported bridges located in the West of Hong Kong or the Tsing Ma Control Area has been carried out since the opening of these bridges to public traffic. The three cable-supported bridges are referred to as the Tsing Ma (suspension) Bridge, the Kap Shui Mun (cable-stayed) Bridge and the Ting Kau (cable-stayed) Bridge. The structural health monitoring works involved are classified as six monitoring categories, namely, wind load and response, temperature load and response, traffic load and response, geometrical configuration monitoring, strains and stresses/forces monitoring and global dynamic characteristics monitoring. As wind loads and responses had been a major concern in the design and construction stages, this paper therefore outlines the work of wind load and response monitoring on Tsing Ma, Kap Shui Mun and Ting Kau Bridges. The paper starts with a brief description of the sensory systems. The description includes the layout and performance requirements of sensory systems for wind load and responses monitoring. Typical results of wind load and response monitoring in graphical forms are then presented. These graphical forms include the plots of wind rose diagrams, wind incidences vs wind speeds, wind turbulence intensities, wind power spectra, gust wind factors, coefficient of terrain roughness, extreme wind analyses, deck deflections/rotations vs wind speeds, acceleration spectra, acceleration/displacement contours, and stress demand ratios. Finally conclusions on wind load and response monitoring on the three cable-supported bridges are drawn.

  15. Planetary Load Sharing in Three-Point Mounted Wind Turbine Gearboxes: A Design and Test Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Zhiwei [Romax InSight, Nottingham, (United Kingdom); Lucas, Doug [The Timken Company, Jackson Township, OH (United States)

    2017-04-06

    This work compares the planetary load-sharing characteristics of wind turbine gearboxes supported by cylindrical roller bearings (CRBs) and preloaded tapered roller bearings (TRBs) when subjected to rotor moments. Planetary bearing loads were measured in field-representative dynamometer tests and compared to loads predicted by finite-element models. Preloaded TRBs significantly improved load sharing. In pure torque conditions, the upwind planet bearing load in the gearbox with preloaded TRBs was only 14% more than the assumed load compared to 47% more for the gearbox with CRBs. Consequently, the predicted fatigue life of the complete set of planetary bearings for the gearbox with preloaded TRBs is 3.5 times greater than that of the gearbox with CRBs.

  16. Wind load design methods for ground-based heliostats and parabolic dish collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterka, J A; Derickson, R G [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Fluid Dynamics and Diffusion Lab.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this design method is to define wind loads on flat heliostat and parabolic dish collectors in a simplified form. Wind loads are defined for both mean and peak loads accounting for the protective influence of upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other wind-blockage elements. The method used to define wind loads was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors, heliostats or parabolic dishes, placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind-tunnel at Colorado State University. For both heliostats and parabolic dishes, loads are reported for solitary collectors and for collectors as elements of a field. All collectors were solid with negligible porosity; thus the effects of porosity in the collectors is not addressed.

  17. Along-wind response of a wind turbine tower with blade coupling subjected to rotationally sampled wind loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murtagh, P J; Basu, B; Broderick, B M [Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-07-15

    This paper proposes an approach to investigate the along-wind forced vibration response of a wind turbine tower and rotating blades assembly subjected to rotationally sampled stationary wind loading. The wind turbine assembly consists of three rotating rotor blades connected to the top of a flexible annular tower, constituting a multi-body dynamic entity. The tower and rotating blades are each modelled as discretized multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) entities, allowing the free vibration characteristics of each to be obtained using a discrete parameter approach. The free vibration properties of the tower include the effect of a rigid mass at the top, representing the nacelle, and those of the blade include the effects of centrifugal stiffening due to rotation and blade gravity loadings. The blades are excited by drag force time-histories derived from discrete Fourier transform (DFT) representations of rotationally sampled wind turbulence spectra. Blade response time-histories are obtained using the mode acceleration method, which allows for the quantification of base shear forces due to flapping for the three blades to be obtained. This resultant base shear is imparted into the top of the tower. Wind drag loading on the tower is also considered, with a series of spatially correlated nodal force time-histories being derived using DFTs of wind force spectra. The tower/nacelle is then coupled with the rotating blades by combining their equations of motion and solving for the displacement at the top of the tower under compatibility conditions in the frequency domain. An inverse Fourier transform of the frequency domain response yields the response time-history of the coupled system. The response of an equivalent system that does not consider the blade/tower interaction is also investigated, and the results are compared. (Author)

  18. A Wind Farm Controller for Load and Power Optimization in a Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Brand, Arno; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design procedure of an optimal wind farm controller. The controller optimizes the structural load and power production simultaneously, on the basis of an analytical wind farm model. The farm model delivers maps of wind, loads and energy in the wind farm. Moreover, the model...... computes the wind speed at the turbines, turbine bending moments and aerodynamic power and torque. The optimal control problem is formulated based on the model for two different wind directions. The controller determines the reference signals for each individual wind turbine controller in two scenarios...... based on low and high wind speed. In low wind speed, the reference signals for rotor speed are adjusted, taking the trade-off between power maximization and load minimization into account. In high wind speed, the power and pitch angle reference signals are determined while structural loads are minimized....

  19. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Design Load Cases Investigation and Comparison with Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galinos, Christos; Larsen, Torben J.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2016-01-01

    The paper studies the applicability of the IEC 61400-1 ed.3, 2005 International Standard of wind turbine minimum design requirements in the case of an onshore Darrieus VAWT and compares the results of basic Design Load Cases (DLCs) with those of a 3-bladed HAWT. The study is based on aeroelastic...... computations using the HAWC2 aero-servo-elastic code A 2-bladed 5 MW VAWT rotor is used based on a modified version of the DeepWind rotor For the HAWT simulations the NREL 3-bladed 5 MW reference wind turbine model is utilized Various DLCs are examined including normal power production, emergency shut down...... and parked situations, from cut-in to cut-out and extreme wind conditions. The ultimate and 1 Hz equivalent fatigue loads of the blade root and turbine base bottom are extracted and compared in order to give an insight of the load levels between the two concepts. According to the analysis the IEC 61400-1 ed...

  20. Mobile measurement system for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kildemoes Moeller, T.

    1997-06-01

    The aim of this project `Udviklingsafproevning af smaa moellevinger` has been to develop a mobile measurement system for wind turbines. The following report describes the measurement system. The project has been financed by the Danish Ministry of Energy. (au)

  1. Multi-component wind measurements of wind turbine wakes performed with three LiDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iungo, G. V.; Wu, Y.-T.; Porté-Agel, F.

    2012-04-01

    Field measurements of the wake flow produced from the interaction between atmospheric boundary layer and a wind turbine are performed with three wind LiDARs. The tested wind turbine is a 2 MW Enercon E-70 located in Collonges, Switzerland. First, accuracy of mean values and frequency resolution of the wind measurements are surveyed as a function of the number of laser rays emitted for each measurement. Indeed, measurements performed with one single ray allow maximizing sampling frequency, thus characterizing wake turbulence. On the other hand, if the number of emitted rays is increased accuracy of mean wind is increased due to the longer sampling period. Subsequently, two-dimensional measurements with a single LiDAR are carried out over vertical sections of the wind turbine wake and mean wake flow is obtained by averaging 2D measurements consecutively performed. The high spatial resolution of the used LiDAR allows characterizing in details velocity defect present in the central part of the wake and its downstream recovery. Single LiDAR measurements are also performed by staring the laser beam at fixed directions for a sampling period of about ten minutes and maximizing the sampling frequency in order to characterize wake turbulence. From these tests wind fluctuation peaks are detected in the wind turbine wake at blade top-tip height for different downstream locations. The magnitude of these turbulence peaks is generally reduced by moving downstream. This increased turbulence level at blade top-tip height observed for a real wind turbine has been already detected from previous wind tunnel tests and Large Eddy simulations, thus confirming the presence of a source of dangerous fatigue loads for following wind turbines within a wind farm. Furthermore, the proper characterization of wind fluctuations through LiDAR measurements is proved by the detection of the inertial subrange from spectral analysis of these velocity signals. Finally, simultaneous measurements with two

  2. Validation of Sodar Measurements for Wind Power

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2006-01-01

    A ground-based SODAR has been tested for 1½ years together with a traditional measurement set-up consisting of cups and vanes for measuring wind data for wind power assessment at a remote location. Many problems associated to the operation of a remote located SODAR have been solved during the project and a new remote power system has been designed. A direct comparison between SODAR and cup measurements revealed a limitation for the SODAR measurements during different weather conditions, espec...

  3. Load alleviation on wind turbine blades using variable airfoil geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basualdo, S.

    2005-03-01

    A two-dimensional theoretical study of the aeroelastic behaviour of an airfoil has been performed, whose geometry can be altered using a rear-mounted flap. This device is governed by a controller, whose objective is to reduce the airfoil displacements and, therefore, the stresses present in a real blade. The aerodynamic problem was solved numerically by a panel method using the potential theory, suitable for modelling attached flows. It is therefore mostly applicable for Pitch Regulated Variable Speed (PRVS) wind turbines, which mainly operate under this flow condition. The results show evident reductions in the airfoil displacements by using simple control strategies having the airfoil position and its first and second derivatives as input, especially at the system's eigenfrequency. The use of variable airfoil geometry is an effective means of reducing the vibration magnitudes of an airfoil that represents a section of a wind turbine blade, when subject to stochastic wind signals. The results of this investigation encourage further investigations with 3D aeroelastic models to predict the reduction in loads in real wind turbines. (author)

  4. Atmospheric diffusion wind tunnel with automatic measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, S; Sakai, J; Murata, E

    1974-01-01

    A wind tunnel which permits estimates of atmospheric diffusion is described. Smoke from power plant smoke stacks, for example, can be simulated and traced to determine the manner of diffusion in the air as well as the grade of dilution. The wind tunnel is also capable of temperature controlled diffusion tests in which temperature distribution inside the wind tunnel is controlled. A minimum wind velocity of 10 cm can be obtained with accuracy within plus or minus 0.05 percent using a controlled direct current motor; diffusion tests are often made at low wind velocity. Fully automatic measurements can be obtained by using a minicomputer so that the operation and reading of the measuring instruments can be remotely controlled from the measuring chamber. (Air Pollut. Abstr.)

  5. Effects of interruptible load program on equilibrium outcomes of electricity markets with wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Xuena; Zhang, Shaohua; Li, Xue [Shanghai Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Power Station Automation Technology

    2013-07-01

    High wind power penetration presents a lot of challenges to the flexibility and reliability of power system operation. In this environment, various demand response (DR) programs have got much attention. As an effective measure of demand response programs, interruptible load (IL) programs have been widely used in electricity markets. This paper addresses the problem of impacts of the IL programs on the equilibrium outcomes of electricity wholesale markets with wind power. A Cournot equilibrium model of wholesale markets with wind power is presented, in which IL programs is included by a market demand model. The introduction of the IL programs leads to a non-smooth equilibrium problem. To solve this equilibrium problem, a novel solution method is proposed. Numerical examples show that IL programs can lower market price and its volatility significantly, facilitate the integration of wind power.

  6. A FULL-SCALE MEASUREMENT OF WIND ACTIONS AND EFFECTS ON A SEA-CROSSING BRIDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind loading is critical for the large-span and light-weight structures, and field measurement is the most effective way to evaluate the wind resistance performance of a specific structure. This study investigates the wind characteristics and wind-induced vibration on a sea-crossing bridge in China, namely Donghai Bridge, based on up to six years of monitoring data. It is found that: (1 there exists obvious discrepancy between the measured wind field parameters and the values suggested by the design code; and the wind records at the bridge site is easily interfered by the bridge structure itself, which should be considered in interpreting the measurements and designing structural health monitoring systems (SHMS; (2 for strong winds with high non-stationarity, a shorter averaging time than 10-min is preferable to obtain more stable turbulent wind characteristics; (3 the root mean square (RMS of the wind-induced acceleration of the girder may increase in an approximately quadratic curve relationship with the mean wind speed; and (4 compared to traffic load, the wind dominates the girder’s lateral vibration amplitude, while the heavy-load traffic might exert more influence on the girder’s vertical and torsional vibrations than the high winds. This study provides field evidence for the wind-resistant design and evaluation of bridges in similar operational conditions.

  7. Wind turbine wake measurement in complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Menke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    SCADA data from a wind farm and high frequency time series measurements obtained with remote scanning systems have been analysed with focus on identification of wind turbine wake properties in complex terrain. The analysis indicates that within the flow regime characterized by medium to large dow...

  8. Review of climatic input data for wind load design in accordance with SANS 10160-3

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goliger, Adam MW

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available factor QWE that provides for the wind engineering procedures, such as the wind speed profile and pressure coefficients. The characteristic wind load is then given by Equation 4, where CoV is the coefficient of variation (σV/µV): QW,k = QWE (µV + 2....59 σV)2 = QWE µVk2(1+ 2.59 CoVV)2 (6) Design wind load The design wind load can be obtained by determining the wind speed according to Equation 4 for an exceedance probability (PF) that corresponds with the appropriate target reliability (β...

  9. Field measurement of wind pressure and wind-induced vibration of large-span spatial cable-truss system under strong wind or typhoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhihong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure wind-resistance safety of large-span pre-stressed flexible system in southeast coast area of China,and to prepare something for revising of current codes of practice or technical standards,the present paper conducts field measurement of wind pressure and wind-induced vibration of a practical and typical large-span spatial cable-truss system-lunar stadium in Yueqing city.Wind loading and wind effects on full-scale structure under strong wind or typhoon in real architectural environment can be obtained directly and effectively.Field measurement is the best way to investigate the wind loading property,wind effects,and wind-structure interactions of large-span flexible system.Measured data will be highly valuable for scientific research and practical design.On the other hand,it also provides the basis of wind-resistance safety design of this kind of tension structures.If any creative development,it would dramatically improve the research level of large-span pre-stressed flexible system in our country.

  10. Calculating the sensitivity of wind turbine loads to wind inputs using response surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinker, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    at a low computational cost. Sobol sensitivity indices (SIs) can then be calculated with relative ease using the calibrated response surface. The proposed methodology is demonstrated by calculating the total sensitivity of the maximum blade root bending moment of the WindPACT 5 MW reference model to four......This paper presents a methodology to calculate wind turbine load sensitivities to turbulence parameters through the use of response surfaces. A response surface is a high-dimensional polynomial surface that can be calibrated to any set of input/output data and then used to generate synthetic data...... turbulence input parameters: a reference mean wind speed, a reference turbulence intensity, the Kaimal length scale, and a novel parameter reflecting the nonstationarity present in the inflow turbulence. The input/output data used to calibrate the response surface were generated for a previous project...

  11. Modelling and Measuring Flow and Wind Turbine Wakes in Large Wind Farms Offshore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs

    2009-01-01

    power losses due to wakes and loads. The research presented is part of the EC-funded UpWind project, which aims to radically improve wind turbine and wind farm models in order to continue to improve the costs of wind energy. Reducing wake losses, or even reduce uncertainties in predicting power losses...

  12. Thermal Loading and Reliability of 10 MW Multilevel Wind Power Converter at Different Wind Roughness Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isidori, Andrea; Rossi, Fabio Mario; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design, thermal loading, and reliability of a three-level neutral-point-clamped back-to-back full-scale converter for a 10-MW direct-drive wind turbine equipped with a permanent-magnet synchronous generator. The reliability performance of the three-level converter...... is strongly influenced by the thermal behavior of the semiconductor devices and their mission profile which directly affects the lifetime and the cost of the entire converter. Therefore, a simulation platform is developed in a Matlab/Simulink and PLECS simulation environment to analyze the dynamics...... of the system using different kinds of modulation strategies and analyzing the different wind-load conditions that are dependent on roughness classes. This paper shows that the 60 ° discontinuous pulsewidth-modulation strategies allow better thermal performance and increase the estimated lifetime...

  13. Thermal loading and reliability of 10 MW multilevel wind power converter at different wind roughness classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isidori, Andrea; Rossi, Fabio Mario; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design, thermal loading and reliability of a three-level Neutral Point Clamped (3-L NPC) back-to-back full scale converter for a 10 MW direct-drive wind turbine equipped with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The reliability performance of the three......-level converter is strongly influenced by the thermal behaviour of the semiconductor devices and their mission profile which directly affects the lifetime and the cost of the whole converter. Therefore, the simulation platform is developed in Matlab/Simulink and PLECS simulation environment to analyse...... the dynamics of the system using different kinds of modulation strategies and analyzing different wind load conditions dependent on roughness classes. It is concluded that 60° discontinuous PWM modulation strategies show better thermal performance and increase the estimated lifetime of the converter...

  14. Measuring tropospheric wind with microwave sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrigtsen, B.; Su, H.; Turk, J.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Dang, V. T.

    2017-12-01

    In its 2007 "Decadal Survey" of earth science missions for NASA the U.S. National Research Council recommended that a Doppler wind lidar be developed for a three-dimensional tropospheric winds mission ("3D-Winds"). The technology required for such a mission has not yet been developed, and it is expected that the next Decadal Survey, planned to be released by the end of 2017, will put additional emphasis on the still pressing need for wind measurements from space. The first Decadal Survey also called for a geostationary microwave sounder (GMS) on a Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) mission, which could be used to measure wind from space. Such a sounder, the Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer (GeoSTAR), has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The PATH mission has not yet been funded by NASA, but a low-cost subset of PATH, GeoStorm has been proposed as a hosted payload on a commercial communications satellite. Both PATH and GeoStorm would obtain frequent (every 15 minutes of better) measurements of tropospheric water vapor profiles, and they can be used to derive atmospheric motion vector (AMV) wind profiles, even in the presence of clouds. Measurement of wind is particularly important in the tropics, where the atmosphere is largely not in thermal balance and wind estimates cannot generally be derived from temperature and pressure fields. We report on simulation studies of AMV wind vectors derived from a GMS and from a cluster of low-earth-orbiting (LEO) small satellites (e.g., CubeSats). The results of two separate simulation studies are very encouraging and show that a ±2 m/s wind speed precision is attainable, which would satisfy WMO requirements. A GMS observing system in particular, which can be implemented now, would enable significant progress in the study of atmospheric dynamics. Copyright 2017 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged

  15. Wind-induced transmission tower foundation loads. A field study-design code comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savory, E. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont. (Canada); Parke, G.A.R.; Disney, P.; Toy, N. [School of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    This paper presents a comparison between the wind-induced foundation loads measured on a type L6 transmission line tower during a field study in the UK and those computed using the UK Code of Practice for lattice tower and transmission line design (BS8100). In this work, the Code provisions have been generalised to give the wind-induced strain in each of the tower legs immediately above the foundation as a function of wind direction and wind speed at the top of the tower. The complete data set from the field monitoring has been decomposed to provide a similar formulation for comparison purposes. The analysis shows excellent agreement between the Code calculations and the measured results, within the overall accuracy of the field data. This indicates that, at least for the tower type examined here, the existing design Code provides a reliable transformation of the local wind speed at the top of the tower into tension and compression loads on the foundations. (author)

  16. Loads on Entrance Platforms for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of the performed large scale tests in GWK, Hannover for studying wave run-up generated forces on wind turbine entrance platforms. The run-up height and velocity was measured by use of high speed video recordings supplemented by some wave gauges mounted at the p...

  17. A Wind Farm Active Power Dispatch Strategy for Fatigue Load Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; N. Soltani, Mohsen; Hu, Weihao

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in wind farm management is to cope with requirements from the grid companies and to optimize efficiency and minimize wear on wind turbines. This paper addresses an optimized active power dispatch strategy of a wind farm to reduce the fatigue load of wind turbines, wh...

  18. Study on the influence of attitude angle on lidar wind measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaochen; Dou, Peilin; Xue, Yangyang

    2017-11-01

    When carrying on wind profile measurement of offshore wind farm by shipborne Doppler lidar technique, the ship platform often produces motion response under the action of ocean environment load. In order to measure the performance of shipborne lidar, this paper takes two lidar wind measurement results as the research object, simulating the attitude of the ship in the ocean through the three degree of freedom platform, carrying on the synchronous observation test of the wind profile, giving an example of comparing the wind measurement data of two lidars, and carrying out the linear regression statistical analysis for all the experimental correlation data. The results show that the attitude angle will affect the precision of the lidar, The influence of attitude angle on the accuracy of lidar is uncertain. It is of great significance to the application of shipborne Doppler lidar wind measurement technology in the application of wind resources assessment in offshore wind power projects.

  19. Inflow characteristics associated with high-blade-loading events in a wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, N. D.

    1993-07-01

    The stochastic characteristics of the turbulent inflow have been shown to be of major significance in the accumulation of fatigue in wind turbines. Because most of the wind turbine installations in the U.S. have taken place in multi-turbine or windfarm configurations, the fatigue damage associated with the higher turbulence levels within such arrangements must be taken into account when making estimates of component service lifetimes. The simultaneous monitoring of two adjacent wind turbines over a wide range of turbulent inflow conditions has given the authors more confidence in describing the structural load distributions that can be expected in such an environment. The adjacent testing of the two turbines allowed the authors to postulate that observed similarities in the response dynamics and load distributions could be considered quasi-universal, while the dissimilarities could be considered to result from the differing design of the rotors. The format has also allowed them to begin to define appropriate statistical load distribution models for many of the critical components in which fatigue is a major driver of the design. In addition to the adjacent turbine measurements, they also briefly discuss load distributions measured on a teetered-hub turbine.

  20. Towards a reliable design of facade and roof elements against wind loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Staalduinen, P.C. van; Wit, M.S. de

    2004-01-01

    The most vulnerable parts of buildings with respect to wind loading are facades and roofs. Current standards on wind loading provide data to determine design loads for the elements in facades and roofs. These data are available for a limited number of simple building shapes. Up to now there is no

  1. Observations of Building Performance under Combined Wind and Surge Loading from Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, F.; Roueche, D. B.; Krupar, R. J.; Smith, D. J.; Soto, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey struck the Texas coastline on August 25, 2017, as a Category 4 hurricane - the first major hurricane to reach the US in twelve years. Wind gusts over 130 mph and storm surge as high as 12.5 ft caused widespread damage to buildings and critical infrastructure in coastal communities including Rockport, Fulton, Port Aransas and Aransas Pass. This study presents the methodology and preliminary observations of a coordinated response effort to document residential building performance under wind and storm surge loading. Over a twelve day survey period the study team assessed the performance of more than 1,000 individual, geo-located residential buildings. Assessments were logged via a smartphone application to facilitate rapid collection and collation of geotagged photographs, building attributes and structural details, and structural damage observations. Detailed assessments were also made of hazard intensity, specifically storm surge heights and both wind speed and direction indicators. Preliminary observations and findings will be presented, showing strong gradients in damage between inland and coastal regions of the affected areas that may be due in part to enhanced individual loading effects of wind and storm surge and potentially joint-hazard loading effects. Contributing factors to the many cases of disproportionate damage observed in close proximity will also be discussed. Ongoing efforts to relate building damage to near-surface hazard measurements (e.g., radar, anemometry) in close proximity will also be described.

  2. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  3. Turbulent wind field characterization and re-generation based on pitot tube measurements mounted on a wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard; Larsen, Torben J.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2015-01-01

    models that compensate for axial and tangential induction, approximated by blade element momentum theory, radial expansion of the inflow, rotor tilt, dynamic and skew inflow, tip loss, as well as braking and circulation of the flow local to the airfoil. The wind speeds measured on the rotating blades...... the measured wind speeds at the recording position. In the theoretical part of this study a quite good agreement is seen between load sensors on a turbine model exposed to the reference and the re-generated turbulence field. Finally the method is applied to full scale measurements and reasonable wind shear...

  4. Some aspects on wind turbines monitoring. General considerations and loads on horizontal wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuerva, A.

    1996-12-01

    The concept Monitoring applied to the Wind Energy technology is similar to the definition used in other branches of Science or Engineering, this is knowing values of variables which have to do with a mechanic system, in our case a wind turbine. These mentioned parameters may have different relationships to our wind turbine; some of them come from the environment the machine is operating in, others, are a measure of how properly the machine is working, and finally, the rest are an assessment of the ``system`s health`` during its ``life``. In this chapter we will answer questions such as: What do we need to measure? Why is Monitoring mandatory (from the different points of view of people involved in this world)? How can we measure a wind turbine depending on our objectives (Technic, tools, guidance, recommendations, etc)? And finally What can we expect in the near future?. The author wants the reader to keep the idea in mind that Monitoring means the richest and most accurate knowledge on wind turbine`s operation (Its environment, performances of health). This is the first step that allows us to optimize the operation mode of the machine and improve it (design, manufacturing, even the used modeling tools). When there is so much money involved, this fact becomes a must. (Author)

  5. Some aspects on wind turbines monitoring. General considerations and loads on horizontal wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuerva, A.

    1996-01-01

    The concept Monitoring applied to the Wind Energy technology is similar to the definition used in other branches of Science or Engineering, this is knowing values of variables which have to do with a mechanic system, in our case a wind turbine. These mentioned parameters may have different relationships to our wind turbine; some of them come from the environment the machine is operating in, others, are a measure of how properly the machine is working, and finally, the rest are an assessment of the systems health during its life. In this chapter we will answer questions such as: What do we need to measure? Why is Monitoring mandatory (from the different points of view of people involved in this world)? How can we measure a wind turbine depending on our objectives (Technic, tools, guidance, recommendations, etc.)? And finally What can we expect in the near future? The author wants the reader to keep the idea in mind that Monitoring means the richest and most accurate knowledge on wind turbine's operation (Its environment, performances or health). This is the first step that allows us to optimize the operation mode of the machine and improve it (design, manufacturing, even the used modeling tools). When there is so much money involved, this fact becomes a must. (Author)

  6. Determining the impact of wind on system costs via the temporal patterns of load and wind generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Clay D.; Gotham, Douglas J.; Preckel, Paul V.; Liu, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Ambitious targets have been set for expanding electricity generation from renewable sources, including wind. Expanding wind power impacts needs for other electricity generating resources. As states plan for increasing levels of wind generation in their portfolio of generation resources it is important to consider how this intermittent resource impacts the need for other generation resources. A case study for Indiana estimates the value of wind capacity and demonstrates how to optimize its level and the levels of other generation resources. Changes are driven by temporal patterns of wind power output and load. System wide impacts are calculated for energy, capacity, and costs under multiple wind expansion scenarios which highlight the geographic characteristics of a systems portfolio of wind generation. The impacts of carbon prices, as proposed in the Bingaman Bill, are considered. Finally, calculations showing the effect increasing levels of wind generation will have on end use Indiana retail rates are included. - Highlights: • We estimate the value of wind capacity. • We determine wind generation's impact on the optimal mix of non-wind generation. • Optimal levels of wind and non-wind generation are determined. • We consider the impact of a carbon price on the optimal mix of resources. • The impact of additional wind capacity on Indiana residential rates is calculated

  7. Determination of the wind power systems load to achieve operation in the maximum energy area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioncel, C. P.; Tirian, G. O.; Spunei, E.; Gillich, N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyses the operation of the wind turbine, WT, in the maximum power point, MPP, by linking the load of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator, PMSG, with the wind speed value. The load control methods at wind power systems aiming an optimum performance in terms of energy are based on the fact that the energy captured by the wind turbine significantly depends on the mechanical angular speed of the wind turbine. The presented control method consists in determining the optimal mechanical angular speed, ωOPTIM, using an auxiliary low power wind turbine, WTAUX, operating without load, at maximum angular velocity, ωMAX. The method relies on the fact that the ratio ωOPTIM/ωMAX has a constant value for a given wind turbine and does not depend on the time variation of the wind speed values.

  8. Turbulence and turbulence-generated structural loading in wind turbine clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten Tronæs

    2007-01-01

    of the model is that it became part of the Danish standard for wind turbine design DS 472 (2001) in August 2001 and it is part of the corresponding international standard, IEC61400-1 (2005). Also, extreme loading under normal operation for wake conditions and the efficiency of very large wind farms......Turbulence - in terms of standard deviation of wind speed fluctuations - and other flow characteristics are different in the interior of wind farms relative to the free flow and action must be taken to ensure sufficient structural sustainability of the wind turbines exposed to “wind farm flow......”. The standard deviation of wind speed fluctuations is a known key parameter for both extreme- and fatigue loading, and it is argued and found to be justified that a model for change in turbulence intensity alone may account for increased fatigue loading in wind farms. Changes in scale of turbulence...

  9. Load and Flicker Mitigation of Grid-Connected Wind Turbines with DFIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian

    power will result in the flicker emission in the power network, causing consumer annoyance and complaint. These issues make the study on the wind turbine load reduction and the flicker mitigation necessary and imperative. The research documented in this thesis addresses wind turbine load reduction under...... both balanced and unbalanced conditions and flicker mitigation issues of wind turbines system. To reduce the wind turbine loads, PI control based individual pitch control (IPC) scheme is presented. The PI IPC scheme is developed to reduce not only the loads on the blade, but also the loads on the rotor...... the balanced loads but also the unbalanced loads. Flicker emission which is harmful to the power system is induced by voltage fluctuations which are caused by load flow changes in the grid. One way for flicker mitigation is to reduce the power fluctuation from the fluctuation source. Individual pitch control...

  10. Forces and Moments on Flat Plates of Small Aspect Ratio with Application to PV Wind Loads and Small Wind Turbine Blades

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Ortiz; David Rival; David Wood

    2015-01-01

    To improve knowledge of the wind loads on photovoltaic structures mounted on flat roofs at the high angles required in high latitudes, and to study starting flow on low aspect ratio wind turbine blades, a series of wind tunnel tests were undertaken. Thin flat plates of aspect ratios between 0.4 and 9.0 were mounted on a sensitive three-component instantaneous force and moment sensor. The Reynolds numbers varied from 6 × 10 4 to 2 × 10 5 . Measurements were made for angles of attack between 0°...

  11. Fully vs. Sequentially Coupled Loads Analysis of Offshore Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiani, Rick; Wendt, Fabian; Musial, Walter; Finucane, Z.; Hulliger, L.; Chilka, S.; Dolan, D.; Cushing, J.; O' Connell, D.; Falk, S.

    2017-06-19

    The design and analysis methods for offshore wind turbines must consider the aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loads and response of the entire system (turbine, tower, substructure, and foundation) coupled to the turbine control system dynamics. Whereas a fully coupled (turbine and support structure) modeling approach is more rigorous, intellectual property concerns can preclude this approach. In fact, turbine control system algorithms and turbine properties are strictly guarded and often not shared. In many cases, a partially coupled analysis using separate tools and an exchange of reduced sets of data via sequential coupling may be necessary. In the sequentially coupled approach, the turbine and substructure designers will independently determine and exchange an abridged model of their respective subsystems to be used in their partners' dynamic simulations. Although the ability to achieve design optimization is sacrificed to some degree with a sequentially coupled analysis method, the central question here is whether this approach can deliver the required safety and how the differences in the results from the fully coupled method could affect the design. This work summarizes the scope and preliminary results of a study conducted for the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement aimed at quantifying differences between these approaches through aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulations of two offshore wind turbines on a monopile and jacket substructure.

  12. Optimized Power Dispatch in Wind Farms for Power Maximizing Considering Fatigue Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; N. Soltani, Mohsen; Hu, Weihao

    2018-01-01

    Wake effects in a wind farm (WF) include the wind velocity deficit and added turbulence. The wind velocity deficit may bring significant loss of the wind power and the added turbulence may cause extra fatigue load on the wind turbines (WTs). Inclusion of the wake effects in the wind farm control...... at a series of turbulence intensity, mean wind speed and active power reference to form a lookup table, which is used for the WF control. The proposed strategy is compared with WT MPPT control strategy and WF MPPT control strategy. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed strategy....

  13. Fiber Laser for Wind Speed Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Sig

    This PhD thesis evaluates the practical construction and use of a Frequency Stepped Pulse Train modulated coherent Doppler wind lidar (FSPT lidar) for wind speed measurement. The concept of Doppler lidar is introduced as a means to measure line of sight wind speed by the Doppler shift of reflected...... Sweeper (LSFS) is introduced and analyzed as a light source for the FSPT lidar. The setup of the LSFS is discussed, and the necessary concepts for modeling and analyzing LSFS noise are developed. The model and measurements are then used to discuss the growth of optical noise in the LSFS and the impact...... on its use in the FSPT lidar. A complex ABCD model is developed and described as a method for calculating spatial and frequency dependency of a lidar’s signal strength. The model includes both spatial and temporal components of the lidar system, enabling a model capable of describing both CW, pulsed...

  14. Wind farm electrical power production model for load flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura-Heras, Isidoro; Escriva-Escriva, Guillermo; Alcazar-Ortega, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The importance of renewable energy increases in activities relating to new forms of managing and operating electrical power: especially wind power. Wind generation is increasing its share in the electricity generation portfolios of many countries. Wind power production in Spain has doubled over the past four years and has reached 20 GW. One of the greatest problems facing wind farms is that the electrical power generated depends on the variable characteristics of the wind. To become competitive in a liberalized market, the reliability of wind energy must be guaranteed. Good local wind forecasts are therefore essential for the accurate prediction of generation levels for each moment of the day. This paper proposes an electrical power production model for wind farms based on a new method that produces correlated wind speeds for various wind farms. This method enables a reliable evaluation of the impact of new wind farms on the high-voltage distribution grid. (author)

  15. Intercalibration of HRDI and WINDII wind measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Burrage

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI and the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII in- struments, which are both on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, measure winds by sensing the Doppler shift in atmospheric emission features. Because the two observation sets are frequently nearly coincident in space and time, each provides a very e.ective validation test of the other. Discrepancies due to geophysical di.erences should be much smaller than for comparisons with other techniques (radars, rockets, etc., and the very large sizes of the coincident data sets provide excellent statistics for the study. Issues that have been examined include relative systematic o.sets and the wind magnitudes obtained with the two systems. A significant zero wind position di.erence of ~6 m s–1 is identified for the zonal component, and it appears that this arises from an absolute perturbation in WINDII winds of –4 m s–1 and in HRDI of +2 m s–1. Altitude o.sets appear to be relatively small, and do not exceed 1 km. In addition, no evidence is found for the existence of a systematic wind speed bias between HRDI and WINDII. However, considerable day-to-day variability is found in the quality of the agreement, and RMS di.erences are surprisingly large, typically in the range of 20±30 m s–1.

  16. Intercalibration of HRDI and WINDII wind measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Burrage

    Full Text Available The High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI and the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII in- struments, which are both on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, measure winds by sensing the Doppler shift in atmospheric emission features. Because the two observation sets are frequently nearly coincident in space and time, each provides a very e.ective validation test of the other. Discrepancies due to geophysical di.erences should be much smaller than for comparisons with other techniques (radars, rockets, etc., and the very large sizes of the coincident data sets provide excellent statistics for the study. Issues that have been examined include relative systematic o.sets and the wind magnitudes obtained with the two systems. A significant zero wind position di.erence of ~6 m s–1 is identified for the zonal component, and it appears that this arises from an absolute perturbation in WINDII winds of –4 m s–1 and in HRDI of +2 m s–1. Altitude o.sets appear to be relatively small, and do not exceed 1 km. In addition, no evidence is found for the existence of a systematic wind speed bias between HRDI and WINDII. However, considerable day-to-day variability is found in the quality of the agreement, and RMS di.erences are surprisingly large, typically in the range of 20±30 m s–1.

  17. How good are remote sensors at measuring extreme winds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathe, A.R.; Courtney, M.; Mann, J.; Wagner, R.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes some preliminary efforts within the SafeWind project, aimed to identify the possible added value of using wind lidars to detect extreme wind events. Exceptionally good performance is now regularly reported in the measurement of the mean wind speed with some wind lidars in flat

  18. Decoupled simulations of offshore wind turbines with reduced rotor loads and aerodynamic damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schafhirt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Decoupled load simulations are a computationally efficient method to perform a dynamic analysis of an offshore wind turbine. Modelling the dynamic interactions between rotor and support structure, especially the damping caused by the rotating rotor, is of importance, since it influences the structural response significantly and has a major impact on estimating fatigue lifetime. Linear damping is usually used for this purpose, but experimentally and analytically derived formulas to calculate an aerodynamic damping ratio often show discrepancies to measurement and simulation data. In this study decoupled simulation methods with reduced and full rotor loads are compared to an integrated simulation. The accuracy of decoupled methods is evaluated and an optimization is performed to obtain aerodynamic damping ratios for different wind speeds that provide the best results with respect to variance and equivalent fatigue loads at distinct output locations. Results show that aerodynamic damping is not linear, but it is possible to match desired output using decoupled models. Moreover, damping ratios obtained from the empirical study suggest that aerodynamic damping increases for higher wind speeds.

  19. Controller design for a Wind Farm, Considering both Power and Load Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2011-01-01

    turbine. The control algorithm determines the reference signals for each individual wind turbine controller in two scenarios based on low and high wind speed. In low wind speed, the reference signals for rotor speed are adjusted, taking the trade-off between power maximization and load minimization...

  20. Wake Influence on Dynamic Load Characteristics of Offshore Floating Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeon, Minu; Lee, Soogab; Kim, Taeseong

    2016-01-01

    Because the flow conditions of an offshore floating wind turbine and onshore fixed wind turbine differ, it is debatable whether the aerodynamic load predictions of an offshore floating wind turbine using the conventional blade-element momentum theory, which does not consider the dynamic wake effe...

  1. Robust Multimodal Cognitive Load Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-26

    75th percentiles. Results and Discussion: As an example, Figure 2 shows the median of the extracted HRE from the frontal channels in scale 5, for...the extracted HRE are able to distinguish the seven task loads better with q closer to 1, as it consistently reveals a decreasing median with

  2. Directionality Effects of Aligned Wind and Wave Loads on a Y-Shape Semi-Submersible Floating Wind Turbine under Rated Operational Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengtao Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Y-shape (triangular semi-submersible foundation has been adopted by most of the built full-scale floating wind turbines, such as Windfloat, Fukushima Mirai and Shimpuu. Considering the non-fully-symmetrical shape and met-ocean condition, the foundation laying angle relative to wind/wave directions will not only influence the downtime and power efficiency of the floating turbine, but also the strength and fatigue safety of the whole structure. However, the dynamic responses induced by various aligned wind and wave load directions have scarcely been investigated comparatively before. In our study, the directionality effects are investigated by means of combined wind and wave tests and coupled multi-body simulations. By comparing the measured data in three load directions, it is found that the differences of platform motions are mainly derived from the wave loads and larger pitch motion can always be observed in one of the directions. To make certain the mechanism underlying the observed phenomena, a coupled multi-body dynamic model of the floating wind turbine is established and validated. The numerical results demonstrate that the second-order hydrodynamic forces contribute greatly to the directionality distinctions for surge and pitch, and the first-order hydrodynamic forces determine the variations of tower base bending moments and nacelle accelerations. These findings indicate the directionality effects should be predetermined comprehensively before installation at sea, which is important for the operation and maintenance of the Y-shape floating wind turbines.

  3. On Small-Signal Stability of Wind Power System with Full-Load Converter Interfaced Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Akhmatov, Vladislav; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygård

    2010-01-01

    the impact of full-load converter interfaced wind turbines on power system small-signal stability. The study is based on a 7 generator network with lightly damped inter-area modes. A detailed wind turbine model with all grid relevant control functions is used in the study. Furthermore is the wind power plant......Small-signal stability analysis of power system oscillations is a well established field within power system analysis, but not much attention has yet been paid to systems with a high penetration of wind turbines and with large wind power plants. In this paper an analysis is presented which assess...... (WPP) equipped with a WPP voltage controller and comparisons are presented. The models of wind turbine and WPP voltage controller are kindly provided by Siemens Wind Power A/S for this work. The study is based on modal analysis which are complemented with simulations on the nonlinear system....

  4. An Optimization Framework for Load and Power Distribution in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal; Kanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a controller for wind farms to optimize the load and power distribution. In this regard, the farm controller calculates the power reference signals for individual wind turbine controllers such that the sum of the power references tracks the power demanded...... by a system operator. Moreover, the reference signals are determined to reduce the load acting on wind turbines at low frequencies. Therefore, a trade-off is made for load and power control, which is formulated as an optimization problem. Afterwards, the optimization problem for the wind farm modeled...

  5. Fatigue Load Sensitivity Based Optimal Active Power Dispatch For Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimal active power dispatch algorithm for wind farms based on Wind Turbine (WT) load sensitivity. The control objectives include tracking power references from the system operator and minimizing fatigue loads experienced by WTs. The sensitivity of WT fatigue loads to power...... sensitivity are derived, which significantly improves the computation efficiency of the local WT controller. The proposed algorithm can be implemented in different active power control schemes. Case studies were conducted with a wind farm under balance control for both low and high wind conditions...

  6. Wind Atlas of Bay of Bengal with Satellite Wind Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadi, Navila Rahman

    footstep towards offshore wind energy analysis for this region. Generally, it is difficult to find offshore wind data relative to the wind turbine hub heights, therefore a starting point is necessary to identify the possible wind power density of the region. In such scenario, Synthetic aperture radars (SAR......The objective of this study is to obtain appropriate offshore location in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh for further development of wind energy. Through analyzing the previous published works, no offshore wind energy estimation has been found here. That is why, this study can be claimed as the first......) have proven useful. In this study, SAR based dataset- ENVISAT ASAR has been used for Wind Atlas generation. Furthermore, a comparative study has been performed with Global Wind Atlas (GWA) to determine a potential offshore wind farm. Additionally, the annual energy production of that offshore windfarm...

  7. An MPC approach to individual pitch control of wind turbines using uncertain LIDAR measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Soltani, Mohsen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    wind turbine in the full load region is considered. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the problem. A new approach is proposed to simplify the optimization problem of MPC. We linearize the obtained nonlinear model for different operating points which are determined by the effective wind...... speed on the rotor disc and take the wind speed as a scheduling variable. The wind speed is measurable ahead of the turbine using LIDARs, therefore the scheduling variable is known for the entire prediction horizon. We consider uncertainty in the wind propagation, which is the traveling time of wind...... from the LIDAR measurement point to the rotor. An algorithm based on wind speed estimation and measurements from the LIDAR is devised to find an estimate of the delay and compensate for it before it is used in the controller. Comparisons between the MPC with error compensation, without error...

  8. Wind Tunnel Measurements at Virginia Tech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas; Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    In this section, the wind tunnel configuration used for aerodynamic and aeroacoustic measurement is described. Then, the validation of the method for evaluating far-field noise from surface microphones as described in Section 5 is presented. Finally, the design concept proposed in Section 6 is ve...

  9. Wind Speed Measurement by Paper Anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Juhua; Cheng, Zhongqi; Guan, Wenchuan

    2011-01-01

    A simple wind speed measurement device, a paper anemometer, is fabricated based on the theory of standing waves. In providing the working profile of the paper anemometer, an experimental device is established, which consists of an anemometer sensor, a sound sensor, a microphone, paper strips, a paper cup, and sonic acquisition software. It shows…

  10. Field measurements in the wake of a model wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pol, Suhas; Taylor, Amelia; Doostalab, Ali; Novoa, Santiago; Castillo, Luciano; Bilbao, Argenis; Sheng, Jian; Giesselmann, Michael; Westergaard, Carsten; Hussain, Fazle; Ren, Beibei; Glauser, Mark

    2014-01-01

    As a first step to study the dynamics of a wind farm' we experimentally explored the flow field behind a single wind turbine of diameter 1.17 m at a hub height of 6.25 m. A 10 m tower upstream of the wind farm characterizes the atmospheric conditions and its influence on the wake evolution. A vertical rake of sonic anemometers is clustered around the hub height on a second tower' 6D downstream of the turbine. We present preliminary observations from a 1- hour block of data recorded in near-neutral atmospheric conditions. The ratio of the standard deviation of power to the inflow velocity is greater than three' revealing adverse effects of inflow turbulence on the power and load fluctuations. Furthermore' the wake defect and Reynolds stress and its gradient are pronounced at 6D. The flux of energy due to Reynolds stresses is similar to that reported in wind tunnel studies. The swirl and mixing produces a constant temperature wake which results in a density jump across the wake interface. Further field measurements will explore the dynamics of a model wind farm' including the effects of atmospheric variability

  11. CFD-based design load analysis of 5MW offshore wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T. T.; Ryu, G. J.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.

    2012-11-01

    The structure and aerodynamic loads acting on NREL 5MW reference wind turbine blade are calculated and analyzed based on advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and unsteady Blade Element Momentum (BEM). A detailed examination of the six force components has been carried out (three force components and three moment components). Structure load (gravity and inertia load) and aerodynamic load have been obtained by additional structural calculations (CFD or BEM, respectively,). In CFD method, the Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes approach was applied to solve the continuity equation of mass conservation and momentum balance so that the complex flow around wind turbines was modeled. Written in C programming language, a User Defined Function (UDF) code which defines transient velocity profile according to the Extreme Operating Gust condition was compiled into commercial FLUENT package. Furthermore, the unsteady BEM with 3D stall model has also adopted to investigate load components on wind turbine rotor. The present study introduces a comparison between advanced CFD and unsteady BEM for determining load on wind turbine rotor. Results indicate that there are good agreements between both present methods. It is importantly shown that six load components on wind turbine rotor is significant effect under Extreme Operating Gust (EOG) condition. Using advanced CFD and additional structural calculations, this study has succeeded to construct accuracy numerical methodology to estimate total load of wind turbine that compose of aerodynamic load and structure load.

  12. Material matters: Controllable rubber trailing edge flap regulates load on wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2010-01-01

    In wind farms, nearby wind turbines exert considerable influence and generate turbulence on turbine blades. Because the blades are so long, there can be considerable differences in localized loading from the gusts along the blade. The Risø DTU researchers has developed a controllable rubber trail...... in an open jet wind tunnel shows promising results. In the wind tunnel, it is possible to regulate the wind speed as well as turn the blade profile to simulate a change in wind direction in relation to the profile....

  13. Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Performance and Loads of a Novel Dual Rotor Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Moghadassian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to numerically investigate the effects of the atmospheric boundary layer on the aerodynamic performance and loads of a novel dual-rotor wind turbine (DRWT. Large eddy simulations are carried out with the turbines operating in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL and in a uniform inflow. Two stability conditions corresponding to neutral and slightly stable atmospheres are investigated. The turbines are modeled using the actuator line method where the rotor blades are modeled as body forces. Comparisons are drawn between the DRWT and a comparable conventional single-rotor wind turbine (SRWT to assess changes in aerodynamic efficiency and loads, as well as wake mixing and momentum and kinetic energy entrainment into the turbine wake layer. The results show that the DRWT improves isolated turbine aerodynamic performance by about 5%–6%. The DRWT also enhances turbulent axial momentum entrainment by about 3.3 %. The highest entrainment is observed in the neutral stability case when the turbulence in the ABL is moderately high. Aerodynamic loads for the DRWT, measured as out-of-plane blade root bending moment, are marginally reduced. Spectral analyses of ABL cases show peaks in unsteady loads at the rotor passing frequency and its harmonics for both rotors of the DRWT.

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF WIND LOAD APPLIED TO THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURES BY VIRTUE OF ITS SIMULATION IN THE WIND TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko Sergey Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss wind loads applied to a set of two buildings. The wind load is simulated with the help of the wind tunnel. In the Russian Federation, special attention is driven to the aerodynamics of high-rise buildings and structures. According to the Russian norms, identification of aerodynamic coefficients for high-rise buildings, as well as the influence of adjacent buildings and structures, is performed on the basis of models of structures exposed to wind impacts simulated in the wind tunnel. This article deals with the results of the wind tunnel test of buildings. The simulation was carried out with the involvement of a model of two twenty-three storied buildings. The experiment was held in a wind tunnel of the closed type at in the Institute of Mechanics of Moscow State University. Data were compared at the zero speed before and after the experiment. LabView software was used to process the output data. Graphs and tables were developed in the Microsoft Excel package. GoogleSketchUp software was used as a visualization tool. The three-dimensional flow formed in the wind tunnel can't be adequately described by solving the two-dimensional problem. The aerodynamic experiment technique is used to analyze the results for eighteen angles of the wind attack.

  15. Anemometers for Mars. [Viking '75 wind measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R. M.; Greene, G. C.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the problems involved in the conduction of wind measurements on the planet Mars, taking into account the currently known characteristics of the Martian atmosphere. Problems introduced by the presence of the lander are examined. The suitability of several different types of anemometers for making the measurements is discussed, giving attention to rotating anemometers, sonic anemometers, ion tracers, drag force anemometers, pitot tubes, and thermal anemometers.

  16. Measurements on Container Load Trailer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    This report describes a series of measurements carried out for Danish Camp Supply (DCS), Nørre Sundby, Denmark during January and February 1990. The test series was departed into three sessions: the first pilot measurement session made on Friday 26. of January, the second pilot measurement made o...

  17. Comparison of Speed-Up Over Hills Derived from Wind-Tunnel Experiments, Wind-Loading Standards, and Numerical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei Pirooz, Amir A.; Flay, Richard G. J.

    2018-03-01

    We evaluate the accuracy of the speed-up provided in several wind-loading standards by comparison with wind-tunnel measurements and numerical predictions, which are carried out at a nominal scale of 1:500 and full-scale, respectively. Airflow over two- and three-dimensional bell-shaped hills is numerically modelled using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes method with a pressure-driven atmospheric boundary layer and three different turbulence models. Investigated in detail are the effects of grid size on the speed-up and flow separation, as well as the resulting uncertainties in the numerical simulations. Good agreement is obtained between the numerical prediction of speed-up, as well as the wake region size and location, with that according to large-eddy simulations and the wind-tunnel results. The numerical results demonstrate the ability to predict the airflow over a hill with good accuracy with considerably less computational time than for large-eddy simulation. Numerical simulations for a three-dimensional hill show that the speed-up and the wake region decrease significantly when compared with the flow over two-dimensional hills due to the secondary flow around three-dimensional hills. Different hill slopes and shapes are simulated numerically to investigate the effect of hill profile on the speed-up. In comparison with more peaked hill crests, flat-topped hills have a lower speed-up at the crest up to heights of about half the hill height, for which none of the standards gives entirely satisfactory values of speed-up. Overall, the latest versions of the National Building Code of Canada and the Australian and New Zealand Standard give the best predictions of wind speed over isolated hills.

  18. Minimum Thrust Load Control for Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Bak, Thomas; Knudsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    — Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind at sea. Shallow water sites are profitable for deployment of monopile wind turbines at water depths of up to 30 meters. Beyond 30 meters, the wind is even stronger and less turbulent. At these depths, floating wind turbines be...... and power stability when using the new control strategy.......— Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind at sea. Shallow water sites are profitable for deployment of monopile wind turbines at water depths of up to 30 meters. Beyond 30 meters, the wind is even stronger and less turbulent. At these depths, floating wind turbines...... presents a new minimum thrust control strategy capable of stabilizing a floating wind turbine. The new control strategy explores the freedom of variable generator speed above rated wind speed. A comparison to the traditional constant speed strategy, shows improvements in structural fore-aft oscillations...

  19. An Optimal Control Scheme to Minimize Loads in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a control algorithm for wind farms that optimizes the power production of the farm and helps to increase the lifetime of wind turbines components. The control algorithm is a centralized approach, and it determines the power reference signals for individual wind turbines...

  20. Measurements of UWB Pulse Propagation Along a Wind Turbine Blade at 1 to 20 GHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejselbæk, Johannes; Syrytsin, Igor A.; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes propagation measurements of an Ultra Wide Band (UWB) pulse along a full-scale wind turbine blade. The aim is to use the UWB channel characteristics to determine the deflection of the wind turbine blade under different wind loads. The frequency response is measured from 1 to 20...... the reflection originates a ray-tracing study incorporating a model of the curvature of the blade have been conducted. This showed the area causing the reflections depended highly on the placement of the antenna on the wind turbine blade....

  1. Assessment of the impact of frequency support on DFIG wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barahona Garzón, Braulio; You, Rui; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This study presents models and tools for the assessment of the impact that providing frequency support has on doubly-fed generator (DFIG) wind turbine structural loads and drive train. The focus is on primary frequency support, aiming at quantifying the impact on wind turbines acting as frequency...... code and electrical models. In this simulation framework, the impact that power system conditions can have on wind turbines, and vice versa the support that wind turbines can offer to the power system can be investigated....... containment reserve and providing inertial response. The sensitivity of wind turbine load indicators—load duration- distribution and maximum load values—to inertial response control actions and different torsional models of drive train is investigated. The analysis is done by co-simulations of an aeroelastic...

  2. A zero torsional stiffness twist morphing blade as a wind turbine load alleviation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachenal, X; Daynes, S; Weaver, P M

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design, analysis and realization of a zero stiffness twist morphing wind turbine blade. The morphing blade is designed to actively twist as a means of alleviating the gust loads which reduce the fatigue life of wind turbine blades. The morphing structure exploits an elastic strain energy balance within the blade to enable large twisting deformations with modest actuation requirements. While twist is introduced using the warping of the blade skin, internal pre-stressed members ensure that a constant strain energy balance is achieved throughout the deformation, resulting in a zero torsional stiffness structure. The torsional stability of the morphing blade is characterized by analysing the elastic strain energy in the device. Analytical models of the skin, the pre-stressed components and the complete blade are compared to their respective finite element models as well as experimental results. The load alleviation potential of the adaptive structure is quantified using a two-dimensional steady flow aerodynamic model which is experimentally validated with wind tunnel measurements. (paper)

  3. A zero torsional stiffness twist morphing blade as a wind turbine load alleviation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenal, X.; Daynes, S.; Weaver, P. M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the design, analysis and realization of a zero stiffness twist morphing wind turbine blade. The morphing blade is designed to actively twist as a means of alleviating the gust loads which reduce the fatigue life of wind turbine blades. The morphing structure exploits an elastic strain energy balance within the blade to enable large twisting deformations with modest actuation requirements. While twist is introduced using the warping of the blade skin, internal pre-stressed members ensure that a constant strain energy balance is achieved throughout the deformation, resulting in a zero torsional stiffness structure. The torsional stability of the morphing blade is characterized by analysing the elastic strain energy in the device. Analytical models of the skin, the pre-stressed components and the complete blade are compared to their respective finite element models as well as experimental results. The load alleviation potential of the adaptive structure is quantified using a two-dimensional steady flow aerodynamic model which is experimentally validated with wind tunnel measurements.

  4. Using Electroencephalography to Measure Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, Pavlo; Paas, Fred; Grabner, Roland; van Gog, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Application of physiological methods, in particular electroencephalography (EEG), offers new and promising approaches to educational psychology research. EEG is identified as a physiological index that can serve as an online, continuous measure of cognitive load detecting subtle fluctuations in instantaneous load, which can help explain effects of…

  5. Wave loads on offshore wind turbines: Accurate tools and structural response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Can the design models for offshore wind turbine wave loads be improved? And how will that change the overall load picture? Core questions of the Wave Loads project which was finalised in 2013 with two PhD theses, response calculations for jackets and monopiles, a detailed set of experiments and a3D...... coupled CFD wave solver...

  6. Experimental data on load test and performance parameters of a LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine in open environment condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seralathan Sivamani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance and load testing data of a three bladed two stage LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine from the experiments conducted in an open environment condition at Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai (location 23.2167°N, 72.6833°E are presented here. Low-wind velocity ranging from 2 to 11 m/s is available everywhere irrespective of climatic seasons and this data provides the support to the researchers using numerical tool to validate and develop an enhanced Lenz type design. Raw data obtained during the measurements are processed and presented in the form so as to compare with other typical outputs. The data is measured at different wind speeds prevalent in the open field condition ranging from 3 m/s to 9 m/s. Keywords: Vertical axis wind turbine, Lenz type, Performance, Two-stage, Open environment measurement

  7. Assessment of wind turbine drive-train fatigue loads under torsional excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego Calderon, Juan Felipe; Natarajan, Anand

    2015-01-01

    allows the computation of the bearing and gear-mesh loads. The proposed models are validated by experiments from a 750 kW test-rig. The drive-train model is configured for a 5 MW power capacity and coupled to the corresponding wind turbine and load simulations are carried out under turbulent wind...... model is used in comparison to a simplified approach for load calculation. It is found that some of the wind turbine modes can have negative consequences on the life-time of the planetary bearings. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Full-load converter connected asynchronous generators for MW class wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav

    2005-06-15

    Wind turbines equipped with full-load converter-connected asynchronous generators are a known concept. These have rating up to hundreds of kW and are a feasible concept for MW class wind turbines and may have advantages when compared to conventional wind turbines with directly connected generators. The concept requires the use of full-scale frequency converters, but the mechanical gearbox is smaller than in conventional wind turbines of the same rating. Application of smaller gearbox may reduce the no-load losses in the wind turbines, which is why such wind turbines with converter connected generators may start operation at a smaller wind speed. Wind turbines equipped with such converted connected asynchronous generators are pitch-controlled and variable-speed. This allows better performance and control. The converter control may be applied to support the grid voltage at short-circuit faults and to improve the fault-ride-through capability of the wind turbines, which makes the concepts relevant for large wind farms. The Danish transmission system operator Energinet-DK has implemented the general model of wind turbines equipped with converter connected asynchronous generators with the simulation tool Powerfactory (DlgSilent). The article presents Energinet-DK's experience of modeling this feasible wind turbine concept. (Author)

  9. Modeling of quasi-static thrust load of wind turbines based on 1 s SCADA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Noppe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A reliable load history is crucial for a fatigue assessment of wind turbines. However, installing strain sensors on every wind turbine is not economically feasible. In this paper, a technique is proposed to reconstruct the thrust load history of a wind turbine based on high-frequency Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA data. Strain measurements recorded during a short period of time are used to train a neural network. The selection of appropriate input parameters is performed based on Pearson correlation and mutual information. Once the training is done, the model can be used to predict the thrust load based on SCADA data only. The technique is validated on two different datasets, one consisting of simulation data (using the software FAST v8, created by Jonkman and Jonkman, 2016 obtained in a controllable environment and one consisting of measurements taken at an offshore wind turbine. In general, the relative error between simulated or measured and predicted thrust load barely exceeds 15 % during normal operation.

  10. Measuring gas concentration and wind intensity in a turbulent wind tunnel with a mobile robot

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Lacasa, Daniel; Moreno Blanc, Javier; Tresánchez, Marcel; Clotet Bellmunt, Eduard; Jiménez-Soto, Juan M.; Magrans, Rudys; Pardo Martínez, Antonio; Marco Colás, Santiago; Palacín Roca, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents themeasurement of gas concentration and wind intensity performed with amobile robot in a customturbulent wind tunnel designed for experimentation with customizable wind and gas leak sources.This paper presents the representation in different information layers of the measurements obtained in the turbulent wind tunnel under different controlled environmental conditions in order to describe the plume of the gas and wind intensities inside the experimentation chamber...

  11. More power and less loads in wind farms. 'Heat and flux'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corten, G.P.; Schaak, P. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    We consider a farm as a single energy extracting body instead of a superposition of individual energy extractors, i.e. wind turbines. As a result we found two new hypotheses called Heat and Flux. Both hypotheses reveal that the classical operation of turbines in a wind farm at the Lanchester-Betz optimum does not lead to maximum farm output. However, when the turbines at the windward side of the farm are operated below their optimum, then the power of the turbines under the lee increases in such a way that the net farm production increases slightly. Next to this production advantage of Heat and Flux operation there is also a loading advantage. The average axial loading of the upwind turbines of a farm is reduced in a 'Heat and Flux'-farm. As a result those turbines generate less turbines so that the fatigue loads of the downwind turbines reduce too. The results were confirmed by in a boundary layer tunnel by means of differential measurements between a 'Heat and Flux'-farm and a classical farm.

  12. On long-term fatigue damage and reliability analysis of gears under wind loads in offshore wind turbine drivetrains

    OpenAIRE

    Rasekhi Nejad, Amir; Gao, Zhen; Moan, Torgeir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a long-term fatigue damage analysis method for gear tooth root bending in wind turbine’s drivetrains is presented. The proposed method is established based on the ISO gear design codes which are basically developed for gears in general applications, not specifically for wind turbine gears. The ISO procedure is adapted and further improved to include the long-term fatigue damage of wind turbine’s gears. The load duration distribution (LDD) method is used to obtain the short-term...

  13. Behavior of a nuclear power plant ventilation stack for wind loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalapathy, V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes behavior of self supporting tall reinforced concrete (RC) ventilation stack of a nuclear power plant (NPP) for wind loads. Since the static and equivalent dynamic wind loads are inter-dependant on overall size of the stack, proper sizing of the stack geometry is important for reducing wind loads. The present study investigated the influence of engineered backfill soil on lateral response of ventilation stack. Ignoring backfill soil stiffness up to ground height does not allow to predict actual critical wind velocity causing across wind oscillation. The results show that proposed modification in the stack geometry modeled using 2D beam-spring elements is economical than that of single tapered geometry. Shaft diameter reduced in the proposed geometry indicates that there is a scope for overall space savings in the NPP layout. (author)

  14. Assessment of Gearbox Operational Loads and Reliability under High Mean Wind Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabrowski, Dariusz; Natarajan, Anand

    2015-01-01

    wind turbine that operates in storm conditions with mean wind speeds less than 30 m/s is presented. In the study, normal shut-downs of a wind turbine in storm conditions were investigated. The analysis were conducted for two storm control strategies and different wind conditions from an extreme...... operating gust, normal turbulence model and extreme turbulence model. In the paper, loads in the planetary gear are quantified as well as the torsional moments in the main shaft. On the basis of simulation results the annual probability of failure of the gearbox in a wind turbine with soft storm controller...... is calculated, and compared with the one had the gearbox working in a wind turbine operating with hard storm controller. In the study, it was found that normal shut-downs do not have a significant influence on the ultimate loads in the gearbox, since they are related mostly to the gusts occurring during...

  15. Mitigation of mechanical loads of NREL 5MW wind turbine tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Yoonsu; Im, Chang Hee

    2012-01-01

    As the size of a wind turbine increases, the mechanical structure has to have an increasing mechanical stiffness that is sufficient to withstand mechanical fatigue loads over a lifespan of more than 20 years. However, this leads to a heavier mechanical design, which means a high material cost during wind turbine manufacturing. Therefore, lightweight design of a wind turbine is an important design constraint. Usually, a lightweight mechanical structure has low damping. Therefore, if it is subjected to a disturbance, it will oscillate continuously. This study deals with the active damping control of a wind turbine tower. An algorithm that mitigates the mechanical loads of a wind turbine tower is introduced. The effectiveness of this algorithm is verified through a numerical simulation using GH Bladed, which is a commercial aero elastic code for wind turbines

  16. Evaluation of MOSTAS computer code for predicting dynamic loads in two bladed wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, K. R. V.; Janetzke, D. C.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Calculated dynamic blade loads were compared with measured loads over a range of yaw stiffnesses of the DOE/NASA Mod-O wind turbine to evaluate the performance of two versions of the MOSTAS computer code. The first version uses a time-averaged coefficient approximation in conjunction with a multi-blade coordinate transformation for two bladed rotors to solve the equations of motion by standard eigenanalysis. The second version accounts for periodic coefficients while solving the equations by a time history integration. A hypothetical three-degree of freedom dynamic model was investigated. The exact equations of motion of this model were solved using the Floquet-Lipunov method. The equations with time-averaged coefficients were solved by standard eigenanalysis.

  17. Results of Sexbierum Wind Farm: single wake measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleijne, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    In the framework of the JOULE-0064 'Full-scale Measurements in Wind Turbine Arrays' in the period between June-November 1992 measurements have been performed in the Sexbierum Wind Farm. The aim of the measurements is to provide data for the validation of wake and wind farm models, which are being

  18. Turbulence and turbulence-generated structural loading in wind turbine clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, Sten

    2007-01-15

    Turbulence, in terms of standard deviation of wind speed fluctuations, and other flow characteristics are different in the interior of wind farms relative to the free flow and action must be taken to ensure sufficient structural sustainability of the wind turbines exposed to 'wind farm flow'. The standard deviation of wind speed fluctuations is a known key parameter for both extreme- and fatigue loading, and it is argued and found to be justified that a model for change in turbulence intensity alone may account for increased fatigue loading in wind farms. Changes in scale of turbulence and horizontal flow-shear also influence the dynamic response and thus fatigue loading. However, these parameters are typically negatively or positively correlated with the standard deviation of wind speed fluctuations, which therefore can, if need be, represent these other variables. Thus, models for spatially averaged turbulence intensity inside the wind farm and direct-wake turbulence intensity are being devised and a method to combine the different load situations is proposed. The combination of the load cases implies a weighting method involving the slope of the considered material's Woehler curve. In the context, this is novel and necessary to avoid excessive safety for fatigue estimation of the structure's steel components, and non-conservatism for fibreglass components. The proposed model offers significant reductions in computational efforts in the design process. The status for the implementation of the model is that it became part of the Danish standard for wind turbine design DS 472 (2001) in August 2001 and it is part of the corresponding international standard, IEC61400-1 (2005). Also, extreme loading under normal operation for wake conditions and the efficiency of very large wind farms are discussed. (au)

  19. Offshore wind resources at Danish measurement sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmie, R J; Courtney, M S; Lange, B; Nielsen, M; Sempreviva, A M [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Svenson, J; Olsen, F [SEAS, Haslev (Denmark); Christensen, T [Elsamprojekt, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    In order to characterise wind and turbulence characteristics at prospective offshore wind energy sites, meteorological observations from a number of purpose-built offshore monitoring sites have been analyzed and compared with long wind speed time series. New analyses have been conducted on the data sets focussing on meteorology, turbulence, extreme winds and wind and wave interactions. Relationships between wind speed, turbulence and fetch are highly complex. Minimum turbulence intensity offshore is associated with wind speeds of about 12 m/s. At lower wind speeds, stability effects are important while at higher winds speeds wind and wave interactions appear to dominate. On average, turbulence intensity offshore at 48 m height is approximately 0.08 if no coastal effects are present. However, the effect of the coastal discontinuity persists in wind speed and turbulence characteristics for considerable distances offshore. The majority of the adjustment of appears to occur within 20 km of the coast. (au)

  20. Full scale measurement of wind induced pressures : 1 configuration of wind induced pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Wijen, H.L.M.

    1994-01-01

    A research project 10 the spectral characteristics of wind induced pressures is in progress in Eindhoven. This project includes both wind tunnel and full scale measurements. Wind induced pressures are measured in full scale at the main building of Eindhoven University of Technology. This paper

  1. The design of models for cryogenic wind tunnels. [mechanical properties and loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, V. P.

    1977-01-01

    Factors to be considered in the design and fabrication of models for cryogenic wind tunnels include high model loads imposed by the high operating pressures, the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of materials in low temperature environments, and the combination of aerodynamic loads with the thermal environment. Candidate materials are being investigated to establish criteria for cryogenic wind tunnel models and their installation. Data acquired from these tests will be provided to users of the National Transonic Facility.

  2. Effect of blade flutter and electrical loading on small wind turbine noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of blade flutter and electrical loading on the noise level of two different size wind turbines was investigated at the Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) near Bushland, TX. Noise and performance data were collected on two blade designs tested on a wind turbine rated a...

  3. Mitigation of Fatigue Loads Using Individual Pitch Control of Wind Turbines Based on FAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe; Cheng, Ming

    2011-01-01

    moments and fatigue. The loading transfer from rotational coordinate system to the fixed coordinate system of the wind turbine is analyzed. In order to make the simulation results more reliable, the wind turbine code FAST is applied to doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based power system...

  4. ALADIN: an atmospheric laser Doppler wind lidar instrument for wind velocity measurements from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, R.; Ghibaudo, JB.; Labandibar, JY.; Willetts, D.; Vaughan, M.; Pearson, G.; Harris, M.; Flamant, P. H.; Salamitou, P.; Dabas, A.; Charasse, R.; Midavaine, T.; Royer, M.; Heimel, H.

    2018-04-01

    This paper, "ALADIN: an atmospheric laser Doppler wind lidar instrument for wind velocity measurements from space," was presented as part of International Conference on Space Optics—ICSO 1997, held in Toulouse, France.

  5. Mechanical Loads Test Report for the U.S. Department of Energy 1.5-Megawatt Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rick [Santos Wind Engineering Technologies, Inc., Portland, ME (United States); van Dam, Jeroen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-16

    The objective of the test was to obtain a baseline characterization of the mechanical loads of the DOE 1.5 wind turbine located at NREL. The test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Specification, IEC 61400-13 Wind Turbine Generator Systems – Part 13: Measurement of mechanical loads; First Edition 2001-06 [1]. The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at NREL conducted this test in accordance with its quality system procedures so that the final test report meets the full requirements of its accreditation by the American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA). NREL’s quality system requires that all applicable requirements specified by A2LA and International Standards Organization/IEC 17025 be met or to note any exceptions in the test report.

  6. Measuring Cognitive Load in Embodied Learning Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulmowski, Alexander; Rey, Günter Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, research on embodied cognition has inspired a number of studies on multimedia learning and instructional psychology. However, in contrast to traditional research on education and multimedia learning, studies on embodied learning (i.e., focusing on bodily action and perception in the context of education) in some cases pose new problems for the measurement of cognitive load. This review provides an overview over recent studies on embodied learning in which cognitive load was measured using surveys, behavioral data, or physiological measures. The different methods are assessed in terms of their success in finding differences of cognitive load in embodied learning scenarios. At the same time, we highlight the most important challenges for researchers aiming to include these measures into their study designs. The main issues we identified are: (1) Subjective measures must be appropriately phrased to be useful for embodied learning; (2) recent findings indicate potentials as well as problematic aspects of dual-task measures; (3) the use of physiological measures offers great potential, but may require mobile equipment in the context of embodied scenarios; (4) meta-cognitive measures can be useful extensions of cognitive load measurement for embodied learning.

  7. Measuring Cognitive Load in Embodied Learning Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Skulmowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research on embodied cognition has inspired a number of studies on multimedia learning and instructional psychology. However, in contrast to traditional research on education and multimedia learning, studies on embodied learning (i.e., focusing on bodily action and perception in the context of education in some cases pose new problems for the measurement of cognitive load. This review provides an overview over recent studies on embodied learning in which cognitive load was measured using surveys, behavioral data, or physiological measures. The different methods are assessed in terms of their success in finding differences of cognitive load in embodied learning scenarios. At the same time, we highlight the most important challenges for researchers aiming to include these measures into their study designs. The main issues we identified are: (1 Subjective measures must be appropriately phrased to be useful for embodied learning; (2 recent findings indicate potentials as well as problematic aspects of dual-task measures; (3 the use of physiological measures offers great potential, but may require mobile equipment in the context of embodied scenarios; (4 meta-cognitive measures can be useful extensions of cognitive load measurement for embodied learning.

  8. The Load Level of Modern Wind Turbines according to IEC 61400-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenreich, K; Argyriadis, K

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes some effects on the load level of state-of-the art multi megawatt wind turbines introduced by the new edition of the standard IEC 61400-1:2005 W ind Turbines - Part 1: Design requirements . Compared to the previous edition, especially the extreme load determination has been modified by applying stochastic and statistical analyses. Within this paper the effect on the overall load level of wind turbines is demonstrated and occurring problems are discussed. Load simulations have been carried out for four state-of-the-art multi-megawatt wind turbines of different design concepts and from different manufacturers. The blade root bending moments and tip deflection have been determined by applying different extrapolation methods. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods and tail fittings for different load components and wind turbine technologies are discussed and interpreted. Further on, the application of the extreme turbulence model is demonstrated. The dependence of the load level on the turbulence intensity and control system, as well as the interaction with extrapolated loads is discussed and limitations outlined. The obtained load level is compared to the overall load level of the turbines according to the previous edition of the standard, IEC 61400-1:1999

  9. Outlier robustness for wind turbine extrapolated extreme loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Verelst, David Robert

    2012-01-01

    . Stochastic identification of numerical artifacts in simulated loads is demonstrated using the method of principal component analysis. The extrapolation methodology is made robust to outliers through a weighted loads approach, whereby the eigenvalues of the correlation matrix obtained using the loads with its...

  10. 3D WindScanner lidar measurements of wind and turbulence around wind turbines, buildings and bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    WindScanner is a distributed research infrastructure developed at DTU with the participation of a number of European countries. The research infrastructure consists of a mobile technically advanced facility for remote measurement of wind and turbulence in 3D. The WindScanners provide coordinated...... structures and of flow in urban environments. The mobile WindScanner facility enables 3D scanning of wind and turbulence fields in full scale within the atmospheric boundary layer at ranges from 10 meters to 5 (10) kilometers. Measurements of turbulent coherent structures are applied for investigation...

  11. Analysis of Anholt offshore wind farm SCADA measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Volker, Patrick; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    SCADA measurements from the Danish Anholt offshore wind farm (ANH) for a period of 2½ years have been qualified. ANH covers 12 km × 22 km and is located between Djursland and the island Anholt in Kattegat, Denmark. This qualification encompasses identification of curtailment and idling periods......, start/stop events and a power curve control for each wind turbine in the wind farm. Data also include wind speed measurements from a nearby WindCube lidar and simulations from the WRF model for the same period as the SCADA. An equivalent wind speed (wsi) is derived from the combined power and pitch...

  12. Load Flow Analysis of Hybrid AC-DC Power System with Offshore Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhua, Debasish; Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    The offshore wind power has received immense attention because of higher wind speed and lower opposition for construction. A wide range of combinations of high-voltage ACDC transmission have been proposed for integrating offshore wind farms and long-distance power transmission. This paper...... is to model such hybrid AC-DC systems including the interfacing converters, which have several control parameters that can change the load flow of the hybrid systems. Then, the paper proposes a Load Flow algorithm based on the Newton-Raphson method, which covers three different section types...

  13. Fatigue Load Modeling and Control for Wind Turbines based on Hysteresis Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barradas Berglind, Jose de Jesus; Wisniewski, Rafal; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    method based on hysteresis operators, which can be used in control loops. Furthermore, we propose a model predictive control (MPC) strategy that incorporates the online fatigue estimation through the objective function, where the ultimate goal in mind is to reduce the fatigue load of the wind turbine......The focus of this work is on fatigue load modeling and controller design for the wind turbine level. The main purpose is to include a model of the damage effects caused by the fatigue of the wind turbine components in the controller design process. This paper addresses an online fatigue estimation...

  14. Grid Faults Impact on the Mechanical Loads of Active Stall Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Cutululis, Nicolaos A.; Hansen, Anca D.

    2008-01-01

    Emphasis in this paper is on the fault ride-through operation impact on the wind turbines structural loads. Grid faults are typically simulated in power system simulation tools using simplified drive train mechanical model, approach which doesn't allow a thorough investigation of structural loads...... as the electrical design of the wind turbine response during grid faults. The two-step simulation procedure is assessed by means of a simulation example. The effect of a grid fault on the structural part of a typical fixed speed wind turbine, equipped with an induction generator, is assessed....

  15. Coordination of Voltage and Frequency Feedback in Load-Frequency Control Capability of Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    In close future, with high Wind Energy (WE) penetration in the power system, the burden of Load-Frequency Control (LFC) is gradually shifted to Variable Speed Wind Turbines (VSWTs). In order to equip the VSWT with LFC capability to support the grid during sudden variation in generation or load...... regulation. The proposed scheme demonstrates remarkable improvement transient state of both voltage and frequency profiles in comparison with conventional LFC designs provided by Central Power Plants (CPP) or Wind Power Plants (WPP). Numerical simulations carried out in DigSilent Power- Factory confirm...

  16. Doppler Wind Lidar Measurements and Scalability to Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global measurements of wind speed and direction from Doppler wind lidars, if available, would significantly improve forecasting of severe weather events such as...

  17. Parameterized Disturbance Observer Based Controller to Reduce Cyclic Loads of Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja M. Imran

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with bump-less transfer of parameterized disturbance observer based controller with individual pitch control strategy to reduce cyclic loads of wind turbine in full load operation. Cyclic loads are generated due to wind shear and tower shadow effects. Multivariable disturbance observer based linear controllers are designed with objective to reduce output power fluctuation, tower oscillation and drive-train torsion using optimal control theory. Linear parameterized controllers are designed by using a smooth scheduling mechanism between the controllers. The proposed parameterized controller with individual pitch was tested on nonlinear Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence (FAST code model of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL’s 5 MW wind turbine. The closed-loop system performance was assessed by comparing the simulation results of proposed controller with a fixed gain and parameterized controller with collective pitch for full load operation of wind turbine. Simulations are performed with step wind to see the behavior of the system with wind shear and tower shadow effects. Then, turbulent wind is applied to see the smooth transition of the controllers. It can be concluded from the results that the proposed parameterized control shows smooth transition from one controller to another controller. Moreover, 3p and 6p harmonics are well mitigated as compared to fixed gain DOBC and parameterized DOBC with collective pitch.

  18. A Case for Including Atmospheric Thermodynamic Variables in Wind Turbine Fatigue Loading Parameter Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, Neil D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper makes the case for establishing efficient predictor variables for atmospheric thermodynamics that can be used to statistically correlate the fatigue accumulation seen on wind turbines. Recently, two approaches to this issue have been reported. One uses multiple linear-regression analysis to establish the relative causality between a number of predictors related to the turbulent inflow and turbine loads. The other approach, using many of the same predictors, applies the technique of principal component analysis. An examination of the ensemble of predictor variables revealed that they were all kinematic in nature; i.e., they were only related to the description of the velocity field. Boundary-layer turbulence dynamics depends upon a description of the thermal field and its interaction with the velocity distribution. We used a series of measurements taken within a multi-row wind farm to demonstrate the need to include atmospheric thermodynamic variables as well as velocity-related ones in the search for efficient turbulence loading predictors in various turbine-operating environments. Our results show that a combination of vertical stability and hub-height mean shearing stress variables meet this need over a period of 10 minutes

  19. Stochastic model for joint wave and wind loads on offshore structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2002-01-01

    _s,T_z)$ from the North Sea a well fitting joint distribution of $(H_s,T_z)$ is obtained as a so-called Nataf model. Since the wave field is wind driven, there is a correlation between the time averaged wind velocity pressure $Q$ and the characteristic wave height in the stationary situation. Using the Poisson...... process model to concentrate on those load events that are of importance for the evaluation of the safety of the structure, that is, events with $Q$ larger than some threshold $q_0$, available information about the wind velocity pressure distributionin high wind situations can be used to formulate a Nataf...

  20. Optimum Parameters of a Tuned Liquid Column Damper in a Wind Turbine Subject to Stochastic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkmim, M. H.; de Morais, M. V. G.; Fabro, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    Parameter optimization for tuned liquid column dampers (TLCD), a class of passive structural control, have been previously proposed in the literature for reducing vibration in wind turbines, and several other applications. However, most of the available work consider the wind excitation as either a deterministic harmonic load or random load with white noise spectra. In this paper, a global direct search optimization algorithm to reduce vibration of a tuned liquid column damper (TLCD), a class of passive structural control device, is presented. The objective is to find optimized parameters for the TLCD under stochastic load from different wind power spectral density. A verification is made considering the analytical solution of undamped primary system under white noise excitation by comparing with result from the literature. Finally, it is shown that different wind profiles can significantly affect the optimum TLCD parameters.

  1. Assessing Fatigue and Ultimate Load Uncertainty in Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Due to Varying Simulation Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Haid, L.; Matha, D.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2013-07-01

    With the push towards siting wind turbines farther offshore due to higher wind quality and less visibility, floating offshore wind turbines, which can be located in deep water, are becoming an economically attractive option. The International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) 61400-3 design standard covers fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines, but there are a number of new research questions that need to be answered to modify these standards so that they are applicable to floating wind turbines. One issue is the appropriate simulation length needed for floating turbines. This paper will discuss the results from a study assessing the impact of simulation length on the ultimate and fatigue loads of the structure, and will address uncertainties associated with changing the simulation length for the analyzed floating platform. Recommendations of required simulation length based on load uncertainty will be made and compared to current simulation length requirements.

  2. Fatigue load reductions in co-located wind-wave arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Caitlyn; Velarde, Joey; Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær

    2018-01-01

    As offshore wind turbines (OWTs) increase in size and are placed farther offshore, hydrodynamic loads have increased contribution to total load, resulting in fatigue limit states becoming more important to consider in structural design. Previous literature shows that placing wave energy converters...... is investigated. A method for quantifying relative sea state reductions from WECs are applied, and fully-coupled time-domain fatigue analyses are performed for a 10 MW reference offshore wind turbine. Results indicate that a single WEC and a WEC array can lead to 8% and 10% fatigue load reduction, respectively....

  3. Frequency-domain characteristics of aerodynamic loads of offshore floating vertical axis wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Michael; Collu, M.

    2015-01-01

    The re-emerging interest in vertical axis wind turbines for floating offshore applications has led to a need to investigate the relatively complex dynamics of such floating offshore structures. Through the use of a coupled model of dynamics this article investigates the frequency......-domain characteristics of floating vertical axis wind turbine aerodynamic loads. The impact of platform induced motion on aerodynamic loads is discussed in detail, with results indicating an increase in aerodynamic loads of several orders of magnitude over the range of frequencies usually containing significant wave...

  4. Unbalanced voltage faults: the impact on structural loads of doubly fed asynchronous generator wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barahona Garzón, Braulio; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact that unbalanced voltage faults have on wind turbine structural loads. In such cases, electromagnetic torque oscillations occur at two times the supply voltage frequency. The objectives of this work are to quantify wind turbine structural loads induced...... by unbalanced voltage faults relative to those during normal operation; and to evaluate the potential for reducing structural loads with the control of the generator. The method applied is integrated dynamic analysis. Namely, dynamic analysis with models that consider the most important aeroelastic, electrical...

  5. Effect of topography on wind turbine power and load fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Christian; Ciri, Umberto; Leonardi, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Onshore wind turbines produce more than 17 GW in the US, which constitutes 4 . 4 % of all the energy produced. Sites selection is mostly determined by the atmospheric conditions and the topographical characteristics of the region. While the effect of the atmospheric boundary layer had been widely studied, less attention has been given to the effect of the topography on the wind turbine aerodynamics. To address how the topography affects the flow, Large Eddy Simulations of the flow over a wind turbine placed over wavy wall are performed. The wavelength of the wavy terrain, λ, is 1 . 7 D where D is the turbine rotor diameter. Two different values of the height of the wavy wall, a / D = 0 . 05 and a / D = 0 . 10 have been considered. In addition, two positions of the turbine with respect to the wavy wall had been studied, on the crest and trough of the wavy wall and compared with a wind turbine over a flat wall. For the turbine located at the crest, the pressure gradient due to the wavy wall caused a recirculation behind the wind tower 2 . 5 D larger than that of the smooth wall. When placed at the trough of the wavy terrain, the favorable pressure gradient increases the wake velocity near the wall and promotes entrainment into the turbine wake. Numerical simulations were performed on XSEDE TACC, Grant CTS070066. This work was supported by the NSF, grant IIA-1243482 (WINDINSPIRE).

  6. Economic emission dispatching with variations of wind power and loads using multi-objective optimization by learning automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, H.L.; Wu, Q.H.; Li, Y.Z.; Jiang, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Apply multi-objective optimization by learning automata to power system. • Sequentially dimensional search and state memory are incorporated. • Track dispatch under significant variations of wind power and load demand. • Good performance in terms of accuracy, distribution and computation time. - Abstract: This paper is concerned with using multi-objective optimization by learning automata (MOLA) for economic emission dispatching in the environment where wind power and loads vary. With its capabilities of sequentially dimensional search and state memory, MOLA is able to find accurate solutions while satisfying two objectives: fuel cost coupled with environmental emission and voltage stability. Its searching quality and efficiency are measured using the hypervolume indicator for investigating the quality of Pareto front, and demonstrated by tracking the dispatch solutions under significant variations of wind power and load demand. The simulation studies are carried out on the modified midwestern American electric power system and the IEEE 118-bus test system, in which wind power penetration and load variations present. Evaluated on these two power systems, MOLA is fully compared with multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D) and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II). The simulation results have shown the superiority of MOLA over NAGA-II and MOEA/D, as it is able to obtain more accurate and widely distributed Pareto fronts. In the dynamic environment where the operation condition of both wind speed and load demand varies, MOLA outperforms the other two algorithms, with respect to the tracking ability and accuracy of the solutions

  7. Probabilistic model for multi-axial load combinations for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2016-01-01

    into a periodic part and a perturbation term, where each part has a known probability distribution. The proposed model shows good agreement with simulated data under stationary conditions, and a design load envelope based on this model is comparable to the load envelope estimated using the standard procedure...... for determining contemporaneous loads. Using examples with simulated loads on a 10 MW wind turbine,the behavior of the bending moments acting on a blade section is illustrated under different conditions.The loading direction most critical for material failure is determined using a finite-element model...

  8. Multivariate Modelling of Extreme Load Combinations for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2015-01-01

    into a periodic part and a perturbation term, where each part has a known probability distribution. The proposed model shows good agreement with simulated data under stationary conditions, and a design load envelope based on this model is comparable to the load envelope estimated using the standard procedure...

  9. Research on Power System Scheduling Improving Wind Power Accommodation Considering Thermal Energy Storage and Flexible Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chenlu; Cui, Xue; Wang, Heng; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    In the case of rapid development of wind power and heavy wind curtailment, the study of wind power accommodation of combined heat and power system has become the focus of attention. A two-stage scheduling model contains of wind power, thermal energy storage, CHP unit and flexible load were constructed. This model with the objective function of minimizing wind curtailment and the operation cost of units while taking into account of the total coal consumption of units, constraint of thermal energy storage and electricity-heat characteristic of CHP. This paper uses MICA to solve the problem of too many constraints and make the solution more feasible. A numerical example showed that the two stage decision scheduling model can consume more wind power, and it could provide a reference for combined heat and power system short-term operation

  10. Simple model of cable-stayed bridge deck subjected to static wind loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yi-Lung; Wang, Yang Cheng

    1997-05-01

    Cable-stayed bridges have been known since 18th century with aesthetics design. The structural system and the structural behavior are significantly different from those of continuous bridges. Compared to continuous bridge, cable- stayed bridges have more flexure bridge deck than those of continuous bridges.On the other hand, cable-stayed bridges have less stiffness to resist wind loading especially for lateral loads. The first considering of bridge engineering is safety. In 1940's, Tacoma Narrows Suspension Bridge destroyed by wind loading is a good example even though it is not a cable-stayed bridge. After the bridge was destroyed, a lot of research articles have been published regarding cable supported bridge subjected to wind loading. In recent days, high strength materials have been served. The bridge engineers use the advantages to expand the span length of cable-stayed bridges. Due to the span length increased and the use of high strength materials, cable- stayed bridges have more significant nonlinear behavior subjected to wind loading. In this paper, a slice bridge deck of cable-stayed bridge connected to internal support cables is considered. The deck has been considered to be subjected to lateral static wind loading. Since cables can not take compressive force, the deck has strongly nonlinear behavior even though the materials are linear elastic. Several primary load combinations have ben considered in this paper such as the bridge deck supposed to be moved horizontally without rotation or the bridge deck supposed to be moved horizontally with rotational deformation. The mathematical formulas and the numerical solutions are found and represented in graphical forms. The results can be provided to bridge designers and researchers for further study of this type of structure subjected to wind loading.

  11. On Space-Time Resolution of Inflow Representations for Wind Turbine Loads Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance Manuel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient spatial and temporal resolution of simulated inflow wind fields is important in order to represent wind turbine dynamics and derive load statistics for design. Using Fourier-based stochastic simulation of inflow turbulence, we first investigate loads for a utility-scale turbine in the neutral atmospheric boundary layer. Load statistics, spectra, and wavelet analysis representations for different space and time resolutions are compared. Next, large-eddy simulation (LES is employed with space-time resolutions, justified on the basis of the earlier stochastic simulations, to again derive turbine loads. Extreme and fatigue loads from the two approaches used in inflow field generation are compared. On the basis of simulation studies carried out for three different wind speeds in the turbine’s operating range, it is shown that inflow turbulence described using 10-meter spatial resolution and 1 Hz temporal resolution is adequate for assessing turbine loads. Such studies on the investigation of adequate filtering or resolution of inflow wind fields help to establish efficient strategies for LES and other physical or stochastic simulation needed in turbine loads studies.

  12. Wind Energy Management System EMS Integration Project: Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-01-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind and solar power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation), and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind/solar forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. To improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter

  13. Extreme Value Predictions for Wave- and Wind-induced Loads on Floating Offshore Wind Turbines using FORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Sunvard; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, Alaa E.

    2007-01-01

    duration of the time domain simulations needed (typically 60-300s to cover the hy-drodynamic memory effects in the response) the calcu-lation of the mean out-crossing rates of a given response are very fast. Thus complicated non-linear effects can be included. The FORM analysis also identifies the most...... probable wave episodes leading to given re-sponses. As an example the motions of floating foundations for offshore wind turbines are analysed taking into consid-eration both the wave and wind induced loads and con-sidering different mooring systems. The possible large horizontal motions make it important...

  14. Dynamic Loads and Wake Prediction for Large Wind Turbines Based on Free Wake Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Jiufa; Wang Tongguang; Long Hui; Ke Shitang; Xu Bofeng

    2015-01-01

    With large scale wind turbines ,the issue of aerodynamic elastic response is even more significant on dy-namic behaviour of the system .Unsteady free vortex wake method is proposed to calculate the shape of wake and aerodynamic load .Considering the effect of aerodynamic load ,inertial load and gravity load ,the decoupling dy-namic equations are established by using finite element method in conjunction of the modal method and equations are solved numerically by Newmark approach .Finally ,the numerical simulation of a large scale wind turbine is performed through coupling the free vortex wake modelling with structural modelling .The results show that this coupling model can predict the flexible wind turbine dynamic characteristics effectively and efficiently .Under the influence of the gravitational force ,the dynamic response of flapwise direction contributes to the dynamic behavior of edgewise direction under the operational condition of steady wind speed .The difference in dynamic response be-tween the flexible and rigid wind turbines manifests when the aerodynamics/structure coupling effect is of signifi-cance in both wind turbine design and performance calculation .

  15. Toward Isolation of Salient Features in Stable Boundary Layer Wind Fields that Influence Loads on Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkyoo Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutral boundary layer (NBL flow fields, commonly used in turbine load studies and design, are generated using spectral procedures in stochastic simulation. For large utility-scale turbines, stable boundary layer (SBL flow fields are of great interest because they are often accompanied by enhanced wind shear, wind veer, and even low-level jets (LLJs. The generation of SBL flow fields, in contrast to simpler stochastic simulation for NBL, requires computational fluid dynamics (CFD procedures to capture the physics and noted characteristics—such as shear and veer—that are distinct from those seen in NBL flows. At present, large-eddy simulation (LES is the most efficient CFD procedure for SBL flow field generation and related wind turbine loads studies. Design standards, such as from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC, provide guidance albeit with simplifying assumptions (one such deals with assuming constant variance of turbulence over the rotor and recommend standard target turbulence power spectra and coherence functions to allow NBL flow field simulation. In contrast, a systematic SBL flow field simulation procedure has not been offered for design or for site assessment. It is instructive to compare LES-generated SBL flow fields with stochastic NBL flow fields and associated loads which we evaluate for a 5-MW turbine; in doing so, we seek to isolate distinguishing characteristics of wind shear, wind veer, and turbulence variation over the rotor plane in the alternative flow fields and in the turbine loads. Because of known differences in NBL-stochastic and SBL-LES wind fields but an industry preference for simpler stochastic simulation in design practice, this study investigates if one can reproduce stable atmospheric conditions using stochastic approaches with appropriate corrections for shear, veer, turbulence, etc. We find that such simple tuning cannot consistently match turbine target SBL load statistics, even though

  16. Torque and Axial Loading Physics for Measuring Atmospheric Icing Load and Icing Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Mughal, Umair Najeeb; Virk, Muhammad Shakeel

    2015-01-01

    Measuring icing load and icing rate are important parameters for an atmospheric icing sensor. A new icing sensor has recently been designed and developed at Narvik University College for measuring atmospheric icing rate, icing load and icing type. Unlike the existing atmospheric icing sensors commercially available in market, which uses the axial loading for measuring icing load and icing rate, this new sensory system measures icing load and icing rate using the torque loading physics. The pe...

  17. Experimental data on load test and performance parameters of a LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine in open environment condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivamani, Seralathan; T, Micha Premkumar; Sohail, Mohammed; T, Mohan; V, Hariram

    2017-12-01

    Performance and load testing data of a three bladed two stage LENZ type vertical axis wind turbine from the experiments conducted in an open environment condition at Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai (location 23.2167°N, 72.6833°E) are presented here. Low-wind velocity ranging from 2 to 11 m/s is available everywhere irrespective of climatic seasons and this data provides the support to the researchers using numerical tool to validate and develop an enhanced Lenz type design. Raw data obtained during the measurements are processed and presented in the form so as to compare with other typical outputs. The data is measured at different wind speeds prevalent in the open field condition ranging from 3 m/s to 9 m/s.

  18. Wind Turbine Load Mitigation based on Multivariable Robust Control and Blade Root Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Corcuera, A.; Pujana-Arrese, A.; Ezquerra, J. M.; Segurola, E.; Landaluze, J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents two H∞ multivariable robust controllers based on blade root sensors' information for individual pitch angle control. The wind turbine of 5 MW defined in the Upwind European project is the reference non-linear model used in this research work, which has been modelled in the GH Bladed 4.0 software package. The main objective of these controllers is load mitigation in different components of wind turbines during power production in the above rated control zone. The first proposed multi-input multi-output (MIMO) individual pitch H" controller mitigates the wind effect on the tower side-to-side acceleration and reduces the asymmetrical loads which appear in the rotor due to its misalignment. The second individual pitch H" multivariable controller mitigates the loads on the three blades reducing the wind effect on the bending flapwise and edgewise momentums in the blades. The designed H" controllers have been validated in GH Bladed and an exhaustive analysis has been carried out to calculate fatigue load reduction on wind turbine components, as well as to analyze load mitigation in some extreme cases.

  19. Wind Turbine Load Mitigation based on Multivariable Robust Control and Blade Root Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcuera, A Díaz de; Pujana-Arrese, A; Ezquerra, J M; Segurola, E; Landaluze, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents two H ∞ multivariable robust controllers based on blade root sensors' information for individual pitch angle control. The wind turbine of 5 MW defined in the Upwind European project is the reference non-linear model used in this research work, which has been modelled in the GH Bladed 4.0 software package. The main objective of these controllers is load mitigation in different components of wind turbines during power production in the above rated control zone. The first proposed multi-input multi-output (MIMO) individual pitch H'' controller mitigates the wind effect on the tower side-to-side acceleration and reduces the asymmetrical loads which appear in the rotor due to its misalignment. The second individual pitch H'' multivariable controller mitigates the loads on the three blades reducing the wind effect on the bending flapwise and edgewise momentums in the blades. The designed H'' controllers have been validated in GH Bladed and an exhaustive analysis has been carried out to calculate fatigue load reduction on wind turbine components, as well as to analyze load mitigation in some extreme cases

  20. On the energy pattern factor in wind measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buick, T R; Doherty, M A; McMullan, J.T., Morgan, R.; Murray, R B

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of energy pattern factor K/sub e/ were made using a continuous-analogue wind-power metering technique, rather than by the more usual sampling procedure. The values obtained were significantly larger than the usually accepted figure. The discrepancy is attributed partly to the method of measurement, which includes the actual power present rather than the amount that can be extracted, and partly to the use of rather more typical wind speeds. It is concluded, however, that more energy can be derived from wind schemes than was thought, even during periods of light wind. These conclusions improve the viability of wind power plants.

  1. Investigation of piezoelectric flaps for load alleviation using CFD; Wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, J.C.

    2010-03-15

    Cost efficient wind power generation demands for large wind turbines with a long lifetime. These demands place high interests on sophisticated load control techniques such as deformable trailing edge flaps. In this work a previously tested prototype airfoil was investigated by using the 2D incompressible RANS solver EllipSys2D. The prototype was built with a Risoe-B1-18 airfoil where piezoelectric actuators THUNDER TH-6R were attached at the trailing edge to realize a movable flap. The results of the simulation were compared to measurements of the previous wind tunnel test and comprehensive steady state computations were conducted to gain information about the general airfoil properties. The model was subsequently used to investigate aero-servo-elastic effects on the 2D airfoil section exposed to a fluctuating inflow. It is explained how a fluctuating inflow was simulated with EllipSys2D and how the CFD solver was coupled with a 3 DOF structural model and with two different control algorithms. Control 1 used the measured AOA in front of the LE as input, Control 2 used the pressure difference between suction and pressure side as input. The model showed a substantial load reduction potential for the present prototype airfoil. For a wind step from 10 m/s to 10.5 m/s the standard deviation of the structural deflection normal to the rotor plane could be reduced with up to 98 % (Control 1) and 96 % (Control 2). A 4 s turbulent inflow with TI=2.2 % could be reduced with up to 81 % (Control 1) and 82 % (Control 2). For a 12 s inflow with TI=2.4 % the standard deviation could be reduced with up to 68 % (Control 1) and 67 % (Control 2). The influence of possible time lags inside the control loop on the reduction potential of the prototype was also investigated. For a 12 s inflow with a tripled turbulence intensity of TI=7.7 % the prototype airfoil could still reach a reduction of up to 54 %. For an extended flap range of -6 to +6 degrees the reduction could be returned to 66

  2. Economic load dispatch of wind-solar-thermal system using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic load dispatch (ELD) problem is an essential optimization problem ..... The data for radiation and average ambient temperature is adopted as per (Solar Radiation Hand Book, et al.,2008) ..... Reference temperature for cell efficiency.

  3. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA). Report on Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabille, Eugéne; Prinsloo, Eric; Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    , to verify the results of the meso-scale modelling. The Measurements work package (WP2) is one of six work packages that collectively make up the Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) project. The measurements also provide observed wind climates at the measurement sites, which can be used by micrositing...... to be commissioned was WM06 (Sutherland) and this was completed on 17 September 2010. The outputs of WP2 are: i. Establish 10 high quality wind measurement stations providing three years of measurement data for calibration of the mesoscale modelling. ii. A database system for wind data collection and on-line Web...

  4. Finite micro-tab system for load control on a wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, A B; Lennie, M; Nayeri, C N; Paschereit, C O; Pechlivanoglou, G

    2014-01-01

    Finite micro-tabs have been investigated experimentally to evaluate the potential for load control on wind turbines. Two dimensional full span, as well as multiple finite tabs of various aspect ratios have been studied on an AH93W174 airfoil at different chord wise positions. A force balance was used to measure the aerodynamic loads. Furthermore, the wake vortex system consisting of the Karman vortex street as well as the tab tip vortices was analyzed with a 12-hole probe and hot wire anemometry. Finally, conventional oil paint as well as a quantitative digital flow analysis technique called SMARTviz were used to visualize the flow around the finite tab configurations. Results have shown that the devices are an effective solution to alleviate the airfoils overall load. The influence of the tab height, tab position as well as the finite tab aspect ratio on the lift and lift to drag ratio have been evaluated. It could be shown, that the lift difference can either be varied by changing the tab height as well as by altering the aspect ratio of the finite tabs. The drag of a two-dimensional flap is directly associated with the vortex street, while in the case of the finite tab, the solidity ratio of the tabs has the strongest effect on the drag. Therefore, the application of a finite tab system showed to improve the lift to drag ratio

  5. On mean wind and turbulence profile measurements from ground-based wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Two types of wind lidar?s have become available for ground-based vertical mean wind and turbulence profiling. A continuous wave (CW) wind lidar, and a pulsed wind lidar. Although they both are build upon the same recent 1.55 μ telecom fibre technology, they possess fundamental differences between...... their temporal and spatial resolution capabilities. A literature review of the two lidar systems spatial and temporal resolution characteristics will be presented, and the implication for the two lidar types vertical profile measurements of mean wind and turbulence in the lower atmospheric boundary layer...

  6. Tapping the energy storage potential in electric loads to deliver load following and regulation, with application to wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, Duncan S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops new methods to model and control the aggregated power demand from a population of thermostatically controlled loads, with the goal of delivering services such as regulation and load following. Previous work on direct load control focuses primarily on peak load shaving by directly interrupting power to loads. In contrast, the emphasis of this paper is on controlling loads to produce relatively short time scale responses (hourly to sub-hourly), and the control signal is applied by manipulation of temperature set points, possibly via programmable communicating thermostats or advanced metering infrastructure. To this end, the methods developed here leverage the existence of system diversity and use physically-based load models to inform the development of a new theoretical model that accurately predicts - even when the system is not in equilibrium - changes in load resulting from changes in thermostat temperature set points. Insight into the transient dynamics that result from set point changes is developed by deriving a new exact solution to a well-known hybrid state aggregated load model. The eigenvalues of the solution, which depend only on the thermal time constant of the loads under control, are shown to have a strong effect on the accuracy of the model. The paper also shows that load heterogeneity - generally something that must be assumed away in direct load control models - actually has a positive effect on model accuracy. System identification techniques are brought to bear on the problem, and it is shown that identified models perform only marginally better than the theoretical model. The paper concludes by deriving a minimum variance control law, and demonstrates its effectiveness in simulations wherein a population of loads is made to follow the output of a wind plant with very small changes in the nominal thermostat temperature set points.

  7. On the modelling and partial-load control of variable-speed wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, P [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The focus of this thesis is on modelling and variable-speed control of wind turbines. A physical model structure including the fundamental drive-train mode is derived and validated by system-identification experiments on a full-scale wind turbine. The resulting, parametrized model has been used as a basis for an evaluation of controllers for partial-load operation, validated by non-linear simulations. This evaluation, including several controller concepts, verifies that a sophisticated controller becomes necessary, when stretching the limits in power-loss minimization. This control strategy also demands the sampling frequency to be pushed to a high level. As a consequence, the angular-position measurements become time correlated and, in the limit, periodic. It is shown in the thesis how the resulting, operating-point-dependent effects on the measurement errors influence the estimation quality, using a stationary Kalman filter as an example. A gain-scheduling estimation approach is shown to improve the performance. 39 refs, 63 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Wind gust measurements using pulsed Doppler wind-lidar: comparison of direct and indirect techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The measurements of wind gusts, defined as short duration wind speed maxima, have traditionally been limited by the height that can be reached by weather masts. Doppler lidars can potentially provide information from levels above this and thereby fill this gap in our knowledge. To measure the 3D...... is 3.9 s) which can provide high resolution turbulent measurements, both in the vertical direction, and potentially in the horizontal direction. In this study we explore different strategies of wind lidar measurements to measure the wind speed maxima. We use a novel stochastic turbulence reconstruction...... model, driven by the Doppler lidar measurements, which uses a non-linear particle filter to estimate the small-scale turbulent fluctuations. The first results show that the reconstruction method can reproduce the wind speed maxima measured by the sonic anemometer if a low-pass filter with a cut...

  9. Wind Farm Active Power Dispatch for Output Power Maximizing Based on a Wind Turbine Control Strategy for Load Minimizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; Hu, Weihao; Hou, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of the wake effect in the wind farm control design (WF) can increase the total captured power by wind turbines (WTs), which is usually implemented by derating upwind WTs. However, derating the WT without a proper control strategy will increase the structural loads, caused by operation...... in stall mode. Therefore, the WT control strategy for derating operation should be considered in the attempt at maximizing the total captured power while reducing structural loads. Moreover, electrical power loss on the transmission system inside a WF is also not negligible for maximizing the total output...... power of the WF. In this paper, an optimal active power dispatch strategy based on a WT derating strategy and considering the transmission loss is proposed for maximizing the total output power. The active power reference of each WT is chosen as the optimization variable. A partial swarm optimizing...

  10. Wind Turbine Measurement Technique—an Open Laboratory for Educational Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    operational parameters, (ii) meteorological onditions, (iii) electrical quantities and (iv) mechanical loads. The data acquisition system was PC based, and it was combined with a MySQL® database for data management.The system enabled online access for real-time recordings,which were used both...... of non-commercial time series, which would be available for practicing fatigue calculations and extreme load estimation in basic wind turbine courses. Power quality analysis was carried out based on high-speed-sampled, three-phase voltage and current signals. The wide spectrum of sensors enabled....... The WTMLAB was included in a new course entitled Wind Turbine Measurement Techniques....

  11. Wind Energy Management System Integration Project Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-09-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation) and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. In order to improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively, by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter unique

  12. The Feasibility Study on Thermal Loading Control of Wind Power Converters with a Flexible Switching Frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Thermal loading of wind power converters is critical to their reliability performance. Especially for IGBT modules applied in a converter, both of the mean value and variation of the junction temperature have significant impact on the lifetime. Besides other strategies to reduce the thermal loadi...... the temperature fluctuations due to wind speed variations. The trade-off between the reduced amplitude of temperature fluctuations and the additional power losses that may be introduced is quantitatively studied....

  13. A stochastic framework for the grid integration of wind power using flexible load approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydarian-Forushani, E.; Moghaddam, M.P.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.; Shafie-khah, M.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper focuses on the potential of Demand Response Programs (DRPs) to contribute to flexibility. • A stochastic network constrained unit commitment associated with DR is presented. • DR participation levels and electricity tariffs are evaluated on providing a flexible load profile. • Novel quantitative indices for evaluating flexibility are defined to assess the success of DRPs. • DR types and customer participation levels are the main factors to modify the system load profile. - Abstract: Wind power integration has always been a key research area due to the green future power system target. However, the intermittent nature of wind power may impose some technical and economic challenges to Independent System Operators (ISOs) and increase the need for additional flexibility. Motivated by this need, this paper focuses on the potential of Demand Response Programs (DRPs) as an option to contribute to the flexible operation of power systems. On this basis, in order to consider the uncertain nature of wind power and the reality of electricity market, a Stochastic Network Constrained Unit Commitment associated with DR (SNCUCDR) is presented to schedule both generation units and responsive loads in power systems with high penetration of wind power. Afterwards, the effects of both price-based and incentive-based DRPs are evaluated, as well as DR participation levels and electricity tariffs on providing a flexible load profile and facilitating grid integration of wind power. For this reason, novel quantitative indices for evaluating flexibility are defined to assess the success of DRPs in terms of wind integration. Sensitivity studies indicate that DR types and customer participation levels are the main factors to modify the system load profile to support wind power integration

  14. Acoustic Emission Stethoscope - Measurements with Acoustic Emission on Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krystof Kryniski [AaF Infrastructure, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    been designed to offer also audible sound derived from the ultrasound produced by faulty components. Identifying which drive-train parts that are in danger, or require immediate attention, can then, with the developed method, be remotely accessed without any need to travel to and climbing-up the actual wind turbine. The new method for condition monitoring using acoustic emission has been shown to give results comparable to the proven methods using vibration acceleration and shock pulse, but the applications with acoustic emission have the potential to be more cost effective, simpler and more reliable. A warning or notification method has been developed in the project. A reference and disturbance measure is displayed continuously and is compared to normal, warning and alarm levels in the notification system. The reference measure is an average value that varies with the wind dependent load on the rotor and the disturbance is a measure of the instantaneous deviations from the average values. The disturbance measure is used to signal the presence of a defect in the machine. The method has been tested on a number of wind turbines. The alert or warning level is pre-set to a factor three times the standard deviation of the signal and the alarm level to five times the standard deviation. No damage has been encountered yet on the tested turbines, meaning that a full test of the capability to detect faults on a wind turbine has not been proved within the project and remains to be verified in future testing. When experience of the signals has been acquired and compared to observed physical damage, the alert and alarm levels can be modified in each application.

  15. A Cyber-Based Data-Enabled Virtual Organization for Wind Load Effects on Civil Infrastructures: VORTEX-Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Kareem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite many advances in the area of wind effects on structures in recent decades, research has been traditionally conducted within limited resources scattered geographically. With the trend toward increasingly complex designs of civil infrastructure combined with the escalating potential for losses by extreme wind events, a new culture of research needs to be established based on innovative and collaborative solutions for better management of the impact of extreme wind events. To address this change, this paper presents a new paradigm of a multiscale cyber-based laboratory framework for the analysis/design, modeling, and simulation of wind load effects based on an ongoing collaborative cyberinfrastructure-based platform, Virtual Organization for Reducing the Toll of EXtreme Winds (VORTEX-Winds, https://vortex-winds.org, and discusses its current status since its inception in 2007 and ongoing developments. This collaborative framework as it evolves would enable a paradigm shift by offering advanced cyber-enabled modules (e-modules for accelerating advances in research and education to achieve improved understanding and better modeling of wind effects on structures. Accordingly, it will enhance wind community’s analysis and design capabilities to address next-generation challenges posed by wind. Through empowering those without computational or experimental resources, the e-modules will encompass a large set of subject areas and topics categorized as Database-enabled design, Full-scale/Field site data repository, Statistical/Stochastic toolboxes, Tele-experimentation, Uncertainty modeling, Damage assessment, and Computational platforms. This prototype will allow access to the individual e-module, while it is envisaged that next level of development in VORTEX-Winds will have the capability for an automated and integrated analysis/design through a nexus of e-modules. A highlight of the e-modules currently completed or in development is presented

  16. Analyzing the Energy Performance, Wind Loading, and Costs of Photovoltaic Slat Modules on Commercial Rooftops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, Otto D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Kelsey A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); MacAlpine, Sara M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    NREL studied a new type of photovoltaic (PV) module configuration wherein multiple narrow, tilted slats are mounted in a single frame. Each slat of the PV slat module contains a single row of cells and is made using ordinary crystalline silicon PV module materials and processes, including a glass front sheet and weatherproof polymer encapsulation. Compared to a conventional ballasted system, a system using slat modules offer higher energy production and lower weight at lower LCOE. The key benefits of slat modules are reduced wind loading, improved capacity factor and reduced installation cost. First, the individual slats allow air to flow through, which reduce wind loading. Using PV performance modeling software, we compared the performance of an optimized installation of slats modules to a typical installation of conventional modules in a ballasted rack mounting system. Based on the results of the performance modeling two different row tilt and spacing were tested in a wind tunnel. Scaled models of the PV Slat modules were wind tunnel tested to quantify the wind loading of a slat module system on a commercial rooftop, comparing the results to conventional ballasted rack mounted PV modules. Some commercial roofs do not have sufficient reserve dead load capacity to accommodate a ballasted system. A reduced ballast system design could make PV system installation on these roofs feasible for the first time without accepting the disadvantages of penetrating mounts. Finally, technoeconomic analysis was conducted to enable an economic comparison between a conventional commercial rooftop system and a reduced-ballast slat module installation.

  17. Impacts of Providing Inertial Response on Dynamic Loads of Wind Turbine Drivetrains: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girsang, I. P.; Dhupia, J.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Muljadi, E.; Jonkman, J.

    2014-09-01

    There has been growing demand from the power industry for wind power plants to support power system operations. One such requirement is for wind turbines to provide ancillary services in the form of inertial response. When the grid frequency drops, it is essential for wind turbine generators (WTGs) to inject kinetic energy stored in their inertia into the grid to help arrest the frequency decline. However, the impacts of inertial response on the structural loads of the wind turbine have not been given much attention. To bridge this gap, this paper utilizes a holistic model for both fixed-speed and variable-speed WTGs by integrating the aeroelastic wind turbine model in FAST, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, with the electromechanical drivetrain model in SimDriveline and SimPowerSystems.

  18. Thermal Loading and Lifetime Estimation for Power Device Considering Mission Profiles in Wind Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    for the reliability improvement and also for cost reduction of wind power technology. Unfortunately, the existing lifetime estimation methods for the power electronic converter are not yet suitable in the wind power application, because the comprehensive mission profiles are not well specified and included......As a key component in the wind turbine system, the power electronic converter and its power semiconductors suffer from complicated power loadings related to environment, and are proven to have high failure rates. Therefore, correct lifetime estimation of wind power converter is crucial...... devices, more detailed information of the lifetime-related performance in wind power converter can be obtained. Some experimental results are also included to validate the thermal behavior of power device under different mission profiles....

  19. Small-Signal Stability Analysis of Full-Load Converter Interfaced Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Akhmatov, Vladislav; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygård

    2009-01-01

    focus since the share of wind power increases substituting power generation from conventional power plants. Here, a study based on modal analysis is presented which investigate the effect of large scale integration of full-load converter interfaced wind turbines on inter-area oscillations in a three...... generator network. A detailed aggregated wind turbine model is employed which includes all necessary control functions. It is shown that the wind urbines have very low participation in the inter-area power oscillation.......Power system stability investigations of wind farms often cover the tasks of low-voltage-fault-ride-through, voltage and reactive power control, and power balancing, but not much attention has yet been paid to the task of small-signal stability. Small-signal stability analysis needs increasing...

  20. Spectral tensor parameters for wind turbine load modeling from forested and agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Abhijit S.; Mann, Jakob; Segalini, A.

    2015-01-01

    A velocity spectral tensor model was evaluated from the single-point measurements of wind speed. The model contains three parameters representing the dissipation rate of specific turbulent kinetic energy, a turbulence length scale and the turbulence anisotropy. Sonic anemometer measurements taken...... was better than that of the cross-wind component. No significant difference was found between the performance of the model at the forested and the agricultural areas. © 2014 The Authors. Wind Energy published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  1. MEASUREMENT OF WASTE LOADING IN SALTSTONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. One of those properties of importance is the Waste Loading (WL) of the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) in the Saltstone waste form. Waste loading is a measure of the amount of waste that can be incorporated within a waste form. The value of the Saltstone waste loading ultimately determines the number of vaults that will be required to disposition all of the DSS. In this report, the waste loading is defined as the volume in milliliters of DSS per liter of Saltstone waste form. The two most important parameters that determine waste loading for Saltstone are water to cementitious material (w/cm) ratio and the cured grout density. Data are provided that show the dependence of waste loading on the w/cm ratio for a fixed DSS composition using the current premix material (45% Blast Furnace Slag (BFS), 45% Fly Ash (FA) and 10% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)). The impact of cured grout density on waste loading was also demonstrated. Mixes (at 0.60 w/cm) made with a Modular Caustic side extraction Unit (MCU) simulant and either OPC or BFS have higher cured grout densities than mixes made with premix and increase the WL to 709 mL/L for the OPC mix and 689 mL/L for the BFS mix versus the value of 653 mL/L for MCU in premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio. Bleed liquid reduces the waste loading and lowers the effective w/cm ratio of Saltstone. A method is presented (and will be used in future tasks) for correcting the waste loading and the w/cm ratio of the as-batched mixes in those cases where bleed liquid is present. For example, the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) mix at an as-batched 0.60 w/cm ratio, when corrected for % bleed, gives a mix with a 0.55 w/cm ratio and a WL that has been reduced from 662 to 625 mL/L. An example is provided that

  2. A risk analysis for natural-draught cooling towers under wind load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A satisfactory safety level of natural-draught cooling towers is usually reached by assuming an extreme wind load, for which the probability of being exceeded is very low. Taking into account the dispersion of strength, the relevant extreme wind velocity for the limiting carrying capacity is calculated for a desired probability of failure. Compared with the method of partial safety coefficients, the reliability can be calculated more exactly in this way, even though the probability distribution of the extreme wind velocity must be extrapolated from limited observations. (orig.) [de

  3. Design of a new urban wind turbine airfoil using a pressure-load inverse method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, J.C.C.; Gato, L.M.C. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Marques da Silva, F. [LNEC - Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Av. Brasil, 101, 1700-066 Lisboa (Portugal); Estanqueiro, A.I. [INETI - Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovacao Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents the design methodology of a new wind turbine airfoil that achieves high performance in urban environment by increasing the maximum lift. For this purpose, an inverse method was applied to obtain a new wind turbine blade section with constant pressure-load along the chord, at the design inlet angle. In comparison with conventional blade section designs, the new airfoil has increased maximum lift, reduced leading edge suction peak and controlled soft-stall behaviour, due to a reduction of the adverse pressure gradient on the suction side. Wind tunnel experimental results confirmed the computational results. (author)

  4. Probabilistic Constrained Load Flow Considering Integration of Wind Power Generation and Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachogiannis, Ioannis (John)

    2009-01-01

    A new formulation and solution of probabilistic constrained load flow (PCLF) problem suitable for modern power systems with wind power generation and electric vehicles (EV) demand or supply is represented. The developed stochastic model of EV demand/supply and the wind power generation model...... are incorporated into load flow studies. In the resulted PCLF formulation, discrete and continuous control parameters are engaged. Therefore, a hybrid learning automata system (HLAS) is developed to find the optimal offline control settings over a whole planning period of power system. The process of HLAS...

  5. Assessment of Gearbox Operational Loads and Reliability under High Mean Wind Speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Dabrowski, Dariusz; Natarajan, Anand

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic loads occurring in the drivetrain of wind turbines with a focus on offshore applications. Herein a model of the gearbox of the 5 MW wind turbine is presented. The model is developed in a multi-body framework using commercial software MSC ADAMS. Validation of the model was based on the experimental data provided by NREL for 750 kW prototype gearbox. Failures of gearboxes caused by high dynamic loads have a significant influence on the cost of operation of wi...

  6. Scaling Issues in the Determination of Wind loads on Lattice Masts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koss, Holger; Srouji, Robin G.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a study conducted to investigate the influence of geometric scale and flow condition on the wind load coefficients for lattice masts structures. An initial study in 2008 on a full size mast section indicated a possible contingency, which could be used to add equipment on teleco......The paper presents a study conducted to investigate the influence of geometric scale and flow condition on the wind load coefficients for lattice masts structures. An initial study in 2008 on a full size mast section indicated a possible contingency, which could be used to add equipment...

  7. Standards for measurements and testing of wind turbine power quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Gerdes, G; Klosse, R; Santjer, F [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Robertson, N; Davy, W [NEL, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Koulouvari, M; Morfiadakis, E [CRES, Pikermi (Greece); Larsson, Aa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The present paper describes the work done in power quality sub-task of the project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments` funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality sub-task has been to make analyses and new recommendation(s) for the standardisation of measurement and verification of wind turbine power quality. The work has been organised in three major activities. The first activity has been to propose measurement procedures and to verify existing and new measurement procedures. This activity has also involved a comparison of the measurements and data processing of the participating partners. The second activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with constant rotor speed. The third activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with variable rotor speed. (au)

  8. Analysis of Oscillations in a Cableway: Wind Load Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gustincic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop and investigate a non-linear model for analysing the reaction of a self-detachable cabin monocable ropeway exposed to a sudden deceleration and wind forces. The First and Second Newton's Law and Differential Equations are the basic tools for building the model. Furthermore a few basic considerations have been made about the air “dragging and lifting" forces that induce oscillations and vibrations in mechanical systems alike. All the numerical data used for the simulation was taken from a ropeway in the skiing site of Ravascletto-Zoncolan in the North- East of Italy.

  9. Ultimate Strength of Wind Turbine Blades under Multiaxial Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselbach, Philipp Ulrich

    the thickness location. Another modelling approach shows a modelling strategy, where shell and solid elements where combined with the purpose to estimate the strain energy release rate of transversely orientated crack in the trailing edge for different loading conditions. Furthermore, state-of-the-art failure...

  10. Load Coefficients on Grates used for Wind Turbine Access Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Frigaard, Peter

    In this report is presented the results of tests carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) on behalf of DONG Energy A/S and Vattenfall A/S, Denmark. The objective of the tests was to investigate the load coefficient on different platform grates and a solid plate for desi...

  11. Voltage control of a variable speed wind turbine connected to an isolated load: Experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masmoudi, Abdelkarim; Krichen, Lotfi; Ouali, Abderrazak

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop an experimental test bench of a wind energy conversion system. ► A DC motor is emulating a variable speed wind turbine using a DS1104 card. ► The production unit is supplying a three-phase load. ► A voltage control is established in order to regulate the DC bus voltage and the line-to-line voltages. - Abstract: This study is interested in the development of an experimental test bench of an autonomous wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). After the description of the test bench, the elements constituting the WECS are presented. Then, a real time model implemented under a digital signal processor (DSP) system is established. The first objective of this work is to validate the functionality of the test bench leading to experiment some principles developed in theory. The second objective is to control the load connection voltages and the DC bus voltage. For the first control, two resonant controllers are used and for the second one, a dump load, connected to the DC bus, offers the possibility to maintain a balance between production and consumption in spite of wind fluctuations and load variations. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the test bench trying out in real time the behavior of a WECS supplying an isolated load.

  12. Dynamic modeling and analysis of load sharing characteristics of wind turbine gearbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxing Yi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A coupled dynamic model, which contains helical gears-shafts-bearings for a wind turbine gearbox transmission system, was built considering nonlinear factors of the time-varying mesh stiffness, the external varying load, and the dynamic transmission error at first. The model is confirmed to be right after comparing the theoretical data with the experimental load sharing values, and also it is found that the static load sharing is conservative to evaluate the non-equilibrium effect of a planetary gear system. Besides, the analyzing results of the influence of average error and amplitude error on the load sharing show that the load sharing could be decreased if the error goes up a little. Then, by means of treating the static tracing point as the dynamic initial values, we analyzed the initial position’s influence on the load sharing of transmission system to provide a theoretical basis of load sharing control. Furthermore, we explored the influence of high-speed shaft position angle on the load sharing and the dynamic load factor of gears fixed on the parallel shafts. The results provide useful theoretical guidelines for the design of parallel shaft gear system in the wind turbines.

  13. Comparison of Second-Order Loads on a Tension-Leg Platform for Wind Turbines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueydon, S.; Wuillaume, P.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Platt, A.

    2015-03-01

    The first objective of this work is to compare the two floating offshore wind turbine simulation packages {DIFFRAC+aNySIM} and {WAMIT+FAST}. The focus is on second-order wave loads, and so first- and second-order wave loads are applied to a structure sequentially for a detailed comparison and a more precise analysis of the effects of the second-order loads. aNySIM does not have the capability to model flexible bodies, and so the simulations performed in this tool are done assuming a rigid body. FAST also assumes that the platform is rigid, but can account for the flexibility of the tower. The second objective is to study the effects of the second-order loads on the response of a TLP floating wind turbine. The flexibility of the tower must be considered for this investigation, and therefore only FAST is used.

  14. Forces and Moments on Flat Plates of Small Aspect Ratio with Application to PV Wind Loads and Small Wind Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Ortiz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve knowledge of the wind loads on photovoltaic structures mounted on flat roofs at the high angles required in high latitudes, and to study starting flow on low aspect ratio wind turbine blades, a series of wind tunnel tests were undertaken. Thin flat plates of aspect ratios between 0.4 and 9.0 were mounted on a sensitive three-component instantaneous force and moment sensor. The Reynolds numbers varied from 6 × 104 to 2 × 105. Measurements were made for angles of attack between 0° and 90° both in the free stream and in wall proximity with increased turbulence and mean shear. The ratio of drag to lift closely follows the inverse tangent of the angle of incidence for virtually all measurements. This implies that the forces of interest are due largely to the instantaneous pressure distribution around the plate and are not significantly influenced by shear stresses. The instantaneous forces appear most complex for the smaller aspect ratios but the intensity of the normal force fluctuations is between 10% and 20% in the free-steam but can exceed 30% near the wall. As the wind tunnel floor is approached, the lift and drag reduce with increasing aspect ratio, and there is a reduction in the high frequency components of the forces. It is shown that the centre of pressure is closer to the centre of the plates than the quarter-chord position for nearly all cases.

  15. Active load reduction using individual pitch, based on local blade flow measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Thomsen, K.

    2005-01-01

    -of-the-art load-reducing concepts. Since the new flow-based concept deviates significantly from previous published load-reducing strategies, a comparison of the performance based on aeroelastic simulations is included. Advantages and drawbacks of the systems are discussed. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.......A new load-reducing control strategy for individual blade control of large pitch-controlled wind turbines is presented This control concept is based on local blade inflow measurements and offers the possibility of larger load reductions, without loss of power production, than seen in other state...

  16. Importance of modal cross-correlations on wind loaded structures

    OpenAIRE

    Denoël, Vincent; Degée, Hervé; De Ville De Goyet, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    In civil engineering applications the dynamic analysis of large structure is often performed in a modal space. This method is known to offer an interesting decrease of the number of degrees of freedom as well as a decomposition of the structure’s response in “uncoupled” components. Even if the response in each mode can be computed independently from the responses in the other ones, in the context of stochastic loading, the coherence of these modal responses must be accounted fo...

  17. Optimizing Lidar Scanning Strategies for Wind Energy Measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. F.; Bonin, T. A.; Klein, P.; Wharton, S.; Chilson, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concerns and rising fossil fuel prices have prompted rapid development in the renewable energy sector. Wind energy, in particular, has become increasingly popular in the United States. However, the intermittency of available wind energy makes it difficult to integrate wind energy into the power grid. Thus, the expansion and successful implementation of wind energy requires accurate wind resource assessments and wind power forecasts. The actual power produced by a turbine is affected by the wind speeds and turbulence levels experienced across the turbine rotor disk. Because of the range of measurement heights required for wind power estimation, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidar) are ideally suited for these purposes. However, the volume averaging inherent in remote sensing technology produces turbulence estimates that are different from those estimated by a sonic anemometer mounted on a standard meteorological tower. In addition, most lidars intended for wind energy purposes utilize a standard Doppler beam-swinging or Velocity-Azimuth Display technique to estimate the three-dimensional wind vector. These scanning strategies are ideal for measuring mean wind speeds but are likely inadequate for measuring turbulence. In order to examine the impact of different lidar scanning strategies on turbulence measurements, a WindCube lidar, a scanning Halo lidar, and a scanning Galion lidar were deployed at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Summer 2013. Existing instrumentation at the ARM site, including a 60-m meteorological tower and an additional scanning Halo lidar, were used in conjunction with the deployed lidars to evaluate several user-defined scanning strategies. For part of the experiment, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every 1 second. In another part of the experiment, one of

  18. A model for Quick Load Analysis for monopile-type offshore wind turbine substructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schløer, Signe; Castillo, Laura Garcia; Fejerskov, Morten

    2016-01-01

    A model for Quick Load Analysis, QuLA, of an offshore wind turbine substructure is presented. The aerodynamic rotor loads and damping are precomputed for a load-based configuration. The dynamic structural response is represented by the first global fore-aft mode only and is computed...... in the frequency domain using the equation of motion. The model is compared against the state of the art aeroelastic code, Flex5, and both life time fatigue and extreme loads are considered in the comparison. In general there is good similarity between the two models. Some derivation for the sectional forces...... are explained in terms of the model simplifications. The difference in the sectional moments are found to be within 14% for the fatigue load case and 10% for the extreme load condition....

  19. Comparison of wind pressure measurements on Silsoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    and the over production of turbulent kinetic energy near the sharp edges. The various RANS ... can predict the general wind conditions around building reasonably well except those in the separation regions .... cable to a remote A/D converter.

  20. Comparison of wind pressure measurements on Silsoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... from full-scale observation, wind-tunnel experiments and various CFD techniques ... The paper is the result of extensive research concentrated on analyzing the accuracy and ...

  1. Comparison of wind pressure measurements on Silsoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    turbulence models available widely and the state of the art techniques for the ... model, suitable for wind engineering applications, should be able to model the .... the Commonwealth Advisory Aeronautical Council (CAARC) building using vari-.

  2. Correlated wind-power production and electric load scenarios for investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baringo, L.; Conejo, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investment models require an accurate representation of the involved uncertainty. ► Demand and wind power production are correlated and uncertain parameters. ► Two methodologies are provided to represent uncertainty and correlation. ► An accurate uncertainty representation is crucial to get optimal results. -- Abstract: Stochastic programming constitutes a useful tool to address investment problems. This technique represents uncertain input data using a set of scenarios, which should accurately describe the involved uncertainty. In this paper, we propose two alternative methodologies to efficiently generate electric load and wind-power production scenarios, which are used as input data for investment problems. The two proposed methodologies are based on the load- and wind-duration curves and on the K-means clustering technique, and allow representing the uncertainty of and the correlation between electric load and wind-power production. A case study pertaining to wind-power investment is used to show the interest of the proposed methodologies and to illustrate how the selection of scenarios has a significant impact on investment decisions.

  3. Assessment and Optimization of Lidar Measurement Availability for Wind Turbine Control: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoust, S.; Jehu, A.; Bouillet, M.; Bardon, M.; Vercherin, B.; Scholbrock, A.; Fleming, P.; Wright, A.

    2014-05-01

    Turbine-mounted lidars provide preview measurements of the incoming wind field. By reducing loads on critical components and increasing the potential power extracted from the wind, the performance of wind turbine controllers can be improved [2]. As a result, integrating a light detection and ranging (lidar) system has the potential to lower the cost of wind energy. This paper presents an evaluation of turbine-mounted lidar availability. Availability is a metric which measures the proportion of time the lidar is producing controller-usable data, and is essential when a wind turbine controller relies on a lidar. To accomplish this, researchers from Avent Lidar Technology and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory first assessed and modeled the effect of extreme atmospheric events. This shows how a multirange lidar delivers measurements for a wide variety of conditions. Second, by using a theoretical approach and conducting an analysis of field feedback, we investigated the effects of the lidar setup on the wind turbine. This helps determine the optimal lidar mounting position at the back of the nacelle, and establishes a relationship between availability, turbine rpm, and lidar sampling time. Lastly, we considered the role of the wind field reconstruction strategies and the turbine controller on the definition and performance of a lidar's measurement availability.

  4. Breaking phase focused wave group loads on offshore wind turbine monopiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadirian, Amin; Bredmose, Henrik; Dixen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The current method for calculating extreme wave loads on offshore wind turbine structures is based on engineering models for non-breaking regular waves. The present article has the aim of validating previously developed models at DTU, namely the OceanWave3D potential flow wave model and a coupled...

  5. Influence of Nonlinear Irregular Waves on the Fatigue Loads of an Offshore Wind Turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meulen, M.B.; Ashuri, T.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.; Molenaar, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    In order to make offshore wind power a cost effective solution that can compete with the traditional fossil energy sources, cost reductions on the expensive offshore support structures are required. One way to achieve this, is to reduce the uncertainty in wave load calculations by using a more

  6. A combined aeroelastic-aeroacoustic model for wind turbine noise: Verification and analysis of field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Fischer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, semi-empirical engineering models for the three main wind turbine aerodynamic noise sources, namely, turbulent inflow, trailing edge and stall noise, are introduced. They are implemented into the in-house aeroelastic code HAWC2 commonly used for wind turbine load calculations...... and design. The results of the combined aeroelastic and aeroacoustic model are compared with field noise measurements of a 500kW wind turbine. Model and experimental data are in fairly good agreement in terms of noise levels and directivity. The combined model allows separating the various noise sources...... and highlights a number of mechanisms that are difficult to differentiate when only the overall noise from a wind turbine is measured....

  7. Application of two passive strategies on the load mitigation of large offshore wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzadeh, Rasoul; Kühn, Martin

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the numerical results of two passive strategies to reduce the support structure loads of a large offshore wind turbine. In the first approach, an omnidirectional tuned mass damper is designed and implemented in the tower top to alleviate the structural vibrations. In the second approach, a viscous fluid damper model which is diagonally attached to the tower at two points is developed. Aeroelastic simulations are performed for the offshore 10MW INNWIND.EU reference wind turbine mounted on a jacket structure. Lifetime damage equivalent loads are evaluated at the tower base and compared with those for the reference wind turbine. The results show that the integrated design can extend the lifetime of the support structure.

  8. Analysis of wind driven self-excited induction generator supplying isolated DC loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled S. Sakkoury

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis, modelling and simulation of wind-driven self-excited induction generator (SEIG. The three-phase SEIG is driven by a variable-speed prime mover to represent a wind turbine. Also, the paper investigates the dynamic performance of the SEIG during start-up, increasing or decreasing the load or rotor speed. The value of the excitation capacitance required for the SEIG is calculated to give suitable saturation level to assure self-excitation and to avoid heavy saturation levels. Matching of the maximum power available from the wind turbine is performed through varying the load value. The effect of AC–DC power conversion on the generator is investigated. The system simulation is carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK toolbox program.

  9. Linear active disturbance rejection-based load frequency control concerning high penetration of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yanmei; Bai, Yan; Huang, Congzhi; Du, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A disturbance rejection solution to the load frequency control issue is proposed. • Several power systems with wind energy conversation system have been tested. • A tuning algorithm of the controller parameters was proposed. • The performance of the proposed approach is better than traditional controllers. - Abstract: A new grid load frequency control approach is proposed for the doubly fed induction generator based wind power plants. The load frequency control issue in a power system is undergoing fundamental changes due to the rapidly growing amount of wind energy conversation system, and concentrating on maintaining generation-load balance and disturbance rejection. The prominent feature of the linear active disturbance rejection control approach is that the total disturbance can be estimated and then eliminated in real time. And thus, it is a feasible solution to deal with the load frequency control issue. In this paper, the application of the linear active disturbance rejection control approach in the load frequency control issue for a complex power system with wind energy conversation system based on doubly fed induction generator is investigated. The load frequency control issue is formulated as a decentralized multi-objective optimization control problem, the solution to which is solved by the hybrid particle swarm optimization technique. To show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme, the robust performance testing based on Monte-Carlo approach is carried out. The performance superiority of the system with the proposed linear active disturbance rejection control approach over that with the traditional proportional integral and fuzzy-proportional integral-based controllers is validated by the simulation results

  10. Full scale investigation of the wind loads on a light-weight building-integrated photovoltaic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bronkhorst, A.J.; Bentum, C.A. van

    2017-01-01

    The wind loads on solar energy systems are crucial for the engineering of the panels, substructure and fixings. There is a demand for aesthetically more acceptable solutions such as frameless solar systems. For these frameless systems, the wind loads are carried by the panels themselves. Combined

  11. Rotor equivalent wind speed for power curve measurement – comparative exercise for IEA Wind Annex 32

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Cañadillas, B.; Clifton, A.

    2014-01-01

    was the definition of the segment area used as weighting for the wind speeds measured at the various heights in the calculation of the REWS. This comparative exercise showed that the REWS method results in a significant difference compared to the standard method using the wind speed at hub height in conditions...

  12. Wind profile modelling using WAsP and "tall" wind measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Kelly, Mark C.; Troen, Ib

    2015-01-01

    extrapolations (the wind profile) this is done using the Weibull distribution and the geostrophic drag law. Wind lidar measurements obtained during the ’Tall wind’ campaign at three different sites are used to evaluate the assumptions and equations that are used in the WAsP vertical extrapolation strategy...

  13. Wake Measurements in ECN's Scaled Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenaar, J.W.; Schepers, J.G. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    In ECN's scaled wind farm the wake evolution is studied in two different situations. A single wake is studied at two different locations downstream of a turbine and a single wake is studied in conjunction with a triple wake. Here, the wake is characterized by the wind speed ratio, the turbulence intensity, the vertical wind speed and the turbulence (an)isotropy. Per situation all wake measurements are taken simultaneously together with the inflow conditions.

  14. Simulation of Mechanical Behavior and Damage of a Large Composite Wind Turbine Blade under Critical Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarfaoui, M.; Nachtane, M.; Khadimallah, H.; Saifaoui, D.

    2018-04-01

    Issues such as energy generation/transmission and greenhouse gas emissions are the two energy problems we face today. In this context, renewable energy sources are a necessary part of the solution essentially winds power, which is one of the most profitable sources of competition with new fossil energy facilities. This paper present the simulation of mechanical behavior and damage of a 48 m composite wind turbine blade under critical wind loads. The finite element analysis was performed by using ABAQUS code to predict the most critical damage behavior and to apprehend and obtain knowledge of the complex structural behavior of wind turbine blades. The approach developed based on the nonlinear FE analysis using mean values for the material properties and the failure criteria of Tsai-Hill to predict failure modes in large structures and to identify the sensitive zones.

  15. Full two-dimensional rotor plane inflow measurements by a spinner-integrated wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Angelou, Nikolas

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Wind turbine load reduction and power performance optimization via advanced control strategies is an active area in the wind energy community. In particular, feed-forward control using upwind inflow measurements by lidar (light detection and ranging) remote sensing instruments has...... novel full two-dimensional radial inflow measurements. Approach In order to achieve full two-dimensional radial inflow measurements, a special laser beam scanner has been developed at the DTU Wind Energy Department. It is based on two rotating prisms that each deviate the beam by 15°, resulting......, a proof-of-concept trial with a blade mounted lidar was performed during the measurement campaign and is reported in a separate EWEA 2013 contribution. Conclusion The study presented here is the novel full two-dimensional continuation of the previous inflow measurements on a circle presented in the paper...

  16. Aerodynamic loads and rotor performance for the Darrieus wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraschivoiu, I.

    1981-12-01

    Aerodynamic blade loads and rotor performance are studied for the Darrieus windmill by using a double-multiple streamtube model. The Darrieus is represented as a pair of actuator disks in tandem at each level of the rotor, with upstream and downstream half-cycles. An equilibrium velocity exists in the center plane, and the upwind velocity is higher than the downwind velocity; lift and drag coefficients are calculated from the Reynolds number and the local angle of attack. Half-rotor torque and power are found by averaging the contributions from each streamtube at each position of the rotor in the upwind cycle. An example is provided for a 17 m Darrieus employing NACA blades. While the method is found to be suitable for predicting blade and rotor performance, the need to incorporate the effects of dynamic stall in the model is stressed as a means to improve accuracy.

  17. NWTC Researchers Field-Test Advanced Control Turbine Systems to Increase Performance, Decrease Structural Loading of Wind Turbines and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-08-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are studying component controls, including new advanced actuators and sensors, for both conventional turbines as well as wind plants. This research will help develop innovative control strategies that reduce aerodynamic structural loads and improve performance. Structural loads can cause damage that increase maintenance costs and shorten the life of a turbine or wind plant.

  18. Calculation and characteristics analysis of blade pitch loads for large scale wind turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the electric pitch system of large scale horizontal-axis wind turbines,the blade pitch loads coming mainly from centrifugal force,aerodynamic force and gravity are analyzed,and the calculation models for them are established in this paper.For illustration,a 1.2 MW wind turbine is introduced as a practical sample,and its blade pitch loads from centrifugal force,aerodynamic force and gravity are calculated and analyzed separately and synthetically.The research results showed that in the process of rotor rotating 360o,the fluctuation of blade pitch loads is similar to cosine curve when the rotor rotational speed,in-flow wind speed and pitch angle are constant.Furthermore,the amplitude of blade pitch load presents quite a difference at a different pitch angle.The ways of calculation for blade pitch loads are of the universality,and are helpful for further research of the individual pitch control system.

  19. Loading Analysis of Composite Wind Turbine Blade for Fatigue Life Prediction of Adhesively Bonded Root Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi-Majd, Davood; Azimzadeh, Vahid; Mohammadi, Bijan

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays wind energy is widely used as a non-polluting cost-effective renewable energy resource. During the lifetime of a composite wind turbine which is about 20 years, the rotor blades are subjected to different cyclic loads such as aerodynamics, centrifugal and gravitational forces. These loading conditions, cause to fatigue failure of the blade at the adhesively bonded root joint, where the highest bending moments will occur and consequently, is the most critical zone of the blade. So it is important to estimate the fatigue life of the root joint. The cohesive zone model is one of the best methods for prediction of initiation and propagation of debonding at the root joint. The advantage of this method is the possibility of modeling the debonding without any requirement to the remeshing. However in order to use this approach, it is necessary to analyze the cyclic loading condition at the root joint. For this purpose after implementing a cohesive interface element in the Ansys finite element software, one blade of a horizontal axis wind turbine with 46 m rotor diameter was modelled in full scale. Then after applying loads on the blade under different condition of the blade in a full rotation, the critical condition of the blade is obtained based on the delamination index and also the load ratio on the root joint in fatigue cycles is calculated. These data are the inputs for fatigue damage growth analysis of the root joint by using CZM approach that will be investigated in future work.

  20. Damage preventing measures for wind turbines. Phase 1- Reliability data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Eriksson, Emil; Dahlberg, Magnus

    2010-08-15

    The state of existing reliability and failure data in the public sources has been investigated. The prime goal has been to evaluate the data's usefulness for developing damage preventing measures. Some publicly available databases exist, and the data has been presented in several papers in the literature. The results from the investigation can seem quite negative. Detailed data are lacking and the level of detailed reporting has even been decreasing in recent years. Information on the impact of load condition on failures, which is an important question, are lacking throughout in the statistics. Some components dominate the failure statistics. These are for example the gearboxes, where failures lead to long down times. Failures of the electrical system lead to considerably shorter down times but the failure rate is much higher. Severe rotor failures seem to be rare, but they occur and the consequences can be dramatic. Operators and insurance companies are demanding improved insight in damage collection, maintenance and overall damage preventing measures. Closer cooperation with these parties could be a fruitful way of gathering more useful data. Improvements for future databases are suggested. A structure for damage collection is proposed. Comparing experience of damage preventing measures from other industries, knowledge about the nature of the damage mechanism and current practice in the wind industry will be an important tool in the evaluation of different damage preventing measures. This will be done in the following phases of this project

  1. Performance and load data from Mod-0A and Mod-1 wind turbine generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, D. A.; Janetzke, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental data, together with supporting analysis, are presented on the power conversion performance and blade loading of large, horizontal-axis wind turbines tested at electric utility sites in the U.S. Four turbine rotor configurations, from 28 to 61 meters in diameter, and data from five test sites are included. Performance data are presented in the form of graphs of power and system efficiency versus free-stream wind speed. Deviations from theoretical performance are analyzed statistically. Power conversion efficiency averaged 0.34 for all tests combined, compared with 0.31 predicted. Round blade tips appeared to improve performance significantly. Cyclic blade loads were normalized to develop load factors which can be used in the design of rotors with rigid hubs.

  2. Artificial bee colony algorithm for economic load dispatch with wind power energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari Amin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm for solving large scale economic load dispatch (ELD problems in power networks. To realize the ELD, the valve-point loading effect, system load demand, power losses, ramp rate limits and prohibited operation zones are considered here. Simulations were performed on four different power systems with 3, 6, 15 and 40 generating units and the results are compared with two forms of power systems, one power system is with a wind power generator and other power system is without a wind power generator. The results of this study reveal that the proposed approach is able to find appreciable ELD solutions than those of previous algorithms.

  3. Design and construction of a simple blade pitch measurement system for small wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whale, Jonathan [Research Institute of Sustainable Energy, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150 (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    For small wind turbines to be reliable they must have in place good mechanisms to protect themselves against very high winds or sudden removal of load. One common protection method in small wind turbines is that of blade feathering. It is important that the blade feathering mechanism of a small wind turbine is tested before the turbine is installed in the field. This paper presents a simple system for monitoring the blade feathering of a turbine with an overall component cost that small wind turbine manufacturers can afford. The Blade Pitch Measurement System (BPMS) has been designed and constructed by the Research Institute of Sustainable Energy (RISE) and aids small wind turbine manufacturers in testing and optimising the settings of the blade feathering mechanisms on their machines. The results show that the BPMS was successful in recording the behaviour of the blade feathering mechanism in field trials with a 20 kW and a 30 kW wind turbine. The BPMS displays significant potential as an effective, inexpensive system for small wind turbine manufacturers to ensure the reliability of their pitch regulating over-speed protection mechanisms. (author)

  4. Short-Term Forecasting of Loads and Wind Power for Latvian Power System: Accuracy and Capacity of the Developed Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziukynas, V.; Klementavičius, A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper analyses the performance results of the recently developed short-term forecasting suit for the Latvian power system. The system load and wind power are forecasted using ANN and ARIMA models, respectively, and the forecasting accuracy is evaluated in terms of errors, mean absolute errors and mean absolute percentage errors. The investigation of influence of additional input variables on load forecasting errors is performed. The interplay of hourly loads and wind power forecasting errors is also evaluated for the Latvian power system with historical loads (the year 2011) and planned wind power capacities (the year 2023).

  5. Short-Term Forecasting of Loads and Wind Power for Latvian Power System: Accuracy and Capacity of the Developed Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziukynas V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the performance results of the recently developed short-term forecasting suit for the Latvian power system. The system load and wind power are forecasted using ANN and ARIMA models, respectively, and the forecasting accuracy is evaluated in terms of errors, mean absolute errors and mean absolute percentage errors. The investigation of influence of additional input variables on load forecasting errors is performed. The interplay of hourly loads and wind power forecasting errors is also evaluated for the Latvian power system with historical loads (the year 2011 and planned wind power capacities (the year 2023.

  6. Relevance of aerodynamic modelling for load reduction control strategies of two-bladed wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, B.; Cheng, P. W.

    2014-06-01

    A new load reduction concept is being developed for the two-bladed prototype of the Skywind 3.5MW wind turbine. Due to transport and installation advantages both offshore and in complex terrain two-bladed turbine designs are potentially more cost-effective than comparable three-bladed configurations. A disadvantage of two-bladed wind turbines is the increased fatigue loading, which is a result of asymmetrically distributed rotor forces. The innovative load reduction concept of the Skywind prototype consists of a combination of cyclic pitch control and tumbling rotor kinematics to mitigate periodic structural loading. Aerodynamic design tools must be able to model correctly the advanced dynamics of the rotor. In this paper the impact of the aerodynamic modelling approach is investigated for critical operational modes of a two-bladed wind turbine. Using a lifting line free wake vortex code (FVM) the physical limitations of the classical blade element momentum theory (BEM) can be evaluated. During regular operation vertical shear and yawed inflow are the main contributors to periodic blade load asymmetry. It is shown that the near wake interaction of the blades under such conditions is not fully captured by the correction models of BEM approach. The differing prediction of local induction causes a high fatigue load uncertainty especially for two-bladed turbines. The implementation of both cyclic pitch control and a tumbling rotor can mitigate the fatigue loading by increasing the aerodynamic and structural damping. The influence of the time and space variant vorticity distribution in the near wake is evaluated in detail for different cyclic pitch control functions and tumble dynamics respectively. It is demonstrated that dynamic inflow as well as wake blade interaction have a significant impact on the calculated blade forces and need to be accounted for by the aerodynamic modelling approach. Aeroelastic simulations are carried out using the high fidelity multi body

  7. Comparison of simulations and offshore measurement data of a prototype of a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Anders; Larsen, Torben J.; Hansen, Anders Melchior

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, results from comparisons of simulations and measured offshore data from a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system are presented. The device is a downscaled prototype that consists of a floating platform equipped with ten wave energy absorbers and three wind turbines....... The numerical model of the platform is based on the aeroelastic code, HAWC2, developed by DTU Wind Energy, which is coupled with a special external system that reads the output generated directly by the wave analysis software, WAMIT. The model also includes models for the dynamic mooring lines as well...... as the turbines non-linear yaw and teeter motion behavior. The main focus on the comparison will be on the statistical trends of the platform motion, mooring loads and turbine loads in measurements and simulations during different operational conditions such as increasing wind speed, wave height and wind...

  8. Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines using Uncertain LIDAR Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Soltani, Mohsen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    , we simplify state prediction for the MPC. Consequently, the control problem of the nonlinear system is simplified into a quadratic programming. We consider uncertainty in the wind propagation time, which is the traveling time of wind from the LIDAR measurement point to the rotor. An algorithm based......The problem of Model predictive control (MPC) of wind turbines using uncertain LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) measurements is considered. A nonlinear dynamical model of the wind turbine is obtained. We linearize the obtained nonlinear model for different operating points, which are determined...... on wind speed estimation and measurements from the LIDAR is devised to find an estimate of the delay and compensate for it before it is used in the controller. Comparisons between the MPC with error compensation, the MPC without error compensation and an MPC with re-linearization at each sample point...

  9. Wind atlas for Egypt: Measurements, micro- and mesoscale modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C.; Badger, J.

    2006-01-01

    – close to consumers and the electrical grid. The KAMM simulations seem to capture the main features of the wind climate of Egypt, but in regions where the horizontal wind gradients are large, the uncertainties are large as well and additional measurements are required. The results are now published...

  10. Determination of brace forces caused by construction loads and wind loads during bridge construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The first objective of this study was to develop procedures for determining bracing forces during bridge construction. : Numerical finite element models and analysis techniques were developed for evaluating brace forces induced by construction loads ...

  11. Analysis of Damage in Laminated Architectural Glazing Subjected to Wind Loading and Windborne Debris Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Stutts

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind loading and windborne debris (missile impact are the two primary mechanisms that result in window glazing damage during hurricanes. Wind-borne debris is categorized into two types: small hard missiles; such as roof gravel; and large soft missiles representing lumber from wood-framed buildings. Laminated architectural glazing (LAG may be used in buildings where impact resistance is needed. The glass plies in LAG undergo internal damage before total failure. The bulk of the published work on this topic either deals with the stress and dynamic analyses of undamaged LAG or the total failure of LAG. The pre-failure damage response of LAG due to the combination of wind loading and windborne debris impact is studied. A continuum damage mechanics (CDM based constitutive model is developed and implemented via an axisymmetric finite element code to study the failure and damage behavior of laminated architectural glazing subjected to combined loading of wind and windborne debris impact. The effect of geometric and material properties on the damage pattern is studied parametrically.

  12. Short-term load and wind power forecasting using neural network-based prediction intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Hao; Srinivasan, Dipti; Khosravi, Abbas

    2014-02-01

    Electrical power systems are evolving from today's centralized bulk systems to more decentralized systems. Penetrations of renewable energies, such as wind and solar power, significantly increase the level of uncertainty in power systems. Accurate load forecasting becomes more complex, yet more important for management of power systems. Traditional methods for generating point forecasts of load demands cannot properly handle uncertainties in system operations. To quantify potential uncertainties associated with forecasts, this paper implements a neural network (NN)-based method for the construction of prediction intervals (PIs). A newly introduced method, called lower upper bound estimation (LUBE), is applied and extended to develop PIs using NN models. A new problem formulation is proposed, which translates the primary multiobjective problem into a constrained single-objective problem. Compared with the cost function, this new formulation is closer to the primary problem and has fewer parameters. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) integrated with the mutation operator is used to solve the problem. Electrical demands from Singapore and New South Wales (Australia), as well as wind power generation from Capital Wind Farm, are used to validate the PSO-based LUBE method. Comparative results show that the proposed method can construct higher quality PIs for load and wind power generation forecasts in a short time.

  13. Structural Load Analysis of a Wind Turbine under Pitch Actuator and Controller Faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etemaddar, Mahmoud; Gao, Zhen; Moan, Torgeir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the characteristics of a wind turbine under blade pitch angle and shaft speed sensor faults as well as pitch actuator faults. A land-based NREL 5MW variable speed pitch reg- ulated wind turbine is considered as a reference. The conventional collective blade pitch angle controller strategy with independent pitch actuators control is used for load reduction. The wind turbine class is IEC-BII. The main purpose is to investigate the severity of end effects on structural loads and responses and consequently identify the high-risk components according to the type and amplitude of fault using a servo-aero-elastic simulation code, HAWC2. Both transient and steady state effects of faults are studied. Such information is useful for wind turbine fault detection and identification as well as system reliability analysis. Results show the effects of faults on wind turbine power output and responses. Pitch sensor faults mainly affects the vibration of shaft main bearing, while generator power and aerodynamic thrust are not changed significantly, due to independent pitch actuator control of three blades. Shaft speed sensor faults can seriously affect the generator power and aerodynamic thrust. Pitch actuator faults can result in fully pitching of the blade, and consequently rotor stops due to negative aerodynamic torque

  14. On Advanced Control Methods toward Power Capture and Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yuan; Jiong Tang

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a survey of recently emerged methods for wind turbine control.Multivariate control approaches to the optimization of power capture and the reduction of loads in components under time-varying turbulent wind fields have been under extensive investigation in recent years.We divide the related research activities into three categories:modeling and dynamics of wind turbines,active control of wind turbines,and passive control of wind turbines.Regarding turbine dynamics,we discuss the physical fundamentals and present the aeroelastic analysis tools.Regarding active control,we review pitch control,torque control,and yaw control strategies encompassing mathematical formulations as well as their applications toward different objectives.Our survey mostly focuses on blade pitch control,which is considered one of the key elements in facilitating load reduction while maintaining power capture performance.Regarding passive control,we review techniques such as tuned mass dampers,smart rotors,and microtabs.Possible future directions are suggested.

  15. Wind Turbine Pitch Control and Load Mitigation Using an L1 Adaptive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an application of L1 adaptive output feedback control design to wind turbine collective pitch control and load mitigation. Our main objective is the design of an L1 output feedback controller without wind speed estimation, ensuring that the generator speed tracks the reference trajectory with robustness to uncertain parameters and time-varying disturbances (mainly the uniform wind disturbance across the wind turbine rotor. The wind turbine model CART (controls advanced research turbine developed by the national renewable energy laboratory (NREL is used to validate the performance of the proposed L1 adaptive controller using the FAST (fatigue, aerodynamics, structures, and turbulence code. A comparative study is also conducted between the proposed controller and the most popular methods in practice: gain scheduling PI (GSPI controls and disturbance accommodating control (DAC methods. The results show better performance of L1 output feedback controller over the other two methods. Moreover, based on the FAST software and LQR analysis in the reference model selection of L1 adaptive controller, tradeoff can be achieved between control performance and loads mitigation.

  16. Calculation of design load for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandy, L.; Strain, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Design loads are presented for the General Electric MOD-SA wind turbine. The MOD-SA system consists of a 400 ft. diameter, upwind, two-bladed, teetered rotor connected to a 7.3 mW variable-speed generator. Fatigue loads are specified in the form of histograms for the 30 year life of the machine, while limit (or maximum) loads have been derived from transient dynamic analysis at critical operating conditions. Loads prediction was accomplished using state of the art aeroelastic analyses developed at General Electric. Features of the primary predictive tool - the Transient Rotor Analysis Code (TRAC) are described in the paper. Key to the load predictions are the following wind models: (1) yearly mean wind distribution; (2) mean wind variations during operation; (3) number of start/shutdown cycles; (4) spatially large gusts; and (5) spatially small gusts (local turbulence). The methods used to develop statistical distributions from load calculations represent an extension of procedures used in past wind programs and are believed to be a significant contribution to Wind Turbine Generator analysis. Test/theory correlations are presented to demonstrate code load predictive capability and to support the wind models used in the analysis. In addition MOD-5A loads are compared with those of existing machines. The MOD-5A design was performed by the General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Program Department, under Contract DEN3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  17. Simulation of the Impact of New Ocean Surface Wind Measurements on H*Wind Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; Atlas, Robert; Black, Peter; Chen, Shuyi; Hood, Robbie; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Ruf, Chris; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The H*Wind analysis, a product of the Hurricane Research Division of NOAA's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, brings together wind measurements from a variety of observation platforms into an objective analysis of the distribution of surface wind speeds in a tropical cyclone. This product is designed to improve understanding of the extent and strength of the wind field, and to improve the assessment of hurricane intensity. See http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/data sub/wind.html. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new passive microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NOAA Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida and the University of Michigan. HIRAD is being designed to enhance the current real-time airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft using the operational airbome Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approximately 3 x the aircraft altitude, or approximately 2 km from space). The instrument is described in a separate paper presented at this conference. The present paper describes a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing instruments (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a numerical model from the University of Miami, and those results are used to construct H*Wind analyses. Evaluations will be presented on the relative impact of HIRAD and other instruments on H*Wind analyses, including the use of HIRAD from 2 aircraft altitudes and from a space-based platform.

  18. Wind Turbine Rotor Simulation via CFD Based Actuator Disc Technique Compared to Detailed Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Mahmoodi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a generalized Actuator Disc (AD is used to model the wind turbine rotor of the MEXICO experiment, a collaborative European wind turbine project. The AD model as a combination of CFD technique and User Defined Functions codes (UDF, so-called UDF/AD model is used to simulate loads and performance of the rotor in three different wind speed tests. Distributed force on the blade, thrust and power production of the rotor as important designing parameters of wind turbine rotors are focused to model. A developed Blade Element Momentum (BEM theory as a code based numerical technique as well as a full rotor simulation both from the literature are included into the results to compare and discuss. The output of all techniques is compared to detailed measurements for validation, which led us to final conclusions.

  19. Linear parameter varying control of wind turbines covering both partial load and full load conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Kasper Zinck; Stoustrup, Jakob; Brath, Per

    2009-01-01

    operations tend to be ill-conditioned. The paper proposes a controller construction algorithm together with various remedies for improving the numerical conditioning the algorithm.The proposed algorithm is applied to the design of a LPV controller for wind turbines, and a comparison is made with a controller...... designed using classical techniques to conclude that an improvement in performance is obtained for the entire operating envelope....

  20. Pressure field in measurement section of wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnidka Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The University of Defence in Brno has a new low-speed wind tunnel. In order to confirm the quality of the wind inside of the measurement section, several measurements of the dynamic pressure have been performed with the Pitot-static tube. The pressure fields are then analysed and quality of the field is evaluated. Measurement of a pressure drop on the body of a standing helicopter was conducted.

  1. Three-dimensional structure of wind turbine wakes as measured by scanning lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, Nicola; Zardi, Dino; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2017-08-01

    The lower wind speeds and increased turbulence that are characteristic of turbine wakes have considerable consequences on large wind farms: turbines located downwind generate less power and experience increased turbulent loads. The structures of wakes and their downwind impacts are sensitive to wind speed and atmospheric variability. Wake characterization can provide important insights for turbine layout optimization in view of decreasing the cost of wind energy. The CWEX-13 field campaign, which took place between June and September 2013 in a wind farm in Iowa, was designed to explore the interaction of multiple wakes in a range of atmospheric stability conditions. Based on lidar wind measurements, we extend, present, and apply a quantitative algorithm to assess wake parameters such as the velocity deficits, the size of the wake boundaries, and the location of the wake centerlines. We focus on wakes from a row of four turbines at the leading edge of the wind farm to explore variations between wakes from the edge of the row (outer wakes) and those from turbines in the center of the row (inner wakes). Using multiple horizontal scans at different elevations, a three-dimensional structure of wakes from the row of turbines can be created. Wakes erode very quickly during unstable conditions and can in fact be detected primarily in stable conditions in the conditions measured here. During stable conditions, important differences emerge between the wakes of inner turbines and the wakes of outer turbines. Further, the strong wind veer associated with stable conditions results in a stretching of the wake structures, and this stretching manifests differently for inner and outer wakes. These insights can be incorporated into low-order wake models for wind farm layout optimization or for wind power forecasting.

  2. Alternative wind power modeling methods using chronological and load duration curve production cost models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M R

    1996-04-01

    As an intermittent resource, capturing the temporal variation in windpower is an important issue in the context of utility production cost modeling. Many of the production cost models use a method that creates a cumulative probability distribution that is outside the time domain. The purpose of this report is to examine two production cost models that represent the two major model types: chronological and load duration cure models. This report is part of the ongoing research undertaken by the Wind Technology Division of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in utility modeling and wind system integration.

  3. Simulation of Irregular Waves and Wave Induced Loads on Wind Power Plants in Shallow Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumars, Jenny [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Water Environment Transport

    2004-05-01

    The essay gives a short introduction to waves and discusses the problem with non-linear waves in shallow water and how they effect an offshore wind energy converter. The focus is on the realisation of non-linear waves in the time domain from short-term statistics in the form of a variance density spectrum of the wave elevation. For this purpose the wave transformation from deep water to the near to shore site of a wind energy farm at Bockstigen has been calculated with the use of SWAN (Simulating Waves Near Shore). The result is a wave spectrum, which can be used as input to the realisation. The realisation of waves is done by perturbation theory to the first and second-order. The properties calculated are the wave elevation, water particle velocity and acceleration. The wave heights from the second order perturbation equations are higher than those from the first order perturbation equations. This is also the case for the water particle kinematics. The increase of variance is significant between the first order and the second order realisation. The calculated wave elevation exhibits non-linear features as the peaks become sharper and the troughs flatter. The resulting forces are calculated using Morison's equation. For second order force and base moment there is an increase in the maximum values. The force and base moment are largest approximately at the zero up and down crossing of the wave elevation. This indicates an inertia dominated wave load. So far the flexibility and the response of the structure have not been taken into account. They are, however, of vital importance. For verification of the wave model the results will later on be compared with measurements at Bockstigen off the coast of Gotland in the Baltic Sea.

  4. Fatigue and extreme wave loads on bottom fixed offshore wind turbines. Effects from fully nonlinear wave forcing on the structural dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schløer, Signe

    2013-01-01

    wind farms. As wind farms are being moved further offshore the wave loads become larger compared to the wind loads and therefore more important in the design of offshore wind turbines. Yet, the water depth is still only shallow or intermediate where the waves should be described by nonlinear irregular...

  5. Representativeness of wind measurements in moderately complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bossche, Michael; De Wekker, Stephan F. J.

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the representativeness of 10-m wind measurements in a 4 km × 2 km area of modest relief by comparing observations at a central site with those at four satellite sites located in the same area. Using a combination of established and new methods to quantify and visualize representativeness, we found significant differences in wind speed and direction between the four satellite sites and the central site. The representativeness of the central site wind measurements depended strongly on surface wind speed and direction, and atmospheric stability. Through closer inspection of the observations at one of the satellite sites, we concluded that terrain-forced flows combined with thermally driven downslope winds caused large biases in wind direction and speed. We used these biases to generate a basic model, showing that terrain-related differences in wind observations can to a large extent be predicted. Such a model is a cost-effective way to enhance an area's wind field determination and to improve the outcome of pollutant dispersion and weather forecasting models.

  6. Wind measurement on the Linth plain; Windmessung in der Linthebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langraf, B.

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of wind measurements made on the Linth plain, a flat alluvial plain in eastern Switzerland located between mountain ranges. The data, which were collected using temporary measurement masts at two locations are presented in the form of tables, diagrams and maps showing the wind-energy potential of various areas of the plain. The actual measurements are compared with prognoses from a geo-information system. The wind measurement equipment and installations are described, as are the software models for the calculation of wind direction, wind intensity and of a prognosis for energy production. Particular attention was also paid to the question of wind turbulence. Further factors investigated included the possibility of icing-up in winter and the choice of a meteorological station in the neighbourhood with similar characteristics that could be used as a reference station. The report also presents the results of the evaluation of various possible locations for wind turbines on the Linth plain. Visual, noise and shadow-casing factors are considered.

  7. High-altitude wind prediction and measurement technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-30

    The principles and operational characteristics of balloon and radar-based techniques for measuring upper air winds in support of launches and recoveries are presented. Though either a balloon or radar system could serve as a standalone system, the sa...

  8. Coherence Effects on the Power and Tower Loads of a 7 × 2 MW Multi-Rotor Wind Turbine System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Yoshida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A multi-rotor system (MRS, in which multiple wind turbines are placed on one tower, is a promising concept for super-large wind turbines at over 10 MW due to the cost and weight advantages. The coherence effects on an MRS were investigated in this study. Although a wide range of coherences were measured so far, a decay constant of C = 12 is recommended in the IEC61400-1 standard. Dynamic simulations were performed for a 14-MW MRS, which consists of seven 2-MW turbines and includes wind models with three different coherences. Although the results show that a larger coherence increases the output power and the collective loads due to tower base fore-aft bending, it reduces the differential loads due to tower-base torque and tower-top nodding. The most significant case is the fatigue damage due to tower base fore-aft bending, which was more than doubled between the decay constants of C = 6 and C = 12. The present results indicate that the coherence should be defined carefully in the design of large-scale MRSs because its effect on them is not straightforward.

  9. Wind Ressources in Complex Terrain investigated with Synchronized Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J.; Menke, R.; Vasiljevic, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Perdigao experiment was performed by a number of European and American universities in Portugal 2017, and it is probably the largest field campaign focussing on wind energy ressources in complex terrain ever conducted. 186 sonic anemometers on 50 masts, 20 scanning wind lidars and a host of other instruments were deployed. The experiment is a part of an effort to make a new European wind atlas. In this presentation we investigate whether scanning the wind speed over ridges in this complex terrain with multiple Doppler lidars can lead to an efficient mapping of the wind resources at relevant positions. We do that by having pairs of Doppler lidars scanning 80 m above the ridges in Perdigao. We compare wind resources obtained from the lidars and from the mast-mounted sonic anemometers at 80 m on two 100 m masts, one on each of the two ridges. In addition, the scanning lidar measurements are also compared to profiling lidars on the ridges. We take into account the fact that the profiling lidars may be biased due to the curvature of the streamlines over the instrument, see Bingol et al, Meteorolog. Z. vol. 18, pp. 189-195 (2009). We also investigate the impact of interruptions of the lidar measurements on the estimated wind resource. We calculate the relative differences of wind along the ridge from the lidar measurements and compare those to the same obtained from various micro-scale models. A particular subject investigated is how stability affects the wind resources. We often observe internal gravity waves with the scanning lidars during the night and we quantify how these affect the relative wind speed on the ridges.

  10. Should we build wind farms close to load or invest in transmission to access better wind resources in remote areas? A case study in the MISO region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, Julian V.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês L.; Wiser, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Wind speeds in remote areas are sometimes very high, but transmission costs to access these locations can be prohibitive. We present a conceptual model to estimate the economics of accessing high quality wind resources in remote areas to comply with renewable energy policy targets, and apply the model to the Midwestern grid (MISO) as a case study. We assess the goal of providing 40 TWh of new wind generation while minimizing costs, and include temporal aspects of wind power (variability costs and correlation to market prices) as well as total wind power produced from different farms. We find that building wind farms in North/South Dakota (windiest states) compared to Illinois (less windy, but close to load) would only be economical if the incremental transmission costs to access them were below $360/kW of wind capacity (break-even value). Historically, the incremental transmission costs for wind development in North/South Dakota compared to in Illinois are about twice this value. However, the break-even incremental transmission cost for wind farms in Minnesota/Iowa (also windy states) is $250/kW, which is consistent with historical costs. We conclude that wind development in Minnesota/Iowa is likely more economical to meet MISO renewable targets compared to North/South Dakota or Illinois. - Highlights: •We evaluate the economics of building wind farms in remote areas in MISO. •We present a conceptual wind site selection model to meet 40 TWh of new wind. •We use the model to compare remote windy sites to less windy ones closer to load. •We show break-even transmission costs that would justify remote wind development. •Comparing break-even values to historical costs, MN/IA sites are most economical.

  11. Effect of load eccentricity and stress level on monopile support for offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte; Hededal, Ole

    2014-01-01

    on which load is applied with a large eccentricity. With centrifuge tests as the basis, this paper investigates the behaviour of a rigid pile loaded with a high eccentricity. A test series was carried out to simulate idealized monotonic load cases for monopiles supporting an offshore wind turbine....... Centrifuge tests were performed on model monopiles subjected to stress distributions equal to prototype monopiles with pile diameters ranging from 1–5 m and eccentricities ranging from 8.25–17.75 pile diameters. It was possible to identify a unified response of all of these tests by using dimensional...... analysis and Rankine’s passive earth pressure coefficient as a normalization parameter. The normalized ultimate soil resistance was unaffected by acceleration level and load eccentricity, indicating that the failure mechanism was the same for all tests. Based on the centrifuge tests, a reformulation...

  12. Development of SMA Actuated Morphing Airfoil for Wind Turbine Load Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakalas, A.; Machairas, T.; Solomou, A.; Riziotis, V.; Saravanos, D.

    Wind turbine rotor upscaling has entered a range of rotor diameters where the blade structure cannot sustain the increased aerodynamic loads without novel load alleviation concepts. Research on load alleviation using morphing blade sections is presented. Antagonistic shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators are implemented to deflect the section trailing edge (TE) to target shapes and target time-series relating TE movement with changes in lift coefficient. Challenges encountered by the complex thermomechanical response of morphing section and the enhancement of SMA transient response to achieve frequencies meaningful for aerodynamic load alleviation are addressed. Using a recently developed finite element for SMA actuators [1], actuator configurations are considered for fast cooling and heating cycles. Numerical results quantify the attained ranges of TE angle movement, the moving time period and the developed stresses. Estimations of the attained variations of lift coefficient vs. time are also presented to assess the performance of the morphing section.

  13. Response Load Extrapolation for Wind Turbines during Operation Based on Average Conditional Exceedance Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Naess, Arvid; Saha, Nilanjan

    2011-01-01

    to cases where the Gumbel distribution is the appropriate asymptotic extreme value distribution. However, two extra parameters are introduced by which a more general and flexible class of extreme value distributions is obtained with the Gumbel distribution as a subclass. The general method is implemented...... within a hierarchical model where the variables that influence the loading are divided into ergodic variables and time-invariant non-ergodic variables. The presented method for statistical response load extrapolation was compared with the existing methods based on peak extrapolation for the blade out......The paper explores a recently developed method for statistical response load (load effect) extrapolation for application to extreme response of wind turbines during operation. The extrapolation method is based on average conditional exceedance rates and is in the present implementation restricted...

  14. Load consequences when sweeping blades - A case study of a 5 MW pitch controlled wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verelst, D.R.S.; Larsen, Torben J.

    2010-08-15

    The generic 5 MW NREL wind turbine model is used in Risoe's aeroelastic simulator HAWC2 to investigate 120 different swept blade configurations (forward and backward sweep). Sensitivity for 2 different controllers is considered as well. Backward sweep results in a pitch to feather torsional moment of the blade, effectively reducing blade twist angles under increased loading. This behaviour results in decreased flap-wise fatigue and extreme loads, an increase for edge-wise fatigue loading and status quo or slight decrease in extreme loads (depending on the controller). Tower base and shaft-end bending moments are reduced as well. Forward sweep leads to an increase in angle of attack under loading. For a pitch controlled turbine this leads to an increase in fatigue and extreme loading in all cases. A controller inflicted instability is present for the more extreme forward swept cases. Due to the shape of considered sweep curves, an inherent and significant increase in torsional blade root bending moment is noted. A boomerang shaped sweep curve is proposed to counteract this problematic increased loading. Controller sensitivity shows that adding sweep affects some loadings differently. Power output is reduced for backward sweep since the blade twist is optimized as a rigid structure, ignoring the torsional deformations which for a swept blade can be significant. (author)

  15. On the Use of Coupled Wind, Wave, and Current Fields in the Simulation of Loads on Bottom-Supported Offshore Wind Turbines during Hurricanes: March 2012 - September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eungsoo [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Manuel, Lance [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Curcic, Milan [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Chen, Shuyi S. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Phillips, Caleb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Veers, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, potential offshore wind plant sites have been identified along the Atlantic seaboard and in the Gulf of Mexico. It is imperative that we define external conditions associated with hurricanes and severe winter storms and consider load cases for which wind turbines may need to be designed. We selected two hurricanes, Ike (2008) and Sandy (2012), and investigated the effect these tropical storms would have on bottom-supported offshore wind turbines that were hypothetically in or close to their path as they made landfall. For realistic turbine loads assessment, it is important that the coupled influences of the changing wind, wave, and current fields are simulated throughout the evolution of the hurricanes. We employed a coupled model--specifically, the University of Miami Coupled Model (UMCM)--that integrates atmospheric, wave, and ocean components to produce needed wind, wave, and current data. The wind data are used to generate appropriate vertical wind profiles and full wind velocity fields including turbulence; the current field over the water column is obtained by interpolated discrete output current data; and short-crested irregular second-order waves are simulated using output directional wave spectra from the coupled model. We studied two monopile-supported offshore wind turbines sited in 20 meters of water in the Gulf of Mexico to estimate loads during Hurricane Ike, and a jacket space-frame platform-supported offshore wind turbine sited in 50 meters of water in the mid-Atlantic region to estimate loads during Hurricane Sandy. In this report we discuss in detail how the simulated hurricane wind, wave, and current output data are used in turbine loads studies. In addition, important characteristics of the external conditions are studied, including the relative importance of swell versus wind seas, aerodynamic versus hydrodynamic forces, current velocity effects, yaw control options for the turbine, hydrodynamic drag versus inertia forces

  16. Frequency domain design of gain scheduling control for large wind systems in full-load region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlibaşa, A.; Ceangă, E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A large wind energy system, operating under full-load regime, is considered. • According to its particularities in frequency domain, control law design is provided. • These particularities are influenced by the interactions of wind–tower–blade ensemble. • Control low, within gain scheduling strategy, is achieved imposing stability reserve. • Supplementary a criterion, aimed at reducing mechanical loads, is imposed. - Abstract: The paper presents the issue of power control law synthesis, in the case of a large wind system that operates under full-load regime, based on dynamic properties details in frequency domain. Solving this problem involves two phases: the establishment of a linearized model as faithfully as possible in various operating points of the full-load region, and synthesis of the power controller, considered with classic structure, taking into account frequency particularities of the obtained linearized model. Obtained linear model of the controlled process is of order 16 and encloses subsystems for tower fore-aft oscillations damping, and for drive-train torsion oscillations damping. The designed controller contains a PI component and a lag compensator for dynamic correction at high frequencies. It is known that the main features of wind system dynamics generated by the interaction of wind–tower–blade ensemble cause a gap in the gain characteristic of the model and complex conjugate zeros, which can move between right and left half-planes, depending on the average wind speed value. Consequently, for control law synthesis an interactive frequency solution is adopted. This is “transparent” in relation to particularities induced by wind–tower–blade interaction. This solution allows evaluation of the extent to which control law is affected by the subsystem for tower oscillations damping. Given the strong dependence between the model and the mean wind speed value, a gain scheduling control law is designed. At

  17. Empirical wind retrieval model based on SAR spectrum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfilova, Maria; Karaev, Vladimir; Balandina, Galina; Kanevsky, Mikhail; Portabella, Marcos; Stoffelen, Ad

    The present paper considers polarimetric SAR wind vector applications. Remote-sensing measurements of the near-surface wind over the ocean are of great importance for the understanding of atmosphere-ocean interaction. In recent years investigations for wind vector retrieval using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data have been performed. In contrast with scatterometers, a SAR has a finer spatial resolution that makes it a more suitable microwave instrument to explore wind conditions in the marginal ice zones, coastal regions and lakes. The wind speed retrieval procedure from scatterometer data matches the measured radar backscattering signal with the geophysical model function (GMF). The GMF determines the radar cross section dependence on the wind speed and direction with respect to the azimuthal angle of the radar beam. Scatterometers provide information on wind speed and direction simultaneously due to the fact that each wind vector cell (WVC) is observed at several azimuth angles. However, SAR is not designed to be used as a high resolution scatterometer. In this case, each WVC is observed at only one single azimuth angle. That is why for wind vector determination additional information such as wind streak orientation over the sea surface is required. It is shown that the wind vector can be obtained using polarimetric SAR without additional information. The main idea is to analyze the spectrum of a homogeneous SAR image area instead of the backscattering normalized radar cross section. Preliminary numerical simulations revealed that SAR image spectral maxima positions depend on the wind vector. Thus the following method for wind speed retrieval is proposed. In the first stage of the algorithm, the SAR spectrum maxima are determined. This procedure is carried out to estimate the wind speed and direction with ambiguities separated by 180 degrees due to the SAR spectrum symmetry. The second stage of the algorithm allows us to select the correct wind direction

  18. Review of laterally loaded monopiles employed as the foundation for offshore wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyldal Soerensen, S.P.; Thoustrup Broedbaek, K.; Moeller, Martin; Hust Augustesen, A.

    2012-03-15

    The monopiles foundation concept is often employed as the foundation for offshore wind turbine converters. These piles are highly subjected to lateral loads and overturning moments due to wind and wave forces. Typically monopiles with diameters of 4 to 6 m and embedded pile lengths of 15 to 30 m are necessary. In current practice these piles are normally designed by use of the p-y curve method although the method is developed and verified for small-diameter, slender piles. In the present paper a review of the existing p-y curve formulations for piles in sand is presented. Based on numerical and experimental studies presented in the literature, advances and limitations of the current p-y curve formulations are outlined. The review focuses on the design of monopile foundations for offshore wind turbine converters. (Author)

  19. Detailed Load Analysis of the baseline 5MW DeepWind Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David Robert; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Kragh, Knud Abildgaard

    This report presents an overview of the design of the DeepWind vertical axis oating wind turbine. One could present this as the "nal design", however, it is hoped that more design iterations will follow in the future, but under the umbrella of new and dierent projects. The state of the design...... that is reported here will be called version 2.2.0. The numbering system has just been introduced at the present design version, but the rst 5MW design called the "baseline design" [1] was developed in 2011 and this will therefore be called version 1.0.0. In this report, the design loads of the DeepWind 5 MW...

  20. Wind loads and competition for light sculpt trees into self-similar structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Christophe; Fournier, Meriem; Lacointe, André; Moulia, Bruno

    2017-10-18

    Trees are self-similar structures: their branch lengths and diameters vary allometrically within the tree architecture, with longer and thicker branches near the ground. These tree allometries are often attributed to optimisation of hydraulic sap transport and safety against elastic buckling. Here, we show that these allometries also emerge from a model that includes competition for light, wind biomechanics and no hydraulics. We have developed MECHATREE, a numerical model of trees growing and evolving on a virtual island. With this model, we identify the fittest growth strategy when trees compete for light and allocate their photosynthates to grow seeds, create new branches or reinforce existing ones in response to wind-induced loads. Strikingly, we find that selected trees species are self-similar and follow allometric scalings similar to those observed on dicots and conifers. This result suggests that resistance to wind and competition for light play an essential role in determining tree allometries.

  1. Solar Wind Deflection by Mass Loading in the Martian Magnetosheath Based on MAVEN Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinin, E.; Fraenz, M.; Pätzold, M.; Halekas, J. S.; Mcfadden, J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Vaisberg, O.; Zelenyi, L.

    2018-03-01

    Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN observations at Mars show clear signatures of the shocked solar wind interaction with the extended oxygen atmosphere and hot corona displayed in a lateral deflection of the magnetosheath flow in the direction opposite to the direction of the solar wind motional electric field. The value of the velocity deflection reaches ˜50 km/s. The occurrence of such deflection is caused by the "Lorentz-type" force due to a differential streaming of the solar wind protons and oxygen ions originating from the extended oxygen corona. The value of the total deceleration of the magnetosheath flow due to mass loading is estimated as ˜40 km/s.

  2. Measuring Gas Concentration and Wind Intensity in a Turbulent Wind Tunnel with a Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the measurement of gas concentration and wind intensity performed with a mobile robot in a custom turbulent wind tunnel designed for experimentation with customizable wind and gas leak sources. This paper presents the representation in different information layers of the measurements obtained in the turbulent wind tunnel under different controlled environmental conditions in order to describe the plume of the gas and wind intensities inside the experimentation chamber. The information layers have been generated from the measurements gathered by individual onboard gas and wind sensors carried out by an autonomous mobile robot. On the one hand, the assumption was that the size and cost of these specialized sensors do not allow the creation of a net of sensors or other measurement alternatives based on the simultaneous use of several sensors, and on the other hand, the assumption is that the information layers created will have application on the development and test of automatic gas source location procedures based on reactive or nonreactive algorithms.

  3. Assessment of extreme design loads for modern wind turbines using the probabilistic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Imad

    There is a large drive to reduce the cost of energy of wind energy generators. Various tracks are being considered such as enhanced O&M strategies through condition monitoring, increased manufacturing efficiency through higher production volumes and increased automation, improved resource...... and drag coefficients showed (a) a tangible reduction in the load partial safety factor for a blade and (b) generally a larger impact on extreme loads during power production compared to stand-still. Therefore, the way forward is for wind turbine manufactures to further update the stochastic model...... assessment through turbine-mounted real-time site assessment technologies, improved components reliability by increased laboratory testing, increased number of prototype test turbines before serial production, larger rotor and tower concepts for both onshore and offshore installations, advanced drive train...

  4. Structural Load Alleviation Applied to Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of aviation is a goal of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program of NASAs Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. Environmental impact of aviation is being addressed by novel aircraft configurations and materials that reduce aircraft weight and increase aerodynamic efficiency. NASA is developing tools to address the challenges of increased airframe flexibility created by wings constructed with reduced structural material and novel light-weight materials. This talk will present a framework and demonstration of a flight control system using optimal control allocation with structural load feedback and constraints to achieve safe aircraft operation. As wind turbines age, they become susceptible to many forms of blade degradation. Results will be presented on work in progress that uses adaptive contingency control for load mitigation in a wind turbine simulation with blade damage progression modeled.

  5. Wind and load forecast error model for multiple geographically distributed forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Reyes-Spindola, Jorge F.; Samaan, Nader; Diao, Ruisheng; Hafen, Ryan P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The impact of wind and load forecast errors on power grid operations is frequently evaluated by conducting multi-variant studies, where these errors are simulated repeatedly as random processes based on their known statistical characteristics. To simulate these errors correctly, we need to reflect their distributions (which do not necessarily follow a known distribution law), standard deviations. auto- and cross-correlations. For instance, load and wind forecast errors can be closely correlated in different zones of the system. This paper introduces a new methodology for generating multiple cross-correlated random processes to produce forecast error time-domain curves based on a transition probability matrix computed from an empirical error distribution function. The matrix will be used to generate new error time series with statistical features similar to observed errors. We present the derivation of the method and some experimental results obtained by generating new error forecasts together with their statistics. (orig.)

  6. Optical measurements of winds in the lower thermosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiens, R.H.; Shepherd, G.G.; Gault, W.A.; Kosteniuk, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    WAMDII, the wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer, was used to measure the neutral wind in the lower thermosphere by the Doppler shift of the O I 557-nm line. Observations were made at Saskatoon (60.5 degree N invariant) around the spring equinox of 1985 with WAMDII coupled to an all-sky lens. With dopplergrams averaged over 3 to 30 min, no evidence was found for persistent highly localized winds on either of the two nights studied, one viewing only aurora and one viewing only airglow. The nocturnal variation was determined for both nights using average horizontal wind for the whole all-sky image. The pattern for the auroral case shows winds parallel to the aurora orientation in the evening but substantial crosswinds near midnight. High latitude general circulation models seem to represent this case better than local auroral generation models. The airglow case showed eastward winds in the morning sector

  7. Velocity measurement of model vertical axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.A.; McWilliam, M. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    An increasingly popular solution to future energy demand is wind energy. Wind turbine designs can be grouped according to their axis of rotation, either horizontal or vertical. Horizontal axis wind turbines have higher power output in a good wind regime than vertical axis turbines and are used in most commercial class designs. Vertical axis Savonius-based wind turbine designs are still widely used in some applications because of their simplistic design and low wind speed performance. There are many design variables that must be considered in order to optimize the power output in a given wind regime in a typical wind turbine design. Using particle image velocimetry, a study of the air flow around five different model vertical axis wind turbines was conducted in a closed loop wind tunnel. A standard Savonius design with two semi-circular blades overlapping, and two variations of this design, a deep blade and a shallow blade design were among the turbine models included in this study. It also evaluated alternate designs that attempt to increase the performance of the standard design by allowing compound blade curvature. Measurements were collected at a constant phase angle and also at random rotor orientations. It was found that evaluation of the flow patterns and measured velocities revealed consistent and stable flow patterns at any given phase angle. Large scale flow structures are evident in all designs such as vortices shed from blade surfaces. An important performance parameter was considered to be the ability of the flow to remain attached to the forward blade and redirect and reorient the flow to the following blade. 6 refs., 18 figs.

  8. Phasor measurement of wind power plant operation in Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joana; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2007-01-01

    Four Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) record continuously voltage and current phasors in the 400 kV and 132 kV transmission system of Eastern Denmark. The abstract evaluates the unique concept for power system monitoring using PMUs. It focuses on utilization of synchronized phasor measurements from...... Nysted off-shore wind farm during a severe storm in 2005. The wind speeds during the event were so high, that Nysted offshore wind farm as well as a significant amount of on-land wind production in Denmark was disconnected from the grid. The PMU analysis illustrates that PMUs complement the traditional...... measurements from a traditional SCADA system. The case reveals the close relation between voltages, power flows and voltage phase angles over a wide area....

  9. "Rapid Revisit" Measurements of Sea Surface Winds Using CYGNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Johnson, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) is a space-borne GNSS-R (GNSS-Reflectometry) mission that launched December 15, 2016 for ocean surface wind speed measurements. CYGNSS includes 8 small satellites in the same LEO orbit, so that the mission provides wind speed products having unprecedented coverage both in time and space to study multi-temporal behaviors of oceanic winds. The nature of CYGNSS coverage results in some locations on Earth experiencing multiple wind speed measurements within a short period of time (a "clump" of observations in time resulting in a "rapid revisit" series of measurements). Such observations could seemingly provide indications of regions experiencing rapid changes in wind speeds, and therefore be of scientific utility. Temporally "clumped" properties of CYGNSS measurements are investigated using early CYGNSS L1/L2 measurements, and the results show that clump durations and spacing vary with latitude. For example, the duration of a clump can extend as long as a few hours at higher latitudes, with gaps between clumps ranging from 6 to as high as 12 hours depending on latitude. Examples are provided to indicate the potential of changes within a clump to produce a "rapid revisit" product for detecting convective activity. Also, we investigate detector design for identifying convective activities. Results from analyses using recent CYGNSS L2 winds will be provided in the presentation.

  10. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  11. Arctic wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, E.; Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Tammelin, B.

    1998-01-01

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  12. ACCUWIND - Accurate wind speed measurements in wind energy - Summary report[Cup and sonic anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friis Pedersen, T.; Dahlberg, J.Aa.; Cuerva, A.; Mouzakis, F.; Busche, P.; Eecen, P.; Sanz-Andres, A.; Franchini, S.; Markkilde Petersen, S.

    2006-07-15

    The cup anemometer is at present the standard instrument used for mean wind speed measurement in wind energy. It is being applied in high numbers around the world for wind energy assessments. It is also applied exclusively for accredited power performance measurements for certification and verification purposes, and for purposes of optimisation in research and development. The revised IEC standard on power performance measurements has now included requirements for classification of cup anemometers. The basis for setting up such requirements of cup anemometers is two EU projects SITEPARIDEN and CLASSCUP from which the proposed classification method for cup anemometers was developed for the IEC standard. While cup anemometers at present are the standard anemometer being used for average wind speed measurements, sonic anemometers have been developed significantly over the last years, and prices have come down. The application of sonic anemometers may increase in wind energy if they prove to have comparable or better operational characteristics compared to cup anemometers, and if similar requirements to sonic anemometers are established as for cup anemometers. Sonic anemometers have historically been used by meteorologists for turbulence measurements, but have also found a role on wind turbine nacelles for wind speed and yaw control purposes. The report on cup and sonic anemometry deals with establishment of robustness in assessment and classification by focus on methods and procedures for analysis of characteristics of cup and sonic anemometers. The methods and procedures provide a platform, hopefully for use in meeting the requirements of the IEC standard on power performance measurements, as well as for development of improved instruments. (au)

  13. Real-time simulation of aeroelastic rotor loads for horizontal axis wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnett, M; Wellenberg, S; Schröder, W

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbine drivetrain research and test facilities with hardware-in-the-loop capabilities require a robust and accurate aeroelastic real-time rotor simulation environment. Recent simulation environments do not guarantee a computational response at real-time. Which is why a novel simulation tool has been developed. It resolves the physical time domain of the turbulent wind spectra and the operational response of the turbine at real-time conditions. Therefore, there is a trade-off between accuracy of the physical models and the computational costs. However, the study shows the possibility to preserve the necessary computational accuracy while simultaneously granting dynamic interaction with the aeroelastic rotor simulation environment. The achieved computational costs allow a complete aeroelastic rotor simulation at a resolution frequency of 100 Hz on standard computer platforms. Results obtained for the 5-MW reference wind turbine by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are discussed and compared to NREL's fatigue, aerodynamics, structures, and turbulence (FAST)- Code. The rotor loads show a convincing match. The novel simulation tool is applied to the wind turbine drivetrain test facility at the Center for Wind Power Drives (CWD), RWTH Aachen University to show the real-time hardware-in-the-loop capabilities

  14. Influence of the control system on wind turbine loads during power production in extreme turbulence: Structural reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Imad; Natarajan, Anand; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2016-01-01

    structural reliability are assessed when the extreme turbulence model is uncertain. The structural reliability is assessed for the wind turbine when three configurations of an industrial grade load alleviation control system of increasing complexity and performance are used. The load alleviation features......The wind energy industry is continuously researching better computational models of wind inflow and turbulence to predict extreme loading (the nature of randomness) and their corresponding probability of occurrence. Sophisticated load alleviation control systems are increasingly being designed...... and deployed to specifically reduce the adverse effects of extreme load events resulting in lighter structures. The main objective herein is to show that despite large uncertainty in the extreme turbulence models, advanced load alleviation control systems yield both a reduction in magnitude and scatter...

  15. Brief communication: Structural monitoring for lifetime extension of offshore wind monopiles: can strain measurements at one level tell us everything?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ziegler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Operators need accurate knowledge on structural reserves to decide about lifetime extension of offshore wind turbines. Load monitoring enables us to directly compare design loads with real loading histories of the support structure in order to calculate its remaining useful lifetime. Monitoring of every hot spot is technically and financially not feasible. This paper presents a novel idea for load monitoring of monopiles. It requires strain measurements at only one level convenient for sensor installation, such as tower bottom. Measurements are converted into damage equivalent loads for 10 min time intervals. Damage equivalent loads are extrapolated to other locations of the structure with a simulation model and statistical algorithm. For this, structural loads at all locations of the monopile are calculated with aero-hydro-elastic software and updated finite element models. Damage equivalent loads at unmeasured locations are predicted from the simulation results with a k-nearest neighbor regression algorithm. The extrapolation was tested with numerical simulations of an 8 MW offshore wind turbine. Results show that damage can be predicted with an error of 1–3 % if this is done conditional on mean wind speed, which is very promising. The load monitoring concept is simple, cheap and easy to implement. This makes it ideal for making decisions on lifetime extension of monopiles.

  16. Study of Flexible Load Dispatch to Improve the Capacity of Wind Power Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunlei, Yang; Shifeng, Zhang; Xiao, Chang; Da, Lei; Min, Zhang; Jinhao, Wang; Shengwen, Li; Huipeng, Li

    2017-05-01

    The dispatch method which track the trend of load demand by arranging the generation scheme of controllable hydro or thermal units faces great difficulties and challenges. With the increase of renewable energy sources such as wind power and photovoltaic power introduced to grid, system has to arrange much more spinning reserve units to compensate the unbalanced power. How to exploit the peak-shaving potential of flexible load which can be shifted with time or storage energy has become many scholars’ research direction. However, the modelling of different kinds of load and control strategy is considerably difficult, this paper choose the Air Conditioner with compressor which can storage energy in fact to study. The equivalent thermal parameters of Air Conditioner has been established. And with the use of “loop control” strategies, we can predict the regulated power of Air Conditioner. Then we established the Gen-Load optimal scheduling model including flexible load based on traditional optimal scheduling model. At last, an improved IEEE-30 case is used to verify. The result of simulation shows that flexible load can fast-track renewable power changes. More than that, with flexible load and reasonable incentive method to consumers, the operating cost of the system can be greatly cut down.

  17. Valence of wind power, photovoltaic and peak-load power plants as a part of the entire electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schüppel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The transition to a higher share of renewable energy sources in the electricity sector leads to a multitude of challenges for the current electricity system. Within this thesis, the development of wind power and photovoltaics generation capacities in Germany is analysed based on the evaluation of technical and economic criteria. In order to derive those criteria, different scenarios with a separated and combined increase of wind and photovoltaics capacity are simulated using the model ATLANTIS. The results are compared to a reference scenario without additional wind and PV capacities. Furthermore, the value and functionality of the energy only market based on economic methods, as well as the value of peak load power plants based on opportunity costs are determined. The results of this thesis show, that the current market system is able to gain an additional annual welfare of four to six billion Euro at the best. This result shows that the task of optimising the power plant dispatch is well fulfilled by the current market design. However, the effects, e.g. fuel costs, which may influence this margin. The value of wind power and photovoltaics within the overall electricity system can be derived from the effort which is necessary to integrate these generation technologies into the existing system, and the changes in total costs of electricity generation. Based on the evaluation of time dependencies (seasonality of energy yield from wind and PV) as well as the development of total generation costs, the conclusion can be drawn that wind power is the more suitable RES generation technology for Germany. However, when it comes to grid integration measures, PV shows better results due to a higher generation potential in Southern Germany, which leads to a higher degree of utilisation. Therefore, there is no need to transport electricity from Northern to Southern Germany as it is the case with wind power. A common expansion of wind power and photovoltaics even shows slight

  18. The sound power measurement and certification of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, A.; Henderson, R.

    1992-01-01

    It is anticipated that there will be a substantial growth in the exploitation of renewable energy from the wind over the next few years. A major factor in this expected growth is the environmental acceptance or otherwise of wind turbines and in particular their acoustic characteristics. It is generally accepted within the turbine community that reliable methods of measuring and quantifying a turbine's acoustic signature are essential if this exploitation is to be realised. This paper will seek to review current practice both in the UK and further afield and will describe the development of a practical and reliable test method, which will aid the wind turbine Manufacturer, Developer and Planner. (author)

  19. Cup anemometer response to the wind turbulence-measurement of the horizontal wind variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some dynamic characteristics of an opto-electronic cup anemometer model in relation to its response to the wind turbulence. It is based on experimental data of the natural wind turbulence measured both by an ultrasonic anemometer and two samples of the mentioned cup anemometer. The distance constants of the latter devices measured in a wind tunnel are in good agreement with those determined by the spectral analysis method proposed in this study. In addition, the study shows that the linear compensation of the cup anemometer response, beyond the cutoff frequency, is limited to a given frequency, characteristic of the device. Beyond this frequency, the compensation effectiveness relies mainly on the wind characteristics, particularly the direction variability and the horizontal turbulence intensity. Finally, this study demonstrates the potential of fast cup anemometers to measure some turbulence parameters (like wind variance with errors of the magnitude as those deriving from the mean speed measurements. This result proves that fast cup anemometers can be used to assess some turbulence parameters, especially for long-term measurements in severe climate conditions (icing, snowing or sandy storm weathers.

  20. Optimal Load Control via Frequency Measurement and Neighborhood Area Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, CH; Topcu, U; Low, SH

    2013-11-01

    We propose a decentralized optimal load control scheme that provides contingency reserve in the presence of sudden generation drop. The scheme takes advantage of flexibility of frequency responsive loads and neighborhood area communication to solve an optimal load control problem that balances load and generation while minimizing end-use disutility of participating in load control. Local frequency measurements enable individual loads to estimate the total mismatch between load and generation. Neighborhood area communication helps mitigate effects of inconsistencies in the local estimates due to frequency measurement noise. Case studies show that the proposed scheme can balance load with generation and restore the frequency within seconds of time after a generation drop, even when the loads use a highly simplified power system model in their algorithms. We also investigate tradeoffs between the amount of communication and the performance of the proposed scheme through simulation-based experiments.

  1. Noise measurement at wind power plants; Geraeuschmessung an Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, Ralph [Cirrus Research plc, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Wind energy is a supporting pillar of the energy transition. For further expansion, it is important to reduce prejudices, for example by measurements as precise as possible and assessments of the often unobjectively discussed noise emissions. These measurements are based on instruments which can analyze and measure low-frequency sound.

  2. Wave loads on foundations for wind turbines. A literature survey; Vaaglaster paa fundament till vindkraftverk - systemdynamik och utmattning: Litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlen, Ingemar

    2001-05-01

    This report is an overview of literature covering the influence of wave loads on foundations for wind power plants. Relevant subjects are wave motion, wave forces on slender structures, wave statistics for the Swedish coast together with planning and certification.

  3. Comparison of Simulations and Offshore Measurement Data of a Combined Floating Wind and Wave Energy Demonstration Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Anders; Larsen, Torben J.; Hansen, Anders Melchior

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, results from comparisons of simulations and measured offshore data from a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system are presented. The numerical model of the platform is based on the aeroelastic code, HAWC2, developed by DTU Wind Energy, which is coupled with a special...... external system that reads the output generated directly by the wave analysis software WAMIT. The main focus of the comparison is on the statistical trends of the platform motion, mooring loads, and turbine loads in measurements and simulations during different operational conditions. Finally, challenges...

  4. Real-time POD-CFD Wind-Load Calculator for PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huayamave, Victor [Centecorp; Divo, Eduardo [Centecorp; Ceballos, Andres [Centecorp; Barriento, Carolina [Centecorp; Stephen, Barkaszi [FSEC; Hubert, Seigneur [FSEC

    2014-03-21

    The primary objective of this project is to create an accurate web-based real-time wind-load calculator. This is of paramount importance for (1) the rapid and accurate assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, (2) identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of mounting hardware and installation. Wind loading calculations for structures are currently performed according to the American Society of Civil Engineers/ Structural Engineering Institute Standard ASCE/SEI 7; the values in this standard were calculated from simplified models that do not necessarily take into account relevant characteristics such as those from full 3D effects, end effects, turbulence generation and dissipation, as well as minor effects derived from shear forces on installation brackets and other accessories. This standard does not include provisions that address the special requirements of rooftop PV systems, and attempts to apply this standard may lead to significant design errors as wind loads are incorrectly estimated. Therefore, an accurate calculator would be of paramount importance for the preliminary assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of the mounting system and installation. The challenge is that although a full-fledged three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis would properly and accurately capture the complete physical effects of air flow over PV systems, it would be impractical for this tool, which is intended to be a real-time web-based calculator. CFD routinely requires enormous computation times to arrive at solutions that can be deemed accurate and grid-independent even in powerful and massively parallel computer platforms. This work is expected not only to accelerate solar deployment nationwide, but also help reach the SunShot Initiative goals

  5. Development of Rayleigh Doppler lidar for measuring middle atmosphere winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, K.; Patra, A. K.; Narayana Rao, D.

    Interpretation of most of the middle and upper atmospheric dynamical and chemical data relies on the climatological description of the wind field Rayleigh Doppler lidar is one instrument which monitors wind profiles continuously though continuity is limited to clear meteorological conditions in the middle atmosphere A Doppler wind lidar operating in incoherent mode gives excellent wind and temperature information at these altitudes with necessary spectral sensitivity It observes atmospheric winds by measuring the spectral shift of the scattered light due to the motions of atmospheric molecules with background winds and temperature by spectral broadening The presentation is about the design and development of Incoherent Doppler lidar to obtain wind information in the height regions of 30-65 km The paper analyses and describes various types of techniques that can be adopted viz Edge technique and Fringe Imaging technique The paper brings out the scientific objectives configuration simulations error sources and technical challenges involved in the development of Rayleigh Doppler lidar The presentation also gives a novel technique for calibrating the lidar

  6. Measurement of vehicle-load using capacitance and acceleration transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S; Yang, W; Yang, Y

    2007-01-01

    Over-loading is a common problem in some developing countries. Currently, large and fixed measurement systems are used to measure the load of vehicles travelling on highways. This paper presents an on-vehicle measuring device, which is based on measurement of change in capacitance due to variation in distance between electrodes mounted on vehicles. The on-vehicle leaf springs are used as a key part of the weighing transducer. Acceleration transducers are used to measure the vehicle's forward and the vertical accelerations. A feature of this on-vehicle measuring device is that it can provide both static and dynamic load measurements. The drivers can check the load in the cab, and the highway inspectors can check the load at any time and any place through radio communication, thus identifying over-loaded vehicles

  7. Investigation of the effect of bending twisting coupling on the loads in wind turbines with superelement blade definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gözcü, M O; Kayran, A

    2014-01-01

    Bending-twisting coupling in the composite blades is exploited for load alleviation in the whole turbine system. For the purpose of the study, inverse design of a reference blade is performed such that sectional beam properties of the 3D blade design approximately match the sectional beam properties of NREL's 5MW turbine blade. In order to appropriately account for the bending-twisting coupling effect, dynamic superelement of the blade is created and introduced into the multi-body dynamic model of the wind turbine system. Initially, a comparative study is conducted on the performance of wind turbines which have blades defined as superelements and geometrically nonlinear beams, and conclusions are inferred with regard to the appropriateness of the use of superelement blade definition in the transient analysis of the 5MW wind turbine system that is set up in the present study. Multi-body dynamic simulations of the wind turbine system are performed for the power production load case with the constant wind and the normal turbulence model as external wind loadings. For the internal loads, fatigue damage equivalent load is used as the metric to assess the effect of bending-twisting coupling on the load alleviation in the whole wind turbine system. Results show that in the overall, through the bending-twisting coupling induced with the use of off-axis plies in the main spar caps of the blade, damage equivalent loads associated with the critical load components can be reduced in the wind turbine system

  8. Effect of Coupled Non linear Wave Kinematics and Soil Flexibility on the Design Loads of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong; Natarajan, Anand

    2013-01-01

    The design driving loads on offshore wind turbine monopile support structures at water depths of 35m, which are beyond current monopile installation depths, are derived based on fully coupled aerohydroelastic simulations of the wind turbine in normal operation and in storm conditions in the prese...

  9. Advances in the Assessment of Wind Turbine Operating Extreme Loads via More Efficient Calculation Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Peter; Damiani, Rick R.; Dykes, Katherine; Jonkman, Jason M.

    2017-01-09

    A new adaptive stratified importance sampling (ASIS) method is proposed as an alternative approach for the calculation of the 50 year extreme load under operational conditions, as in design load case 1.1 of the the International Electrotechnical Commission design standard. ASIS combines elements of the binning and extrapolation technique, currently described by the standard, and of the importance sampling (IS) method to estimate load probability of exceedances (POEs). Whereas a Monte Carlo (MC) approach would lead to the sought level of POE with a daunting number of simulations, IS-based techniques are promising as they target the sampling of the input parameters on the parts of the distributions that are most responsible for the extreme loads, thus reducing the number of runs required. We compared the various methods on select load channels as output from FAST, an aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool for the design and analysis of wind turbines developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Our newly devised method, although still in its infancy in terms of tuning of the subparameters, is comparable to the others in terms of load estimation and its variance versus computational cost, and offers great promise going forward due to the incorporation of adaptivity into the already powerful importance sampling concept.

  10. Measurements of Coastal Winds and Temperature. Sensor Evaluation, Data Quality, and Wind Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heggem, Tore

    1997-12-31

    The long Norwegian coastline has excellent sites for wind power production. This thesis contains a documentation of a measurement station for maritime meteorological data at the coast of Mid-Norway, and analysis of temperature and wind data. It discusses experience with different types of wind speed and wind direction sensors. Accurate air temperature measurements are essential to obtain information about the stability of the atmosphere, and a sensor based on separately calibrated thermistors is described. The quality of the calibrations and the measurements is discussed. A database built up from measurements from 1982 to 1995 has been available. The data acquisition systems and the programs used to read the data are described, as well as data control and gap-filling methods. Then basic statistics from the data like mean values and distributions are given. Quality control of the measurements with emphasis on shade effects from the masts and direction alignment is discussed. The concept of atmospheric stability is discussed. The temperature profile tends to change from unstable to slightly stable as maritime winds passes land. Temperature spectra based on two-year time series are presented. Finally, there is a discussion of long-term turbulence spectra calculated from 14 years of measurements. The lack of a gap in the one-hour region of the spectra is explained from the overweight of unstable atmospheric conditions in the dominating maritime wind. Examples of time series with regular 40-minute cycles, and corresponding effect spectra are given. The validity of local lapse rate as a criterion of atmospheric stability is discussed. 34 refs., 86 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Measurements of Coastal Winds and Temperature. Sensor Evaluation, Data Quality, and Wind Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heggem, Tore

    1998-12-31

    The long Norwegian coastline has excellent sites for wind power production. This thesis contains a documentation of a measurement station for maritime meteorological data at the coast of Mid-Norway, and analysis of temperature and wind data. It discusses experience with different types of wind speed and wind direction sensors. Accurate air temperature measurements are essential to obtain information about the stability of the atmosphere, and a sensor based on separately calibrated thermistors is described. The quality of the calibrations and the measurements is discussed. A database built up from measurements from 1982 to 1995 has been available. The data acquisition systems and the programs used to read the data are described, as well as data control and gap-filling methods. Then basic statistics from the data like mean values and distributions are given. Quality control of the measurements with emphasis on shade effects from the masts and direction alignment is discussed. The concept of atmospheric stability is discussed. The temperature profile tends to change from unstable to slightly stable as maritime winds passes land. Temperature spectra based on two-year time series are presented. Finally, there is a discussion of long-term turbulence spectra calculated from 14 years of measurements. The lack of a gap in the one-hour region of the spectra is explained from the overweight of unstable atmospheric conditions in the dominating maritime wind. Examples of time series with regular 40-minute cycles, and corresponding effect spectra are given. The validity of local lapse rate as a criterion of atmospheric stability is discussed. 34 refs., 86 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Planetary Load Sharing in Three-Point- Mounted Wind Turbine Gearboxes: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keller, Jonathan A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Wind turbine gearboxes do not achieve their expected design life. The cost of gearbox replacements and rebuilds and the downtime associated with these failures increase the cost of wind energy. In 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy established the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC). Its goals are to understand the root causes of premature gearbox failures and improve their reliability. To date, the GRC has focused on a 750-kW drivetrain with a three-stage, three-point-mounted gearbox. A nonproprietary version of the gearbox containing CRBs with C3 clearances in the planetary stage was customized. Two of these gearboxes, GB1 and GB2, were manufactured and then tested in the National Wind Technology Center's 2.5-MW dynamometer and in the field. Major GRC findings include the detrimental effect of rotor moments on planetary load sharing and predicted fatigue, and the risk of bearing sliding in low-torque conditions for three-point configuration drivetrains. Based on the knowledge gained from testing and analysis of the original design, the GRC gearbox was redesigned to improve its load-sharing characteristics and predicted fatigue. This new gearbox is named GB3. As shown in Figure 1, its key improvement is the incorporation of preloaded TRBs that support the planet carrier and planets. Roller loads can be optimized and bearing life maximized with a small preload [4]. These preloaded bearings, along with interference-fitted planet pins, improve alignments and load-sharing characteristics. A semi-integrated planet bearing design also increases capacity and eliminates outer race fretting. Romax Technology, with Powertrain Engineers and the Timken Company (Timken), completed the redesign. Timken manufactured and instrumented the planet gears and bearings. Brad Foote Gearing manufactured the other gearing and assembled the gearbox.

  13. Aerodynamic loads calculation and analysis for large scale wind turbine based on combining BEM modified theory with dynamic stall model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, J.C. [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha (China); School of Electromechanical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan (China); Hu, Y.P.; Liu, D.S. [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan (China); Long, X. [Hara XEMC Windpower Co., Ltd., Xiangtan (China)

    2011-03-15

    The aerodynamic loads for MW scale horizontal-axis wind turbines are calculated and analyzed in the established coordinate systems which are used to describe the wind turbine. In this paper, the blade element momentum (BEM) theory is employed and some corrections, such as Prandtl and Buhl models, are carried out. Based on the B-L semi-empirical dynamic stall (DS) model, a new modified DS model for NACA63-4xx airfoil is adopted. Then, by combing BEM modified theory with DS model, a set of calculation method of aerodynamic loads for large scale wind turbines is proposed, in which some influence factors such as wind shear, tower, tower and blade vibration are considered. The research results show that the presented dynamic stall model is good enough for engineering purpose; the aerodynamic loads are influenced by many factors such as tower shadow, wind shear, dynamic stall, tower and blade vibration, etc, with different degree; the single blade endures periodical changing loads but the variations of the rotor shaft power caused by the total aerodynamic torque in edgewise direction are very small. The presented study approach of aerodynamic loads calculation and analysis is of the university, and helpful for thorough research of loads reduction on large scale wind turbines. (author)

  14. Energy Coordinative Optimization of Wind-Storage-Load Microgrids Based on Short-Term Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbin Hu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the topological structure of wind-storage-load complementation microgrids, this paper proposes a method for energy coordinative optimization which focuses on improvement of the economic benefits of microgrids in the prediction framework. First of all, the external characteristic mathematical model of distributed generation (DG units including wind turbines and storage batteries are established according to the requirements of the actual constraints. Meanwhile, using the minimum consumption costs from the external grid as the objective function, a grey prediction model with residual modification is introduced to output the predictive wind turbine power and load at specific periods. Second, based on the basic framework of receding horizon optimization, an intelligent genetic algorithm (GA is applied to figure out the optimum solution in the predictive horizon for the complex non-linear coordination control model of microgrids. The optimum results of the GA are compared with the receding solution of mixed integer linear programming (MILP. The obtained results show that the method is a viable approach for energy coordinative optimization of microgrid systems for energy flow and reasonable schedule. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method is verified by examples.

  15. Time Accurate Unsteady Pressure Loads Simulated for the Space Launch System at a Wind Tunnel Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Kleb, Bil; Streett, Craig L; Glass, Christopher E.; Schuster, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Using the Fully Unstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) computational fluid dynamics code, an unsteady, time-accurate flow field about a Space Launch System configuration was simulated at a transonic wind tunnel condition (Mach = 0.9). Delayed detached eddy simulation combined with Reynolds Averaged Naiver-Stokes and a Spallart-Almaras turbulence model were employed for the simulation. Second order accurate time evolution scheme was used to simulate the flow field, with a minimum of 0.2 seconds of simulated time to as much as 1.4 seconds. Data was collected at 480 pressure taps at locations, 139 of which matched a 3% wind tunnel model, tested in the Transonic Dynamic Tunnel (TDT) facility at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparisons between computation and experiment showed agreement within 5% in terms of location for peak RMS levels, and 20% for frequency and magnitude of power spectral densities. Grid resolution and time step sensitivity studies were performed to identify methods for improved accuracy comparisons to wind tunnel data. With limited computational resources, accurate trends for reduced vibratory loads on the vehicle were observed. Exploratory methods such as determining minimized computed errors based on CFL number and sub-iterations, as well as evaluating frequency content of the unsteady pressures and evaluation of oscillatory shock structures were used in this study to enhance computational efficiency and solution accuracy. These techniques enabled development of a set of best practices, for the evaluation of future flight vehicle designs in terms of vibratory loads.

  16. Flight Load Assessment for Light Aircraft Landing Trajectories in Windy Atmosphere and Near Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Varriale

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the wake encounter problem occurring when a light, or very light, aircraft flies through or nearby a wind turbine wake. The dependency of the aircraft normal load factor on the distance from the turbine rotor in various flight and environmental conditions is quantified. For this research, a framework of software applications has been developed for generating and controlling a population of flight simulation scenarios in presence of assigned wind and turbulence fields. The JSBSim flight dynamics model makes use of several autopilot systems for simulating a realistic pilot behavior during navigation. The wind distribution, calculated with OpenFOAM, is a separate input for the dynamic model and is considered frozen during each flight simulation. The aircraft normal load factor during wake encounters is monitored at different distances from the rotor, aircraft speeds, rates of descent and crossing angles. Based on these figures, some preliminary guidelines and recommendations on safe encounter distances are provided for general aviation aircraft, with considerations on pilot comfort and flight safety. These are needed, for instance, when an accident risk assessment study is required for flight in proximity of aeolic parks. A link to the GitHub code repository is provided.

  17. Investigation of load reduction for a variable speed, variable pitch, and variable coning wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A two bladed, variable speed and variable pitch wind turbine was modeled using ADAMS{reg_sign} to evaluate load reduction abilities of a variable coning configuration as compared to a teetered rotor, and also to evaluate control methods. The basic dynamic behavior of the variable coning turbine was investigated and compared to the teetered rotor under constant wind conditions as well as turbulent wind conditions. Results indicate the variable coning rotor has larger flap oscillation amplitudes and much lower root flap bending moments than the teetered rotor. Three methods of control were evaluated for turbulent wind simulations. These were a standard IPD control method, a generalized predictive control method, and a bias estimate control method. Each control method was evaluated for both the variable coning configuration and the teetered configuration. The ability of the different control methods to maintain the rotor speed near the desired set point is evaluated from the RMS error of rotor speed. The activity of the control system is evaluated from cycles per second of the blade pitch angle. All three of the methods were found to produce similar results for the variable coning rotor and the teetered rotor, as well as similar results to each other.

  18. Improved load flow control for distribution system operators under consideration of wind and solar performance prognosis; Verbesserte Lastflussfuehrung fuer Verteilnetzbetreiber unter Einbeziehung von Wind- und Solarleistungsprognosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Ralf [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany); Strunk, Achim [EWC Weather Consult GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Smart grid and smart metering are the results from the social and legal intention to detach from the nuclear energy, to expand the production of renewable energy and to bring more competition into the energy market. The next decade will be characterized by extensive investments to integrate the myriad of distributed production plants into the network management, optimal use of the networks and the offer of flexible tariffs to end-users in order to respond to the effects of the weather-related production potential. With the predictability of depression measures distribution operators would be able to optimize the purchase from suppliers, the production in its own network and the feed-in performance of renewable energy systems and to derive the economic benefit from this. This requires a holistic approach to forecast which surpasses far beyond previous approaches for the optimization of the energy supply based on load profiles and forecasts of temperature and wind.

  19. Effective Method for Determining Environmental Loads on Supporting Structures for Offshore Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dymarski Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a description of an effective method for determining loads due to waves and current acting on the supporting structures of the offshore wind turbines. This method is dedicated to the structures consisting of the cylindrical or conical elements as well as (truncates pyramids of polygon with a large number of sides (8 or more. The presented computational method is based on the Morison equation, which was originally developed only for cylindrically shaped structures. The new algorithm shown here uses the coefficients of inertia and drag forces that were calculated for non-cylindrical shapes. The analysed structure consists of segments which are truncated pyramids on the basis of a hex decagon. The inertia coefficients, CM, and drag coefficients, CD, were determined using RANSE-CFD calculations. The CFD simulations were performed for a specific range of variation of the period, and for a certain range of amplitudes of the velocity. In addition, the analysis of influence of the surface roughness on the inertia and drag coefficients was performed. In the next step, the computations of sea wave, current and wind load on supporting structure for the fifty-year storm were carried out. The simulations were performed in the time domain and as a result the function of forces distribution along the construction elements was obtained. The most unfavourable distribution of forces will be used, to analyse the strength of the structure, as the design load.

  20. Nonlinear behaviors of FRP-wrapped tall trees subjected to high wind loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.; Yi, Z. Z.; Choi, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the mechanical stability of historical tall trees wrapped with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) laminates using finite element (FE) analysis. High wind loads are considered as external loading conditions as they are one of the major threats on the structural stability of tall old trees. There have been several traditional practices to enhance the stability of tall trees exposed to high windstorms such as tree supporters and anchorages. They, however, have been sometimes causing negative effects with their misuses as the application guidelines for those methods were not adequately studied or documented. Furthermore, the oldest known trees in the country should be protected from the damage of external surface as well as ruin of the landscape. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structural effects of FRP wraps applied to tall trees subjected to high wind loads. The anisotropic material properties of wood and FRP laminates were considered in the analysis in addition to geometrically nonlinear behaviors. This study revealed that FRP wrapping for tall trees could effectively reduce the deflections and maximum stresses of trees, which results in the enhanced stability of tall trees. The optimum geometry and thicknesses of FRP wraps proposed in this study would provide fundemental guidelines for designing and constructing the application of innovative FRP wraps on tall trees, which are structurally unstable or should be preserved nationally and historically.

  1. Mean load effects on the fatigue life of offshore wind turbine monopile foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Natarajan, Anand

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of mean load effects on the estimation of the fatigue damage in offshore wind turbine monopile foundations. The mud line bending moment time series are generated using a fully coupled aero-hydro-elastic model accounting for non-linear water waves and sea current....... The fatigue damage is analysed in terms of the lifetime fatigue damage equivalent bending moment. Three different mean value correction techniques are considered, namely, Goodman, Walker, and mean sensitivity factor. An increase in the lifetime fatigue damage equivalent bending moment between 6% (mean...... of the fatigue life of offshore wind turbine monopile foundations. Moreover, it is shown that a nonlinear hydrodynamic model is required in order to correctly account for the effect of the current....

  2. Integrity of reinforced concrete cooling towers under extreme loads: Wind and earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louhi, Amine

    2015-01-01

    The authorities have planned to increase the lifetime of currently operating nuclear power plants. The ageing of reinforced concrete structures such as cooling towers should be evaluated and its impact on the bearing capacity calculated. In the case of significant damage, the strengthening must be considered to ensure the sustainability of these towers facing the risk of storms and earthquakes becoming more and more frequent. This work aims to quantify the adverse effects that can generate concrete cracks and rebar section loss induced by corrosion, especially on the bearing capacity of nuclear power plant cooling towers under monotonic or cyclic extreme load conditions (wind and earthquake). These loads are certainly the most severe, since they take the structure into the nonlinear domain and can induce or amplify cracking damage. Numerical simulations are proposed to determine the quasi-static or dynamic response of the structure, taking into account appearance of concrete cracks and their evolution via an appropriate material concrete law and rebar's yielding. In the case of a seismic load, the responses are evaluated by three different methods; the nonlinear response history analysis (NLRHA), the response spectrum analysis and the modal response history analysis (MRHA) in order to compare the earthquake modeling approaches and to evaluate the robustness of the results. Parametric studies on damping, load combinations and structural configurations, are also performed. In the case of a wind load, the strengthening technique using composite materials, such as carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) is modeled. The behavior of the damaged structure with an advanced corrosion rate is estimated in the pre- and post-cracking regime, compared to the undamaged structure. The drop of bearing capacity is quantified, a reinforcement designed is proposed to restore the integrity and thus increase the lifetime of the structure. (author)

  3. Simplified rotor load models and fatigue damage estimates for offshore wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskulus, M

    2015-02-28

    The aim of rotor load models is to characterize and generate the thrust loads acting on an offshore wind turbine. Ideally, the rotor simulation can be replaced by time series from a model with a few parameters and state variables only. Such models are used extensively in control system design and, as a potentially new application area, structural optimization of support structures. Different rotor load models are here evaluated for a jacket support structure in terms of fatigue lifetimes of relevant structural variables. All models were found to be lacking in accuracy, with differences of more than 20% in fatigue load estimates. The most accurate models were the use of an effective thrust coefficient determined from a regression analysis of dynamic thrust loads, and a novel stochastic model in state-space form. The stochastic model explicitly models the quasi-periodic components obtained from rotational sampling of turbulent fluctuations. Its state variables follow a mean-reverting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Although promising, more work is needed on how to determine the parameters of the stochastic model and before accurate lifetime predictions can be obtained without comprehensive rotor simulations. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. A New Wind Turbine Generating System Model for Balanced and Unbalanced Distribution Systems Load Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Koksoy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine generating systems (WTGSs, which are conventionally connected to high voltage transmission networks, have frequently been employed as distributed generation units in today’s distribution networks. In practice, the distribution networks always have unbalanced bus voltages and line currents due to uneven distribution of single or double phase loads over three phases and asymmetry of the lines, etc. Accordingly, in this study, for the load flow analysis of the distribution networks, Conventional Fixed speed Induction Generator (CFIG based WTGS, one of the most widely used WTGS types, is modelled under unbalanced voltage conditions. The Developed model has active and reactive power expressions in terms of induction machine impedance parameters, terminal voltages and input power. The validity of the Developed model is confirmed with the experimental results obtained in a test system. The results of the slip calculation based phase-domain model (SCP Model, which was previously proposed in the literature for CFIG based WTGSs under unbalanced voltages, are also given for the comparison. Finally, the Developed model and the SCP model are implemented in the load flow analysis of the IEEE 34 bus test system with the CFIG based WTGSs and unbalanced loads. Thus, it is clearly pointed out that the results of the load flow analysis implemented with both models are very close to each other, and the Developed model is computationally more efficient than the SCP model.

  5. Measured wind speed trends on the west coast of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuller, Stanton E.

    2004-09-01

    Trends in measured wind speed are discussed for four stations on the west coast of Canada. Periods of record vary with the station. They begin in the late 1940s or the 1950s and run through to the early to mid 1990s. The most prominent feature of the time series was a decline in mean annual and winter wind speeds at Cape St James, Victoria International Airport, and Vancouver International Airport during the middle portion of the record. Declines in mean annual wind speed are matched by increases in the percentage of calms and decreases in high wind speed observations. The pressure gradient between Victoria, Vancouver and Comox, the Pacific North American index, the Pacific decadal oscillation index, and other climate elements in British Columbia and the northwestern USA show trends at roughly the same time, indicating a natural cause of the wind speed decrease. Comox Airport mean wind speeds increased, however, perhaps the result of reduced friction in the vicinity of the anemometer outweighing the decrease in the regional pressure gradient.

  6. Thermal effects influencing measurements in a supersonic blowdown wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Đorđe S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a supersonic run of a blowdown wind tunnel, temperature of air in the test section drops which can affect planned measurements. Adverse thermal effects include variations of the Mach and Reynolds numbers, variation of airspeed, condensation of moisture on the model, change of characteristics of the instrumentation in the model, et cetera. Available data on thermal effects on instrumentation are pertaining primarily to long-run-duration wind tunnel facilities. In order to characterize such influences on instrumentation in the models, in short-run-duration blowdown wind tunnels, temperature measurements were made in the wing-panel-balance and main-balance spaces of two wind tunnel models tested in the T-38 wind tunnel. The measurements showed that model-interior temperature in a run increased at the beginning of the run, followed by a slower drop and, at the end of the run, by a large temperature drop. Panel-force balance was affected much more than the main balance. Ways of reducing the unwelcome thermal effects by instrumentation design and test planning are discussed.

  7. Reduction mechanism of dynamic loads on down wind rotor; Furyoku hatsuden system down wind rotor no doteki kaju no keigen kiko ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, K; Shimizu, Y; Yasui, T [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Dynamic force on blades in a large wind mill changes with rotational speed for various reasons, such as wind shear that causes vertical distribution of wind velocity or titling angle. Therefore, a 2-blade system on a teetered hub is a practical selection for the coned, down-wind type. Use of teetered axis greatly reduces bending moment in the flap direction and that at the axis of rotation. An attempt was made to understand dynamic loads by inertial force resulting from oscillation of the blade rotating on the teetered axis, and thereby to avoid them. The in-plane load can be diminished to zero when the teetered axis is coincided with the center of gravity, but generally cannot be avoided when the blade is strained significantly, except it is operated at the rated condition. The in-plane load and bending moment can be avoided, when rotational freedom is given around the y axis. Dynamic load on a down-wind rotor can be avoided by use of universal joint. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Sliding mode load frequency control for multi-area time-delay power system with wind power integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mi, Yang; Hao, Xuezhi; Liu, Yongjuan

    2017-01-01

    The interconnected time-delay power system has become an important issue for the open communication network. Meanwhile, due to the output power fluctuation of integrated wind energy, load frequency control (LFC) for power system with variable sources and loads has become more complicated. The novel...

  9. Optimal control of a fuel cell/wind/PV/grid hybrid system with thermal heat pump load

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sichilalu, S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal energy management strategy for a grid-tied photovoltaic–wind-fuel cell hybrid power supply system. The hybrid system meets the load demand consisting of an electrical load and a heat pump water heater supplying thermal...

  10. Comparison of NWP wind speeds and directions to measured wind speeds and directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Poul; Mikkelsen, Torben

    Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP) of wind speed and direction has been compared to measurements for seven German sites for nuclear power plants, and for Risø, the site of the Danish nuclear research reactors now being decommissioned . For the German sites the data cover approximately three month...

  11. Quality controls for wind measurement of a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler under strong wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Zheng, Chaorong; Wu, Yue

    2017-09-01

    Wind profilers have been widely adopted to observe the wind field information in the atmosphere for different purposes. But accuracy of its observation has limitations due to various noises or disturbances and hence need to be further improved. In this paper, the data measured under strong wind conditions, using a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler (BLP), are quality controlled via a composite quality control (QC) procedure proposed by the authors. Then, through the comparison with the data measured by radiosonde flights (balloon observations), the critical thresholds in the composite QC procedure, including consensus average threshold T 1 and vertical shear threshold T 3 , are systematically discussed. And the performance of the BLP operated under precipitation is also evaluated. It is found that to ensure the high accuracy and high data collectable rate, the optimal range of subsets is determined to be 4 m/s. Although the number of data rejected by the combined algorithm of vertical shear examination and small median test is quite limited, it is proved that the algorithm is quite useful to recognize the outlier with a large discrepancy. And the optimal wind shear threshold T 3 can be recommended as 5 ms -1 /100m. During patchy precipitation, the quality of data measured by the four oblique beams (using the DBS measuring technique) can still be ensured. After the BLP data are quality controlled by the composite QC procedure, the output can show good agreement with the balloon observation.

  12. Interaction of mass-loaded solar wind flow with blunt body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breus, T.K.; Krymskii, A.M.; Mitnitskii, V.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the numerical modeling of the solar wind interaction with Venus taking into account the mass loading effect due to the photoionization of the Venus neutral oxygen corona. The analysis has shown that this effect unambiguously explains the number of peculiarities of the SW-Venus interaction pattern that could not be quantitatively explained before, namely the shock front position, and the characteristics of the SW flow and magnetic field in the Venus ionosheath observed from experiments onboard of Venera-9 and -10 and Pioneer-Venus spacecraft. (author)

  13. Proposed Novel Multiphase-Multilevel Inverter Configuration for Open-End Winding Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padamanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Wheeler, Patrick; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new multiphase-multilevel inverter configuration for open-winding loads and suitable for medium power (low-voltage/high-current) applications such as `More Electric Aircraft'. Modular structure comprised of standard dual three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) along with one...... is developed in this work and overcomes the complexity of standard space vector modulations, easy for real implementation purposes in digital processors. Proposed six-phase multilevel inverter configuration generates multilevel outputs with benefit in comprises with standard multilevel inverter topologies...

  14. Flow field and load characteristics of the whole MEXICO wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Haoran; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chao

    2017-01-01

    CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) method was used to perform steady numerical simulation investigation on the flow field and load characteristics of MEXICO(Model EXperiment In Controlled cOnditions) wind turbine under non-yawed condition. Circumferentially-Averaged method was used to extract...... characteristics around the blade was analyzed and the points of flow separation were found along the blade, the results show that the points of flow separation move towards trailing edge with the increase of radius. The distribution of vorticity in the wake of MEXICO rotor was also analyzed. The distribution...

  15. Impact of measurement uncertainty from experimental load distribution factors on bridge load rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangone, Michael V.; Whelan, Matthew J.

    2018-03-01

    Load rating and testing of highway bridges is important in determining the capacity of the structure. Experimental load rating utilizes strain transducers placed at critical locations of the superstructure to measure normal strains. These strains are then used in computing diagnostic performance measures (neutral axis of bending, load distribution factor) and ultimately a load rating. However, it has been shown that experimentally obtained strain measurements contain uncertainties associated with the accuracy and precision of the sensor and sensing system. These uncertainties propagate through to the diagnostic indicators that in turn transmit into the load rating calculation. This paper will analyze the effect that measurement uncertainties have on the experimental load rating results of a 3 span multi-girder/stringer steel and concrete bridge. The focus of this paper will be limited to the uncertainty associated with the experimental distribution factor estimate. For the testing discussed, strain readings were gathered at the midspan of each span of both exterior girders and the center girder. Test vehicles of known weight were positioned at specified locations on each span to generate maximum strain response for each of the five girders. The strain uncertainties were used in conjunction with a propagation formula developed by the authors to determine the standard uncertainty in the distribution factor estimates. This distribution factor uncertainty is then introduced into the load rating computation to determine the possible range of the load rating. The results show the importance of understanding measurement uncertainty in experimental load testing.

  16. Design Loads on Platforms on Offshore wind Turbine Foundations with Respect to Vertical Wave Run-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Mathilde L.; Gravesen, Helge; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2007-01-01

    reduction in the loads by up to 75%. Furthermore it is indicated, that the fact that offshore wind turbines often are placed on limited water depths thereby increasing the amount of (nearly) breaking waves, seems to increase the run-up height and thereby the pressures on the structure.......Experiences have shown that the vertical run-up generated by waves meeting the offshore wind turbine foundations, can result in rather vigorous loads on appurtenances and platform structures. This study aims to provide a qualitative method of determining run-up height and the following loads...

  17. A simplified model predicting the weight of the load carrying beam in a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    from 20 to 90 m. In addition, it can be seen that for a blade using glass fibre reinforced polymers, the design is controlled by the deflection and thereby the material stiffness in order to avoid the blade to hit the tower. On the other hand if using aluminium, the design will be controlled...... to predict the weight of the load carrying beam when using glassfibre reinforced polymers, carbon fibre reinforced polymers or an aluminium alloy as the construction material. Thereby, it is found that the weight of a glass fibre wind turbine blade is increased from 0.5 to 33 tons when the blade length grows...... by the fatigue resistance in orderto making the material survive the 100 to 500 million load cycles experience of the windturbine blade throughout the lifetime. The aluminium blade is also found to be considerably heavier compared with the composite blades....

  18. Analysis of Mexico wind tunnel measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers, J.G.; Boorsma, K.; Cho, T.

    This report describes the work performed within the first phase of IEA Task 29 Mexnext. In this IEA Task 29 a total of 20 organisations from 11 different countries collaborated in analysing the measurements which have been taken in the EU project ‘Mexico’. Within this Mexico project 9 European...

  19. Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…

  20. Measurement based analysis of active and reactive power losses in a distribution network with wind farms and CHPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents an investigation of the active and reactive power losses in a distribution network with wind turbines and combined heat and power plants. The investigation is based on 15 min average power measurements and load flow calculations in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory...

  1. A new wind vane for the measurement of atmospheric turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, M.J.; Heverly, M.

    1997-02-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Met One Instruments, Incorporated (Met One) and Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) was created to develop a new wind vane that more accurately measures atmospheric turbulence. Through a process that had several phases, Met One created a prototype vane that was designed to attach to the existing Model 1585 Bi-Directional Wind Vane instrument structure. The prototype contained over 20% less mass to enhance responsiveness, which was also increased through the use of a teardrop-shaped fin structure. The prototype vane can be readily manufactured for commercial retail. Tests in wind tunnel of Building 735-7A, the Meteorological Engineering Facility, indicated that the new vane has a superior starting threshold of less than 0.14 meter per second, a delay distance of 0.72 meter, and a damping ratio of 0.4. The relative accuracy of less than one degree is unchanged from the previous design. The vane bias was acceptable at 0.8 degree for the horizontal wind angle, but was slightly high at 1.4 degree for the verticle wind angle. The high value of the verticle wind angle bias can most likely be reduced to the desired less than one degree value with standard manufacturing production techniques. The durability of the prototype vane was not tested in the field but is expected to be slightly less due to the use of hollow rather than foam-filled fins. However, the loss of some durability is more than compensated with increased sensitivity at low wind speeds. Field testing of the prototype is required to test for adequacy of durability.

  2. High resolution wind turbine wake measurements with a scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herges, T. G.; Maniaci, D. C.; Naughton, B. T.

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution lidar wake measurements are part of an ongoing field campaign being conducted at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology facility by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a customized scanning lidar from the Technical University of Denmark. One...

  3. Time-Accurate Unsteady Pressure Loads Simulated for the Space Launch System at Wind Tunnel Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Kleb, William L.; Glass, Christopher E.; Streett, Craig L.; Schuster, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A transonic flow field about a Space Launch System (SLS) configuration was simulated with the Fully Unstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code at wind tunnel conditions. Unsteady, time-accurate computations were performed using second-order Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) for up to 1.5 physical seconds. The surface pressure time history was collected at 619 locations, 169 of which matched locations on a 2.5 percent wind tunnel model that was tested in the 11 ft. x 11 ft. test section of the NASA Ames Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Comparisons between computation and experiment showed that the peak surface pressure RMS level occurs behind the forward attach hardware, and good agreement for frequency and power was obtained in this region. Computational domain, grid resolution, and time step sensitivity studies were performed. These included an investigation of pseudo-time sub-iteration convergence. Using these sensitivity studies and experimental data comparisons, a set of best practices to date have been established for FUN3D simulations for SLS launch vehicle analysis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first time DDES has been used in a systematic approach and establish simulation time needed, to analyze unsteady pressure loads on a space launch vehicle such as the NASA SLS.

  4. Canopy wake measurements using multiple scanning wind LiDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, C. D.; Carbajo Fuertes, F.; Iungo, V.; Stefan, H. G.; Porte-Agel, F.

    2014-12-01

    Canopy wakes have been shown, in controlled wind tunnel experiments, to significantly affect the fluxes of momentum, heat and other scalars at the land and water surface over distances of ˜O(1 km), see Markfort et al. (EFM, 2013). However, there are currently no measurements of the velocity field downwind of a full-scale forest canopy. Point-based anemometer measurements of wake turbulence provide limited insight into the extent and details of the wake structure, whereas scanning Doppler wind LiDARs can provide information on how the wake evolves in space and varies over time. For the first time, we present measurements of the velocity field in the wake of a tall patch of forest canopy. The patch consists of two uniform rows of 40-meter tall deciduous, plane trees, which border either side of the Allée de Dorigny, near the EPFL campus. The canopy is approximately 250 m long, and it is approximately 40 m wide, along the direction of the wind. A challenge faced while making field measurements is that the wind rarely intersects a canopy normal to the edge. The resulting wake flow may be deflected relative to the mean inflow. Using multiple LiDARs, we measure the evolution of the wake due to an oblique wind blowing over the canopy. One LiDAR is positioned directly downwind of the canopy to measure the flow along the mean wind direction and the other is positioned near the canopy to evaluate the transversal component of the wind and how it varies with downwind distance from the canopy. Preliminary results show that the open trunk space near the base of the canopy results in a surface jet that can be detected just downwind of the canopy and farther downwind dissipates as it mixes with the wake flow above. A time-varying recirculation zone can be detected by the periodic reversal of the velocity near the surface, downwind of the canopy. The implications of canopy wakes for measurement and modeling of surface fluxes will be discussed.

  5. Load reduced control procedure for wind power plants. A holistic survey and experiences from field tests; Lastreduzierende Regelungsverfahren fuer Windenergieanlagen. Ein ganzheitlicher Ueberblick und Erfahrungen aus Feldversuchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, M.; Fischer, B.; Duckwitz, D. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    The control system of a wind turbine has a large impact on the structural dynamic loads of wind power plants. The contribution under consideration reports on the opportunities for an active reduction of fatigue loads and extreme loads for various mechanical components using the variables pitch angle and generator torque.

  6. Vibration analysis of 1 MW gearbox for the Avedoere wind turbine. Test bed measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crone, A.

    1995-03-01

    The investigations had several purposes: Firstly, to determine and evaluate the structure-borne noise source strength of the gearbox, which is relevant for the final gear noise emission from the wind turbine. Secondly, to select the potentially least noisy gear set out of two, which have been made for the output gear stage. And Thirdly, to obtain the natural vibration modes of the gearbox structure, in order to determine if the structure-borne noise, transmitted to the wind turbine structure, will be amplified due to resonance conditions. Additional vibration tests were carried out. Among these, trials of 'in situ' measurement of the Transmission Error of the output gear stage, and measurements of the torsional vibrations of the input and output shaft. The test of the two output gear sets (from Flender AG and ELKRAFT A.m.b.A.) had the aim to determine the least noisy one of two different tooth profiles. Both gear sets were intended for the Avedoere Wind Turbine when it, in its first period of operation, is going to operate as a stall regulated turbine. After the first mesurements and the exchange of the Flender-designed gear set with the ELKRAFT-designed gear set, troubles with the backmost bearing of the intermediate shaft arose. The evaluation of the structure-borne noise source strength (expressed as the vibration velocity level), has in general been made at load conditions which correspond to the conditions in the wind turibne at a wind speed of 8 m/s, 10 m above terrain (v 10 ). This condition, is the one normally used when the noise emission from wind turbines is evaluated. At the comparison of the two gear sets against each other, the influence of the torque load on the source strength has also been considered. This comparison may indicate the load at which the profile correction is most effective, and may determine the noise potential of the gearbox at wind speeds lower than 8 m/s, which could also be of interest

  7. Research of Short-range Missile Motion in Terms of Different Wind Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Klishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When modeling the aircraft motion it is advisable to choose a particular model of the Earth, depending both on the task and on the required accuracy of calculation. The article describes various models of the Earth, such as the flat Earth with a plane-parallel field of gravity, spherical and non-rotating Earth with a plane-parallel field of gravity, spherical and non-rotating Earth with a central gravitational field, spherical and non-rotating Earth, taking into account the polar flattening of the Earth, spherical Earth based compression and polar daily rotation. The article also considers the influence of these models on the motion of the selected aircraft.To date, there is technical equipment to provide highly accurate description of the Earthshape, gravitational field, etc. The improved accuracy of the Earth model description results in more correct description of the trajectory and motion parameters of a ballistic missile. However, for short ranges (10-20 km this accuracy is not essential, and, furthermore, it increases time of calculation. Therefore, there is a problem of choosing the optimal description of the Earth parameters.The motion in the model of the Earth, which takes into account a daily rotation of the planet and polar flattening, is discussed in more detail, and the geographical latitude impact on coordinates of the points of fall of a ballistic missile is analyzed on the basis of obtained graphs.The article individually considers a problem of the wind effect on the aircraft motion and defines dependences of the missile motion on the parameters of different wind loads, such as wind speed and height of its action.A mathematical model of the missile motion was built and numerically integrated, using the Runge-Kutta 4th order method, for implementation and subsequent analysis.Based on the analysis of the calculation results in the abovementioned models of the Earth, differences in impact of these models on the parameters of the

  8. Decentralized/stand-alone hybrid Wind-Diesel power systems to meet residential loads of hot coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhadidy, M.A.; Shaahid, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    In view of rising costs, pollution and fears of exhaustion of oil and coal, governments around the world are encouraging to seek energy from renewable/sustainable energy sources such as wind. The utilization of energy from wind (since the oil embargo of the 1970s) is being widely disseminated for displacement of fossil fuel produced energy and to reduce atmospheric degradation. A system that consists of a wind turbine and Diesel genset is called a Wind-Diesel power system.The literature indicates that the commercial/residential buildings in Saudi Arabia consume an estimated 10-40% of the total electric energy generated. In the present study, the hourly mean wind-speed data of the period 1986-1997 recorded at the solar radiation and meteorological station, Dhahran (26 deg. 32'N, 50 deg. 13'E in the Eastern Coastal Region of Saudi Arabia), has been analyzed to investigate the potential of utilizing hybrid (Wind-Diesel) energy conversion systems to meet the load requirements of a hundred typical two bedroom residential buildings (with annual electrical energy demand of 3512 MWh). The long term monthly average wind speeds for Dhahran range from 4.2 to 6.4 m/s. The hybrid systems considered in the present case study consist of different combinations/clusters of 150 kW commercial wind machines supplemented with battery storage and Diesel back-up. The deficit energy generated by the Diesel generator (for different battery capacities) and the number of operational hours of the Diesel system to meet a specific annual electrical energy demand of 3512 MWh have also been presented. The evaluation of the hybrid system shows that with seven 150 kW wind energy conversion system (WECS) and one day of battery storage, the Diesel back-up system has to provide 21.6% of the load demand. Furthermore, with three days of battery storage, the Diesel back-up system has to provide 17.5% of the load demand. However, in the absence of battery storage, about 37% of the load needs to be

  9. MEASUREMENT OF WIND SPEED FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, A.; Kurzeja, R.; Villa-Aleman, E.; Tuckfield, C.; Pendergast, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected thermal imagery and ground truth data at two commercial power plant cooling lakes to investigate the applicability of laboratory empirical correlations between surface heat flux and wind speed, and statistics derived from thermal imagery. SRNL demonstrated in a previous paper (1] that a linear relationship exists between the standard deviation of image temperature and surface heat flux. In this paper, SRNL will show that the skewness of the temperature distribution derived from cooling lake thermal images correlates with instantaneous wind speed measured at the same location. SRNL collected thermal imagery, surface meteorology and water temperatures from helicopters and boats at the Comanche Peak and H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant cooling lakes. SRNL found that decreasing skewness correlated with increasing wind speed, as was the case for the laboratory experiments. Simple linear and orthogonal regression models both explained about 50% of the variance in the skewness - wind speed plots. A nonlinear (logistic) regression model produced a better fit to the data, apparently because the thermal convection and resulting skewness are related to wind speed in a highly nonlinear way in nearly calm and in windy conditions

  10. Development of a Wind Plant Large-Eddy Simulation with Measurement-Driven Atmospheric Inflow: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quon, Eliot; Churchfield, Matthew; Cheung, Lawrence; Kern, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    This paper details the development of an aeroelastic wind plant model with large-eddy simulation (LES). The chosen LES solver is the Simulator for Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) based on the OpenFOAM framework, coupled to NREL's comprehensive aeroelastic analysis tool, FAST. An atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) precursor simulation was constructed based on assessments of meteorological tower, lidar, and radar data over a 3-hour window. This precursor was tuned to the specific atmospheric conditions that occurred both prior to and during the measurement campaign, enabling capture of a night-to-day transition in the turbulent ABL. In the absence of height-varying temperature measurements, spatially averaged radar data were sufficient to characterize the atmospheric stability of the wind plant in terms of the shear profile, and near-ground temperature sensors provided a reasonable estimate of the ground heating rate describing the morning transition. A full aeroelastic simulation was then performed for a subset of turbines within the wind plant, driven by the precursor. Analysis of two turbines within the array, one directly waked by the other, demonstrated good agreement with measured time-averaged loads.

  11. Development of a Wind Plant Large-Eddy Simulation with Measurement-Driven Atmospheric Inflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quon, Eliot W.; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Cheung, Lawrence; Kern, Stefan

    2017-01-09

    This paper details the development of an aeroelastic wind plant model with large-eddy simulation (LES). The chosen LES solver is the Simulator for Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) based on the OpenFOAM framework, coupled to NREL's comprehensive aeroelastic analysis tool, FAST. An atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) precursor simulation was constructed based on assessments of meteorological tower, lidar, and radar data over a 3-hour window. This precursor was tuned to the specific atmospheric conditions that occurred both prior to and during the measurement campaign, enabling capture of a night-to-day transition in the turbulent ABL. In the absence of height-varying temperature measurements, spatially averaged radar data were sufficient to characterize the atmospheric stability of the wind plant in terms of the shear profile, and near-ground temperature sensors provided a reasonable estimate of the ground heating rate describing the morning transition. A full aeroelastic simulation was then performed for a subset of turbines within the wind plant, driven by the precursor. Analysis of two turbines within the array, one directly waked by the other, demonstrated good agreement with measured time-averaged loads.

  12. Cognitive load measurement as a means to advance cognitive load theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, F.; Tuovinen, J.E.; Tabbers, H.; van Gerven, P.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses cognitive load measurement techniques with regard to their contribution to cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT is concerned with the design of instructional methods that efficiently use people's limited cognitive processing capacity to apply acquired knowledge and skills to new

  13. Wind Turbine Wake Characterization from Temporally Disjunct 3-D Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Doubrawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scanning LiDARs can be used to obtain three-dimensional wind measurements in and beyond the atmospheric surface layer. In this work, metrics characterizing wind turbine wakes are derived from LiDAR observations and from large-eddy simulation (LES data, which are used to recreate the LiDAR scanning geometry. The metrics are calculated for two-dimensional planes in the vertical and cross-stream directions at discrete distances downstream of a turbine under single-wake conditions. The simulation data are used to estimate the uncertainty when mean wake characteristics are quantified from scanning LiDAR measurements, which are temporally disjunct due to the time that the instrument takes to probe a large volume of air. Based on LES output, we determine that wind speeds sampled with the synthetic LiDAR are within 10% of the actual mean values and that the disjunct nature of the scan does not compromise the spatial variation of wind speeds within the planes. We propose scanning geometry density and coverage indices, which quantify the spatial distribution of the sampled points in the area of interest and are valuable to design LiDAR measurement campaigns for wake characterization. We find that scanning geometry coverage is important for estimates of the wake center, orientation and length scales, while density is more important when seeking to characterize the velocity deficit distribution.

  14. Extrapolation of Extreme Response for Wind Turbines based on FieldMeasurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    extrapolation are presented. The first method is based on the same assumptions as the existing method but the statistical extrapolation is only performed for a limited number of mean wind speeds where the extreme load is likely to occur. For the second method the mean wind speeds are divided into storms which......The characteristic loads on wind turbines during operation are among others dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. These parameters must be taken into account in the assessment of the characteristic load. The characteristic load...... are assumed independent and the characteristic loads are determined from the extreme load in each storm....

  15. Determination of the thermospheric neutral wind from incoherent scatter radar measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeggstroem, I.; Murdin, J.; Rees, D.

    1984-11-01

    Measurements made by the EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar are used to derive thermospheric winds. The derived wind is compared to Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of the neutral wind made simultaneously. The uncertainties in the radar derived wind are discussed. (author)

  16. Measurement campaign for wind power potential in west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnow Jakobsen, Kasper

    2013-04-01

    . During the first years, the influence of instrument icing was not considered, but recently one of the sites was equipped with an ice rate sensor and a heated ultrasonic anemometer to study the ice influence. 3 Results The predominant wind direction for most sites is away from the ice cap at the center of the continent, but for some coastal sites it is north or south. The north-south wind pattern is expected from the synoptic patterns and the barrier effect of the ice cap. The sites where the predominant wind direction is away from the inland ice are dominated by katabatic wind systems from the ice cap and form valley systems. These sites also seem to have the highest wind resource and will be studied further. A good example of the influence of katabatic and thermal wind systems can be seen in the measurement data from Sarfannguit and Nanortalik 66 and 60 degrees northern latitude respectively. In future work, these katabatic flows and their impact on the wind resource will be studied using mesoscale modelling and microscale downscaling.

  17. The Skipheia Wind Measurement Station. Instrumentation, Wind Speed Profiles and Turbulence Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasen, S E

    1995-10-01

    This thesis describes the design of a measurement station for turbulent wind and presents results from an analysis of the collected data. The station is located at Skipheia near the south-west end of Froeya, an island off the coast of Mid-Norway. The station is unique for studies of turbulent winds because of the large numbers of sensors, which are located at various heights above ground up to 100 m, a sampling rate of 0.85 Hz and storage of the complete time series. The frequency of lightning and atmospheric discharges to the masts are quite high and much effort has gone into minimizing the damage caused by lightning activity. A major part of the thesis deals with data analysis and modelling. There are detailed discussions on the various types of wind sensors and their calibration, the data acquisition system and operating experiences with it, the database, data quality control, the wind speed profile and turbulence. 40 refs., 78 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Wind Loads on a Post-Panamax Container Ship as a Function of the Container Configuration on Deck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  19. Flying with the wind: Scale dependency of speed and direction measurements in modelling wind support in avian flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Kamran; Kranstauber, Bart; Weinzierl, Rolf P.; Griffin, Larry; Reese, Eileen C.; Cabot, David; Cruz, Sebastian; Proaño, Carolina; Takekawa, John Y.; Newman, Scott H.; Waldenström, Jonas; Bengtsson, Daniel; Kays, Roland; Wikelski, Martin; Bohrer, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding how environmental conditions, especially wind, influence birds' flight speeds is a prerequisite for understanding many important aspects of bird flight, including optimal migration strategies, navigation, and compensation for wind drift. Recent developments in tracking technology and the increased availability of data on large-scale weather patterns have made it possible to use path annotation to link the location of animals to environmental conditions such as wind speed and direction. However, there are various measures available for describing not only wind conditions but also the bird's flight direction and ground speed, and it is unclear which is best for determining the amount of wind support (the length of the wind vector in a bird’s flight direction) and the influence of cross-winds (the length of the wind vector perpendicular to a bird’s direction) throughout a bird's journey.Results: We compared relationships between cross-wind, wind support and bird movements, using path annotation derived from two different global weather reanalysis datasets and three different measures of direction and speed calculation for 288 individuals of nine bird species. Wind was a strong predictor of bird ground speed, explaining 10-66% of the variance, depending on species. Models using data from different weather sources gave qualitatively similar results; however, determining flight direction and speed from successive locations, even at short (15 min intervals), was inferior to using instantaneous GPS-based measures of speed and direction. Use of successive location data significantly underestimated the birds' ground and airspeed, and also resulted in mistaken associations between cross-winds, wind support, and their interactive effects, in relation to the birds' onward flight.Conclusions: Wind has strong effects on bird flight, and combining GPS technology with path annotation of weather variables allows us to quantify these effects for

  20. Analysis of Mexico wind tunnel measurements. Final report of IEA Task 29, Mexnext (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schepers, J.G.; Boorsma, K. [Energy research Center of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Cho, T. [Korea Aerospace Research Institute KARI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Gomez-Iradi, S. [National Renewable Energy Center of Spain CENER, Sarriguren (Spain); Schaffarczyk, P. [A. Jeromin University of Applied Sciences, CEWind EG, Kiel (Germany); Shen, W.Z. [The Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Lutz, T. [K. Meister University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Stoevesandt, B. [ForWind, Zentrum fuer Windenergieforschung, Oldenburg (Germany); Schreck, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL, Golden, CO (United States); Micallef, D.; Pereira, R.; Sant, T. [Delft University of Technology TUD, Delft (Netherlands); Madsen, H.A.; Soerensen, N. [Risoe-DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2012-02-15

    This report describes the work performed within the first phase of IEA Task 29 Mexnext. In this IEA Task 29 a total of 20 organisations from 11 different countries collaborated in analysing the measurements which have been performed in the EU project 'Mexico'. Within this Mexico project 9 European institutes carried out a wind tunnel experiment in the Large Low Speed Facility (LLF) of the German Dutch Wind Facilities DNW on a rotor with a diameter of 4.5 m. Pressure distributions were measured at five locations along the blade along with detailed flow field measurements around the rotor plane using stereo PIV. As a result of the international collaboration within this task a very thorough analysis of the data could be carried out and a large number of codes were validated not only in terms of loads but also in terms of underlying flow field. The detailed pressure measurements along the blade in combination with the detailed flow field measurements gave a unique opportunity to better understand the response of a wind turbine to the incoming flow field. Deficiencies in modelling have been established and directions for model improvement can be given.

  1. Reduction of fatigue loads on jacket substructure through blade design optimization for multimegawatt wind turbines at 50 m water depths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NJOMO WANDJI, Wilfried; Pavese, Christian; Natarajan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the reduction of the fore-aft damage equivalent moment at the tower base for multi-megawatt offshore wind turbines mounted on jacket type substructures at 50 m water depths. The study investigates blade design optimization of a reference 10 MW wind turbine under standard wind...... conditions of onshore sites. The blade geometry and structure is optimized to yield a design that minimizes tower base fatigue loads without significant loss of power production compared to that of the reference setup. The resulting blade design is then mounted on a turbine supported by a jacket and placed...

  2. Multi-Temporal Decomposed Wind and Load Power Models for Electric Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Karim, Noha

    This thesis is motivated by the recognition that sources of uncertainties in electric power systems are multifold and may have potentially far-reaching effects. In the past, only system load forecast was considered to be the main challenge. More recently, however, the uncertain price of electricity and hard-to-predict power produced by renewable resources, such as wind and solar, are making the operating and planning environment much more challenging. The near-real-time power imbalances are compensated by means of frequency regulation and generally require fast-responding costly resources. Because of this, a more accurate forecast and look-ahead scheduling would result in a reduced need for expensive power balancing. Similarly, long-term planning and seasonal maintenance need to take into account long-term demand forecast as well as how the short-term generation scheduling is done. The better the demand forecast, the more efficient planning will be as well. Moreover, computer algorithms for scheduling and planning are essential in helping the system operators decide what to schedule and planners what to build. This is needed given the overall complexity created by different abilities to adjust the power output of generation technologies, demand uncertainties and by the network delivery constraints. Given the growing presence of major uncertainties, it is likely that the main control applications will use more probabilistic approaches. Today's predominantly deterministic methods will be replaced by methods which account for key uncertainties as decisions are made. It is well-understood that although demand and wind power cannot be predicted at very high accuracy, taking into consideration predictions and scheduling in a look-ahead way over several time horizons generally results in more efficient and reliable utilization, than when decisions are made assuming deterministic, often worst-case scenarios. This change is in approach is going to ultimately require new

  3. Wind-wave induced dynamic response analysis for motions and mooring loads of a spar-type offshore floating wind turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马钰; 肖龙飞; 胡志强

    2014-01-01

    Due to the energy crisis and the environmental issues like pollution and global warming, the exploration for renewable and clean energies becomes crucial. The offshore floating wind turbines (OFWTs) draw a great deal of attention recently as a means to exploit the steadier and stronger wind resources available in deep water seas. This paper studies the hydrodynamic characteristics of a spar-type wind turbine known as the OC3-Hywind concept and the dynamic responses of the turbine. Response characteristics of motions and mooring loads of the system under different sea states are evaluated and the effects of the loads induced by the wind and the wave on the system are discussed. The calculations are carried out with the numerical simulation code FAST in the time domain and the frequency analysis is made by using the FFT method. The results and the conclusions from this paper might help better understand the behavior characteristics of the floating wind turbine system under actual ocean environments and provide valuable data in design and engineering practice.

  4. The reliability of the Extra Load Index as a measure of relative load carriage economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Sean; Cooke, Carlton; Lloyd, Ray

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the reliability of the extra load index (ELI) as a method for assessing relative load carriage economy. Seventeen volunteers (12 males, 5 females) performed walking trials at 3 km·h -1 , 6 km·h -1 and a self-selected speed. Trial conditions were repeated 7 days later to assess test-retest reliability. Trials involved four 4-minute periods of walking, each separated by 5 min of rest. The initial stage was performed unloaded followed in a randomised order by a second unloaded period and walking with backpacks of 7 and 20 kg. Results show ELI values did not differ significantly between trials for any of the speeds (p = 0.46) with either of the additional loads (p = 0.297). The systematic bias, limits of agreement and coefficients of variation were small in all trial conditions. We conclude the ELI appears to be a reliable measure of relative load carriage economy. Practitioner Summary: This paper demonstrates that the ELI is a reliable measure of load carriage economy at a range of walking speeds with both a light and heavy load. The ELI, therefore, represents a useful tool for comparing the relative economy associated with different load carriage systems.

  5. Measuring cognitive load: performance, mental effort and simulation task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Rojas, David; Childs, Ruth; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Interest in applying cognitive load theory in health care simulation is growing. This line of inquiry requires measures that are sensitive to changes in cognitive load arising from different instructional designs. Recently, mental effort ratings and secondary task performance have shown promise as measures of cognitive load in health care simulation. We investigate the sensitivity of these measures to predicted differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in task complexity and learner expertise during simulation-based surgical skills training. We randomly assigned 28 novice medical students to simulation training on a simple or complex surgical knot-tying task. Participants completed 13 practice trials, interspersed with computer-based video instruction. On trials 1, 5, 9 and 13, knot-tying performance was assessed using time and movement efficiency measures, and cognitive load was assessed using subjective rating of mental effort (SRME) and simple reaction time (SRT) on a vibrotactile stimulus-monitoring secondary task. Significant improvements in knot-tying performance (F(1.04,24.95)  = 41.1, p cognitive load (F(2.3,58.5)  = 57.7, p load among novices engaged in simulation-based learning. These measures can be used to track cognitive load during skills training. Mental effort ratings are also sensitive to small differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in the physical complexity of a simulation task. The complementary nature of these subjective and objective measures suggests their combined use is advantageous in simulation instructional design research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparing different CFD wind turbine modelling approaches with wind tunnel measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvig, Siri; Hjertager, Bjørn; Manger, Eirik

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a model wind turbine is simulated with three different CFD methods: actuator disk, actuator line and a fully resolved rotor. The simulations are compared with each other and with measurements from a wind tunnel experiment. The actuator disk is the least accurate and most cost-efficient, and the fully resolved rotor is the most accurate and least cost-efficient. The actuator line method is believed to lie in between the two ends of the scale. The fully resolved rotor produces superior wake velocity results compared to the actuator models. On average it also produces better results for the force predictions, although the actuator line method had a slightly better match for the design tip speed. The open source CFD tool box, OpenFOAM, was used for the actuator disk and actuator line calculations, whereas the market leading commercial CFD code, ANSYS/FLUENT, was used for the fully resolved rotor approach

  7. Ten years statistics of wind direction and wind velocity measurements performed at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, M.; Dilger, H.

    1979-06-01

    The measurements of wind direction and wind velocity performed at 60 m and 200 m height were evaluated for one year each and frequency distributions of the measured values were established. The velocity was divided into 1 m/s steps and the direction into 10 0 sectors. The frequency distribution of the wind direction reveals three maxima located in the southwest, northeast and north, respectively. The maximum of the frequency distribution of the wind velocity occurs between 4 and 5 m/s at 200 m height and between 3 and 4 m/s at 60 m height. (orig.) [de

  8. Real-Time Unsteady Loads Measurements Using Hot-Film Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalam, Arun S.; Moes, Timothy R.

    2004-01-01

    Several flight-critical aerodynamic problems such as buffet, flutter, stall, and wing rock are strongly affected or caused by abrupt changes in unsteady aerodynamic loads and moments. Advanced sensing and flow diagnostic techniques have made possible simultaneous identification and tracking, in realtime, of the critical surface, viscosity-related aerodynamic phenomena under both steady and unsteady flight conditions. The wind tunnel study reported here correlates surface hot-film measurements of leading edge stagnation point and separation point, with unsteady aerodynamic loads on a NACA 0015 airfoil. Lift predicted from the correlation model matches lift obtained from pressure sensors for an airfoil undergoing harmonic pitchup and pitchdown motions. An analytical model was developed that demonstrates expected stall trends for pitchup and pitchdown motions. This report demonstrates an ability to obtain unsteady aerodynamic loads in real time, which could lead to advances in air vehicle safety, performance, ride-quality, control, and health management.

  9. Robust Multimodal Cognitive Load Measurement (RMCLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    Physiological characteristics of capacity constraints in working memory as revealed by functional MRI , Cerebral Cortex, vol. 9, pp. 20-26, 1999. [12...frequency can easily be ex- tracted in real time and unobtrusively using a tablet monitor or electronic pen, not only can this measure be applied to...basketball clip played on a tablet monitor, which was then frozen and replaced with a blank court schematic. The clips involved 10 players and the

  10. Expected load spectra of prototype Francis turbines in low-load operation using numerical simulations and site measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, M.; Taruffi, A.; Bauer, C.

    2017-04-01

    The operators of hydropower plants are forced to extend the existing operating ranges of their hydraulic machines to remain competitive on the energy market due to the rising amount of wind and solar power. Faster response times and a higher flexibility towards part- and low-load conditions enable a better electric grid control and assure therefore an economic operation of the power plant. The occurring disadvantage is a higher dynamic excitation of affected machine components, especially Francis turbine runners, due to pressure pulsations induced by unsteady flow phenomena (e.g. draft tube vortex ropes). Therefore, fatigue analysis becomes more important even in the design phase of the hydraulic machines to evaluate the static and dynamic load in different operating conditions and to reduce maintenance costs. An approach including a one-way coupled fluid-structure interaction has been already developed using unsteady CFD simulations and transient FEM computations. This is now applied on two Francis turbines with different specific speeds and power ranges, to obtain the load spectra of both machines. The results are compared to strain gauge measurements on the according Francis turbines to validate the overall procedure.

  11. Framing Failures in Wood-Frame Hip Roofs under Extreme Wind Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Stevenson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood-frame residential roof failures are among the most common and expensive types of wind damage. Hip roofs are commonly understood to be more resilient during extreme wind in relation to gable roofs. However, inspection of damage survey data from recent tornadoes has revealed a previously unstudied failure mode in which hip roofs suffer partial failure of the framing structure. In the current study, evidence of partial framing failures and statistics of their occurrence are explored and discussed, while the common roof design and construction practice are reviewed. Two-dimensional finite element models are developed to estimate the element-level load effects on hip roof trusses and stick-frame components. The likelihood of failure in each member is defined based on relative demand-to-capacity ratios. Trussed and stick-frame structures are compared to assess the relative performance of the two types of construction. The present analyses verify the common understanding that toenailed roof-to-wall connections are likely to be the most vulnerable elements in the structure of a wood-frame hip roof. However, the results also indicate that certain framing members and connections display significant vulnerability under the same wind uplift, and the possibility of framing failure is not to be discounted. Furthermore, in the case where the roof-to-wall connection uses hurricane straps, certain framing members and joints become the likely points of failure initiation. The analysis results and damage survey observations are used to expand the understanding of wood-frame residential roof failures, as they relate to the Enhanced Fujita Scale and provide assessment of potential gaps in residential design codes.

  12. Customized DSP-based vibration measurement for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaWhite, N.E.; Cohn, K.E. [Second Wind Inc., Somerville, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    As part of its Advanced Distributed Monitoring System (ADMS) project funded by NREL, Second Wind Inc. is developing a new vibration measurement system for use with wind turbines. The system uses low-cost accelerometers originally designed for automobile airbag crash-detection coupled with new software executed on a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) device. The system is envisioned as a means to monitor the mechanical {open_quotes}health{close_quotes} of the wind turbine over its lifetime. In addition the system holds promise as a customized emergency vibration detector. The two goals are very different and it is expected that different software programs will be executed for each function. While a fast Fourier transform (FFT) signature under given operating conditions can yield much information regarding turbine condition, the sampling period and processing requirements make it inappropriate for emergency condition monitoring. This paper briefly reviews the development of prototype DSP and accelerometer hardware. More importantly, it reviews our work to design prototype vibration alarm filters. Two-axis accelerometer test data from the experimental FloWind vertical axis wind turbine is analyzed and used as a development guide. Two levels of signal processing are considered. The first uses narrow band pre-processing filters at key fundamental frequencies such as the 1P, 2P and 3P. The total vibration energy in each frequency band is calculated and evaluated as a possible alarm trigger. In the second level of signal processing, the total vibration energy in each frequency band is further decomposed using the two-axis directional information. Directional statistics are calculated to differentiate between linear translations and circular translations. After analyzing the acceleration statistics for normal and unusual operating conditions, the acceleration processing system described could be used in automatic early detection of fault conditions. 9 figs.

  13. Strain Measurement System Developed for Biaxially Loaded Cruciform Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.

    2000-01-01

    A new extensometer system developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field measures test area strains along two orthogonal axes in flat cruciform specimens. This system incorporates standard axial contact extensometers to provide a cost-effective high-precision instrument. The device was validated for use by extensive testing of a stainless steel specimen, with specimen temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1100 F. In-plane loading conditions included several static biaxial load ratios, plus cyclic loadings of various waveform shapes, frequencies, magnitudes, and durations. The extensometer system measurements were compared with strain gauge data at room temperature and with calculated strain values for elevated-temperature measurements. All testing was performed in house in Glenn's Benchmark Test Facility in-plane biaxial load frame.

  14. Neutral wind measurements by Fabry-Perot interferometry in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, K.D.; Dudeney, J.R.; Rodger, A.S.; Smith, R.W.; Rees, D.

    1986-01-01

    A large-aperture (150 mm), spatially scanned Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) has been deployed at Halley (75.5 o S, 26.8 o W; L=4.2), Antarctica. Thermospheric neutral wind measurements were made by finding the Doppler shift of the OI( 3 P 2 - 1 D 2 ) 630.0 nm emission. This has allowed the first comparison to be made between southern hemisphere ground-based thermospheric wind measurements and the predictions of a three-dimensional, time-dependent thermospheric global circulation model. Geomagnetic and geographic latitude are well separated at Halley, so we may expect a distinct contrast to the dynamic behaviour observed in the more frequently studied northern polar thermosphere. Although the initial results from the experiment are in general agreement with the model, some consistent and significant differences between the observed wind field and that predicted are evident in the morning sector. These may be related to uncertainties in mapping magnetospheric boundaries to ionospheric heights in the southern hemisphere. The intensity of the 630 nm emission has been examined with respect to the maximum plasma frequency of the Es layer using data from the Advanced Ionospheric Sounder at Halley

  15. Evaluation of flexible demand-side load-following reserves in power systems with high wind generation penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Catalao, J.P.S.; Ntomaris, A.V.; Erdinc, O.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a two-stage stochastic programming joint energy and reserve day-ahead market structure is proposed in order to procure the required load-following reserves to tackle with wind power production uncertainty. Reserves can be procured both from generation and demand-side. Responsive

  16. Design of DC-DC Converter and its Control for a Wind Generation System Connected to an Isolated Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Ramírez Gómez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A method to design a Buck converter and its control, which are associated to a wind generation system that is feeding an isolated load, is presented in this paper. To design the converter a Thevenin equivalent is deduced, which represents the behavior of the wind turbine, the permanent magnet synchronous generator, and the rectifier. The design of the converter elements guarantees input/output voltages and inductor current ripples of 5 % or less. The output voltage control is developed with a proportional-integral-derivative controller and as design criteria a damping of 0,707 and cutoff frequency of 1/5 converter commutation frequency are selected. The designed controller regulates the output voltage faced load perturbations and wind speed variations. 

  17. The effect of real-time pricing on load shifting in a highly renewable power system dominated by generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Brown, Tom; Schlachtberger, David; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The supply-demand imbalance is a major concern in the presence of large shares of highly variable renewable generation from sources like wind and photovoltaics (PV) in power systems. Other than the measures on the generation side, such as flexible backup generation or energy storage, sector coupling or demand side management are the most likely option to counter imbalances, therefore to ease the integration of renewable generation. Demand side management usually refers to load shifting, which comprises the reaction of electricity consumers to price fluctuations. In this work, we derive a novel methodology to model the interplay of load shifting and provided incentives via real-time pricing in highly renewable power systems. We use weather data to simulate generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics, as well as historical load data, split into different consumption categories, such as, heating, cooling, domestic, etc., to model a simplified power system. Together with renewable power forecast data, a simple market model and approaches to incorporate sector coupling [1] and load shifting [2,3], we model the interplay of incentives and load shifting for different scenarios (e.g., in dependency of the risk-aversion of consumers or the forecast horizon) and demonstrate the practical benefits of load shifting. First, we introduce the novel methodology and compare it with existing approaches. Secondly, we show results of numerical simulations on the effects of load shifting: It supports the integration of PV power by providing a storage, which characteristics can be described as "daily" and provides a significant amount of balancing potential. Lastly, we propose an experimental setup to obtain empirical data on end-consumer load-shifting behaviour in response to price incentives. References [1] Brown, T., Schlachtberger, D., Kies. A., Greiner, M., Sector coupling in a highly renewable European energy system, Proc. of the 15th International Workshop on

  18. Wind Gust Measurement Techniques—From Traditional Anemometry to New Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Suomi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Information on wind gusts is needed for assessment of wind-induced damage and risks to safety. The measurement of wind gust speed requires a high temporal resolution of the anemometer system, because the gust is defined as a short-duration (seconds maximum of the fluctuating wind speed. Until the digitalization of wind measurements in the 1990s, the wind gust measurements suffered from limited recording and data processing resources. Therefore, the majority of continuous wind gust records date back at most only by 30 years. Although the response characteristics of anemometer systems are good enough today, the traditional measurement techniques at weather stations based on cup and sonic anemometers are limited to heights and regions where the supporting structures can reach. Therefore, existing measurements are mainly concentrated over densely-populated land areas, whereas from remote locations, such as the marine Arctic, wind gust information is available only from sparse coastal locations. Recent developments of wind gust measurement techniques based on turbulence measurements from research aircraft and from Doppler lidar can potentially provide new information from heights and locations unreachable by traditional measurement techniques. Moreover, fast-developing measurement methods based on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs may add to better coverage of wind gust measurements in the future. In this paper, we provide an overview of the history and the current status of anemometry from the perspective of wind gusts. Furthermore, a discussion on the potential future directions of wind gust measurement techniques is provided.

  19. Advanced Load Alleviation for Wind Turbines using Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps: Sensoring and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bjørn

    The purpose of wind turbines and their predecessors the windmill, is to convert the energy in the wind to usable energy forms. Whereas windmills of the past focused on the conversion of wind power to torque for grinding, pumping and winching, modern wind turbines convert the wind energy...... into electric power. They do so through incorporation of generators, which convert mechanical torque into electricity. Wind turbines are designed to keep the overall cost per produced Kilo Watt hour as low as possible. One way of improving the performance and lifetime of the wind turbine is through active flow...

  20. Utgrunden off-shore wind farm - Measurements of underwater noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Hans

    2003-07-01

    Airicole, GE Wind Energy and SEAS/Energi E2 have initiated this project in order to achieve a better understanding on how offshore based wind farms effect the underwater noise. The main reason is to gain knowledge on how marine wildlife could be effected by this kind of installation. The measurements were performed at Utgrunden wind farm that is situated at the reef Utgrunden on the Swedish southeast coast. The farm consists of seven 1,5 MW turbines. Three hydrophones registered the underwater sound and four accelerometers the tower vibrations. The measurement campaign was conducted during a period from November 2002 to February 2003. The objectives with this project is to answer the following issues and its results are: 1. What is the character of sound from a single power station? - The turbines radiate sound mainly at a few dominating frequencies from 30 Hz up to 800 Hz. At frequencies below 3 Hz no contribution from the turbines can be detected due to the high background level from the waves and the low tower vibration level. 2. What are the sound generating mechanisms in the turbine? - Gearbox mesh frequency vibrations that are transmitted via the tower structure and radiated out to the water mainly generate the sound. Airborne blade sound is effectively dampened in the transition from air to water. 3. How does the sound attenuate with increasing distance at different frequencies? - The average attenuation per doubled distance for frequencies between 31 Hz and 722 Hz is approximately 4 dB in the measured positions. No clear frequency dependence could be found. 4. How does the sound pressure level vary with increasing wind speed? - With increasing wind speed, the sound pressure level increases and the dominating frequencies move upward due to increasing turbine rotational speed. 5. How does sound from different power stations interfere with each other and influence the over all sound image? - No clear tendencies of interference could be observed in this study

  1. Update on the Comparison of Second-Order Loads on a Tension Leg Platform for Wind Turbines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueydon, Sebastien; Jonkman, Jason

    2016-08-01

    In comparison to other kinds of floaters (like a spar or a semisubmersible), the tension leg platform has several notable advantages: its vertical motions are negligible, its weight is lighter, and its mooring system's footprint is smaller. Although a tension leg platform has a negligible response to first-order vertical wave loads, the second-order wave loads need to be addressed. This paper follows up on a verification study of second-order wave loads on a tension leg platform for wind turbines done by the Maritime Research Institute of The Netherlands and National Renewable Energy Laboratory and it brings some corrections to its conclusions.

  2. Directly acting spring loaded safety valves as shock reducing measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismaier, A.; Schluecker, E.

    2010-01-01

    Hydraulic shocks as induced by fast closure of armatures or by sudden pump failures are massive impacts in piping systems and require extensive measures to absorb the generated load. Basically the avoidance of water hammers are preferable but in case of emergency shutdowns unavoidable hydraulic shocks have to be reduced by appropriate measures. The authors describe experiments with spring loaded safety valves as shock reducing measures. It was shown that the vale dimensions is essential for the efficacy. A realistic modeling is possible using the one-dimensional fluid mechanics code ROLAST.

  3. Validation of a wind tunnel testing facility for blade surface pressure measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglsang, P.; Antoniou, I.; Soerensen, N.N.; Madsen, H.A.

    1998-04-01

    This report concerns development and validation of a 2d testing facility for airfoil pressure measurements. The VELUX open jet wind tunnel was used with a test stand inserted. Reynolds numbers until 1.3 million were achieved with an airfoil chord of 0.45 m. The aerodynamic load coefficients were found from pressure distribution measurements and the total drag coefficient was calculated from wake rake measurements. Stationary inflow as well as dynamic inflow through pitching motion was possible. Wind tunnel corrections were applied for streamline curvature and down-wash. Even though the wind tunnel is not ideal for 2d testing, the overall quality of the flow was acceptable with a uniform flow field at the test stand position and a turbulence intensity of 1 % at the inlet of the test section. Reference values for free stream static and total pressure were found upstream of the test stand. The NACA 63-215 airfoil was tested and the results were compared with measurements from FFA and NACA. The measurements agreed well except for lift coefficient values at high angles of attack and the drag coefficient values at low angles of attack, that were slightly high. Comparisons of the measured results with numerical predictions from the XFOIL code and the EllipSys2D code showed good agreement. Measurements with the airfoil in pitching motion were carried out to study the dynamic aerodynamic coefficients. Steady inflow measurements at high angles of attack were used to investigate the double stall phenomenon. (au) EFP-94; EFP-95; EFP-97. 8 tabs., 82 ills., 16 refs.

  4. Research and analysis on response characteristics of bracket-line coupling system under wind load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiayu, Zhao; Qing, Sun

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element model of bracket-line coupling system is established based on ANSYS software. Using the wind velocity time series which is generated by MATLAB as a power input, by comparing and analyzing the influence of different wind speeds and different wind attack angles, it is found that when 0 degree wind acts on the structure, wires have a certain damping effect in the bracket-line coupling system and at the same wind speed, the 90 degree direction is the most unfavorable wind direction for the whole structure according to the three kinds of angle wind calculated at present. In the bracket-line coupling system, the bracket structure is more sensitive to the increase of wind speed while the conductors are more sensitive to the change of wind attack angle.

  5. Some measurements of time and space correlation in wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, A; Gaviglio, J; Dumas, R

    1955-01-01

    Results are presented of research obtained by means of an apparatus for measurement of time and space correlation and of a spectral analyzer in the study of the longitudinal component of turbulence velocities in a wind tunnel downstream of a grid of meshes. Application to the case of a flat-plate boundary layer is illustrated. These researches were made at the Laboratoire de Mecanique de l'Atmosphere de l'I.M.F.M. for the O.N.E.R.A.

  6. Wind profiler mixing depth and entrainment measurements with chemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angevine, W.M.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D.D.; Buhr, M.P.; Fehsenfeld, F.C. [NOAA Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, CO (United States); Kok, G.L. [NCAR Research Aviation Facility, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Wind profiling radars operating at 915 MHz have been present at a number of regional air quality studies. The profilers can provide a continuous, accurate record of the depth of the convective mixed layer with good time resolution. Profilers also provide information about entrainment at the boundary layer top. Mixing depth data from several days of the Rural Oxidants in the Southern Environment II (ROSE II) study in Alabama in June, 1992 are presented. For several cases, chemical measurements from aircraft and ground-based instruments are shown to correspond to mixing depth and entrainment zone behavior observed by the profiler.

  7. A novel polarization interferometer for measuring upper atmospheric winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting-Kui, Mu; Chun-Min, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    A static polarization interferometer for measuring upper atmospheric winds is presented, based on two Savart plates with their optical axes perpendicular to each other. The principle and characteristics of the interferometer are described. The interferometer with a wide field of view can offer a stable benchmark optical path difference over a specified spectral region of 0.55–0.63 μm because there are no quarter wave plates. Since the instrument employs a straight line common-path configuration but without moving parts and slits, it is very compact, simple, inherently robust and has high throughput. The paper is limited to a theoretical analysis. (general)

  8. Estimating the Wind Resource in Uttarakhand: Comparison of Dynamic Downscaling with Doppler Lidar Wind Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, J. K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pukayastha, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martin, C. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Newsom, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Previous estimates of the wind resources in Uttarakhand, India, suggest minimal wind resources in this region. To explore whether or not the complex terrain in fact provides localized regions of wind resource, the authors of this study employed a dynamic down scaling method with the Weather Research and Forecasting model, providing detailed estimates of winds at approximately 1 km resolution in the finest nested simulation.

  9. Long-duration heat load measurement approach by novel apparatus design and highly efficient algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanwei; Yi, Fajun; Meng, Songhe; Zhuo, Lijun; Pan, Weizhen

    2017-11-01

    Improving the surface heat load measurement technique for vehicles in aerodynamic heating environments is imperative, regarding aspects of both the apparatus design and identification efficiency. A simple novel apparatus is designed for heat load identification, taking into account the lessons learned from several aerodynamic heating measurement devices. An inverse finite difference scheme (invFDM) for the apparatus is studied to identify its surface heat flux from the interior temperature measurements with high efficiency. A weighted piecewise regression filter is also proposed for temperature measurement prefiltering. Preliminary verification of the invFDM scheme and the filter is accomplished via numerical simulation experiments. Three specific pieces of apparatus have been concretely designed and fabricated using different sensing materials. The aerodynamic heating process is simulated by an inductively coupled plasma wind tunnel facility. The identification of surface temperature and heat flux from the temperature measurements is performed by invFDM. The results validate the high efficiency, reliability and feasibility of heat load measurements with different heat flux levels utilizing the designed apparatus and proposed method.

  10. Long-duration heat load measurement approach by novel apparatus design and highly efficient algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yanwei; Yi, Fajun; Meng, Songhe; Zhuo, Lijun; Pan, Weizhen

    2017-01-01

    Improving the surface heat load measurement technique for vehicles in aerodynamic heating environments is imperative, regarding aspects of both the apparatus design and identification efficiency. A simple novel apparatus is designed for heat load identification, taking into account the lessons learned from several aerodynamic heating measurement devices. An inverse finite difference scheme (invFDM) for the apparatus is studied to identify its surface heat flux from the interior temperature measurements with high efficiency. A weighted piecewise regression filter is also proposed for temperature measurement prefiltering. Preliminary verification of the invFDM scheme and the filter is accomplished via numerical simulation experiments. Three specific pieces of apparatus have been concretely designed and fabricated using different sensing materials. The aerodynamic heating process is simulated by an inductively coupled plasma wind tunnel facility. The identification of surface temperature and heat flux from the temperature measurements is performed by invFDM. The results validate the high efficiency, reliability and feasibility of heat load measurements with different heat flux levels utilizing the designed apparatus and proposed method. (paper)

  11. Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael; Gottschall, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The current IEC standard for wind turbine power performance measurement only requires measurement of the wind speed at hub height assuming this wind speed to be representative for the whole rotor swept area. However, the power output of a wind turbine depends on the kinetic energy flux, which...... itself depends on the wind speed profile, especially for large turbines. Therefore, it is important to characterize the wind profile in front of the turbine, and this should be preferably achieved by measuring the wind speed over the vertical range between lower and higher rotor tips. In this paper, we...... describe an experiment in which wind speed profiles were measured in front of a multimegawatt turbine using a ground–based pulsed lidar. Ignoring the vertical shear was shown to overestimate the kinetic energy flux of these profiles, in particular for those deviating significantly from a power law profile...

  12. Analysis on relationship between wake and fatigue load of wind turbines%风电机组尾流与疲劳载荷关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓英; 李嘉楠; 刘河生; 庞辉庆; 田德

    2017-01-01

    With the continuous development of wind power industry, the power record of single wind turbine is constantly expanded, and the scale of wind power generation is becoming larger and larger. For large wind turbines, the wake effect cannot be ignored. It has an important influence on the fatigue load of the wind turbine, and also has a significant impact on the output power characteristics of the wind turbine. In order to study the influence of wind turbine wake on the load of the downstream wind turbine, several important wake parameters such as upstream and downstream wind turbine spacing, upstream wind turbine thrust coefficient and nature wind speed are assumed according to the theoretical results of some researchers. The physical quantity of wake region can be obtained according to the momentum theory. The relation between the natural wind speed, the wind speed and the thrust coefficient can be obtained by calculating the axial thrust based on the Bates' theory. The wind speed increases linearly with the natural wind speed, but with the increase of the thrust coefficient, the wind speed of the wind rotor will gradually decrease. When the natural wind speed is fixed, with the increase of thrust coefficient, the wind speed of the wind turbine will be reduced, and if the thrust coefficient can be large enough, then the wind speed of the wind rotor will tend to 0. However, there will be no thrust coefficient greater than or equal to 1 in the actual operation of the wind turbine. Use GH Bladed software to build a model of FL1500/701.5 and 3.0 MW doubly-fed wind turbine, and calculate the load response of the wake model to the downstream wind turbine. The conclusions are obtained by analyzing the calculation results which are as follows: 1) When the natural wind speed is constant, the wind speed at the wind rotor will decrease nonlinearly with the increase of thrust coefficient. The wake wind speed increases with the distance between 2 wind turbines, but the trend is

  13. Economic perspective of hybrid wind-diesel technology for commercial loads of Dhahran Saudi Arabia: A step towards sustainable future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaahid S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The governments world-wide are deliberating to promote renewable energy sources such as wind to mitigate increasing demand of energy and to overcome effects of pollution due to to use of fossil fuels. Integration of wind turbine generators (WTG with the diesel plants is pursued widely to reduce dependence on fossil-fuels and to reduce carbon emissions. Literature indicates that commercial/residential buildings in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (K.S.A consume an estimated 10 - 40% of the total electric energy generated. The aim of this study is to analyze wind-speed data of Dhahran (East-Coast, K.S.A. to assess the economic feasibility of utilizing hybrid wind-diesel power systems to meet the load requirements of a typical commercial building (with annual electrical energy demand of 620,000 kWh. The monthly average wind speeds range from 3.3 to 5.6 m/s. The hybrid systems simulated consist of different combinations of 100 kW commercial WTG supplemented with diesel generators. NREL’s (HOMER Energy’s HOMER software has been employed to perform the techno-economic analysis. The simulation results indicate that for a hybrid system comprising of 100 kW wind capacity together with 175 kW diesel system, the wind penetration (at 37 m hub-height, with 0% annual capacity shortage is 25%. The cost of generating energy (COE, $/kWh from this hybrid wind-diesel system has been found to be 0.121 $/kWh (assuming diesel fuel price of 0.1$/liter. The study exhibits that for a given hybrid configuration, the number of operational hours of diesel gensets decreases with increase in wind farm capacity. Emphasis has also been placed on wind penetration, un-met load, energy production and COE, excess electricity generation, percentage fuel savings and reduction in carbon emissions (relative to diesel-only situation of different hybrid systems, cost break-down of wind-diesel systems, COE of different hybrid systems, etc.

  14. Optimal sizing of small wind/battery systems considering the DC bus voltage stability effect on energy capture, wind speed variability, and load uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujano-Rojas, Juan M.; Dufo-López, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustín, José L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose a mathematical model for optimal sizing of small wind energy systems. ► No other previous work has considered all the aspects included in this paper. ► The model considers several parameters about batteries. ► Wind speed variability is considered by means of ARMA model. ► The results show how to minimize the expected energy that is not supplied. - Abstract: In this paper, a mathematical model for stochastic simulation and optimization of small wind energy systems is presented. This model is able to consider the operation of the charge controller, the coulombic efficiency during charge and discharge processes, the influence of temperature on the battery bank capacity, the wind speed variability, and load uncertainty. The joint effect of charge controller operation, ambient temperature, and coulombic efficiency is analyzed in a system installed in Zaragoza (Spain), concluding that if the analysis without considering these factors is carried out, the reliability level of the physical system could be lower than expected, and an increment of 25% in the battery bank capacity would be required to reach a reliability level of 90% in the analyzed case. Also, the effect of the wind speed variability and load uncertainty in the system reliability is analyzed. Finally, the uncertainty in the battery bank lifetime and its effect on the net present cost are discussed. The results showed that, considering uncertainty of 17.5% in the battery bank lifetime calculated using the Ah throughput model, about 12% of uncertainty in the net present cost is expected. The model presented in this research could be a useful stochastic simulation and optimization tool that allows the consideration of important uncertainty factors in techno-economic analysis.

  15. Coherent Lidar Turbulence Measurement for Gust Load Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. J.; Soreide, David; Bagley, Hal

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence adversely affects operation of commercial and military aircraft and is a design constraint. The airplane structure must be designed to survive the loads imposed by turbulence. Reducing these loads allows the airplane structure to be lighter, a substantial advantage for a commercial airplane. Gust alleviation systems based on accelerometers mounted in the airplane can reduce the maximum gust loads by a small fraction. These systems still represent an economic advantage. The ability to reduce the gust load increases tremendously if the turbulent gust can be measured before the airplane encounters it. A lidar system can make measurements of turbulent gusts ahead of the airplane, and the NASA Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced In-Flight Measurements (ACLAIM) program is developing such a lidar. The ACLAIM program is intended to develop a prototype lidar system for use in feasibility testing of gust load alleviation systems and other airborne lidar applications, to define applications of lidar with the potential for improving airplane performance, and to determine the feasibility and benefits of these applications. This paper gives an overview of the ACLAIM program, describes the lidar architecture for a gust alleviation system, and describes the prototype ACLAIM lidar system.

  16. Videometric research on deformation measurement of large-scale wind turbine blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of wind energy is a promising way to generate power,and wind turbine blades play a key role in collecting the wind energy effectively.This paper attempts to measure the deformation parameter of wind turbine blades in mechanics experiments using a videometric method. In view that the blades experience small buckling deformation and large integral deformation simultaneously, we proposed a parallel network measurement(PNM) method including the key techniques such as camera network construction,c...

  17. Using Particle Image Velocimetry to Measure the Wind in a Winnowing Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, Masami; Inoue, Eiji; Kuwano, Tomoko; Mori, Ken; Furuno, Yuko

    2003-01-01

    The array of vectors for the winnowing wind in the threshing unit was investigated uding PIV in order to improve the winnowing accuracy. It is difficult to measure wind velocities at many points simultaneously using the anemometer. However, visualization of the winnowing wind was possible using the tracer and laser beam. Futhermore, The PIV method made it possible to measure an array of vectors for the winnowing wind. The results produced by PIV concurred with the results of conventional meth...

  18. Induced Torques on Synchronous Generators from Operation of Wind Power Plant based on Full-Load Converter Interfaced Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nielsen, Jørgen N.; Jensen, Kim H.

    2011-01-01

    It is expected that large wind power plants (WPP) contribute to stable and reliable operation of the electric power system. This includes participation with delivery of system services such as voltage and frequency support. With variable-speed WPPs this can be achieved by adding auxiliary...... be predicted with the presented method. The work is based on a nonlinear, dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power wind turbine....... controllers that control the active and reactive power output accordingly. While being designed for a given system service, any feedback control affects the closed-loop behavior of the overall system and thereby its small-signal stability properties. Eigenvalue analysis conveniently determines the stability...

  19. Estimation of Rotor Effective Wind Speed: A Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Mohsen; Knudsen, Torben; Svenstrup, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Modern wind turbine controllers use wind speed information to improve power production and reduce loads on the turbine components. The turbine top wind speed measurement is unfortunately imprecise and not a good representative of the rotor effective wind speed. Consequently, many different model...... aero-servo-elastic turbine simulations and real turbine field experiments in different wind scenarios....

  20. Implementation of internal model based control and individual pitch control to reduce fatigue loads and tower vibrations in wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Fadaeinedjad, Roohollah; Moschopoulos, Gerry

    2018-05-01

    Vibration control and fatigue loads reduction are important issues in large-scale wind turbines. Identifying the vibration frequencies and tuning dampers and controllers at these frequencies are major concerns in many control methods. In this paper, an internal model control (IMC) method with an adaptive algorithm is implemented to first identify the vibration frequency of the wind turbine tower and then to cancel the vibration signal. Standard individual pitch control (IPC) is also implemented to compare the performance of the controllers in term of fatigue loads reduction. Finally, the performance of the system when both controllers are implemented together is evaluated. Simulation results demonstrate that using only IMC or IPC alone has advantages and can reduce fatigue loads on specific components. IMC can identify and suppress tower vibrations in both fore-aft and side-to-side directions, whereas, IPC can reduce fatigue loads on blades, shaft and yaw bearings. When both IMC and IPC are implemented together, the advantages of both controllers can be used. The aforementioned analysis and comparisons were not studied in literature and this study fills this gap. FAST, AreoDyn and Simulink are used to simulate the mechanical, aerodynamic and electrical aspects of wind turbine.

  1. Iterative data-driven load control for flexible wind turbine rotors

    OpenAIRE

    Navalkar, S.T.

    2016-01-01

    Wind energy has reached a high degree ofmaturity: for wind-rich onshore locations, it is already competitive with conventional energy sources. However, for low-wind, remote and offshore regions, research efforts are still required to enhance its economic viability. While it is possible to reduce the cost of energy by upscaling wind turbines, it is believed that we may be approaching a plateau in turbine size. Beyond this plateau, the material costs associated with the high dynamic turbine loa...

  2. Upgrading the Arecibo Potassium Lidar Receiver for Meridional Wind Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccone, A. N.; Lautenbach, J.

    2017-12-01

    Lidar can be used to measure a plethora of variables: temperature, density of metals, and wind. This REU project is focused on the set up of a semi steerable telescope that will allow the measurement of meridional wind in the mesosphere (80-105 km) with Arecibo Observatory's potassium resonance lidar. This includes the basic design concept of a steering system that is able to turn the telescope to a maximum of 40°, alignment of the mirror with the telescope frame to find the correct focusing, and the triggering and programming of a CCD camera. The CCD camera's purpose is twofold: looking though the telescope and matching the stars in the field of view with a star map to accurately calibrate the steering system and determining the laser beam properties and position. Using LabVIEW, the frames from the CCD camera can be analyzed to identify the most intense pixel in the image (and therefore the brightest point in the laser beam or stars) by plotting average pixel values per row and column and locating the peaks of these plots. The location of this pixel can then be plotted, determining the jitter in the laser and position within the field of view of the telescope.

  3. The influence of the static wind load concept on the material requirements for reinforced-concrete natural-draught cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnach, R.

    1977-01-01

    The natural wind is the decisive risk factor in natural-draught cooling towers; therefore, the establishment of an assumed velocity is indispensable for the safety and reliability of the construction. In the framework of a statistical wind concept, static substitution loads for the assumed dynamic wind pressure have been determined, also including dynamic wind effects and the resonance response of the structure. On this basis, it has been studied how wind loads with different periodicity affect the material requirements of reinforced-concrete natural-draught cooling towers. It is found that the additional steel requirements, related to the total building cost, remain within acceptable limits even for extreme wind loads. (orig.) [de

  4. Iterative data-driven load control for flexible wind turbine rotors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navalkar, S.T.

    2016-01-01

    Wind energy has reached a high degree ofmaturity: for wind-rich onshore locations, it is already competitive with conventional energy sources. However, for low-wind, remote and offshore regions, research efforts are still required to enhance its economic viability. While it is possible to reduce the

  5. Application genetic algorithms for load management in refrigerated warehouses with wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Cronin, Tom; Gehrke, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Wind energy is produced at random times, whereas the energy consumption pattern shows distinct demand peaks during day-time and low levels during the night. The use of a refrigerated warehouse as a giant battery for wind energy is a new possibility that is being studied for wind energy integratio...

  6. Wind Turbine Loads Induced by Terrain and Wakes: An Experimental Study through Vibration Analysis and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Castellani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A wind turbine is a very well-known archetype of energy conversion system working at non-stationary regimes. Despite this, a deep mechanical comprehension of wind turbines operating in complicated conditions is still challenging, especially as regards the analysis of experimental data. In particular, wind turbines in complex terrain represent a very valuable testing ground because of the possible combination of wake effects among nearby turbines and flow accelerations caused by the terrain morphology. For these reasons, in this work, a cluster of four full-scale wind turbines from a very complex site is studied. The object of investigation is vibrations, at the level of the structure (tower and drive-train. Data collected by the on-board condition monitoring system are analyzed and interpreted in light of the knowledge of wind conditions and operating parameters collected by the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA. A free flow Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation is also performed, and it allows one to better interpret the vibration analysis. The main outcome is the interpretation of how wakes and flow turbulences appear in the vibration signals, both at the structural level and at the drive-train level. Therefore, this wind to gear approach builds a connection between flow phenomena and mechanical phenomena in the form of vibrations, representing a precious tool for assessing loads in different working conditions.

  7. Applicability of hydraulic dynamometer for measuring load mass on forwarders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandur Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, with the start of wood biomass production from wood residues, the need for determining the quantity of extracted wood residuals on a landing site has appeared. The beginning of intensive usage of wood residues for wood biomass starts in lowland forest where all wood residues are extracted with forwarders. There are several ways to determine load mass on a forwarder, first and probably most accurate is the use of load cells which are installed between forwarder undercarriage and loading space. In Croatia, as far as it is known, there is no forwarder with such equipment, although manufacturers offer the installation of such equipment when buying a new forwarder. The second option is using a portable measuring platform (axle scale which was already used for research of axle loads of trucks and forwarders. The data obtained with the measuring platform are very accurate, while its deficiency is relatively great mass, large dimensions and high price. The third option is determining mass by using hydraulic dynamometer which is installed on crane between the rotator and the telescopic boom. The production and installation of such a system is very simple, and with the price it can easily compete with previously described measuring systems. The main deficiency of this system is its unsatisfying accuracy. The results of assortment mass measuring with hydraulic dynamometer installed on a hydraulic crane and discussion on factors influencing obtained results will be presented in this paper.

  8. Comparing measured with simulated vertical soil stress under vehicle load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Thomas; Lamandé, Mathieu; Arvidsson, Johan

    The load transfer within agricultural soil is typically modelled on the basis of the theory of stress transmission in elastic media, usually in the semi-empirical form that includes the “concentration factor” (v). Measurements of stress in soil are needed to evaluate model calculations, but may...

  9. Exploring the nearshore marine wind profile from field measurements and numerical hindcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Jesus, F.; Menendez, M.; Guanche, R.; Losada, I.

    2012-12-01

    Wind power is the predominant offshore renewable energy resource. In the last years, offshore wind farms have become a technically feasible source of electrical power. The economic feasibility of offshore wind farms depends on the quality of the offshore wind conditions compared to that of onshore sites. Installation and maintenance costs must be balanced with more hours and a higher quality of the available resources. European offshore wind development has revealed that the optimum offshore sites are those in which the distance from the coast is limited with high available resource. Due to the growth in the height of the turbines and the complexity of the coast, with interactions between inland wind/coastal orography and ocean winds, there is a need for field measurements and validation of numerical models to understand the marine wind profile near the coast. Moreover, recent studies have pointed out that the logarithmic law describing the vertical wind profile presents limitations. The aim of this work is to characterize the nearshore vertical wind profile in the medium atmosphere boundary layer. Instrumental observations analyzed in this work come from the Idermar project (www.Idermar.es). Three floating masts deployed at different locations on the Cantabrian coast provide wind measurements from a height of 20 to 90 meters. Wind speed and direction are measured as well as several meteorological variables at different heights of the profile. The shortest wind time series has over one year of data. A 20 year high-resolution atmospheric hindcast, using the WRF-ARW model and focusing on hourly offshore wind fields, is also analyzed. Two datasets have been evaluated: a European reanalysis with a ~15 Km spatial resolution, and a hybrid downscaling of wind fields with a spatial resolution of one nautical mile over the northern coast of Spain.. These numerical hindcasts have been validated based on field measurement data. Several parameterizations of the vertical wind

  10. Wind Turbine Performance Measurements by Means of Dynamic Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels; Wagner, Rozenn; Demurtas, Giorgio

    tools have been developed by authors to try to make the drift field and fixed point determination more robust. A sensitivity analysis with nacelle lidar data showed drift determination was not very dependent on the time steps applied, leading to use of time steps of 2-3 points for each dataset. Power...... bin size should be fixed. Data averaging with 5 sec data was more distinct for determination of the fixed points than 2 and 1 sec data. With the nacelle lidar the Langevin method seemed to produce a power curve that was comparable to the IEC power curve. Analysis of the Langevin method with spinner...... curves could be made faster with 1Hz dataset. In the FastWind project the Langevin power curve method was used on real power curve measurement datasets with the purpose to evaluate the method for practical use. A practical guide to application of the method to real power curve measurement data was made...

  11. Frequency swept fibre laser for wind speed measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier

    This PhD thesis builds around a light source forming the basis for a novel type of wind measuring lidar. The lidar emits a train of laser pulses with each pulse being separated from its neighbours in frequency, while being closely spaced in time, thus combining the advantages of conventional...... continuous wave (CW) and pulsed lidars. A light source capable of emitting such a pulse train is suggested. A theoretical description of all components constituting the light source is presented, and a time dependent model is developed and compared to measurements as well as to previous theoretical work from...... the scientific literature. The model presented shows good agreement with the experimental results regarding the pulse train envelope as well as the individual pulses. A model adopted from the literature is subsequently expanded to incorporate frequency components other than the main signal frequency and compared...

  12. Advanced load alleviation for wind turbines using adaptive trailing edge flaps: Sensoring and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Peter Bjoern

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of wind turbines and their predecessors the windmill, is to convert the energy in the wind to usable energy forms. Whereas windmills of the past focused on the conversion of wind power to torque for grinding, pumping and winching, modern wind turbines convert the wind energy into electric power. They do so through incorporation of generators, which convert mechanical torque into electricity. Wind turbines are designed to keep the overall cost per produced Kilo Watt hour as low as possible. One way of improving the performance and lifetime of the wind turbine is through active flow control. Active control is often considered costly but if the lifespan of the components can be increased it could be justifiable. This thesis covers various aspects of 'smart control' such as control theory, sensoring, optimization, experiments and numerical modeling. (author)

  13. Implementation and Assessment of a Decentralized Load Frequency Control: Application to Power Systems with High Wind Energy Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Muñoz-Benavente

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and assesses a decentralized solution based on a wireless sensor-actuator network to provide primary frequency control from demand response in power systems with high wind energy penetration and, subsequently, with relevant frequency excursions. The proposed system is able to modify the electrical power demand of a variety of thermostatically-controlled loads, maintaining minimum comfort levels and minimizing both infrastructure requirements and primary reserves from the supply side. This low-cost hardware solution avoids any additional wiring, extending the wireless sensor-actuator network technology towards small customers, which account for over a 30% share of the current power demand. Frequency excursions are collected by each individual load controller, considering not only the magnitude of the frequency deviation, but also their evolution over time. Based on these time-frequency excursion characteristics, controllers are capable of modifying the power consumption of thermostatically-controlled loads by switching them off and on, thus contributing to primary frequency control in power systems with higher generation unit oscillations as a consequence of relevant wind power integration. Field tests have been carried out in a laboratory environment to assess the load controller performance, as well as to evaluate the electrical and thermal response of individual loads under frequency deviations. These frequency deviations are estimated from power systems with a high penetration of wind energy, which are more sensitive to frequency oscillations and where demand response can significantly contribute to mitigate these frequency excursions. The results, also included in the paper, evaluate the suitability of the proposed load controllers and their suitability to decrease frequency excursions from the demand side in a decentralized manner.

  14. Loads in wind farms under non-neutral ABL stability conditions: A full-scale validation study of the DWM model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The purpose of this study is twofold: To validate a generalized version of the DWM approach for load prediction under non-neural atmospheric stability conditions, and to demonstrate the importance of atmospheric stability for wind turbines operating in wind farm conditions.......The purpose of this study is twofold: To validate a generalized version of the DWM approach for load prediction under non-neural atmospheric stability conditions, and to demonstrate the importance of atmospheric stability for wind turbines operating in wind farm conditions....

  15. Load estimation from planar PIV measurement in vortex dominated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jeffrey; Yarusevych, Serhiy

    2017-11-01

    Control volume-based loading estimates are employed on experimental and synthetic numerical planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data of a stationary cylinder and a cylinder undergoing one degree-of-freedom (1DOF) Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV). The results reveal the necessity of including out of plane terms, identified from a general formulation of the control volume momentum balance, when evaluating loads from planar measurements in three-dimensional flows. Reynolds stresses from out of plane fluctuations are shown to be significant for both instantaneous and mean force estimates when the control volume encompasses vortex dominated regions. For planar measurement, invoking a divergence-free assumption allows accurate estimation of half the identified terms. Towards evaluating the fidelity of PIV-based loading estimates for obtaining the forcing function unobtrusively in VIV experiments, the accuracy of the control volume-based loading methodology is evaluated using the numerical data with synthetically generated experimental PIV error, and a comparison is made between experimental PIV-based estimates and simultaneous force balance measurements.

  16. Comparison of Flight Measured, Predicted and Wind Tunnel Measured Winglet Characteristics on a KC-135 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, R. O., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    One of the objectives of the KC-135 Winglet Flight Research and Demonstration Program was to obtain experimental flight test data to verify the theoretical and wind tunnel winglet aerodynamic performance prediction methods. Good agreement between analytic, wind tunnel and flight test performance was obtained when the known differences between the tests and analyses were accounted for. The flight test measured fuel mileage improvements for a 0.78 Mach number was 3.1 percent at 8 x 10(5) pounds W/delta and 5.5 percent at 1.05 x 10(6) pounds W/delta. Correcting the flight measured data for surface pressure differences between wind tunnel and flight resulted in a fuel mileage improvement of 4.4 percent at 8 x 10(5) pounds W/delta and 7.2 percent at 1.05 x 10(6) pounds W/delta. The performance improvement obtained was within the wind tunnel test data obtained from two different wind tunnel models. The buffet boundary data obtained for the baseline configuration was in good agreement with previous established data. Buffet data for the 15 deg cant/-4 deg incidence configuration showed a slight improvement, while the 15 deg cant/-2 deg incidence and 0 deg cant/-4 deg incidence data showed a slight deterioration.

  17. Complete methodology on generating realistic wind speed profiles based on measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavriluta, Catalin; Spataru, Sergiu; Mosincat, Ioan

    2012-01-01

    , wind modelling for medium and large time scales is poorly treated in the present literature. This paper presents methods for generating realistic wind speed profiles based on real measurements. The wind speed profile is divided in a low- frequency component (describing long term variations...

  18. Comparison of Large Eddy Simulations of a convective boundary layer with wind LIDAR measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Grønnegaard; Kelly, Mark C.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Vertical profiles of the horizontal wind speed and of the standard deviation of vertical wind speed from Large Eddy Simulations of a convective atmospheric boundary layer are compared to wind LIDAR measurements up to 1400 m. Fair agreement regarding both types of profiles is observed only when...

  19. Design and simulation of Macro-Fiber composite based serrated microflap for wind turbine blade fatigue load reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Dai, Qingli; Bilgen, Onur

    2018-05-01

    A Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) based active serrated microflap is designed in this research for wind turbine blades. Its fatigue load reduction potential is evaluated in normal operating conditions. The force and displacement output of the MFC-based actuator are simulated using a bimorph beam model. The work done by the aerodynamic, centripetal and gravitational forces acting on the microflap were calculated to determine the required capacity of the MFC-based actuator. MFC-based actuators with a lever mechanical linkage are designed to achieve the required force and displacement to activate the microflap. A feedback control scheme is designed to control the microflap during operation. Through an aerodynamic-aeroelastic time marching simulation with the designed control scheme, the time responses of the wind turbine blades are obtained. The fatigue analysis shows that the serrated microflap can reduce the standard deviation of the blade root flapwise bending moment and the fatigue damage equivalent loads.

  20. Dynamic Reliability Analysis of Gear Transmission System of Wind Turbine in Consideration of Randomness of Loadings and Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model of gear transmission system of wind turbine is built with consideration of randomness of loads and parameters. The dynamic response of the system is obtained using the theory of random sampling and the Runge-Kutta method. According to rain flow counting principle, the dynamic meshing forces are converted into a series of luffing fatigue load spectra. The amplitude and frequency of the equivalent stress are obtained using equivalent method of Geber quadratic curve. Moreover, the dynamic reliability model of components and system is built according to the theory of probability of cumulative fatigue damage. The system reliability with the random variation of parameters is calculated and the influence of random parameters on dynamic reliability of components is analyzed. In the end, the results of the proposed method are compared with that of Monte Carlo method. This paper can be instrumental in the design of wind turbine gear transmission system with more advantageous dynamic reliability.