WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind integration costs

  1. Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

    2013-10-01

    The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

  2. On the relationship between hurricane cost and the integrated wind profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Toumi, R.

    2016-11-01

    It is challenging to identify metrics that best capture hurricane destructive potential and costs. Although it has been found that the sea surface temperature and vertical wind shear can both make considerable changes to the hurricane destructive potential metrics, it is still unknown which plays a more important role. Here we present a new method to reconstruct the historical wind structure of hurricanes that allows us, for the first time, to calculate the correlation of damage with integrated power dissipation and integrated kinetic energy of all hurricanes at landfall since 1988. We find that those metrics, which include the horizontal wind structure, rather than just maximum intensity, are much better correlated with the hurricane cost. The vertical wind shear over the main development region of hurricanes plays a more dominant role than the sea surface temperature in controlling these metrics and therefore also ultimately the cost of hurricanes.

  3. Electricity cost effects of expanding wind power and integrating energy sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Maxwell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, questions have arisen in Denmark as to how and why public funding should be allocated to wind power producers. This is, among other reasons, due to pressure from industrial electricity consumers who want their overall energy costs lowered. Utilising existing wind power subsidies across energy sectors may be an effective means of dealing with these concerns. The following article takes the case of a community owned renewable energy project as a microcosm for the entire Danish energy system. The local project seeks to integrate energy sectors so as to create physical and financial conditions which could allow wind power producers to reduce their reliance on subsidies. It is found that the strategy may be effective in lowering the overall energy costs of electricity consumers. Further, it is found possible to scale up this strategy and realise benefits on a national scale.

  4. Large-scale offshore wind energy. Cost analysis and integration in the Dutch electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Noord, M.

    1999-02-01

    The results of analysis of the construction and integration costs of large-scale offshore wind energy (OWE) farms in 2010 are presented. The integration of these farms (1 and 5 GW) in the Dutch electricity distribution system have been regarded against the background of a liberalised electricity market. A first step is taken for the determination of costs involved in solving integration problems. Three different types of foundations are examined: the mono-pile, the jacket and a new type of foundation: the concrete caisson pile: all single-turbine-single-support structures. For real offshore applications (>10 km offshore, at sea-depths >20 m), the concrete caisson pile is regarded as the most suitable. The price/power ratios of wind turbines are analysed. It is assumed that in 2010 turbines in the power range of 3-5 MW are available. The main calculations have been conducted for a 3 MW turbine. The main choice in electrical infrastructure is for AC or DC. Calculations show that at distances of 30 km offshore and more, the use of HVDC will result in higher initial costs but lower operating costs. The share of operating and maintenance (O ampersand M) costs in the kWh cost price is approximately 3.3%. To be able to compare the two farms, a base case is derived with a construction time of 10 years for both. The energy yield is calculated for a wind regime offshore of 9.0 m/s annual mean wind speed. Per 3 MW turbine this results in an annual energy production of approximately 12 GWh. The total farm efficiency amounts to 82%, resulting in a total farm capacity factor of 38%. With a required internal rate of return of 15%, the kWh cost price amounts to 0.24 DFl and 0.21 DFl for the 1 GW and 5 GW farms respectively in the base case. The required internal rate of return has a large effect on the kWh cost price, followed by costs of subsystems. O ampersand M costs have little effect on the cost price. Parameter studies show that a small cost reduction of 5% is possible when

  5. Reliability, energy, and cost effects of wind-powered generation integrated with a conventional generating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Buehring, W.A.; Huber, C.C.; Hub, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine the potential impacts of incorporating wind turbines, without the aid of energy-storage devices, into a conventional electrical generating system. This study focuses on the contribution to generating-system reliability of wind turbines, and the methods used to calculate these benefits. In addition, a simple cost model was developed to estimate ranges of breakeven costs for wind turbines based on the sum of fuel cost savings, variable operation and maintenance (0 and M) cost savings, and reliability benefits of the wind turbines.

  6. A Transmission-Cost-Based Model to Estimate the Amount of Market-Integrable Wind Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    -cost perspective. This model accounts for the uncertain character of wind by using a modeling framework based on stochastic optimization, simulates market barriers by means of a bi-level structure, and considers the financial risk of investments in transmission through the conditional value-at-risk. The major...

  7. The economics of wind and solar variability. How the variability of wind and solar power affects their marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, Lion

    2014-11-14

    Variable renewable energy sources (VRE) for electricity generation, such as wind and solar power, are subject to inherent output fluctuations. This variability has significant impacts on power system and electricity markets if VRE are deployed at large scale. While on global average, wind and solar power currently supply only a minor share of electricity, they are expected to play a much larger role in the future - such that variability will become a major issue (which it already is in some regions). This thesis contributes to the literature that assesses these impacts the ''system and market integration'' literature. This thesis aims at answering the question: What is the impact of wind and solar power variability on the economics of these technologies? It will be laid out that the impact can be expressed in (at least) three ways: as reduction of value, as increase of cost, or as decrease of optimal deployment. Translating between these perspectives is not trivial, as evidenced by the confusion around the concept of ''integration costs''. Hence, more specifically: How does variability impact the marginal economic value of these power sources, their optimal deployment, and their integration costs? This is the question that this thesis addresses. This study comprises six papers, of which two develop a valuation framework that accounts for the specific characteristics of the good electricity, and the specific properties of wind and solar power versus ''dispatchable'' power plants. Three articles then assess quantitative questions and estimate marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs. These estimates stem from a newly developed numerical power market model, EMMA, market data, and quantitative literature reviews. The final paper addresses market design. In short, the principal findings of this thesis are as follows. Electricity is a peculiar economic good, being at the same time perfectly

  8. The economics of wind and solar variability. How the variability of wind and solar power affects their marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, Lion

    2014-01-01

    Variable renewable energy sources (VRE) for electricity generation, such as wind and solar power, are subject to inherent output fluctuations. This variability has significant impacts on power system and electricity markets if VRE are deployed at large scale. While on global average, wind and solar power currently supply only a minor share of electricity, they are expected to play a much larger role in the future - such that variability will become a major issue (which it already is in some regions). This thesis contributes to the literature that assesses these impacts the ''system and market integration'' literature. This thesis aims at answering the question: What is the impact of wind and solar power variability on the economics of these technologies? It will be laid out that the impact can be expressed in (at least) three ways: as reduction of value, as increase of cost, or as decrease of optimal deployment. Translating between these perspectives is not trivial, as evidenced by the confusion around the concept of ''integration costs''. Hence, more specifically: How does variability impact the marginal economic value of these power sources, their optimal deployment, and their integration costs? This is the question that this thesis addresses. This study comprises six papers, of which two develop a valuation framework that accounts for the specific characteristics of the good electricity, and the specific properties of wind and solar power versus ''dispatchable'' power plants. Three articles then assess quantitative questions and estimate marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs. These estimates stem from a newly developed numerical power market model, EMMA, market data, and quantitative literature reviews. The final paper addresses market design. In short, the principal findings of this thesis are as follows. Electricity is a peculiar economic good, being at the same time perfectly

  9. Grid Integration of Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giæver Tande, John Olav

    2003-07-01

    This article gives an overview of grid integration of wind farms with respect to impact on voltage quality and power system stability. The recommended procedure for assessing the impact of wind turbines on voltage quality in distribution grids is presented. The procedure uses the power quality characteristic data of wind turbines to determine the impact on slow voltage variations, flicker, voltage dips and harmonics. The detailed assessment allows for substantially more wind power in distribution grids compared with previously used rule-of-thumb guidelines. Power system stability is a concern in conjunction with large wind farms or very weak grids. Assessment requires the use of power system simulation tools, and wind farm models for inclusion in such tools are presently being developed. A fixed-speed wind turbine model is described. The model may be considered a good starting point for development of more advanced models, hereunder the concept of variable-speed wind turbines with a doubly fed induction generator is briefly explained. The use of dynamic wind farm models as part of power system simulation tools allows for detailed studies and development of innovative grid integration techniques. It is demonstrated that the use of reactive compensation may relax the short-term voltage stability limit and allow integration of significantly more wind power, and that application of automatic generation control technology may be an efficient means to circumvent thermal transmission capacity constraints. The continuous development of analysis tools and technology for cost-effective and secure grid integration is an important aid to ensure the increasing use of wind energy. A key factor for success, however, is the communication of results and gained experience, and in this regard it is hoped that this article may contribute.

  10. The Distributed Wind Cost Taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Trudy; Jimenez, Tony; Preus, Robert; Tegen, Suzanne; Baring-Gould, Ian

    2017-03-28

    To date, there has been no standard method or tool to analyze the installed and operational costs for distributed wind turbine systems. This report describes the development of a classification system, or taxonomy, for distributed wind turbine project costs. The taxonomy establishes a framework to help collect, sort, and compare distributed wind cost data that mirrors how the industry categorizes information. The taxonomy organizes costs so they can be aggregated from installers, developers, vendors, and other sources without losing cost details. Developing a peer-reviewed taxonomy is valuable to industry stakeholders because a common understanding the details of distributed wind turbine costs and balance of station costs is a first step to identifying potential high-value cost reduction opportunities. Addressing cost reduction potential can help increase distributed wind's competitiveness and propel the U.S. distributed wind industry forward. The taxonomy can also be used to perform cost comparisons between technologies and track trends for distributed wind industry costs in the future. As an initial application and piloting of the taxonomy, preliminary cost data were collected for projects of different sizes and from different regions across the contiguous United States. Following the methods described in this report, these data are placed into the established cost categories.

  11. Network constrained wind integration on Vancouver Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddaloni, Jesse D.; Rowe, Andrew M.; Kooten, G. Cornelis van

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the costs and carbon emissions associated with operating a hydro-dominated electricity generation system (Vancouver Island, Canada) with varying degrees of wind penetration. The focus is to match the wind resource, system demand and abilities of extant generating facilities on a temporal basis, resulting in an operating schedule that minimizes system cost over a given period. This is performed by taking the perspective of a social planner who desires to find the lowest-cost mix of new and existing generation facilities. Unlike other studies, this analysis considers variable efficiency for thermal and hydro-generators, resulting in a fuel cost that varies with respect to generator part load. Since this study and others have shown that wind power may induce a large variance on existing dispatchable generators, forcing more frequent operation at reduced part load, inclusion of increased fuel cost at part load is important when investigating wind integration as it can significantly reduce the economic benefits of utilizing low-cost wind. Results indicate that the introduction of wind power may reduce system operating costs, but this depends heavily on whether the capital cost of the wind farm is considered. For the Vancouver Island mix with its large hydro-component, operating cost was reduced by a maximum of 15% at a wind penetration of 50%, with a negligible reduction in operating cost when the wind farm capital cost was included

  12. Wind power costs in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleiro, C. [Univ. of Minho, Dept. of Biological Engineering (Portugal); Araujo, M.; Ferreira, P. [Univ. of Minho, Dept. of Production and Systems (Portugal)

    2007-05-15

    In a way to reduce the external energy dependence, increasing also the investments in renewable energy sources and aiming for the concretization of the European renewable objectives, the Portuguese government defined a goal of 5100 MW of installed wind power, up to 2012. If the drawn objectives are accomplished, by 2010 the wind power share may reach values comparable to leading countries like Denmark, Germany or Spain. The Portuguese forecasts also indicate a reinforcement of the natural gas fired generation in particular through the use of the combined cycle technology, following the European tendency. This analysis sets out to evaluate the total generating cost of wind power and CCGT in Portugal. A life cycle cost analysis was conducted, including investment costs, O and M costs, fuel costs and external costs of emissions, for each type of technology. For the evaluation of the externalities ExternE values were used. The results show that presently the wind power production cost is higher than the CCGT one, at least from the strictly financial point of view. CCGT costs increase significantly when charges for externalities are included. However, they only reach levels higher than the equivalents for wind power for high externality costs estimations. This partially results from the low load factor of the wind farms in Portugal and also from the low emission levels of the gas fired technology used in the comparison. A sensitive analysis of the technical and economical parameters was also conducted. Particular attention was given to the natural gas prices due to the possible increase over time. The fuel escalation rate is the parameter that has larger effects on the final costs. It was verified that the total cost of wind plant is more influenced by the load factor than the total cost of CCGT. (au)

  13. Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Martin H.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Nielsen, Torben S.

    This poster presents the Public Service Obligation (PSO) funded project PSO 10464 "Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool". The project goal is to integrate a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model with statistical tools in order to assess wind power fluctuations, with focus on short term...... forecasting for existing wind farms, as well as long term power system planning for future wind farms....

  14. Danish Wind Power Export and Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Alberg Østergaard, Poul

    In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power......, a study made by the Danish think tank CEPOS claimed the opposite, i.e. that most of the Danish wind power has been exported in recent years. However, this claim is based on an incorrect interpretation of statistics and a lack of understanding of how the international electricity markets operate...... is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both...

  15. Integrated roof wind energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen S.P.G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  16. Integration of wind generation forecasts. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, M.; Zavadil, B.; Jones, L.

    2005-01-01

    WindLogics is a company that specializes in atmospheric modelling, visualization and fine-scale forecasting systems for the wind power industry. A background of the organization was presented. The complexities of wind modelling were discussed. Issues concerning location and terrain, shear, diurnal and interannual variability were reviewed. It was suggested that wind power producers should aim to be mainstream, and that variability should be considered as intrinsic to fuel supply. Various utility operating impacts were outlined. Details of an Xcel NSP wind integration study were presented, as well as a studies conducted in New York state and Colorado. It was concluded that regulations and load following impacts with wind energy integration are modest. Overall impacts are dominated by costs incurred to accommodate wind generation variability and uncertainty in the day-ahead time frame. Cost impacts can be reduced with adjustments to operating strategies, improvements in wind forecasting and access to real-time markets. Details of WindLogic's wind energy forecast system were presented, as well as examples of day ahead and hour ahead forecasts and wind speed and power forecasts. Screenshots of control room integration, EMS integration and simulations were presented. Details of a utility-scale wind energy forecasting system funded by Xcel Renewable Development Fund (RDF) were also presented. The goal of the system was to optimize the way that wind forecast information is integrated into the control room environment. Project components were outlined. It was concluded that accurate day-ahead forecasting can lead to significant asset optimization. It was recommended that wind plants share data, and aim to resolve issues concerning grid codes and instrumentation. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Drivers of imbalance cost of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obersteiner, C.; Siewierski, T.; Andersen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    In Europe an increasing share of wind power is sold on the power market. Therefore more and more wind power generators become balancing responsible and face imbalance cost that reduce revenues from selling wind power. A comparison of literature illustrates that the imbalance cost of wind power...... varies in a wide range. To explain differences we indentify parameters influencing imbalance cost and compare them for case studies in Austria, Denmark and Poland. Besides the wind power forecast error also the correlation between imbalance and imbalance price influences imbalance cost significantly...... of imperfect forecast is better suited to reflect real cost incurred due to inaccurate wind power forecasts....

  18. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  19. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maples, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwabe, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions, and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  20. Impacts of Wind Power Variability on Generation Costs - An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. Albadi; E. F. El-Saadany

    2010-01-01

    Although wind power is sustainable, environmental friendly and relatively inexpensive source of electricity, the effects of its intermittent nature on power systems need to be carefully investigated. This paper presents an up-to-date overview of the impacts of wind power variability on overall generation cost. Recent case studies from different utilities around the globe demonstrated that wind integration costs are much lower than anticipated by earlier studies.

  1. Impacts of Wind Power Variability on Generation Costs - An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Albadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although wind power is sustainable, environmental friendly and relatively inexpensive source of electricity, the effects of its intermittent nature on power systems need to be carefully investigated. This paper presents an up-to-date overview of the impacts of wind power variability on overall generation cost. Recent case studies from different utilities around the globe demonstrated that wind integration costs are much lower than anticipated by earlier studies.

  2. Distributed Wind Soft Costs: A Beginning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Tony; Forsyth,Trudy; Preus, Robert; Christol, Corrie; Orrell, Alice; Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-06-14

    Tony Jimenez presented this overview of distributed wind soft costs at the 2016 Small Wind Conference in Stevens Point, Wisconsin, on June 14, 2016. Soft costs are any non-hardware project costs, such as costs related to permitting fees, installer/developer profit, taxes, transaction costs, permitting, installation, indirect corporate costs, installation labor, and supply chain costs. This presentation provides an overview of soft costs, a distributed wind project taxonomy (of which soft costs are a subset), an alpha data set project demographics, data summary, and future work in this area.

  3. Energy costs form European wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milborrow, D. [Windpower Monthly, Knebel (Denmark)

    1995-12-31

    Energy generation costs from European wind farms span a very wide range. Reasons for these variations, include differences in capital and operating costs, wind speeds and differing legislative and regulatory frameworks. This article compares costs, wind speeds and discount rates for British and German windfarms and sets these alongside data from elsewhere in the European Union. In this way it is possible to determine the reasons for differences in energy generation costs. (author)

  4. Energy costs form European wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milborrow, D.

    1995-01-01

    Energy generation costs from European wind farms span a very wide range. Reasons for these variations, include differences in capital and operating costs, wind speeds and differing legislative and regulatory frameworks. This article compares costs, wind speeds and discount rates for British and German windfarms and sets these alongside data from elsewhere in the European Union. In this way it is possible to determine the reasons for differences in energy generation costs. (author)

  5. Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, M. H.; Giebel, Gregor; Nielsen, T. S.

    2012-01-01

    This poster presents the current state of the public service obligation (PSO) funded project PSO 10464, with the working title "Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool". The project commenced October 1, 2011, and the goal is to integrate a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with purely statisti......This poster presents the current state of the public service obligation (PSO) funded project PSO 10464, with the working title "Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool". The project commenced October 1, 2011, and the goal is to integrate a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with purely...... statistical tools in order to assess wind power fluctuations, with focus on long term power system planning for future wind farms as well as short term forecasting for existing wind farms. Currently, wind power fluctuation models are either purely statistical or integrated with NWP models of limited...... resolution. With regard to the latter, one such simulation tool has been developed at the Wind Energy Division, Risø DTU, intended for long term power system planning. As part of the PSO project the inferior NWP model used at present will be replaced by the state-of-the-art Weather Research & Forecasting...

  6. Distributed Wind Cost Reduction: Learning from Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-02-23

    The distributed wind energy industry can learn several lessons from the solar industry regarding reducing soft costs. Suzanne Tegen presented this overview at the 2016 Distributed Wind Energy Association Business Conference in Washington, D.C., on February 23, 2016.

  7. Low cost wind reporting network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Wind Hot Line which is a low cost, high reliability network of more than twenty real-time weather stations located along the Northeast coast of the United States. This line is used to provide weather information of use in oil spill remedial responses. Several additional units are maintained on the Great Lakes and in the Gulf of Mexico. The current hardware configuration uses 110 volt AC power and reuses access to a non-dedicated telephone line at each collection site. However, the low power requirements of the system permit solar or similar powering schemes. Radio telemetry has been explored as an alternate to telephone access. The unattended and autonomous field stations access the public toll network using inward WATS service to report current and recent past conditions to a Central Facility. The hardware and software have been designed to minimize operational costs. In addition to the wind speed and direction, temperature and barometric pressure are available. All data from all sites has been since inception. The archive includes five second maxima ampersand minima and five minute median ampersand direction for each of the 288 five minute intervals per day

  8. Virginia Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Through Innovation Study (VOWCRIS) (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maples, B.; Campbell, J.; Arora, D.

    2014-10-01

    The VOWCRIS project is an integrated systems approach to the feasibility-level design, performance, and cost-of-energy estimate for a notional 600-megawatt offshore wind project using site characteristics that apply to the Wind Energy Areas of Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina.

  9. Wind turbine cost of electricity and capacity factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Wind turbines are currently designed to minimize the cost of electricity at the wind turbine (the busbar cost) in a given wind regime, ignoring constraints on the capacitor factor (the ratio of the average power output to the maximum power output). The trade-off between these two quantities can be examined in a straightforward fashion; it is found that the capacitor factor can be increased by a factor of 1.3 above its value at the cost minimum for a 10 percent increase in the cost of electricity. This has important implications for the large scale integration of wind electricity on utility grids where the cost of transmission and storage may be a significant fraction of the cost of delivered electricity. (Author)

  10. Grid integration of wind energy

    CERN Document Server

    Heier, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    This timely update provides detailed treatment of the integration of wind power into electrical power systems, including brand new material on offshore wind power farms and technologies This third English edition is based on new material from the fourth and fifth German editions (Windkraftanlagen: Systemauslegung, Netzintegration und Regelung, 5. Auflage, published by Teubner B.G. Gmbh, July 2009). It answers the question of how, with the proper control and direction, wind turbines can be made to operate more similarly to conventional power plants. The revised third edition addresses the engin

  11. 2013 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mone, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maples, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report uses representative project types to estimate the levelized cost of wind energy (LCOE) in the United States for 2013. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, it relies on both market and modeled data to maintain a current understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed from this analysis are used to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  12. Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, M. H.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Nielsen, T. S.

    This poster describes the status as of April 2012 of the Public Service Obligation (PSO) funded project PSO 10464 \\Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool". The project goal is to integrate a meso scale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with a statistical tool in order to better predict short...... term power variation from off shore wind farms, as well as to conduct forecast error assessment studies in preparation for later implementation of such a feature in an existing simulation model. The addition of a forecast error estimation feature will further increase the value of this tool, as it...

  13. Advancements in Wind Integration Study Data Modeling: The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.; Jones, W.; Searight, K.; Getman, D.; Harrold, S.; McCaa, J.; Cline, J.; Clark, C.

    2013-10-01

    Regional wind integration studies in the United States require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high-penetration scenarios. The wind data sets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as be time synchronized with available load profiles. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit described in this paper fulfills these requirements. A wind resource dataset, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts from a numerical weather prediction model run on a nationwide 2-km grid at 5-min resolution will be made publicly available for more than 110,000 onshore and offshore wind power production sites.

  14. 2015 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mone, Christopher; Hand, Maureen; Bolinger, Mark; Rand, Joseph; Heimiller, Donna; Ho, Jonathan

    2017-04-05

    This report uses representative commercial projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for both land-based and offshore wind plants in the United States for 2015. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, the analysis relies on both market and modeled data to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are used in this analysis to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  15. 2014 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mone, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maples, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Settle, Edward [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report uses representative commercial projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for both land-based and offshore wind plants in the United States for 2014. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, the analysis relies on both market and modeled data to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are used in this analysis to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  16. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL,; Wiser, Ryan; Lantz, Eric; Hand, Maureen

    2012-03-26

    The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions. Our findings indicate that steady cost reductions were interrupted between 2004 and 2010, but falling turbine prices and improved turbine performance are expected to drive a historically low LCOE for current installations. In addition, the majority of studies indicate continued cost reductions on the order of 20%-30% through 2030. Moreover, useful cost projections are likely to benefit from stronger consideration of the interactions between capital cost and performance as well as trends in the quality of the wind resource where projects are located, transmission, grid integration, and other cost variables.

  17. Wind power planning: assessing long-term costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Scott

    2005-01-01

    In the following paper, a new and straightforward technique for estimating the social benefit of large-scale wind power production is presented. The social benefit is based upon wind power's energy and capacity services and the avoidance of environmental damages. The approach uses probabilistic load duration curves to account for the stochastic interaction between wind power availability, electricity demand, and conventional generator dispatch. The model is applied to potential offshore wind power development to the south of Long Island, NY. If natural gas combined cycle and integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) are the alternative generation sources, wind power exhibits a negative social benefit due to its high capacity cost and the relatively low emissions of these advanced fossil-fuel technologies. Environmental benefits increase significantly if charges for CO 2 emissions are included. Results also reveal a diminishing social benefit as wind power penetration increases. The dependence of wind power benefits on CO 2 charges, and capital costs for wind turbines and IGCC plant is also discussed. The methodology is intended for use by energy planners in assessing the social benefit of future investments in wind power

  18. Flexible reserve markets for wind integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alisha R.

    The increased interconnection of variable generation has motivated the use of improved forecasting to more accurately predict future production with the purpose to lower total system costs for balancing when the expected output exceeds or falls short of the actual output. Forecasts are imperfect, and the forecast errors associated with utility-scale generation from variable generators need new balancing capabilities that cannot be handled by existing ancillary services. Our work focuses on strategies for integrating large amounts of wind generation under the flex reserve market, a market that would called upon for short-term energy services during an under or oversupply of wind generation to maintain electric grid reliability. The flex reserve market would be utilized for time intervals that fall in-between the current ancillary services markets that would be longer than second-to-second energy services for maintaining system frequency and shorter than reserve capacity services that are called upon for several minutes up to an hour during an unexpected contingency on the grid. In our work, the wind operator would access the flex reserve market as an energy service to correct for unanticipated forecast errors, akin to paying the generators participating in the market to increase generation during a shortfall or paying the other generators to decrease generation during an excess of wind generation. Such a market does not currently exist in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) is the Mid-Atlantic electric grid case study that was used to examine if a flex reserve market can be utilized for integrating large capacities of wind generation in a lowcost manner for those providing, purchasing and dispatching these short-term balancing services. The following work consists of three studies. The first examines the ability of a hydroelectric facility to provide short-term forecast error balancing services via a flex

  19. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) toolkit (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Draxl: NREL

    2014-01-01

    Regional wind integration studies require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high penetration scenarios. The wind datasets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as being time synchronized with available load profiles.As described in this presentation, the WIND Toolkit fulfills these requirements by providing a state-of-the-art national (US) wind resource, power production and forecast dataset.

  20. Introducing WISDEM:An Integrated System Modeling for Wind Turbines and Plant (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, K.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Guo, Y.; Parsons, T.; Damiani, R.; Felker, F.; Veers, P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Wind Technology Center wind energy systems engineering initiative has developed an analysis platform to leverage its research capabilities toward integrating wind energy engineering and cost models across wind plants. This Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) platform captures the important interactions between various subsystems to achieve a better National Wind Technology Center wind energy systems engineering initiative has developed an analysis platform to leverage its research capabilities toward integrating wind energy engineering and cost models across wind plants. This Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) platform captures the important interactions between various subsystems to achieve a better understanding of how to improve system-level performance and achieve system-level cost reductions. This work illustrates a few case studies with WISDEM that focus on the design and analysis of wind turbines and plants at different system levels.

  1. 2015 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moné, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, Maureen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rand, Joseph [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-27

    This report uses representative utility-scale projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for land-based and offshore wind plants in the United States. Data and results detailed here are derived from 2015 commissioned plants. More specifically, analysis detailed here relies on recent market data and state-of-the-art modeling capabilities to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind energy cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs as well as a basis for understanding variability in LCOE across the industry. This publication reflects the fifth installment of this annual report.

  2. 2016 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehly, Tyler J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-29

    This report uses representative utility-scale projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for land-based and offshore wind power plants in the United States. Data and results detailed here are derived from 2016 commissioned plants. More specifically, analysis detailed here relies on recent market data and state-of-the-art modeling capabilities to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind energy cost trends and drivers. This report is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs as well as a basis for understanding variability in LCOE across the country. This publication represents the sixth installment of this annual report.

  3. Wind power integration : From individual wind turbine to wind park as a power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.

    2009-01-01

    As power capacities of single wind turbine, single wind park and total wind power installation are continuously increasing, the wind power begins to challenge the safety operation of the power system. This thesis focuses on the grid integration aspects such as the dynamic behaviours of wind power

  4. Benchmarking U.S. Small Wind Costs with the Distributed Wind Taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-10-04

    The objective of this report is to benchmark costs for small wind projects installed in the United States using a distributed wind taxonomy. Consequently, this report is a starting point to help expand the U.S. distributed wind market by informing potential areas for small wind cost-reduction opportunities and providing a benchmark to track future small wind cost-reduction progress.

  5. Wind farm balance of plant costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, L.; Liebmann, C.

    1992-01-01

    The study consisted of a detailed investigation of the infrastructure required for the construction and operation of a windfarm in the UK. Costing of the equipment and installation was carried out for three UK sites, with different physical characteristics. A literature survey was carried out to determine current practice in the siting of turbines within windfarms in Europe and the USA. Wind turbines were then laid out on the sites selected for study. Requirements and costs for roads, foundations and site buildings, site electrical system and grid connection, the supervisory control and data acquisition system were discussed and evaluated. A comparison between the balance of plant costs for the 33-metre MS-3 400 kW wind turbine and the 50-metre LS-2 1 MW wind turbine was made for each area of study. Overall balance of plant costs was reviewed, with an investigation of the cost components which are most sensitive to variations. The balance of plant costs averaged over the three sites were 13.0 p/kWh/annum for the MS3 windfarms and 10.6 p/kWh/annum for the LS-2 windfarms. Maps of the sites under investigation, design drawings and tables of costs are included to give supporting information to the text. (author)

  6. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Florita, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, B. -M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hummon, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, J. [RePPAE; Lefton, S. A. [Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Kumar, N. [Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Agan, D. [Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Jordan, G. [GE Energy, Fairfield, CT (United States); Venkataraman, S. [GE Energy, Fairfield, CT (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).

  7. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Hummon, M.; Florita, A.; Heaney, M.

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West.

  8. Electric vehicles and large-scale integration of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Hu, Weihao; Lund, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    was 6.5% in 2009 and which has the plan to develop large-scale wind power. The results show that electric vehicles (EVs) have the ability to balance the electricity demand and supply and to further the wind power integration. In the best case, the energy system with EV can increase wind power...... with this imbalance and to reduce its high dependence on oil production. For this reason, it is interesting to analyse the extent to which transport electrification can further the renewable energy integration. This paper quantifies this issue in Inner Mongolia, where the share of wind power in the electricity supply...... integration by 8%. The application of EVs benefits from saving both energy system cost and fuel cost. However, the negative consequences of decreasing energy system efficiency and increasing the CO2 emission should be noted when applying the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HFCV). The results also indicate...

  9. Two wind power prognosis criteria and regulating power costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus S.; Ravn, Hans F.; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2003-01-01

    . Basically, the choice is between focusing on predicting the energy content of the wind and focusing on the cost of buying regulating power to compensate for the prognosis errors. It will be shown that it can be expected that the two power curves thus estimated will differ, and that therefore also the hourly...... wind power production predicted will differ. In turn this will influence the operation and economics of the system. The consequences of this are illustrated by application to the integration of wind power in the Danish parts of the Nordpool area, using recent data. Using a regression analysis......The objective of the present work is to investigate the consequences of the choice of criterion in short-term wind power prognosis. This is done by investigating the consequences of choice of objective function in relation to the estimation of the power curve that is applied in the prognoses...

  10. Wind power potential and integration in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbetuyi, A.F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy penetration into power networks is increasing very rapidly all over the world. The great concern about global warming and continued apprehensions about nuclear power around the world should drive most countries in Africa into strong demand for wind generation because of its advantages which include the absence of harmful emissions, very clean and almost infinite availability of wind that is converted into electricity. This paper shows the power available in the wind. It also gives an overview of the wind power potential and integration in some selected Africa countries like Egypt, Morocco, South Africa and Nigeria and the challenges of wind power integration in Africa’s continent are also discussed. The Northern part of Africa is known to be Africa’s Wind pioneers having installed and connected the Wind Energy Converters (WEC to the grid. About 97% of the continent’s total wind installations are located in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Research work should commence on the identified sites with high wind speeds in those selected Africa countries, so that those potential sites can be connected to the grid. This is because the ability of a site to sufficiently accommodate wind generation not only depends on wind speeds but on its ability to interconnect to the existing grid. If these wind energy potentials are tapped and connected to the grid, the erratic and epileptic power supply facing most countries in Africa will be reduced; thereby reducing rural-urban migration and more jobs will be created.

  11. An integrated modeling method for wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaeinedjad, Roohollah

    To study the interaction of the electrical, mechanical, and aerodynamic aspects of a wind turbine, a detailed model that considers all these aspects must be used. A drawback of many studies in the area of wind turbine simulation is that either a very simple mechanical model is used with a detailed electrical model, or vice versa. Hence the interactions between electrical and mechanical aspects of wind turbine operation are not accurately taken into account. In this research, it will be shown that a combination of different simulation packages, namely TurbSim, FAST, and Simulink can be used to model the aerodynamic, mechanical, and electrical aspects of a wind turbine in detail. In this thesis, after a review of some wind turbine concepts and software tools, a simulation structure is proposed for studying wind turbines that integrates the mechanical and electrical components of a wind energy conversion device. Based on the simulation structure, a comprehensive model for a three-bladed variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator is developed. Using the model, the impact of a voltage sag on the wind turbine tower vibration is investigated under various operating conditions such as power system short circuit level, mechanical parameters, and wind turbine operating conditions. It is shown how an electrical disturbance can cause more sustainable tower vibrations under high speed and turbulent wind conditions, which may disrupt the operation of pitch control system. A similar simulation structure is used to model a two-bladed fixed speed wind turbine with an induction generator. An extension of the concept is introduced by adding a diesel generator system. The model is utilized to study the impact of the aeroelastic aspects of wind turbine (i.e. tower shadow, wind shears, yaw error, turbulence, and mechanical vibrations) on the power quality of a stand-alone wind-diesel system. Furthermore, an IEEE standard flickermeter model is implemented in a

  12. Network constrained wind integration on Vancouver Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddaloni, J.D.; Rowe, A.M.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the costs and carbon emissions associated with operating a hydro-dominated electricity generation system (Vancouver Island, Canada) with varying degrees of wind penetration. The focus is to match the wind resource, system demand and abilities of extant

  13. Stochastic life-cycle cost analysis of wind parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagaros, Nikos D.; Karlaftis, Matthew G.; Paida, Maria K.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a life-cycle cost model for assessing wind parks; implementing the model requires calculation of cost components that are related to wind tower structural performance for multiple wind hazard levels. We compute the structural capacity of the wind towers by means of nonlinear static structural analysis for three wind hazard levels; then, the limit state dependent and life-cycle costs for the wind park are calculated based on the proposed model. The wind load for each wind hazard level is based on actual collected data and is generated probabilistically. Application of the proposed life-cycle cost analysis model is tested for a wind park with known characteristics (number and location of wind towers, wind potential, and so on). - Highlights: • A life-cycle cost model for wind parks based on nonlinear structural analysis. • The wind load for each wind hazard level is considered by means of stochastic fields. • Implementation of the life-cycle cost analysis model to a wind park in Cyprus.

  14. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling Installation and Decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising and fastest growing alternative energy sources in the world. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a methodological framework to assess installation and decommissioning costs, and using examples from the European experience, provides a broad review of existing processes and systems used in the offshore wind industry. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a step-by-step guide to modeling costs over four sections. These sections cover: ·Background and introductory material, ·Installation processes and vessel requirements, ·Installation cost estimation, and ·Decommissioning methods and cost estimation.  This self-contained and detailed treatment of the key principles in offshore wind development is supported throughout by visual aids and data tables. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling is a key resource for anyone interested in the offshore wind industry, particularly those interested in the technical and economic aspects of installation and decom...

  15. Impact of integrating wind power in the Norwegian power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, John Olav

    2006-04-01

    Wind power may in the future constitute a significant part of the Norwegian electricity supply. 20 TWh annual wind generation is a realistic goal for 2020 assuming wind farms on-land and offshore. The development of grid codes for wind farms is sound. It is recognising that large wind farms are basically power plants and may participate in securing efficient and stable power system operation. Modern wind farms may control the reactive power or voltage as any other power plant, and may also control active power or frequency as long as wind conditions permits. Grid code requirements must however be carefully assessed and possibly adjusted over time aiming for overall least cost solutions. Development of wind farms are today to some degree hindered by conservative assumptions being made on operation of wind farms in areas with limited power transfer capacity. By accepting temporary grid congestions, however, a large increase installed wind power is viable. For grid congestion that appears a few hours per year only, the cost of lost generation will be modest and may be economic over the alternatives of limiting wind farm capacities or increasing the grid transfer capacity. Wind generation impact on power system operation and adequacy will be overall positive. Combining wind and hydro provides for a more stable annual energy supply than hydro alone, and wind generation will generally be higher in the winter period than in the summer. Wind will replace the generation with the highest operating cost, and reduce the average Nord Pool spot market price. 20 TWh wind will reduce price with about 3 oere/kWh and CO 2 emissions by 12-14 million tons for the case of replacing coal, and about 6 million tons for replacing natural gas. Wind impact on need for balancing power is small, i.e. the extra balancing cost is about 0,8 oere per kWh wind, and about half if investment in new reserve capacity is not needed. In summary this report demonstrates options for large scale integration

  16. Integrating Structural Health Management with Contingency Control for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Goebel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  17. Conference on wind energy and grid integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffaille, Didier; Boemer, Jens; Fraisse, Jean-Luc; Mignon, Herve; Gonot, Jean-Pierre; Rohrig, Kurt; Lange, Matthias; Bagusche, Daniel; Wagner, Stefan; Schiel, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the grid integration of wind farms. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than 80 participants exchanged views on the evolutions of tariffs and licensing procedures, and on grid capacity improvements and production forecasts. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - The necessary evolution of billing and procedures for wind turbines connection to the grid in France (Didier Laffaille); 2 - Improvement of wind turbines integration to the grid in the framework of the EEG 2009 law (Jens Boemer); 3 - Decentralized power generation on the French power grids - 15, 20 kV and low voltage (Jean-Luc Fraisse); 4 - GOTTESWIND? Solution for the future: towards a grid evolution (Herve Mignon); 5 - Production forecasts in Germany - State-of-the-art and challenges for the grid exploitation (Kurt Rohrig); 6 - High-voltage lines capacity evaluation in meteorological situations with high wind energy production (Matthias Lange); 7 - The IPES project for the integration of wind energy production in the exploitation of the French power system (Jean-Pierre Gonot); 8 - Experience feedback from a wind turbine manufacturer in France and in Germany (Daniel Bagusche); 9 - Solutions for grid security improvement and capacity enhancement: cooperation between grid and power plant operators (Stefan Wagner); 10 - Open questions on wind energy integration to French and German grids (Johannes Schiel)

  18. An Appropriate Wind Model for Wind Integrated Power Systems Reliability Evaluation Considering Wind Speed Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Karki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse environmental impacts of carbon emissions are causing increasing concerns to the general public throughout the world. Electric energy generation from conventional energy sources is considered to be a major contributor to these harmful emissions. High emphasis is therefore being given to green alternatives of energy, such as wind and solar. Wind energy is being perceived as a promising alternative. This source of energy technology and its applications have undergone significant research and development over the past decade. As a result, many modern power systems include a significant portion of power generation from wind energy sources. The impact of wind generation on the overall system performance increases substantially as wind penetration in power systems continues to increase to relatively high levels. It becomes increasingly important to accurately model the wind behavior, the interaction with other wind sources and conventional sources, and incorporate the characteristics of the energy demand in order to carry out a realistic evaluation of system reliability. Power systems with high wind penetrations are often connected to multiple wind farms at different geographic locations. Wind speed correlations between the different wind farms largely affect the total wind power generation characteristics of such systems, and therefore should be an important parameter in the wind modeling process. This paper evaluates the effect of the correlation between multiple wind farms on the adequacy indices of wind-integrated systems. The paper also proposes a simple and appropriate probabilistic analytical model that incorporates wind correlations, and can be used for adequacy evaluation of multiple wind-integrated systems.

  19. Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppock, David C; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2010-11-15

    The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (∼50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (∼550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs.

  20. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.; Pete, C.

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.

  1. Cost reduction through system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsing, P.

    1994-01-01

    In resent years cost reduction has been a key issue in the petroleum industry. Several findings are not economically attractive at the current cost level, and for this and other reasons some of the major oil companies require the suppliers to have implemented a cost reduction programme to prequalify for projects. The present paper addresses cost reduction through system design and integration in both product development and working methods. This is to be obtained by the combination of contracts by reducing unnecessary coordination and allow re-use of proven interface designs, improve subsystem integration by ''top down'' system design, and improve communication and exchange of experience. 3 figs

  2. Cost optimization of wind turbines for large-scale offshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuglsang, P.; Thomsen, K.

    1998-02-01

    This report contains a preliminary investigation of site specific design of off-shore wind turbines for a large off-shore wind farm project at Roedsand that is currently being proposed by ELKRAFT/SEAS. The results were found using a design tool for wind turbines that involve numerical optimization and aeroelastic calculations of response. The wind climate was modeled in detail and a cost function was used to estimate costs from manufacture and installation. Cost of energy is higher for off-shore installations. A comparison of an off-shore wind farm site with a typical stand alone on-shore site showed an increase of the annual production of 28% due to the difference in wind climate. Extreme loads and blade fatigue loads were nearly identical, however,fatigue loads on other main components increased significantly. Optimizations were carried out to find the optimum overall off-shore wind turbine design. A wind turbine for the off-shore wind farm should be different compared with a stand-alone on-shore wind turbine. The overall design changed were increased swept area and rated power combined with reduced rotor speed and tower height. Cost was reduced by 12% for the final 5D/14D off-shore wind turbine from 0.306 DKr/kWh to 0.270 DKr/kWh. These figures include capital costs from manufacture and installation but not on-going costs from maintenance. These results make off-shore wind farms more competitive and comparable to the reference on-shore stand-alone wind turbine. A corresponding reduction of cost of energy could not be found for the stand alone on-shore wind turbine. Furthermore the fatigue loads on wind turbines in on-shore wind farms will increase and cost of energy will increase in favor of off-shore wind farms. (au) EFP-95; EU-JOULE-3; 21 tabs., 7 ills., 8 refs

  3. Systematic Approach to Better Understanding Integration Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, Gregory B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This research presents a systematic approach to evaluating the costs of integrating new generation and operational procedures into an existing power system, and the methodology is independent of the type of change or nature of the generation. The work was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy and performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to investigate three integration cost-related questions: (1) How does the addition of new generation affect a system's operational costs, (2) How do generation mix and operating parameters and procedures affect costs, and (3) How does the amount of variable generation (non-dispatchable wind and solar) impact the accuracy of natural gas orders? A detailed operational analysis was performed for seven sets of experiments: variable generation, large conventional generation, generation mix, gas prices, fast-start generation, self-scheduling, and gas supply constraints. For each experiment, four components of integration costs were examined: cycling costs, non-cycling VO&M costs, fuel costs, and reserves provisioning costs. The investigation was conducted with PLEXOS production cost modeling software utilizing an updated version of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 118-bus test system overlaid with projected operating loads from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Puget Sound Energy, and Public Service Colorado in the year 2020. The test system was selected in consultation with an industry-based technical review committee to be a reasonable approximation of an interconnection yet small enough to allow the research team to investigate a large number of scenarios and sensitivity combinations. The research should prove useful to market designers, regulators, utilities, and others who want to better understand how system changes can affect production costs.

  4. Imbalance costs in the Swedish system with large amounts of wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Neimane, Viktoria [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    The well-known concerns about wind power are related to its intermittent nature and difficulty to make exact forecasts. The expected increase in balancing and reserve requirements due to wind power has been investigated in several studies. This paper takes the next step in studying integration of large amounts of wind power in Sweden. Several wind power producers' and corresponding balance providers' perspective is taken and their imbalance costs modeled. Larger producers having wind power spread over larger geographical areas will have lower relative costs than producers having their units concentrated within limited geographical area. Possibilities of the wind power producers to reduce the imbalance costs by acting on after sales market are exposed and compared. (orig.)

  5. IEA Wind Task 26: The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy, Work Package 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Wiser, R.; Hand, M.

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, wind power has become a mainstream source of electricity generation around the world. However, the future of wind power will depend a great deal on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost of energy reductions. In this summary report, developed as part of the International Energy Agency Wind Implementing Agreement Task 26, titled 'The Cost of Wind Energy,' we provide a review of historical costs, evaluate near-term market trends, review the methods used to estimate long-term cost trajectories, and summarize the range of costs projected for onshore wind energy across an array of forward-looking studies and scenarios. We also highlight the influence of high-level market variables on both past and future wind energy costs.

  6. Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Wiser, R.

    2012-08-01

    The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions.

  7. Costs of the grid connection of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siden, G.

    1995-01-01

    The costs of the grid connection of wind turbines in Sweden have until now been about 5 % of the total investments, provided that the distance of the connection cable is limited. Now the grid will soon be filled locally and it will be necessary to strengthen it. The costs for this can also be about 5 %, and the total cost about 10 %. Improvements in the electrical systems of the wind turbines and the connection technique can give less disturbance in the grid and diminish the costs. It is important to agree on how to share the costs for strengthening the grid. Otherwise, it can become an obstacle when building new wind turbines. (author)

  8. Costs of the grid connection of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siden, G. [Halmstad Univ. (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    The costs of the grid connection of wind turbines in Sweden have until now been about 5 % of the total investments, provided that the distance of the connection cable is limited. Now the grid will soon be filled locally and it will be necessary to strengthen it. The costs for this can also be about 5 %, and the total cost about 10 %. Improvements in the electrical systems of the wind turbines and the connection technique can give less disturbance in the grid and diminish the costs. It is important to agree on how to share the costs for strengthening the grid. Otherwise, it can become an obstacle when building new wind turbines. (author)

  9. Offshore wind investments – Realism about cost developments is necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Wierling, August

    2016-01-01

    Data available from the recent boom in European offshore wind investments contradict widely held expectations about a decline in costs per kW. Our review shows that scenario projections for investment costs are systematically flawed by over-optimistic assumptions. Contrasting offshore wind technology with onshore wind and nuclear power, we argue that offshore wind could be a candidate for negative learning since a trend towards more complex OWP (offshore wind parks) exists and uncertainty remains high. We estimate technical uncertainty and input cost uncertainty to calculate whether investments in offshore wind technology are profitable today. Applying a real option model to two reference plants using empirically derived parameter values, we allow for sunk cost and the possibility to abandon the investment. We find that for a large parameter range, investments are not profitable, even with substantial support such as feed-in tariffs under the German Energy Act. Therefore, policy incentives for building larger and more complex offshore wind parks bear a high risk to fail in their aim of bringing down investment costs. Policies that instead incentivize the optimization of offshore wind technology – in particular by increasing the load factor and material efficiency and bringing down decommissioning costs – are more sustainable. - Highlights: • We review offshore wind power investments. • Contrary to expectations costs increase. • It is unlikely to see a turn in the near future as complexity is growing. • We deploy an empirically based real option model. • Investments are not profitable across a large parameter range.

  10. Wind power integration connection and system operational aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Wind Power Integration provides a wide-ranging discussion on all major aspects of wind power integration into electricity supply systems. This second edition has been fully revised and updated to take account of the significant growth in wind power deployment in the past few years. New discussions have been added to describe developments in wind turbine generator technology and control, the network integration of wind power, innovative ways to integrate wind power when its generation potential exceeds 50% of demand, case studies on how forecasting errors have affected system operation, and an update on how the wind energy sector has fared in the marketplace. Topics covered include: the development of wind power technology and its world-wide deployment; wind power technology and the interaction of various wind turbine generator types with the utility network; and wind power forecasting and the challenges faced by wind energy in modern electricity markets.

  11. Cost-Causation-Based Tariffs for Wind Ancillary Service Impacts: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y.

    2006-06-01

    Conference paper discussing the integration cost of wind. Although specific tariffs for wind generation for ancillary services are uncommon, we anticipate that balancing authorities (control areas) and other entities will move toward such tariffs. Tariffs for regulation and imbalance services should be cost-based, recognize the relevant time scales that correspond with utility operational cycles, and properly allocate those costs to those entities that cause the balancing authority to incur the costs. In this paper, we present methods for separating wind's impact into regulation and load following (imbalance) time scales. We show that approximating these impacts with simpler methods can significantly distort cost causation and even cause confusion between the relevant time scales. We present results from NREL's wind data collection program to illustrate the dangers of linearly scaling wind resource data from small wind plants to approximate the wind resource data from large wind plants. Finally, we provide a framework for developing regulation and imbalance tariffs, we outline methods to begin examining contingency reserve requirements for wind plants, we provide guidance on the important characteristics to consider, and we provide hypothetical cases that the tariff can be tested against to determine whether the results are desired.

  12. Technology solutions for wind integration in ERCOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-03

    Texas has for more than a decade led all other states in the U.S. with the most wind generation capacity on the U.S. electric grid. The State recognized the value that wind energy could provide, and committed early on to build out the transmission system necessary to move power from the windy regions in West Texas to the major population centers across the state. It also signaled support for renewables on the grid by adopting an aggressive renewable portfolio standard (RPS). The joining of these conditions with favorable Federal tax credits has driven the rapid growth in Texas wind capacity since its small beginning in 2000. In addition to the major transmission grid upgrades, there have been a number of technology and policy improvements that have kept the grid reliable while adding more and more intermittent wind generation. Technology advancements such as better wind forecasting and deployment of a nodal market system have improved the grid efficiency of wind. Successful large scale wind integration into the electric grid, however, continues to pose challenges. The continuing rapid growth in wind energy calls for a number of technology additions that will be needed to reliably accommodate an expected 65% increase in future wind resources. The Center for the Commercialization of Electric Technologies (CCET) recognized this technology challenge in 2009 when it submitted an application for funding of a regional demonstration project under the Recovery Act program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy1. Under that program the administration announced the largest energy grid modernization investment in U.S. history, making available some $3.4 billion in grants to fund development of a broad range of technologies for a more efficient and reliable electric system, including the growth of renewable energy sources like wind and solar. At that time, Texas was (and still is) the nation’s leader in the integration of wind into the grid, and was investing heavily

  13. Technology solutions for wind integration in Ercot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-02-23

    Texas has for more than a decade led all other states in the U.S. with the most wind generation capacity on the U.S. electric grid. The State recognized the value that wind energy could provide, and committed early on to build out the transmission system necessary to move power from the windy regions in West Texas to the major population centers across the state. It also signaled support for renewables on the grid by adopting an aggressive renewable portfolio standard (RPS). The joining of these conditions with favorable Federal tax credits has driven the rapid growth in Texas wind capacity since its small beginning in 2000. In addition to the major transmission grid upgrades, there have been a number of technology and policy improvements that have kept the grid reliable while adding more and more intermittent wind generation. Technology advancements such as better wind forecasting and deployment of a nodal market system have improved the grid efficiency of wind. Successful large scale wind integration into the electric grid, however, continues to pose challenges. The continuing rapid growth in wind energy calls for a number of technology additions that will be needed to reliably accommodate an expected 65% increase in future wind resources. The Center for the Commercialization of Electric Technologies (CCET) recognized this technology challenge in 2009 when it submitted an application for funding of a regional demonstration project under the Recovery Act program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy1. Under that program the administration announced the largest energy grid modernization investment in U.S. history, making available some $3.4 billion in grants to fund development of a broad range of technologies for a more efficient and reliable electric system, including the growth of renewable energy sources like wind and solar. At that time, Texas was (and still is) the nation’s leader in the integration of wind into the grid, and was investing heavily

  14. Wind power costs expected to decrease due to technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Eric; Hittinger, Eric; Carvalho, Rexon; Williams, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    The potential for future cost reductions in wind power affects adoption and support policies. Prior analyses of cost reductions give inconsistent results. The learning rate, or fractional cost reduction per doubling of production, ranges from −3% to +33% depending on the study. This lack of consensus has, we believe, contributed to high variability in forecasts of future costs of wind power. We find that learning rate can be very sensitive to the starting and ending years of datasets and the geographical scope of the study. Based on a single factor experience curve that accounts for capacity factor gains, wind quality decline, and exogenous shifts in capital costs, we develop an improved model with reduced temporal variability. Using a global adoption model, the wind-learning rate is between 7.7% and 11%, with a preferred estimate of 9.8%. Using global scenarios for future wind deployment, this learning rate range implies that the cost of wind power will decline from 5.5 cents/kWh in 2015 to 4.1–4.5 cents/kWh in 2030, lower than a number of other forecasts. If attained, wind power may be the cheapest form of new electricity generation by 2030, suggesting that support and investment in wind should be maintained or expanded. - Highlights: • Expectations for cost reductions in wind power is important for policy. • Wind learning rates are sensitive to data time period and regional choice. • We develop improved wind cost model with much reduced variability. • New model gives global wind learning rates between 7.7%-11%.

  15. TradeWind. Integrating wind. Developing Europe's power market for the large-scale integration of wind power. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-15

    Based on a single European grid and power market system, the TradeWind project explores to what extent large-scale wind power integration challenges could be addressed by reinforcing interconnections between Member States in Europe. Additionally, the project looks at the conditions required for a sound power market design that ensures a cost-effective integration of wind power at EU level. In this way, the study addresses two issues of key importance for the future integration of renewable energy, namely the weak interconnectivity levels between control zones and the inflexibility and fragmented nature of the European power market. Work on critical transmission paths and interconnectors is slow for a variety of reasons including planning and administrative barriers, lack of public acceptance, insufficient economic incentives for TSOs, and the lack of a joint European approach by the key stakeholders. (au)

  16. An Integrated Topology of Hybrid Marine Farm & Wind Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Shawon, Mohammad Hasanuzzaman; Ghosh, Subarto Kumar; Rahman, Ashifur

    2016-01-01

    Abstract- Renewable energy has been playing an important role to meet power demand and ‘Green Energy’ market is getting bigger platform all over the world in the last few years. In order to meet the increasing demand of electricity and power, integration of renewable energy is getting highest priorities around the world. Wind is one of the most top growing renewable energy resources and it is the most environmental friendly, cost effective and safe among all renewable energy resources availab...

  17. Alternative methods of modeling wind generation using production costing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M.R.; Pang, C.K.

    1996-08-01

    This paper examines the methods of incorporating wind generation in two production costing models: one is a load duration curve (LDC) based model and the other is a chronological-based model. These two models were used to evaluate the impacts of wind generation on two utility systems using actual collected wind data at two locations with high potential for wind generation. The results are sensitive to the selected wind data and the level of benefits of wind generation is sensitive to the load forecast. The total production cost over a year obtained by the chronological approach does not differ significantly from that of the LDC approach, though the chronological commitment of units is more realistic and more accurate. Chronological models provide the capability of answering important questions about wind resources which are difficult or impossible to address with LDC models

  18. Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon

    2012-07-17

    In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.

  19. Wind Power: How Much, How Soon, and At What Cost?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H; Hand, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    The global wind power market has been growing at a phenomenal pace, driven by favorable policies towards renewable energy and the improving economics of wind projects. On a going forward basis, utility-scale wind power offers the potential for significant reductions in the carbon footprint of the electricity sector. Specifically, the global wind resource is vast and, though accessing this potential is not costless or lacking in barriers, wind power can be developed at scale in the near to medium term at what promises to be an acceptable cost.

  20. Grid integration aspects within wind farm projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandt, Robert van de; Bussmann, Herbert [FICHTNER GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany). Electrical Systems and Networks

    2012-07-01

    This paper shows the project management relationships dealing with grid compliance of large scale wind farm projects. It focuses on the contractual constellations for turn key projects and on technical boundary points between the different involved parties. The main focus is on the grid integration aspects and conflicts resulting out of these contracts. At the end it shows a suggestion to find a way on how to reach an optimal solution betwen all project parties. (orig.)

  1. The avoided external costs of using wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markandya, A. [Harvard Inst. for International Development, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This article discusses the external costs of electricity generated by conventional fossil fuel sources, such as coal and nuclear power. It compares the costs of electricity generated with coal with that generated with wind. A measure of the benefits of wind energy is the difference between these two external costs. The methodology used for the estimation of the external costs, as well as the estimates of these costs, are taken from the EC ExternE study, financed by DGXII of the European Commission. The present author was a lead economist for that study. (author)

  2. The avoided external costs of using wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the external costs of electricity generated by conventional fossil fuel sources, such as coal and nuclear power. It compares the costs of electricity generated with coal with that generated with wind. A measure of the benefits of wind energy is the difference between these two external costs. The methodology used for the estimation of the external costs, as well as the estimates of these costs, are taken from the EC ExternE study, financed by DGXII of the European Commission. The present author was a lead economist for that study. (author)

  3. An extended NSGA-III for solution multi-objective hydro-thermal-wind scheduling considering wind power cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Xiaohui; Tian, Hao; Yuan, Yanbin; Huang, Yuehua; Ikram, Rana M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-objective hydro-thermal-wind scheduling model (MO-HTWS) is establish. • The extra cost in MO-HTWS problem caused by wind uncertainty is considered. • An extended NSGA-III is proposed to solve MO-HTWS problem. • Constraint handling strategies are presented to modify infeasible solutions. • The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by example. - Abstract: Due to the characteristics of clean and renewable, wind power is significant to economic and environmental operation of electric power system so that it attracts more and more attention from researchers. This paper integrates wind power with hydrothermal scheduling to establish multi-objective economic emission hydro-thermal-wind scheduling problem (MO-HTWS) model with considering wind uncertain cost. To solve MO-HTWS problem with various complicated constraints, this paper extends NSGA-III by introducing the dominance relationship criterion based on constraint violation to select new generation. Moreover, the constraint handling strategy which repairs the infeasible solutions by modifying the decision variables in feasible zone according to the violation amount is proposed. Finally, a daily scheduling example of hydro-thermal-wind system is used to test the ability of NSGA-III for solving MO-HTWS problem. It is concluded from the superior quality and good distribution of the Pareto optimal solutions that, NSGA-III can offer an efficient alternative for optimizing MO-HTWS problem

  4. Unravelling historical cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormolen, J. A.; Junginger, H. M.; van Sark, W. G J H M

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights in the cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe. This is done by analysing 46 operational offshore wind farms commissioned after 2000. An increase of the Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) is found that is linked to the distance to shore and depth of more

  5. Low Cost Small Wind Turbine Generators for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ani, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy accounts for an increasing percentage of the energy supplied to the electricity network. Electricity generation from wind is now cheaper than other renewables and almost cost competitive with other conventional sources of electricity generation. However, this impressive growth is largely

  6. Alternative wind power modeling methods using chronological and load duration curve production cost models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M R

    1996-04-01

    As an intermittent resource, capturing the temporal variation in windpower is an important issue in the context of utility production cost modeling. Many of the production cost models use a method that creates a cumulative probability distribution that is outside the time domain. The purpose of this report is to examine two production cost models that represent the two major model types: chronological and load duration cure models. This report is part of the ongoing research undertaken by the Wind Technology Division of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in utility modeling and wind system integration.

  7. Site specific optimization of wind turbines energy cost: Iterative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei Mirghaed, Mohammad; Roshandel, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization model of wind turbine parameters plus rectangular farm layout is developed. • Results show that levelized cost for single turbine fluctuates between 46.6 and 54.5 $/MW h. • Modeling results for two specific farms reported optimal sizing and farm layout. • Results show that levelized cost of the wind farms fluctuates between 45.8 and 67.2 $/MW h. - Abstract: The present study was aimed at developing a model to optimize the sizing parameters and farm layout of wind turbines according to the wind resource and economic aspects. The proposed model, including aerodynamic, economic and optimization sub-models, is used to achieve minimum levelized cost of electricity. The blade element momentum theory is utilized for aerodynamic modeling of pitch-regulated horizontal axis wind turbines. Also, a comprehensive cost model including capital costs of all turbine components is considered. An iterative approach is used to develop the optimization model. The modeling results are presented for three potential regions in Iran: Khaf, Ahar and Manjil. The optimum configurations and sizing for a single turbine with minimum levelized cost of electricity are presented. The optimal cost of energy for one turbine is calculated about 46.7, 54.5 and 46.6 dollars per MW h in the studied sites, respectively. In addition, optimal size of turbines, annual electricity production, capital cost, and wind farm layout for two different rectangular and square shaped farms in the proposed areas have been recognized. According to the results, optimal system configuration corresponds to minimum levelized cost of electricity about 45.8 to 67.2 dollars per MW h in the studied wind farms

  8. Wind power integration studies using a multi-stage stochastic electricity system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Barth, R.; Brand, H.

    2007-01-01

    A large share of integrated wind power causes technical and financial impacts on the operation of the existing electricity system due to the fluctuating behaviour and unpredictability of wind power. The presented stochastic electricity market model optimises the unit commitment considering four...... kinds of electricity markets (e.g. a spot and balancing market) and taking into account the stochastic behaviour of the wind power generation and of the prediction error. It can be used for the evaluation of varying electricity prices and system costs due to wind power integration...

  9. Integration of large amounts of wind power. Markets for trading imbalances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neimane, Viktoria; Axelsson, Urban [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Gustafsson, Johan; Gustafsson, Kristian [Vattenfall Nordic Generation Management, Stockholm (Sweden); Murray, Robin [Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    The well-known concerns about wind power are related to its intermittent nature and difficulty to make exact forecasts. The expected increase in balancing and reserve requirements due to wind power has been investigated in several studies. This paper takes the next step in studying integration of large amounts of wind power in Sweden. Several wind power producers' and corresponding balance providers' perspective is taken and their imbalance costs modeled. Larger producers having wind power spread over larger geographical areas will have lower relative costs than producers having their units concentrated within limited geographical area. Possibilities of the wind power producers to reduce the imbalance costs by acting on after sales market are exposed and compared. (orig.)

  10. Grid integration impacts on wind turbine design and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overall perspective on contemporary issues like wind power plants and grid integration. The purpose is to present and discuss the impacts of emerging new grid connection requirements on modern wind turbines. The grid integration issue has caused several new challenges...... to the wind turbine design and development. The survival of different wind turbine concepts and controls is strongly conditioned by their ability to comply with stringent grid connection requirements, imposed by utility companies. Beside its impact on the mechanical design and control of wind turbines......, the grid integration aspect has also an effect on wind turbines' role in the power system, on wind turbine technologies' survival on the market, as well as on the wind turbines' loads. Over the last years, it became obviously, that there it is an increasing need for design and research of wind turbines...

  11. Challenges and options for large scale integration of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, John Olav Giaever

    2006-01-01

    Challenges and options for large scale integration of wind power are examined. Immediate challenges are related to weak grids. Assessment of system stability requires numerical simulation. Models are being developed - validation is essential. Coordination of wind and hydro generation is a key for allowing more wind power capacity in areas with limited transmission corridors. For the case study grid depending on technology and control the allowed wind farm size is increased from 50 to 200 MW. The real life example from 8 January 2005 demonstrates that existing marked based mechanisms can handle large amounts of wind power. In wind integration studies it is essential to take account of the controllability of modern wind farms, the power system flexibility and the smoothing effect of geographically dispersed wind farms. Modern wind farms contribute to system adequacy - combining wind and hydro constitutes a win-win system (ml)

  12. Wind turbine reliability :understanding and minimizing wind turbine operation and maintenance costs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walford, Christopher A. (Global Energy Concepts. Kirkland, WA)

    2006-03-01

    Wind turbine system reliability is a critical factor in the success of a wind energy project. Poor reliability directly affects both the project's revenue stream through increased operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and reduced availability to generate power due to turbine downtime. Indirectly, the acceptance of wind-generated power by the financial and developer communities as a viable enterprise is influenced by the risk associated with the capital equipment reliability; increased risk, or at least the perception of increased risk, is generally accompanied by increased financing fees or interest rates. This paper outlines the issues relevant to wind turbine reliability for wind turbine power generation projects. The first sections describe the current state of the industry, identify the cost elements associated with wind farm O&M and availability and discuss the causes of uncertainty in estimating wind turbine component reliability. The latter sections discuss the means for reducing O&M costs and propose O&M related research and development efforts that could be pursued by the wind energy research community to reduce cost of energy.

  13. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1–5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists...

  14. Nebraska Statewide Wind Integration Study: April 2008 - January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EnerNex Corporation, Knoxville, Tennessee; Ventyx, Atlanta, Georgia; Nebraska Power Association, Lincoln, Nebraska

    2010-03-01

    Wind generation resources in Nebraska will play an increasingly important role in the environmental and energy security solutions for the state and the nation. In this context, the Nebraska Power Association conducted a state-wide wind integration study.

  15. Research Developments on Power System Integration of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Qiuwei, Wu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on the recent research activities and tendencies regarding grid integration of wind power in Denmark and some related European activities, including power electronics for enhancing wind power controllability, wind turbines and wind farms modeling,wind power...... variability and prediction, wind power plant ancillary services, grid connection and operation, Smart grids and demand side management under market functionality. The topics of the first group of PhD program starting 2011 under the wind energy Sino-Danish Centre for Education & Research (SDC) are also...

  16. Research Developments on Power System Integration of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on the recent research activities and tendencies regarding grid integration of wind power in Denmark and some related European activities, including power electronics for enhancing wind power controllability, wind turbines and wind farms modeling, wind power...... variability and prediction, wind power plant ancillary services, grid connection and operation, Smart grids and demand side management under market functionality. The topics of the first group of PhD program starting 2011 under the wind energy Sino-Danish Centre for Education & Research (SDC) are also...

  17. The environmental costs of wind energy in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares Llamas, P. [CIEMAT-IEE, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    This article summarizes the assessment of the environmental costs of the wind fuel cycle in Spain. It has been carried out within the ExternE project of the European Commission, and so it has been done following a site-, technology-specific methodology. The main impacts identified have been noise, and the loss of visual amenity. As a result some values for the external costs of wind energy have been obtained, which have shown to be much lower than those of conventional fuel cycles. It is also important to note that careful planning would avoid most of these costs. (author)

  18. Unravelling historical cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voormolen, J.A.; Junginger, H.M.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights in the cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe. This is done by analysing 46 operational offshore wind farms commissioned after 2000. An increase of the Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) is found that is linked to the distance to shore and depth of more recent wind farms and commodity prices. Analysis results indicate that these two factors are only responsible for about half of the observed CAPEX increase, suggesting other factors such as turbine market with limited competition also led to an increasing CAPEX. Using CAPEX, Annual Energy Production, Financings costs and Operational Expenditures, the development of average Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCoE) is shown to increase from 120 €/MWh in 2000 towards 190 €/MWh in 2014, which is a direct result of the CAPEX increase. The results indicate very different LCoE values among European countries, from currently about 100 Euro/MWh in Denmark and Sweden to 150-220 Euro/MWh in all other countries investigated suggesting an effect of national policy frameworks on the LCoE of offshore wind energy. - Highlights: • New insights in cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe. • Increase of CAPEX is linked to distance to shore and depth. • Increase of CAPEX partly due to limited competition in turbine market. • Levelized cost of electricity increases from 120 €/MWh in 2000 towards 190 €/MWh in 2014.

  19. Natural wind variability triggered drop in German redispatch volume and costs from 2015 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohland, Jan; Reyers, Mark; Märker, Carolin; Witthaut, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Avoiding dangerous climate change necessitates the decarbonization of electricity systems within the next few decades. In Germany, this decarbonization is based on an increased exploitation of variable renewable electricity sources such as wind and solar power. While system security has remained constantly high, the integration of renewables causes additional costs. In 2015, the costs of grid management saw an all time high of about € 1 billion. Despite the addition of renewable capacity, these costs dropped substantially in 2016. We thus investigate the effect of natural climate variability on grid management costs in this study. We show that the decline is triggered by natural wind variability focusing on redispatch as a main cost driver. In particular, we find that 2016 was a weak year in terms of wind generation averages and the occurrence of westerly circulation weather types. Moreover, we show that a simple model based on the wind generation time series is skillful in detecting redispatch events on timescales of weeks and beyond. As a consequence, alterations in annual redispatch costs in the order of hundreds of millions of euros need to be understood and communicated as a normal feature of the current system due to natural wind variability.

  20. Natural wind variability triggered drop in German redispatch volume and costs from 2015 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyers, Mark; Märker, Carolin; Witthaut, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Avoiding dangerous climate change necessitates the decarbonization of electricity systems within the next few decades. In Germany, this decarbonization is based on an increased exploitation of variable renewable electricity sources such as wind and solar power. While system security has remained constantly high, the integration of renewables causes additional costs. In 2015, the costs of grid management saw an all time high of about € 1 billion. Despite the addition of renewable capacity, these costs dropped substantially in 2016. We thus investigate the effect of natural climate variability on grid management costs in this study. We show that the decline is triggered by natural wind variability focusing on redispatch as a main cost driver. In particular, we find that 2016 was a weak year in terms of wind generation averages and the occurrence of westerly circulation weather types. Moreover, we show that a simple model based on the wind generation time series is skillful in detecting redispatch events on timescales of weeks and beyond. As a consequence, alterations in annual redispatch costs in the order of hundreds of millions of euros need to be understood and communicated as a normal feature of the current system due to natural wind variability. PMID:29329349

  1. Integrating Wind And Solar With Hydrogen Producing Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The often proposed solution for the fluctuating wind energy supply is the conversion of the surplus of wind energy into hydrogen by means of electrolysis. In this paper a patented alternative is proposed consisting of the integration of wind turbines with internal reforming fuel-cells, capable of

  2. Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Farms via VSC-HVDC – Dynamic Stability Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongzhi

    Offshore wind farms tend towards larger capacity to make good use of the stronger winds and allow improved fixed cost allocation. An offshore wind farm could be sized at hundreds of MWs, which is competitive with conventional power plants. Consequently, grid integration of such size offshore wind...... farms could seriously impact the operation and stability of their interconnected power system. To assist in maintaining the power system stability when large disturbances occur in the grid, modern offshore wind farms consisting of variable-speed wind turbines are required to provide ancillary services...... such as voltage and frequency control. The greater distance to shore makes commonly used high voltage AC (HVAC) connection unsuitable economically and technically for large offshore wind farms. Alternatively, voltage source converter (VSC)-based high voltage DC (HVDC) transmission becomes more attractive...

  3. Integrated Nucleosynthesis in Neutrino Driven Winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, L F; Woosley, S E; Hoffman, R D

    2010-03-26

    Although they are but a small fraction of the mass ejected in core-collapse supernovae, neutrino-driven winds (NDWs) from nascent proto-neutron stars (PNSs) have the potential to contribute significantly to supernova nucleosynthesis. In previous works, the NDW has been implicated as a possible source of r-process and light p-process isotopes. In this paper we present time-dependent hydrodynamic calculations of nucleosynthesis in the NDW which include accurate weak interaction physics coupled to a full nuclear reaction network. Using two published models of PNS neutrino luminosities, we predict the contribution of the NDW to the integrated nucleosynthetic yield of the entire supernova. For the neutrino luminosity histories considered, no true r-process occurs in the most basic scenario. The wind driven from an older 1.4M{sub {circle_dot}} model for a PNS is moderately neutron-rich at late times however, and produces {sup 87}Rb, {sup 88}Sr, {sup 89}Y, and {sup 90}Zr in near solar proportions relative to oxygen. The wind from a more recently studied 1.27M{sub {circle_dot}} PNS is proton-rich throughout its entire evolution and does not contribute significantly to the abundance of any element. It thus seems very unlikely that the simplest model of the NDW can produce the r-process. At most, it contributes to the production of the N = 50 closed shell elements and some light p-nuclei. In doing so, it may have left a distinctive signature on the abundances in metal poor stars, but the results are sensitive to both uncertain models for the explosion and the masses of the neutron stars involved.

  4. Review of Energy Storage System for Wind Power Integration Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Hu, Shuju

    2015-01-01

    -discharging characteristics, Energy Storage System (ESS) is considered as an effective tool to enhance the flexibility and controllability not only of a specific wind farm, but also of the entire grid. This paper reviews the state of the art of the ESS technologies for wind power integration support from different aspects......With the rapid growth of wind energy development and increasing wind power penetration level, it will be a big challenge to operate the power system with high wind power penetration securely and reliably due to the inherent variability and uncertainty of wind power. With the flexible charging...

  5. WINS. Market Simulation Tool for Facilitating Wind Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-10-30

    Integrating 20% or more wind energy into the system and transmitting large sums of wind energy over long distances will require a decision making capability that can handle very large scale power systems with tens of thousands of buses and lines. There is a need to explore innovative analytical and implementation solutions for continuing reliable operations with the most economical integration of additional wind energy in power systems. A number of wind integration solution paths involve the adoption of new operating policies, dynamic scheduling of wind power across interties, pooling integration services, and adopting new transmission scheduling practices. Such practices can be examined by the decision tool developed by this project. This project developed a very efficient decision tool called Wind INtegration Simulator (WINS) and applied WINS to facilitate wind energy integration studies. WINS focused on augmenting the existing power utility capabilities to support collaborative planning, analysis, and wind integration project implementations. WINS also had the capability of simulating energy storage facilities so that feasibility studies of integrated wind energy system applications can be performed for systems with high wind energy penetrations. The development of WINS represents a major expansion of a very efficient decision tool called POwer Market Simulator (POMS), which was developed by IIT and has been used extensively for power system studies for decades. Specifically, WINS provides the following superiorities; (1) An integrated framework is included in WINS for the comprehensive modeling of DC transmission configurations, including mono-pole, bi-pole, tri-pole, back-to-back, and multi-terminal connection, as well as AC/DC converter models including current source converters (CSC) and voltage source converters (VSC); (2) An existing shortcoming of traditional decision tools for wind integration is the limited availability of user interface, i.e., decision

  6. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.; King, J.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation accompanies Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, a follow-on to Phase 1, which examined the operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation on the electric power system in the West and was one of the largest variable generation studies to date. High penetrations of variable generation can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 calculated these costs and emissions, and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of variable generation on the fossil-fueled fleet. The presentation highlights the scope of the study and results.

  7. Operating Reserves and Wind Power Integration: An International Comparison; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Donohoo, P.; Lew, D.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Lannoye, E.; Flynn, D.; O' Malley, M.; Miller, N.; Eriksen, P. B.; Gottig, A.; Rawn, B.; Gibescu, M.; Lazaro, E. G.; Robitaille, A.; Kamwa, I.

    2010-10-01

    This paper provides a high-level international comparison of methods and key results from both operating practice and integration analysis, based on an informal International Energy Agency Task 25: Large-scale Wind Integration.

  8. Utility Wind Integration and Operating Impact - State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. C.; Milligan, M. R.; DeMeo, E. A.; Parsons, B.

    2007-08-01

    At the end of 2005, the Power Engineering Society (PES) published a special issue of its Power & Energy Magazine that focused on integrating wind into the power system. This paper provides a summary and update on many of the salient points from that special issue about the current state of knowledge regarding utility wind integration issues.

  9. Integrated municipal wind power concepts; Windenergienutzung im staedtischen Verbund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbert, D.; Richert, F. [Ventis Energietechnik GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    The role of wind power in the industrial sector currently depends very much on its technical and economic integrability in existing conventional supply structures. The most important questions in this context relate to capacity effects, adapted operating methods of conventional power suppliers, and, most important of all, operational energy production costs. In some regions alternative energy supply concepts are not yet or not sufficiently available. However, these will nevertheless offer ways of installing energy systems with a large renewable segment. The chances of bringing such projects to fruition depend for one thing on the climate, which may either stimulate or deter from development work on renewables (wind power, solar energy), and for another, often in apparent opposition to the former, on the oftentimes poorly developed infrastructure and economic strength of the region in question. [Deutsch] Die Bedeutung der Windenergienutzung im industrialisierten Bereich ist derzeit verknuepft mit deren technischen und oekonomischen Integrationsfaehigkeit in bestehende, konventionelle Versorgungsstrukturen. Im Vordergrund steht hierbei die Klaerung der Fragestellungen nach Kapazitaetseffekten, angepassten Betriebsweisen konventioneller Stromerzeuger und, in erster Linie, betriebswirtschaftlichen Energieerzeugungskosten. Derzeit bieten die Regionen, in denen eine anderweitige Versorgung noch nicht oder in nicht ausreichendem Masse existieren Moeglichkeiten zur Installation von Energiesystemen mit hoher regenerativer Durchdringung. Fuer die Realisation solcher Projekte stehen sich haeufig die klimatischen Bedingungen, die einerseits z.T. die Ursache fuer den geringen Entwicklungsstand sind, andererseits aber auch guenstige Voraussetzungen fuer die Nutzung regenerativer Energien (Wind, Sonne) bieten, der meist schlechten Infrastruktur und der geringen Wirtschaftskraft gegenueber. (orig./MSK)

  10. Feasibility of small wind turbines in Ontario: Integrating power curves with wind trends

    OpenAIRE

    Ashtine, Masaō; Bello, Richard; Higuchi, Kaz

    2016-01-01

    Micro-scale/small wind turbines, unlike larger utility-scale turbines, produce electricity at a rate of 300 W to 10 kW at their rated wind speed and are typically below 30 m in hub-height. These wind turbines have much more flexibility in their costs, maintenance and siting owing to their size and can provided wind energy in areas much less suited for direct supply to the grid system. The small wind industry has been substantially slow to progress in Ontario, Canada, and there is much debate ...

  11. Power Loss Analysis for Wind Power Grid Integration Based on Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al Ameri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth of electrical demand increases the need of renewable energy sources, such as wind energy, to meet that need. Electrical power losses are an important factor when wind farm location and size are selected. The capitalized cost of constant power losses during the life of a wind farm will continue to high levels. During the operation period, a method to determine if the losses meet the requirements of the design is significantly needed. This article presents a Simulink simulation of wind farm integration into the grid; the aim is to achieve a better understanding of wind variation impact on grid losses. The real power losses are set as a function of the annual variation, considering a Weibull distribution. An analytical method has been used to select the size and placement of a wind farm, taking into account active power loss reduction. It proposes a fast linear model estimation to find the optimal capacity of a wind farm based on DC power flow and graph theory. The results show that the analytical approach is capable of predicting the optimal size and location of wind turbines. Furthermore, it revealed that the annual variation of wind speed could have a strong effect on real power loss calculations. In addition to helping to improve utility efficiency, the proposed method can develop specific designs to speeding up integration of wind farms into grids.

  12. Empirical Analysis of the Variability of Wind Generation in India: Implications for Grid Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, NIkit; Rao, Poorvi

    2014-06-17

    We analyze variability in load and wind generation in India to assess its implications for grid integration of large scale wind projects using actual wind generation and load data from two states in India, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. We compare the largest variations in load and net load (load ?wind, i.e., load after integrating wind) that the generation fleet has to meet. In Tamil Nadu, where wind capacity is about 53percent of the peak demand, we find that the additional variation added due to wind over the current variation in load is modest; if wind penetration reaches 15percent and 30percent by energy, the additional hourly variation is less than 0.5percent and 4.5percent of the peak demand respectively for 99percent of the time. For wind penetration of 15percent by energy, Tamil Nadu system is found to be capable of meeting the additional ramping requirement for 98.8percent of the time. Potential higher uncertainty in net load compared to load is found to have limited impact on ramping capability requirements of the system if coal plants can me ramped down to 50percent of their capacity. Load and wind aggregation in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka is found to lower the variation by at least 20percent indicating the benefits geographic diversification. These findings suggest modest additional flexible capacity requirements and costs for absorbing variation in wind power and indicate that the potential capacity support (if wind does not generate enough during peak periods) may be the issue that has more bearing on the economics of integrating wind

  13. Cost analysis of DAWT innovative wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, K. M.

    The results of a diffuser augmented wind turbine (DAWT) preliminary design study of three constructional material approaches and cost analysis of DAWT electrical energy generation are presented. Costs are estimated assuming a limited production run (100 to 500 units) of factory-built subassemblies and on-site final assembly and erection within 200 miles of regional production centers. It is concluded that with the DAWT the (busbar) cost of electricity (COE) can range between 2.0 and 3.5 cents/kW-hr for farm and REA cooperative end users, for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credit incentives are included in these figures. For commercial end users of the same units and site characteristics, the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents/kW-hr.

  14. Estimating the impact of wind generation and wind forecast errors on energy prices and costs in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Swinand, Gregory P; O'Mahoney, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of wind generation on system costs and prices in Ireland. The need to mitigate climate change, achieve renewables energy targets, and use renewable sources of energy means that many countries are considering greater levels of wind generation in their power generation mix. The overall impact of wind generation on system costs and performance has only been studied recently, and often with limited actual data from power systems with increased wind penetration. The p...

  15. Cost-efficient foundation structures for large offshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, C.; Gormsen, C.; Lyngesen, S.; Rasmussen, J. L.; Juhl, H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the development of a cost-efficient foundation for large (1.5 MW) offshore wind farms at water depth of 5 to 11 m. Previously, medium sized wind turbines (500 kW) in Denmark have been installed offshore at water depths of approximately 5 m on concrete gravity foundations. The installation of larger turbines at greater depth does, however, hold great promise in terms of wind environment and environmental considerations. The costs of a traditional gravity foundation at these increased water depths is expected to be prohibitive, and the aim of the project has been to reduce the foundations costs in general. This paper describes the theoretical basis for the geotechnical and structural design of three alternative concepts and presents an optimised layout of each based on a research and development project. The basis has been a wind farm consisting of 100 turbines. The R and D project has been undertaken by the consulting engineers Nellemann, Nielsen and Rauschenberger A/S (Gravity foundation), LICengineering A/S (Mono pile) and Ramboell (Tripod) in co-operation with the Danish utility engineering companies Elkraft and Elsamprojekt A/S. The project was partly financed by the participants and by the Danish Energy Agency through their 1996 Energy Research Programme (EFP-96). (au) 18 refs

  16. Spatio-temporal data analytics for wind energy integration

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents spatio-temporal data analytics for wind energy integration using stochastic modeling and optimization methods. It explores techniques for efficiently integrating renewable energy generation into bulk power grids. The operational challenges of wind, and its variability are carefully examined. A spatio-temporal analysis approach enables the authors to develop Markov-chain-based short-term forecasts of wind farm power generation. To deal with the wind ramp dynamics, a support vector machine enhanced Markov model is introduced. The stochastic optimization of economic di

  17. Hawaii Utility Integration Initiatives to Enable Wind (Wind HUI) Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dora Nakafuji; Lisa Dangelmaier; Chris Reynolds

    2012-07-15

    monitoring using PMU devices and enhanced grid analysis tools; and Initiative 3: Identifying grid automation and smart technology architecture retrofit/improvement opportunities following a systematic review approach, inclusive of increasing renewables and variable distributed generation. Each of the initiative was conducted in partnership with industry technology and equipment providers to facilitate utility deployment experiences inform decision making, assess supporting infrastructure cost considerations, showcase state of the technology, address integration hurdles with viable workarounds. For each initiative, a multi-phased approach was followed that included 1) investigative planning and review of existing state-of-the-art, 2) hands on deployment experiences and 3) process implementation considerations. Each phase of the approach allowed for mid-course corrections, process review and change to any equipment/devices to be used by the utilities. To help the island grids transform legacy infrastructure, the Wind HUI provided more systematic approaches and exposure with vendor/manufacturers, hand-on review and experience with the equipment not only from the initial planning stages but through to deployment and assessment of field performance of some of the new, remote sensing and high-resolution grid monitoring technologies. HELCO became one of the first utilities in the nation to install and operate a high resolution (WindNet) network of remote sensing devices such as radiometers and SODARs to enable a short-term ramp event forecasting capability. This utility-industry and federal government partnership produced new information on wind energy forecasting including new data additions to the NOAA MADIS database; addressed remote sensing technology performance and O&M (operations and maintenance) challenges; assessed legacy equipment compatibility issues and technology solutions; evaluated cyber-security concerns; and engaged in community outreach opportunities that will

  18. The informed application of building-integrated wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breshears, J.; Briscoe, C. [Zimmer Gunsal Frasca Architects, Portland, OR (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on an exercise that was undertaken to integrate small-scale wind turbines into the design of an urban high-rise in Portland, Oregon. Wind behaviour in the urban environment is very complex, as the flow of wind over and around buildings often triggers multiple transitions of the air from laminar flow to turbulent. The study documented the process of moving beyond a simplistic approach to a truly informed application of building-integrated wind generation. The 4 key issues addressed in the study process were quantifying the geographical wind regime; predicting wind flow over the building; turbine selection; and pragmatics regarding the design of roof mounting to accommodate structural loads and mitigate vibration. The results suggested that the turbine array should produce in the range of only 1 per cent of the electrical load of the building. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Grid Integration and Dynamic Impact of Wind Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Vittal, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Grid Integration and Dynamic Impact of Wind Energy details the integration of wind energy resources to the electric grid worldwide. Authors Vijay Vittal and Raja Ayyanar include detailed coverage of the power converters and control used in interfacing electric machines and power converters used in wind generators, and extensive descriptions of power systems operation and control to accommodate large penetration of wind resources. Key concepts will be illustrated through extensive power electronics and power systems simulations using software like MATLAB, Simulink and PLECS. The book addresses real world problems and solutions in the area of grid integration of wind resources, and will be a valuable resource for engineers and researchers working in renewable energy and power.

  20. Integration of Variable Generation and Cost-Causation (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-01

    Variable renewable energy generation sources, such as wind and solar energy, provide benefits such as reduced environmental impact, zero fuel consumption, and low and stable costs. Advances in both technologies can reduce capital costs and provide significant control capabilities. However, their variability and uncertainty - which change with weather conditions, time of day, and season - can cause an increase in power system operating costs compared to a fully controllable power plant. Although a number of studies have assessed integration costs, calculating them correctly is challenging because it is difficult to accurately develop a baseline scenario without variable generation that properly accounts for the energy value. It is also difficult to appropriately allocate costs given the complex, nonlinear interactions between resources and loads.

  1. Cost reduction potentials of offshore wind power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobohm, Jens; Krampe, Leonard; Peter, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind power is a major hope for the German energy turnaround. However, it will only be possible to tap its cost reduction potentials if industry, the political leadership and the administrative authorities join forces to create the necessary preconditions. An important requirement for this capital-intensive technology are stable legal and political framework conditions. A recent study on the future shows what needs to be done.

  2. Feasibility of Small Wind Turbines in Ontario: Integrating Power Curves with Wind Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Masaō Ashtine; Richard Bello; Kaz Higuchi

    2016-01-01

    Micro-scale/small wind turbines, unlike larger utility-scale turbines, produce electricity at a rate of 300 W to 10 kW at their rated wind speed and are typically below 30 m in hub-height. These wind turbines have much more flexibility in their costs, maintenance and siting, owing to their size, and can provided wind energy in areas much less suited for direct supply to the grid system. In the future under climate change, the energy landscape will likely shift from the present centralized ele...

  3. Integrated simulation challenges with the DeepWind floating vertical axis wind turbine concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Borg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences and challenges with concurrently carrying out numerical model development, integrated simulations and design of a novel floating vertical axis wind turbine, the DeepWind concept. The floating VAWT modelling capabilities of the aero-hydro-elastic HAWC2 simulation...

  4. Integrated spatial assessment of wind erosion risk in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Négyesi, Gábor; Laborczi, Annamária; Kovács, Tamás; László, Elemér; Bihari, Zita

    2016-11-01

    Wind erosion susceptibility of Hungarian soils was mapped on the national level integrating three factors of the complex phenomenon of deflation (physical soil features, wind characteristics, and land use and land cover). Results of wind tunnel experiments on erodibility of representative soil samples were used for the parametrization of a countrywide map of soil texture compiled for the upper 5 cm layer of soil, which resulted in a map representing threshold wind velocity exceedance. Average wind velocity was spatially estimated with 0.5' resolution using the Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenised Data Basis (MISH) method elaborated for the spatial interpolation of surface meteorological elements. The probability of threshold wind velocity exceedance was determined based on values predicted by the soil texture map at the grid locations. Ratio values were further interpolated to a finer 1 ha resolution using sand and silt content of the uppermost (0-5 cm) layer of soil as spatial co-variables. Land cover was also taken into account, excluding areas that are not relevant to wind erosion (forests, water bodies, settlements, etc.), to spatially assess the risk of wind erosion. According to the resulting map of wind erosion susceptibility, about 10 % of the total area of Hungary can be identified as susceptible to wind erosion. The map gives more detailed insight into the spatial distribution of wind-affected areas in Hungary compared to previous studies.

  5. Integrated spatial assessment of wind erosion risk in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pásztor

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion susceptibility of Hungarian soils was mapped on the national level integrating three factors of the complex phenomenon of deflation (physical soil features, wind characteristics, and land use and land cover. Results of wind tunnel experiments on erodibility of representative soil samples were used for the parametrization of a countrywide map of soil texture compiled for the upper 5 cm layer of soil, which resulted in a map representing threshold wind velocity exceedance. Average wind velocity was spatially estimated with 0.5′ resolution using the Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenised Data Basis (MISH method elaborated for the spatial interpolation of surface meteorological elements. The probability of threshold wind velocity exceedance was determined based on values predicted by the soil texture map at the grid locations. Ratio values were further interpolated to a finer 1 ha resolution using sand and silt content of the uppermost (0–5 cm layer of soil as spatial co-variables. Land cover was also taken into account, excluding areas that are not relevant to wind erosion (forests, water bodies, settlements, etc., to spatially assess the risk of wind erosion. According to the resulting map of wind erosion susceptibility, about 10 % of the total area of Hungary can be identified as susceptible to wind erosion. The map gives more detailed insight into the spatial distribution of wind-affected areas in Hungary compared to previous studies.

  6. Fuzzy maintenance costs of a wind turbine pitch control device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of estimation maintenance costs for the case of the pitch controls system of wind farms turbines. Previous investigations have estimated these costs as (traditional “crisp” values, simply ignoring the uncertainty nature of data and information available. This paper purposes an extended version of the estimation model by making use of the Fuzzy Set Theory. The results alert decision-makers to consequent uncertainty of the estimations along with their overall level, thus improving the information given to the mainte-nance support system.

  7. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Phase 2 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation summarizes the scope and results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  8. Integrated Design Tools Reduce Risk, Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Thanks in part to a SBIR award with Langley Research Center, Phoenix Integration Inc., based in Wayne, Pennsylvania, modified and advanced software for process integration and design automation. For NASA, the tool has resulted in lower project costs and reductions in design time; clients of Phoenix Integration are experiencing the same rewards.

  9. Economic Impact Assessment of Wind Power Integration: A Quasi-Public Goods Property Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The integration of wind power into power grid will bring some impacts on the multiple subjects of electric power system. Economic impacts of wind power integration on multiple subjects of China’s electric power system were quantitatively assessed from Quasi-public goods property perspective in this paper. Firstly, the Quasi-public goods property of transmission services provided by power grid corporations was elaborated. Secondly, the multiple subjects of China’s electric power system, which include electricity generation enterprises (EGEs, power grid corporations (PGCs, electricity consumers (ECs, and environment, were detailed analyzed. Thirdly, based on the OPF-based nodal price model and transmission service cost allocation model, the economic impact assessment model of wind power integration was built from Quasi-public goods property perspective. Then, the IEEE-24 bus system employed in this paper was introduced according to current status of China’s electric power system, and the modeling of wind turbine was also introduced. Finally, the simulation analysis was performed, and the economic impacts of wind power integration on EGEs, PGCs, ECs and Environment were calculated. The results indicate, from Quasi-public goods property perspective, the wind power integration will bring positive impacts on EGEs, PGCs and Environment, while negative impacts on ECs. The findings can provide references for power system managers, energy planners, and policy makers.

  10. Integrating Systems Health Management with Adaptive Controls for a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Goebel, Kai; Trinh, Khanh V.; Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. Systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage. Advanced adaptive controls can provide the mechanism to enable optimized operations that also provide the enabling technology for Systems Health Management goals. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency management and adaptive controls. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  11. Power System Operation with Large Scale Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suwannarat, A.; Bak-Jensen, B.; Chen, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The Danish power system starts to face problems of integrating thousands megawatts of wind power, which produce in a stochastic behavior due to natural wind fluctuations. With wind power capacities increasing, the Danish Transmission System Operator (TSO) is faced with new challenges related...... to the uncertain nature of wind power. In this paper, proposed models of generations and control system are presented which analyze the deviation of power exchange at the western Danish-German border, taking into account the fluctuating nature of wind power. The performance of the secondary control of the thermal...... power plants and the spinning reserves control from the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units to achieve active power balance with the increased wind power penetration is presented....

  12. System and market integration of wind power in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Alberg Østergaard, Poul

    2013-01-01

    . To analyse the remaining 37 per cent, we must apply a market model to identify cause-effect relationships. The Danish case does not illustrate any upper limit for wind power integration, as also illustrated by Danish political targets to integrate 50 per cent by 2020. In recent years, Danish wind power has...... been financed solely by the electricity consumers, while maintaining production prices below the EU average. The net influence from wind power has been as low as 1e3 per cent of the consumer price. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Generator Rescheduling under Congested Power System with Wind Integrated Competitive Power Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhan Gope

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Integration of renewable energy like wind or solar energy creates a huge pressure to the system operator (SO to ensure the congestion free transmission network under deregulated power market. Congestion Management (CM with integration of wind farm in double auction electricity market are described in this work to minimize fuel cost, system losses and locational marginal price (LMP of the system. Location of Wind Farm (WF is identified based by using Bus sensitivity factor (BSF, which is also used for selection of load bus for double auction bidding (DAB. The impacts of wind farm in congested power system under deregulated environment have been investigated in this work. Modified 39-bus New England test system is used for demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented approach by using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP.

  14. Cost analysis and optimisation of offshore wind energy converter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, S.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this project was to estimate the price of the energy produced by offshore wind energy converters (OWECS), with special respect to the influence of the support structure, the grid connection and operation and maintenance. An economic model based on a physical approach suitable for parameter studies has been developed and implemented in a computer code (SCOptiM or Simple Cost Optimization Program). The model of the wind energy converter system is divided in three main subsystems: the support structure, the tower head (i.e. rotor and machinery) and the grid connection. The manufacturing costs of the support structure are calculated based on the amount of material that is required regarding the extreme loads and other design criteria, e.g. fundamental eigenfrequency, buckling, tower height, etc. The support structure design is a stepped monopile, each section with constant diameter and wall thickness. Each design criterion is expressed as a relation between the diameter and the wall thickness. These relations define the allowed design areas which meet all conditions, for soft-soft, soft-stiff and stiff tower design as well. Three state-of-the-art turbines (0.5 MW, 1.2 MW and 3 MW) were chosen and supplied with the necessary offshore features. The additional costs are estimated with data given by the manufacturers. An estimate of the costs for the grid connection is derived by an empirical model based on the British Phase IIC Study. Finally, the price of the produced energy is calculated by using a simple discounted cash flow analysis that considers the operation costs as well. A recalculation of two former studies and one offshore project showed, that, in its range of validity, the model is an appropriate tool to give a first estimate of the costs of an offshore wind farm. At three reference sites two in the North Sea and one in the IJsselmeer, offshore wind energy farms were placed and optimized regarding the price of energy. The lowest price of

  15. Realistic costs of wind-hydrogen vehicle fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnemann, J.; Steinberger-Wilckens, R. [PLANET - Planungsgruppe Energie und Technik GbR, P.O. Box 4003, D-26030 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Electricity grids with a high penetration of fluctuating energy production from wind and solar energy sources bear a risk of electricity over-production. A surplus of renewable energy can arise at times of high production when the energy volume cannot be absorbed by the electricity grid. Furthermore, the control of the stochastic power fluctuations has to be addressed since these will result in changes to grid stability. Producing hydrogen from excess electricity is one approach to solve these problems. This hydrogen can either be sold outside the electricity market, for instance as vehicle fuel, or re-converted into electricity, for instance as a means of controlling wind power output. This paper describes two different wind-hydrogen systems and analyses the ensuing costs of hydrogen per unit of energy service (i.e. kWh and Nm{sup 3}). If hydrogen is to represent a practical fuel alternative, it has to compete with conventional energy carriers. If this is not possible on strictly (micro-) economic terms, at least a macro-economic calculation, in this case including all external costs of energy services, needs to show competitiveness. (author)

  16. Small UAS-Based Wind Feature Identification System Part 1: Integration and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Salazar, Leopoldo; Cobano, Jose A; Ollero, Anibal

    2016-12-23

    This paper presents a system for identification of wind features, such as gusts and wind shear. These are of particular interest in the context of energy-efficient navigation of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The proposed system generates real-time wind vector estimates and a novel algorithm to generate wind field predictions. Estimations are based on the integration of an off-the-shelf navigation system and airspeed readings in a so-called direct approach. Wind predictions use atmospheric models to characterize the wind field with different statistical analyses. During the prediction stage, the system is able to incorporate, in a big-data approach, wind measurements from previous flights in order to enhance the approximations. Wind estimates are classified and fitted into a Weibull probability density function. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is utilized to determine the shaping and scale parameters of the distribution, which are employed to determine the most probable wind speed at a certain position. The system uses this information to characterize a wind shear or a discrete gust and also utilizes a Gaussian Process regression to characterize continuous gusts. The knowledge of the wind features is crucial for computing energy-efficient trajectories with low cost and payload. Therefore, the system provides a solution that does not require any additional sensors. The system architecture presents a modular decentralized approach, in which the main parts of the system are separated in modules and the exchange of information is managed by a communication handler to enhance upgradeability and maintainability. Validation is done providing preliminary results of both simulations and Software-In-The-Loop testing. Telemetry data collected from real flights, performed in the Seville Metropolitan Area in Andalusia (Spain), was used for testing. Results show that wind estimation and predictions can be calculated at 1 Hz and a wind map can be updated at 0.4 Hz . Predictions

  17. Small UAS-Based Wind Feature Identification System Part 1: Integration and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Rodriguez Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system for identification of wind features, such as gusts and wind shear. These are of particular interest in the context of energy-efficient navigation of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS. The proposed system generates real-time wind vector estimates and a novel algorithm to generate wind field predictions. Estimations are based on the integration of an off-the-shelf navigation system and airspeed readings in a so-called direct approach. Wind predictions use atmospheric models to characterize the wind field with different statistical analyses. During the prediction stage, the system is able to incorporate, in a big-data approach, wind measurements from previous flights in order to enhance the approximations. Wind estimates are classified and fitted into a Weibull probability density function. A Genetic Algorithm (GA is utilized to determine the shaping and scale parameters of the distribution, which are employed to determine the most probable wind speed at a certain position. The system uses this information to characterize a wind shear or a discrete gust and also utilizes a Gaussian Process regression to characterize continuous gusts. The knowledge of the wind features is crucial for computing energy-efficient trajectories with low cost and payload. Therefore, the system provides a solution that does not require any additional sensors. The system architecture presents a modular decentralized approach, in which the main parts of the system are separated in modules and the exchange of information is managed by a communication handler to enhance upgradeability and maintainability. Validation is done providing preliminary results of both simulations and Software-In-The-Loop testing. Telemetry data collected from real flights, performed in the Seville Metropolitan Area in Andalusia (Spain, was used for testing. Results show that wind estimation and predictions can be calculated at 1 Hz and a wind map can be updated at 0.4 Hz

  18. Exploration of dispatch model integrating wind generators and electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, A.N.M.M.; Ibn Saif, A.U.N.; Nguyen, P.H.; Torbaghan, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel business model for the BRPs is analyzed. • Imbalance cost of wind generation is considered in the UC-ED model. • Smart charging of EVs is included into the UC-ED problem to mitigate the imbalance cost. • Effects of smart charging on generation cost, CO 2 emissions and total network load are assessed. - Abstract: In recent years, the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity generation mix has been expanding rapidly. However, limited predictability of the RES poses challenges for traditional scheduling and dispatching mechanisms based on unit commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED). This paper presents an advanced UC-ED model to incorporate wind generators as RES-based units alongside conventional centralized generators. In the proposed UC-ED model, an imbalance cost is introduced reflecting the wind generation uncertainty along with the marginal generation cost. The proposed UC-ED model aims to utilize the flexibility of fleets of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to optimally compensate for the wind generation uncertainty. A case study with 15 conventional units and 3 wind farms along with a fixed-sized PEV fleet demonstrates that shifting of PEV fleets charging at times of high wind availability realizes generation cost savings. Nevertheless, the operational cost saving incurred by controlled charging appears to diminish when dispatched wind energy becomes considerably larger than the charging energy of PEV fleets. Further analysis of the results reveals that the effectiveness of PEV control strategy in terms of CO 2 emission reduction is strongly coupled with generation mix and the proposed control strategy is favored in cases where less pollutant-based plants like nuclear and hydro power are profoundly dominant.

  19. Cost analysis and optimization of offshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, M.; Pauling, T.; Kohler, S.

    1996-01-01

    At present, offshore wind energy is taken more and more into consideration as a serious option for electricity production. But still, its cost have so far been regarded as not competitive. A recently developed cost model is applied on site and design analyses as well as design optimizations. According to this model, the resulting energy prices range between 0.07 and 0.09 ECU/kWh for four offshore sites in the North Sea, Baltic Sea and the Atlantic. Furthermore, a cost distribution of about 1/3 for each turbine, support structure and grid connection has been derived for a typical offshore site. The influence of site, design and economic parameters is investigated by means of sensitivity studies. Moreover, a design optimization is done for the farm size, turbine rating, support structure design and hub height. (author)

  20. International energy technology collaboration: wind power integration into electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justus, D.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid growth of wind power since the 1990s has led to notable market shares in some electricity markets. This growth is concentrated in a few countries with effective Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) programmes and with policies that support its diffusion into the market place. The speed and depth of its penetration in these electricity markets have amplified the need to address grid integration concerns, so as not to impede the further penetration of wind power. Research on technologies, tools and practices for integrating large amounts of wind power into electricity supply systems is attempting to respond to this need. In recent years, existing international collaborative research efforts have expanded their focus to include grid integration of wind power and new consortia have been formed to pool knowledge and resources. Effective results benefit a few countries that already have a significant amount of wind in their electricity supply fuel mix, as well as to the potential large markets worldwide. This paper focuses on the challenge of bringing significant amounts of intermittent generating sources into grids dominated by large central generating units. It provides a brief overview of the growth of wind power, mainly since 1990, the technical and operational issues related to integration and selected collaborative programmes underway to address grid integration concerns. (author)

  1. Determining the impact of wind on system costs via the temporal patterns of load and wind generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Clay D.; Gotham, Douglas J.; Preckel, Paul V.; Liu, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Ambitious targets have been set for expanding electricity generation from renewable sources, including wind. Expanding wind power impacts needs for other electricity generating resources. As states plan for increasing levels of wind generation in their portfolio of generation resources it is important to consider how this intermittent resource impacts the need for other generation resources. A case study for Indiana estimates the value of wind capacity and demonstrates how to optimize its level and the levels of other generation resources. Changes are driven by temporal patterns of wind power output and load. System wide impacts are calculated for energy, capacity, and costs under multiple wind expansion scenarios which highlight the geographic characteristics of a systems portfolio of wind generation. The impacts of carbon prices, as proposed in the Bingaman Bill, are considered. Finally, calculations showing the effect increasing levels of wind generation will have on end use Indiana retail rates are included. - Highlights: • We estimate the value of wind capacity. • We determine wind generation's impact on the optimal mix of non-wind generation. • Optimal levels of wind and non-wind generation are determined. • We consider the impact of a carbon price on the optimal mix of resources. • The impact of additional wind capacity on Indiana residential rates is calculated

  2. Optimal Wind Energy Integration in Large-Scale Electric Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaijat, Mohammad H.

    The major concern in electric grid operation is operating under the most economical and reliable fashion to ensure affordability and continuity of electricity supply. This dissertation investigates the effects of such challenges, which affect electric grid reliability and economic operations. These challenges are: 1. Congestion of transmission lines, 2. Transmission lines expansion, 3. Large-scale wind energy integration, and 4. Phaser Measurement Units (PMUs) optimal placement for highest electric grid observability. Performing congestion analysis aids in evaluating the required increase of transmission line capacity in electric grids. However, it is necessary to evaluate expansion of transmission line capacity on methods to ensure optimal electric grid operation. Therefore, the expansion of transmission line capacity must enable grid operators to provide low-cost electricity while maintaining reliable operation of the electric grid. Because congestion affects the reliability of delivering power and increases its cost, the congestion analysis in electric grid networks is an important subject. Consequently, next-generation electric grids require novel methodologies for studying and managing congestion in electric grids. We suggest a novel method of long-term congestion management in large-scale electric grids. Owing to the complication and size of transmission line systems and the competitive nature of current grid operation, it is important for electric grid operators to determine how many transmission lines capacity to add. Traditional questions requiring answers are "Where" to add, "How much of transmission line capacity" to add, and "Which voltage level". Because of electric grid deregulation, transmission lines expansion is more complicated as it is now open to investors, whose main interest is to generate revenue, to build new transmission lines. Adding a new transmission capacity will help the system to relieve the transmission system congestion, create

  3. Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chobot, Anthony; Das, Debarshi; Mayer, Tyler; Markey, Zach; Martinson, Tim; Reeve, Hayden; Attridge, Paul; El-Wardany, Tahany

    2012-09-13

    Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of

  4. Integrated analysis of wind turbines - The impact of power systems on wind turbine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barahona Garzón, Braulio

    of the integrated simulation environment are presented. The analysis of an asynchronous machine, and numerical simulations of a fixedspeed wind turbine in the integrated simulation environment, demonstrate the effects on structural loads of including the generator rotor fluxes dynamics in aeroelastic studies. Power...

  5. European Wind Farm Project Costs History and Projections 2008 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-10-15

    At the request of Enova (the 'Client'), Garrad Hassan and Partners Limited ('GH') has provided technical advice on capital cost expectations for wind farm developments. In summary, the work provides a survey of the present and future 5-year prognosis for costs and conditions facing developers and suppliers in the European wind power market. The report will be used as a benchmark to support tendering for future Norwegian projects. As such, it will also provide discussion of how project characteristics can influence project cost. Data Used in the Analysis GH has obtained data on the investment costs for 35 projects developed or in development in Europe. The projects represent to the extent possible the characteristics representative of potential Norwegian projects. The data used in this analysis are from actual projects in: France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Northern Ireland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain and Wales. The turbine capacities represented in the data are typically 2 MW or above, except in one case where a mix of turbines sizes was used at the project. GH highlights that because of high demand for turbines, the main manufacturers have recently been offering to meet delivery schedules for new orders from late 2010. For new tenders it is likely that delivery time frames offered will now be for 2011 deliveries. As a result of the current 'Seller's Market', production capacity typically relates directly to the number of turbines sold in the year; therefore for 2007 the annual production capacity was approximately 22 GW. GH is aware that turbine suppliers across the market are working to increase their production capacity in order to ease the pressure on the market, however, there are bottlenecks through the supply chain at the sub component level. As a result, increases in production capacity will likely remain at a relatively steady state in the short term. Energy Assessment The energy assessment of a project is the area

  6. An Energy Storage System Sizing Method for Wind Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Combining an energy storage system (ESS with a wind farm is an effective way to increase the penetration rate of wind power. ESS sizing is an important part in wind farm planning nowadays. In this paper, a basic method for determining the optimal capacity of an ESS integrated with a wind power generator to meet the requirements of grid integration is presented. With the proposed method, the necessary ESS capacity which can provide the best benefits between the regulation effects and energy storage size was calculated. The segmentation method and automatic segmentation method are proposed to improve the performance of the basic method. Further work on expanding the method to determine the necessary capacity of ESS for real-time control is studied. The time window method is used to enable the proposed method available under all working conditions. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Low-cost Triangular Lattice Towers for Small Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Ram Chandra

    This thesis focuses on the study of low-cost steel and bamboo triangular lattice towers for small wind turbines. The core objective is to determine the material properties of bamboo and assess the feasibility of bamboo towers. Using the experimentally determined buckling resistance, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio, a 12 m high triangular lattice tower for a 500W wind turbine has been modeled as a tripod to formulate the analytical solutions for the stresses and tower deflections, which enables design of the tower based on buckling strength of tower legs. The tripod formulation combines the imposed loads, the base distance between the legs and tower height, and cross-sectional dimensions of the tower legs. The tripod model was used as a reference for the initial design of the bamboo tower and extended to finite element analysis. A 12 m high steel lattice tower was also designed for the same turbine to serve as a comparison to the bamboo tower. The primary result of this work indicates that bamboo is a valid structural material. The commercial software package ANSYS APDL was used to carry out the tower analysis, evaluate the validity of the tripod model, and extend the analysis for the tower design. For this purpose, a 12 m high steel lattice tower for a 500 W wind turbine was examined. Comparison of finite element analysis and analytical solution has shown that tripod model can be accurately used in the design of lattice towers. The tower designs were based on the loads and safety requirements of international standard for small wind turbine safety, IEC 61400-2. For connecting the bamboo sections in the lattice tower, a steel-bamboo adhesive joint combined with conventional lashing has been proposed. Also, considering the low durability of bamboo, periodic replacement of tower members has been proposed. The result of this study has established that bamboo could be used to construct cost-effective and lightweight lattice towers for wind turbines of 500 Watt

  8. Integration of Wind Power into the Danish Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rácz, Viktor J.; Yadav, Priyadarshini; Vestergaard, Niels

    Wind energy is a major player in the Danish electricity market with an ambitious goal to pursue 50% of the electricity market by 2020. This paper examines the economic impacts of increasing integration of large-scale wind power to the existing electrical grid. Firstly, we survey the literature...... the price of electricity. We have observed the degree of influence of the fossil fuel prices, total demand, wind power production and import on the electricity price and the individual co-efficiency for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010, according to the energy mix. Using a grid management model for the Western...

  9. Short-term strategies for Dutch wind power producers to reduce imbalance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves-Ávila, José Pablo; Hakvoort, Rudi A.; Ramos, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The paper assesses bidding strategies for a wind power producer in the Netherlands. To this end, a three-stage stochastic optimization framework is used, maximizing wind power producer's profit using the day-ahead and cross-border intraday market, taking into account available interconnection capacity. Results show that the wind power producer can increase its profits by trading on the intraday market and – under certain imbalance prices – by intentionally creating imbalances. It has been considered uncertainties about prices, power forecast and interconnection capacity at the day-ahead and intraday timeframes. - Highlights: ► A cross-border bidding strategy model for wind power producers has been developed. ► The model was applied to a real case study of a Dutch offshore wind power producer. ► Under certain imbalance prices, it is not profitable to deliver all possible power. ► Intraday markets give the possibility to reduce imbalance costs. ► Integration of intraday markets will increase liquidity.

  10. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 2: Participant Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  11. Methodologies for Wind Turbine and STATCOM Integration in Wind Power Plant Models for Harmonic Resonances Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper approaches modelling methodologies for integration of wind turbines and STATCOM in harmonic resonance studies. Firstly, an admittance equivalent model representing the harmonic signature of grid connected voltage source converters is provided. A simplified type IV wind turbine modelling......-domain. As an alternative, a power based averaged modelling is also proposed. Type IV wind turbine harmonic signature and STATCOM active harmonic mitigation are considered for the simulation case studies. Simulation results provide a good insight of the features and limitations of the proposed methodologies....

  12. Cost, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integrated family planning and HIV services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shade, Starley B; Kevany, Sebastian; Onono, Maricianah; Ochieng, George; Steinfeld, Rachel L; Grossman, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J; Blat, Cinthia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate costs, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integration of family planning into HIV services. Integration of family planning services into HIV care and treatment clinics. A cluster-randomized trial. Twelve health facilities in Nyanza, Kenya were randomized to integrate family planning into HIV care and treatment; six health facilities were randomized to (nonintegrated) standard-of-care with separately delivered family planning and HIV services. We assessed costs, cost-efficiency (cost per additional use of more effective family planning), and cost-effectiveness (cost per pregnancy averted) associated with the first year of integration of family planning into HIV care. More effective family planning methods included oral and injectable contraceptives, subdermal implants, intrauterine device, and female and male sterilization. We collected cost data through interviews with study staff and review of financial records to determine costs of service integration. Integration of services was associated with an average marginal cost of $841 per site and $48 per female patient. Average overall and marginal costs of integration were associated with personnel costs [initial ($1003 vs. $872) and refresher ($498 vs. $330) training, mentoring ($1175 vs. $902) and supervision ($1694 vs. $1636)], with fewer resources required for other fixed ($18 vs. $0) and recurring expenses ($471 vs. $287). Integration was associated with a marginal cost of $65 for each additional use of more effective family planning and $1368 for each pregnancy averted. Integration of family planning and HIV services is feasible, inexpensive to implement, and cost-efficient in the Kenyan setting, and thus supports current Kenyan integration policy.

  13. Overview and Meteorological Validation of the Wind Integration National Dataset toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, B. M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clifton, A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCaa, J. [3TIER by VAisala, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-04-13

    The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit described in this report fulfills these requirements, and constitutes a state-of-the-art national wind resource data set covering the contiguous United States from 2007 to 2013 for use in a variety of next-generation wind integration analyses and wind power planning. The toolkit is a wind resource data set, wind forecast data set, and wind power production and forecast data set derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical weather prediction model. WIND Toolkit data are available online for over 116,000 land-based and 10,000 offshore sites representing existing and potential wind facilities.

  14. Two-Stage Coordinated Operational Strategy for Distributed Energy Resources Considering Wind Power Curtailment Penalty Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Qiu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of virtual power plant (VPP has been proposed to facilitate the integration of distributed renewable energy. VPP behaves similar to a single entity that aggregates a collection of distributed energy resources (DERs such as distributed generators, storage devices, flexible loads, etc., so that the aggregated power outputs can be flexibly dispatched and traded in electricity markets. This paper presents an optimal scheduling model for VPP participating in day-ahead (DA and real-time (RT markets. In the DA market, VPP aims to maximize the expected profit and reduce the risk in relation to uncertainties. The risk is measured by a risk factor based on the mean-variance Markowitz theory. In the RT market, VPP aims to minimize the imbalance cost and wind power curtailment by adjusting the scheduling of DERs in its portfolio. In case studies, the benefits (e.g., surplus profit and reduced wind power curtailment of aggregated VPP operation are assessed. Moreover, we have investigated how these benefits are affected by different risk-aversion levels and uncertainty levels. According to the simulation results, the aggregated VPP scheduling approach can effectively help the integration of wind power, mitigate the impact of uncertainties, and reduce the cost of risk-aversion.

  15. IEA Wind Task 26 - Multi-national Case Study of the Financial Cost of Wind Energy; Work Package 1 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, P.; Lensink, S.; Hand, M.

    2011-03-01

    The lifetime cost of wind energy is comprised of a number of components including the investment cost, operation and maintenance costs, financing costs, and annual energy production. Accurate representation of these cost streams is critical in estimating a wind plant's cost of energy. Some of these cost streams will vary over the life of a given project. From the outset of project development, investors in wind energy have relatively certain knowledge of the plant's lifetime cost of wind energy. This is because a wind energy project's installed costs and mean wind speed are known early on, and wind generation generally has low variable operation and maintenance costs, zero fuel cost, and no carbon emissions cost. Despite these inherent characteristics, there are wide variations in the cost of wind energy internationally, which is the focus of this report. Using a multinational case-study approach, this work seeks to understand the sources of wind energy cost differences among seven countries under International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 26 - Cost of Wind Energy. The participating countries in this study include Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. Due to data availability, onshore wind energy is the primary focus of this study, though a small sample of reported offshore cost data is also included.

  16. RTE: the integration of wind energy in the power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, Magali; Neau, Emmanuel

    2011-03-01

    The total installed capacity of wind power in France grew from a few hundred MW at the beginning of 2005 to 5500 MW at the end of 2010. This fast growth is set to continue, and the French Government's decision of 15 December 2009 on the country's long-term investment programs in power generation requires France to have at least 25 GW of installed wind capacity (including 6 GW offshore) by 2020. But the French specificities are that wind farms are largely spread over the territory, and 95 % of them have an output power below 12 MW which means they are mainly connected to the distribution network. As a consequence, this new intermittent and decentralized production is not 'naturally' observable by RTE, whereas it has nevertheless impacts on the operation of the transmission system for which RTE is responsible. The natural variability of wind power and the difficulty of its predictability require indeed a change in the traditional way of ensuring balancing between production and demand, of managing day-ahead margins and of controlling the electrical flows. Furthermore RTE operators have to be informed quickly and reliably of the real time output power of wind farms and of its evolvement some hours or days ahead to ensure the reliability of the French electrical power system. In this context, new tools were necessary to RTE to acquire as soon as possible data concerning wind power. In two years long, RTE set up an observatory of wind production called the 'IPES system'. 'IPES' enables to get information about technical characteristics of the whole wind farms in France and to observe the wind generation by two ways: in real time with tele-metered data and in the short term with a forecast model integrated into the system. In addition, RTE currently carries out studies about the behavior and the forecasting of wind production integrated into the grids, as internal activities (about forecast methods), and in different projects (such as European projects: Safewind for

  17. Development of an Integrated Water and Wind Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, D. C.; Ascough, J. C.; Wagner, L. E.; Geter, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Prediction technologies for soil erosion by the forces of wind or water have largely been developed independently from one another, especially within the United States. Much of this has been due to the initial creation of equations and models which were empirical in nature (i.e., Universal Soil Loss Equation, Wind Erosion Equation) and based upon separate water erosion or wind erosion plot and field measurements. Additionally, institutional organizations in place typically divided research efforts and funding to unique wind or water erosion research and modeling projects. However, during the past 20 years computer technologies and erosion modeling have progressed to the point where it is now possible to merge physical process-based computer simulation models into an integrated water and wind erosion prediction system. In a physically- based model, many of the processes which must be simulated for wind and water erosion computations are the same, e.g., climate, water balance, runoff, plant growth, etc. Model components which specifically deal with the wind or water detachment, transport and deposition processes are those that must differ, as well as any necessary parameterization of input variables (e.g., adjusted soil erodibilities, critical shear stresses, etc.) for those components. This presentation describes current efforts towards development of a combined wind and water erosion model, based in part upon technologies present in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) and the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) models. Initial efforts during the past two years have resulted in modular modeling components that allow for prediction of infiltration, surface runoff, and water erosion at a hillslope scale within an Object Modeling System. Additional components currently in development include wind detachment at a single field point, continuous water balance, and unified plant growth. Challenges in this project are many, and include adequate field

  18. Integration of Wind Turbines with Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsie, I.; Marano, V.; Rizzo, G.; Moran, M.

    2009-08-01

    Some of the major limitations of renewable energy sources are represented by their low power density and intermittent nature, largely depending upon local site and unpredictable weather conditions. These problems concur to increase the unit costs of wind power, so limiting their diffusion. By coupling storage systems with a wind farm, some of the major limitations of wind power, such as a low power density and an unpredictable nature, can be overcome. After an overview on storage systems, the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is analyzed, and the state of art on such systems is discussed. A Matlab/Simulink model of a hybrid power plant consisting of a wind farm coupled with CAES is then presented. The model has been successfully validated starting from the operating data of the McIntosh CAES Plant in Alabama. Time-series neural network-based wind speed forecasting are employed to determine the optimal daily operation strategy for the storage system. A detailed economic analysis has been carried out: investment and maintenance costs are estimated based on literature data, while operational costs and revenues are calculated according to energy market prices. As shown in the paper, the knowledge of the expected available energy is a key factor to optimize the management strategies of the proposed hybrid power plant, allowing to obtain environmental and economic benefits.

  19. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick C F; Olesen, Kim; Byskov, Claus; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2015-08-12

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1-5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists of two UWB antennas at the blade root and one UWB antenna at the blade tip. The detailed topology and challenges of this deflection sensing system are addressed. Due to the complexity of the problem, this paper will first realize the on-blade UWB radio link in the simplest case, where the tip antenna is situated outside (and on the surface of) a blade tip. To investigate this case, full-blade time-domain measurements are designed and conducted under different deflections. The detailed measurement setups and results are provided. If the root and tip antenna locations are properly selected, the first pulse is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics on this application are listed finally.

  20. Integrating wind power in EU electricity systems. Economic and technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Werven, M.J.N.; Beurskens, L.W.M.; Pierik, J.T.G.

    2005-02-01

    In view of the ongoing process of liberalisation of the electricity market and the expected increase of wind power pursuant the RES-E Directive (Renewable Energy Sources - Electricity) and the need to minimise the costs of the RES-E targets, this study discusses the technical and economic impacts of integrating wind power into the electricity system. Furthermore, two options for reducing costs of intermittency are researched: forecasting of wind power output and electricity storage. An increasing penetration of wind power into the electricity system causes additional costs, partly due to the fact that the energy source of wind power is uncontrollable, variable (on the short term as well as on the longer term), and unpredictable (especially on the longer term). Consequently, balancing generation and demand becomes more complicated, creating a need for additional secondary and tertiary control. Although the sources of increasing costs are becoming more clearly understood, as are means to mitigate them, the quantification of costs of operating an electricity system with high wind penetration is very hard. Two possible options to reduce costs of intermittency are discussed in this report: forecasting of wind power output and electricity storage. The need for and benefit of wind energy forecasting have been increasingly recognised in recent years. Forecasting of wind power directs on increasing the predictability of the resource and improved forecasting can help to enhance the balancing of supply and demand. DG (distributed generation) operators can provide better information about their expected power output, energy suppliers can submit better estimates of electricity production to the TSO (Transmission System Operator), and system operators can improve network management through better information about expected power flows. Electricity storage systems can, at the same time, offer different services to a number of actors. Next to benefits that result from price

  1. A Response Surface-Based Cost Model for Wind Farm Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jie; Chowdhury, Souma; Messac, Achille; Castillo, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    A Response Surface-Based Wind Farm Cost (RS-WFC) model is developed for the engineering planning of wind farms. The RS-WFC model is developed using Extended Radial Basis Functions (E-RBF) for onshore wind farms in the U.S. This model is then used to explore the influences of different design and economic parameters, including number of turbines, rotor diameter and labor cost, on the cost of a wind farm. The RS-WFC model is composed of three components that estimate the effects of engineering and economic factors on (i) the installation cost, (ii) the annual Operation and Maintenance (O and M) cost, and (iii) the total annual cost of a wind farm. The accuracy of the cost model is favorably established through comparison with pertinent commercial data. The final RS-WFC model provided interesting insights into cost variation with respect to critical engineering and economic parameters. In addition, a newly developed analytical wind farm engineering model is used to determine the power generated by the farm, and the subsequent Cost of Energy (COE). This COE is optimized for a unidirectional uniform “incoming wind speed” scenario using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). We found that the COE could be appreciably minimized through layout optimization, thereby yielding significant cost savings. - Highlights: ► We present a Response Surface-Based Wind Farm Cost (RS-WFC) model for wind farm design. ► The model could estimate installation cost, Operation and Maintenance cost, and total annual cost of a wind farm. ► The Cost of Energy is optimized using Particle Swarm Optimization. ► Layout optimization could yield significant cost savings.

  2. Thermoplastic Composite Wind Turbine Blades : An Integrated Design Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joncas, S.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis proposes a new structural design concept for future large wind turbine blades based on fully recyclable thermoplastic composites (TPC). With respect to material properties, cost and processing, reactively processed anionic polyamide-6 (APA-6) has been identified as the most promising

  3. Integrated Bidding and Operating Strategies for Wind-Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun

    2016-01-01

    to perform arbitrage and to alleviate wind power deviations from day-ahead contracts. The strategy is developed with two-price balancing markets in mind. A mixed integer nonlinear optimization formulation is built to determine optimal offers by taking into account expected wind power forecasting errors......Due to their flexible charging and discharging capabilities, energy storage systems (ESS) are considered a promising complement to wind farms (WFs) participating in electricity markets. This paper presents integrated day-ahead bidding and real-time operation strategies for a wind-storage system...... and the power balancing capability of the ESS. A modified gradient descent algorithm is designed to solve this nonlinear problem. A number of case studies validate the computational efficiency and optimality of the algorithm. Compared to the existing strategies, the proposed strategies yield increased economic...

  4. Feasibility of Small Wind Turbines in Ontario: Integrating Power Curves with Wind Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaō Ashtine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-scale/small wind turbines, unlike larger utility-scale turbines, produce electricity at a rate of 300 W to 10 kW at their rated wind speed and are typically below 30 m in hub-height. These wind turbines have much more flexibility in their costs, maintenance and siting, owing to their size, and can provided wind energy in areas much less suited for direct supply to the grid system. In the future under climate change, the energy landscape will likely shift from the present centralized electricity generation and delivery system to a more distributed and locally-generated electricity and delivery system. In the new system configuration, the role of relatively small sustainable electricity generators like small wind turbines will likely become more prominent. However, the small wind industry has been substantially slow to progress in Ontario, Canada, and there is much debate over its viability in a growing energy dependent economy. This study seeks to demonstrate the performance of a small wind turbine, and speculate on its potential power output and trend over Ontario historically over the last 33 years using the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR data. We assessed the efficiency of a Bergey Excel 1 kW wind turbine at the pre-established Kortright Centre for Conservation test site, located north of Toronto. Using a novel approach, the Bergey optimized power curve was incorporated with reanalysis data to establish power output across Ontario at three-hour resolution. Small turbine-based wind power around the Great Lakes and eastern James Bay increased during winter and fall, contributing up to 10% of the annual electricity demand in some regions in Ontario. We purport that increases in power output are driven by long-term reductions in sea and lake ice concentrations affecting atmospheric stability in surrounding regions.

  5. Large Scale Wind and Solar Integration in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Bernhard; Schreirer, Uwe; Berster, Frank; Pease, John; Scholz, Cristian; Erbring, Hans-Peter; Schlunke, Stephan; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2010-02-28

    This report provides key information concerning the German experience with integrating of 25 gigawatts of wind and 7 gigawatts of solar power capacity and mitigating its impacts on the electric power system. The report has been prepared based on information provided by the Amprion GmbH and 50Hertz Transmission GmbH managers and engineers to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory representatives during their visit to Germany in October 2009. The trip and this report have been sponsored by the BPA Technology Innovation office. Learning from the German experience could help the Bonneville Power Administration engineers to compare and evaluate potential new solutions for managing higher penetrations of wind energy resources in their control area. A broader dissemination of this experience will benefit wind and solar resource integration efforts in the United States.

  6. Generic 12-Bus Test System for Wind Power Integration Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Altin, Müfit; Göksu, Ömer

    2012-01-01

    High wind power penetration levels into power systems requires an appropriate power system model when assessing impact on the overall system stability. The model should capture the wide range of dynamics related to the wind integration studies, such as voltage control, synchronizing power control......, inertial response, frequency control, damping of electromechanical oscillations, balanced and unbalanced fault management, etc. Hence, the power system components: conventional power plants with controls, transmission lines, transformers and loads should be represented accurately to achieve realistic power...... system characteristics. Additionally, the power system model should be simple and computationally manageable in order to simulate multiple scenarios with different control parameters in a reasonable time. In this paper, a generic power system model is presented in order to comprehend the wind integration...

  7. Nodal prices determination with wind integration for radial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bus test system. Keywords: Distribution system, electricity market; nodal prices, wind power integration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijest.v9i3.2. 1. Introduction. Competitive ... generated real power, generated reactive power, real power demand and reactive power demand are represented by. , ,. , and . is the angle at node ...

  8. Four essays on offshore wind power potential, development, regulatory framework, and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanju, Amardeep

    . It outlines a regulatory framework touching on key elements such as the leasing system, length of tenure, and financial terms for allocating property rights. In addition, the framework also provides recommendations on environmental assessment that would be required prior to lease issuance. The fourth essay analyzes offshore wind power integration using electric thermal storage in housing units. It presents a model of wind generation, heating load and wind driven thermal storage to assess the potential of storage to buffer wind intermittency. The analysis suggests that thermal load matches the seasonal excess of offshore wind during winter months, and that electric thermal storage could provide significant temporal, spatial, and cost advantages for balancing output from offshore wind generation, while also converting a major residential load (space heating) now met by fossil fuels to low carbon energy resources. Together, the four essays provide new analyses of policy, regulatory, and system integration issues that could impede resource development, and also analyze and recommend strategies to manage these issues.

  9. Design and Study of a Low-Cost Laboratory Model Digital Wind Power Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Rugmini; Karthika, S.

    2010-01-01

    A vane-type low-cost laboratory model anemometer cum power meter is designed and constructed for measuring low wind energy created from accelerating fluids. The constructed anemometer is a device which records the electrical power obtained by the conversion of wind power using a wind sensor coupled to a DC motor. It is designed for its…

  10. Lightweight structure design for wind energy by integrating nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Lu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrate high-strength nano-materials into lightweight design. • Lightweight design scheme for wind turbine tower application. • Expand the bending formulae for tapered tubular structures with varying thickness. • We rewrite the Secant Formula for a tapered beam under eccentric compression. - Abstract: Wind power develops very fast nowadays with high expectation. Although at the mean time, the use of taller towers, however, smacks head-on into the issue of transportability. The engineering base and computational tools have to be developed to match machine size and volume. Consequently the research on the light weight structures of tower is carrying out in the main countries which are actively developing wind energy. This paper reports a new design scheme of light weight structure for wind turbine tower. This design scheme is based on the integration of the nanostructured materials produced by the Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) process. The objective of this study is to accomplish the weight reduction by optimizing the wall thickness of the tapered tubular structure. The basic methods include the identification of the critical zones and the distribution of the high strength materials according to different necessities. The equivalent strength or stiffness design method and the high strength material properties after SMAT process are combined together. Bending and buckling are two main kinds of static loads concerned in consideration. The study results reveal that there is still enough margin for weight reduction in the traditional wind turbine tower design

  11. Carolina Offshore Wind Integration Case Study: Phases I and II Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallon, Christopher [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Piper, Orvane [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Hazelip, William [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Zhao, Yishan [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Salvador, Lisa [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Pruitt, Tom [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Peterson, Jeffrey [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Ashby, Rebecca [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Pierce, Bob [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Burner, Bob [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Daniel, John [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Zhu, Jinxiang [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Moore, Maria [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Frank, Jaclyn [AWS Truepower, LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heaney, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elliott, Dennis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seim, Harvey E. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Duke Energy performed a phase 1 study to assess the impact of offshore wind development in the waters off the coasts of North Carolina and South Carolina. The study analyzed the impacts to the Duke Energy Carolinas electric power system of multiple wind deployment scenarios. Focusing on an integrated utility system in the Carolinas provided a unique opportunity to assess the impacts of offshore wind development in a region that has received less attention regarding renewables than others in the US. North Carolina is the only state in the Southeastern United States that currently has a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) which requires that 12.5% of the state’s total energy requirements be met with renewable resources by 2021. 12.5% of the state’s total energy requirements in 2021 equates to approximately 17,000 GWH of energy needed from renewable resources. Wind resources represent one of the ways to potentially meet this requirement. The study builds upon and augments ongoing work, including a study by UNC to identify potential wind development sites and the analysis of impacts to the regional transmission system performed by the NCTPC, an Order 890 planning entity of which DEC is a member. Furthermore, because the region does not have an independent system operator (ISO) or regional transmission organization (RTO), the study will provide additional information unique to non-RTO/ISO systems. The Phase 2 study builds on the results of Phase 1 and investigates the dynamic stability of the electrical network in Task 4, the operating characteristics of the wind turbines as they impact operating reserve requirements of the DEC utility in Task 5, and the production cost of integrating the offshore wind resources into the DEC generation fleet making comparisons to future planned operation without the addition of the wind resources in Task 6.

  12. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 1: Issues, Impacts, and Economics of Wind and Hydropower Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  13. Integration of permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbines into power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Asghar

    The world is seeing an ever-increasing demand for electrical energy. The future growth of electrical power generation needs to be a mix of technologies including fossil fuels, hydro, nuclear, wind, and solar. The federal and state energy agencies have taken several proactive steps to increase the share of renewable energy in the total generated electrical power. In 2005, 11.1% of the total 1060 GW electricity generation capacity was from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the US. The power capacity portfolio included 9.2% from hydroelectric, 0.87% from wind, and 0.7% from biomass. Other renewable power capacity included 2.8 GW of geothermal, 0.4 GW of solar thermal, and 0.2 GW of solar PV. Although the share of renewable energy sources is small compared with the total power capacity, they are experiencing a high and steady growth. The US is leading the world in wind energy growth with a 27% increase in 2006 and a projected 26% increase in 2007, according to the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). The US Department of Energy benchmarked a goal to meet 5% of the nation's energy need by launching the Wind Powering America (WPA) program. Although renewable energy sources have many benefits, their utilization in the electrical grid does not come without cost. The higher penetration of RES has introduced many technical and non-technical challenges, including power quality, reliability, safety and protection, load management, grid interconnections and control, new regulations, and grid operation economics. RES such as wind and PV are also intermittent in nature. The energy from these sources is available as long as there is wind or sunlight. However, these are energies that are abundant in the world and the power generated from these sources is pollution free. Due to high price of foundation of wind farms, employing variable speed wind turbines to maximize the extracted energy from blowing wind is more beneficial. On the other hand, since wind power is intermittent

  14. Electricity market design for facilitating the integration of wind energy. Experience and prospects with the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGill, Iain

    2010-01-01

    Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental regulation. The Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) was established in 1999 and Australia also implemented one of the world's first renewable energy target schemes in 2001. With significant recent growth in wind generation, Australia provides an interesting case for assessing different approaches to facilitating wind integration into the electricity industry. Wind project developers in Australia must assess both potential energy market and Tradeable Green Certificate income streams when making investments. Wind-farm energy income depends on the match of its uncertain time varying output with the regional half hourly market price; a price that exhibits daily, weekly and seasonal patterns and considerable uncertainty. Such price signals assist in driving investments that maximize project value to the electricity industry as a whole, including integration costs and benefits for other participants. Recent NEM rule changes will formally integrate wind generation in the market's scheduling processes while a centralized wind forecasting system has also been introduced. This paper outlines experience to date with wind integration in the NEM, describes the evolution of market rules in response and assesses their possible implications for facilitating high future wind penetrations. (author)

  15. An Integrated Approach To Offshore Wind Energy Assessment: Great Lakes 3D Wind Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmie, R. J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Sibley School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering; Pryor, S. C. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    2017-09-18

    This grant supported fundamental research into the characterization of flow parameters of relevance to the wind energy industry focused on offshore and the coastal zone. A major focus of the project was application of the latest generation of remote sensing instrumentation and also integration of measurements and numerical modeling to optimize characterization of time-evolving atmospheric flow parameters in 3-D. Our research developed a new data-constrained Wind Atlas for the Great Lakes, and developed new insights into flow parameters in heterogeneous environments. Four experiments were conducted during the project: At a large operating onshore wind farm in May 2012; At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Wind Technology Center (NREL NWTC) during February 2013; At the shoreline of Lake Erie in May 2013; and At the Wind Energy Institute of Canada on Prince Edward Island in May 2015. The experiment we conducted in the coastal zone of Lake Erie indicated very complex flow fields and the frequent presence of upward momentum fluxes and resulting distortion of the wind speed profile at turbine relevant heights due to swells in the Great Lakes. Additionally, our data (and modeling) indicate the frequent presence of low level jets at 600 m height over the Lake and occasions when the wind speed profile across the rotor plane may be impacted by this phenomenon. Experimental data and modeling of the fourth experiment on Prince Edward Island showed that at 10-14 m escarpment adjacent to long-overseas fetch the zone of wind speed decrease before the terrain feature and the increase at (and slightly downwind of) the escarpment is ~3–5% at turbine hub-heights. Additionally, our measurements were used to improve methods to compute the uncertainty in lidar-derived flow properties and to optimize lidar-scanning strategies. For example, on the basis of the experimental data we collected plus those from one of our research partners we advanced a new methodology to

  16. An integrated assessment for wind energy in Lake Michigan coastal counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordman, Erik; VanderMolen, Jon; Gajewski, Betty; Isely, Paul; Fan, Yue; Koches, John; Damm, Sara; Ferguson, Aaron; Schoolmaster, Claire

    2015-04-01

    The benefits and challenges of onshore and offshore wind energy development were assessed for a 4-county area of coastal Michigan. Economic, social, environmental, and spatial dimensions were considered. The coastal counties have suitable wind resources for energy development, which could contribute toward Michigan's 10% renewable energy standard. Wind energy is cost-effective with contract prices less than the benchmark energy price of a new coal-fired power plant. Constructing a 100 MW wind farm could have a $54.7 million economic impact. A patchwork of township-level zoning ordinances regulates wind energy siting. Voluntary collaborations among adjacent townships standardizing the ordinances could reduce regulatory complexity. A Delphi Inquiry on offshore wind energy in Lake Michigan elicited considerable agreement on its challenges, but little agreement on the benefits to coastal communities. Offshore turbines could be acceptable to the participants if they reduced pollution, benefited coastal communities, involved substantial public participation, and had minimal impact on property values and tourism. The US Coast Guard will take a risk-based approach to evaluating individual offshore developments and has no plans to issue blanket restrictions around the wind farms. Models showed that using wind energy to reach the remainder of the 10% renewable energy standard could reduce SO2 , NOx , and CO2 pollution by 4% to 7%. Turbines are highly likely to impact the area's navigational and defense radar systems but planning and technological upgrades can reduce the impact. The integrated assessment shows that responsible wind energy development can enhance the quality of life by reducing air pollution and associated health problems and enhancing economic development. Policies could reduce the negative impacts to local communities while preserving the benefits to the broader region. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Well-functioning balancing markets: A prerequisite for wind power integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandezande, Leen; Meeus, Leonardo; Belmans, Ronnie; Saguan, Marcelo; Glachant, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the design of balancing markets in Europe taking into account an increasing wind power penetration. In several European countries, wind generation is so far not burdened with full balancing responsibility. However, the more wind power penetration, the less bearable for the system not to allocate balancing costs to the responsible parties. Given the variability and limited predictability of wind generation, full balancing exposure is however only feasible conditionally to well-functioning balancing markets. On that account, recommendations ensuring an optimal balancing market design are formulated and their impact on wind generation is assessed. Taking market-based or cost-reflective imbalance prices as the main objective, it is advised that: (1) the imbalance settlement should not contain penalties or power exchange prices, (2) capacity payments should be allocated to imbalanced BRPs via an additive component in the imbalance price and (3) a cap should be imposed on the amount of reserves. Efficient implementation of the proposed market design may require balancing markets being integrated across borders.

  18. Influence of wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production cost: analysis of the actual market trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laali, A.-R.; Meyer, J.-L.

    1996-01-01

    Several studies are undertaken in R and D Division of EDF in collaboration with ERASME association in order to have a good knowledge of the wind energy production costs. These studies are performed in the framework of a wind energy monitoring project and concern the influence of a few parameters like wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production costs, through an analysis of the actual market trend. Some 50 manufacturers and 140 different kind of wind turbines are considered for this study. The minimum production cost is situated at 800/900 kW wind turbine rated power. This point will probably move to more important powers in the future. This study is valid only for average conditions and some special parameters like particular climate conditions or lack of infrastructure for a special site that could modify the results shown on the curves. The variety of wind turbines (rated power as a function of rotor diameter, height and specific rated power) in the actual market is analysed. A brief analysis of the market trend is also performed. (author)

  19. Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulai, F.; Bej, A. [Technical Univ. of Timisoara (Romania). Wind Energy Research Center

    1995-12-31

    A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

  20. Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulai, F.; Bej, A.

    1995-01-01

    A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

  1. Structural integrity of wind tunnel wooden fan blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Wingate, Robert T.; Rooker, James R.; Mort, Kenneth W.; Zager, Harold E.

    1991-01-01

    Information is presented which was compiled by the NASA Inter-Center Committee on Structural Integrity of Wooden Fan Blades and is intended for use as a guide in design, fabrication, evaluation, and assurance of fan systems using wooden blades. A risk assessment approach for existing NASA wind tunnels with wooden fan blades is provided. Also, state of the art information is provided for wooden fan blade design, drive system considerations, inspection and monitoring methods, and fan blade repair. Proposed research and development activities are discussed, and recommendations are provided which are aimed at future wooden fan blade design activities and safely maintaining existing NASA wind tunnel fan blades. Information is presented that will be of value to wooden fan blade designers, fabricators, inspectors, and wind tunnel operations personnel.

  2. Flexible interaction of plug-in electric vehicle parking lots for efficient wind integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydarian-Forushani, E.; Golshan, M.E.H.; Shafie-khah, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Interactive incorporation of plug-in electric vehicle parking lots is investigated. • Flexible energy and reserve services are provided by electric vehicle parking lots. • Uncertain characterization of electric vehicle owners’ behavior is taken into account. • Coordinated operation of parking lots can facilitate wind power integration. - Abstract: The increasing share of uncertain wind generation has changed traditional operation scheduling of power systems. The challenges of this additional variability raise the need for an operational flexibility in providing both energy and reserve. One key solution is an effective incorporation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the power system operation process. To this end, this paper proposes a two-stage stochastic programming market-clearing model considering the network constraints to achieve the optimal scheduling of conventional units as well as PEV parking lots (PLs) in providing both energy and reserve services. Different from existing works, the paper pays more attention to the uncertain characterization of PLs takes into account the arrival/departure time of PEVs to/from the PL, the initial state of charge (SOC) of PEVs, and their battery capacity through a set of scenarios in addition to wind generation scenarios. The results reveal that although the cost saving as a consequence of incorporating PL to the grid is below 1% of total system cost, however, flexible interactions of PL in the energy and reserve markets can promote the integration of wind power more than 13.5%.

  3. Wind power and market integration, comparative study of financing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    The financing scheme of renewable energies is a key factor for their development pace and cost. As some countries like France, Germany or Spain have chosen a Feed-in Tariff (FiT) scheme, there are in fact four possible financing schemes: FiT, ex-post prime, ex-ante prime, and quotas (green certificates). A market convergence is then supposed to meet two main objectives: the control of market distortions related to wind energy development, and the optimization of wind energy production with respect to market signals. The authors analyse the underlying economic challenges and the ability of financing schemes to meet these objectives within a short term horizon (2015). They present the different financing schemes, analyse the impact of three key economic factors (market distortion, production optimization, financing costs)

  4. Review of DC System Technologies for Large Scale Integration of Wind Energy Systems with Electricity Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Jie Shao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing development and availability of power electronic systems is the underpinning technology that enables large scale integration of wind generation plants with the electricity grid. As the size and power capacity of the wind turbine continues to increase, so is the need to place these significantly large structures at off-shore locations. DC grids and associated power transmission technologies provide opportunities for cost reduction and electricity grid impact minimization as the bulk power is concentrated at single point of entry. As a result, planning, optimization and impact can be studied and carefully controlled minimizing the risk of the investment as well as power system stability issues. This paper discusses the key technologies associated with DC grids for offshore wind farm applications.

  5. Influence of individual heat pumps on wind power integration – Energy system investments and operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Münster, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Individual heat pumps are expected to constitute a significant electricity demand in future energy systems. This demand becomes flexible if investing in complementing heat storage capabilities. In this study, we analyse how the heat pumps can influence the integration of wind power by applying...... an energy system model that optimises both investments and operation, and covers various heat storage options. The Danish energy system by 2030 with around 50–60% wind power is used as a case study. Results show that the heat pumps, even without flexible operation, can contribute significantly...... to facilitating larger wind power investments and reducing system costs, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions. Investments in heat storages can provide only moderate system benefits in these respects. The main benefit of the flexible heat pump operation is a reduced need for peak/reserve capacity, which is also...

  6. Study on Pyroelectric Harvesters Integrating Solar Radiation with Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Hsiao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pyroelectric harvesters use temperature fluctuations to generate electrical outputs. Solar radiation and waste heat are rich energy sources that can be harvested. Pyroelectric energy converters offer a novel and direct energy-conversion technology by transforming time-dependent temperatures directly into electricity. Moreover, the great challenge for pyroelectric energy harvesting lies in finding promising temperature variations or an alternating thermal loading in real situations. Hence, in this article, a novel pyroelectric harvester integrating solar radiation with wind power by the pyroelectric effect is proposed. Solar radiation is a thermal source, and wind is a dynamic potential. A disk generator is used for harvesting wind power. A mechanism is considered to convert the rotary energy of the disk generator to drive a shutter for generating temperature variations in pyroelectric cells using a planetary gear system. The optimal period of the pyroelectric cells is 35 s to harvest the stored energy, about 70 μJ, while the rotary velocity of the disk generator is about 31 RPM and the wind speed is about 1 m/s. In this state, the stored energy acquired from the pyroelectric harvester is about 75% more than that from the disk generator. Although the generated energy of the proposed pyroelectric harvester is less than that of the disk generator, the pyroelectric harvester plays a complementary role when the disk generator is inactive in situations of low wind speed.

  7. Aero-MINE (Motionless INtegrated Energy) for Distributed Scalable Wind Power.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houchens, Brent C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Blaylock, Myra L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The proposed Aero-MINE technology will extract energy from wind without any exterior moving parts. Aero-MINEs can be integrated into buildings or function stand-alone, and are scalable. This gives them advantages similar to solar panels, but with the added benefit of operation in cloudy or dark conditions. Furthermore, compared to solar panels, Aero-MINEs can be manufactured at lower cost and with less environmental impact. Power generation is isolated internally by the pneumatic transmission of air and the outlet air-jet nozzles amplify the effectiveness. Multiple units can be connected to one centrally located electric generator. Aero-MINEs are ideal for the built-environment, with numerous possible configurations ranging from architectural integration to modular bolt-on products. Traditional wind turbines suffer from many fundamental challenges. The fast-moving blades produce significant aero-acoustic noise, visual disturbances, light-induced flickering and impose wildlife mortality risks. The conversion of massive mechanical torque to electricity is a challenge for gears, generators and power conversion electronics. In addition, the installation, operation and maintenance of wind turbines is required at significant height. Furthermore, wind farms are often in remote locations far from dense regions of electricity customers. These technical and logistical challenges add significantly to the cost of the electricity produced by utility-scale wind farms. In contrast, distributed wind energy eliminates many of the logistical challenges. However, solutions such as micro-turbines produce relatively small amounts of energy due to the reduction in swept area and still suffer from the motion-related disadvantages of utility-scale turbines. Aero-MINEs combine the best features of distributed generation, while eliminating the disadvantages.

  8. A Framework for Statewide Analysis of Site Suitability, Energy Estimation, Life Cycle Costs, Financial Feasibility and Environmental Assessment of Wind Farms: A Case Study of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Indraneel

    In the last decade, Midwestern states including Indiana have experienced an unprecedented growth in utility scale wind energy farms. For example, by end of 2013, Indiana had 1.5 GW of wind turbines installed, which could provide electrical energy for as many as half-a-million homes. However, there is no statewide systematic framework available for the evaluation of wind farm impacts on endangered species, required necessary setbacks and proximity standards to infrastructure, and life cycle costs. This research is guided to fill that gap and it addresses the following questions. How much land is suitable for wind farm siting in Indiana given the constraints of environmental, ecological, cultural, settlement, physical infrastructure and wind resource parameters? How much wind energy can be obtained? What are the life cycle costs and economic and financial feasibility? Is wind energy production and development in a state an emission free undertaking? The framework developed in the study is applied to a case study of Indiana. A fuzzy logic based AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) spatial site suitability analysis for wind energy is formulated. The magnitude of wind energy that could be sited and installed comprises input for economic and financial feasibility analysis for 20-25 years life cycle of wind turbines in Indiana. Monte Carlo simulation is used to account for uncertainty and nonlinearity in various costs and price parameters. Impacts of incentives and cost variables such as production tax credits, costs of capital, and economies of scale are assessed. Further, an economic input-output (IO) based environmental assessment model is developed for wind energy, where costs from financial feasibility analysis constitute the final demand vectors. This customized model for Indiana is used to assess emissions for criteria air pollutants, hazardous air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) across life cycle events of wind turbines. The findings of the case study include

  9. Optimal Control Method for Wind Farm to Support Temporary Primary Frequency Control with Minimized Wind Energy Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haijiao; Chen, Zhe; Jiang, Quanyuan

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes an optimal control method for variable speed wind turbines (VSWTs) based wind farm (WF) to support temporary primary frequency control. This control method consists of two layers: temporary frequency support control (TFSC) of the VSWT, and temporary support power optimal...... dispatch (TSPOD) of the WF. With TFSC, the VSWT could temporarily provide extra power to support system frequency under varying and wide-range wind speed. In the WF control centre, TSPOD optimally dispatches the frequency support power orders to the VSWTs that operate under different wind speeds, minimises...... the wind energy cost of frequency support, and satisfies the support capabilities of the VSWTs. The effectiveness of the whole control method is verified in the IEEE-RTS built in MATLABSimulink, and compared with a published de-loading method....

  10. Reliability-cost models for the power switching devices of wind power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    In order to satisfy the growing reliability requirements for the wind power converters with more cost-effective solution, the target of this paper is to establish a new reliability-cost model which can connect the relationship between reliability performances and corresponding semiconductor cost...... temperature mean value Tm and fluctuation amplitude ΔTj of power devices, are presented. With the proposed reliability-cost model, it is possible to enable future reliability-oriented design of the power switching devices for wind power converters, and also an evaluation benchmark for different wind power...

  11. IEA Wind Task 26. Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007–2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitina, Aisma [Ea Energy Analyses, Copenhagen (Denmark); Lüers, Silke [Deutsche WindGuard, Varel (Germany); Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin [Deutsche WindGuard, Varel (Germany); Berkhout, Volker [Fraunhofer IWES, Kassel (Germany); Duffy, Aidan [Dublin Inst. of Technology and Dublin Energy Lab. (Ireland); Cleary, Brendan [Dublin Inst. of Technology and Dublin Energy Lab. (Ireland); Husabø, Lief I. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), Oslo (Norway); Weir, David E. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), Oslo (Norway); Lacal-Arántegui, Roberto [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Hand, Maureen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Belyeu, Kathy [Belyeu Consulting, Takoma Park, MD (United States); Wiser, Ryan H [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement for cooperation in Research, Development, and Deployment of Wind Energy Systems (IEA Wind) Task 26—The Cost of Wind Energy represents an international collaboration dedicated to exploring past, present and future cost of wind energy. This report provides an overview of recent trends in wind plant technology, cost, and performance in those countries that are currently represented by participating organizations in IEA Wind Task 26: Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and the United States as well as the European Union.

  12. AC-DC integrated load flow calculation for variable speed offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a sequential AC-DC integrated load flow algorithm for variable speed offshore wind farms. In this algorithm, the variable frequency and the control strategy of variable speed wind turbine systems are considered. In addition, the losses of wind turbine systems and the losses...... of converters are also integrated into the load flow algorithm. As a general algorithm, it can be applied to different types of wind farm configurations, and the load flow is related to the wind speed....

  13. Operational costs induced by fluctuating wind power production in Germany and Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Weber, C.; Barth, R.

    2009-01-01

    -up costs, variable operation and maintenance costs, costs of consuming CO2 emission permits) of the other power plants will increase due to more operation time in part-load and more start-ups. The change in operational costs induced by the wind power production can only be calculated by comparing...

  14. Decision support tool to evaluate alternative policies regulating wind integration into autonomous energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouros, N.; Contaxis, G.C.; Kabouris, J.

    2005-01-01

    Integration of wind power into autonomous electricity systems strongly depends on the specific technical characteristics of these systems; the regulations applied should take into account physical system constraints. Introduction of market rules makes the issue even more complicated since the interests of the market participants often conflict each other. In this paper, an integrated tool for the comparative assessment of alternative regulatory policies is presented along with a methodology for decision-making, based on alternative scenarios analysis. The social welfare concept is followed instead of the traditional Least Cost Planning

  15. Unified Power Quality Conditioner for Grid Integration of Wind Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh, Jayanti Navilgone

    2008-01-01

    A Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) is relatively a new member of the custom power device family. It is a comprehensive custom power device, with integrated shunt and series active filters. The cost of the device, which is higher than other custom power/FACTS devices, because of twin inverter structure and control complexity, will have to be justified by exploring new areas of application where the cost of saving power quality events outweighs the initial cost of installation. Distribu...

  16. How Expensive Is Expensive Enough? Opportunities for Cost Reductions in Offshore Wind Energy Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2016-01-01

    to, and produced, a number of possible opportunities for offshore wind cost reductions through logistics innovation; however, within the case study company, no company-wide logistics organization existed to focus horizontally on reducing logistics costs in general. Logistics was not well defined......This paper reveals that logistics may conservatively amount to 18% of the levelized cost of energy for offshore wind farms. This is the key finding from an extensive case study carried out within the organization of the world’s leading offshore wind farm developer and operator. The case study aimed...... within the case study company, and a logistics strategy did not exist. With full life-cycle costs of offshore wind farms still high enough to present a political challenge within the European Union in terms of legislation to ensure offshore wind diffusion beyond 2020, our research presents logistics...

  17. Low cost infrastructure solutions for small embedded wind generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, C.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives details of a project to demonstrate novel economic solutions to increase the potential for installing small-scale embedded wind generator systems at many UK sites which have so far been dismissed as too difficult. Details are given of the first phase of the study which examined current solutions to infrastructure problems and potential techniques. The use of drilled rock anchor foundations to minimise the need for delivery of ready-mix concrete to wind turbine sites, and the use of a winch and A-frame system for erecting a wind turbine to avoid the use of cranes are discussed. The demonstration of the installation of a 50kW wind turbine on the Isle of Luing in Scotland where there is no access for cranes or larger vehicles in the second phase of the project is described. The potential for the use of these techniques on larger wind turbines is considered.

  18. Solar power. [comparison of costs to wind, nuclear, coal, oil and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, A. L.; Hall, Darwin C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes categories of solar technologies and identifies those that are economic. It compares the private costs of power from solar, wind, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas generators. In the southern United States, the private costs of building and generating electricity from new solar and wind power plants are less than the private cost of electricity from a new nuclear power plant. Solar power is more valuable than nuclear power since all solar power is available during peak and midpeak periods. Half of the power from nuclear generators is off-peak power and therefore is less valuable. Reliability is important in determining the value of wind and nuclear power. Damage from air pollution, when factored into the cost of power from fossil fuels, alters the cost comparison in favor of solar and wind power. Some policies are more effective at encouraging alternative energy technologies that pollute less and improve national security.

  19. Multi-Objective Low-Carbon Economic Dispatch Considering Demand Response with Wind Power Integrated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wenjuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation cost, carbon emissions and customers’ satisfaction are considered in this paper. On the basis of this, the multi-objective and low-carbon economic dispatch model with wind farm, this considers demand response, is established. The model user stochastic programming theory to describe the uncertainty of the wind power and converts it into an equivalent deterministic model by using distribution function of wind power output, optimizes demand side resources to adjust the next day load curve and to improve load rate and absorptive capacity of wind power, introduce customers’ satisfaction to ensure that the scheduling scheme satisfies customer and integrate the resources of source and load to unify coordination wind farm access to network and to meet the requirements of energy saving and emission reduction. The search process of artificial fish school algorithm introducing Tabu search and more targeted search mechanism, an multi-objective improved artificial fish school algorithm is proposed to solve this model. Using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS to sort the Pareto frontier, the optimal scheduling scheme is determined. Simulation results verify the rationality and validity of the proposed model and algorithm.

  20. Integrating Systems Health Management with Adaptive Controls for a Utility-scale Wind Turbine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Increasing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to...

  1. Offshore wind farm integration using FACTS and HVDC solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasse, C. [AREVA Transmission and Distribution, Paris (France); Yao, L. [Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Developers and system operators face a number of technical, economic and environmental challenges when planning remote, offshore wind farms. While AC connection solutions using dynamic reactive power compensation are usually used to meet connection requirements during rapid load changes and during fault conditions in the grid, high voltage DC (HVDC) transmission is occasionally the only feasible option for connection of a wind farm if transmission distances are significant. This paper described the commercial and technical benefits of using flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) such as the Static Var Compensator (SVC) and static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) to meet grid connection requirements. Case studies were used to demonstrate system stability performance enhancements. Proposed system operation methodologies and control strategies were described. System operations and dynamic performances during generation variations were illustrated. Applications of line-commutated converter HVDC and voltage source converter HVDCs for connecting large offshore wind farms to the grid were also described. A case study of a hybrid HVDC comprised of a LCC HVDC and a SVC-based STATCOM for connecting a 500 MW wind farm was presented. System performances during onshore 3-phase AC faults were studied and strategies for the coordination of the HVDC system were proposed and validated by simulations. Various simulation results between different configurations of the systems showed that while the SVC solution was easier to install and operate, the LCC HVDC system had lower power losses. Capital costs of the LCC HVDC system for large wind farms were also lower, as fewer cables were used. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Total cost estimates for large-scale wind scenarios in UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Lewis; Milborrow, David; Slark, Richard; Strbac, Goran

    2004-01-01

    The recent UK Energy White Paper suggested that the Government should aim to secure 20% of electricity from renewable sources by 2020. A number of estimates of the extra cost of such a commitment have been made, but these have not necessarily included all the relevant cost components. This analysis sets out to identify these and to calculate the extra cost to the electricity consumer, assuming all the renewable electricity is sourced from wind energy. This enables one of the more controversial issues--the implications of wind intermittency--to be addressed. The basis of the assumptions associated with generating costs, extra balancing costs and distribution and transmission system reinforcement costs are all clearly identified and the total costs of a '20% wind' scenario are compared with a scenario where a similar amount of energy is generated by gas-fired plant. This enables the extra costs of the renewables scenario to be determined. The central estimate of the extra costs to electricity consumers is just over 0.3 p/kW h in current prices (around 5% extra on average domestic unit prices). Sensitivity analyses examine the implications of differing assumptions. The extra cost would rise if the capital costs of wind generation fall slower than anticipated, but would fall if gas prices rise more rapidly than has been assumed, or if wind plant are more productive. Even if it is assumed that wind has no capacity displacement value, the added cost to the electricity consumer rises by less than 0.1 p/kW h. It is concluded that there does not appear to be any technical reason why a substantial proportion of the country's electricity requirements could not be delivered by wind

  3. An Integrated Assessment Framework of Offshore Wind Power Projects Applying Equator Principles and Social Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Che Tseng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews offshore wind power project finance and provides an integrated assessment that employs Equator Principles, life cycle assessment, risk assessment, materiality analysis, credit assessment, and ISAE 3000 assurance. We have not seen any comprehensive review papers or book chapters that covers the entire offshore wind power project finance process. We also conducted an SWancor Formosa Phase 1 case study to illustrate the application of integrated assessment to better assist policymakers, wind farm developers, practitioners, potential investors and observers, and stakeholders in their decisions. We believe that this paper can form part of the effort to reduce information asymmetry and the transaction costs of wind power project finance, as well as mobilize green finance investments from the financial sector to renewable energy projects to achieve a national renewable energy policy.

  4. Wind power integration with heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles – Energy systems analysis and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten

    The fluctuating and only partly predictable nature of wind challenges an effective integration of large wind power penetrations. This PhD thesis investigates to which extent heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles can support the integration of wind power. Considering the gaps in existing...... in an energy system context. Energy systems analyses reveal that the heat pumps can even without flexible operation contribute significantly to facilitating larger wind power investments and reducing system costs, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions. When equipping the heat pumps with heat storages, only...... moderate additional benefits are achieved. Hereof, the main benefit is that the need for investing in peak/reserve capacities can be reduced through peak load shaving. It is more important to ensure flexible operation of electric vehicles than of individual heat pumps, due to differences in the load...

  5. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Porter, Kevin

    2009-02-02

    The rapid development of wind power that the United States has experienced over the last several years has been coupled with a growing concern that wind development will require substantial additions to the nation's transmission infrastructure. Transmission is particularly important for wind power due to the locational dependence of wind resources, the relatively low capacity factor of wind plants, and the mismatch between the short lead time to build a new wind project and the longer lead time often needed to plan, permit, and construct transmission. It is clear that institutional issues related to transmission planning, siting, and cost allocation will pose major obstacles to accelerated wind power deployment, but also of concern is the potential cost of this infrastructure build out. Simply put, how much extra cost will society bear to deliver wind power to load centers? Without an answer to this question, there can be no consensus on whether or not the cost of developing transmission for wind will be a major barrier to further wind deployment, or whether the institutional barriers to transmission expansion are likely to be of more immediate concern. In this report, we review a sample of 40 detailed transmission studies that have included wind power. These studies cover a broad geographic area, and were completed from 2001-2008. Our primary goal in reviewing these studies is to develop a better understanding of the transmission costs needed to access growing quantities of wind generation. A secondary goal is to gain a better appreciation of the differences in transmission planning approaches in order to identify those methodologies that seem most able to estimate the incremental transmission costs associated with wind development. Finally, we hope that the resulting dataset and discussion might be used to inform the assumptions, methods, and results of higher-level assessment models that are sometimes used to estimate the cost of wind deployment (e.g. NEMS

  6. Supply chain integration opportunities for the offshore wind industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    with means to overcome their current supply chain challenges. Design/methodology/approach - A comprehensive literature review was conducted involving 162 articles published in 29 peer-reviewed journals. The papers were analyzed in terms of the dimensions of SCI, research methodology, unit of analysis, level...... of analysis, type of industry and manufacturing environment being studied, integrative practices, integrative barriers and the link between SCI and performance. Findings - While SCI has been evolving to become an influential topic in the field of supply chain management, scholars have overlooked industrial......Purpose - This paper surveys the literature on supply chain integration (SCI) to identify the state of research in the various types of studied industries and manufacturing environments. The purpose of this paper is to identify academic discoveries that could provide offshore wind projects...

  7. Improved cost of energy comparison of permanent magnet generators for large offshore wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, K.; McDonald, A.; Polinder, H.; Corr, E.; Carroll, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates geared and direct-drive permanent magnet generators for a typical offshore wind turbine, providing a detailed comparison of various wind turbine drivetrain configurations in order to minimise the Cost of Energy. The permanent magnet generator topologies considered include a

  8. Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis of a Wind Power Generation System at Búrfell in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgir Freyr Ragnarsson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy harnessing is a new energy production alternative in Iceland. Current installed wind power in Iceland sums to 1.8 MW, which in contrast is 0.1% of the country’s total electricity production. This article is dedicated to the exploration of the potential cost of wind energy production at Búrfell in the south of Iceland. A levelized cost of energy (LCOE approach was applied to the estimation of the potential cost. Weibull simulation is used to simulate wind data for calculations. A confirmation of the power law is done by comparing real data to calculated values. A modified Weibull simulation is verified by comparing results with actual on-site test wind turbines. A wind farm of 99MWis suggested for the site. Key results were the capacity factor (CF at Búrfell being 38.15% on average and that the LCOE for wind energy was estimated as 0.087–0.088 USD/kWh (assuming 10% weighted average cost of capital (WACC, which classifies Búrfell among the lowest LCOE sites for wind energy in Europe.

  9. WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies: Technical Area 4 -- Balance-of-Station Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, D. A.; Strawmyer, K. R.; Conley, R. M.; Guidinger J. H.; Wilkie, D. C.; Zellman, T. F.

    2001-07-24

    DOE's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program explores the most advanced wind-generating technologies for improving reliability and decreasing energy costs. The first step in the WindPact program is a scaling study to bound the optimum sizes for wind turbines, to define size limits for certain technologies, and to scale new technologies. The program is divided into four projects: Composite Blades for 80-120-meter Rotors; Turbine, Rotor, and Blade Logistics; Self-Erecting Tower and Nacelle Feasibility; and Balance-of-Station Cost. This report discusses balance-of-station costs, which includes the electrical power collector system, wind turbine foundations, communications and controls, meteorological equipment, access roadways, crane pads, and the maintenance building. The report is based on a conceptual 50-megawatt (MW) wind farm site near Mission, South Dakota. Cost comparisons are provided for four sizes of wind turbines: 750 kilowatt (kW), 2.5 MW, 5.0 MW, and 10.0 MW.

  10. WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies: Technical Area 4 - Balance-of-Station Cost; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, D. A.; Strawmyer, K. R.; Conley, R. M.; Guidinger J. H.; Wilkie, D. C.; Zellman, T. F.

    2001-01-01

    DOE's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program explores the most advanced wind-generating technologies for improving reliability and decreasing energy costs. The first step in the WindPact program is a scaling study to bound the optimum sizes for wind turbines, to define size limits for certain technologies, and to scale new technologies. The program is divided into four projects: Composite Blades for 80-120-meter Rotors; Turbine, Rotor, and Blade Logistics; Self-Erecting Tower and Nacelle Feasibility; and Balance-of-Station Cost. This report discusses balance-of-station costs, which includes the electrical power collector system, wind turbine foundations, communications and controls, meteorological equipment, access roadways, crane pads, and the maintenance building. The report is based on a conceptual 50-megawatt (MW) wind farm site near Mission, South Dakota. Cost comparisons are provided for four sizes of wind turbines: 750 kilowatt (kW), 2.5 MW, 5.0 MW, and 10.0 MW

  11. Fundamentals for remote structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades - a preproject. Annex A. Cost-benefit for embedded sensors in large wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.G.; Lading, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This report contains the results of a cost-benefit analysis for the use of embed-ded sensors for damage detection in large wind turbine blades - structural health monitoring - (in connection with remote surveillance) of large wind turbine placedoff-shore. The total operating costs of a three......, the cost/benefit analysis has large uncertainties....

  12. Wind energy and integration into the grid; Energie eolienne et integration au reseau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, B

    2009-07-01

    The development of wind power plants raises multiple challenges in terms of planning, exploitation and control of power systems. One characteristic of this energy source is its variability with time and its difficulty to be planned. This book takes stock of the theoretical and practical aspects of the question. It gives us a state-of-the-art of the existing solutions to integrate this energy source to the national grid beside other sources of different origin (nuclear, thermal..). In order to allow the reader to understand the stakes and the solutions, some basic notions of electrotechnics and wind technologies are presented first. Then it deals with the wind power impact on power system operation when the wind energy penetration reaches 10% of the whole power. The production/consumption balancing is analyzed and the problem of wind power unpredictability is approached. Beside the problems of voltage regulation of a wind farm and supply maintenance during voltage drop, the book allows to apprehend the operation of electricity markets and in particular those related to wind power (meteorology forecasts and anticipation of production). (J.S.)

  13. Wind turbine integrated multipole permanent magnet generator (PMG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilsboell, N.; Pinegin, A.; Goussarov, D.

    1996-01-01

    Designed permanent magnet generator (PMG - 20 kW) possesses a number of advantages: it makes possible to replace gearbox, the generator and possibly the hub of the wind turbine by combining wind rotor with external rotor of the generator; use of rare earth magnets Nd-Fe-B allows to reduce mass and dimensions of the generator; use of the PMG for wind turbines increases the reliability of the construction during the life time, comparing to the conventional design (gearbox, asynchronous generator). The test of the PMG -20 kW informs that design method, developed for calculation of multipole permanent magnet generators is correct in general and meets engineering requirements. The calculation uncertainty of the magnetic system and output characteristics does not exceed 2-3%. The test shows, that the maximum efficiency of the PGM - 20 kW with full load can be achieved as high as 90-91.5% and excels the efficiency of the traditional system `generator-gearbox` by 4-5.5%. Designing permanent magnet generator, it is recommended to take into account voltage stabilization (capacitance). Efficiency is expected to be higher, mass and production cost of the generator can be reduced by 25-30%. The frequency converter shall be used not only for control of rotational speed, but also to obtain sinusoidal capacitive current on the generator side. For PMG - 20 kW the angle between voltage and current should be within the range 0-23%. (au)

  14. Application of quantum-inspired binary gravitational search algorithm for thermal unit commitment with wind power integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Bin; Yuan, Xiaohui; Li, Xianshan; Huang, Yuehua; Li, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Chance constrained programming is used to build UC with wind power model (TUCPW). • Quantum-inspired gravitational search algorithm (QBGSA) is proposed to solve TUCPW. • QBGSA based on priority list is adopted to optimize on/off status of units. • Heuristic search strategy is applied to handle the constraints of TUCPW. • Local mutation adjustment strategy is proposed to improve the performance of QBGSA. - Abstract: As the application of wind power energy is rapidly developing, it is very important to analyze the effects of wind power fluctuation on power system operation. In this paper, a model of thermal unit commitment problem with wind power integration is established and chance constrained programming is applied to simulate the effects of wind power fluctuation. Meanwhile, a combination of quantum-inspired binary gravitational search algorithm and chance constrained programming is proposed to solve the thermal unit commitment problem with wind power integration. In order to reduce the searching time and avoid the premature convergence, a priority list of thermal units and a local mutation adjustment strategy are utilized during the optimization process. The priority list of thermal units is based on the weight between average full-load cost and maximal power output. Then, a stochastic simulation technique is used to deal with the probabilistic constraints. In addition, heuristic search strategies are used to handle deterministic constraints of thermal units. Furthermore, the impacts of different confidence levels and different prediction errors of wind fluctuation on system operation are analyzed respectively. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are verified by the test system with wind power integration, and the results are compared with those using binary gravitational search algorithm and binary particle swarm optimization. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed quantum-inspired binary gravitational

  15. Methodology to study the life cycle cost of floating offshore wind farms

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Santos, Laura; Garcia, Geuffer; Diaz-Casas, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to determine a theoretical methodology process to study the life cycle cost of floating offshore wind farms. The principal purpose is adapting the LCC (Life-Cycle Cost Calculation) from several authors to the offshore wind energy world, providing a new method which will be called LCSFOWF. In this sense, several general steps will be defined: life cycle definition, process breakdown structure, viability study and sensitivity study. Moreover, technical and ...

  16. Systems and methods for an integrated electrical sub-system powered by wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan [Ballston Lake, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY

    2008-06-24

    Various embodiments relate to systems and methods related to an integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system including a wind power source, an electrically-powered sub-system coupled to and at least partially powered by the wind power source, the electrically-powered sub-system being coupled to the wind power source through power converters, and a supervisory controller coupled to the wind power source and the electrically-powered sub-system to monitor and manage the integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system.

  17. Development of the building integrated ducted wind turbine module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannecker, R.; Varela, G. Quinonez; Grant, A. [Strathclyde Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Wind is now established as a major renewable energy resource, but its exploitation is generally confined to sparsely populated areas and may in future be increasingly limited by environmental constraints. The paper describes the development of a small axial flow turbine with vertical shaft, situated in a curved duct, which is intended to be completely integrated in a high rise building in an urban environment. The design is intended to make optimal use of the differential pressures which result from wind flow around a building. A small scale model and prototypes for field trials have been tested as free standing devices and their performance shown to be competitive with conventional small machines for low power applications. The aerodynamical response to different design options is subject to computational fluid dynamic analysis and will be used in conjunction with wind tunnel testing to refine rotor, stator and duct geometries. A trial deployment will shortly commence as a demonstration project on a newly refurbished building of historical significance in the center of Glasgow. (Author)

  18. Costs of solar and wind power variability for reducing CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Colleen; Cohen, Gilbert E; Apt, Jay

    2012-09-04

    We compare the power output from a year of electricity generation data from one solar thermal plant, two solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, and twenty Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) wind farms. The analysis shows that solar PV electricity generation is approximately one hundred times more variable at frequencies on the order of 10(-3) Hz than solar thermal electricity generation, and the variability of wind generation lies between that of solar PV and solar thermal. We calculate the cost of variability of the different solar power sources and wind by using the costs of ancillary services and the energy required to compensate for its variability and intermittency, and the cost of variability per unit of displaced CO(2) emissions. We show the costs of variability are highly dependent on both technology type and capacity factor. California emissions data were used to calculate the cost of variability per unit of displaced CO(2) emissions. Variability cost is greatest for solar PV generation at $8-11 per MWh. The cost of variability for solar thermal generation is $5 per MWh, while that of wind generation in ERCOT was found to be on average $4 per MWh. Variability adds ~$15/tonne CO(2) to the cost of abatement for solar thermal power, $25 for wind, and $33-$40 for PV.

  19. Addressing System Integration Issues Required for the Developmente of Distributed Wind-Hydrogen Energy Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.D; Salehfar, H.; Harrison, K.W.; Dale, N.; Biaku, C.; Peters, A.J.; Hernandez-Pacheco: E.

    2008-04-01

    Wind generated electricity is a variable resource. Hydrogen can be generated as an energy storage media, but is costly. Advancements in power electronics and system integration are needed to make a viable system. Therefore, the long-term goal of the efforts at the University of North Dakota is to merge wind energy, hydrogen production, and fuel cells to bring emission-free and reliable power to commercial viability. The primary goals include 1) expand system models as a tool to investigate integration and control issues, 2) examine long-term effects of wind-electrolysis performance from a systematic perspective, and 3) collaborate with NREL and industrial partners to design, integrate, and quantify system improvements by implementing a single power electronics package to interface wild AC to PEM stack DC requirements. This report summarizes the accomplishments made during this project.

  20. Low-Cost Superconducting Wire for Wind Generators: High Performance, Low Cost Superconducting Wires and Coils for High Power Wind Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: The University of Houston will develop a low-cost, high-current superconducting wire that could be used in high-power wind generators. Superconducting wire currently transports 600 times more electric current than a similarly sized copper wire, but is significantly more expensive. The University of Houston’s innovation is based on engineering nanoscale defects in the superconducting film. This could quadruple the current relative to today’s superconducting wires, supporting the same amount of current using 25% of the material. This would make wind generators lighter, more powerful and more efficient. The design could result in a several-fold reduction in wire costs and enable their commercial viability of high-power wind generators for use in offshore applications.

  1. Conference on raw materials and jobs cost variation - Impact on wind turbine manufacturers and operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, Bernard; Falk, Thorsten; Braeuninger, Michael; Rehfeldt, Knud; Brand, Ruth; Buhr, Ingo de; Jenne, Markus

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the 2007 Husum Wind exhibition, the French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a side event on In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants exchanged views on raw materials and jobs cost variations in the wind power industry in both countries. Its aim was to compare and analyse the French and German respective support systems to renewable energy sources. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Protecting wind energy tariffs against inflation effects: analysis and suggestions from the French experience (Bernard Chabot); 2 - Wind energy in Germany - Tariff structure in the EEG renewable energy law (Thorsten Falk); 3 - Wind energy competitiveness (Michael Braeuninge, Knud Rehfeldt); 4 - Influence of raw materials price rise on the production costs of ENERCON wind turbines maker (Ruth Brand); 5 - Presentation of the overall costs of an offshore wind energy project (Ingo de Buhr); 6 - Comparison between French and German tariffs profitability using a model wind farm: presentation of the pros and cons of both systems (Markus Jenne)

  2. Reliability/Cost Evaluation on Power System connected with Wind Power for the Reserve Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Go-Eun; Cha, Seung-Tae; Shin, Je-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Wind power is ideally a renewable energy with no fuel cost, but has a risk to reduce reliability of the whole system because of uncertainty of the output. If the reserve of the system is increased, the reliability of the system may be improved. However, the cost would be increased. Therefore...... the reserve needs to be estimated considering the trade-off between reliability and economic aspects. This paper suggests a methodology to estimate the appropriate reserve, when wind power is connected to the power system. As a case study, when wind power is connected to power system of Korea, the effects...

  3. Potential Offshore Wind Energy Areas in California: An Assessment of Locations, Technology, and Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report summarizes a study of possible offshore wind energy locations, technologies, and levelized cost of energy in the state of California between 2015 and 2030. The study was funded by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), the federal agency responsible for regulating renewable energy development on the Outer Continental Shelf. It is based on reference wind energy areas where representative technology and performance characteristics were evaluated. These reference areas were identified as sites that were suitable to represent offshore wind cost and technology based on physical site conditions, wind resource quality, known existing site use, and proximity to necessary infrastructure. The purpose of this study is to assist energy policy decision-making by state utilities, independent system operators, state government officials and policymakers, BOEM, and its key stakeholders. The report is not intended to serve as a prescreening exercise for possible future offshore wind development.

  4. An parametric investigation into the effect of low induction rotor (LIR) wind turbines on the levelised cost of electricity of a 1 GW offshore wind farm in a North Sea wind climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Quinn; B. Bulder; Gerard Schepers

    In this report, the details of an investigation into the eect of the low induction wind turbines on the Levelised Cost of Electricity (LCoE) in a 1GW oshore wind farm is outlined. The 10 MW INNWIND.EU conventional wind turbine and its low induction variant, the 10 MW AVATAR wind turbine, are

  5. Integrating and Promoting Wind – Tide Energy for Renewable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The continual decline in supply of conventional energy in Nigeria due to the depletion of the national reserve as the demand continued to increase has resulted to energy crisis with epileptic power supply, rising cost of production and food prices and threat to poverty reduction as its effects. Integrating and promoting ...

  6. Low cost video endoscopes with simplified integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippermann, F. C.; Beckert, E.; Dannberg, P.; Eberhardt, R.; Bräuer, A.; Messerschmidt, B.

    2010-05-01

    The availability of miniature imagers enables endoscopic systems with simplified integration. Here, the optical elements together with the imager are located at the distal end of these so called video endoscopes. The overall system can be flexible since no relaying optics is required in order to image the object at a remote position. Compared to conventional flexible systems based on light guiding fiber bundles, higher spatial resolutions can be achieved due to the ever decreasing pixel size in CMOS imager fabrication technology. We propose system designs and prototypes for f/4, 3mm outer diameter endoscopes with 70° and 110° field of view using a CMOS imager with 650x650 pixels of 2.8μm pitch. The systems are based on a simplified and rugged integration using a single polymer lens made by injection molding, a GRIN lens and a dispensed lens made of UV curing material allowing for high performance paired with low fabrication cost allowing for the usage as a disposable unit. Additionally, a side view system angled at 30° is presented based on a tilting reflection prism requiring minimum construction space allowing for an outer diameter of 3mm.

  7. A preliminary benefit-cost study of a Sandia wind farm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Griffin, Taylor; Loose, Verne W.

    2011-03-01

    In response to federal mandates and incentives for renewable energy, Sandia National Laboratories conducted a feasibility study of installing an on-site wind farm on Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base property. This report describes this preliminary analysis of the costs and benefits of installing and operating a 15-turbine, 30-MW-capacity wind farm that delivers an estimated 16 percent of 2010 onsite demand. The report first describes market and non-market economic costs and benefits associated with operating a wind farm, and then uses a standard life-cycle costing and benefit-cost framework to estimate the costs and benefits of a wind farm. Based on these 'best-estimates' of costs and benefits and on factor, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, the analysis results suggest that the benefits of a Sandia wind farm are greater than its costs. The analysis techniques used herein are applicable to the economic assessment of most if not all forms of renewable energy.

  8. Evaluation of the wind pumped hydropower storage integrated flood mitigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Aishah; Basrawi, Firdaus

    2018-04-01

    As Wind Pumped Hydropower Storage (WPHS) need high cost to construct, it is important to study their impacts on economic and environmental aspects. Thus, this research aims to evaluate their economic and environmental performances. First, Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) was used to simulate power generation system with and without the flood reservoir. Next, the total amount of emitted air pollutant was used to evaluate the environmental impacts. It was found the wind-diesel with reservoir storage system (A-III) will have much lower NPC than other systems that do not include reservoir for flood mitigation when the cost of flood losses are included in the total Net Present Cost (NPC). The NPC for system A-III was RM 1.52 million and for diesel standalone system (A-I) is RM 10.8 million when the cost of flood losses are included in the total NPC. Between both energy systems, the amount of pollutants emitted by the A-III system was only 408 kg-CO2/year which is much less than the A-I system which is 99, 754 kg of carbon dioxide per year. To conclude, the WPHS integrated with flood mitigation system seems promising in the aspects of economic and environment.

  9. Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Garmsiri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas” (P2G scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacity, geographical dispersion, hydrogen production rate, capital and operating costs are used as performance measures. The model takes into account the potential production rate of hydrogen and the rate that it can be injected into the local gas grid. “Straw man” systems are examined, centered on a wind farm size of 100 MW integrating a 16-MW capacity electrolysis system typically producing 4700 kg of hydrogen per day.

  10. Exploiting synergies in European wind and hydrogen sectors: A cost-benefit assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Suzanne; Peteves, Estathios

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines an assessment of the perspectives for exploiting synergies between European wind and hydrogen energy sectors, where wind energy conversion to hydrogen is used as a common strategy for reducing network management costs in high wind energy penetration situations, and for production of renewable hydrogen. The attractiveness of this approach, referred to here as a 'wind-hydrogen strategy', is analysed using a cost-benefit approach to evaluate the final impact at the level of the end-consumer when this strategy is implemented. The analysis is conducted for four scenarios, based on different levels of: wind energy penetration in the electricity network area, hydrogen energy price, and environmental taxation on fuels. The effect of technological learning on the outcome is also analysed for the period up to 2050. The results of the analysis indicate that the relative value of the wind energy in the electricity market compared to the hydrogen market is a deciding factor in the attractiveness of the strategy; here the wind energy penetration in the network is a key consideration. Finally, in order to exploit learning effects from linking European wind and hydrogen sectors, action would need to be taken in the short term. (author)

  11. Wind farm topology-finding algorithm considering performance, costs, and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazi, Nacef; Chatelet, Eric; Bouzidi, Youcef; Meziane, Rachid

    2017-06-05

    Optimal power in wind farms turns to be a modern problem for investors and decision makers; onshore wind farms are subject to performance and economic and environmental constraints. The aim of this work is to define the best installed capacity (best topology) with maximum performance and profits and consider environmental impacts as well. In this article, we continue the work recently done on wind farm topology-finding algorithm. The proposed resolution technique is based on finding the best topology of the system that maximizes the wind farm performance (availability) under the constraints of costs and capital investments. Global warming potential of wind farm is calculated and taken into account in the results. A case study is done using data and constraints similar to those collected from wind farm constructors, managers, and maintainers. Multi-state systems (MSS), universal generating function (UGF), wind, and load charge functions are applied. An economic study was conducted to assess the wind farm investment. Net present value (NPV) and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated for best topologies found.

  12. The socio-economic costs of the planned development of wind power energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The socio-economic consequences of the Danish government's planned further development of wind power energy are discussed in detail. It is claimed that, currently, electricity produced by wind turbines is more expensive than that produced by power stations, if the relative environmental effects are not taken into consideration. It is expected that technological development will contribute to cost reduction by the year 2010 so that electricity produced by wind turbines will be competitive, but until then costs of wind power energy will be high and it is reckoned that losses will be in the range of 5-6 billion Danish crowns, minus 2.5 billion saved by lack of CO 2 emission. The socio-economic factors regarding windmills of various sizes (150 kW and 225 kW) are calculated and the planned development of wind power until 2010 is explained. The socio-economic costs of the development programme under various conditions, including the calculation of the saved emissions of carbon dioxide, are discussed. The author states that, in the light of these arguments, he is not in agreement with the governmental plan for the development of wind-turbine produced electricity. It is suggested that this plan could be postponed until such time as wind-power produced electricity should be more competitive in price, and that it should not be pursued during a period of economic recession. (AB)

  13. Wind farm production cost: Optimum turbine size and farm capacity in the actual market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laali, A.R.; Meyer, J.L.; Bellot, C. [Electricite de France, Chatou (France); Louche, A. [Espace de Recherche, Ajaccio (France)

    1996-12-31

    Several studies are undertaken in R&D Division of EDF in collaboration with ERASME association in order to have a good knowledge of the wind energy production costs. These studies are performed in the framework of a wind energy monitoring project and concern the influence of a few parameters like wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production costs, through an analysis of the actual market trend. Some 50 manufacturers and 140 different kind of wind turbines are considered for this study. The minimum production cost is situated at 800/900 kW wind turbine rated power. This point will probably move to more important powers in the future. This study is valid only for average conditions and some special parameters like particular climate conditions or lack of infrastructure for a special site the could modify the results shown on the curves. The variety of wind turbines (rated power as a function of rotor diameter, height and specific rated power) in the actual market is analyzed. A brief analysis of the market trend is also performed. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Listen, wind energy costs nothing; Oyez tous, L'eolien ne coute rien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poizat, F

    2008-09-15

    The author discusses the affirmation of the ADEME and the Environmental and sustainable development Ministry: the french wind park will costs in 2008 0,5 euro year for each household. He criticizes strongly this calculi, bringing many data on energy real cost today and in the next 10 years. Many references are provided. (A.L.B.)

  15. Cost-benefit analysis of hybrid wind-solar power generation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOMER power optimization software for evaluation of design and performance of both off-grid and gridconnected power systems has been applied for cost-benefit analysis of a wind-solar hybrid power generation system. Comparison was also made with the cost per kilowatt of grid power supply. The hybrid system had a ...

  16. Analysis of Highly Wind Power Integrated Power System model performance during Critical Weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2014-01-01

    Secure power system operation of a highly wind power integrated power system is always at risk during critical weather conditions, e.g. in extreme high winds. The risk is even higher when 50% of the total electricity consumption has to be supplied by wind power, as the case for the future Danish...

  17. ARRA-Multi-Level Energy Storage and Controls for Large-Scale Wind Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Wenzhong Gao

    2012-09-30

    The Project Objective is to design innovative energy storage architecture and associated controls for high wind penetration to increase reliability and market acceptance of wind power. The project goals are to facilitate wind energy integration at different levels by design and control of suitable energy storage systems. The three levels of wind power system are: Balancing Control Center level, Wind Power Plant level, and Wind Power Generator level. Our scopes are to smooth the wind power fluctuation and also ensure adequate battery life. In the new hybrid energy storage system (HESS) design for wind power generation application, the boundary levels of the state of charge of the battery and that of the supercapacitor are used in the control strategy. In the controller, some logic gates are also used to control the operating time durations of the battery. The sizing method is based on the average fluctuation of wind profiles of a specific wind station. The calculated battery size is dependent on the size of the supercapacitor, state of charge of the supercapacitor and battery wear. To accommodate the wind power fluctuation, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of battery energy system (BESS) and super-capacitor is adopted in this project. A probability-based power capacity specification approach for the BESS and super-capacitors is proposed. Through this method the capacities of BESS and super-capacitor are properly designed to combine the characteristics of high energy density of BESS and the characteristics of high power density of super-capacitor. It turns out that the super-capacitor within HESS deals with the high power fluctuations, which contributes to the extension of BESS lifetime, and the super-capacitor can handle the peaks in wind power fluctuations without the severe penalty of round trip losses associated with a BESS. The proposed approach has been verified based on the real wind data from an existing wind power plant in Iowa. An

  18. Day-ahead stochastic economic dispatch of wind integrated power system considering demand response of residential hybrid energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yibo; Xu, Jian; Sun, Yuanzhang; Wei, Congying; Wang, Jing; Ke, Deping; Li, Xiong; Yang, Jun; Peng, Xiaotao; Tang, Bowen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving the utilization of wind power by the demand response of residential hybrid energy system. • An optimal scheduling of home energy management system integrating micro-CHP. • The scattered response capability of consumers is aggregated by demand bidding curve. • A stochastic day-ahead economic dispatch model considering demand response and wind power. - Abstract: As the installed capacity of wind power is growing, the stochastic variability of wind power leads to the mismatch of demand and generated power. Employing the regulating capability of demand to improve the utilization of wind power has become a new research direction. Meanwhile, the micro combined heat and power (micro-CHP) allows residential consumers to choose whether generating electricity by themselves or purchasing from the utility company, which forms a residential hybrid energy system. However, the impact of the demand response with hybrid energy system contained micro-CHP on the large-scale wind power utilization has not been analyzed quantitatively. This paper proposes an operation optimization model of the residential hybrid energy system based on price response, integrating micro-CHP and smart appliances intelligently. Moreover, a novel load aggregation method is adopted to centralize scattered response capability of residential load. At the power grid level, a day-ahead stochastic economic dispatch model considering demand response and wind power is constructed. Furthermore, simulation is conducted respectively on the modified 6-bus system and IEEE 118-bus system. The results show that with the method proposed, the wind power curtailment of the system decreases by 78% in 6-bus system. In the meantime, the energy costs of residential consumers and the operating costs of the power system reduced by 10.7% and 11.7% in 118-bus system, respectively.

  19. Study of integrated optimization design of wind farm in complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Chen, Dandan; Han, Xingxing

    2017-01-01

    Aiming at the present stage the micro-site selection of wind farm in complex terrain and the wind turbine layout and other close relationship, and selecting more reasonable wind turbine layout, more online power and saving more investment as the goal, analyzing briefly the main factors influencing...... wind farm design in complex terrain and setting up integrated optimization mathematical model for micro-site selection, power lines and road maintenance design etc.. Based on the existing 1-year wind measurement data in the wind farm area, the genetic algorithm was used to optimize the micro...

  20. Power quality and integration of wind farms in weak grids in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Madsen, Peter Hauge; Vikkelsø, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report of a joint Danish and Indian project "Power Quality and Integration of Wind Farms in Weak Grids". The power quality issues have been studied and analysed with the Indian conditions as a case. On the basis of meetings with Danishwind turbine industry, Indian electricity...... boards, nodal agencies, wind turbine industry and authorities, the critical power quality as-pects in India have been identified. Measurements on selected wind farms and wind turbines have quantified the powerquality, and analyses of power quality issues, especially reactive power compensation, have been...... performed. Based on measurements and analyses, preliminary recommendations for grid integration of wind turbines in weak grids have been formulated....

  1. Wind Energy Management System Integration Project Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-09-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation) and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. In order to improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively, by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter unique

  2. Structural Health and Prognostics Management for Offshore Wind Turbines: Sensitivity Analysis of Rotor Fault and Blade Damage with O&M Cost Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrent, Noah J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Lab. for Systems Integrity and Reliability; Barrett, Natalie C. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Lab. for Systems Integrity and Reliability; Adams, Douglas E. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Lab. for Systems Integrity and Reliability; Griffith, Daniel Todd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technology Dept.

    2014-07-01

    Operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind plants are significantly higher than the current costs for land-based (onshore) wind plants. One way to reduce these costs would be to implement a structural health and prognostic management (SHPM) system as part of a condition based maintenance paradigm with smart load management and utilize a state-based cost model to assess the economics associated with use of the SHPM system. To facilitate the development of such a system a multi-scale modeling and simulation approach developed in prior work is used to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and faults, and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. This methodology was used to investigate two case studies: (1) the effects of rotor imbalance due to pitch error (aerodynamic imbalance) and mass imbalance and (2) disbond of the shear web; both on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine in the present report. Sensitivity analyses were carried out for the detection strategies of rotor imbalance and shear web disbond developed in prior work by evaluating the robustness of key measurement parameters in the presence of varying wind speeds, horizontal shear, and turbulence. Detection strategies were refined for these fault mechanisms and probabilities of detection were calculated. For all three fault mechanisms, the probability of detection was 96% or higher for the optimized wind speed ranges of the laminar, 30% horizontal shear, and 60% horizontal shear wind profiles. The revised cost model provided insight into the estimated savings in operations and maintenance costs as they relate to the characteristics of the SHPM system. The integration of the health monitoring information and O&M cost versus damage/fault severity information provides the initial steps to identify processes to reduce operations and maintenance costs for an offshore wind farm while increasing turbine availability

  3. Markets to Facilitate Wind and Solar Energy Integration in the Bulk Power Supply: An IEA Task 25 Collaboration; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Soder, L.; Clark, C.; Pineda, I.

    2012-09-01

    Wind and solar power will give rise to challenges in electricity markets regarding flexibility, capacity adequacy, and the participation of wind and solar generators to markets. Large amounts of wind power will have impacts on bulk power system markets and electricity prices. If the markets respond to increased wind power by increasing investments in low-capital, high-cost or marginal-cost power, the average price may remain in the same range. However, experiences so far from Denmark, Germany, Spain, and Ireland are such that the average market prices have decreased because of wind power. This reduction may result in additional revenue insufficiency, which may be corrected with a capacity market, yet capacity markets are difficult to design. However, the flexibility attributes of the capacity also need to be considered. Markets facilitating wind and solar integration will include possibilities for trading close to delivery (either by shorter gate closure times or intraday markets). Time steps chosen for markets can enable more flexibility to be assessed. Experience from 5- and 10-minute markets has been encouraging.

  4. A Virtual Tool for Minimum Cost Design of a Wind Turbine Tower with Ring Stiffeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Karpat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, renewable energy resources are becoming more important to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase energy efficiency. Researchers have focused on all components of wind turbines to increase reliability and minimize cost. In this paper, a procedure including a cost analysis method and a particle swarm optimization algorithm has been presented to efficiently design low cost steel wind turbine towers. A virtual tool is developed in MATLAB for the cost optimization of wind turbine steel towers with ring stiffeners using a particle swarm optimization algorithm. A wind turbine tower optimization problem in the literature is solved using the developed computer program. In the optimization procedure the optimization results match very well with the optimization results obtained previously. The wall thickness of the shell segments and the dimensions of the ring stiffeners are selected as the design variables, and the limits of the local buckling for the flat ring stiffeners, the local shell buckling limit, the panel ring buckling limit and the limitation of the frequency are considered the design constraints. Numerical examples are presented to understand the impacts of the design variables on the total cost of the wind turbine tower.

  5. Technical cost modelling for a generic 45-m wind turbine blade produced by vacuum infusion (VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed technical cost analysis has been conducted on a generic 45-m wind turbine blade manufactured using the vacuum infusion (VI) process, in order to isolate areas of significant cost savings. The analysis has focused on a high labour cost environment such as the UK and investigates the influence of varying labour costs, programme life, component area, deposition time, cure time and reinforcement price with respect to production volume. A split of the cost centres showed the dominance of material and labour costs at approximately 51% and 41%, respectively. Due to the dominance of materials, it was shown that fluctuations in reinforcement costs can easily increase or decrease the cost of a turbine blade by up to 14%. Similarly, improving material deposition time by 2 h can save approximately 5% on the total blade cost. However, saving 4 h on the cure cycle only has the potential to provide a 2% cost saving. (author)

  6. Wind Farm Grid Integration Using VSC Based HVDC Transmission - An Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of HVAC and HVDC connection of wind farm to the grid, with an emphasis on Voltage Source Converter (VSC)-based HVDC for large wind farms requiring long distance cable connection. Flexible control capabilities of a VSC-based HVDC system enables smooth integration of wind...... farm into the power grid network while meeting the Grid Code Requirements (GCR). Operation of a wind farm with VSC-based HVDC connection is described....

  7. Co-generation of hydrogen from nuclear and wind: the effect on costs of realistic variations in wind generation. Paper no. IGEC-1-094

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.; Duffey, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Can electricity from high-capacity nuclear reactors be blended with the variable output of wind turbines to produce electrolytic hydrogen competitively? To be competitive with alternative sources, hydrogen produced by conventional electrolysis requires low-cost electricity (likely <2.5 cents US/kW.h). One approach is to operate interruptibly, allowing an installation to sell electricity when the grid price is high and to make hydrogen when it is low. Our previous studies show that this could be cost-competitive using nuclear power generator producing electricity around 3 cents US/kW.h. Although similar unit costs are projected for wind-generated electricity, idleness of the electrolysis facility due to the variability of wind-generated electricity imposes a significant cost penalty. This paper reports on ongoing work on the economics of blending electricity from nuclear and wind sources by using wind-generated power, when available, to augment the current through electrolysis equipment that is primarily nuclear-powered - a concept we call NuWind. A voltage penalty accompanies the higher current. A 10% increase in capital cost for electrolysis equipment to enable it to accommodate the higher rate of hydrogen generation is still substantially cheaper than the capital cost of wind-dedicated electrolysis. Real-time data for electricity costs have been combined with real-time wind variability. The variability in wind fields between sites was accommodated by assigning average wind speeds that produced an average electricity generation from wind of between 32 and 42% of peak capacity, which is typical of the expectations for superior wind-generation sites. (author)

  8. On the Evolution of the Integral Length Scale in the Wake of Wind Turbines and within Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiwen; Jin, Yaqing; Hayat, Imran; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2017-11-01

    Wind tunnel experiments were performed to characterize the evolution of integral length scale in the wake of a single turbine, and around wind farms. Hotwire anemometry was used to obtain high-resolution measurements of the streamwise velocity fluctuation at various locations. Negligible and high freestream turbulence levels were considered in the case of single turbine. The integral length scale along the rotor axis is found to grow nearly linearly with distance independent of the incoming turbulence levels, and appears to reach the incoming level in the high turbulence case at about 35-40 rotor diameters downstream. In the wind farm, results suggest that the distribution of integral length scale can be roughly described by a power-law growth with distance within consecutive turbines. Approximately past the third row, the integral length scale appears to reach equilibrium of the spatial distribution.

  9. A Refined Teaching-Learning Based Optimization Algorithm for Dynamic Economic Dispatch of Integrated Multiple Fuel and Wind Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umamaheswari Krishnasamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic economic dispatch problem (DEDP for a multiple fuel power plant is a nonlinear and nonsmooth optimization problem when valve-point effects, multifuel effects, and ramp-rate limits are considered. Additionally wind energy is also integrated with the DEDP to supply the load for effective utilization of the renewable energy. Since the wind power may not be predicted, a radial basis function network (RBFN is presented to forecast a one-hour-ahead wind power to plan and ensure a reliable power supply. In this paper, a refined teaching-learning based optimization (TLBO is applied to minimize the overall cost of operation of wind-thermal power system. The TLBO is refined by integrating the sequential quadratic programming (SQP method to fine-tune the better solutions whenever discovered by the former method. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid TLBO-SQP method, a standard DEDP and one practical DEDP with wind power forecasted are tested based on the practical information of wind speed. Simulation results validate the proposed methodology which is reasonable by ensuring quality solution throughout the scheduling horizon for secure operation of the system.

  10. Wind power integration using individual heat pumps – Analysis of different heat storage options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    reductions in excess electricity production and fuel consumption than heat accumulation tanks. Moreover, passive heat storage is found to be significantly more cost-effective than heat accumulation tanks. In terms of reducing fuel consumption of the energy system, the installation of heat pumps is the most...... important step. Adding heat storages only moderately reduces the fuel consumption. Model development has been made to facilitate a technical optimisation of individual heat pumps and heat storages in integration with the energy system........ Heat accumulation tanks and passive heat storage in the construction are investigated as two alternative storage options in terms of their ability to increase wind power utilisation and to provide cost-effective fuel savings. Results show that passive heat storage can enable equivalent to larger...

  11. Transmission Congestion Management using a Wind Integrated Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gope

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmission congestion is a vital problem in the power system security and reliability sector. To ensure the stable operation of the system, a congestion free power network is desirable. In this paper, a new Congestion Management (CM technique, the Wind integrated Compressed Air Energy Storage (WCAES system is used to alleviate transmission congestion and to minimize congestion mitigation cost. The CM problem has been solved by using the Generator Sensitivity Factor (GSF and the Bus Sensitivity Factor (BSF. BSF is used for finding the optimal location of WCAES in the system. GSF with a Moth Flame Optimization (MFO algorithm is used for rescheduling the generators to alleviate congestion and to minimize congestion cost by improving security margin. The impact of the WCAES system is tested with a 39 bus system. To validate this approach, the same problem has been solved with a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm and the obtained results are compared with the ones from the MFO algorithm.

  12. Integrated analysis considered mitigation cost, damage cost and adaptation cost in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Lee, D. K.; Kim, H. G.; Sung, S.; Jung, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Various studies show that raising the temperature as well as storms, cold snap, raining and drought caused by climate change. And variety disasters have had a damage to mankind. The world risk report(2012, The Nature Conservancy) and UNU-EHS (the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security) reported that more and more people are exposed to abnormal weather such as floods, drought, earthquakes, typhoons and hurricanes over the world. In particular, the case of Korea, we influenced by various pollutants which are occurred in Northeast Asian countries, China and Japan, due to geographical meteorological characteristics. These contaminants have had a significant impact on air quality with the pollutants generated in Korea. Recently, around the world continued their effort to reduce greenhouse gas and to improve air quality in conjunction with the national or regional development goals priority. China is also working on various efforts in accordance with the international flows to cope with climate change and air pollution. In the future, effect of climate change and air quality in Korea and Northeast Asia will be change greatly according to China's growth and mitigation policies. The purpose of this study is to minimize the damage caused by climate change on the Korean peninsula through an integrated approach taking into account the mitigation and adaptation plan. This study will suggest a climate change strategy at the national level by means of a comprehensive economic analysis of the impacts and mitigation of climate change. In order to quantify the impact and damage cost caused by climate change scenarios in a regional scale, it should be priority variables selected in accordance with impact assessment of climate change. The sectoral impact assessment was carried out on the basis of selected variables and through this, to derive the methodology how to estimate damage cost and adaptation cost. And then, the methodology was applied in Korea

  13. Integration of Wind Energy Systems into Power Engineering Education Program at UW-Madison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataramanan, Giri [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Lesieutre, Bernard [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Jahns, Thomas [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Desai, Ankur R [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This project has developed an integrated curriculum focused on the power engineering aspects of wind energy systems that builds upon a well-established graduate educational program at UW- Madison. Five new courses have been developed and delivered to students. Some of the courses have been offered on multiple occasions. The courses include: Control of electric drives for Wind Power applications, Utility Applications of Power Electronics (Wind Power), Practicum in Small Wind Turbines, Utility Integration of Wind Power, and Wind and Weather for Scientists and Engineers. Utility Applications of Power Electronics (Wind Power) has been provided for distance education as well as on-campus education. Several industrial internships for students have been organized. Numerous campus seminars that provide discussion on emerging issues related to wind power development have been delivered in conjunction with other campus events. Annual student conferences have been initiated, that extend beyond wind power to include sustainable energy topics to draw a large group of stakeholders. Energy policy electives for engineering students have been identified for students to participate through a certificate program. Wind turbines build by students have been installed at a UW-Madison facility, as a test-bed. A Master of Engineering program in Sustainable Systems Engineering has been initiated that incorporates specializations that include in wind energy curricula. The project has enabled UW-Madison to establish leadership at graduate level higher education in the field of wind power integration with the electric grid.

  14. Incentives and barriers for wind power expansion and system integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede; Ostergaard, Poul Alberg; Meyer, Niels I

    2017-01-01

    In Denmark expansion of on-shore, near-shore and off-shore wind power is planned to increase the wind power share to 50% of electricity consumption by 2020. In this situation a continuation of past policies will not suffice, and a dual-track incentive system that both establishes incentives...... for investing in wind power and integration infrastructure with integration between the electricity, heating and transportation sectors, is required. The current Danish taxation system discourages electricity use and works against this integration. Likewise, the current day-ahead electricity spot market...... is not appropriate for a high-wind future as wind reduces price levels, but integration across sectors can partly assist in increasing demand and prices. The European Emission Trading System does not suffice in providing a level playing field for wind power and thus needs a revision. Another barrier for on...

  15. The importance of flexible power plant operation for Jiangsu's wind integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Lixuan; Lund, Henrik; Möller, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of different regulation strategies on wind energy integration into the existing energy system of Jiangsu. The ability of wind integration is defined in terms of the ability to avoid excess electricity production, to conserve primary energy consumption and to redu...... regulations of Jiangsu’s energy system are compared and analyzed in the range of a wind input from 0% to 42% of the total electricity demand. It is concluded that operating power plants in a flexible way facilitates the promotion of more intermittent wind integration....

  16. 8th international workshop on large-scale integration of wind power into power systems as well as on transmission networks for offshore wind farms. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt, Uta; Ackermann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Within the 8th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms at 14th to 15th October, 2009 in Bremen (Federal Republic of Germany), lectures and posters were presented to the following sessions: (1) Keynote session and panel; (2) Grid integration studies and experience: Europe; (3) Connection of offshore wind farms; (4) Wind forecast; (5) High voltage direct current (HVDC); (6) German grid code issues; (7) Offshore grid connection; (8) Grid integration studies and experience: North America; (9) SUPWIND - Decision support tools for large scale integration of wind; (10) Windgrid - Wind on the grid: An integrated approach; (11) IEA Task 25; (12) Grid code issues; (13) Market Issues; (14) Offshore Grid; (15) Modelling; (16) Wind power and storage; (17) Power system balancing; (18) Wind turbine performance; (19) Modelling and offshore transformer.

  17. Toward an Integrated Optical Data System for Wind Tunnel Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruyten, Wim

    1999-01-01

    ...) of the test article in a wind tunnel test. The theory for such P&A determinations is developed and applied to data from a recent pressure sensitive paint test in AEDC's 16 ft transonic wind tunnel...

  18. Power system integration and control of variable speed wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eek, Jarle

    2009-12-15

    A wind power plant is a highly dynamic system that dependent on the type of technology requires a number of automatic control loops. This research deals with modelling, control and analysis related to power system integration of variable speed, pitch controlled wind turbines. All turbine components have been modelled and implemented in the power system simulation program SIMPOW, and a description of the modelling approach for each component is given. The level of model detail relates to the classical modelling of power system components for power system stability studies, where low frequency oscillations are of special importance. The wind turbine model includes a simplified representation of the developed rotor torque and the thrust force based on C{sub p-} and C{sub t} characteristic curves. The mechanical system model represents the fundamental torsional mode and the first mode of blades and tower movements. Two generator technologies have been investigated. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the stator converter interfaced permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). A simplified model of a 2 level voltage source converter is used for both machine types. The generator converter controllers have been given special attention. All model components are linearized for the purpose of control system design and power system interaction related to small signal stability analysis. Different control strategies discussed in the literature have been investigated with regard to power system interaction aspects. All control parameters are identified using the internal model control approach. The analysis is focused on three main areas: 1. Identification of low damped oscillatory modes. This is carried out by the establishment and discussion of wind turbine modelling. 2. Interaction between control loops. A systematic approach is presented in order to analyse the influence of control loops used in variable speed wind turbines. 3.Impact on power system performance

  19. A spinner-integrated wind lidar for enhanced wind turbine control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben; Angelou, Nikolas; Hansen, Kasper Hjorth

    2013-01-01

    diameter, 59 m hub height 2.3 MW wind turbine (Vestas NM80), located at Tjæreborg Enge in western Denmark is presented. Preview wind data at two selected upwind measurement distances, acquired during two measurement periods of different wind speed and atmospheric stability conditions, are analyzed...... of the spinner lidar data, is investigated. Finally, the potential for enhancing turbine control and performance based on wind lidar preview measurements in combination with feed-forward enabled turbine controllers is discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.......A field test with a continuous wave wind lidar (ZephIR) installed in the rotating spinner of a wind turbine for unimpeded preview measurements of the upwind approaching wind conditions is described. The experimental setup with the wind lidar on the tip of the rotating spinner of a large 80 m rotor...

  20. Offshore Wind Resource, Cost, and Economic Potential in the State of Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walter D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-12

    This report provides information for decision-makers about floating offshore wind technologies in the state of Maine. It summarizes research efforts performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory between 2015 and 2017 to analyze the resource potential, cost of offshore wind, and economic potential of offshore wind from four primary reports: Musial et al. (2016); Beiter et al. (2016, 2017); and Mone et al. (unpublished). From Musial et al. (2016), Maine's technical offshore wind resource potential ranked seventh in the nation overall with more than 411 terawatt-hours/year of offshore resource generating potential. Although 90% of this wind resource is greater than 9.0-meters-per-second average velocity, most of the resource is over deep water, where floating wind technology is needed. Levelized cost of energy and levelized avoided cost of energy were computed to estimate the unsubsidized 'economic potential' for Maine in the year 2027 (Beiter et al. 2016, 2017). The studies found that Maine may have 65 gigawatts of economic potential by 2027, the highest of any U.S. state. Bottom-line costs for the Aqua Ventus project, which is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Demonstration project, were released from a proprietary report written by NREL in 2016 for the University of Maine (Mone et al. unpublished). The report findings were that economies of scale and new technology advancements lowered the cost from $300/megawatt-hour (MWh) for the two-turbine 12-megawatt (MW) Aqua Ventus 1 project, to $126/MWh for the commercial-scale, 498-MW Aqua Ventus-2 project. Further cost reductions to $77/MWh were found when new technology advancements were applied for the 1,000-MW Aqua Ventus-3 project in 2030. No new analysis was conducted for this report.

  1. Offshore Wind Farm Clusters - Towards new integrated Design Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Peña, Alfredo

    In EERA DTOC testing of existing wind farm wake models against four validation data test sets from large offshore wind farms is carried out. This includes Horns Rev-1 in the North Sea, Lillgrund in the Baltic Sea, Roedsand-2 in the Baltic Sea and from 10 large offshore wind farms in Northern Euro...

  2. Integrating Wind Power in Electricity Grids : an Economic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Kooten, van G.C.; Pitt, L.

    2005-01-01

    As a renewable energy source, wind power is gaining popularity as a favoured alternative to fossil fuel, nuclear and hydro power generation. In Europe, countries are required to achieve 15% of their energy consumption from wind by 2010 as the EU strives to meet its Kyoto obligations. Wind power is

  3. Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Strategies to Reduce the Cost of Offshore Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maples, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); van de Pietermen, R. [Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Obdam, T. [Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    Currently, installation, operation, and maintenance (IO&M) costs contribute approximately 30% to the LCOE of offshore wind plants. To reduce LCOE while ensuring safety, this paper identifies principal cost drivers associated with IO&M and quantifies their impacts on LCOE. The paper identifies technology improvement opportunities and provides a basis for evaluating innovative engineering and scientific concepts developed subsequently to the study. Through the completion of a case study, an optimum IO&M strategy for a hypothetical offshore wind project is identified.

  4. Electricity Generation and Energy Cost Estimation of Large-Scale Wind Turbines in Jarandagh, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasra Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, wind energy utilization is being continuously growing so that it is regarded as a large contender of conventional fossil fuels. This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of electricity generation using wind energy in Jarandagh situated in Qazvin Province in north-west part of Iran. The potential of wind energy in Jarandagh was investigated by analyzing the measured wind speed data between 2008 and 2009 at 40 m height. The electricity production and economic evaluation of four large-scale wind turbine models for operation at 70 m height were examined. The results showed that Jarandagh enjoys excellent potential for wind energy exploitation in 8 months of the year. The monthly wind power at 70 m height was in the range of 450.28–1661.62 W/m2, and also the annual wind power was 754.40 W/m2. The highest capacity factor was obtained using Suzlon S66/1.25 MW turbine model, while, in terms of electricity generation, Repower MM82/2.05 MW model showed the best performance with total annual energy output of 5705 MWh. The energy cost estimation results convincingly demonstrated that investing on wind farm construction using all nominated turbines is economically feasible and, among all turbines, Suzlon S66/1.25 MW model with energy cost of 0.0357 $/kWh is a better option.

  5. Brain network analysis: separating cost from topology using cost-integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric E Ginestet

    Full Text Available A statistically principled way of conducting brain network analysis is still lacking. Comparison of different populations of brain networks is hard because topology is inherently dependent on wiring cost, where cost is defined as the number of edges in an unweighted graph. In this paper, we evaluate the benefits and limitations associated with using cost-integrated topological metrics. Our focus is on comparing populations of weighted undirected graphs that differ in mean association weight, using global efficiency. Our key result shows that integrating over cost is equivalent to controlling for any monotonic transformation of the weight set of a weighted graph. That is, when integrating over cost, we eliminate the differences in topology that may be due to a monotonic transformation of the weight set. Our result holds for any unweighted topological measure, and for any choice of distribution over cost levels. Cost-integration is therefore helpful in disentangling differences in cost from differences in topology. By contrast, we show that the use of the weighted version of a topological metric is generally not a valid approach to this problem. Indeed, we prove that, under weak conditions, the use of the weighted version of global efficiency is equivalent to simply comparing weighted costs. Thus, we recommend the reporting of (i differences in weighted costs and (ii differences in cost-integrated topological measures with respect to different distributions over the cost domain. We demonstrate the application of these techniques in a re-analysis of an fMRI working memory task. We also provide a Monte Carlo method for approximating cost-integrated topological measures. Finally, we discuss the limitations of integrating topology over cost, which may pose problems when some weights are zero, when multiplicities exist in the ranks of the weights, and when one expects subtle cost-dependent topological differences, which could be masked by cost-integration.

  6. Brain network analysis: separating cost from topology using cost-integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginestet, Cedric E; Nichols, Thomas E; Bullmore, Ed T; Simmons, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A statistically principled way of conducting brain network analysis is still lacking. Comparison of different populations of brain networks is hard because topology is inherently dependent on wiring cost, where cost is defined as the number of edges in an unweighted graph. In this paper, we evaluate the benefits and limitations associated with using cost-integrated topological metrics. Our focus is on comparing populations of weighted undirected graphs that differ in mean association weight, using global efficiency. Our key result shows that integrating over cost is equivalent to controlling for any monotonic transformation of the weight set of a weighted graph. That is, when integrating over cost, we eliminate the differences in topology that may be due to a monotonic transformation of the weight set. Our result holds for any unweighted topological measure, and for any choice of distribution over cost levels. Cost-integration is therefore helpful in disentangling differences in cost from differences in topology. By contrast, we show that the use of the weighted version of a topological metric is generally not a valid approach to this problem. Indeed, we prove that, under weak conditions, the use of the weighted version of global efficiency is equivalent to simply comparing weighted costs. Thus, we recommend the reporting of (i) differences in weighted costs and (ii) differences in cost-integrated topological measures with respect to different distributions over the cost domain. We demonstrate the application of these techniques in a re-analysis of an fMRI working memory task. We also provide a Monte Carlo method for approximating cost-integrated topological measures. Finally, we discuss the limitations of integrating topology over cost, which may pose problems when some weights are zero, when multiplicities exist in the ranks of the weights, and when one expects subtle cost-dependent topological differences, which could be masked by cost-integration.

  7. Overview of NREL Distribution Grid Integration Cost Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ding, Fei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mather, Barry A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmintier, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-12

    This presentation was given at the 2017 NREL Workshop 'Benchmarking Distribution Grid Integration Costs Under High Distributed PV Penetrations.' It provides a brief overview of recent and ongoing NREL work on distribution system grid integration costs, as well as challenges and needs from the community.

  8. Final Technical Report Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer

    2012-02-28

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The project's final products include the Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool, found at www.windpolicytool.org, and its accompanying documentation: Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook: User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies. With only two initial user inputs required, the Policy Tool allows users to adjust and test a wide range of policy-related variables through a user-friendly dashboard interface with slider bars. The Policy Tool is populated with a variety of financial variables, including turbine costs, electricity rates, policies, and financial incentives; economic variables including discount and escalation rates; as well as technical variables that impact electricity production, such as turbine power curves and wind speed. The Policy Tool allows users to change many of the variables, including the policies, to gauge the expected impacts that various policy combinations could have on the cost of energy (COE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and the simple payback of distributed wind projects ranging in size from 2.4 kilowatts (kW) to 100 kW. The project conducted case studies to demonstrate how the Policy Tool can provide insights into 'what if' scenarios and also allow the current status of incentives to be examined or defended when

  9. Hydropower flexibility and transmission expansion to support integration of offshore wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Farahmand, Hossein; Jaehnert, S.

    2016-01-01

    is one of the fast responding sources of electricity, thus power systems with considerable amounts of flexible hydro power can potentially offer easier integration of offshore wind power. The interaction between offshore wind and hydro power can be benefic, especially when looking at how the flexibility......In 2013, offshore wind grew over 50%. This increase, concentrated in a relatively small geographical area, can lead to an increased variability of the power produced by offshore wind. The variability is one of the key issues, along transmission, in integrating offshore wind power. Hydro power...... of hydro generation can match the variability of offshore wind, allowing for larger shares of variable generation to be integrated in the power systems without decreasing its stability. The analysis includes two interrelated models, a market model and a flow-based model. The results show that hydropower...

  10. Wind Energy Study and Energy Cost of Wind Electricity Generation in Nigeria: Past and Recent Results and a Case Study for South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluseyi O. Ajayi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the wind energy potential of ten selected sites in the south western region of Nigeria and carried out a cost benefit analysis of wind power generation at those sites. Twenty four years’ (1987 to 2010 wind speed data at 10 m height obtained from the Nigerian meteorological agency were employed to classify the sites wind profiles for electricity generation. The energy cost analysis of generating wind electricity from the sites was also carried out. The outcome showed that sites in Lagos and Oyo States were adequately suited for large scale generation with average wind speeds ranged between 2.9 and 5.8 m/s. Those from other sites may be suitable for small scale generation or as wind farms, with several small turbines connected together, to generate large enough wind power. The turbine matching results shows that turbines cut-in and rated wind speeds of between 2.0 and 3.0 m/s, and between 10 and 12.0 m/s respectively will be very suited to all the sites, particularly those in locations outside Lagos and Oyo States. The energy cost analysis shows that generation cost can be as low as 0.02 €/kWh and as high as 5.03/kWh, depending on the turbine model employed.

  11. Final Report on the Creation of the Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit and API: October 1, 2013 - September 30, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Bri-Mathias [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-08

    The primary objective of this work was to create a state-of-the-art national wind resource data set and to provide detailed wind plant output data for specific sites based on that data set. Corresponding retrospective wind forecasts were also included at all selected locations. The combined information from these activities was used to create the Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND), and an extraction tool was developed to allow web-based data access.

  12. Wind Integration into Energy Systems with a High Share of Nuclear Power—What Are the Compromises?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Zakeri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Towards low-carbon energy systems, there are countries with ongoing plans for expanding their nuclear power capacity, and simultaneously advancing the role of variable renewable energy sources (RES, namely wind and solar energy. This crossroads of capital-intensive, baseload power production and uncontrollable, intermittent RES may entail new challenges in the optimal and economic operation of power systems. This study examines this case by hourly analysis of a national-level energy system with the EnergyPLAN modeling tool, coupled with wind integration simulations (including uncertainty implemented using MATLAB. We evaluate the maximum feasible wind integration under different scenarios for nuclear power plants, energy demand, and the flexibility of energy infrastructure for a real case study (Finland. We propose wind-nuclear compromise charts to envision the impact of any mix of these two technologies on four parameters: total costs, power exchange, carbon emissions, and renewable energy integration. The results suggest that nuclear power constrains the room for maximum uptake of wind energy by a descending parabolic relationship. If nuclear power production exceeds 50% of the total power demand, wind will be unlikely to penetrate in shares over 15% of the respective demand. Moreover, we investigate the role of four flexibility options: demand side management, electrical energy storage, smart electric heating, and large-scale heat pumps (backed with thermal energy storage. Heat pumps (which are in connection with combined heat and power (CHP and district heating systems offer the highest efficiency in balancing excess power from variable RES. However, power-to-heat options offer a limited capability for absorbing excess power, as oversupply arises mainly in the periods with relatively low demand for heat. This calls for longer-term energy storage and/or other flexibility options to achieve the planned targets in wind-nuclear scenarios.

  13. On the integration of wind generators on weak grids and island grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverdure, N.

    2005-12-01

    Wind energy is now an energy that can not be ignored. Because of intrinsic characteristics (scattered primary energy, generators with different technologies, use of power electronics interface), wind energy system integration in distribution grids leads to real problems in terms of impacts. With recent standard changes, it is necessary to study the possibilities of each technology of wind turbines to answer or not to these new constraints. This PhD thesis focuses on a comparison of the main present wind turbines concerning three points of discussion: energy quality, fault ride through, ancillary services (voltage and frequency). It insists on the possibilities in terms of control laws for variable speed wind turbines. (author)

  14. Integration of 18 GW Wind Energy into the Energy Market. Practical Experiences in Germany. Experiences with large-scale integration of wind power into power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, C.; Graeber, B.; Lange, M.; Focken, U.

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the integration of 18 GW of wind power into the German energy market. The focus lies on reporting practical experiences concerning the use of wind energy in Germany within the framework of the renewable energy act (EEG) and the immediate exchange of wind power between the four German grid control areas. Due to the EEG the demand for monitoring the current energy production of wind farms and for short-term predictions of wind power has significantly increased and opened a broader market for these services. In particular for trading on the intraday market ultra short term predictions in the time frame of 1 to 10 hours require different approaches than usual dayahead predictions because the large numerical meteorological models are not sufficiently optimized for very short time horizons. It is shown that for this range a combination of a statistical and a deterministic model leads to significant improvements and stable results as it unites the characteristics of the current wind power production with the synoptic-scale meteorological situation. The possible concepts of balancing the remaining differences between predicted and actual wind power generation are discussed. As wind power prediction errors and load forecasting errors are uncorrelated, benefits can arise from a combined balancing. Finally practical experiences with wind power fluctuations and large forecast errors are presented.

  15. Improved integral joint casing connections can reduce well costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethke, M. (Conoco Inc., Lafayette, LA (United States)); Moe, B. (Oil Technology Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Morey, S. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Schwind, B. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S. Inc., Dallas, TX (United States))

    1994-11-07

    Improvements in integral joint connections (IJC) for casing in the past decade have allowed operators to drill wells previously not feasible to drill for economic or technology reasons. New integral joint connections can withstand greater loads, increasing their range of applications. The use of IJC casing can allow a slimmer well to be drilled, reducing total well costs. The paper describes integral joint connections, physical testing, computer technology, use in deep wells and deep water wells, drilling costs, and drawbacks.

  16. From Non-market Support to Cost-Competitive Incentives. Wind Energy Commercialization in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenqiang, Liu; Xiliang, Zhang; Shuhua, Gu; Gan, Lin

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development of wind energy in China. By examining the economics of windfarm development, it compares the economics of wind technology with other conventional energy technologies and analyzes the role of alternative policy instruments. Meanwhile, it identifies the major constraints of wind technology development and the defects of current non-market support from the government. It shows that the development of wind power will be directly subject to rational policy change, incentive mechanisms and institutional framework building. Particular importance is paid to market incentives to reach the objectives of commercialization and industrialization of wind power. The paper recommends some cost-competitive incentive measure and policies to drive the wind power market. It concludes that promising market incentives to speed up the development of wind energy include: (i) establish market competition mechanisms through standard power purchase agreement; (ii) adjust tax policies and government subsidies; (iii) stimulate investment incentive policies and regulations; and (iv) change governmental institutions and management modes. (author)

  17. Upscaling wind turbines: theoretical and practical aspects and their impact on the cost of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieros, G.; Chaviaropoulos, P.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    to 250 m and a hub height of more than 150 m. Initially, the theoretical implications of upscaling to such sizes on the weight and loads of the wind turbines are examined, where it is shown that unfavourable increases in weight and load will have to be addressed. Following that, empirical models......‐efficient way. Finally, a theoretical framework for optimal design of large wind turbines is developed. This is based on a life cycle cost approach, with the introduction of generic models for the costs, as functions of the design parameters and using basic upscaling laws adjusted for technology improvement...... effects. The optimal concept or concepts is obtained as the one that minimizes the total expected costs per megawatt hour (levelized production costs). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  18. Economic assessment of the engineering basis for wind power: Perspective of a vertically integrated utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Sanjoy

    2009-01-01

    If wind park configurations are globally coordinated across the service area of a power utility, then electricity can be generated for the grid with substantial cost advantages. Based on this premise, the paper introduces a model by which large scale assessment of grid connected wind based power generation may be undertaken for a utility service area. The model can be useful to the policy maker for decisions regarding suitable wind portfolio standards (WPS) definition. The utility, on the other hand, may use the model to study its service area for prospective wind based generation. Aspects of the problem modelled include cost-of-energy from individual generating units, daily load variations for the utility with emphasis on limited penetration, features of wind at prospective installation sites, makes of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) available, and recovery of expenditure through revenue. Application of the model to an assessment exercise for the state of Andhra Pradesh (India) is presented as an example. (author)

  19. Integrated Approach Using Condition Monitoring and Modeling to Investigate Wind Turbine Gearbox Design: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; Guo, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Vibration-based condition monitoring (CM) of geared utility-scale turbine drivetrains has been used by the wind industry to help improve operation and maintenance (O&M) practices, increase turbine availability, and reduce O&M cost. This study is a new endeavor that integrates the vibration-based CM technique with wind turbine gearbox modeling to investigate various gearbox design options. A teamof researchers performed vibration-based CM measurements on a damaged wind turbine gearbox with a classic configuration, (i.e., one planetary stage and two parallel stages). We observed that the acceleration amplitudes around the first-order sidebands of the intermediate stage gear set meshing frequency were much lower than that measured at the high-speed gear set, and similar difference wasalso observed in a healthy gearbox. One factor for a reduction at the intermediate stage gear set is hypothesized to be the soft sun-spline configuration in the test gearbox. To evaluate this hypothesis, a multibody dynamic model of the healthy test gearbox was first developed and validated. Relative percent difference of the first-order sidebands--of the high-speed and intermediate stagegear-meshing frequencies--in the soft and the rigid sun spline configurations were compared. The results verified that the soft sun-spline configuration can reduce the sidebands of the intermediate stage gear set and also the locating bearing loads. The study demonstrates that combining vibration-based CM with appropriate modeling can provide insights for evaluating different wind turbinegearbox design options.

  20. Exploring Optimization Opportunities in Four-Point Suspension Wind Turbine Drivetrains through Integrated Design Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Drivetrain design has significant influence on the costs of wind power generation. Current industry practices usually approach the drivetrain design with loads and system requirements defined by the turbine manufacturer. Several different manufacturers are contracted to supply individual components from the low-speed shaft to the generator - each receiving separate design specifications from the turbine manufacturer. Increasingly, more integrated approaches to turbine design have shown promise for blades and towers. Yet, integrated drivetrain design is a challenging task owing to the complex physical behavior of the important load-bearing components, namely the main bearings, gearbox, and the generator. In this paper we combine two of NREL's systems engineering design tools, DriveSE and GeneratorSE, to enable a comprehensive system-level drivetrain optimization for the IEAWind reference turbine for land-based applications. We compare a more traditional design with integrated approaches employing decoupled and coupled design optimization. It is demonstrated that both approaches have the potential to realize notable mass savings with opportunities to lower the costs of energy.

  1. Exploring Optimization Opportunities in Four-Point Suspension Wind Turbine Drivetrains Through Integrated Design Approaches: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    Drivetrain design has significant influence on the costs of wind power generation. Current industry practices usually approach the drivetrain design with loads and system requirements defined by the turbine manufacturer. Several different manufacturers are contracted to supply individual components from the low-speed shaft to the generator - each receiving separate design specifications from the turbine manufacturer. Increasingly, more integrated approaches to turbine design have shown promise for blades and towers. Yet, integrated drivetrain design is a challenging task owing to the complex physical behavior of the important load-bearing components, namely the main bearings, gearbox, and the generator. In this paper we combine two of NREL's systems engineering design tools, DriveSE and GeneratorSE, to enable a comprehensive system-level drivetrain optimization for the IEAWind reference turbine for land-based applications. We compare a more traditional design with integrated approaches employing decoupled and coupled design optimization. It is demonstrated that both approaches have the potential to realize notable mass savings with opportunities to lower the costs of energy.

  2. Stochastic Unit Commitment of Wind-Integrated Power System Considering Air-Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Han

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of extensive penetration of wind farms into electricity grids, power systems face enormous challenges in daily operation because of the intermittent characteristics of wind energy. In particular, the load peak-valley gap has been dramatically widened in wind energy-integrated power systems. How to quickly and efficiently meet the peak-load demand has become an issue to practitioners. Previous literature has illustrated that the demand response (DR is an important mechanism to direct customer usage behaviors and reduce the peak load at critical times. This paper introduces air-conditioning loads (ACLs as a load shedding measure in the DR project. On the basis of the equivalent thermal parameter model for ACLs and the state-queue control method, a compensation cost calculation method for the ACL to shift peak load is proposed. As a result of the fluctuation and uncertainty of wind energy, a two-stage stochastic unit commitment (UC model is developed to analyze the ACL users’ response in the wind-integrated power system. A simulation study on residential and commercial ACLs has been performed on a 10-generator test system. The results illustrate the feasibility of the proposed stochastic programming strategy and that the system peak load can be effectively reduced through the participation of ACL users in DR projects.

  3. Comparative Study of Electric Energy Storages and Thermal Energy Auxiliaries for Improving Wind Power Integration in the Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjuan Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In regards to the cogeneration system in Northern China, mainly supported by combined heat and power (CHP plants, it usually offers limited operation flexibility due to the joint production of electric and thermal power. For that large-scale wind farms included in the cogeneration system, a large amount of wind energy may have to be wasted. To solve this issue, the utilization of the electric energy storages and the thermal energy auxiliaries are recommended, including pumped hydro storage (PHS, compressed air energy storage (CAES, hydrogen-based energy storage (HES, heat storage (HS, electric boilers (EB, and heat pumps (HP. This paper proposes a general evaluation method to compare the performance of these six different approaches for promoting wind power integration. In consideration of saving coal consumption, reducing CO2 emissions, and increasing investment cost, the comprehensive benefit is defined as the evaluation index. Specifically, a wind-thermal conflicting expression (WTCE is put forward to simplify the formulation of the comprehensive benefit. Further, according to the cogeneration system of the West Inner Mongolia (WIM power grid, a test system is modelled to perform the comparison of the six different approaches. The results show that introducing the electric energy storages and the thermal energy auxiliaries can both contribute to facilitating wind power integration, and the HP can provide the best comprehensive benefit.

  4. Cost-benefit analysis of remote hybrid wind-diesel power stations: Case study Aegean Sea islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Kavadias, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    More than one third of world population has no direct access to interconnected electrical networks. Hence, the electrification solution usually considered is based on expensive, though often unreliable, stand-alone systems, mainly small diesel-electric generators. Hybrid wind-diesel power systems are among the most interesting and environmental friendly technological alternatives for the electrification of remote consumers, presenting also increased reliability. More precisely, a hybrid wind-diesel installation, based on an appropriate combination of a small diesel-electric generator and a micro-wind converter, offsets the significant capital cost of the wind turbine and the high operational cost of the diesel-electric generator. In this context, the present study concentrates on a detailed energy production cost analysis in order to estimate the optimum configuration of a wind-diesel-battery stand-alone system used to guarantee the energy autonomy of a typical remote consumer. Accordingly, the influence of the governing parameters-such as wind potential, capital cost, oil price, battery price and first installation cost-on the corresponding electricity production cost is investigated using the developed model. Taking into account the results obtained, hybrid wind-diesel systems may be the most cost-effective electrification solution for numerous isolated consumers located in suitable (average wind speed higher than 6.0 m/s) wind potential regions

  5. Rating Requirements of the UPQC to Integrate the FSIG Type Wind Generation to the Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanti, N.; Basu, Malabika; Conlon, Michael; Gaughan, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The ability of wind generation to remain connected to the grid in the event of system faults and dynamic reactive power compensation are two aspects of grid integration, which have received particular attention. The wind driven, fixed-speed induction generator (FSIG) on its own fails to fulfil these requirements of grid integration. The application of a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) to overcome the grid integration problems of the FSIG is investigated. The role of the UPQC in enhan...

  6. Economics for wind turbines in Denmark. Investments, operation and maintenance costs for selected vintages of turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjuler Jensen, P.; Morthorst, P.E.; Skriver, S.; Rasmussen, M.; Larsen, H.; Hansen, L.H.; Nielsen, P.; Lemming, J.

    2002-10-01

    During the last two decades of operational experience with wind turbines in Denmark, a number of investigations on wind energy economics have been carried out on behalf of the Danish Energy Agency. The aim of this study has been to analyse the development of investments cost, O and M-cost, insurance costs etc. including the economic and technical lifetime of wind turbines. Based on a questionnaire and an existing database, time series for O and M-cost components are established going back to the early 80's. These time series are used to analyse the development of O and M-costs during the lifetime of different turbine sizes and vintages. A major issue of the project is to use the results achieved for older turbines (55kW to 150 kW) to establish an expected development of O and M-costs for newer larger turbines, typically of the 500kW to 750kW sizes. (au)

  7. Complete wind farm electromagnetic transient modelling for grid integration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubia, I.; Ostolaza, X.; Susperregui, A.; Tapia, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a modelling methodology to analyse the impact of wind farms in surrounding networks. Based on the transient modelling of the asynchronous generator, the multi-machine model of a wind farm composed of N generators is developed. The model incorporates step-up power transformers, distribution lines and surrounding loads up to their connection to the power network. This model allows the simulation of symmetric and asymmetric short-circuits located in the distribution network and the analysis of transient stability of wind farms. It can be also used to study the islanding operation of wind farms

  8. Integrated Method for Optimizing Connection Layout and Cable Selection for an Internal Network of a Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wędzik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An internal network of a wind farm is similar to a wide network structure. Wind turbines are deployed over a vast area, and cable lines used to interconnect them may have lengths reaching tens of kilometres. The cost of constructing such a network is a major component of the entire investment. Therefore, it is advisable to develop a configuration of such a farm’s internal connections which will minimise the cost, while complying with technical requirements even at the design stage. So far this has usually been done within two independent processes. At first the network structure ensuring the shortest possible connections between the turbines is determined. Then appropriate cables compliant with technical regulations are selected for the specified structure. But does this design approach ensure the optimal (lowest investment cost? This paper gives an answer to this question. A method for accomplishing the task given in the title is presented. Examples of calculations are presented and results are compared for the two methods of optimal wind farm internal connection structure design and cable cross-section dimensioning: two-stage and integrated. The usefulness of employing the Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MNLP method in the process of determining the optimal structure of a wind farm’s cable network is demonstrated.

  9. Power quality and integration of wind farms in weak grids in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P.; Hauge Madsen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept.; Vikkelsoe, A.; Koelbaek Jensen, K. [Danske Elvaerkers Forening Udredningsafdelingen (DEFU), Lyngby (Denmark); Fathima, K.A.; Unnikrishnan, A.K.

    2000-04-01

    This is the final report of a joint Danish and Indian project' Power Quality and Integration of Wind Farms in Weak Grids'. The power quality issues have been studied and analysed with the Indian conditions as a case. On the basis of meetings with Danish wind turbine industry, Indian electricity boards, nodal agencies, wind turbine industry and authorities, the critical power quality as-pects in India have been identified. Measurements on selected wind farms and wind turbines have quantified the power quality, and analyses of power quality issues, especially reactive power compensation, have been performed. Based on measurements and analyses, preliminary recommendations for grid integration of wind turbines in weak grids have been formulated. (au)

  10. IEA Wind Task 26. Wind Technology, Cost and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States. 2007 - 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitina, Aisma [Ea Energy Analyses, Copenhagen (Denmark); Luers, Silke [Deutsche WindGuard, Varel (Germany); Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin [Deutsche WindGuard, Varel (Germany); Berkhout, Volker [Fraunhofer IWES (Germany); Duffy, Aidan [Dublin Inst. of Technology and Dublin Energy Lab (Ireland); Cleary, Brendan [Dublin Inst. of Technology and Dublin Energy Lab (Ireland); Husabo, Leif I. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), Oslo (Norway); Weir, David E. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), Oslo (Norway); Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Hand, M. Maureen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Belyeu, Kathy [Belyeu Consulting, Tacoma Park, MD (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-12

    This report builds from a similar previous analysis (Schwabe et al., 2011) exploring the differences in cost of wind energy in 2008 among countries participating in IEA Wind Task 26 at that time. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is a widely recognized metric for understanding how technology, capital investment, operations, and financing impact the life-cycle cost of building and operating a wind plant. Schwabe et al. (2011) apply a spreadsheet-based cash flow model developed by the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) to estimate LCOE. This model is a detailed, discounted cash flow model used to represent the various cost structures in each of the participating countries from the perspective of a financial investor in a domestic wind energy project. This model is used for the present analysis as well, and comparisons are made for those countries who contributed to both reports, Denmark, Germany, and the United States.

  11. Integrative views on dual-task costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Band, Guido P. H.; Jolicœur, Pierre; Akyürek, Elkan G.; Memelink, Jiska

    In this paper, we introduce a special issue about unique and shared mechanisms underlying the performance limitations observed in dual tasks. In particular, the relationship between task-switching costs, the attentional-blink effect, and the psychological refractory period effect is reviewed. These

  12. Risk analysis for U.S. offshore wind farms: the need for an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staid, Andrea; Guikema, Seth D

    2015-04-01

    Wind power is becoming an increasingly important part of the global energy portfolio, and there is growing interest in developing offshore wind farms in the United States to better utilize this resource. Wind farms have certain environmental benefits, notably near-zero emissions of greenhouse gases, particulates, and other contaminants of concern. However, there are significant challenges ahead in achieving large-scale integration of wind power in the United States, particularly offshore wind. Environmental impacts from wind farms are a concern, and these are subject to a number of on-going studies focused on risks to the environment. However, once a wind farm is built, the farm itself will face a number of risks from a variety of hazards, and managing these risks is critical to the ultimate achievement of long-term reductions in pollutant emissions from clean energy sources such as wind. No integrated framework currently exists for assessing risks to offshore wind farms in the United States, which poses a challenge for wind farm risk management. In this "Perspective", we provide an overview of the risks faced by an offshore wind farm, argue that an integrated framework is needed, and give a preliminary starting point for such a framework to illustrate what it might look like. This is not a final framework; substantial work remains. Our intention here is to highlight the research need in this area in the hope of spurring additional research about the risks to wind farms to complement the substantial amount of on-going research on the risks from wind farms. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Assessment of wind energy potential and cost estimation of wind-generated electricity at hilltops surrounding the city of Maroua in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaoga, Dieudonné Kidmo; Bogno, Bachirou; Aillerie, Michel; Raidandi, Danwe; Yamigno, Serge Doka; Hamandjoda, Oumarou; Tibi, Beda

    2016-07-01

    In this work, 28 years of wind data, measured at 10m above ground level (AGL), from Maroua meteorological station is utilized to assess the potential of wind energy at exposed ridges tops of mountains surrounding the city of Maroua. The aim of this study is to estimate the cost of wind-generated electricity using six types of wind turbines (50 to 2000 kW). The Weibull distribution function is employed to estimate Weibull shape and scale parameters using the energy pattern factor method. The considered wind shear model to extrapolate Weibull parameters and wind profiles is the empirical power law correlation. The results show that hilltops in the range of 150-350m AGL in increments of 50, fall under Class 3 or greater of the international system of wind classification and are deemed suitable to outstanding for wind turbine applications. A performance of the selected wind turbines is examined as well as the costs of wind-generated electricity at the considered hilltops. The results establish that the lowest costs per kWh are obtained using YDF-1500-87 (1500 kW) turbine while the highest costs are delivered by P-25-100 (90 kW). The lowest costs (US) per kWh of electricity generated are found to vary between a minimum of 0.0294 at hilltops 350m AGL and a maximum of 0.0366 at hilltops 150m AGL, with corresponding energy outputs that are 6,125 and 4,932 MWh, respectively. Additionally, the matching capacity factors values are 38.05% at hilltops 150m AGL and 47.26% at hilltops 350m AGL. Furthermore, YDF-1500-87 followed by Enercon E82-2000 (2000 kW) wind turbines provide the lowest cost of wind generated electricity and are recommended for use for large communities. Medium wind turbine P-15-50 (50 kW), despite showing the best coefficients factors (39.29% and 48.85% at hilltops 150 and 350m AGL, in that order), generates electricity at an average higher cost/kWh of US0.0547 and 0.0440 at hilltops 150 and 350m AGL, respectively. P-15-50 is deemed a more advantageous option

  14. A system-level cost-of-energy wind farm layout optimization with landowner modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Le; MacDonald, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We model the role of landowners in determining the success of wind projects. • A cost-of-energy (COE) model with realistic landowner remittances is developed. • These models are included in a system-level wind farm layout optimization. • Basic verification indicates the optimal COE is in-line with real-world data. • Land plots crucial to a project’s success can be identified with the approach. - Abstract: This work applies an enhanced levelized wind farm cost model, including landowner remittance fees, to determine optimal turbine placements under three landowner participation scenarios and two land-plot shapes. Instead of assuming a continuous piece of land is available for the wind farm construction, as in most layout optimizations, the problem formulation represents landowner participation scenarios as a binary string variable, along with the number of turbines. The cost parameters and model are a combination of models from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Windustry. The system-level cost-of-energy (COE) optimization model is also tested under two land-plot shapes: equally-sized square land plots and unequal rectangle land plots. The optimal COEs results are compared to actual COE data and found to be realistic. The results show that landowner remittances account for approximately 10% of farm operating costs across all cases. Irregular land-plot shapes are easily handled by the model. We find that larger land plots do not necessarily receive higher remittance fees. The model can help site developers identify the most crucial land plots for project success and the optimal positions of turbines, with realistic estimates of costs and profitability

  15. The Economics of Storage, Transmission and Drought: Integrating Variable Wind Power into Spatially Separated Electricity Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scora, H.; Sopinka, A.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    To mitigate the high variability of wind and make it a more viable renewable energy source, observers recommend greater integration of spatially-separated electrical grids, with high transmission lines linking load centers, scattered wind farms and hydro storage sites. In this study, we examine the

  16. Beyond Classical Upscaling : Integrated Aeroservoelastic Design and Optimization of Large Offshore Wind Turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashuri, T.

    2012-01-01

    Issues related to environmental concern and fossil fuel exhaustion has made wind energy the most widely accepted renewable energy resource. However, there are still several challenges to be solved such as the integrated design of wind turbines, aeroelastic response and stability prediction, grid

  17. Cost benefit analysis of power plant database integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilber, B.E.; Cimento, A.; Stuart, R.

    1988-01-01

    A cost benefit analysis of plant wide data integration allows utility management to evaluate integration and automation benefits from an economic perspective. With this evaluation, the utility can determine both the quantitative and qualitative savings that can be expected from data integration. The cost benefit analysis is then a planning tool which helps the utility to develop a focused long term implementation strategy that will yield significant near term benefits. This paper presents a flexible cost benefit analysis methodology which is both simple to use and yields accurate, verifiable results. Included in this paper is a list of parameters to consider, a procedure for performing the cost savings analysis, and samples of this procedure when applied to a utility. A case study is presented involving a specific utility where this procedure was applied. Their uses of the cost-benefit analysis are also described

  18. Grid Integration Issues for Large Scale Wind Power Plants (WPPs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    transmission system operators (TSOs) over the world have come up the grid codes to request the wind power plants (WPPs) to have more or less the same operating capability as the conventional power plants. The grid codes requirements from other TSOs are under development. This paper covers the steady state......The penetration level of wind power into the power system over the world have been increasing very fast in the last few years and is still keeping the fast growth rate. It is just a matter of time that the wind power will be comparable to the conventional power generation. Therefore, many...

  19. Integrating wind power in the (French) power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellen, A.

    2007-03-01

    RTE and EDF have no other technological option than to restrain the contribution of the French wind power fleet to base-load generation where it comes in direct competition with the nuclear power plants. The author aims to explain this situation and answer the following questions. Why the fossil fueled reactor fleet in France will not be affected by an evolution of the wind power capacity? Why, in France electric power generation-demand SYSTEM wind power cannot be a substitute for fossil fueled thermal units? (A.L.B.)

  20. Market integration of wind power in electricity system balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorknæs, Peter; Andersen, Anders N.; Tang, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In most countries markets for electricity are divided into wholesale markets on which electricity is traded before the operation hour, and real-time balancing markets to handle the deviations from the wholesale trading. So far, wind power has been sold only on the wholesale market and has been...... known to increase the need for balancing. This article analyses whether wind turbines in the future should participate in the balancing markets and thereby play a proactive role. The analysis is based on a real-life test of proactive participation of a wind farm in West Denmark. It is found...

  1. Shelterwood-planted northern red oaks: integrated costs and options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Daniel Dey; Paul. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Tree biology, environmental site conditions, relative monetary costs, management options, and the competitive struggle between planted trees and other vegetation were integrated when underplanting northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings in Boston Mountain shelterwoods. This approach provides insight into the collective costs (...

  2. Integrated North Sea grids: The costs, the benefits and their distribution between countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantelos, Ioannis; Pudjianto, Danny; Strbac, Goran; De Decker, Jan; Joseph, Pieter; Flament, Aurore; Kreutzkamp, Paul; Genoese, Fabio; Rehfeldt, Leif; Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin; Gerdes, Gerhard; Jafar, Muhammad; Yang, Yongtao; Tidemand, Nicolaj; Jansen, Jaap; Nieuwenhout, Frans; Welle, Adriaan van der; Veum, Karina

    2017-01-01

    A large number of offshore wind farms and interconnectors are expected to be constructed in the North Sea region over the coming decades, creating substantial opportunities for the deployment of integrated network solutions. Creating interconnected offshore grids that combine cross-border links and connections of offshore plants to shore offers multiple economic and environmental advantages for Europe's energy system. However, despite evidence that integrated solutions can be more beneficial than traditional radial connection practices, no such projects have been deployed yet. In this paper we quantify costs and benefits of integrated projects and investigate to which extent the cost-benefit sharing mechanism between participating countries can impede or encourage the development of integrated projects. Three concrete interconnection case studies in the North Sea area are analysed in detail using a national-level power system model. Model outputs are used to compute the net benefit of all involved stakeholders under different allocation schemes. Given the asymmetric distribution of costs and benefits, we recommend to consistently apply the Positive Net Benefit Differential mechanism as a starting point for negotiations on the financial closure of investments in integrated offshore infrastructure. - Highlights: • Three North Sea offshore gird case studies are analysed. • They are shown to have substantial net benefit over non-integrated network designs. • Asymmetric net benefit sharing between countries is shown to be a barrier. • Positive Net Benefit Differential method alleviates asymmetric benefits.

  3. Project control integrating cost and schedule in construction

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pico, Wayne J

    2013-01-01

    The key to successful project control is the fusing of cost to schedule whereby the management of one helps to manage the other. Project Control: Integrating Cost and Schedule in Construction explores the reasons behind and the methodologies for proper planning, monitoring, and controlling both project costs and schedule. Filling a current void the topic of project control applied to the construction industry, it is essential reading for students and professionals alike.

  4. Integrating wind turbines into the Orcas Island distribution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaininger, H.W. [Zaininger Engineering Co., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This research effort consists of two years of wind data collection and analysis to investigate the possibility of strategically locating a megawatt (MW) scale wind farm near the end of an Orcas Power and light Company (OPALCO) 25-kilovolt (kV) distribution circuit to defer the need to upgrade the line to 69 kV. The results of this study support the results of previous work in which another year of wind data and collection was performed. Both this study and the previous study show that adding a MW-scale wind farm at the Mt. Constitution site is a feasible alternative to upgrading the OPALCO 25-kV distribution circuit to 69 kV.

  5. Operational and Strategic Implementation of Dynamic Line Rating for Optimized Wind Energy Generation Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentle, Jake Paul [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    One primary goal of rendering today’s transmission grid “smarter” is to optimize and better manage its power transfer capacity in real time. Power transfer capacity is affected by three main elements: stability, voltage limits, and thermal ratings. All three are critical, but thermal ratings represent the greatest opportunity to quickly, reliably and economically utilize the grid’s true capacity. With the “Smarter Grid”, new solutions have been sought to give operators a better grasp on real time conditions, allowing them to manage and extend the usefulness of existing transmission infrastructure in a safe and reliable manner. The objective of the INL Wind Program is to provide industry a Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) solution that is state of the art as measured by cost, accuracy and dependability, to enable human operators to make informed decisions and take appropriate actions without human or system overloading and impacting the reliability of the grid. In addition to mitigating transmission line congestion to better integrate wind, DLR also offers the opportunity to improve the grid with optimized utilization of transmission lines to relieve congestion in general. As wind-generated energy has become a bigger part of the nation’s energy portfolio, researchers have learned that wind not only turns turbine blades to generate electricity, but can cool transmission lines and increase transfer capabilities significantly, sometimes up to 60 percent. INL’s DLR development supports EERE and The Wind Energy Technology Office’s goals by informing system planners and grid operators of available transmission capacity, beyond typical Static Line Ratings (SLR). SLRs are based on a fixed set of conservative environmental conditions to establish a limit on the amount of current lines can safely carry without overheating. Using commercially available weather monitors mounted on industry informed custom brackets developed by INL in combination with Computational

  6. Wind power integration into the automatic generation control of power systems with large-scale wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    2014-01-01

    Transmission system operators have an increased interest in the active participation of wind power plants (WPP) in the power balance control of power systems with large wind power penetration. The emphasis in this study is on the integration of WPPs into the automatic generation control (AGC......) of the power system. The present paper proposes a coordinated control strategy for the AGC between combined heat and power plants (CHPs) and WPPs to enhance the security and the reliability of a power system operation in the case of a large wind power penetration. The proposed strategy, described...... and exemplified for the future Danish power system, takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan for generation and power exchange with neighbouring power systems into account. The performance of the proposed strategy for coordinated secondary control is assessed and discussed by means of simulations for different...

  7. Integration of species persistence, costs and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Niels; Theilade, Ida; Thea, So

    2007-01-01

    -industries, encroachment, illegal logging, over-harvesting and forest fire as well as the use of chemicals during war. The purpose of the paper is to: (i) apply reserve selection methods to design more robust conservation networks when knowledge of species occurrence is incomplete and habitat is threatened, and (ii......) evaluate the usefulness of systematic conservation planning in a developing country where data are limited and institutions for implementation are weak. This study investigates the performance of four non-probabilistic strategies: (i) a so-called ‘rule of thumb', (ii) hotspot, (iii) minimum cost...... representation, and (iv) maximum coverage; and one probabilistic design strategy, i.e. maximum expected coverage. The maximum expected coverage approach is between 15% and 24% more efficient than the non-probabilistic strategies. Finally, the relevance of such tools to real-world conservation planning...

  8. An integrated audio-visual impact tool for wind turbine installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymberopoulos, N.; Belessis, M.; Wood, M.; Voutsinas, S.

    1996-01-01

    An integrated software tool was developed for the design of wind parks that takes into account their visual and audio impact. The application is built on a powerful hardware platform and is fully operated through a graphic user interface. The topography, the wind turbines and the daylight conditions are realised digitally. The wind park can be animated in real time and the user can take virtual walks in it while the set-up of the park can be altered interactively. In parallel, the wind speed levels on the terrain, the emitted noise intensity, the annual energy output and the cash flow can be estimated at any stage of the session and prompt the user for rearrangements. The tool has been used to visually simulate existing wind parks in St. Breok, UK and Andros Island, Greece. The results lead to the conclusion that such a tool can assist to the public acceptance and licensing procedures of wind parks. (author)

  9. Full-Scale Field Test of a Blade-Integrated Dual-Telescope Wind Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas

    Introduction In recent years the use of wind lidars mounted directly on wind turbines has received increasing attention, and such systems are becoming commercially available. One aim of turbine-mounted wind lidars is to use them for prevision in connection with advanced feed-forward control systems...... for load reduction and power optimization. To date, main attention has been on control schemes where measurements of wind speeds and direction upwind are used for yaw and speed corrections. In this study we investigate experimentally the feasibility of using lidars integrated in the turbine blades...... in the top and bottom of the rotor plane. Conclusion We present here what we believe is the first successful wind speed measurements from a dual-telescope lidar installed on the blade of an operating wind turbine. The full-scale field test performed in the summer of 2012 has clearly demonstrated...

  10. Dynamic model of frequency control in Danish power system with large scale integration of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2013-01-01

    This work evaluates the impact of large scale integration of wind power in future power systems when 50% of load demand can be met from wind power. The focus is on active power balance control, where the main source of power imbalance is an inaccurate wind speed forecast. In this study, a Danish...... power system model with large scale of wind power is developed and a case study for an inaccurate wind power forecast is investigated. The goal of this work is to develop an adequate power system model that depicts relevant dynamic features of the power plants and compensates for load generation...... imbalances, caused by inaccurate wind speed forecast, by an appropriate control of the active power production from power plants....

  11. Large-scale integration of wind power into different energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the ability of different energy systems and regulation strategies to integrate wind power. The ability is expressed by the following three factors: the degree of electricity excess production caused by fluctuations in wind and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) heat demands......, the ability to utilise wind power to reduce CO2 emission in the system, and the ability to benefit from exchange of electricity on the market. Energy systems and regulation strategies are analysed in the range of a wind power input from 0 to 100% of the electricity demand. Based on the Danish energy system...... of the analyses make it possible to compare short-term and long-term potentials of different strategies of large-scale integration of wind power....

  12. Great Lakes O shore Wind Project: Utility and Regional Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajadi, Amirhossein [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Loparo, Kenneth A. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); D' Aquila, Robert [General Electric (GE), Albany, NY (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Waligorski, Joseph G. [FirstEnergy, Akron, OH (United States); Baker, Scott [PJM Interconnection, Audubon, PA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project aims to identify transmission system upgrades needed to facilitate offshore wind projects as well as operational impacts of offshore generation on operation of the regional transmission system in the Great Lakes region. A simulation model of the US Eastern Interconnection was used as the test system as a case study for investigating the impact of the integration of a 1000MW offshore wind farm operating in Lake Erie into FirstEnergy/PJM service territory. The findings of this research provide recommendations on offshore wind integration scenarios, the locations of points of interconnection, wind profile modeling and simulation, and computational methods to quantify performance, along with operating changes and equipment upgrades needed to mitigate system performance issues introduced by an offshore wind project.

  13. Reliability and cost/worth evaluation of generating systems utilizing wind and solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagen

    The utilization of renewable energy resources such as wind and solar energy for electric power supply has received considerable attention in recent years due to adverse environmental impacts and fuel cost escalation associated with conventional generation. At the present time, wind and/or solar energy sources are utilized to generate electric power in many applications. Wind and solar energy will become important sources for power generation in the future because of their environmental, social and economic benefits, together with public support and government incentives. The wind and sunlight are, however, unstable and variable energy sources, and behave far differently than conventional sources. Energy storage systems are, therefore, often required to smooth the fluctuating nature of the energy conversion system especially in small isolated applications. The research work presented in this thesis is focused on the development and application of reliability and economic benefits assessment associated with incorporating wind energy, solar energy and energy storage in power generating systems. A probabilistic approach using sequential Monte Carlo simulation was employed in this research and a number of analyses were conducted with regards to the adequacy and economic assessment of generation systems containing wind energy, solar energy and energy storage. The evaluation models and techniques incorporate risk index distributions and different operating strategies associated with diesel generation in small isolated systems. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy and energy storage. The concepts presented and examples illustrated in this thesis will help power system planners and utility managers to assess the reliability and economic benefits of utilizing wind energy conversion systems, solar energy conversion

  14. SCBA (social cost-benefit analysis) Wind energy Flevoland, Netherlands; MKBA Windenergie Flevoland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warringa, G.E.A.; Blom, M.J.; Bles, M.

    2012-02-15

    The Dutch province of Flevoland aims to recover its open landscape by reducing the number of wind turbines , while also generating more wind energy. To this end, an integrated spatial and social exploration was carried out and different policy scenarios were developed. These scenarios have different financial but also social effects, such as stimulating the regional economy, impact on the landscape, etc. It is not clear in advance which of the scenarios scores most favorably from a social perspective. To obtain more insight in the social impact, a social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA) was conducted. The main conclusion is that the net welfare effect can be both positive and negative, depending on the scenario. As with any financial calculation and SCBA, the results depend on the assumptions. Factors such as the price of electricity, the investment, the amount of SDE subsidy (subsidy for production of renewable energy), the time of reorganizing, the discount rate applied, etc., all affect the results and may change over time. Therefore, in parallel with this report, a calculation model was developed which makes it easy to adjust these variables. This way results can easily be adjusted based on modified starting points [Dutch] De provincie Flevoland heeft als oorspronkelijke doelstelling haar open landschap te herstellen door het aantal windmolens te verminderen, en tegelijkertijd meer windenergie op te wekken. Hiertoe is een integrale ruimtelijke en maatschappelijke verkenning uitgevoerd en zijn verschillende beleidsscenario's ontwikkeld. Deze scenario's hebben verschillende financiële maar ook maatschappelijke effecten tot gevolg, zoals stimulering van de regionale economie, effect op het landschap, etc. Het is vooraf niet duidelijk welk van de scenario's vanuit maatschappelijk perspectief het meest gunstig scoort. Om meer inzicht te verkrijgen in het maatschappelijke effect, is daarom een maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse (MKBA) uitgevoerd

  15. Results, advantages, cost effectivity and installation potential of cooperation wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbach, J.; De Vries, J.

    1990-01-01

    September 1987 a cooperation of small electricity consumers installed the first cooperative wind turbine in Delft, Netherlands. At present there are 25 such cooperatives with more than 4000 members. In February 1990 14 cooperative wind turbines were in operation with a total capacity of 1,030 kWh. An extension to 23 wind turbines with a total capacity of circa 1.8 MW and a total investment of 3.8 million Dutch guilders is expected for 1990. In 1989 1.1 million kWh has been generated, and in 1990 a production of more than 2 million kWh is expected. The most important advantages of cooperative exploitation of wind turbines are the positive public opinion, extensive possibilities to install the wind turbines, the free choice of location, and cost effectivity. At the present level of investment subsidies and kWh compensations the installed capacity can increase to a maximum of 10 MW in 1995. If a national regulation for cooperative exploitation will be implemented, the kWh compensations increase to DFl 0.17-0.20 and the investment subsidies gradually decrease to zero, the total capacity can mount to 40 MW in 1995 and 125 MW in the year 2000. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 3 refs

  16. Analyzing the Energy Performance, Wind Loading, and Costs of Photovoltaic Slat Modules on Commercial Rooftops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, Otto D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Kelsey A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); MacAlpine, Sara M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    NREL studied a new type of photovoltaic (PV) module configuration wherein multiple narrow, tilted slats are mounted in a single frame. Each slat of the PV slat module contains a single row of cells and is made using ordinary crystalline silicon PV module materials and processes, including a glass front sheet and weatherproof polymer encapsulation. Compared to a conventional ballasted system, a system using slat modules offer higher energy production and lower weight at lower LCOE. The key benefits of slat modules are reduced wind loading, improved capacity factor and reduced installation cost. First, the individual slats allow air to flow through, which reduce wind loading. Using PV performance modeling software, we compared the performance of an optimized installation of slats modules to a typical installation of conventional modules in a ballasted rack mounting system. Based on the results of the performance modeling two different row tilt and spacing were tested in a wind tunnel. Scaled models of the PV Slat modules were wind tunnel tested to quantify the wind loading of a slat module system on a commercial rooftop, comparing the results to conventional ballasted rack mounted PV modules. Some commercial roofs do not have sufficient reserve dead load capacity to accommodate a ballasted system. A reduced ballast system design could make PV system installation on these roofs feasible for the first time without accepting the disadvantages of penetrating mounts. Finally, technoeconomic analysis was conducted to enable an economic comparison between a conventional commercial rooftop system and a reduced-ballast slat module installation.

  17. Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Integrating Solar and Wind Energy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2015-06-03

    As wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) increase in penetration it is increasingly important to examine enabling technologies that can help integrate these resources at large scale. Concentrating solar power (CSP) when deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) can provide multiple services that can help integrate variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and PV. CSP with TES can provide firm, highly flexible capacity, reducing minimum generation constraints which limit penetration and results in curtailment. By acting as an enabling technology, CSP can complement PV and wind, substantially increasing their penetration in locations with adequate solar resource.

  18. Low profile, low cost, new geometry integrated inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2011-01-01

    A new geometry of integrated inductors with low profile and low cost is presented in this paper. The new geometry integrates two inductors by stacking three I-cores. The middle I-core provides a shared low reluctance flux path. The air gaps are formed by separating the I-cores using copper foil...... variable inductors caused by the special saturation behavior may be utilized in some applications. The new integrated inductors make it possible to build low-profile, low-cost, flexibility DC/DC converters, and it can be extensively designed for the low-voltage and high-current required by the modern...

  19. The Role of Logistics in Practical Levelized Cost of Energy Reduction Implementation and Government Sponsored Cost Reduction Studies: Day and Night in Offshore Wind Operations and Maintenance Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Jensen, Christian Munk

    2017-01-01

    contrast to the shore-based office personnel who develop studies directing cost reduction efforts. This paper details the company motivation to join industry-wide cost reduction initiatives. A business case for offshore wind operations and maintenance logistics yielding 1% savings in levelized cost...

  20. Market Integration and Transport Costs in France 1825-1903

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Persson, Karl Gunnar

    2000-01-01

    This article argues that the appropriate standard for the analysis of commodity market integration is the transport cost adjusted law of one price. A threshold error correction model that incorporates that property is developed and applied to French wheat prices in the 19th century. This type...... of modeling acknowledges the fact that error corrections only take place when price differentials between markets exceed transport costs. The method used produces estimates of implied transport costs, which are quite close to observed costs, and generates more accurate estimates of the adjustment speed...

  1. Integrated waste management system costs in a MPC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supko, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    The impact on system costs of including a centralized interim storage facility as part of an integrated waste management system based on multi-purpose canister (MPC) technology was assessed in analyses by Energy Resources International, Inc. A system cost savings of $1 to $2 billion occurs if the Department of Energy begins spent fuel acceptance in 1998 at a centralized interim storage facility. That is, the savings associated with decreased utility spent fuel management costs will be greater than the cost of constructing and operating a centralized interim storage facility

  2. Integrating cost management and work management concepts for operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanditmars, C.

    1995-01-01

    Development of B C Gas Utility Limited's integrated work and cost management system was described, with emphasis on cost management without reliance on the financial systems, and standard costing and operational side benefits. The objectives of the system were identified as dynamic monitoring and control, and local empowerment. The concept underlying the two systems was explained in detail. In the case of the work management system the ability to manage all work in operations areas was stressed, along with its universal availability. Other benefits expected included improved resource utilization, improved productivity, better control of cost, improved revenue generation, superior customer service, a simplified financial system, and improved employee motivation through empowerment

  3. Market Integration and Transport Costs in France 1825-1903

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Persson, Karl Gunnar

    2000-01-01

    of modeling acknowledges the fact that error corrections only take place when price differentials between markets exceed transport costs. The method used produces estimates of implied transport costs, which are quite close to observed costs, and generates more accurate estimates of the adjustment speed......This article argues that the appropriate standard for the analysis of commodity market integration is the transport cost adjusted law of one price. A threshold error correction model that incorporates that property is developed and applied to French wheat prices in the 19th century. This type...

  4. Review of VSC HVDC Connection for Offshore Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korompili, Asimenia; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhao, Haoran

    2016-01-01

    Voltage Source Converter (VSC) High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) connection has become a new trend for long distance offshore wind power transmission. It has been confirmed by a lot of research that the maximum distance of a High Voltage Alternative Current (HVAC) sub-marine cable transmission...... system is limited due to surplus charging current of the cables. The VSC HVDC transmission system has the ability to overcome the limitation and offers other advantages over the HVAC transmission system. This paper is to review the VSC HVDC transmission technology and its application for offshore wind...

  5. Integration of large wind farms into weak power grids. Emphasis on the Ethiopian interconnected system (ICS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bantyirga Gessesse, Belachew

    2013-07-18

    The impact of increased wind power on the steady state and dynamic behavior of the Ethiopian power system is the main focus of this thesis. The integration of wind power to the existing grid with conventional generators introduces new set of challenges regarding system security and operational planning, the main cause of the difference arising from the uncertainty of the primary source of energy and the response time following a disturbance. For incorporating wind turbine models into the overall dynamic model of the system and investigating the effect of wind on the dynamic behavior of the wind first models of wind turbine components were put together by reviewing the current state of the art in wind turbine modeling and control concepts. The theoretical insight thus gained was applied to the Ethiopian power system as a case study. Since the models of the installed turbines were either not available or incomplete, an alternative modeling approach based on generic models was adopted. The generic model, in addition to obviating the need for technology or manufacturer specific models, reduces the complexity the dynamic model. Using this procedure, generic dynamic models for wind farm in the system were developed. The capability of dynamic models to reproduce the dynamic response of the system has been verified by comparing simulation results obtained with a detailed and generic wind farm model. It could be shown that the generic wind turbine model is simple, but accurate enough to represent any wind turbine types or entire wind farms for power system stability analysis. The next task was the study of the effect of increased wind power level on the general behavior of the Ethiopian system. It is observed that overall the impact of wind turbines on the operational indices of the system was -as could be expected- more pronounced in the vicinity of the wind farm. But the power angle oscillation following a disturbance was observed across the whole system. Further, as a

  6. An Integrated Risk Framework for Gigawatt-scale Deployments of Renewable Energy: The U.S. Wind Energy Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, B. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Assessing the potential environmental and human effects of deploying renewable wind energy requires a new way of evaluating potential environmental and human impacts. This paper explores an integrated risk framework for renewable wind energy siting decisionmaking.

  7. Low-cost solution to the grid reliability problem with 100% penetration of intermittent wind, water, and solar for all purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z; Delucchi, Mark A; Cameron, Mary A; Frew, Bethany A

    2015-12-08

    This study addresses the greatest concern facing the large-scale integration of wind, water, and solar (WWS) into a power grid: the high cost of avoiding load loss caused by WWS variability and uncertainty. It uses a new grid integration model and finds low-cost, no-load-loss, nonunique solutions to this problem on electrification of all US energy sectors (electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, and industry) while accounting for wind and solar time series data from a 3D global weather model that simulates extreme events and competition among wind turbines for available kinetic energy. Solutions are obtained by prioritizing storage for heat (in soil and water); cold (in ice and water); and electricity (in phase-change materials, pumped hydro, hydropower, and hydrogen), and using demand response. No natural gas, biofuels, nuclear power, or stationary batteries are needed. The resulting 2050-2055 US electricity social cost for a full system is much less than for fossil fuels. These results hold for many conditions, suggesting that low-cost, reliable 100% WWS systems should work many places worldwide.

  8. Local ownership, smart energy systems and better wind power economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede; Möller, Bernd; Sperling, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Increasing wind power shares enhances the need to integrate wind power into the energy system and to improve its economy. In this study we propose two ways of achieving this end. One is to increase the value of wind power by integrating the heat and power markets, and thus ensures that wind power...... the acceptance rate of onshore wind. The economy of wind power is thus improved by both increasing its value and reducing its costs....

  9. Renewable energy finance and project ownership. The impact of alternative development structures on the cost of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper uses traditional financial cash flow techniques to examine the impact of different ownership and financing structures on the cost of renewable energy, specifically wind power. Most large, non-hydroelectric, renewable energy projects are developed, owned and financed by private non-utility generators. Recently, however, US utilities have begun to consider owning and financing their own wind power facilities rather than purchasing power from independent renewable energy suppliers. Utilities in other countries have also expressed interest in direct renewable energy investments. A primary justification for utility ownership of wind turbine power plants is that utility self-financing and ownership is cheaper than purchasing wind energy from non-utility renewable energy suppliers. The results presented in this paper support that justification, although some of the estimated cost savings associated with utility ownership are a result of suboptimal utility analysis procedures and implicit risk shifting. Financing terms and variables are shown to significantly impact wind power costs. (author)

  10. An integrated model for estimating energy cost of a tidal current turbine farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ye; Lence, Barbara J.; Calisal, Sander M.

    2011-01-01

    A tidal current turbine is a device for harnessing energy from tidal currents and functions in a manner similar to a wind turbine. A tidal current turbine farm consists of a group of tidal current turbines distributed in a site where high-speed current is available. The accurate prediction of energy cost of a tidal current turbine farm is important to the justification of planning and constructing such a farm. However, the existing approaches used to predict energy cost of tidal current turbine farms oversimplify the hydrodynamic interactions between turbines in energy prediction and oversimplify the operation and maintenance strategies involved in cost estimation as well as related fees. In this paper, we develop a model, which integrates a marine hydrodynamic model with high accuracy for predicting energy output and a comprehensive cost-effective operation and maintenance model for estimating the cost that may be incurred in producing the energy, to predict energy cost from a tidal current turbine farm. This model is expected to be able to simulate more complicated cases and generate more accurate results than existing models. As there is no real tidal current turbine farm, we validate this model with offshore wind studies. Finally, case studies about Vancouver are conducted with a scenario-based analysis. We minimize the energy cost by minimizing the total cost and maximizing the total power output under constraints related to the local conditions (e.g., geological and labor information) and the turbine specifications. The results suggest that tidal current energy is about ready to penetrate the electricity market in some major cities in North America if learning curve for the operational and maintenance is minimum. (author)

  11. How Does Energy Storage Increase the Efficiency of an Electricity Market with Integrated Wind and Solar Power Generation?—A Case Study of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Youn Mo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing requests to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have led to renewable resources rapidly replacing conventional power sources. However, the inherent variability of renewable sources reduces the reliability of power systems. Energy storage has been proposed as a viable alternative, as it can mitigate the variability of renewable energy sources and increase the efficiency of power systems by lowering peak electricity demand. In this study, we evaluate the benefits of integrating energy storage with combined wind and solar power generation in the Korean power system through using the dynamic optimization method. Realistic wind and photovoltaic solar power generation scenarios were estimated for actual sites. The results show that the wind power-based system benefitted more from energy storage than the combined wind and solar photovoltaic power-based system. This is because the high variability of wind power was reduced when it was combined with solar power. Co-optimization for energy and reserve costs was more beneficial than optimization for energy costs alone, which suggests that the reliability offered by storage is an important cost-saving factor, in addition to the reduction of energy costs by price arbitrage. Finally, the analysis was conducted under various scenarios to determine the validity of energy storage cost effectiveness.

  12. Studies of Sub-Synchronous Oscillations in Large-Scale Wind Farm Integrated System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Liu; Hang, Mend

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development and construction of large-scale wind farms and grid-connected operation, the series compensation wind power AC transmission is gradually becoming the main way of power usage and improvement of wind power availability and grid stability, but the integration of wind farm will change the SSO (Sub-Synchronous oscillation) damping characteristics of synchronous generator system. Regarding the above SSO problem caused by integration of large-scale wind farms, this paper focusing on doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind farms, aim to summarize the SSO mechanism in large-scale wind power integrated system with series compensation, which can be classified as three types: sub-synchronous control interaction (SSCI), sub-synchronous torsional interaction (SSTI), sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). Then, SSO modelling and analysis methods are categorized and compared by its applicable areas. Furthermore, this paper summarizes the suppression measures of actual SSO projects based on different control objectives. Finally, the research prospect on this field is explored.

  13. The Cost-Optimal Distribution of Wind and Solar Generation Facilities in a Simplified Highly Renewable European Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; von Bremen, Lüder; Schyska, Bruno; Chattopadhyay, Kabitri; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2016-04-01

    The transition of the European power system from fossil generation towards renewable sources is driven by different reasons like decarbonisation and sustainability. Renewable power sources like wind and solar have, due to their weather dependency, fluctuating feed-in profiles, which make their system integration a difficult task. To overcome this issue, several solutions have been investigated in the past like the optimal mix of wind and PV [1], the extension of the transmission grid or storages [2]. In this work, the optimal distribution of wind turbines and solar modules in Europe is investigated. For this purpose, feed-in data with an hourly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 7 km covering Europe for the renewable sources wind, photovoltaics and hydro was used. Together with historical load data and a transmission model , a simplified pan-European power power system was simulated. Under cost assumptions of [3] the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for this simplified system consisting of generation, consumption, transmission and backup units is calculated. With respect to the LCOE, the optimal distribution of generation facilities in Europe is derived. It is shown, that by optimal placement of renewable generation facilities the LCOE can be reduced by more than 10% compared to a meta study scenario [4] and a self-sufficient scenario (every country produces on average as much from renewable sources as it consumes). This is mainly caused by a shift of generation facilities towards highly suitable locations, reduced backup and increased transmission need. The results of the optimization will be shown and implications for the extension of renewable shares in the European power mix will be discussed. The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (Wuppertal Institute, Next Energy, University of Oldenburg), that is financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, Fkz. 03SFF0439A). [1] Kies, A. et al.: Kies, Alexander, et al

  14. Strategic Demand-Side Response to Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraeepour, Ali; Kazempour, Seyyedjalal; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of allowing large, price-responsive consumers to provide reserves in a power system with significant penetration of wind energy. A bilevel optimization model represents the utility maximization problem of a large consumer, subject to a stochastic day-ahead co-optim...

  15. Overview of Recent Grid Codes for Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    As wind power penetration level increases, power system operators are challenged by the penetration impacts to maintain reliability and stability of power system. Therefore, grid codes are being published and continuously updated by transmission system operators of the countries. In this paper...

  16. Assessment of Wind Turbine Structural Integrity using Response Surface Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A new approach to assessment of site specific wind turbine loads is proposed. •The approach can be applied in both fatigue and ultimate limit state. •Two different response surface methodologies have been investigated. •The model uncertainty introduced by the response surfaces is dete...

  17. Wind power integration into the automatic generation control of power systems with large-scale wind power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Basit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmission system operators have an increased interest in the active participation of wind power plants (WPP in the power balance control of power systems with large wind power penetration. The emphasis in this study is on the integration of WPPs into the automatic generation control (AGC of the power system. The present paper proposes a coordinated control strategy for the AGC between combined heat and power plants (CHPs and WPPs to enhance the security and the reliability of a power system operation in the case of a large wind power penetration. The proposed strategy, described and exemplified for the future Danish power system, takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan for generation and power exchange with neighbouring power systems into account. The performance of the proposed strategy for coordinated secondary control is assessed and discussed by means of simulations for different possible future scenarios, when wind power production in the power system is high and conventional production from CHPs is at a minimum level. The investigation results of the proposed control strategy have shown that the WPPs can actively help the AGC, and reduce the real-time power imbalance in the power system, by down regulating their production when CHPs are unable to provide the required response.

  18. A peaking-regulation-balance-based method for wind & PV power integrated accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfang; Li, Nan; Liu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Rapid development of China’s new energy in current and future should be focused on cooperation of wind and PV power. Based on the analysis of system peaking balance, combined with the statistical features of wind and PV power output characteristics, a method of comprehensive integrated accommodation analysis of wind and PV power is put forward. By the electric power balance during night peaking load period in typical day, wind power installed capacity is determined firstly; then PV power installed capacity could be figured out by midday peak load hours, which effectively solves the problem of uncertainty when traditional method hard determines the combination of the wind and solar power simultaneously. The simulation results have validated the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Integrating massiv wind power in the electric system. Acciona experience in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraut Ruso, E.; Ruiz Guillen, J.; Quinonez-Varela, G.; Armendariz Otazu, I.; Navarrete Pablo-Romero, A.; Moreira Prada, C.; Alday Aracama, G.; Sanchez Ardoiz, R.; Moreno Fernandez, J. [Acciona Energia, Sarriguren (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, the existing operational procedures applicable to wind and renewable generation in Spain are presented. These include remote control of renewable generators and their interaction with the TSO's Control Centre: energy production forecast and market integration, and voltage and reactive power control. Acciona Energia, as one of the largest operator and owner of renewable assets in Spain (particularly wind power plants), hat been a major player in the implementation of measures to comply with these procedures. For instance, it has worked closely with the TSO and the wind sector to help formulating Grid Code requirements, it has designed new wind turbine technologies to fulfil them and it has deployed innovative solutions to adapt older wind generators and plants to new standards (retrofitting). Acciona's experiences and technical solutions to these challenges are thoroughly discussed. (orig.)

  20. Hess Tower field study: sonic measurements at a former building-integrated wind farm site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Built in 2010, Hess Tower is a 29-story office building located in the heart of downtown Houston, TX. Unique to the building is a roof structure that was specifically engineered to house ten vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) to partially offset the energy demands of the building. Despite extensive atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind tunnel tests to predict the flow conditions on the roof before the building was constructed, the Hess VAWTs were eventually removed after allegedly one of the turbines failed and fell to the ground. This talk presents in-situ sonic anemometry measurements taken on the roof of Hess Tower at the former turbine locations. We compare this wind field characterization to the ABL wind tunnel data to draw conclusions about building-integrated wind farm performance and prediction capability.

  1. Impacts of large-scale offshore wind farm integration on power systems through VSC-HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongzhi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    the impacts of integrating a large-scale offshore wind farm into the transmission system of a power grid through VSC-HVDC connection. The concerns are focused on steady-state voltage stability, dynamic voltage stability and transient angle stability. Simulation results based on an exemplary power system......, an offshore wind farm could have a capacity rating to hundreds of MWs or even GWs that is large enough to compete with conventional power plants. Thus the impacts of a large offshore wind farm on power system operation and security should be thoroughly studied and understood. This paper investigates......The potential of offshore wind energy has been commonly recognized and explored globally. Many countries have implemented and planned offshore wind farms to meet their increasing electricity demands and public environmental appeals, especially in Europe. With relatively less space limitation...

  2. Large-scale integration of wind power into the existing Chinese energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the ability of the existing Chinese energy system to integrate wind power and explores how the Chinese energy system needs to prepare itself in order to integrate more fluctuating renewable energy in the future. With this purpose in mind, a model of the Chinese energy system has...... been constructed by using EnergyPLAN based on the year 2007, which has then been used for investigating three issues. Firstly, the accuracy of the model itself has been examined and then the maximum feasible wind power penetration in the existing energy system has been identified. Finally, barriers...... stability, the maximum feasible wind power penetration in the existing Chinese energy system is approximately 26% from both technical and economic points of view. A fuel efficiency decrease occurred when increasing wind power penetration in the system, due to its rigid power supply structure and the task...

  3. Optimization of HPHT wells: Reducing the cost of design integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, D.M.; Johnson, R.E.; Moe, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    Optimization of casing and tubing designs for critical wells has become increasingly important for economic reasons. This paper describes an investigation into the relationship between design criteria (minimum acceptable design factors and maximum acceptable number of pipes) and cost. The measurement of design integrity by both design factors and by probability of failure was evaluated with respect to reduction of costs. The results indicate that significant cost reductions, often on the order of 10--20%, are available by optimization of the string design

  4. Modeling the reliability and maintenance costs of wind turbines using Weibull analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vachon, W.A. [W.A. Vachon & Associates, Inc., Manchester, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A general description is provided of the basic mathematics and use of Weibull statistical models for modeling component failures and maintenance costs as a function of time. The applicability of the model to wind turbine components and subsystems is discussed with illustrative examples of typical component reliabilities drawn from actual field experiences. Example results indicate the dominant role of key subsystems based on a combination of their failure frequency and repair/replacement costs. The value of the model is discussed as a means of defining (1) maintenance practices, (2) areas in which to focus product improvements, (3) spare parts inventory, and (4) long-term trends in maintenance costs as an important element in project cash flow projections used by developers, investors, and lenders. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Risk based maintenance management to reduce the operational costs of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademakers, L.; Braam, H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Robberegt, M.; Katz, P. [Baas and Roost Maintenance Consult, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    A Dutch wind turbine manufacturer is presently developing an offshore wind turbine in the MW class. Much more than for onshore turbines, emphasis is put on finding a balance between high reliability, availability and energy output on the one hand and low investment and operational and maintenance (O and M) costs on the other hand. ECN has assisted with the application of reliability analysis techniques for design and for controlling O and M. The paper contains the experiences of ECN with the introduction of these techniques in the daily practice of the manufacturer. The paper focuses on three items: the benefits of performing a risk analysis during the design, the use and collection of operational data, and the development of a maintenance management system. (orig.)

  6. The public promotion of wind energy in Spain from the transaction costs perspective 1986-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Yannick [Universite Paris-Sud 11, Groupe Reseaux Jean-Monnet ADIS, Bureau C 310, 27 Avenue Lombart, Fontenay aux Roses F92260 (France); Ramos-Real, Francisco Javier [Departamento de Analisis Economico, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Campus de Guajara, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife 38071 (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    This paper analyzes the success of wind energy in Spain from 1986 to 2007. Certain special characteristics have emerged in Spain that provide credibility to the feed-in tariff (FIT) device to promote this energy source. To explain this success, the analysis will focus on the intrinsic characteristics of FIT using the concepts of the transaction cost theory (TCE). Nevertheless, in this framework, special attention is placed on the role that specific political and institutional factors have played in providing stability to this instrument. Thanks to an early start and an on-going and generous FIT device, wind energy promotion for electricity has become a political success story in Spain. The main implication of this analysis is that this success is mainly due to the trade-off between stability and flexibility in the use of Spanish FIT. (author)

  7. Coordinated Control Strategies for Offshore Wind Farm Integration via VSC-HVDC for System Frequency Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yujun; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Coordinated control strategies to provide system inertia support for main grid from offshore wind farm that is integrated through HVdc transmission is the subject matter of this paper. The strategy that seeks to provide inertia support to the main grid through simultaneous utilization of HVdc...... scheme. Both strategies can effectively provide inertia support while the second one minimizes the control impacts on harvesting wind energy with the aid of communication between onshore and offshore ac grids. Case studies of a wind farm connecting with a HVdc system considering sudden load variations...... have been successfully conducted to compare and demonstrate the effectiveness of the control strategies in DIgSILENT/PowerFactory....

  8. Dynamic performance of a novel offshore power system integrated with a wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlandini, Valentina; Pierobon, Leonardo; Schløer, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Offshore wind technology is rapidly developing and a wind farm can be integrated with offshore power stations. This paper considers as case study a futuristic platform powered by a wind farm and three combined cycle units consisting of a gas turbine and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) module...... decreasing frequency oscillations and fuel consumptions of the platform, with respect to the simplified configuration. On the other hand, the dynamic response of the combined cycle units is slower due to the thermal inertia of the heat transfer equipment....

  9. Wind turbine noise reduction. An indicative cost estimation; Sanering windturbinegeluid. Een indicatieve raming van kosten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verheijen, E.N.G.; Jabben, J.

    2011-11-15

    Since the 1st of January 2011 new rules apply for wind turbine noise. The rules include a different calculation method and different noise limits, intended for new wind turbines. In order to tackle noise annoyance from existing wind turbines the government is considering to set up a abatement operation, for which a cost estimate is given in this study. At an abatement limit of 47 decibel L{sub den} (Level day-evening-night) approximately 450 dwellings would be eligible for noise remediation. The costs of this operation are estimated at 4.9 million euro. However, in many of these cases the wind turbine is probably owned by the respective residents. It is possible that public funds for noise remediation will not be allocated to the owners of dwellings that directly profit from the turbines. If these cases are excluded, the abatement operation would cover 165 to 275 dwellings with estimated costs for remediation of 1.6 to 2.6 million euro. A tentative cost-benefit analysis suggests that noise remediation will be cost effective in most situations. This means that the benefits of reduced annoyance or sleep disturbance are in balance with the cost of remediation. Only for the small group of wind turbines that are in use for over fifteen years, remediation will not be cost effective. These wind turbines are nearing the end of their lifespan and are therefore ignored in the above estimates. [Dutch] Sinds 1 januari 2011 zijn nieuwe regels rond windturbinegeluid van kracht. Bij de nieuwe regelgeving hoort een andere berekeningsmethode en normstelling, bedoeld voor nieuw te plaatsen windturbines. Voor de aanpak van de geluidhinder door bestaande windturbines overweegt de overheid een saneringsoperatie op te zetten, waarvoor in dit onderzoek een kostenraming wordt gegeven. Bij een saneringsgrenswaarde van 47 decibel zouden ongeveer 450 woningen voor sanering in aanmerking komen. De kosten voor sanering daarvan worden geschat op 4,9 miljoen euro. Bij een groot deel van deze

  10. Fundamentals for remote structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades - a preproject. Annex A. Cost-benefit for embedded sensors in large wind turbine blades

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, L.G.; Lading, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This report contains the results of a cost-benefit analysis for the use of embed-ded sensors for damage detection in large wind turbine blades - structural health monitoring - (in connection with remote surveillance) of large wind turbine placedoff-shore. The total operating costs of a three-bladed 2MW turbine placed offshore either without sensors or with sensors are compared. The price of a structural health monitoring system of a price of 100 000 DKK (per tur-bine) results in a break-event...

  11. Cost management in the internal value chain of integrated application of activity-based costing, Kaizen concept and target costing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić-Tomić Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is an effort to view the possibilities of integrated use of target costing, activity based costing and Kaizen concept in the internal value chain as the central link of the entire chain. The idea is to stimulate the company management to think about the costs, position they take in the structure of price cost and their influence on forming the sales price since it is very important to produce right product for the consumer, of desired quality and functionality but along with as low production costs as possible. It is therefore needed to construct the right design of a product and provide its production at the shortest possible time along with as low costs as possible which will impact the efficiency of the entire value chain.

  12. A Low-Cost Universal Integrated Interface for Capacitive Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidary, A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis reports the results of research on features, options and limitations of low-cost, high-performance, universal integrated interface for capacitive sensors. It concerns development-driven research, where the objectives of the research focus upon possible realization and application of the

  13. Transactions costs and spatial integration of vegetable and fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyzes transaction costs and spatial market integration of vegetable and fruit markets between major surplus producing zones and the Addis Ababa retail market taking onions, potatoes, and tomatoes from vegetables and root crops and bananas from fruits. Monthly retail price data from the Central Statistical ...

  14. Exploring cost-effective maize integrated weed management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several production constraints have led to low yields (< 2.5 t ha-1) in maize (Zea mays L.) inUganda, among which are weeds. This study investigated the most cost-effective integrated weedmanagement (IWM) approach in maize in eastern Uganda. An experiment was conducted atIkulwe station, Mayuge in 2011 and 2012 ...

  15. The promise--and peril--of integrated cost systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R; Kaplan, R S

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in managerial accounting have helped executives get the information they need to make good strategic decisions. But today's enterprise resource planning systems promise even greater benefits--the chance to integrate activity-based costing, operational-control, and financial reporting systems. But managers need to approach integration very thoughtfully, or they could end up with a system that drives decision making in the wrong direction. Operational-control and ABC systems have fundamentally different purposes. Their requirements for accuracy, timeliness, and aggregation are so different that no single, fully integrated approach can be adequate for both purposes. If an integrated system used real-time cost data instead of standard rates in its ABC subsystem, for example, the result would be dangerously distorted messages about individual product profitability--and that's precisely the problem ABC systems were originally designed to address. Proper linkage and feedback between the two systems is possible, however. Through activity-based budgeting, the ABC system is linked directly to operations control: managers can determine the supply and practical capacity of resources in forthcoming periods. Linking operational control to ABC is also possible. The activity-based portion of an operational control system collects information that, while it mustn't be fed directly into the activity-based strategic cost system, can be extremely useful once it's been properly analyzed. Finally, ABC and operational control can be linked to financial reporting to generate cost of goods sold and inventory valuations--but again, with precautions.

  16. Scheduling structural health monitoring activities for optimizing life-cycle costs and reliability of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanish Nithin, Anu; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    Optimization of the life-cycle costs and reliability of offshore wind turbines (OWTs) is an area of immense interest due to the widespread increase in wind power generation across the world. Most of the existing studies have used structural reliability and the Bayesian pre-posterior analysis for optimization. This paper proposes an extension to the previous approaches in a framework for probabilistic optimization of the total life-cycle costs and reliability of OWTs by combining the elements of structural reliability/risk analysis (SRA), the Bayesian pre-posterior analysis with optimization through a genetic algorithm (GA). The SRA techniques are adopted to compute the probabilities of damage occurrence and failure associated with the deterioration model. The probabilities are used in the decision tree and are updated using the Bayesian analysis. The output of this framework would determine the optimal structural health monitoring and maintenance schedules to be implemented during the life span of OWTs while maintaining a trade-off between the life-cycle costs and risk of the structural failure. Numerical illustrations with a generic deterioration model for one monitoring exercise in the life cycle of a system are demonstrated. Two case scenarios, namely to build initially an expensive and robust or a cheaper but more quickly deteriorating structures and to adopt expensive monitoring system, are presented to aid in the decision-making process.

  17. Industrializing Offshore Wind Power with Serial Assembly and Lower-cost Deployment - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempton, Willett [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2017-12-11

    A team of engineers and contractors has developed a method to move offshore wind installation toward lower cost, faster deployment, and lower environmental impact. A combination of methods, some incremental and some breaks from past practice, interact to yield multiple improvements. Three designs were evaluated based on detailed engineering: 1) a 5 MW turbine on a jacket with pin piles (base case), 2) a 10 MW turbine on a conventional jacket with pin piles, assembled at sea, and 3) a 10 MW turbine on tripod jacket with suction buckets (caissons) and with complete turbine assembly on-shore. The larger turbine, assembly ashore, and the use of suction buckets together substantially reduce capital cost of offshore wind projects. Notable capital cost reductions are: changing from 5 MW to 10 MW turbine, a 31% capital cost reduction, and assembly on land then single-piece install at sea an additional 9% capital cost reduction. An estimated Design 4) estimates further cost reduction when equipment and processes of Design 3) are optimized, rather than adapted to existing equipment and process. Cost of energy for each of the four Designs are also calculated, yielding approximately the same percentage reductions. The methods of Design 3) analyzed here include accepted structures such as suction buckets used in new ways, innovations conceived but previously without engineering and economic validation, combined with new methods not previously proposed. Analysis of Designs 2) and 3) are based on extensive engineering calculations and detailed cost estimates. All design methods can be done with existing equipment, including lift equipment, ports and ships (except that design 4 assumes a more optimized ship). The design team consists of experienced offshore structure designers, heavy lift engineers, wind turbine designers, vessel operators, and marine construction contractors. Comparing the methods based on criteria of cost and deployment speed, the study selected the third design

  18. Multilink DC Transmission for Offshore Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Silva, Rodrigo Da; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    analysis the Multi Terminal Direct Current (MTDC) operation and focuses on the sharing of active power produced by an offshore Wind Power Plant (WPP). The first objective was to model the system in PSCAD/EMTDC simulation software and then control structure tested under different situations. The second...... objective was to validate the simulation on a laboratory platform using 15 kW Voltage Source Converters (VSC) and a Real Time Interface (RTI). As a result, the power sharing is validated using such methodology and the influence in the parameters can be evaluated...

  19. Generation Expansion Planning Considering Integrating Large-scale Wind Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    necessitated the inclusion of more innovative and sophisticated approaches in power system investment planning. A bi-level generation expansion planning approach considering large-scale wind generation was proposed in this paper. The first phase is investment decision, while the second phase is production...... optimization decision. A multi-objective PSO (MOPSO) algorithm was introduced to solve this optimization problem, which can accelerate the convergence and guarantee the diversity of Pareto-optimal front set as well. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed bi-level planning approach and the MOPSO...

  20. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  1. Reducing costs of wind power with a gearless permanent-magnet generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R.; Soederlund, L.; Eriksson, J.T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1995-12-31

    This article examines a disc-type axial-field permanent magnet generator (PMG) utilizing the latest generation of permanent magnet material, namely Nd{sub 15}B{sub 8}Fe{sub 77}. A frequency converter (FC) is needed to keep the system synchronized with the grid. It also offers a possibility to use variable speed. The main advantages of this novel system compared to the conventional one are a higher overall efficiency, better reliability, reduced weight and diminished need for maintenance, all contributing to the cost-reduction of wind power. (author)

  2. Cost-Loss Analysis of Ensemble Solar Wind Forecasting: Space Weather Use of Terrestrial Weather Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, E. M.; Pope, E. C. D.

    2017-12-01

    This commentary concerns recent work on solar wind forecasting by Owens and Riley (2017). The approach taken makes effective use of tools commonly used in terrestrial weather—notably, via use of a simple model—generation of an "ensemble" forecast, and application of a "cost-loss" analysis to the resulting probabilistic information, to explore the benefit of this forecast to users with different risk appetites. This commentary aims to highlight these useful techniques to the wider space weather audience and to briefly discuss the general context of application of terrestrial weather approaches to space weather.

  3. A stochastic framework for the grid integration of wind power using flexible load approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydarian-Forushani, E.; Moghaddam, M.P.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.; Shafie-khah, M.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper focuses on the potential of Demand Response Programs (DRPs) to contribute to flexibility. • A stochastic network constrained unit commitment associated with DR is presented. • DR participation levels and electricity tariffs are evaluated on providing a flexible load profile. • Novel quantitative indices for evaluating flexibility are defined to assess the success of DRPs. • DR types and customer participation levels are the main factors to modify the system load profile. - Abstract: Wind power integration has always been a key research area due to the green future power system target. However, the intermittent nature of wind power may impose some technical and economic challenges to Independent System Operators (ISOs) and increase the need for additional flexibility. Motivated by this need, this paper focuses on the potential of Demand Response Programs (DRPs) as an option to contribute to the flexible operation of power systems. On this basis, in order to consider the uncertain nature of wind power and the reality of electricity market, a Stochastic Network Constrained Unit Commitment associated with DR (SNCUCDR) is presented to schedule both generation units and responsive loads in power systems with high penetration of wind power. Afterwards, the effects of both price-based and incentive-based DRPs are evaluated, as well as DR participation levels and electricity tariffs on providing a flexible load profile and facilitating grid integration of wind power. For this reason, novel quantitative indices for evaluating flexibility are defined to assess the success of DRPs in terms of wind integration. Sensitivity studies indicate that DR types and customer participation levels are the main factors to modify the system load profile to support wind power integration

  4. Assessing the level of integration in the offshore wind industry value chain

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Neri, Ivan; Mikkelsen, Ole Stegmann; Stentoft, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The offshore wind industry (OWI) has experienced an explosive growth within the course of a decade and because of this rapid expansion, the industry has not had the opportunity to integrate well and be-come more efficient. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the integration level of the offshore wind industry value chain. The work relies on a review of international peer-reviewed journals. The empirical basis of the paper is based on interviews with key players in t...

  5. Solution of wind integrated thermal generation system for environmental optimal power flow using hybrid algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish Panda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new evolutionary hybrid algorithm (HA has been proposed in this work for environmental optimal power flow (EOPF problem. The EOPF problem has been formulated in a nonlinear constrained multi objective optimization framework. Considering the intermittency of available wind power a cost model of the wind and thermal generation system is developed. Suitably formed objective function considering the operational cost, cost of emission, real power loss and cost of installation of FACTS devices for maintaining a stable voltage in the system has been optimized with HA and compared with particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSOA to prove its effectiveness. All the simulations are carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment taking IEEE30 bus as the test system.

  6. The Role of Logistics in Practical Levelized Cost of Energy Reduction Implementation and Government Sponsored Cost Reduction Studies: Day and Night in Offshore Wind Operations and Maintenance Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Poulsen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals that logistics make up at least 17% of annual operational expenditure costs for offshore wind farms. Annual operational expenditure is found to vary by a factor of 9.5, making its share of levelized cost of energy for offshore wind range from 13% to 57%. These are key findings of a 20-month research project targeting cost reduction initiatives for offshore wind systems. The findings reveal that cost-out measures are difficult to implement due to cultural differences. Implementation efforts are rendered by personnel located offshore in a harsh sea environment which is in stark contrast to the shore-based office personnel who develop studies directing cost reduction efforts. This paper details the company motivation to join industry-wide cost reduction initiatives. A business case for offshore wind operations and maintenance logistics yielding 1% savings in levelized cost of energy is included on how to expand working hours from daytime to also work at night.

  7. Wind Power: The Economic Impact of Intermittency

    OpenAIRE

    G. Cornelis van Kooten

    2009-01-01

    Wind is the fastest growing renewable energy source for generating electricity, but economic research lags behind. In this study, therefore, we examine the economics of integrating large-scale wind energy into an existing electrical grid. Using a simple grid management model to investigate the impact of various levels of wind penetration on grid management costs, we show that costs of reducing CO2 emissions by relying more on wind power depend on the generation mix of the existing electrical ...

  8. INTEGRATED COST MODEL FOR IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION IN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Hajduova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: All processes in the company play important role in ensuring functional integrated management system. We point out the importance of need for a systematic approach to the use of quantitative, but especially statistical methods for modelling the cost of the improvement activities that are part of an integrated management system. Development of integrated management systems worldwide leads towards building of systematic procedures of implementation maintenance and improvement of all systems according to the requirements of all the sides involved.Methodology: Statistical evaluation of the economic indicators of improvement costs and the need for a systematic approach to their management in terms of integrated management systems have become a key role also in the management of processes in the company Cu Drôt, a.s. The aim of this publication is to highlight the importance of proper implementation of statistical methods in the process of improvement costs management in the integrated management system of current market conditions and document the legitimacy of a systematic approach in the area of monitoring and analysing indicators of improvement with the aim of the efficient process management of company. We provide specific example of the implementation of appropriate statistical methods in the production of copper wire in a company Cu Drôt, a.s. This publication also aims to create a model for the estimation of integrated improvement costs, which through the use of statistical methods in the company Cu Drôt, a.s. is used to support decision-making on improving efficiency.Findings: In the present publication, a method for modelling the improvement process, by an integrated manner, is proposed. It is a method in which the basic attributes of the improvement in quality, safety and environment are considered and synergistically combined in the same improvement project. The work examines the use of sophisticated quantitative, especially

  9. Integrated Cost Allocation of Transmission Usage under Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermagasantos Zein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cost allocation of transmission usage on the power networks is an important issue especially in the modern electricity market mechanism. In this context, all costs that have been embedded in the transmission, embedded cost, should be covered by the transmission users. This paper follows general methods, where generators are fullyresponsible to cover the embedded cost. It proposes a method to determine the cost allocation of transmission usage based on decomposition through the superposition techinique to determine power flow contributions from an integrated base case of the results of the power flow calculations of all transactions, bilateral and nonbilateral contracts. Mathematically, the applied formulations are illustrated clearly in this paper. The proposed method has been tested with 5-bus system and the results are much different compared to a few of the published methods. This is shown by the test results on the 5 bus system. The published methods produce total power flow contributions in each line is greater than the actual. And they earn total revenues approximately 11.6% greater than the embedded cost. While on the proposed method, the power flow contribu tions are equal to the actual and the revenues are equal to the embedded cost. It shows also that the proposed method gives results as expected.

  10. The Influence of Structural Morphology on the Efficiency of Building Integrated Wind Turbines (BIWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassam Nasarullah Chaudhry

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation was carried out to determine the impact of structural morphology on the power generation capacity of building-integrated wind turbines. The performance of the turbines was analysed using the specifications of the Bahrain Trade Centre which was taken as the benchmark model, the results of which were compared against triangular, square and circular cross-sections of the same building. The three-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations along with the momentum and continuity equations were solved for obtaining the velocity and pressure field. Simulating a reference wind speed of 6 m/s, the findings from the study quantified an estimate power generation of 6.4 kW indicating a capacity factor of 2.9 % for the benchmark model. The square and circular configurations however determined greater capacity factors of 12.2 % and 19.9 %, recording an estimated power production capability of 26.9 kW and 35.1 kW and confirming the largest extraction of the incoming wind stream. The optimum cross-sectional configuration for installing wind turbines in high-rise buildings was the circular orientation as the average wind speed at the wind turbines was accelerated by 0.3 m/s resulting in an overall augmentation of 5 %. The results from this study therefore highlighted that circular building morphology is the most viable building orientation, particularly suited to regions with a dominant prevailing wind direction.

  11. Multisensor satellite data integration for sea surface wind speed and direction determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, D. L.; Pihos, G. G.; Wheelock, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques to integrate meteorological data from various satellite sensors to yield a global measure of sea surface wind speed and direction for input to the Navy's operational weather forecast models were investigated. The sensors were launched or will be launched, specifically the GOES visible and infrared imaging sensor, the Nimbus-7 SMMR, and the DMSP SSM/I instrument. An algorithm for the extrapolation to the sea surface of wind directions as derived from successive GOES cloud images was developed. This wind veering algorithm is relatively simple, accounts for the major physical variables, and seems to represent the best solution that can be found with existing data. An algorithm for the interpolation of the scattered observed data to a common geographical grid was implemented. The algorithm is based on a combination of inverse distance weighting and trend surface fitting, and is suited to combing wind data from disparate sources.

  12. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3 – Frequency Response and Transient Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. W. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); Shao, M. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); Pajic, S. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); D' Aquila, R. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Power system operators and utilities worldwide have concerns about the impact of high-penetration wind and solar generation on electric grid reliability (EirGrid 2011b, Hydro-Quebec 2006, ERCOT 2010). The stability of North American grids under these conditions is a particular concern and possible impediment to reaching future renewable energy goals. Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3) considers a 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration level that results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system, including different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior of wind and solar generation. WWSIS-3 evaluates two specific aspects of fundamental frequency system stability: frequency response and transient stability.

  13. Primer: The DOE Wind Energy Program's Approach to Calculating Cost of Energy: July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, K.; Schweizer, T.

    2008-01-01

    This report details the methodology used by DOE to calculate levelized cost of wind energy and demonstrates the variation in COE estimates due to different financing assumptions independent of wind generation technology.

  14. Methods development for cost-effective marine environmental monitoring at offshore wind farms in Norwegian waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgren, Thomas; Schlaeppy, Marie-Lise; Olenin, Sergej; Shashkov, Alexej; Heggoey, Erling; Troedsson, Christofer

    2011-07-01

    present (rocky seabed, sand, gravel and stones) and are often exposed to severe waves and strong tidal currents. Keystone organisms at an exposed and complex hard bottom environment can potentially include large kelp species (Laminaria), red algae growing on bare rock (e.g. Lithothamnion) and reef or bed forming species such as the horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) and maerl (coralline algae). These structure-forming organisms support a high diversity of marine life and provide important ecosystem services such as feeding grounds for commercially valuable fish and crayfish species. No studies have so far investigated the effects from large-scale offshore wind farms in this type of environment. The first year of benthic marine baseline data collection in the Havsul area, suggested that there is a lack of standards for monitoring methods at complex marine habitats dominated by bare rock, and kelp communities. We have applied a suite of methods chosen to detect changes in a range of habitats and trophic levels including traditional sediment coring, metagenomic diversity estimates, video data collection and assessment of the kelp community. Preliminary results suggest that it is necessary to adjust monitoring practises to the local environment. This makes comparisons with other regions difficult and may jeopardise efforts to conduct studies of potential cumulative impacts. Benthic community structure assessments and large scale habitat mapping based on video mosaic data is particularly promising both in terms of cost effective collection of data, data quality and sensitivity. (Author)

  15. Comparison of costs of integrating working level devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    For the purpose of deciding upon the method for making routine field measurements of radon and radon daughter products there are primarily two factors to be taken into consideration: how well the various methods measure the parameter of interest and how much they cost. For the purpose of measuring the annual average working level within a structure there are available basically two devices: the integrating air sampler and track etch film. The cost and manpower requirements for each of these two devices are discussed

  16. A modular and cost-effective superconducting generator design for offshore wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysan, Ozan; Mueller, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting generators have the potential to reduce the tower head mass for large (∼10 MW) offshore wind turbines. However, a high temperature superconductor generator should be as reliable as conventional generators for successful entry into the market. Most of the proposed designs use the superconducting synchronous generator concept, which has a higher cost than conventional generators and suffers from reliability issues. In this paper, a novel claw pole type of superconducting machine is presented. The design has a stationary superconducting field winding, which simplifies the design and increases the reliability. The machine can be operated in independent modules; thus even if one of the sections fails, the rest can operate until the next planned maintenance. Another advantage of the design is the very low superconducting wire requirement; a 10 MW, 10 rpm design is presented which uses 13 km of MgB2 wire at 30 K. The outer diameter of the machine is 6.63 m and it weighs 184 tonnes including the structural mass. The design is thought to be a good candidate for entering the renewable energy market, with its low cost and robust structure.

  17. Transmission System Protection Screening for Integration of Offshore Wind Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sajadi, A. [Case Western Reserve University; Strezoski, L. [Case Western Reserve University; Price, M. [Case Western Reserve University; Loparo, K. A. [Case Western Reserve University

    2018-02-21

    This paper develops an efficient methodology for protection screening of large-scale transmission systems as part of the planning studies for the integration of offshore wind power plants into the power grid. This methodology avails to determine whether any upgrades are required to the protection system. The uncertainty is considered in form of variability of the power generation by offshore wind power plant. This paper uses the integration of a 1000 MW offshore wind power plant operating in Lake Erie into the FirstEnergy/PJM service territory as a case study. This study uses a realistic model of a 63,000-bus test system that represents the U.S. Eastern Interconnection.

  18. Exergy analysis of components of integrated wind energy / hydrogen / fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Galvez, G.; Pathiyamattom, J.S.; Sanchez Gamboa, S.

    2009-01-01

    Exergy analysis is made of three components of an integrated wind energy to hydrogen fuel cell: wind turbine, fuel cell (PEMFC) and electrolyzer (PEM). The methodology used to assess how affect the second law efficiency of the electrolyzer and the FC parameters as temperature and operating pressure and membrane thickness. It develop methods to evaluate the influence of changes in the air density and height of the tower on the second law efficiency of the turbine. This work represents a starting point for developing the global availability analysis of an integrated wind / hydrogen / fuel cells, which can be used as a tool to achieve the optimum design of the same. The use of this system contribute to protect the environment

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of Health Coaching: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Rachel; Giese, Jeannie

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate published literature to distinguish how health coaching influences the cost of chronic disease management in insured adults with chronic conditions. An integrated literature review was conducted. MEDLINE, Business Source Complete, and OneSearch were searched for the years 2001-2016 utilizing the following key words: health coaching, health coaching AND insurance companies, health coaching AND cost, health coaching AND health insurance, and health coaching AND insurance cost. A total of 67 articles met inclusion criteria and were assessed for applicability. Of those, 27 articles were found to be relevant to the research question. The practice settings of these articles are mostly primary care and wellness programs. Throughout the literature, health coaching has been found effective in chronic disease management such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of health coaching are limited. The current literature does not clearly demonstrate that health coaching lowers expenditures and patient copayments in the short term but projects future savings. Health coaching has the potential to improve chronic disease management and lower health care expenditures. Further long-term research is needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of health coaching. It has been projected that the cost-effectiveness of health coaching will be long-term or over 12 months after initiating the health coaching program.

  20. Morphing wing system integration with wind tunnel testing =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guezguez, Mohamed Sadok

    Preserving the environment is a major challenge for today's aviation industry. Within this context, the CRIAQ MDO 505 project started, where a multidisciplinary approach was used to improve aircraft fuel efficiency. This international project took place between several Canadian and Italian teams. Industrial teams are Bombardier Aerospace, Thales Canada and Alenia Aermacchi. The academic partners are from Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal and Naples University. Teams from 'CIRA' and IAR-NRC research institutes had, also, contributed on this project. The main objective of this project is to improve the aerodynamic performance of a morphing wing prototype by reducing the drag. This drag reduction is achieved by delaying the flow transition (from laminar to turbulent) by performing shape optimization of the flexible upper skin according to different flight conditions. Four linear axes, each one actuated by a 'BLDC' motor, are used to morph the skin. The skin displacements are calculated by 'CFD' numerical simulation based on flow parameters which are Mach number, the angle of attack and aileron's angle of deflection. The wing is also equipped with 32 pressure sensors to experimentally detect the transition during aerodynamic testing in the subsonic wind tunnel at the IAR-NRC in Ottawa. The first part of the work is dedicated to establishing the necessary fieldbus communications between the control system and the wing. The 'CANopen' protocol is implemented to ensure real time communication between the 'BLDC' drives and the real-time controller. The MODBUS TCP protocol is used to control the aileron drive. The second part consists of implementing the skin control position loop based on the LVDTs feedback, as well as developing an automated calibration procedure for skin displacement values. Two 'sets' of wind tunnel tests were carried out to, experimentally, investigate the morphing wing controller effect; these tests also offered the

  1. Modelling the existing Irish energy-system to identify future energy costs and the maximum wind penetration feasible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2010-01-01

    energy- system to future energy costs by considering future fuel prices, CO2 prices, and different interest rates. The final investigation identifies the maximum wind penetration feasible on the 2007 Irish energy- system from a technical and economic perspective, as wind is the most promising fluctuating...... renewable resource available in Ireland. It is concluded that the reference model simulates the Irish energy-system accurately, the annual fuel costs for Ireland’s energy could increase by approximately 58% from 2007 to 2020 if a business-as-usual scenario is followed, and the optimum wind penetration...... for the existing Irish energy-system is approximately 30% from both a technical and economic perspective based on 2020 energy prices. Future studies will use the model developed in this study to show that higher wind penetrations can be achieved if the existing energy-system is modified correctly. Finally...

  2. Performance Analysis of a Savonius Wind Turbine in the Solar Integrated Rotor House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDUL LATIFMANGANHAR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rooftop, building integrated and building augmented micro wind systems have the potential for small scale power generation in the built environment. Nevertheless, the expansion of micro wind technology is very slow and its market is strongly affected by the low efficiency of conventional wind generators. WAG-RH (Wind Accelerating and Guiding Rotor House which is a new technique introduced to enhance the efficiency of vertical axis rotor. The present study utilizes other green energy element by integrating the WAG-RH with a solar heating system. In this effort roof of the WAG-RH has been utilized to heat air through micro solar chimney for creating buoyancy effect in the air flow channel at rotor zone in the WAG-RH. The integration is capable of improving the performance of rotor setup in the WAG-RH as well as providing hot air with sufficient air mass flow rate for space heating. The WAG-RH had brought about 138% increase in the performance coefficient(Cp of conventional three bladed Savonius rotor, whereas solar integrated WAG-RH has contributed 162% increase in the Cp of the same rotor.

  3. Offshore system for integration of the wind energy; Sistema offshore para integracao de energia eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Jan de [3E, Brussels (Belgium); Tambke, Jens [Universidade de Oldemburg (Germany). ForWind; Voelker, J. [Dena - Agencia Alema de Energia (Germany); Michalowska-Knap, Katarzyna [Instituto de Energia Renovavel (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The Offshore Grid project aims to analyze the conditions required for the development of an offshore transmission network to integrate renewable energy (wind) to the national electrical systems, securely and efficiently. Regulatory aspects, technical, economic and political are considered, that will help the various players in the industry to have a common view on the offshore power grids in Europe.

  4. Nodal prices determination with wind integration for radial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like transmission pricing, distribution network pricing must also be transparent and must include tile variations based on the change in the operating state of the system, integration of renewable sources and must be real time. In this paper, a distribution system nodal pricing scheme is proposed for radial distribution system ...

  5. Dispatching strategies for coordinating environmental awareness and risk perception in wind power integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jingliang; Zhou, Dequn; Zhou, Peng; Qian, Shuqu; Zhang, Mingming

    2016-01-01

    Wind power plays a significant role in economic and environmental operation of electric power system. Meanwhile, the variability and uncertainty characteristics of wind power generation bring technical and economical challenges for power system operation. In order to harmonize the relationship between environmental protection and risk management in power dispatching, this paper presents a stochastic dynamic economic emission dispatch model combining risk perception with environmental awareness of decision-makers by following the principle of chance-constrained programming. In this power dispatching model, the description of wind power uncertainty is derived from the probability statistic character of wind speed. Constraints-handling techniques as a heuristic strategy are embedded into non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II. In addition, more information is digested from the Pareto optimum solution set by cluster analysis and fuzzy set theory. The simulation results eventually demonstrate that the increase of the share of wind power output will bring higher risk, though it is beneficial for economic cost and environmental protection. Since different risk perception and environmental awareness can possibly lead to diverse non-dominated solutions, decision-makers may choose an appropriate dispatching strategy according to their specific risk perception and environmental awareness. - Highlights: • A dispatch model combining environmental awareness and risk perception is proposed. • The uncertain characteristic of available wind power is determined. • Constraints-handling techniques are embedded into genetic algorithm. • An appropriate decision-making method is designed. • Dispatching strategies can be coordinated by the proposed model and method.

  6. Cost Estimation and Comparison of Carbon Capture and Storage Technology with Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULLAH MENGAL

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage is one of the significant solutions to reduce CO2 emissions from fossil fuelled electricity generation plants and minimize the effect of global warming. Economic analysis of CCS technology is, therefore, essential for the feasibility appraisal towards CO2 reduction. In this paper LCOE (Levelized Cost of Electricity Generation has been estimated with and without CCS technology for fossil fuel based power plants of Pakistan and also further compared with computed LCOE of WE (Wind Energy based power plants of the Pakistan. The results of this study suggest that the electricity generation costs of the fossil fuel power plants increase more than 44% with CCS technology as compared to without CCS technology. The generation costs are also found to be 10% further on higher side when considering efficiency penalty owing to installation of CCS technology. In addition, the CO2 avoided costs from natural gas plant are found to be 40 and 10% higher than the local coal and imported coal plants respectively. As such, the electricity generation cost of 5.09 Rs/kWh from WE plants is found to be competitive even when fossil fuel based plants are without CCS technology, with lowest cost of 5.9 Rs./kWh of CCNG (Combined Cycle Natural Gas plant. Based on analysis of results of this study and anticipated future development of efficient and cheap WE technologies, it is concluded that WE based electricity generation would be most appropriate option for CO2 reduction for Pakistan.

  7. Optimisation of Offshore Wind Farm Cable Connection Layout Considering Levelised Production Cost Using Dynamic Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The approach in this paper hads been developed to optimize the cable connection layout of large scale offshore wind farms. The objective is to minimize the Levelised Production Cost (LPC) og an offshore wind farm by optimizing the cable connection configuration. Based on the minimum spanning tree...... (MST) algorithm, an improved algorithm, the Dynamic Minimum Spanning Tree (DMST) algorithm is proposed. The current carrying capacity of the cable is considered to be the main constraint and the cable sectional area is changed dynamically. An irregular shaped wind farm is chosen as the studie case...

  8. Investigation of value and costs of wind energy in the electric system. Report - Final meeting, Paris, 30 January 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This document contains five Power Point presentations which respectively address: the values and costs of wind energy in the electric system (economic assessment of wind energy in the French electric system), the analysis principles and methods (economic assessment and comparison of two scenarios defined by six different parameters: consumption, energy price, wind energy deployment, evolution of the nuclear fleet, nuclear load factor, potential of demand side management), the analysis of the energy substitution value, the value analysis of the peak management, and the impact on infrastructures and system services

  9. Wind power production: from the characterisation of the wind resource to wind turbine technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beslin, Guy; Multon, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables, this article first describes the various factors and means related to the assessment of wind resource in the World, in Europe, and the factors which characterize a local wind resource. In this last respect, the authors indicate how local topography is taken into account to calculate wind speed, how time variations are taken into account (at the yearly, seasonal or daily level), the different methods used to model a local wind resource, how to assess the power recoverable by a wind turbine with horizontal axis (notion of Betz limit). In the second part, the authors present the different wind turbines, their benefits and drawbacks: vertical axis, horizontal axis (examples of a Danish-type wind turbine, of wind turbines designed for extreme conditions). Then, they address the technology of big wind turbines: evolution of technology and of commercial offer, aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine and benefit of a varying speed (technological solutions, importance of the electric generator). They describe how to choose a wind turbine, how product lines are organised, how the power curve and energy capacity are determined. The issue of integration of wind energy into the power system is then addressed. The next part addressed the economy of wind energy production (annualized production cost, order of magnitude of wind electric power production cost). Future trends are discussed and offshore wind energy production is briefly addressed

  10. Integration of Xantrex HY-100 Hybrid Inverter with an AC Induction Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Newcomb, C.; Friedly, S.

    2003-05-01

    Several issues must be addressed before solid-state inverters can be used in wind-diesel systems with larger wind turbines. This project addresses those issues by using a commercial hybrid inverter designed for PV-diesel systems and modifying the inverter for use with an AC induction wind turbine. Another approach would have entailed building an inverter specifically for use with an AC induction wind turbine, but that was beyond the scope of this project. The inverter chosen for this project was a Xantrex HY-100, an inverter designed for PV systems. The unit consists of an inverter/rectifier bridge, a generator interface contactor, a battery charge controller, a hybrid controller, and the associated control electronics. Details of the inverter may be found in Appendix A. A twofold approach was taken to integrating the existing inverter for use with an AC induction wind turbine: 1) development of a detailed model to model both steady-state and transient behavior of the system, and 2) modification and testing of the inverter with an induction wind turbine based on the modeling results. This report describes these two tasks.

  11. Wind tunnel study of natural ventilation of building integrated photovoltaics double skin façade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudişteanu, Sebastian Valeriu; Popovici, Cătălin George; Cherecheş, Nelu-Cristian

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents a wind tunnel experimental analysis of a small-scale building model (1:30). The objective of the study is to determine the wind influence on the ventilation of a double skin façade channel (DSF) and the cooling effect over integrated photovoltaic panels. The tests were achieved by conceiving and implementation of an experimental program using a wind tunnel with atmospheric boundary layer. The effect of the wind over the ventilation of the horizontal channels of double skin façades is evaluated for different incident velocities. The results are generalized for the average steady state values of the velocities analysed. The experimental results put in evidence the correlation between the reference wind velocity and the dynamics of the air movement inside the double skin façade. These values are used to determine the convective heat transfer and the cooling effect of the air streams inside the channel upon the integrated photovoltaic panels. The decrease of the photovoltaic panels temperature determines a raise of 11% in efficiency and power generated.

  12. Wind tunnel study of natural ventilation of building integrated photovoltaics double skin façade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudişteanu Sebastian Valeriu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a wind tunnel experimental analysis of a small-scale building model (1:30. The objective of the study is to determine the wind influence on the ventilation of a double skin façade channel (DSF and the cooling effect over integrated photovoltaic panels. The tests were achieved by conceiving and implementation of an experimental program using a wind tunnel with atmospheric boundary layer. The effect of the wind over the ventilation of the horizontal channels of double skin façades is evaluated for different incident velocities. The results are generalized for the average steady state values of the velocities analysed. The experimental results put in evidence the correlation between the reference wind velocity and the dynamics of the air movement inside the double skin façade. These values are used to determine the convective heat transfer and the cooling effect of the air streams inside the channel upon the integrated photovoltaic panels. The decrease of the photovoltaic panels temperature determines a raise of 11% in efficiency and power generated.

  13. Feasibility study of a hybrid wind turbine system – Integration with compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hao; Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hybrid wind turbine system is proposed and feasibility study if conducted. • A complete mathematical model is developed and implemented in a software environment. • Multi-mode control strategy is investigated to ensure the system work smoothly and efficiently. • A prototype for implementing the proposed mechanism is built and tested as proof of the concept. • The proposed system is proved to be technically feasible with energy efficiency around 50%. - Abstract: Wind has been recognized as one of major realistic clean energy sources for power generation to meet the continuously increased energy demand and to achieve the carbon emission reduction targets. However, the utilisation of wind energy encounters an inevitable challenge resulting from the nature of wind intermittency. To address this, the paper presents the recent research work at Warwick on the feasibility study of a new hybrid system by integrating a wind turbine with compressed air energy storage. A mechanical transmission mechanism is designed and implemented for power integration within the hybrid system. A scroll expander is adopted to serve as an “air-machinery energy converter”, which can transmit additional driving power generalized from the stored compressed air to the turbine shaft for smoothing the wind power fluctuation. A mathematical model for the complete hybrid process is developed and the control strategy is investigated for corresponding cooperative operations. A prototype test rig for implementing the proposed mechanism is built for proof of the concept. From the simulated and experimental studies, the energy conversion efficiency analysis is conducted while the system experiences different operation conditions and modes. It is proved that the proposed hybrid wind turbine system is feasible technically

  14. Wind Energy Management System EMS Integration Project: Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-01-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind and solar power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation), and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind/solar forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. To improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter

  15. Data Collection for Current U.S. Wind Energy Projects: Component Costs, Financing, Operations, and Maintenance; January 2011 - September 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Tretton, M.; Reha, M.; Drunsic, M.; Keim, M.

    2012-01-01

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc. (DNV) used an Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Cost Model to evaluate ten distinct cost scenarios encountered under variations in wind turbine component failure rates. The analysis considers: (1) a Reference Scenario using the default part failure rates within the O&M Cost Model, (2) High Failure Rate Scenarios that increase the failure rates of three major components (blades, gearboxes, and generators) individually, (3) 100% Replacement Scenarios that model full replacement of these components over a 20 year operating life, and (4) Serial Failure Scenarios that model full replacement of blades, gearboxes, and generators in years 4 to 6 of the wind project. DNV selected these scenarios to represent a broad range of possible operational experiences. Also in this report, DNV summarizes the predominant financing arrangements used to develop wind energy projects over the past several years and provides summary data on various financial metrics describing those arrangements.

  16. An Improved Global Wind Resource Estimate for Integrated Assessment Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eurek, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gleason, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hettinger, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This paper summarizes initial steps to improving the robustness and accuracy of global renewable resource and techno-economic assessments for use in integrated assessment models. We outline a method to construct country-level wind resource supply curves, delineated by resource quality and other parameters. Using mesoscale reanalysis data, we generate estimates for wind quality, both terrestrial and offshore, across the globe. Because not all land or water area is suitable for development, appropriate database layers provide exclusions to reduce the total resource to its technical potential. We expand upon estimates from related studies by: using a globally consistent data source of uniquely detailed wind speed characterizations; assuming a non-constant coefficient of performance for adjusting power curves for altitude; categorizing the distance from resource sites to the electric power grid; and characterizing offshore exclusions on the basis of sea ice concentrations. The product, then, is technical potential by country, classified by resource quality as determined by net capacity factor. Additional classifications dimensions are available, including distance to transmission networks for terrestrial wind and distance to shore and water depth for offshore. We estimate the total global wind generation potential of 560 PWh for terrestrial wind with 90% of resource classified as low-to-mid quality, and 315 PWh for offshore wind with 67% classified as mid-to-high quality. These estimates are based on 3.5 MW composite wind turbines with 90 m hub heights, 0.95 availability, 90% array efficiency, and 5 MW/km2 deployment density in non-excluded areas. We compare the underlying technical assumption and results with other global assessments.

  17. Energy System Analysis of Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-11-01

    The paper presents the results of two research projects conducted by Aalborg University and financed by the Danish Energy Research Programme. Both projects include the development of models and system analysis with focus on large-scale integration of wind power into different energy systems. Market reactions and ability to exploit exchange on the international market for electricity by locating exports in hours of high prices are included in the analyses. This paper focuses on results which are valid for energy systems in general. The paper presents the ability of different energy systems and regulation strategies to integrate wind power, The ability is expressed by three factors: One factor is the degree of electricity excess production caused by fluctuations in wind and CHP heat demands. The other factor is the ability to utilise wind power to reduce CO 2 emission in the system. And the third factor is the ability to benefit from exchange of electricity on the market. Energy systems and regulation strategies are analysed in the range of a wind power input from 0 to 100% of the electricity demand. Based on the Danish energy system, in which 50 per cent of the electricity demand is produced in CHP, a number of future energy systems with CO 2 reduction potentials are analysed, i.e. systems with more CHP, systems using electricity for transportation (battery or hydrogen vehicles) and systems with fuel-cell technologies. For the present and such potential future energy systems different regulation strategies have been analysed, i.e. the inclusion of small CHP plants into the regulation task of electricity balancing and grid stability and investments in electric heating, heat pumps and heat storage capacity. Also the potential of energy management has been analysed. The results of the analyses make it possible to compare short-term and long-term potentials of different strategies of large-scale integration of wind power

  18. Wind Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurie, Carol

    2017-02-01

    This book takes readers inside the places where daily discoveries shape the next generation of wind power systems. Energy Department laboratory facilities span the United States and offer wind research capabilities to meet industry needs. The facilities described in this book make it possible for industry players to increase reliability, improve efficiency, and reduce the cost of wind energy -- one discovery at a time. Whether you require blade testing or resource characterization, grid integration or high-performance computing, Department of Energy laboratory facilities offer a variety of capabilities to meet your wind research needs.

  19. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Nicholas W. [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); Leonardi, Bruno [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Aquila, Robert [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-17

    The stability of the North American electric power grids under conditions of high penetrations of wind and solar is a significant concern and possible impediment to reaching renewable energy goals. The 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration considered in this study results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system. This includes different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior from wind and solar generation. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, is one of the largest regional solar and wind integration studies to date. In multiple phases, it has explored different aspects of the question: Can we integrate large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West? The work reported here focused on the impact of low levels of synchronous generation on the transient stability performance in one part of the region in which wind generation has displaced synchronous thermal generation under highly stressed, weak system conditions. It is essentially an extension of WWSIS-3. Transient stability, the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism among all elements following disturbances, is a major constraint on operations in many grids, including the western U.S. and Texas systems. These constraints primarily concern the performance of the large-scale bulk power system. But grid-wide stability concerns with high penetrations of wind and solar are still not thoroughly understood. This work focuses on 'traditional' fundamental frequency stability issues, such as maintaining synchronism, frequency, and voltage. The objectives of this study are to better understand the implications of low levels of synchronous generation and a weak grid on overall system performance by: 1) Investigating the Western Interconnection under conditions of both high renewable

  20. Operational constraints and hydrologic variability limit hydropower in supporting wind integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alisha R.; Blumsack, Seth A.; Reed, Patrick M.

    2013-06-01

    Climate change mitigation will require rapid adoption of low-carbon energy resources. The integration of large-scale wind energy in the United States (US) will require controllable assets to balance the variability of wind energy production. Previous work has identified hydropower as an advantageous asset, due to its flexibility and low-carbon emissions production. While many dams currently provide energy and environmental services in the US and globally, we find that multi-use hydropower facilities would face significant policy conflicts if asked to store and release water to accommodate wind integration. Specifically, we develop a model simulating hydroelectric operational decisions when the electric facility is able to provide wind integration services through a mechanism that we term ‘flex reserves’. We use Kerr Dam in North Carolina as a case study, simulating operations under two alternative reservoir policies, one reflecting current policies and the other regulating flow levels to promote downstream ecosystem conservation. Even under perfect information and significant pricing incentives, Kerr Dam faces operational conflicts when providing any substantial levels of flex reserves while also maintaining releases consistent with other river management requirements. These operational conflicts are severely exacerbated during periods of drought. Increase of payments for flex reserves does not resolve these operational and policy conflicts.

  1. Operational constraints and hydrologic variability limit hydropower in supporting wind integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Alisha R; Blumsack, Seth A; Reed, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Climate change mitigation will require rapid adoption of low-carbon energy resources. The integration of large-scale wind energy in the United States (US) will require controllable assets to balance the variability of wind energy production. Previous work has identified hydropower as an advantageous asset, due to its flexibility and low-carbon emissions production. While many dams currently provide energy and environmental services in the US and globally, we find that multi-use hydropower facilities would face significant policy conflicts if asked to store and release water to accommodate wind integration. Specifically, we develop a model simulating hydroelectric operational decisions when the electric facility is able to provide wind integration services through a mechanism that we term ‘flex reserves’. We use Kerr Dam in North Carolina as a case study, simulating operations under two alternative reservoir policies, one reflecting current policies and the other regulating flow levels to promote downstream ecosystem conservation. Even under perfect information and significant pricing incentives, Kerr Dam faces operational conflicts when providing any substantial levels of flex reserves while also maintaining releases consistent with other river management requirements. These operational conflicts are severely exacerbated during periods of drought. Increase of payments for flex reserves does not resolve these operational and policy conflicts. (letter)

  2. On the integration of wind generators on weak grids and island grids; Sur l'integration des generateurs eoliens dans les reseaux faibles ou insulaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverdure, N

    2005-12-15

    Wind energy is now an energy that can not be ignored. Because of intrinsic characteristics (scattered primary energy, generators with different technologies, use of power electronics interface), wind energy system integration in distribution grids leads to real problems in terms of impacts. With recent standard changes, it is necessary to study the possibilities of each technology of wind turbines to answer or not to these new constraints. This PhD thesis focuses on a comparison of the main present wind turbines concerning three points of discussion: energy quality, fault ride through, ancillary services (voltage and frequency). It insists on the possibilities in terms of control laws for variable speed wind turbines. (author)

  3. Strength and Reliability of Wood for the Components of Low-cost Wind Turbines: Computational and Experimental Analysis and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Freere, Peter; Sharma, Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the latest results of the comprehensive program of experimental and computational analysis of strength and reliability of wooden parts of low cost wind turbines. The possibilities of prediction of strength and reliability of different types of wood are studied in the series...... of experiments and computational investigations. Low cost testing machines have been designed, and employed for the systematic analysis of different sorts of Nepali wood, to be used for the wind turbine construction. At the same time, computational micromechanical models of deformation and strength of wood...

  4. ewec 2007 - Europe's premier wind energy event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaviaropoulos, T.

    2007-01-01

    This online collection of papers - the ewec 2007 proceedings - reflects the various sessions and lectures presented at the ewec wind-energy convention held in Milan in 2007. The first day's sessions looked at the following topics: Renewable Energy Roadmap, the changing structure of the wind industry, politics and programmes, aerodynamics and innovation in turbine design, wind resources and site characterisation (2 sessions), energy scenarios, harmonisation of incentive schemes, structural design and materials, forecasting, integration studies, integrating wind into electricity markets, wind-turbine electrical systems and components, as well as loads, noise and wakes. The second day included sessions on offshore: developments and prospects, extreme wind conditions and forecasting techniques, small wind turbines, distributed generation and autonomous systems cost effectiveness, cost effectiveness of wind energy, financing wind energy concepts, wind and turbulence, wind power plants and grid integration, offshore technology, global challenges and opportunities, aero-elasticity, loads and control, operations and maintenance, carbon trading and the emission trading schemes, investment strategies of power producers, wind power plants and grid integration, wind turbine electrical systems and components, and wakes. The third day offered sessions on environmental issues, condition monitoring, operation and maintenance, structural design and materials, the Up-Wind workshop, winning hearts and minds, offshore technology, advances in measuring methods and advancing drive-train reliability. In a closing session the conference was summarised, awards for poster contributions were made and the Poul la Cour Prize was presented

  5. Integrated resource planning - a long and winding road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    The separation of Croatia from former Yugoslavia and the military turbulence at its borders during the last years caused a number of problems in the Croatian energy system. Resources for improving the situation are scarce. So it is necessary to plan the rehabilitation and modernization of the Croatian energy system in a way which includes all national resources and allocates these resources where they lead to the highest benefits to the national economy. In this paper it is shown that Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) is such a method which enables the rational use of national resources. Also presented in this paper is a transparent and rational procedure which allows the energy planner to support the decision maker in developing an energy policy under consideration of interests of affected groups. This procedure is called Structured Analysis Procedure and step by step leads from the problem formulation to the decision on which action is to be applied to solve the problem. (author)

  6. Integrating wind and solar power into the energy systems of the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C. [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although they have been pursued by scientists and entrepreneurs for two decades, solar and wind energy have not yet claimed the large share of the world energy market that proponents hoped they would. Yet the past two years brought a series of developments that suggest the time has come for solar and wind energy to compete directly with fossil fuels. Wind and solar power generators are likely to contribute significant power to the electricity systems of scores of countries within the next decade, with generating costs as low as 4-5 cents per kilowatt-hour. This will require adjustment in the operation of power transmission and distribution systems to accommodate intermittent resources, as well as new time-specific pricing of electricity. The transition to more open, competitive power systems, with liberal access by independent producers, is likely to speed introduction of the new technologies. Altogether, the energy that strikes the earth`s atmosphere in the form of sunlight each year, and the winds that flow from it, represent the equivalent of nearly 1,000 trillion barrels of oil-sufficient to fuel the global economy thousands of times over. By relying on a new generation of efficient, high-tech, and mass produced energy conversion devices such as advanced wind turbines and photovoltaics, the world can rapidly reduce its dependence on oil and coal in the twenty-first century. In the more distant future, solar and wind energy have the potential not only to supply much of the world`s electricity but to displace the direct use of oil and natural gas. Solar and wind energy can be used to split water via electrolysis, producing hydrogen gas that can be substituted for liquid and gaseous fuels. (46 refs.)

  7. A planar and tunable bandpass filter on a ferrite substrate with integrated windings

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.

    2015-05-01

    Tunable Filters that are based on ferrite materials are often biased by external magnets or coils which are large and bulky. In this work a completely planar, CPW-based bandpass filter is presented with integrated windings. Due to these windings the size of the filter is only 26mm × 34mm × 0.38mm which is orders of magnitude smaller than the traditional designs with external windings. The filter is realized by electroplating of Copper over seed layers of Titanium and Gold over a YIG substrate. The fabricated filter achieves a tunability of 3.4% without any external magnets or coils. A good insertion loss of 2.3 dBs and rejection greater than 50 dBs have been obtained. To the best of the authors knowledge, this design is the first ferrite-based design that is completely planar and self-biased.

  8. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  9. Agora Energiewende (2017). Future cost of onshore wind. Recent auction results, long-term outlook and implications for upcoming German auctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, Georg; Deutsch, Matthias

    2017-04-15

    The costs for electricity from renewable generation have been falling significantly in recent years, and record low bids at auctions around the world have grasped the attention of the public. Solar photovoltaics and offshore wind auctions, in particular, have attracted a lot of interest. The results for onshore wind, however, are just as impressive. The future cost development of onshore wind is of great relevance, since it is a key pillar of the energy system transformation in many parts of the world. However, the estimated long-term cost reductions vary significantly, as different studies value the cost drivers of wind differently. In Germany, the opaque and complex cost structure of onshore wind is the root of much controversy. International auction results with winning bids of less than half of the typical German pay rate left people questioning the costs of domestic wind power. However this discussion often fails to account adequately for differences in the quality of wind resources. In light of the upcoming, and first, German onshore wind auctions, we aim to contribute to the ongoing discussion by providing the necessary context for international auction results, a general outlook on the future cost of onshore wind, and by illustrating the existing potential and hindrances for cost reductions in the German market.

  10. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang

    2012-05-25

    The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.

  11. Frequency Regulation Strategies in Grid Integrated Offshore Wind Turbines via VSC-HVDC Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Jallad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of wind energy in a power system network is currently seeing a significant increase. However, this inclusion has resulted in degradation of the inertia response, which in turn seriously affects the stability of the power system’s frequency. This problem can be solved by using an active power reserve to stabilize the frequency within an allowable limit in the event of a sudden load increment or the loss of generators. Active power reserves can be utilized via three approaches: (1 de-loading method (pitching or over-speeding by a variable speed wind turbine (VSWT; (2 stored energy in the capacitors of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC transmission; and (3 coordination of frequency regulation between the offshore wind farms and the VSC-HVDC transmission. This paper reviews the solutions that can be used to overcome problems related to the frequency stability of grid- integrated offshore wind turbines. It also details the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG with full-scale back to back (B2B converters, its corresponding control strategies, and a typical VSC-HVDC system with an associated control system. The control methods, both on the levels of a wind turbine and the VSC-HVDC system that participate in a system’s primary frequency control and emulation inertia, are discussed.

  12. I-RaCM: A Fully Integrated Risk and Lifecycle Cost Model, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SpaceWorks Engineering, Inc. (SEI) proposes development of the Integrated Risk and Cost Model I-RaCM, as the innovation to meet the need for integrated cost and risk...

  13. Wind integration calls for collaborative response; L'integration de l'energie eolienne demande une collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-07-01

    Canada's electricity mix will require electric utilities to re-design conventional power grid and operational management strategies. A task force has been created by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) to manage wind and other variable renewable energy sources. The Integration of Variable Generation Task Force has now issued a report that will help to support more than 145,000 MW of new variable generation over the next 10 years. Canada is still at the early stages of wind energy development, with 2440 MW currently supplying 1 per cent of the country's electricity supply. However, all 10 provinces plan to significantly boost installed capacity within their borders, and the country has an enormous amount of untapped potential. Greater flexibility is needed to manage wind power supply to the electricity grid. It was concluded that Canada's extensive hydro-electric supplies mean that generators can draw on a larger pool of generation in order to help balance the variability of wind power. 1 fig.

  14. Challenge of Primary Voltage Control in Large Scale Wind Integrated Power System: A Danish Power System Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe; Thøgersen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Grid integration of Renewable Energy (RE) at large scale poses vast majority of challenges to secure and stable operation of Power System. This paper presents the challenge of short circuit power and primary voltage control of wind integrated power system where majority of conventional generators...... of operational and future model of western Danish power system has been presented to support the effectiveness of demonstrated alternatives....... are replaced by wind generators. The impact of large scale wind integration on fast reactive power support is studied in this paper. Considering both technical and economic aspects, alternatives to address the challenge of dynamic voltage support have also been demonstrated in this paper. A case study...

  15. Designing Trailing Edge Flaps of Wind Turbines using an Integrated Design Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    In this paper designing a controller for trailing edge flaps (TEF) as well as optimizing its position on the wind turbine blade will be considered. An integrated design approach will be used to optimize both TEF placement and controller simultaneously. Youla parameterization will be used to param......In this paper designing a controller for trailing edge flaps (TEF) as well as optimizing its position on the wind turbine blade will be considered. An integrated design approach will be used to optimize both TEF placement and controller simultaneously. Youla parameterization will be used...... to parameterize the controller and the plant. The goal is to maximize blade root bending moments while minimizing actuator activity. An optimization with linear matrix inequalities (LMI) constraints will be used to optimize the H1 norm of the system....

  16. OffshoreDC DC grids for integration of large scale wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Endegnanew, Atsede Gualu; Stamatiou, Georgios

    The present report summarizes the main findings of the Nordic Energy Research project “DC grids for large scale integration of offshore wind power – OffshoreDC”. The project is been funded by Nordic Energy Research through the TFI programme and was active between 2011 and 2016. The overall...... objective of the project was to drive the development of the VSC based HVDC technology for future large scale offshore grids, supporting a standardised and commercial development of the technology, and improving the opportunities for the technology to support power system integration of large scale offshore...... wind power. This was done by bringing together the key industry stakeholders and competent research organisations in the project....

  17. Construction of a low cost wind energy generator; Construcao de um gerador de energia eolica de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jonathan Penha de; Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/EP/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: jonathan_penha@poli.ufrj.br, silvioa@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    This project presents a low cost wind electric power generator constituted of cheap and easy access materials. The necessary materials are presented for it construction and the expected efficiency, having as reference the city of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil. The elaboration of the generator was initially developed as alternative energy source during blackout.

  18. Annual Report on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performance Trends: 2007 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2008-05-01

    This report focuses on key trends in the U.S. wind power market, with an emphasis on the latest year, and presents a wealth of data, some of which has not historically been mined by wind power analysts.

  19. A Cost Model for Integrated Logistic Support Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elena Nenni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An Integrated Logistic Support (ILS service has the objective of improving a system’s efficiency and availability for the life cycle. The system constructor offers the service to the customer, and she becomes the Contractor Logistic Support (CLS. The aim of this paper is to propose an approach to support the CLS in the budget formulation. Specific goals of the model are the provision of the annual cost of ILS activities through a specific cost model and a comprehensive examination of expected benefits, costs and savings under alternative ILS strategies. A simple example derived from an industrial application is also provided to illustrate the idea. Scientific literature is lacking in the topic and documents from the military are just dealing with the issue of performance measurement. Moreover, they are obviously focused on the customer’s perspective. Other scientific papers are general and focused only on maintenance or life cycle management. The model developed in this paper approaches the problem from the perspective of the CLS, and it is specifically tailored on the main issues of an ILS service.

  20. SIR (Safe Integral Reactor) - reducing size can reduce cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Traditional engineering economics have favoured the advantages of larger size as a means of reducing specific capital costs and hence unit generating costs. For large and small plants utilising the same concept, e.g. a small four-loop PWR vs a large four-loop PWR with the same number of components, economies of scale are well established. If, however, a smaller plant is sized to take advantage of features which are only feasible at smaller outputs, is of simpler design, with the advantage taken of the simplified design to produce the most cost-effective layout, and incorporates fewer, more easily replaceable components with minimal assembly on site, it is possible to produce a plant which is competitive with larger plant of more traditional design. When 'system' effects, such as better matching of installed capacity to the growth in demand and the fact that a smaller total capacity will be needed to meet a given demand with a specified level of confidence, are taken into account, it can be shown that a utility's overall cash-flow position can be improved with lower associated absolute financial risks. The UK/US Safe Integral Reactor (SIR) is an integral pressurized water reactor in the 300-400 MW(e) range which utilises conventional water reactor technology in a way not feasible at the very large, sizes of recent years. The SIR concept is briefly explained and its technical and economic advantages in terms of simplicity, construction, maintenance, availability, decommissioning, safety and siting described. The results of system analyses which demonstrate the overall financial advantages to a utility are presented. (author)

  1. Wind Turbine Optimization with WISDEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ryan N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Veers, Paul S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University

    2018-01-03

    This presentation for the Fourth Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop explains the NREL wind energy systems engineering initiative-developed analysis platform and research capability to capture important system interactions to achieve a better understanding of how to improve system-level performance and achieve system-level cost reductions. Topics include Wind-Plant Integrated System Design and Engineering Model (WISDEM) and multidisciplinary design analysis and optimization.

  2. Assessing the level of integration in the offshore wind industry value chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Neri, Ivan; Mikkelsen, Ole Stegmann; Stentoft, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The offshore wind industry (OWI) has experienced an explosive growth within the course of a decade and because of this rapid expansion, the industry has not had the opportunity to integrate well and be-come more efficient. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the integra......The offshore wind industry (OWI) has experienced an explosive growth within the course of a decade and because of this rapid expansion, the industry has not had the opportunity to integrate well and be-come more efficient. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding......, offshore substation, installation vessels and the wind farm developer. The preliminary findings are that the different indus-trial sectors participating in the OWI are not aware of the maturity level of the sector. The fact that some developers are disintegrating the already integrated supply of some...... components highlights the importance of being aware of the industry’s maturity level to take appropriate decisions. On the other hand the strategic alliances taking part in various sectors of the OWI show that some of the players know that they have to join and share the expenses of much needed R...

  3. Conference 'What strategies for an effective grid integration of wind energy? France-Germany crossed views'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschedag, Udo; Lund, Torsten; Sanchez, Louis; Grandidier, Jean-Yves; Meyerjuergens, Tim; Laurent, Severine; Lacoste, Jean; Quitmann, Eckard; Woyte, Achim; De Decker, Jan; De Broe, Alex; Fischer, Lothar; Diwald, Werner

    2009-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the effective grid integration of wind energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than a hundred participants exchanged views on the necessary stabilization and development of power grids for the integration of renewable energy sources. Beside the recent evolutions of regulations in both countries, topics such as the connection of offshore parks, the transient capacity hosting, the wind facilities efficiency and the grid development studies were addressed as well. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Grids development from the point of view of the Federal Ministry of environment - The German law on energy networks development 'Energieleitungsausbaugesetz'. High-voltage grid development in Germany: the impetus of the grid reinforcement law (Udo Paschedag); 2 - Danish experience and plans relating to wind energy integration and underground cables (Torsten Lund); 3 - Development of the French grid: Regional scheme of renewable energies connection (Louis Sanchez); 4 - Wind energy, a major component of the electricity mix for 2020/2030 (Jean-Yves Grandidier); 5 - Challenges of offshore wind parks connection to the German grids (Tim Meyerjuergens); 6 - Connection potentialities: transient production hosting capacities (Severine Laurent); 7 - Wind power plants supply system services - Requirements imposed to grid operators and economic incentives: a wind energy with the same quality as conventional electricity? (Jean Lacoste); 8 - Grid reinforcements and what they are to wind - A European perspective (Alex De Broe); 9 - European Wind Integration Study (EWIIS) - Towards a Successful Integration of Wind Power into European electricity Grids. The EWIS study and expectations about offshore grid development in the North/Baltic Sea area (Lothar Fischer); 10 - Optimization of renewable energies

  4. Danish Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power......, a study made by the Danish think tank CEPOS claimed the opposite, i.e. that most of the Danish wind power has been exported in recent years. However, this claim is based on an incorrect interpretation of statistics and a lack of understanding of how the international electricity markets operate...... is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both...

  5. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Energy Storage System for Power Systems with Large-scale Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes algorithms for optimal sitingand sizing of Energy Storage System (ESS) for the operationplanning of power systems with large scale wind power integration.The ESS in this study aims to mitigate the wind powerfluctuations during the interval between two rolling Economic...... optimal siting and sizing of storage units throughoutthe network. These questions are investigated using an IEEE benchmark system...

  6. Wind power forecasting system EOlienne SPEO : development, preliminary results and integration at Hydro-Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forcione, A.; Roberge, G. [Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada). IREQ; Yu, W.; Glazer, A.; Benoit, R.; Plante, A.; Tran, L.D.; Chardon, L. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Wind generation forecasting at Hydro-Quebec was discussed with particular reference to the collaborative efforts between the utility's Research Institute and Environment Canada in developing the Systeme de Prevision EOlienne (SPEO). The European ANEMOS platform was installed at Hydro-Quebec Distribution in 2006. Operational forecasts using the Global Environmental Multi-scale model (GEM) from the Canadian Meteorological Centre served as input for SPEO. This presentation evaluated the performance of the forecasting model, and presented best approaches for long term use and continuous improvement. SPEO was developed to forecast wind and other atmospheric variables, and not generated power. The development of the software began in September 2006 with the development and integration of necessary components, followed by the calibration of the system, 15 months of operational forecasts, experimentation and final analysis in 2008. The GEM-global model provides 10 days and 240 hours of hourly forecasts with 35 km resolution, while the GEM-regional model provides 2 days and 48 hours of hourly forecasts with 15 km resolution. It was shown that the development of a good forecasting system depends entirely on the availability of a maximum number of observation sources, which for SPEO includes 13 Environment Canada stations and wind farm masts. The final value of a wind forecasting system also depends on compatibility with the electric system management tools and processes. Research is ongoing to improve SPEO through validation tools, integration of newly available observations, recalibration and experimentation. Future tasks will be to extend the 48 hour horizon, to optimize the number crunching efficiency and to characterize wind farms more precisely. figs.

  7. Coordinated Control of Multi-terminal DC Grid for Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Yu; Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei

    2016-01-01

    Multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) technology using voltage source converter (VSC) is a good option for wind power integration. Compared with point to point DC connection, MTDC provide better controllability based on different control strategies. In this paper, proportional-integral (PI) controllers...... with tuned PI parameters are designed to coordinate DC flow among the DC grid with good dynamic performance. In order to overcome the disadvantages of the conventional PI control, a simple adaptive PI control strategy is proposed based on the system transfer function. Case studies were conducted with PowerFactory....

  8. Cost-benefit analysis of wind energy. A case study of Kayathar wind mills in Tamil Nadu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varadarajan, D.B. [Madurai Kamaraj Univ., Madurai (India). Dept. of Environmental Economics

    1995-12-31

    In recent years we have been encountering what is termed as Energy Crisis. Energy crisis is not only a threat to any economy but also posses a challenge in correcting the deficiency. India which is going in for massive industrialization is a population giant and has to reckon with the very relevant issue of energy crisis. In this regard the Indian Government has laid a great deal of emphasis on the development and harnessing of alternative sources of energy. Among the various types of renewable energy sources wind energy is present by the only proven alternative in the energy structure. Along with the evolution of man form primitive stage to the present civilisation, the wind energy has also moved with time from its ancient period to the present stage of sophistication which can be adopted to various needs like water pumping and power generation. (author)

  9. Cost-benefit analysis of wind energy. A case study of Kayathar wind mills in Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadarajan, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years we have been encountering what is termed as Energy Crisis. Energy crisis is not only a threat to any economy but also posses a challenge in correcting the deficiency. India which is going in for massive industrialization is a population giant and has to reckon with the very relevant issue of energy crisis. In this regard the Indian Government has laid a great deal of emphasis on the development and harnessing of alternative sources of energy. Among the various types of renewable energy sources wind energy is present by the only proven alternative in the energy structure. Along with the evolution of man form primitive stage to the present civilisation, the wind energy has also moved with time from its ancient period to the present stage of sophistication which can be adopted to various needs like water pumping and power generation. (author)

  10. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented

  11. SimWIND: A geospatial infrastructure model for optimizing wind power generation and transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Benjamin R.; Middleton, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Wind is a clean, enduring energy resource with the capacity to satisfy 20% or more of U.S. electricity demand. Presently, wind potential is limited by a paucity of electrical transmission lines and/or capacity between promising wind resources and primary load centers. We present the model SimWIND to address this shortfall. SimWIND is an integrated optimization model for the geospatial arrangement and cost minimization of wind-power generation–transmission–delivery infrastructure. Given a set of possible wind-farm sites, the model simultaneously determines (1) where and how much power to generate and (2) where to build new transmission infrastructure and with what capacity in order to minimize the cost for delivering a targeted amount of power to load. Costs and routing of transmission lines consider geographic and social constraints as well as electricity losses. We apply our model to the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) Interconnection, considering scenarios that deliver up to 20 GW of new wind power. We show that SimWIND could potentially reduce ERCOT's projected ∼$5B transmission network upgrade line length and associated costs by 50%. These results suggest that SimWIND's coupled generation–transmission–delivery modeling approach could play a critical role in enhancing planning efforts and reducing costs for wind energy integration. - Highlights: ► Wind power is limited by transmission capacity between resources and demands. ► SimWIND is a coupled generation-transmission-delivery model for wind infrastructure. ► The model minimizes costs considering realistic transmission routing and networking. ► We show that SimWIND could save 50% of $5B costs for expanding the Texas grid. ► Results suggest SimWIND may play a critical role in enhancings wind planning efforts.

  12. Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in a regional wind-thermal power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeransson, Lisa; Karlsson, Sten; Johnsson, Filip

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates consequences of integrating plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in a wind-thermal power system supplied by one quarter of wind power and three quarters of thermal generation. Four different PHEV integration strategies, with different impacts on the total electric load profile, have been investigated. The study shows that PHEVs can reduce the CO 2 -emissions from the power system if actively integrated, whereas a passive approach to PHEV integration (i.e. letting people charge the car at will) is likely to result in an increase in emissions compared to a power system without PHEV load. The reduction in emissions under active PHEV integration strategies is due to a reduction in emissions related to thermal plant start-ups and part load operation. Emissions of the power sector are reduced with up to 4.7% compared to a system without PHEVs, according to the simulations. Allocating this emission reduction to the PHEV electricity consumption only, and assuming that the vehicles in electric mode is about 3 times as energy efficient as standard gasoline operation, total emissions from PHEVs would be less than half the emissions of a standard car, when running in electric mode.

  13. Quantifying wind resource assessment and grid integration challenges for Delaware offshore wind power utilizing mesoscale modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Joseph F.

    Offshore wind in the United States continues to be a focused area of research as our society grapples with the Earth's changing climate and our ongoing and increasing demand for electricity. While the first offshore wind project in the U.S. is expected to be operational soon, much still remains to be done to help improve viability of offshore wind in additional locations. This dissertation discusses three studies conducted to improve the understanding of and expectations from developing wind energy in the Delaware Wind Energy Area off the Delaware coast. The first study examines the capabilities of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to account for variations in wind farm array geometries in an idealized set-up of the model, and determines features of those array geometries that can positively influence the energy production of an offshore farm. The second study investigates the impacts that the misprediction of wind ramp events would have on the interaction of an offshore wind farm with the electricity grid, quantifying some of these impacts and discussing factors which contribute to grid instability. The third study combines the knowledge gained in the first two studies to evaluate potential wind farm array geometries in a regional study of the Delaware Wind Energy Area using WRF along with a selection of case study dates selected to examine the impacts of the synoptic variability of the region throughout the year. These studies demonstrate that careful consideration of the meteorology and climatology of a region when determining the layout of an offshore wind array can improve the power production of the farm, thereby improving wind farm viability. It is shown that using a mesoscale model that incorporates a wind farm parameterization can improve resource assessment by allowing the assessment to evaluate the wind farm's interactions with the weather and climate in the Delaware Wind Energy Area. Furthermore, it is shown that while certain synoptic

  14. An integrated knowledge system for wind tunnel testing - Project Engineers' Intelligent Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ching F.; Shi, George Z.; Hoyt, W. A.; Steinle, Frank W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The Project Engineers' Intelligent Assistant (PEIA) is an integrated knowledge system developed using artificial intelligence technology, including hypertext, expert systems, and dynamic user interfaces. This system integrates documents, engineering codes, databases, and knowledge from domain experts into an enriched hypermedia environment and was designed to assist project engineers in planning and conducting wind tunnel tests. PEIA is a modular system which consists of an intelligent user-interface, seven modules and an integrated tool facility. Hypermedia technology is discussed and the seven PEIA modules are described. System maintenance and updating is very easy due to the modular structure and the integrated tool facility provides user access to commercial software shells for documentation, reporting, or database updating. PEIA is expected to provide project engineers with technical information, increase efficiency and productivity, and provide a realistic tool for personnel training.

  15. Topology Comparison of Superconducting Generators for 10-MW Direct-Drive Wind Turbines: Cost of Energy Based

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at finding feasible electromagnetic designs of superconducting synchronous generators (SCSGs) for a 10-MW direct-drive wind turbine. Since a lower levelized cost of energy (LCoE) increases the feasibility of SCSGs in this application, 12 generator topologies are compared regarding...... their LCoE in a simplified form of levelized equipment cost of energy (LCoE$_{\\text{eq}}$). MgB$_2$ wires are employed in the field winding. Based on the current unit cost and critical current density capability of the MgB $_2$ wire at 20 K, the topologies with more iron have a much lower LCo...... having the most iron in the core are the most promising for both now and the long term. If low weight is required, the topologies with more nonmagnetic cores should be considered....

  16. Possibilities for biomass-based power plant and wind system integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, Francisco [Jaen Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Linares (Jaen) (Spain); Saenz, Jose R. [Univ. of the Basque Country, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Bilbao (Spain)

    2002-10-01

    In this paper, the integration of a biomass-based diesel-wind system is investigated. The system consists of a pitch controlled wind turbine, which is equipped with an induction generator. The induction generator is connected to an ac bus-bar in parallel with a diesel-generator set consisting of a diesel engine driving a synchronous generator. A power plant can generate electric power using biomass from the olive tree in Spain. A gasifier is capable of converting tons of wood chips per day into a gaseous fuel that is fed into a diesel engine. While there are significant systems whose models may be exactly obtained from physical laws and whose states are measured, it is much less realistic to assume that all the parameters, such as the higher heating value of the biogas or wind speed, are exactly known. It is then natural to investigate what happens to control systems involving unknown, or not precisely known, parameters. In this paper, the derived model of biomass-based wind-diesel systems is quite valid for robust control studies. (Author)

  17. Electric Vehicle Based Battery Storages for Large Scale Wind Power Integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    . In Denmark, there are many hours of surplus wind power production every year. This could be consumed locally through demand side management of electric vehicles by controlled charging of their batteries. Also, the EV batteries could discharge the stored electricity to the grid on demand, which...... is improving on a rapid scale and the battery cost is also reducing which could enable the electric cars to be competitive in the market. The electric vehicles could also benefit the electricity sector in supporting more renewable energy which is also one of the most important driving forces in its promotion...... the clean wind energy and latter could be expensive and limited as the neighbouring countries are also installing more renewable energy across their borders. One of the other alternative solutions lies with the local distributed storages which could be provided by the flexible, efficient and quick start...

  18. Conference 'onshore and offshore wind energy cost reduction: challenges and opportunities for the industry in France and in Germany'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Pierre-Marie; Hinsch, Thomas; Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin; Giese, Norbert; Guyet, Quentin; Lenhardt, Edouard; Beinke, Thies; Bodenstab, Marc; Wolff, Nicolas; Burkhardt, Claus; Lessmeister, Andreas L.

    2012-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on cost reduction in onshore and offshore wind energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 140 participants exchanged views on the cost allocation in onshore wind energy projects, on their financing, and on the transport and logistics profitability challenges. Concrete examples of operating and maintenance cost reductions in offshore wind energy projects were presented as well. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Overview of France's onshore and offshore wind support policies (Pierre-Marie Abadie); 2 - Keynote: Framework conditions for cost reductions in the German wind energy sector (Thomas Hinsch); 3 - Cost of onshore wind energy projects in Germany - Status and experience feedback (Anna-Kathrin Wallasch); 4 - Crown estate's Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Pathways Study: how to transpose the conclusions to the German case (Norbert Giese); 5 - Combined Forces for Reliable Supply Chain - French-German Convergence of expertise: strategic partnerships for offshore projects implementation (Quentin Guyet, Edouard Lenhardt); 6 - Reducing costs of onshore and offshore wind energy. Mon2Sea research project - Real-time monitoring of transport and cargo handling of components for the offshore installation of wind turbines (Thies Beinke, Marc Bodenstab); 7 - expertise, Innovation and reduction of cost of energy: Vestas experience (Nicolas Wolff); 8 - Far-Offshore-Wind projects. Results of the First German Offshore Windpark alpha ventus (Claus Burkhardt); 9 - Maintenance for Offshore-Wind parks: examples and good practices for the future (Andreas L. Lessmeister)

  19. Integrated optimization of unmanned aerial vehicle task allocation and path planning under steady wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhengzheng; Zhu, Moning; Hu, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Guoqiang

    2018-01-01

    Wind has a significant effect on the control of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), resulting in changes in their ground speed and direction, which has an important influence on the results of integrated optimization of UAV task allocation and path planning. The objective of this integrated optimization problem changes from minimizing flight distance to minimizing flight time. In this study, the Euclidean distance between any two targets is expanded to the Dubins path length, considering the minimum turning radius of fixed-wing UAVs. According to the vector relationship between wind speed, UAV airspeed, and UAV ground speed, a method is proposed to calculate the flight time of UAV between targets. On this basis, a variable-speed Dubins path vehicle routing problem (VS-DP-VRP) model is established with the purpose of minimizing the time required for UAVs to visit all the targets and return to the starting point. By designing a crossover operator and mutation operator, the genetic algorithm is used to solve the model, the results of which show that an effective UAV task allocation and path planning solution under steady wind can be provided. PMID:29561888

  20. A comparative analysis of the costs of onshore wind energy: Is there a case for community-specific policy support?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berka, Anna L.; Harnmeijer, Jelte; Roberts, Deborah; Phimister, Euan; Msika, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    There is growing policy interest in increasing the share of community-owned renewable energy generation. This study explores why and how the costs of community-owned projects differ from commercially-owned projects by examining the case of onshore wind in the UK. Based on cross-sectoral literature on the challenges of community ownership, cost differences are attributed to six facets of an organisation or project: internal processes, internal knowledge and skills, perceived local legitimacy of the project, perceived external legitimacy of the organisation, investor motivation and expectations, and finally, project scale. These facets impact not only development costs but also project development times and the probability that projects pass certain critical stages in the development process. Using survey-based and secondary cost data on community and commercial projects in the UK, a model is developed to show the overall impact of cost, time and risk differences on the value of a hypothetical 500 kW onshore wind project. The results show that the main factors accounting for differences are higher pre-planning costs and additional risks born by community projects, and suggest that policy interventions may be required to place community- owned projects on a level playing field with commercial projects. - Highlights: • Policy support for community energy projects should be targeted at reducing early costs and risk factors. • Hurdle rates are critical in determining the financial viability of projects. • Shared ownership arrangements may help remove some of key challenges to community-only projects.

  1. Real-time impact of power balancing on power system operation with large scale integration of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2017-01-01

    Highly wind power integrated power system requires continuous active power regulation to tackle the power imbalances resulting from the wind power forecast errors. The active power balance is maintained in real-time with the automatic generation control and also from the control room, where...... power system model. The power system model takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan from power balancing model and the generation and power exchange capacities for the year 2020 into account. The real-time impact of power balancing in a highly wind power integrated power system is assessed...

  2. Study on VSC HVDC Modeling and Control Strategies for Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korompili, Asimenia; Wu, Qiuwei

    Recently, more and more offshore wind farms have been integrated to the power systems. In the next years, these offshore power plants are going to be rated at higher capacities and located in larger distances from the coast. This results in greater interest in the transmission technologies, which...... are available for the grid connection of the offshore wind farms. In this report various transmission systems are presented. Precisely, the HVAC systems, which have dominated up until now in the power transfer sector, are briefly analysed, by providing their advantages, as well as the bottlenecks that occur...... in their applications. The main focus is given in the HVDC transmission systems, since they do not exhibit these disadvantages, whereas they additionally present beneficial attributes. This is the reason for which the applications of HVDC systems have been increased in the latest years. A brief description of different...

  3. Techniques for a Wind Energy System Integration with an Islanded Microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Megha; Fan, Yuanyuan; Ghosh, Arindam; Shahnia, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents two different techniques of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) integration with an islanded microgrid (MG). The islanded microgrid operates in a frequency droop control where its frequency can vary around 50 Hz. The permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based variable speed WECS is considered, which converts wind energy to a low frequency ac power. Therefore it needs to be connected to the microgrid through a back to back (B2B) converter system. One way of interconnection is to synchronize the MG side converter with the MG bus at which it is connected. In this case, this converter runs at the MG frequency. The other approach is to bring back the MG frequency to 50 Hz using the isochronization concept. In this case, the MG side converter operates at 50 Hz. Both these techniques are developed in this paper. The proposed techniques are validated through extensive PSCAD/EMTDC simulation studies.

  4. Integration of electric drive vehicles in the Danish electricity network with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob; Larsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    /conventional) which are likely to fuel these cars. The study was carried out considering the Danish electricity network state around 2025, when the EDV penetration levels would be significant enough to have an impact on the power system. Some of the interesting findings of this study are - EDV have the potential......This paper presents the results of a study carried out to examine the feasibility of integrating electric drive vehicles (EDV) in the Danish electricity network which is characterised by high wind power penetration. One of the main aims of this study was to examine the effect of electric drive...... vehicles on the Danish electricity network, wind power penetration and electricity market. In particular the study examined the effect of electric drive vehicles on the generation capacity constraints, load curve, cross border transmission capacity and the type of generating sources (renewable...

  5. Dynamic Biogas Upgrading for Integration of Renewable Energy from Wind, Biomass and Solar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars

    ) combined heat and power production from biogas during periods of electricity demand, bioenergy utilization becomes a dynamic process. In such a process scheme, biomass, wind, and solar could be integrated in a local context. This thesis aims to demonstrate the feasibility of the dynamic biogas upgrading...... properties and the degree of efficiency of the system. Lab-scale and bench-scale experiments where further applied to demonstrate the utilization of industrial waste water for biogas production and the general applicability of biogas in the Sabatier process.......The Sabatier process is investigated as a storage scheme for renewable energy. Hydrogen derived from fluctuating renewable energy sources like wind and solar is converted to methane by the hydrogenation/methanation of carbon oxides. Biogas from anaerobic digestion is considered in this study...

  6. Methodology for the low-cost optimisation of small-wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Gutiérrez, Alberto; Mañana Canteli, Mario; Castro Alonso, Pablo Bernardo; Martínez Torre, Raquel; Lecuna Tolosa, Ramón; Carcedo Haya, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of small-wind energy has made it necessary to develop new methods that improve the efficiency of this technology. This is best done by considering the interaction between the various components, such as wind rotors, electrical generators, rectifiers and inverters, as opposed to studying the individual components in isolation. Hence, this chapter describes a methodology to increase the efficiency of small-wind turbines (SWTs) equipped with an electrical machine, rectifier an...

  7. Integrated condition monitoring of a fleet of offshore wind turbines with focus on acceleration streaming processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, Jan; Gioia, Nicoletta; Peeters, Cédric; Jordaens, Pieter-Jan

    2017-05-01

    Particularly offshore there is a trend to cluster wind turbines in large wind farms, and in the near future to operate such a farm as an integrated power production plant. Predictability of individual turbine behavior across the entire fleet is key in such a strategy. Failure of turbine subcomponents should be detected well in advance to allow early planning of all necessary maintenance actions; Such that they can be performed during low wind and low electricity demand periods. In order to obtain the insights to predict component failure, it is necessary to have an integrated clean dataset spanning all turbines of the fleet for a sufficiently long period of time. This paper illustrates our big-data approach to do this. In addition, advanced failure detection algorithms are necessary to detect failures in this dataset. This paper discusses a multi-level monitoring approach that consists of a combination of machine learning and advanced physics based signal-processing techniques. The advantage of combining different data sources to detect system degradation is in the higher certainty due to multivariable criteria. In order to able to perform long-term acceleration data signal processing at high frequency a streaming processing approach is necessary. This allows the data to be analysed as the sensors generate it. This paper illustrates this streaming concept on 5kHz acceleration data. A continuous spectrogram is generated from the data-stream. Real-life offshore wind turbine data is used. Using this streaming approach for calculating bearing failure features on continuous acceleration data will support failure propagation detection.

  8. More Wind Power Integration with Adjusted Energy Carriers for Space Heating in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun He

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Northern China, due to the high penetration of coal-fired cogeneration facilities, which are generally equipped with extraction-condensing steam turbines, lots of wind power resources may be wasted during the heating season. In contrast, considerable coal is consumed in the power generation sector. In this article, firstly it is revealed that there exists a serious divergence in the ratio of electrical to thermal energy between end users’ demand and the cogenerations’ production during off-peak load at night, which may negate active power-balancing of the electric power grid. Secondly, with respect to this divergence only occurring during off-peak load at night, a temporary proposal is given so as to enable the integration of more wind power. The authors suggest that if the energy carrier for part of the end users’ space heating is switched from heating water to electricity (e.g., electric heat pumps (EHPs can provide space heating in the domestic sector, the ratio of electricity to heating water load should be adjusted to optimize the power dispatch between cogeneration units and wind turbines, resulting in fuel conservation. With this proposal, existing infrastructures are made full use of, and no additional ones are required. Finally a numerical simulation is performed in order to illustrate both the technical and economic feasibility of the aforementioned proposal, under ongoing infrastructures as well as electricity and space heating tariff conditions without changing participants’ benefits. The authors aim to persuade Chinese policy makers to enable EHPs to provide space heating to enable the integration of more wind power.

  9. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, Scott [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bhandari, Abhinav [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-12-26

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG's program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPG's high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are

  10. Integrated sizing and scheduling of wind/PV/diesel/battery isolated systems

    KAUST Repository

    Malheiro, André

    2015-05-22

    In this paper we address the optimal sizing and scheduling of isolated hybrid systems using an optimization framework. The hybrid system features wind and photovoltaic conversion systems, batteries and diesel backup generators to supply electricity demand. A Mixed-Integer Linear Programming formulation is used to model system behavior over a time horizon of one year, considering hourly changes in both the availability of renewable resources and energy demand. The optimal solution is achieved with respect to the minimization of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) over a lifetime of 20 years. Results for a case study show that the most economical solution features all four postulated subsystems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Increase of the Integration Degree of Wind Power Plants into the Energy System Using Wind Forecasting and Power Consumption Predictor Models by Transmission System Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manusov V.Z.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind power plants’ (WPPs high penetration into the power system leads to various inconveniences in the work of system operators. This fact is associated with the unpredictable nature of wind speed and generated power, respectively. Due to these factors, such source of electricity must be connected to the power system to avoid detrimental effects on the stability and quality of electricity. The power generated by the WPPs is not regulated by the system operator. Accurate forecasting of wind speed and power, as well as power load can solve this problem, thereby making a significant contribution to improving the power supply systems reliability. The article presents a mathematical model for the wind speed prediction, which is based on autoregression and fuzzy logic derivation of Takagi-Sugeno. The new model of wavelet transform has been developed, which makes it possible to include unnecessary noise from the model, as well as to reveal the cycling of the processes and their trend. It has been proved, that the proposed combination of methods can be used simultaneously to predict the power consumption and the wind power plant potential power at any time interval, depending on the planning horizon. The proposed models support a new scientific concept for the predictive control system of wind power stations and increase their degree integration into the electric power system.

  12. A Spatial-Economic Cost-Reduction Pathway Analysis for U.S. Offshore Wind Energy Development from 2015-2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp; Stehly, Tyler

    2016-10-05

    The potential for cost reduction and economic viability for offshore wind varies considerably within the United States. This analysis models the cost impact of a range of offshore wind locational cost variables across more than 7,000 potential coastal sites in the United States' offshore wind resource area. It also assesses the impact of over 50 technology innovations on potential future costs between 2015 and 2027 (Commercial Operation Date) for both fixed-bottom and floating wind systems. Comparing these costs to an initial assessment of local avoided generating costs, this analysis provides a framework for estimating the economic potential for offshore wind. Analyzing economic potential within this framework can help establish a refined understanding across industries of the technology and site-specific risks and opportunities associated with future offshore wind development. The findings from the original report indicate that under the modeled scenario, offshore wind can be expected to achieve significant cost reductions and may approach economic viability in some parts of the United States within the next 15 years.

  13. Fatigue testing of low-cost fiberglass composite wind turbine blade materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, K. E.; Bennett, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    The static and fatigue behavior of transverse filament tape (TFT) fiberglass/epoxy and TFT/polyester composites was established by the testing of specimens cut from panels fabricated by a filament winding process used for the construction of large experimental wind turbine blades.

  14. Cost-effective design and operation of variable speed wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    In the past decades, the wind industry has grown from a niche business serving the environmental aware into one that has established itself as the most competitive form of renewable energy. Wind has the potential to play a more important role in the future world electricity supply provided that the

  15. An integrable low-cost hardware random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Damith C.; Lim, Daihyun; Devadas, Srinivas; Jamali, Behnam; Zhu, Zheng; Cole, Peter H.

    2005-02-01

    A hardware random number generator is different from a pseudo-random number generator; a pseudo-random number generator approximates the assumed behavior of a real hardware random number generator. Simple pseudo random number generators suffices for most applications, however for demanding situations such as the generation of cryptographic keys, requires an efficient and a cost effective source of random numbers. Arbiter-based Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) proposed for physical authentication of ICs exploits statistical delay variation of wires and transistors across integrated circuits, as a result of process variations, to build a secret key unique to each IC. Experimental results and theoretical studies show that a sufficient amount of variation exits across IC"s. This variation enables each IC to be identified securely. It is possible to exploit the unreliability of these PUF responses to build a physical random number generator. There exists measurement noise, which comes from the instability of an arbiter when it is in a racing condition. There exist challenges whose responses are unpredictable. Without environmental variations, the responses of these challenges are random in repeated measurements. Compared to other physical random number generators, the PUF-based random number generators can be a compact and a low-power solution since the generator need only be turned on when required. A 64-stage PUF circuit costs less than 1000 gates and the circuit can be implemented using a standard IC manufacturing processes. In this paper we have presented a fast and an efficient random number generator, and analysed the quality of random numbers produced using an array of tests used by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to evaluate the randomness of random number generators designed for cryptographic applications.

  16. Risk coordination in the computation of operating balancing reserves for wind power integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menemenlis, N.; Huneault, M. [IREQ, Varennes, QC (Canada); Robitaille, A. [Hydro-Quebec Production, Montreal, QC (Canada). Dir. Planification de la production eolienne, Direction generale

    2011-07-01

    Recently, with the advent of wind generation, utilities acknowledged that they must modify their operating reserve levels to mitigate the effects of the combined inherent uncertainties. In our previous work, we presented a methodology to compute balancing reserves (BRs), for the time-horizon of 1-48 hours ahead, based on a short term reliability criterion called risk. Our methodology allowed the computation of dynamic reserves but the risk target was treated as an input. It was pointed out that these reserves have an economic value. Maintaining BRs using stand-by capacity comes at a cost, which may be split into three components: a fixed cost for maintaining capacity for BRs, a variable cost when they are deployed and an opportunity costs of power not sold to maintain the reserves beyond useful levels. Here we undertake a study of the problem of establishing adequate risk targets for the computation of BRs, and consequently of determining the amount of unused power capacity that could be freed for sale on export markets. The problem is essentially formulated as an economic problem in the particular HQ context. The solution results in a trade-off between the sale revenues and the expected cost of reserves. (orig.)

  17. Power system integration of VSC-HVDC connected offshore wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Kjær, Philip Carne

    This report presents an overview of challenges and solutions for the integration into the power system of offshore wind power plants (WPPs) connected to onshore grids through a voltage-source converter based high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) transmission system. Aspects that are touched upon...... in terms of AC voltage control for connection to weak AC networks as well as of long-term voltage stability. New illustrative diagrams in the reactive power – AC voltage plane are drawn for connection to weak grids, shedding light on some peculiarities such as the non-linearity of the continuous short...

  18. Wind energy. To produce electricity with the wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareau, Helene

    2015-11-01

    This guide addresses the different aspects of wind-based power generation. It outlines the role of wind energy to meet objectives related to the share of renewable energies in the French energy mix, that wind energy is actually replacing fossil energies, that it is based on local resources within higher safety and less wastage, that current advances are made to integrate wind energy production into the grid, and that it is a solution to diversify energy production. Some figures are presented and commented, regarding onshore wind energy production in France, the location of wind farms, and wind energy production in comparison with other renewable sources. The operation of a wind turbine is described and the different types of wind turbines are evoked. The issue of wind farm planning with citizen participation is addressed: regional planning, studies of pre-feasibility for location selection, procedure, and content of the impact study (radars, fauna and flora, landscapes, safety, health). Other features are outlined: a planned dismantling, and a globally favourable perception. The next part addresses offshore wind energy: the interesting potential of stronger and more reliable wind at sea (European situation, French opportunities, elements comprised in an offshore wind farm), impacts (on marine ecosystems, on neighbouring localities, and interests for visitors). Economic aspects are then addressed: cost and profitability, economic spin-offs, and perspectives. The last part concerns individuals and the possibilities to participate to wind farm projects or to invest in small wind turbines with some prerequisites (constant and steady winds, installation assessment, required expertise, indispensable preliminary steps, costs, aids and profitability)

  19. Minimizing Project Cost by Integrating Subcontractor Selection Decisions with Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruk, Sławomir; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Czarnigowska, Agata

    2017-10-01

    Subcontracting has been a worldwide practice in the construction industry. It enables the construction enterprises to focus on their core competences and, at the same time, it makes complex project possible to be delivered. Since general contractors bear full responsibility for the works carried out by their subcontractors, it is their task and their risk to select a right subcontractor for a particular work. Although subcontractor management has been admitted to significantly affect the construction project’s performance, current practices and past research deal with subcontractor management and scheduling separately. The proposed model aims to support subcontracting decisions by integrating subcontractor selection with scheduling to enable the general contractor to select the optimal combination of subcontractors and own crews for all work packages of the project. The model allows for the interactions between the subcontractors and their impacts on the overall project performance in terms of cost and, indirectly, time and quality. The model is intended to be used at the general contractor’s bid preparation stage. The authors claim that the subcontracting decisions should be taken in a two-stage process. The first stage is a prequalification - provision of a short list of capable and reliable subcontractors; this stage is not the focus of the paper. The resulting pool of available resources is divided into two subsets: subcontractors, and general contractor’s in-house crews. Once it has been defined, the next stage is to assign them to the work packages that, bound by fixed precedence constraints, form the project’s network diagram. Each package is possible to be delivered by the general contractor’s crew or some of the potential subcontractors, at a specific time and cost. Particular crews and subcontractors can be contracted more than one package, but not at the same time. Other constraints include the predefined project completion date (the project is

  20. WIND project tests and analysis on the integrity of small size pipe under severe accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Naohiko; Hashimoto, Kazuichiro; Maruyama, Yu; Igarashi, Minoru; Hidaka, Akihide; Sugimoto, Jun

    1996-01-01

    In a severe accident of a light water reactor(LWR), fission products (FPs) released from fuel rods will be transported to the primary cooling system piping as aerosol and some of them will be deposited on the inner surface of piping. In such conditions the primary cooling system piping might be subjected to both of elevated temperature load due to decay heat of FPs and pressure load, and as a consequence the integrity of piping might be threatened. The WIND (Wide Range Piping Integrity Demonstration) Project is being performed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to investigate the FP aerosol behavior in reactor piping and the integrity of reactor piping under severe accident condition (K. Hashimoto et al., 1994, K. Hashimoto et al., 1995). In order to meet these two objectives, the Project comprises two test series: an aerosol behavior test series and a piping integrity test series. In the piping integrity test a straight stainless steel pipe is used to simulate a partial fraction of reactor piping under severe accident conditions. In parallel with conducting the tests, test analyses are performed with ABAQUS code (Hibbitt, Karlsson and Sorensen Inc. 1989) using the test conditions to investigate the behavior of straight pipe against thermal and pressure loads. This paper describes the comparison of the scoping piping integrity test results and the analysis results with ABAQUS

  1. ANEMOS: Development of a next generation wind power forecasting system for the large-scale integration of onshore and offshore wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariniotakis, G.; Anemos Team

    2003-04-01

    Objectives: Accurate forecasting of the wind energy production up to two days ahead is recognized as a major contribution for reliable large-scale wind power integration. Especially, in a liberalized electricity market, prediction tools enhance the position of wind energy compared to other forms of dispatchable generation. ANEMOS, is a new 3.5 years R&D project supported by the European Commission, that resembles research organizations and end-users with an important experience on the domain. The project aims to develop advanced forecasting models that will substantially outperform current methods. Emphasis is given to situations like complex terrain, extreme weather conditions, as well as to offshore prediction for which no specific tools currently exist. The prediction models will be implemented in a software platform and installed for online operation at onshore and offshore wind farms by the end-users participating in the project. Approach: The paper presents the methodology of the project. Initially, the prediction requirements are identified according to the profiles of the end-users. The project develops prediction models based on both a physical and an alternative statistical approach. Research on physical models gives emphasis to techniques for use in complex terrain and the development of prediction tools based on CFD techniques, advanced model output statistics or high-resolution meteorological information. Statistical models (i.e. based on artificial intelligence) are developed for downscaling, power curve representation, upscaling for prediction at regional or national level, etc. A benchmarking process is set-up to evaluate the performance of the developed models and to compare them with existing ones using a number of case studies. The synergy between statistical and physical approaches is examined to identify promising areas for further improvement of forecasting accuracy. Appropriate physical and statistical prediction models are also developed for

  2. Wind up with continuous intra-day electricity markets? The integration of large-share wind power generation in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanfil, Fatih; Li, Yuanjing

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests an innovative idea to examine the functionality of an electricity intra-day market by testing causality among its fundamental components. As fluctuations of poorly predicted wind power generation are challenging the stability of the current electricity system, an intra-day market design can play an important role in managing wind forecast errors. Using Danish and Nordic data, it investigates the main drivers of the price difference between the intra-day and day-ahead markets, and causality between wind forecast errors and their counterparts. Our results show that the wind and conventional generation forecast errors significantly cause the intra-day price to differ from the day-ahead price, and that the relative intra-day price decreases with the unexpected amount of wind generation. Cross-border electricity exchanges are found to be important to handle wind forecast errors. Additionally, some zonal differences with respect to both causality and impulse responses are detected. This paper provides the first evidence on the persuasive functioning of the intra-day market in the case of Denmark, whereby intermittent production deviations are effectively reduced, and wind forecast errors are jointly handled through the responses from demand, conventional generation, and intra-day international electricity trade. (authors)

  3. A New Building-Integrated Wind Turbine System Utilizing the Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongsu Park

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an innovative building-integrated wind turbine (BIWT system by directly utilizing the building skin, which is an unused and unavailable area in all conventional BIWT systems. The proposed system has been developed by combining a guide vane that is able to effectively collect the incoming wind and increase its speed and a rotor with an appropriate shape for specific conditions. To this end, several important design issues for the guide vane as well as the rotor were thoroughly investigated and accordingly addressed in this paper. A series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD analyses was performed to determine the optimal configuration of the proposed system. Finally, it is demonstrated from performance evaluation tests that the prototype with the specially designed guide vane and rotor for the proposed BIWT system accelerates the wind speed to a sufficient level and consequently increases the power coefficient significantly. Thus, it was confirmed that the proposed system is a promising environment-friendly energy production system for urban areas.

  4. Review of relevant studies of isolated systems[Integration of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.H.; Lundsager, P.

    2000-12-01

    The report presents the results of a review of studies relating to integration of wind energy in isolated power supply systems, based on a systematic literature survey. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology consisting of a set of guidelines for wind energy projects in isolated energy systems and a set of tools and models that are operational on an engineering level. The review is based on a literature search in the ETDE Energy Database with a main search covering the period 7/88 to 6/97 and supplemented by partial update periods. A few newer references have been included in the review, most notably the IEC/PAS 62111 specification. The amount of wind energy literature related to the subject is excessively large, and a complete review in which every relevant abstract is identified and examined is not feasible within the framework of this (or probably any other) study. The review results have been organised according to the following keywords: methods & guides, economics, concept of application, system solutions, case studies, financial programmes, dedicated software tools. None of the found references presents methods or tools that contradict the philosophy of Risoe's methodology as it is described in the report. It is therefore concluded that Risoe's methodology makes a good platform for further development. (au)

  5. Improved Adaptive Droop Control Design for Optimal Power Sharing in VSC-MTDC Integrating Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Ran

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT converters, Multi-Terminal DC (MTDC based on the voltage-source converter (VSC has developed rapidly in renewable and electric power systems. To reduce the copper loss of large capacity and long distance DC transmission line, an improved droop control design based on optimal power sharing in VSC-MTDC integrating offshore wind farm is proposed. The proposed approach provided a calculation method for power-voltage droop coefficients under two different scenarios either considering local load or not. The available headroom of each converter station was considered as a converter outage, to participate in the power adjustment according to their ability. A four-terminal MTDC model system including two large scale wind farms was set up in PSCAD/EMTDC. Then, the proposed control strategy was verified through simulation under the various conditions, including wind speed variation, rectifier outage and inverter outage, and a three-phase short-circuit of the converter.

  6. Communication Architecture for Grid Integration of Cyber Physical Wind Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As we move toward increasing the grid integration of large-scale wind farms (WFs, reliable monitoring, protection, and control are needed to ensure grid stability. WFs are considered to be large and complex cyber physical systems owing to coupling between the electric power system and information and communication technologies (ICT. In this study, we proposed a framework for a cyber physical wind energy system (CPWES, which consists of four layers: a WF power system layer, data acquisition and monitoring layer, communication network layer, and application layer. We performed detailed network modeling for the WF system, including the wind turbines, meteorological mast (met-mast, and substation based on IEC 61400-25 and IEC 61850 standards. Network parameters and configuration were based on a real WF (Korean Southwest offshore project. The simulation results of the end-to-end delay were obtained for different WF applications, and they were compared with the timing requirements of the IEC 1646 standard. The proposed architecture represents a reference model for WF systems, and it can be used to enable the design of future CPWESs.

  7. Cost optimization of biofuel production – The impact of scale, integration, transport and supply chain configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S.A.; Hoefnagels, E.T.A.; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Pettersson, Karin; Faaij, André; Junginger, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    This study uses a geographically-explicit cost optimization model to analyze the impact of and interrelation between four cost reduction strategies for biofuel production: economies of scale, intermodal transport, integration with existing industries, and distributed supply chain configurations

  8. A Spatial-Economic Cost-Reduction Pathway Analysis for U.S. Offshore Wind Energy Development from 2015–2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kilcher, Levi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maness, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sirnivas, Senu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mooney, Meghan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report describes a comprehensive effort undertaken by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to understand the cost of offshore wind energy for markets in the United States. The study models the cost impacts of a range of offshore wind locational cost variables for more than 7,000 potential coastal sites in U.S. offshore wind resource areas. It also assesses the impact of more than 50 technology innovations on potential future costs for both fixed-bottom and floating wind systems. Comparing these costs to an initial site-specific assessment of local avoided generating costs, the analysis provides a framework for estimating the economic potential for offshore wind. The analysis is intended to inform a broad set of stakeholders and enable an assessment of offshore wind as part of energy development and energy portfolio planning. It provides information that federal and state agencies and planning commissions could use to inform initial strategic decisions about offshore wind developments in the United States.

  9. Developing a wind turbine planning platform : Integration of “sound propagation model–GIS-game engine” triplet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafiee, Azarakhsh; Van der Male, Pim; Dias, Eduardo; Scholten, Henk

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we propose an interactive information system for wind turbine siting, considering its visual and sound externalities. This system is an integration of game engine, GIS and analytical sound propagation model in a unified 3D web environment. The game engine–GIS integration provides a 3D

  10. Final Technical Report: The Incubation of Next-Generation Radar Technologies to Lower the Cost of Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Hirth, Brian [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Guynes, Jerry [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The National Wind Institute (NWI) at Texas Tech University (TTU) has had an impressive and well documented 46-year history of wind related research activities (http://www.depts.ttu.edu/nwi/). In 2011 with funding from the United States Department of Energy (DOE), an NWI team applied radar technologies and techniques to document the complex flows occurring across a wind plant. The resulting efforts yielded measurements that exceeded the capabilities of commercial lidar technologies with respect to maximum range, range resolution and scan speed. The NWI team was also the first to apply dual-Doppler synthesis and objective analysis techniques to resolve the full horizontal wind field (i.e. not just the line-of-sight wind speeds) to successfully define turbine inflow and wake flows across large segments of wind plants. While these successes advanced wind energy interests, the existing research radar platforms were designed to serve a diversity of meteorological applications, not specifically wind energy. Because of this broader focus and the design choices made during their development, the existing radars experienced technical limitations that inhibited their commercial viability and wide spread adoption. This DOE project enabled the development of a new radar prototype specifically designed for the purpose of documenting wind farm complex flows. Relative to other “off the shelf” radar technologies, the specialized transmitter and receiver chains were specifically designed to enhance data availability in non-precipitating atmospheres. The new radar prototype was integrated at TTU using components from various suppliers across the world, and installed at the Reese Technology Center in May 2016. Following installation, functionality and performance testing were completed, and subsequent comparative analysis indicated that the new prototype greatly enhances data availability by a factor of 3.5-50 in almost all atmospheric conditions. The new prototype also provided

  11. Teaching Integrated Scope-Cost Methods with Model-based Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Forest; Fischer, Martin; Wingate, Thomas; Seppänen, Olli; Tutti, Tomi; See, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline teaching integrated scope-cost methods in a course on fabrication and construction planning using model-based tools. Through project-based active discovery using project documents students create an integrated takeoff, schedule and cost estimate. The goal is to illustrate the processes and interrelation between professions required to effectively obtain the scope, schedule and cost of a proposed project. Students who are provided with a scope-time-cost ...

  12. Balancing Performance, Noise, Cost, and Aesthetics in the Southwest Windpower "Storm" Wind Turbine: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliore, P.; Green, J.; Calley, D.; Lonjaret, J.

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of an 1800-watt innovative small wind turbine and discusses the importance of idiosyncratic aerodynamic and aeroacoustic airfoil characteristics for clean airfoils at low Reynolds numbers.

  13. Ancillary services analysis of an offshore wind farm cluster-technical integration steps of a simulation tool

    OpenAIRE

    Hennig, Tobias; Löwer, Lothar; Faiella, Luis Mariano; Stock, Sebastian; Jansen, Malte; Hofmann, Lutz; Rohrig, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    In this publication, the authors present methodology and example results for the analysis of ancillary services of an offshore wind farm cluster and its electrical power system. Thereby the operation tool Wind Cluster Management System (WCMS) is used as simulation tool to evaluate certain planning scenarios. Emphasis is made on two topics: 1) the integration of high voltage direct current (HVDC) technology to the WCMS, 2) the ancillary service analysis. As examples, voltage source converter b...

  14. Forecastability as a Design Criterion in Wind Resource Assessment: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to include the wind power forecasting ability, or 'forecastability,' of a site as a design criterion in wind resource assessment and wind power plant design stages. The Unrestricted Wind Farm Layout Optimization (UWFLO) methodology is adopted to maximize the capacity factor of a wind power plant. The 1-hour-ahead persistence wind power forecasting method is used to characterize the forecastability of a potential wind power plant, thereby partially quantifying the integration cost. A trade-off between the maximum capacity factor and the forecastability is investigated.

  15. Costs and potential of the harnessing of wind power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, J.

    1995-01-01

    A report on the past use of wind power in Germany is followed by chapters on the operation of wind power plants in economic, ecological, and socioeconomic terms. Against this background, future possibilities for using wind power in Germany are discussed on the basis of an assessment of the potential and of the determinants of potential exploitation.- In order to allow better understanding of how the IKARUS project deals with wind power plants, the assumptions considered in the model calculations are described in chapter 8 under methodical aspects. Most important herein is the way that the modelling ties in wind power plants into the overall system of energy supply. In addition, it is explained how wind power systems are described in the database. The objective of the IKARUS project is primarily a comprehensive view of the energy system; from the angle of individual lines of technology, certain unsharpnesses need to be taken into account. Consequently, both certain limits to the use of the tools and the future need for updating are pointed out. (orig./UA) [de

  16. Latest results of the international discussion on the social costs of energy - how does wind compare today?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmeyer, O.H.

    1990-01-01

    A first analysis of the social costs of competing technologies for electric power generation published in 1988 has induced a rather controversial scientific discussion about the magnitude of and the possible ways to incorporate cost elements not included in energy prices into decisions on energy systems. Different research projects following up a number of controversial or unanswered questions in the field of social costs have been started in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), in Europe and overseas. A first ''counter-study'' has been published in the FRG in 1989. The paper summarizes the latest results of international scientific discussion and research and sketches possible future trends in this field and the practical and political implementation of its results. A first estimate of the consideration of global warming effects due to conventional electricity generation is included in addition to recalculated results on topics addressed by the author in 1988. It concludes that the figures calculated in 1988 have been underestimating the magnitude of the costs not included in the energy prices and that new calculations including further results on CO 2 lead to significantly higher figures. The difference of the costs not included in the price of conventional electricity and wind energy rises from 8.4 to 14 Pf/kWh on average with an estimated range of 4.7 to 25.4 Pf/kWh (1 DM = 100 pf = 0.5 ECU). Considering the full costs of electricity generation it can be concluded that wind energy is one of the most economical ways to produce electricity today. Political considerations on how to take social costs of electricity generation into account have reached some definite conclusions in some states of the USA. The paper gives a short sketch of these activities. (Author)

  17. Offshore wind power grid connection-The impact of shallow versus super-shallow charging on the cost-effectiveness of public support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissensteiner, Lukas; Haas, Reinhard; Auer, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Public support for electricity generation from renewable energy sources is commonly funded by non-voluntary transfers from electricity consumers to producers. Apparently, the cost-effective disposition of funds in terms of induced capacity deployment has to be regarded a key criterion for the success of renewable energy policy. Grid connection costs are a major cost component in the utilization of offshore wind energy for electricity generation. In this paper, the effect of different attribution mechanisms of these costs on overall cost-effectiveness from consumers' perspective is analyzed. The major result of this investigation is that an attribution of grid connection costs to grid operators - as against to generators - leads to a smaller producer surplus and, hence, to lower transfer costs for electricity consumers. Applying this approach to the deployment of UK Rounds II and III offshore wind farms could lead to annual savings of social transfers of Pounds 1.2b and an equal reduction of producer surplus. This amount would be sufficient to finance the deployment of additional 10% of the capacity under consideration. - Highlights: → Grid connection costs of marginal wind farm add to submarginal producer surplus. → Overall producer surplus to be paid for by electricity consumers (transfer costs). → Allocating grid connection costs to grid operators leads to transfer cost savings. → Savings for UK Rounds II and III offshore wind farm projects may reach Pounds 1.2b per year. → These savings could finance additional 10% capacity (+3.3 GW).

  18. Methodology to optimize the cost of deployment of a wind-solar hybrid system; Metodologia para otimizar o custo da implantacao de um sistema hibrido eolico-solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Jose Wilson Lage [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Norte (UERN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: wilson@ufrnet.br; Rocha, Brismark Goes da [Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte (UERN), Patu, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica], e-mail: brismarkrocha@uern.br

    2008-07-01

    Purposes the application of a methodology to optimize the implantation cost of an wind-solar hybrid system, to potencies between 2.250 W and 3.750 W. The developed mathematical model was obtained through the Multiple Linear Regression technique, on the basis of the previous knowledge of variables: necessary capacity of storage, total daily energy demand, wind power, module power and module number. These variables are gotten by means of sizing. Parametric statistical: T-student tests had been used to detect the significant difference in the average of total cost to being considered the diameter of the wind. Parametric statistical T-student tests had been used to detect the significant difference in the average of total cost to being considered the diameter of the wind, F-Snedecor in the variance analysis to test if the coefficients of the considered model are significantly different of zero and test not-parametric statistical by Friedman, to verify if there is difference in the total cost, by being considered the photovoltaic module powers. In decision of hypothesis tests was considered a 5%-significant level. The configurations module powers showed significant differences in total cost of investment by considering an electrical motor of 3 HP. The configurations module powers showed significant differences in total cost of investment by considering an electrical motor of 5 HP only to wind speed of 4 m/s and 6 m/s in wind of 3 m, 4 m and 5 m of diameter. There was not significant difference in costs to diameters of winds of 3 m and 4 m. A computational program was developed to assist the study of several configurations that optimizes the implantation cost of an wind-solar through considered mathematical model. (author)

  19. Direct power control of DFIG wind turbine systems based on an intelligent proportional-integral sliding mode control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanzhi; Wang, Haoping; Tian, Yang; Aitouch, Abdel; Klein, John

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an intelligent proportional-integral sliding mode control (iPISMC) for direct power control of variable speed-constant frequency wind turbine system. This approach deals with optimal power production (in the maximum power point tracking sense) under several disturbance factors such as turbulent wind. This controller is made of two sub-components: (i) an intelligent proportional-integral module for online disturbance compensation and (ii) a sliding mode module for circumventing disturbance estimation errors. This iPISMC method has been tested on FAST/Simulink platform of a 5MW wind turbine system. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed iPISMC method outperforms the classical PI and intelligent proportional-integral control (iPI) in terms of both active power and response time. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. To end with the untruth on the wind energy cost; Pour en finir avec les contre-verites sur le cout de l'energie eolienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Biez, V

    2008-07-01

    In a study published by the Montaigne institute, in July 2008, Vincent Le Biez aimed to criticize the development of the wind energy and more especially its cost. Experts of the SER (Syndicat of the Renewable Energies) and the FEE (France Wind Energy ) answer, in this report, to the criticisms of V. Le Biez. Their analysis shows that the wind energy already constitutes a protection against the increase of the electrical market prices and will offer a real benefit for the collectivity in 2020. The increase of the wind energy in the world shows the trumps of this electricity production form. (A.L.B.)

  1. A new self-scheduling strategy for integrated operation of wind and pumped-storage power plants in power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varkani, Ali Karimi; Daraeepour, Ali; Monsef, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A strategy for integrated operation of wind and pumped-storage plants is proposed. → Participation of both plants in energy and ancillary service markets is modeled. → The uncertainty of wind production is modeled by a novel probabilistic function. → The proposed strategy is tested on a real case in the Spanish electricity market. -- Abstract: Competitive structure of power markets causes various challenges for wind resources to participate in these markets. Indeed, production uncertainty is the main cause of their low income. Thus, they are usually supported by system operators, which is in contrast with the competitive paradigm of power markets. In this paper, a new strategy for increasing the profits of wind resources is proposed. In the suggested strategy, a Generation Company (GenCo), who owns both wind and pumped-storage plants, self-schedules the integrated operation of them regarding the uncertainty of wind power generation. For presenting an integrated self-schedule and obtaining a real added value of the strategy, participation of the GenCo in energy and ancillary service markets is modeled. The self-scheduling strategy is based on stochastic programming techniques. Outputs of the problem include generation offers in day-ahead energy market and ancillary service markets, including spinning and regulation reserve markets. A Neural Network (NN) based technique is used for modeling the uncertainty of wind power production. The proposed strategy is tested on a real wind farm in mainland, Spain. Moreover, added value of the strategy is presented in different conditions of the market.

  2. Cost-effectiveness optimization of a solar hot water heater with integrated storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Syahri, M.; Shahrir, A.; Mohd Yusof Othman; Baharuddin Yatim

    2006-01-01

    Solar processes are generally characterized by high first cost and low operating costs. Therefore, the basic economic problem is one of comparing an initial known investment with estimated future operating cost. This paper present the cost-benefit ratio of solar collector with integrated storage system. Evaluation of the annual cost (AC) and the annual energy gain (AEG) of the collector are performed and the ratio of AC/AEG or the cost benefit ratio is presented for difference combination of mass flow rate, solar collector length and channel depth. Using these cost-effectiveness curves, the user can select optimum design features, which correspond to minimum AC/AEG

  3. Cost estimating issues in the Russian integrated system planning context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allentuck, J.

    1996-01-01

    An important factor in the credibility of an optimal capacity expansion plan is the accuracy of cost estimates given the uncertainty of future economic conditions. This paper examines the problems associated with estimating investment and operating costs in the Russian nuclear power context over the period 1994 to 2010

  4. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data observed at weather station belongs to the Australian bureau of meteorology in Armidale town over a fourteen years period from 1997–2010. Simulation of solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were conducted to obtain the optimal hybrid system sizing and best efficient with lowest cost. Correlations between the solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis. It is shown that the hybrid system can be applied for the efficient and economic utilization of wind and solar renewable energy sources.

  5. A field application experience of integrating hydrogen technology with wind power in a remote island location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazey, R.; Salman, S. K.; Aklil-D'Halluin, D. D.

    This paper aims to share the field application experience related to the development of an innovative stand-alone sustainable energy system known as the PURE project. The PURE project has been developed alongside a Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) scheme, which is supported by the UK Department of Trade and Industry and executed by siGEN in collaboration with The Robert Gordon University. The system has been constructed within an industrial estate on the island of Unst in Shetland, 200 miles north of the Scottish mainland. The energy system now supplies five business properties with clean reliable power and utilises wind turbine and hydrogen technology to provide a sustainable energy source. The stored hydrogen gas generated by the system is used as an energy source for periods when electrical demand within the business properties exceeds wind turbine production. The hydrogen is also utilised as a fuel source for transportation and as a transportable energy source for mobile power generation. The paper therefore gives a detailed description of the PURE project and discusses the field experience accumulated during the development and installation of the system. It also shares a number of practical issues that had to be overcome during its integration and operation. The installation of the PURE project has resulted in a number of unexpected conclusions being identified and marks a significant step forward in the accessible deployment of this technology for community use.

  6. An Integrated Framework of Drivetrain Degradation Assessment and Fault Localization for Offshore Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As wind energy proliferates in onshore and offshore applications, it has become significantly important to predict wind turbine downtime and maintain operation uptime to ensure maximal yield. Two types of data systems have been widely adopted for monitoring turbine health condition: supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA and condition monitoring system (CMS. Provided that research and development have focused on advancing analytical techniques based on these systems independently, an intelligent model that associates information from both systems is necessary and beneficial. In this paper, a systematic framework is designed to integrate CMS and SCADA data and assess drivetrain degradation over its lifecycle. Information reference and advanced feature extraction techniques are employed to procure heterogeneous health indicators. A pattern recognition algorithm is used to model baseline behavior and measure deviation of current behavior, where a Self-organizing Map (SOM and minimum quantization error (MQE method is selected to achieve degradation assessment. Eventually, the computation and ranking of component contribution to the detected degradation offers component-level fault localization. When validated and automated by various applications, the approach is able to incorporate diverse data resources and output actionable information to advise predictive maintenance with precise fault information. The approach is validated on a 3 MW offshore turbine, where an incipient fault is detected well before existing system shuts down the unit. A radar chart is used to illustrate the fault localization result.

  7. Droop Control Design of Multi-VSC Systems for Offshore Networks to Integrate Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Raza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research envisages the droop control design of multi voltage source converter systems for offshore networks to integrate wind power plant with the grids. An offshore AC network is formulated by connecting several nearby wind power plants together with AC cables. The net energy in the network is transferred to onshore using voltage source high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC transmissionsystems. In the proposed configuration, an offshore network is energized by more than one VSC-HVDC system, hereby providing redundancy to continue operation in case of failure in one of the HVDC transmission lines. The power distribution between VSC-HVDC systems is done using a droop control scheme. Frequency droop is implemented to share active power, and voltage droop is implemented to share reactive power. Furthermore, a method of calculating droop gains according to the contribution factor of each converter is presented. The system has been analyzed to evaluate the voltage profile of the network affected by the droop control. Nonlinear dynamic simulation has been performed for the verification of the control principle.

  8. Evaluation of a proposal for reliable low-cost grid power with 100% wind, water, and solar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Christopher T M; Qvist, Staffan A; Apt, Jay; Bazilian, Morgan; Brandt, Adam R; Caldeira, Ken; Davis, Steven J; Diakov, Victor; Handschy, Mark A; Hines, Paul D H; Jaramillo, Paulina; Kammen, Daniel M; Long, Jane C S; Morgan, M Granger; Reed, Adam; Sivaram, Varun; Sweeney, James; Tynan, George R; Victor, David G; Weyant, John P; Whitacre, Jay F

    2017-06-27

    A number of analyses, meta-analyses, and assessments, including those performed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the International Energy Agency, have concluded that deployment of a diverse portfolio of clean energy technologies makes a transition to a low-carbon-emission energy system both more feasible and less costly than other pathways. In contrast, Jacobson et al. [Jacobson MZ, Delucchi MA, Cameron MA, Frew BA (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(49):15060-15065] argue that it is feasible to provide "low-cost solutions to the grid reliability problem with 100% penetration of WWS [wind, water and solar power] across all energy sectors in the continental United States between 2050 and 2055", with only electricity and hydrogen as energy carriers. In this paper, we evaluate that study and find significant shortcomings in the analysis. In particular, we point out that this work used invalid modeling tools, contained modeling errors, and made implausible and inadequately supported assumptions. Policy makers should treat with caution any visions of a rapid, reliable, and low-cost transition to entire energy systems that relies almost exclusively on wind, solar, and hydroelectric power.

  9. Integration of Hybrid PV/Wind Generation System Using Fuzzy MPPT in Grid Connected System for Remote Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soedibyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic and wind are renewable energy resources that widely used and grow rapidly in fulfilling electricity demand. Powers from both technologies depend on sunlight intensity and wind speed. For small scale power generation, DC voltage from both technologies is low and requires step-up converter to raise DC voltage ratio before converted into AC voltage. To optimize this system, step-up converter must have high ratio and efficiency to a distance of wide voltage input. This paper proposed an operation simulation and arrangement of DC-DC converter along with DC-AC from hybrid source PV-Wind which integrated to grid utilities without using storage device. High Gain Integrated Cascade Boost (HGICB is DC-DC converter that has quadratic voltage ratio and used in this research. Then DC link connected to Voltage Source Inverter (VSI which interconnected with utility grid and controlled by current control method. The total installed capacity of hybrid source is 4.4 kW. Wind turbine uses PMSG along with full bridge rectifier. To maximize and stabilize the generated power, MPPT fuzzy is used. Result from the simulation shows that converter capable to maintain maximum power whether from PV and wind turbine which canalized to utility grid in various irradiation condition, wind speed, and grid load alteration.

  10. Characterization of the Turbulent Magnetic Integral Length in the Solar Wind: From 0.3 to 5 Astronomical Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M. E.; Dasso, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Weygand, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    The solar wind is a structured and complex system, in which the fields vary strongly over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. As an example, the turbulent activity in the wind affects the evolution in the heliosphere of the integral turbulent scale or correlation length [ λ], usually associated with the breakpoint in the turbulent-energy spectrum that separates the inertial range from the injection range. This large variability of the fields demands a statistical description of the solar wind. We study the probability distribution function (PDF) of the magnetic-autocorrelation lengths observed in the solar wind at different distances from the Sun. We used observations from the Helios, ACE, and Ulysses spacecraft. We distinguished between the usual solar wind and one of its transient components (interplanetary coronal mass ejections, ICMEs), and also studied solar-wind samples with low and high proton beta [βp]. We find that in the last three regimes the PDF of λ is a log-normal function, consistent with the multiplicative and nonlinear processes that take place in the solar wind, the initial λ (before the Alfvénic point) being larger in ICMEs.

  11. Computation of dynamic operating balancing reserve for wind power integration for the time-horizon 1-48 hours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menemenlis, N.; Huneault, M. [IREQ, Varennes, QC (Canada); Robitaille, A. [Hydro-Quebec Production, Dir. Planification de la production eolienne, Direction Generale, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Integrating wind power into the operations-planning horizon of 1 to 48 hours ahead, a challenge facing utilities is how to cope with wind forecast uncertainties, in addition to existing inherent uncertainties of load forecast errors and unavailability of generation. Utilities counter forecast uncertainties by maintaining operational reserves to ensure a high level of reliability to the system. With the advent of wind generation, additional reserves are required to cover the incremental uncertainties. In this paper, we fine tune a methodology for calculating additional balancing reserves which had reproduced accurately only an average scenario. Here, several wind forecast errors distributions are introduced corresponding to different wind forecast levels. These distributions are approximated by gamma-like distributions with time-varying parameters. The results show that modeling uncertainties as a function of wind generation levels impacts significantly the balancing reserves and associated risk, and justifies the necessity to veer towards a dynamic computation of dynamic balancing reserves that consider the imminent wind generation forecast. (orig.)

  12. Energy Storage System Sizing Based on a Reliability Assessment of Power Systems Integrated with Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Shi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The available capacity is a major factor that influences the reliability contribution of energy storage in power systems integrated with wind power. This paper presents the capacity value of the energy storage metrics to quantitatively estimate the contribution of energy storage to the generation adequacy. A method in accordance with EFC approach has been introduced to model the capacity value of energy storage. The adequacy-oriented model of the energy storage available capacity is proposed for the energy storage system, regarding the roles of the key parameters for the CVES analysis. The case study results indicate that the capacity value of energy storage quantitatively weigh the contribution of the energy storage to system reliability. The sensitivity analysis of the impact factors for the CVES is conducted.

  13. Annual Report on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performance Trends: 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2007-05-01

    This report--the first in what is envisioned to be an ongoing annual series--attempts to fill this need by providing a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2006.

  14. Flight costs and fuel composition of a bird migrating in a wind-tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Kvist, A.; Lindström, A.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the energy and protein balance of a Thrush Nightingale Luscinia luscinia, a small long-distance migrant, during repeated 12-hr long Eights in a wind tunnel and during subsequent two-day fueling periods. From the energy budgets we estimated the power requirements for migratory flight in

  15. Quantifying the system-wide financial costs and benefits of wind in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, T

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s power system is currently under severe constraints, and at the same time, the Department of Energy is procuring new generation capacity and has already allocated a total of 8.1 GW of renewables (mainly wind & PV) for procurement from...

  16. Quantifying system-wide financial costs and benefits of renewables (Wind and PV) in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, T

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available .3 billion in total (or R2.42 per kWh of renewable energy), while the tariff payments to independent power producers of the first wind and photovoltaic (PV) projects were only R4.5 billion (or R2.07 per kWh of renewable energy), leaving a net benefit of R0...

  17. Security and Stability Analysis of Wind Farms Integration into Distribution Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan-yang, Li; Hongzhao, Wang; Guanglei, Li; Yamei, Cheng; Hong-zheng, Liu; Yi, Sun

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing share of the wind power in the power system, wind power fluctuations will cause obvious negative impacts on weak local grid. This paper firstly establish electromechanical transient simulation model for doubly fed induction wind turbine, then use Matlab/Simulink to achieve power flow calculation and transient simulation of power system including wind farms, the local synchronous generator, load, etc, finally analyze wind power on the impact of the local power grid under typical circumstances. The actual calculated results indicate that wind mutation causes little effect on the power grid, but when the three-phase short circuit fault happens, active power of wind power decreases sharply and the voltage of location of wind power into the grid also drop sharply, finally wind farm split from power system. This situation is not conducive to security and stability of the local power grid. It is necessary to develop security and stability measures in the future.

  18. Is integrated nursing home care cheaper than traditional care? A cost comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Aggie T G; van Raak, Arno J A; Maarse, Hans J A M

    2008-12-01

    It is generally assumed that integrated care has a cost-saving potential in comparison with traditional care. However, there is little evidence on this potential with respect to integrated nursing home care. DESIGN/METHODS/SETTINGS/PARTICIPANTS: Between 1999 and 2003, formal and informal caregivers of different nursing homes in the Netherlands recorded activities performed for residents with somatic or psycho-social problems. In total, 23,380 lists were analysed to determine the average costs of formal and informal care per activity, per type of resident and per nursing home care type. For formal care activities, the total personnel costs per minute (in Euro) were calculated. For informal care costs, two shadow prices were used. Compared to traditional care, integrated care had lower informal direct care costs per resident and per activity and lower average costs per direct activity (for a set of activities performed by formal caregivers). The total average costs per resident per day and the costs of formal direct care per resident, however, were higher as were the costs of delivering a set of indirect activities to residents with somatic problems. The general assumption that integrated care has a cost-saving potential (per resident or per individual activity) was only partially supported by our research. Our study also raised issues which should be investigated in future research on integrated nursing home care.

  19. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a way to maximize the integration of variable renewable energy in power systems: The case of wind generation in northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares MC Borba, Bruno; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have proposed different tools for analyzing the integration of variable renewable energy into power grids. This study applies an optimization tool to model the expansion of the electric power system in northeastern Brazil, enabling the most efficient dispatch of the variable output of the wind farms that will be built in the region over the next 20 years. The expected combined expansion of wind generation with conventional inflexible generation facilities, such as nuclear plants and run-of-the-river hydropower plants, poses risks of future mismatch between supply and demand in northeastern Brazil. Therefore, this article evaluates the possibility of using a fleet of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to regularize possible energy imbalances. Findings indicate that a dedicated fleet of 500 thousand PHEVs in 2015, and a further 1.5 million in 2030, could be recharged overnight to take advantage of the surplus power generated by wind farms. To avoid the initial costs of smart grids, this article suggests, as a first step, the use of a governmental PHEV fleet that allows fleet managers to control battery charging times. Finally, the study demonstrates the advantages of optimizing simultaneously the power and transport sectors to test the strategy suggested here. -- Highlights: ► We evaluated the use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) to regularize possible energy imbalances in northeastern Brazil. ► This imbalance might result from the large-scale wind power penetration along with conventional inflexible power plants in the region. ► We adapted the MESSAGE optimization tool to the base conditions of the Brazilian power system. ► 500 thousand PHEVs in 2015 and 1.5 million in 2030 could be recharged taking advantage of wind energy surplus.

  20. An integrated framework for transmission cost allocation retaining efficiency concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.W. Marangon [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Gorenstin, B.G.; Vieira Filho, X. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chipp, H.J.; Alvarenga Filho, S. [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hirota, M. [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil); Pereira, M.V.F. [Power System Research, Inc., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a methodology for allocating transmission costs among utilities and wheeling agents. The proposed approach is based on the extension of marginal cost theory to take into account discrete component sizes and economy of scale, while retaining desirable economic properties such as revenue reconciliation and incentives for all participants to remain in the pool. The methodology is illustrated in case studies with the Brazilian system. (author) 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.