WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind flow field

  1. Apparatus and method for using radar to evaluate wind flow fields for wind energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, John; Hirth, Brian; Guynes, Jerry

    2017-02-21

    The present invention provides an apparatus and method for obtaining data to determine one or more characteristics of a wind flow field using one or more radars. Data is collected from the one or more radars, and analyzed to determine the one or more characteristics of the wind flow field. The one or more radars are positioned to have a portion of the wind flow field within a scanning sector of the one or more radars.

  2. Examination of forced unsteady separated flow fields on a rotating wind turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huyer, S [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (US)

    1993-04-01

    The wind turbine industry faces many problems regarding the construction of efficient and predictable wind turbine machines. Steady state, two-dimensional wind tunnel data are generally used to predict aerodynamic loads on wind turbine blades. Preliminary experimental evidence indicates that some of the underlying fluid dynamic phenomena could be attributed to dynamic stall, or more specifically to generation of forced unsteady separated flow fields. A collaborative research effort between the University of Colorado and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory was conducted to systematically categorize the local and global effects of three- dimensional forced unsteady flow fields.

  3. Characterization of the wind loads and flow fields around a gable-roof building model in tornado-like winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hui; Yang, Zifeng; Sarkar, Partha [Iowa State University, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ames, IA (United States); Haan, Fred [Iowa State University, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ames, IA (United States); Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2011-09-15

    An experimental study was conducted to quantify the characteristics of a tornado-like vortex and to reveal the dynamics of the flow-structure interactions between a low-rise, gable-roof building model and swirling, turbulent tornado-like winds. The experimental work was conducted by using a large-scale tornado simulator located in the Aerospace Engineering Department of Iowa State University. In addition to measuring the pressure distributions and resultant wind loads acting on the building model, a digital Particle Image Velocimetry system was used to conduct detailed flow field measurements to quantify the evolution of the unsteady vortices and turbulent flow structures around the gable-roof building model in tornado-like winds. The effects of important parameters, such as the distance between the centers of the tornado-like vortex and the test model and the orientation angles of the building model related to the tornado-like vortex, on the evolutions of the wake vortices and turbulent flow structures around the gable-roof building model as well as the wind loads induced by the tornado-like vortex were assessed quantitatively. The detailed flow field measurements were correlated with the surface pressure and wind load measurements to elucidate the underlying physics to gain further insight into flow-structure interactions between the gable-roof building model and tornado-like winds in order to provide more accurate prediction of wind damage potential to built structures. (orig.)

  4. Numerical simulations of flow fields through conventionally controlled wind turbines and wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Ali Emre; Meyers, Johan

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, an Actuator-Line Model (ALM) is implemented in our in-house pseudo-spectral LES solver SP-WIND, including a turbine controller. Below rated wind speed, turbines are controlled by a standard-torque-controller aiming at maximum power extraction from the wind. Above rated wind speed, the extracted power is limited by a blade pitch controller which is based on a proportional-integral type control algorithm. This model is used to perform a series of single turbine and wind farm simulations using the NREL 5MW turbine. First of all, we focus on below-rated wind speed, and investigate the effect of the farm layout on the controller calibration curves. These calibration curves are expressed in terms of nondimensional torque and rotational speed, using the mean turbine-disk velocity as reference. We show that this normalization leads to calibration curves that are independent of wind speed, but the calibration curves do depend on the farm layout, in particular for tightly spaced farms. Compared to turbines in a lone-standing set-up, turbines in a farm experience a different wind distribution over the rotor due to the farm boundary-layer interaction. We demonstrate this for fully developed wind-farm boundary layers with aligned turbine arrangements at different spacings (5D, 7D, 9D). Further we also compare calibration curves obtained from full farm simulations with calibration curves that can be obtained at a much lower cost using a minimal flow unit

  5. Winds of Massive Magnetic Stars: Interacting Fields and Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley-Yates, S.; Stevens, I. R.

    2018-01-01

    We present results of 3D numerical simulations of magnetically confined, radiatively driven stellar winds of massive stars, conducted using the astrophysical MHD code Pluto, with a focus on understanding the rotational variability of radio and sub-mm emission. Radiative driving is implemented according to the Castor, Abbott and Klein theory of radiatively driven winds. Many magnetic massive stars posses a magnetic axis which is inclined with respect to the rotational axis. This misalignment leads to a complex wind structure as magnetic confinement, centrifugal acceleration and radiative driving act to channel the circumstellar plasma into a warped disk whose observable properties should be apparent in multiple wavelengths. This structure is analysed to calculate free-free thermal radio emission and determine the characteristic intensity maps and radio light curves.

  6. Numerical Analysis of Flow Field in Generator End-Winding Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooling in an end-winding region of a high-powered, large-sized generator still remains a challenge today because of a number of factors: a larger number of parts/components with irregular geometries, complexity in cooling flow paths, flow splitting and mixing, and interactions between rotor-induced rotating flows and nonrotating flows from stationary sections. One of the key challenges is to model cooling flows passing through armature bars, which are made up of bundles of strands of insulated copper wires and are bent oppositely to cross each other. This work succeeded in modeling a complex generator end-winding region with great efforts to simplify the model by treating the armature bar region as a porous medium. The flow and pressure fields at the end-winding region were investigated numerically using an axial symmetric computational fluid dynamics (CFD model. Based on the analysis, the cooling flow rate at each flow branch (rotor-stator gap, rotor subslot, outside space block, and small ventilation holes to the heat exchanger was determined, and the high-pressure gradient zones were identified. The CFD results have been successfully used to optimize the flow path configuration for improving the generator operation performance, and the control of the cooling flow, as well as minimizing windage losses and flow-introduced noises.

  7. Flow field and load characteristics of the whole MEXICO wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Haoran; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chao

    2017-01-01

    CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) method was used to perform steady numerical simulation investigation on the flow field and load characteristics of MEXICO(Model EXperiment In Controlled cOnditions) wind turbine under non-yawed condition. Circumferentially-Averaged method was used to extract...... characteristics around the blade was analyzed and the points of flow separation were found along the blade, the results show that the points of flow separation move towards trailing edge with the increase of radius. The distribution of vorticity in the wake of MEXICO rotor was also analyzed. The distribution...

  8. On the flow, thermal field and winds along the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    drift will be in phase with the density field or in geostrophic balance. The instrusion of the Bay of 438 M.K. ANTONY and S. S. C. SHENOI Bengal water (less dense than the Arabian Sea water) into the Arabian Sea along the shelf/slope region (SARMA et... flows during May and November are in geostrophic balance or not. For this purpose we used the thermal wind equation Or_-g Op (1) Oz f Ox and substituted the observed values for the average shear (Ov/Oz) and cross-shore density gradient (Op...

  9. Experimental study of the flow field behind a large wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asimakopoulos, D.N.; Helmis, C.G; Kambezidis, H.; Hoegstroem, U.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes the recent joint experimental work of Uppsala and University of Athens in Sweden. Major target of this work was the study of the flow field behind a large, 2 MW, WECS at Naesudden in Gotland island. For this purpose the near-by 145m meteorgological mast which was specially equipped with turbulence instruments together with two tethered balloon systems and a specially designed high resolution acoustic sounder in a novel configuration were used. Measurements were taken under different meteorological conditions during summer 1984. Preliminary results will be presented which will include profiles of major meteorological paramenters and their associated statistics from the mast during occasions with the turbulent flow from their turbine passing through, as well as tethered balloon ascends in and out of the wake. Along-side the meterological instrumentation a triple acoustic sounder system in a split 'umbrella' configuration was giving turbulence and wind information at different distances from the WECS and in some occasions covering part of the expected wake and part of the free of turbulence region.

  10. Granger causality estimate of information flow in temperature fields is consistent with wind direction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Hartman, David; Paluš, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2014), EGU2014-12768 ISSN 1607-7962. [EGU General Assembly /11./. 27.04.2014-02.05.2014, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Granger causality * climate * information flow * surface air temperature * wind Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  11. Magnetosheath for almost-aligned solar wind magnetic field and flow vectors: Wind observations across the dawnside magnetosheath at X = -12 Re

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Erkaev, N. V.; Torbert, R. B.; Biernat, H. K.; Gratton, F. T.; Szabo, A.; Kucharek, H.; Matsui, H.; Lin, R. P.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Smith, C. W.

    2010-08-01

    While there are many approximations describing the flow of the solar wind past the magnetosphere in the magnetosheath, the case of perfectly aligned (parallel or anti-parallel) interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind flow vectors can be treated exactly in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approach. In this work we examine a case of nearly-opposed (to within 15°) interplanetary field and flow vectors, which occurred on October 24-25, 2001 during passage of the last interplanetary coronal mass ejection in an ejecta merger. Interplanetary data are from the ACE spacecraft. Simultaneously Wind was crossing the near-Earth (X ˜ -13 Re) geomagnetic tail and subsequently made an approximately 5-hour-long magnetosheath crossing close to the ecliptic plane (Z = -0.7 Re). Geomagnetic activity was returning steadily to quiet, “ground” conditions. We first compare the predictions of the Spreiter and Rizzi theory with the Wind magnetosheath observations and find fair agreement, in particular as regards the proportionality of the magnetic field strength and the product of the plasma density and bulk speed. We then carry out a small-perturbation analysis of the Spreiter and Rizzi solution to account for the small IMF components perpendicular to the flow vector. The resulting expression is compared to the time series of the observations and satisfactory agreement is obtained. We also present and discuss observations in the dawnside boundary layer of pulsed, high-speed (v ˜ 600 km/s) flows exceeding the solar wind flow speeds. We examine various generating mechanisms and suggest that the most likely cause is a wave of frequency 3.2 mHz excited at the inner edge of the boundary layer by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

  12. Numerical study on the impact of ground heating and ambient wind speed on flow fields in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Li-Jie; Jiang, Yin

    2012-11-01

    The impact of ground heating on flow fields in street canyons under different ambient wind speed conditions was studied based on numerical methods. A series of numerical tests were performed, and three factors including height-to-width (H/W) ratio, ambient wind speed and ground heating intensity were taken into account. Three types of street canyon with H/W ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0, respectively, were used in the simulation and seven speed values ranging from 0.0 to 3.0 m s-1 were set for the ambient wind speed. The ground heating intensity, which was defined as the difference between the ground temperature and air temperature, ranged from 10 to 40 K with an increase of 10 K in the tests. The results showed that under calm conditions, ground heating could induce circulation with a wind speed of around 1.0 m s-1, which is enough to disperse pollutants in a street canyon. It was also found that an ambient wind speed threshold may exist for street canyons with a fixed H/W ratio. When ambient wind speed was lower than the threshold identified in this study, the impact of the thermal effect on the flow field was obvious, and there existed a multi-vortex flow pattern in the street canyon. When the ambient wind speed was higher than the threshold, the circulation pattern was basically determined by dynamic effects. The tests on the impact of heating intensity showed that a higher ground heating intensity could strengthen the vortical flow within the street canyon, which would help improve pollutant diffusion capability in street canyons.

  13. Modeling dynamic stall on wind turbine blades under rotationally augmented flow fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.; Schreck, Scott

    2016-01-01

    a reduced order dynamic stall model that uses rotationally augmented steady-state polars obtained from steady Phase VI experimental sequences, instead of the traditional two-dimensional, non-rotating data. The aim of this work is twofold. First, the blade loads estimated by the DDES simulations are compared...... Experiment Phase VI experimental data, including constant as well as continuously pitching blade conditions during axial operation; (2) data from unsteady delayed detached eddy simulations (DDES) carried out using the Technical University of Denmark’s in-house flow solver Ellipsys3D; and (3) data from...... with those from the dynamic stall model. This allowed the differences between the stall phenomenon on the inboard parts of harmonically pitching blades on a rotating wind turbine and the classic dynamic stall representation in two-dimensional flow to be investigated. Results indicated a good qualitative...

  14. Modeling dynamic stall on wind turbine blades under rotationally augmented flow fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guntur, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schreck, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sorensen, N. N. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Bergami, L. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-04-22

    It is well known that airfoils under unsteady flow conditions with a periodically varying angle of attack exhibit aerodynamic characteristics different from those under steady flow conditions, a phenomenon commonly known as dynamic stall. It is also well known that the steady aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils in the inboard region of a rotating blade differ from those under steady two-dimensional (2D) flow conditions, a phenomenon commonly known as rotational augmentation. This paper presents an investigation of these two phenomena together in the inboard parts of wind turbine blades. This analysis is carried out using data from three sources: (1) the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phase VI experimental data, including constant as well as continuously pitching blade conditions during axial operation, (2) data from unsteady Delayed Detached Eddy Simulations (DDES) carried out using the Technical University of Denmark’s in-house flow solver Ellipsys3D, and (3) data from a simplified model based on the blade element momentum method with a dynamic stall subroutine that uses rotationally augmented steady-state polars obtained from steady Phase VI experimental sequences, instead of the traditional 2D nonrotating data. The aim of this work is twofold. First, the blade loads estimated by the DDES simulations are compared to three select cases of the N sequence experimental data, which serves as a validation of the DDES method. Results show reasonable agreement between the two data in two out of three cases studied. Second, the dynamic time series of the lift and the moment polars obtained from the experiments are compared to those from the dynamic stall subroutine that uses the rotationally augmented steady polars. This allowed the differences between the stall phenomenon on the inboard parts of harmonically pitching blades on a rotating wind turbine and the classic dynamic stall representation in 2D flow to be

  15. The role of wind field induced flow velocities in destratification and hypoxia reduction at Meiling Bay of large shallow Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Abdul; Li, Yiping; Du, Wei; Wang, Wencai; Wang, Jianwei; Gao, Xiaomeng; Khan, Hafiz Osama Sarwar; Pan, Baozhu; Acharya, Kumud

    2018-01-01

    Wind induced flow velocity patterns and associated thermal destratification can drive to hypoxia reduction in large shallow lakes. The effects of wind induced hydrodynamic changes on destratification and hypoxia reduction were investigated at the Meiling bay (N 31° 22' 56.4″, E 120° 9' 38.3″) of Lake Taihu, China. Vertical flow velocity profile analysis showed surface flow velocities consistency with the wind field and lower flow velocity profiles were also consistent (but with delay response time) when the wind speed was higher than 6.2 m/s. Wind field and temperature found the control parameters for hypoxia reduction and for water quality conditions at the surface and bottom profiles of lake. The critical temperature for hypoxia reduction at the surface and the bottom profile was ≤24.1C° (below which hypoxic conditions were found reduced). Strong prevailing wind field (onshore wind directions ESE, SE, SSE and E, wind speed ranges of 2.4-9.1 m/s) reduced the temperature (22C° to 24.1C°) caused reduction of hypoxia at the near surface with a rise in water levels whereas, low to medium prevailing wind field did not supported destratification which increased temperature resulting in increased hypoxia. Non-prevailing wind directions (offshore) were not found supportive for the reduction of hypoxia in study area due to less variable wind field. Daytime wind field found more variable (as compared to night time) which increased the thermal destratification during daytime and found supportive for destratification and hypoxia reduction. The second order exponential correlation found between surface temperature and Chlorophyll-a (R 2 : 0.2858, Adjusted R-square: 0.2144 RMSE: 4.395), Dissolved Oxygen (R 2 : 0.596, Adjusted R-square: 0.5942, RMSE: 0.3042) concentrations. The findings of the present study reveal the driving mechanism of wind induced thermal destratification and hypoxic conditions, which may further help to evaluate the wind role in eutrophication

  16. Two-Dimensional Rotorcraft Downwash Flow Field Measurements by Lidar-Based Wind Scanners with Agile Beam Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas; Hansen, Per

    2014-01-01

    and rescue helicopter are presented. Since the line-of-sight directions of the two synchronized WindScanners were scanned within the plane of interest, the influence of the wind component perpendicular to the plane was avoided. The results also demonstrate the possibilities within less demanding flows...

  17. On the flow of an electrically conducting gas past a slender body of revolution placed in a circular wind tunnel in the presence of a crossed magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Shigeaki; Kusukawa, Ken-ichi.

    1976-01-01

    The wind tunnel interference problem in magnetohydrodynamics, in which an inviscid compressible fluid with small electrical conductivity flows steadily past a slender axi-symmetric pointed body of revolution placed in a cylindrical perfectly insulated wind tunnel, in the presence of a crossed magnetic field, is considered. Using the analytical method which was studied by one of the present authors, the streamlines and the space charge in a cross section are calculated. (auth.)

  18. Miniaturized compact water-cooled pitot-pressure probe for flow-field surveys in hypersonic wind tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, George C.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the design of pitot probes for flowfield surveys in hypersonic wind tunnels is reported. The results show that a pitot-pressure probe can be miniaturized for minimum interference effects by locating the transducer in the probe support body and water-cooling it so that the pressure-settling time and transducer temperature are compatible with hypersonic tunnel operation and flow conditions. Flowfield surveys around a two-to-one elliptical cone model in a 20-inch Mach 6 wind tunnel using such a probe show that probe interference effects are essentially eliminated.

  19. CFD analysis of flow fields for shrouded wind turbine’s diffuser model with different flange angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly M. El-Zahaby

    2017-03-01

    Present model verification indicates a good agreement between present numerical work and previous published experimental work. The numerical simulation shows the created vortices behind flange that cause pressure drop which increases mass flow rate through the diffuser. The results indicate also that the right flange angle at 15° is the optimum angle that accelerates flow at diffuser entrance. The increase of velocity at this optimum flange angles is higher than the case of normal angle, where the expected increase in the generated power by wind turbine can reach 5% more compared with normal flange.

  20. A field study of flow turbulence and sediment transport dynamics on a beach surface in the lee of a coastal foredune under offshore winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, A. C.; Jackson, D.; Cooper, J. A.; Lynch, K.; Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Beyers, M.; Lee, Z. S.

    2010-12-01

    The past decade has seen a growing body of research on the relation between turbulence in the wind and the resultant transport of sediment over active sand surfaces. Widespread use of sonic anemometry and high-frequency sand transport sensors and traps have facilitated recent field studies over dunes and beach surfaces, to move beyond monitoring of mean wind speed and bulk transport to more detailed measurements at much higher spatio-temporal resolutions. In this paper we present results of a field study conducted in the recirculation flow and re-attachment zone on a beach behind a foredune at Magilligan Strand, Northern Ireland. The offshore winds over the foredune at this site are associated with flow separation and reversal located over the beach surface in the lee of the dune row, often strong enough to induce sand transport toward the toe of the foredune (‘against’ the overall offshore flow). The re-attachment and recirculation zone are associated with strongly turbulent fluid flow and complex streamlines that do not follow the underlying topography. High frequency (25 Hz) wind and sand transport data were collected at a grid of point locations distributed over the beach surface between 35 m to 55 m distance from the 10 m high dune crest, using ultrasonic anemometers at 0.5 m height and co-located load cell traps and Safires at the bed surface. The wind data are used to investigate the role of Reynolds shear stresses and quadrant analysis techniques for identifying burst-sweep events in relation to sand transport events. This includes an assessment of the issues involved with data rotations for yaw, pitch, and roll corrections relative to complex flow streamlines, and the subsequently derived turbulence parameters based on fluctuating vector components (u’, v’, w’). Results illustrate how transport may exist under threshold mean velocities because of the role played by coherent flow structures, and the findings corroborate previous findings that

  1. Wind flow around met masts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heraud, P.; Masson, C.; Tusch, M. [Garrad Hassan Canada Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the impacts of meteorological masts on the measurement of wind resources. Two types of meteorological masts are used in wind power applications, namely lattice, and tubular masts. Anemometer accuracy can be impacted by the logger as well as by the instrumentation layout. The International Electrochemical Commission (IEC) recommends that anemometers are placed at a 45 degree angle from pre-dominant winds. However, the impact of turbulent flow around meteorological masts is poorly understood. The numerical model developed in the study included mass and momentum conservation models for tubular and lattice towers. Distortion level recommendations were presented. The study showed that distortion depends on the layout, and that IEC recommendations for instrumentation layouts need to be revised. tabs., figs.

  2. Separated Flow over Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David; Lewalle, Jacques

    2015-11-01

    The motion of the separation point on an airfoil under unsteady flow can affect its performance and longevity. Of interest is to understand and control the performance decrease in wind turbines subject to turbulent flow. We examine flow separation on an airfoil at a 19 degree angle of attack under unsteady flow conditions. We are using a DU-96-W180 airfoil of chord length 242 mm. The unsteadiness is generated by a cylinder with diameter 203 mm located 7 diameters upstream of the airfoil's leading edge. The data comes from twenty surface pressure sensors located on the top and bottom of the airfoil as well as on the upstream cylinder. Methods of analysis include Mexican hat transforms, Morlet wavelet transforms, power spectra, and various cross correlations. With this study I will explore how the differences of signals on the pressure and suction sides of an airfoil are related to the motion of the separation point.

  3. Fourier Simulation of a Non-Isotropic Wind Field Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Krenk, S.

    Realistic modelling of three dimensional wind fields has become important in calculation of dynamic loads on same spatially extended structures, such as large bridges, towers and wind turbines. For some structures the along wind component of the of the turbulent flow is important while for others...

  4. Wake flow characteristics at high wind speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2016-01-01

    Wake flow characteristic at high wind speeds is the main subject of this paper. Although the wake losses decrease at high wind speeds it has been found in a recent study that for multiple wake inflow the increase in loading due to wake effects are substantial even at wind speeds well above rated ...

  5. Wind Data Analysis and Wind Flow Simulation Over Large Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terziev Angel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the share of renewable energy sources is one of the core policies of the European Union. This is because of the fact that this energy is essential in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions and securing energy supplies. Currently, the share of wind energy from all renewable energy sources is relatively low. The choice of location for a certain wind farm installation strongly depends on the wind potential. Therefore the accurate assessment of wind potential is extremely important. In the present paper an analysis is made on the impact of significant possible parameters on the determination of wind energy potential for relatively large areas. In the analysis the type of measurements (short- and long-term on-site measurements, the type of instrumentation and the terrain roughness factor are considered. The study on the impact of turbulence on the wind flow distribution over complex terrain is presented, and it is based on the real on-site data collected by the meteorological tall towers installed in the northern part of Bulgaria. By means of CFD based software a wind map is developed for relatively large areas. Different turbulent models in numerical calculations were tested and recommendations for the usage of the specific models in flows modeling over complex terrains are presented. The role of each parameter in wind map development is made. Different approaches for determination of wind energy potential based on the preliminary developed wind map are presented.

  6. Wind flow through shrouded wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Aeroflow 5-hole probe, which took various measurements at multiple planes of each model. Flow visualization tests, including oil and tufts, were also...through an Aeroflow 5-hole probe, which took various measurements at multiple planes of each model. Flow visualization tests, including oil and tufts...facilities by 2025. This meets a larger DOD mandate, Title 10 USC § 2911, which directs at least 25 percent of any DOD facility’s energy consumption come

  7. Flow separation on wind turbines blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corten, G. P.

    2001-01-01

    the angle of attack. The art of designing stall rotors is to make the separated area on the blades extend in such a way, that the extracted power remains precisely constant, independent of the wind speed, while the power in the wind at cut-out exceeds the maximum power of the turbine by a factor of 8. Since the stall behaviour is influenced by many parameters, this demand cannot be easily met. However, if it can be met, the advantage of stall control is its passive operation, which is reliable and cheap. Problem Definition In practical application, stall control is not very accurate and many stall-controlled turbines do not meet their specifications. Deviations of the design-power in the order of tens of percent are regular. In the nineties, the aerodynamic research on these deviations focussed on: profile aerodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, rotational effects on separation and pressure measurements on test turbines. However, this did not adequately solve the actual problems with stall turbines. In this thesis, we therefore formulated the following as the essential question: "Does the separated blade area really extend with the wind speed, as we predict?" To find the answer a measurement technique was required, which 1) was applicable on large commercial wind turbines, 2) could follow the dynamic changes of the stall pattern, 3) was not influenced by the centrifugal force and 4) did not disturb the flow. Such a technique was not available, therefore we decided to develop it. Stall Flag Method For this method, a few hundred indicators are fixed to the rotor blades in a special pattern. These indicators, called "stall flags" are patented by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). They have a retro-reflective area which, depending on the flow direction, is or is not covered. A powerful light source in the field up to 500m behind the turbine illuminates the swept rotor area. The uncovered reflectors reflect the light to the source, where a digital video

  8. Wind Turbines Adaptation to the Variability of the Wind Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianov, Yuriy; Martynenko, Gennadii; Misaylov, Vitaliy; Soliannikova, Iuliia

    2010-05-01

    WIND TURBINES ADAPTATION TO THE VARIABILITY OF THE WIND FIELD The subject of our scientific research is wind power turbines (WPT) with the horizontal axis which were now common in the world. Efficient wind turbines work is largely determined by non-stationarity of the wind field, expressed in its gustiness, the presence of vertical and horizontal shifts of wind speed and direction. At critical values of the wind parameters WPT has aerodynamic and mechanical overload, leading to breakdowns, premature wear and reduce the life of the wind turbine. To prevent accidents at the peak values of wind speed it is used the regulatory system of windwheels. WPT control systems provide a process orientation of the wind turbine rotor axis in the line of the mean wind. Wind turbines are also equipped with braking device used to protect against breakdowns when a significant increase in the wind. In general, all these methods of regulation are not always effective. Thus, in practice there may be situations when the wind speed is many times greater than the stated limit. For example, if there are microbursts in the atmospheric boundary layer, low-level wind shears caused by its gust front, storms, etc. It is required for a wind power turbine adaptation to intensive short-term wind impulses and considerable vertical wind shifts that the data about them shall be obtained ahead of time. To do this it is necessary to have the information on the real structure of the wind field in the area of the blade sweep for the minimum range against the wind that is determined by the mean speed and the system action time. The implementation of acoustic and laser traditional wind sounding systems is limited by ambient acoustic noise, by heavy rain, snowfall and by fog. There are free of these disadvantages the inclined radioacoustic sounding (IRASS) technique which works for a system of remote detection and control of wind gusts. IRASS technique is realized as low-potential Doppler pulse radar

  9. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution is applied to a frozen wind field used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements are also evaluated with a large eddy simulation of a stable boundary layer provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Simulation results show the combined effects of LIDAR errors and wind evolution for realistic turbine-mounted LIDAR measurement scenarios.

  10. A mean flow acoustic engine capable of wind energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Daming; Xu Ya; Chen Haijun; Wu, Ke; Liu Kaikai; Yu Yan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A mean flow acoustic engine for wind energy harvesting is designed and manufactured. ► Stable standing wave acoustic field is established at specific flow velocity. ► Experimental and computational results reveal the acoustic field characteristics. ► Acoustic field has monofrequency characteristic and remarkable energy density. - Abstract: Based on the mean flow induced acoustic oscillation effect, a mean flow acoustic engine (MFAE) converts wind energy and fluid energy in pipeline into acoustic energy which can be used to drive thermoacoustic refrigerators and generators without any mechanical moving parts. With natural wind simulated by a centrifugal air fan, a MFAE with a cross-junction configuration was designed and manufactured for experimental study. Stable standing wave acoustic fields were established in specific ranges of air flow velocity. Experimental and computational results reveal the acoustic field distribution in the engine and show the effect of the mean flow velocity and the Strouhal number on the acoustic field characteristics. With a mean flow velocity of 50.52 m/s and a mean pressure of 106.19 kPa, the maximum pressure amplitude of 6.20 kPa was achieved, which was about 5.8% of the mean pressure. It has laid a good foundation for driving power generation devices and thermoacoustic refrigerators by a MFAE.

  11. Wide Area Wind Field Monitoring Status & Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Marchant; Jed Simmons

    2011-09-30

    Volume-scanning elastic has been investigated as a means to derive 3D dynamic wind fields for characterization and monitoring of wind energy sites. An eye-safe volume-scanning lidar system was adapted for volume imaging of aerosol concentrations out to a range of 300m. Reformatting of the lidar data as dynamic volume images was successfully demonstrated. A practical method for deriving 3D wind fields from dynamic volume imagery was identified and demonstrated. However, the natural phenomenology was found to provide insufficient aerosol features for reliable wind sensing. The results of this study may be applicable to wind field measurement using injected aerosol tracers.

  12. Wind flow simulation over flat terrain using CFD based software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Peter; Terziev, Angel; Genovski, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Velocity distribution recognition over definite place (terrain) is very important because due to that the zones with high energy potential could be defined (the fields with high velocities). This is a precondition for optimal wind turbine generators micro-sitting. In current work a simulation of the open flow over the flat terrain using the CFD based software is reviewed. The simulations are made of a real fluid flow in order to be defined the velocity fields over the terrain

  13. Wind Tunnel Modeling Of Wind Flow Over Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, D.; Cochran, B.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will describe the finding of an atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind tunnel study conducted as part of the Bolund Experiment. This experiment was sponsored by Risø DTU (National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark) during the fall of 2009 to enable a blind comparison of various air flow models in an attempt to validate their performance in predicting airflow over complex terrain. Bohlund hill sits 12 m above the water level at the end of a narrow isthmus. The island features a steep escarpment on one side, over which the airflow can be expected to separate. The island was equipped with several anemometer towers, and the approach flow over the water was well characterized. This study was one of only two only physical model studies included in the blind model comparison, the other being a water plume study. The remainder were computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, including both RANS and LES. Physical modeling of air flow over topographical features has been used since the middle of the 20th century, and the methods required are well understood and well documented. Several books have been written describing how to properly perform ABL wind tunnel studies, including ASCE manual of engineering practice 67. Boundary layer wind tunnel tests are the only modelling method deemed acceptable in ASCE 7-10, the most recent edition of the American Society of Civil Engineers standard that provides wind loads for buildings and other structures for buildings codes across the US. Since the 1970’s, most tall structures undergo testing in a boundary layer wind tunnel to accurately determine the wind induced loading. When compared to CFD, the US EPA considers a properly executed wind tunnel study to be equivalent to a CFD model with infinitesimal grid resolution and near infinite memory. One key reason for this widespread acceptance is that properly executed ABL wind tunnel studies will accurately simulate flow separation

  14. Solar winds along curved magnetic field lines

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Chen, Yao

    2011-01-01

    Both remote-sensing measurements using the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) technique and in situ measurements by the Ulysses spacecraft show a bimodal structure for the solar wind at solar minimum conditions. At present what makes the fast wind fast and the slow wind slow still remains to be answered. While a robust empirical correlation exists between the coronal expansion rate $f_c$ of the flow tubes and the speeds $v$ measured in situ, further data analysis suggests that $v$ depends on ...

  15. Investigation on wind turbine wakes: wind tunnel tests and field experiments with LIDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iungo, Giacomo; Wu, Ting; Cöeffé, Juliette; Porté-Agel, Fernando; WIRE Team

    2011-11-01

    An investigation on the interaction between atmospheric boundary layer flow and wind turbines is carried out with wind tunnel and LIDAR measurements. The former were carried out using hot-wire anemometry and multi-hole pressure probes in the wake of a three-bladed miniature wind turbine. The wind turbine wake is characterized by a strong velocity defect in the proximity of the rotor, and its recovery is found to depend on the characteristics of the incoming atmospheric boundary layer (mean velocity and turbulence intensity profiles). Field experiments were performed using three wind LIDARs. Bi-dimensional scans are performed in order to analyse the wake wind field with different atmospheric boundary layer conditions. Furthermore, simultaneous measurements with two or three LIDARs allow the reconstruction of multi-component velocity fields. Both LIDAR and wind tunnel measurements highlight an increased turbulence level at the wake boundary for heights comparable to the top-tip of the blades; this flow feature can produce dangerous fatigue loads on following wind turbines.

  16. Improving urban wind flow predictions through data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Jorge; Gorle, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    Computational fluid dynamic is fundamentally important to several aspects in the design of sustainable and resilient urban environments. The prediction of the flow pattern for example can help to determine pedestrian wind comfort, air quality, optimal building ventilation strategies, and wind loading on buildings. However, the significant variability and uncertainty in the boundary conditions poses a challenge when interpreting results as a basis for design decisions. To improve our understanding of the uncertainties in the models and develop better predictive tools, we started a pilot field measurement campaign on Stanford University's campus combined with a detailed numerical prediction of the wind flow. The experimental data is being used to investigate the potential use of data assimilation and inverse techniques to better characterize the uncertainty in the results and improve the confidence in current wind flow predictions. We consider the incoming wind direction and magnitude as unknown parameters and perform a set of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations to build a polynomial chaos expansion response surface at each sensor location. We subsequently use an inverse ensemble Kalman filter to retrieve an estimate for the probabilistic density function of the inflow parameters. Once these distributions are obtained, the forward analysis is repeated to obtain predictions for the flow field in the entire urban canopy and the results are compared with the experimental data. We would like to acknowledge high-performance computing support from Yellowstone (ark:/85065/d7wd3xhc) provided by NCAR.

  17. Solar wind acceleration in a prescribed flow geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biernat, H.; Koemle, N.; Lichtenegger, H.

    1985-01-01

    It is known that the flow tubes above coronal holes diverge stronger than radial and that the magnetic field lines may be considerably curved near the border of the holes. The authors investigate the consequences of such a magnetic field geometry on the flow of the solar wind plasma in the vicinity of the Sun. For this purpose the one-dimensional conservation equations are solved along prescribed flow tubes. A temperature profile based on observational data (EUV rocket-observations) is used in the calculations. In an alternative approach the temperature is determined by a polytropic index, which is assumed to be variable. The authors study how both curvature and non-radial divergence of the flow tubes modify the velocity, the density, and the energy balance of the solar wind plasma. (Auth.)

  18. A combinatorial wind field model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    This report is the deliverable 2.4 in the project Distributed Control of Large-Scale Oshore Wind Farms with the acronym Aeolus. The objective of this deliverable is to provide an understanding of the wind eld model and dynamic variations superimposed on the mean eld. In this report a dynamical...

  19. Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyi Li

    Full Text Available Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspective of wind force driving ocean waves. We introduce wind force to the construction of the ocean surface height field through applying wind field data and wind-driven wave particles. Continual and realistic ocean waves result from the overlap of wind-driven wave particles, and a strategy was proposed to control these discrete wave particles and simulate an endless ocean surface. The results showed that the new method is capable of obtaining a realistic ocean scene under the influence of wind fields at real time rates.

  20. A ``Cyber Wind Facility'' for HPC Wind Turbine Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, James; Paterson, Eric; Schmitz, Sven; Campbell, Robert; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Lavely, Adam; Jayaraman, Balaji; Nandi, Tarak; Jha, Pankaj; Dunbar, Alex; Motta-Mena, Javier; Craven, Brent; Haupt, Sue

    2013-03-01

    The Penn State ``Cyber Wind Facility'' (CWF) is a high-fidelity multi-scale high performance computing (HPC) environment in which ``cyber field experiments'' are designed and ``cyber data'' collected from wind turbines operating within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) environment. Conceptually the ``facility'' is akin to a high-tech wind tunnel with controlled physical environment, but unlike a wind tunnel it replicates commercial-scale wind turbines operating in the field and forced by true atmospheric turbulence with controlled stability state. The CWF is created from state-of-the-art high-accuracy technology geometry and grid design and numerical methods, and with high-resolution simulation strategies that blend unsteady RANS near the surface with high fidelity large-eddy simulation (LES) in separated boundary layer, blade and rotor wake regions, embedded within high-resolution LES of the ABL. CWF experiments complement physical field facility experiments that can capture wider ranges of meteorological events, but with minimal control over the environment and with very small numbers of sensors at low spatial resolution. I shall report on the first CWF experiments aimed at dynamical interactions between ABL turbulence and space-time wind turbine loadings. Supported by DOE and NSF.

  1. Wind-induced flow velocity effects on nutrient concentrations at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Abdul; Li, Yiping; Du, Wei; Wang, Jianwei; Gao, Xiaomeng; Wang, Wencai; Acharya, Kumud

    2017-07-01

    Shallow lakes are highly sensitive to respond internal nutrient loading due to wind-induced flow velocity effects. Wind-induced flow velocity effects on nutrient suspension were investigated at a long narrow bay of large shallow Lake Taihu, the third largest freshwater lake in China. Wind-induced reverse/compensation flow and consistent flow field probabilities at vertical column of the water were measured. The probabilities between the wind field and the flow velocities provided a strong correlation at the surface (80.6%) and the bottom (65.1%) layers of water profile. Vertical flow velocity profile analysis provided the evidence of delay response time to wind field at the bottom layer of lake water. Strong wind field generated by the west (W) and west-north-west (WNW) winds produced displaced water movements in opposite directions to the prevailing flow field. An exponential correlation was observed between the current velocities of the surface and the bottom layers while considering wind speed as a control factor. A linear model was developed to correlate the wind field-induced flow velocity impacts on nutrient concentration at the surface and bottom layers. Results showed that dominant wind directions (ENE, E, and ESE) had a maximum nutrient resuspension contribution (nutrient resuspension potential) of 34.7 and 43.6% at the surface and the bottom profile layers, respectively. Total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) average concentrations were 6.38, 1.5, and 0.03 mg/L during our field experiment at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu. Overall, wind-induced low-to-moderate hydrodynamic disturbances contributed more in nutrient resuspension at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu. The present study can be used to understand the linkage between wind-induced flow velocities and nutrient concentrations for shallow lakes (with uniform morphology and deep margins) water quality management and to develop further models.

  2. Flow interaction of diffuser augmented wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göltenbott, U.; Ohya, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Jamieson, P.

    2016-09-01

    Up-scaling of wind turbines has been a major trend in order to reduce the cost of energy generation from the wind. Recent studies however show that for a given technology, the cost always rises with upscaling, notably due to the increased mass of the system. To reach capacities beyond 10 MW, multi-rotor systems (MRS) have promising advantages. On the other hand, diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs) can significantly increase the performance of the rotor. Up to now, diffuser augmentation has only been applied to single small wind turbines. In the present research, DAWTs are used in a multi-rotor system. In wind tunnel experiments, the aerodynamics of two and three DAWTs, spaced in close vicinity in the same plane normal to a uniform flow, have been analysed. Power increases of up to 5% and 9% for the two and three rotor configurations are respectively achieved in comparison to a stand-alone turbine. The physical dynamics of the flows are analysed on the basis of the results obtained with a stand-alone turbine.

  3. LINCOM wind flow model: Application to complex terrain with thermal stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunkerley, F.; Moreno, J.; Mikkelsen, T.

    2001-01-01

    LINCOM is a fast linearised and spectral wind flow model for use over hilly terrain. It is designed to rapidly generate mean wind field predictions which provide input to atmospheric dispersion models and wind engineering applications. The thermal module, LINCOM-T, has recently been improved to p...

  4. Simultaneous prediction of internal and external aerodynamic and thermal flow fields of a natural-draft cooling tower in a cross-wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radosavljevic, D.; Spalding, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    The quantitative simulation of cooling-tower performance is useful to designers, enabling them to make optimal choices regarding: the type, volume and shape of the packing (i.e. fill); and the shape and size of the tower. In order to simulate performance realistically, non-uniformities of distribution of water and air mass-flow rates across the tower radius must be taken into account. This necessitates at least 2D modeling; and in order to establish the influence of a cross-wind, boundary conditions must be far away from the tower inlet and outlet, and 3D modeling must be performed. This paper is concerned with large wet natural-draught cooling towers of the type used in many steam power stations for cooling large quantities of water by direct contact with the atmosphere. The aim of the present work has been to improve the procedures of calculation by using numerical integration of the heat and mass transfer equations, and to connect internal and external aerodynamics thus enabling wind influence to be studied. It permits predicting the performance of a proposed design of the tower over a range of operating conditions. PHOENICS, a general-purpose computer code for fluid-flow simulation, is used to provide numerical solutions to governing differential equations

  5. The root flow of horizontal axis wind turbine blades : Experimental analysis and numerical validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akay, B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a long research history in the field of wind turbine aerodynamics, horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) blade's root flow aerodynamics is among the least understood topics. In this thesis work, a detailed investigation of the root flow is performed to gain a better insight into the features

  6. Wind gust models derived from field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, W.

    1995-01-01

    Wind data measured during a field experiment were used to verify the analytical model of wind gusts. Good coincidence was observed; the only discrepancy occurred for the azimuth error in the front and back winds, where the simulated errors were smaller than the measured ones. This happened because of the assumption of the spatial coherence of the wind gust model, which generated a symmetric antenna load and, in consequence, a low azimuth servo error. This result indicates a need for upgrading the wind gust model to a spatially incoherent one that will reflect the real gusts in a more accurate manner. In order to design a controller with wind disturbance rejection properties, the wind disturbance should be known at the input to the antenna rate loop model. The second task, therefore, consists of developing a digital filter that simulates the wind gusts at the antenna rate input. This filter matches the spectrum of the measured servo errors. In this scenario, the wind gusts are generated by introducing white noise to the filter input.

  7. Production of oscillatory flow in wind tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmi, K.; Castro, I. P.

    1993-06-01

    A method for producing oscillatory flow in open-circuit wind tunnels driven by centrifugal fans is described. Performance characteristics of a new device installed on two such tunnels of greatly differing size are presented. It is shown that sinusoidal variations of the working section flow, having peak-to-peak amplitudes up to at least 30 percent of the mean flow speed and frequencies up to, typically, that corresponding to the acoustic quarter-wave-length frequency determined by the tunnel size, can be obtained with negligible harmonic distortion or acoustic noise difficulties. A brief review of the various methods that have been used previously is included, and the advantages and disadvantages of these different techniques are highlighted. The present technique seems to represent a significant improvement over many of them.

  8. Wake Flow Simulation of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Under the Influence of Wind Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Victor; Goude, Anders

    2017-05-01

    The current trend of the wind energy industry aims for large scale turbines installed in wind farms. This brings a renewed interest in vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) since they have several advantages over the traditional Horizontal Axis Wind Tubines (HAWTs) for mitigating the new challenges. However, operating VAWTs are characterized by complex aerodynamics phenomena, presenting considerable challenges for modeling tools. An accurate and reliable simulation tool for predicting the interaction between the obtained wake of an operating VAWT and the flow in atmospheric open sites is fundamental for optimizing the design and location of wind energy facility projects. The present work studies the wake produced by a VAWT and how it is affected by the surface roughness of the terrain, without considering the effects of the ambient turbulence intensity. This study was carried out using an actuator line model (ALM), and it was implemented using the open-source CFD library OpenFOAM to solve the governing equations and to compute the resulting flow fields. An operational H-shaped VAWT model was tested, for which experimental activity has been performed at an open site north of Uppsala-Sweden. Different terrains with similar inflow velocities have been evaluated. Simulated velocity and vorticity of representative sections have been analyzed. Numerical results were validated using normal forces measurements, showing reasonable agreement.

  9. Flow and wakes in large wind farms: Final report for UpWind WP8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Rathmann, Ole

    This report summarises the research undertaken through the European Commission funded project UpWind Wp8:Flow. The objective of the work was to develop understanding of flow in large wind farms and to evaluate models of power losses due to wind turbine wakes focusing on complex terrain and offshore...

  10. Free flow wind speed from a blade-mounted flow sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard; Larsen, Torben Juul; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a method for obtaining the free-inflow velocities from a 3-D flow sensor mounted on the blade of a wind turbine. From its position on the rotating blade, e.g. one-third from the tip, a blade-mounted flow sensor (BMFS) is able to provide valuable information about the turbulent...... sheared inflow in different regions of the rotor. At the rotor, however, the inflow is affected by the wind turbine, and in most cases the wind of interest is the inflow that the wind turbine is exposed to, i.e. the free-inflow velocities. The current method applies a combination of aerodynamic models...... and procedures to estimate the induced velocities, i.e. the disturbance of the flow field caused by the wind turbine. These velocities are subtracted from the flow velocities measured by the BMFS to obtain the free-inflow velocities. Aeroelastic codes, like HAWC2, typically use a similar approach to calculate...

  11. A Comparison of Wind Flow Models for Wind Resource Assessment in Wind Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Landry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the accuracy of various coupled mesoscale-microscale wind flow modeling methodologies for wind energy applications. This is achieved by examining and comparing mean wind speeds from several wind flow modeling methodologies with observational measurements from several 50 m met towers distributed across the study area. At the mesoscale level, with a 5 km resolution, two scenarios are examined based on the Mesoscale Compressible Community Model (MC2 model: the Canadian Wind Energy Atlas (CWEA scenario, which is based on standard input data, and the CWEA High Definition (CWEAHD scenario where high resolution land cover input data is used. A downscaling of the obtained mesoscale wind climate to the microscale level is then performed, where two linear microscale models, i.e., MsMicro and the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP, are evaluated following three downscaling scenarios: CWEA-WAsP, CWEA-MsMicro and CWEAHD-MsMicro. Results show that, for the territory studied, with a modeling approach based on the MC2 and MsMicro models, also known as Wind Energy Simulation Toolkit (WEST, the use of high resolution land cover and topography data at the mesoscale level helps reduce modeling errors for both the mesoscale and microscale models, albeit only marginally. At the microscale level, results show that the MC2-WAsP modeling approach gave substantially better results than both MC2 and MsMicro modeling approaches due to tweaked meso-micro coupling.

  12. Field test of wake steering at an offshore wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fleming

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a field test of wake-steering control is presented. The field test is the result of a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL and Envision Energy, a smart energy management company and turbine manufacturer. In the campaign, an array of turbines within an operating commercial offshore wind farm in China have the normal yaw controller modified to implement wake steering according to a yaw control strategy. The strategy was designed using NREL wind farm models, including a computational fluid dynamics model, Simulator fOr Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA, for understanding wake dynamics and an engineering model, FLOw Redirection and Induction in Steady State (FLORIS, for yaw control optimization. Results indicate that, within the certainty afforded by the data, the wake-steering controller was successful in increasing power capture, by amounts similar to those predicted from the models.

  13. Parallel electric fields from ionospheric winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    The possible production of electric fields parallel to the magnetic field by dynamo winds in the E region is examined, using a jet stream wind model. Current return paths through the F region above the stream are examined as well as return paths through the conjugate ionosphere. The Wulf geometry with horizontal winds moving in opposite directions one above the other is also examined. Parallel electric fields are found to depend strongly on the width of current sheets at the edges of the jet stream. If these are narrow enough, appreciable parallel electric fields are produced. These appear to be sufficient to heat the electrons which reduces the conductivity and produces further increases in parallel electric fields and temperatures. Calculations indicate that high enough temperatures for optical emission can be produced in less than 0.3 s. Some properties of auroras that might be produced by dynamo winds are examined; one property is a time delay in brightening at higher and lower altitudes

  14. Assessing the vegetation canopy influences on wind flow using wind ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Artificial plastic vegetations with different porosity and canopy shape were introduced as ... Wind erosion is the Aeolian process by which soil particles are detached from ..... the stabilizing role of vegetation on wind erosion. And therefore, for ...

  15. PIV Measurements of Flows around the Wind Turbines with a Flanged-Diffuser Shroud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuhiko Toshimitsu; Koutarou Nishikawa; Wataru Haruki; Shinichi Oono; Manabu Takao; Yuji Ohya

    2008-01-01

    The wind turbines with a flanged-diffuser shroud -so called "wind lens turbine"- are developed as one of high performance wind turbines by Ohya et al. In order to investigate the flow characteristics and flow acceleration, the paper presents the flow velocity measurements of a long-type and a compact-type wind turbines with a flanged-diffuser shroud by particle image velocimetry. In the case of the long type wind turbine, the velocity vec-tors of the inner flow field of the diffuser for turbine blades rotating and no blades rotating are presented at Rey-nolds number, 0.9x105. Furthermore the flow fields between with and without rotating are compared. Through the PIV measurement results, one can realize that the turbine blades rotating affects as suppress the disturbance and the flow separation near the inner wall of the diffuser. The time average velocity vectors are made on the av-erage of the instantaneous velocity data. There are two large vortices in downstream region of the diffuser. One vortex behind the flange acts as suck in wind to the diffuser and raise the inlet flow velocity. Another large vortex appears in downstream. It might be act as blockage vortex of main flow. The large blockage vortex is not clear in the instantaneous velocity vectors, however it exists clearly in the time average flow field. The flow field around the wind turbine with a compact-type flanged-diffuser shroud is also investigated. The flow pattern behind the flange of the compact-type turbine is the same as the long-type one. It means that the effect of flow acceleration is caused by the unsteady vortices behind the flange. The comparison with CFD and PIV results of meridional time-average streamlines after the compact-type diffuser is also presented.

  16. Visualization of Flow Field: Application of PLIF Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Bo Peng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to apply planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF technology to flow field visualization. This experiment was carried out in a one-meter wind tunnel to study the wake flow field around a circular cylinder. This experiment studied the method of injecting tracer into the flow field; the frequency of the vortex in the wake field and the vortex speed are quantitatively analyzed. This paper gives the correspondence between the speed of the flow field and the frequency of the laser, which could be used as a rough reference standard for future wind tunnel visualization experiments. The result shows that PLIF diagnostic technology has great potential in visualization of flow field.

  17. 3D Flow Field Numerical Simulation on Aerodynamic Characteristics of New Double-rotor Wind Turbines%新型双风轮风力机气动特性的三维流场数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周云龙; 杨承志; 李律万

    2012-01-01

    Based on Simplic algorithm and SST κ-ωturbulence model, using numerical simulation software Fluent 6.3, the 3D aerodynamic flow field of a new type of small double-rotor wind turbines has been studied and compared with that of single-rotor wind turbines in same size. Results show that compared with single-rotor wind turbine, the turbulence intensity of new double-rotor wind turbine strengthens along with the increase of blade number of rear rotor, and its operation stability reduces to a certain extent; however, the rear rotor with a reasonable number of blades has little influence on the front rotor, which can capture the air leakage of the front rotor effectively, and therefore enables the wind turbine to simulta- neously have a larger windward area and maintain a higher rotating speed, and subsequently helps it to achieve two grade utility of wind energy, improve the power generation efficiency and raise the wind power utilization coefficient.%基于Simplic算法,采用SST κ-ω湍流模型,利用Fluent6.3数值模拟软件对新型的小型双风轮风力机的气动特性进行了三维流场研究,并与同规格单风轮风力机的三维流场进行了比较.结果表明:与单风轮风力机相比,随着后风轮叶片数目的增加,新型双风轮风力机的湍流强度变大,风力机运行的稳定性在一定程度上有所降低;当后风轮的叶片数目合理时,后风轮对前风轮的影响较小,且可以有效地捕捉到前风轮的漏风,使得新型双风轮风力机的风轮在获得较大迎风面积的同时可以保持较高的转速,进而能够高效地实现风能的两级利用,明显提高发电功率和增大风能利用系数.

  18. Cooperative field test program for wind systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollmeier, W.S. II; Dodge, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    The objectives of the Federal Wind Energy Program, managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are (1) to assist industry and utilities in achieving a multi-regional US market penetration of wind systems, and (2) to establish the United States as the world leader in the development of advanced wind turbine technology. In 1984, the program conducted a series of planning workshops with representatives from the wind energy industry to obtain input on the Five-Year Research Plan then being prepared by DOE. One specific suggestion that came out of these meetings was that the federal program should conduct cooperative research tests with industry to enhance the technology transfer process. It was also felt that the active involvement of industry in DOE-funded research would improve the state of the art of wind turbine technology. DOE established the Cooperative Field Test Program (CFTP) in response to that suggestion. This program was one of the first in DOE to feature joint industry-government research test teams working toward common objectives.

  19. Field measurements in the wake of a model wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pol, Suhas; Taylor, Amelia; Doostalab, Ali; Novoa, Santiago; Castillo, Luciano; Bilbao, Argenis; Sheng, Jian; Giesselmann, Michael; Westergaard, Carsten; Hussain, Fazle; Ren, Beibei; Glauser, Mark

    2014-01-01

    As a first step to study the dynamics of a wind farm' we experimentally explored the flow field behind a single wind turbine of diameter 1.17 m at a hub height of 6.25 m. A 10 m tower upstream of the wind farm characterizes the atmospheric conditions and its influence on the wake evolution. A vertical rake of sonic anemometers is clustered around the hub height on a second tower' 6D downstream of the turbine. We present preliminary observations from a 1- hour block of data recorded in near-neutral atmospheric conditions. The ratio of the standard deviation of power to the inflow velocity is greater than three' revealing adverse effects of inflow turbulence on the power and load fluctuations. Furthermore' the wake defect and Reynolds stress and its gradient are pronounced at 6D. The flux of energy due to Reynolds stresses is similar to that reported in wind tunnel studies. The swirl and mixing produces a constant temperature wake which results in a density jump across the wake interface. Further field measurements will explore the dynamics of a model wind farm' including the effects of atmospheric variability

  20. Computer investigations of the turbulent flow around a NACA2415 airfoil wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driss, Zied; Chelbi, Tarek; Abid, Mohamed Salah

    2015-12-01

    In this work, computer investigations are carried out to study the flow field developing around a NACA2415 airfoil wind turbine. The Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with the standard k-ɛ turbulence model are considered. These equations are solved numerically to determine the local characteristics of the flow. The models tested are implemented in the software "SolidWorks Flow Simulation" which uses a finite volume scheme. The numerical results are compared with experiments conducted on an open wind tunnel to validate the numerical results. This will help improving the aerodynamic efficiency in the design of packaged installations of the NACA2415 airfoil type wind turbine.

  1. Flow visualization around a rotating body in a wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, K.; Zaitsu, D.; Yanaga, Y.; Kleine, H.

    2017-02-01

    The rotational behavior of capsule-shaped models is investigated in the transonic wind tunnel of JAXA. A special support is developed to allow the model to rotate around the pitch, yaw and roll axes. This 3-DOF free rotational mounting apparatus achieves the least frictional torque from the support and the instruments. Two types of capsule models are prepared, one is drag type (SPH model) and the other is lift type (HTV-R model). The developed mounting apparatus is used in the wind tunnel tests with these capsule models. In a flow of Mach 0.9, the SPH model exhibits oscillations in pitch and yaw, and it rolls half a turn during the test. Similarly, the HTV-R model exhibits pitch and yaw oscillations in a flow of Mach 0.5. Moreover, it rolls multiple times during the test. In order to investigate the flow field around the capsule, the combined technique of color schlieren and surface tufts is applied. This visualization clearly shows the flow reattachment on the back surface of a capsule, which is suspected to induce the rapid rolling motion.

  2. Spatial interpolation of fine particulate matter concentrations using the shortest wind-field path distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxiang Li

    Full Text Available Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health.

  3. Toward Isolation of Salient Features in Stable Boundary Layer Wind Fields that Influence Loads on Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkyoo Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutral boundary layer (NBL flow fields, commonly used in turbine load studies and design, are generated using spectral procedures in stochastic simulation. For large utility-scale turbines, stable boundary layer (SBL flow fields are of great interest because they are often accompanied by enhanced wind shear, wind veer, and even low-level jets (LLJs. The generation of SBL flow fields, in contrast to simpler stochastic simulation for NBL, requires computational fluid dynamics (CFD procedures to capture the physics and noted characteristics—such as shear and veer—that are distinct from those seen in NBL flows. At present, large-eddy simulation (LES is the most efficient CFD procedure for SBL flow field generation and related wind turbine loads studies. Design standards, such as from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC, provide guidance albeit with simplifying assumptions (one such deals with assuming constant variance of turbulence over the rotor and recommend standard target turbulence power spectra and coherence functions to allow NBL flow field simulation. In contrast, a systematic SBL flow field simulation procedure has not been offered for design or for site assessment. It is instructive to compare LES-generated SBL flow fields with stochastic NBL flow fields and associated loads which we evaluate for a 5-MW turbine; in doing so, we seek to isolate distinguishing characteristics of wind shear, wind veer, and turbulence variation over the rotor plane in the alternative flow fields and in the turbine loads. Because of known differences in NBL-stochastic and SBL-LES wind fields but an industry preference for simpler stochastic simulation in design practice, this study investigates if one can reproduce stable atmospheric conditions using stochastic approaches with appropriate corrections for shear, veer, turbulence, etc. We find that such simple tuning cannot consistently match turbine target SBL load statistics, even though

  4. Flow and wakes in large wind farms. Final report for UpWind WP8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Frandsen, S.T.; Rathmann, O. (Risoe DTU (Denmark)); Hansen, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark (DTU), Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Politis, E.; Prospathopoulos, J. (CRES (Greece)); Schepers, J.G. (ECN, Petten (Netherlands)); Rados, K. (NTUA, Athens (Greece)); Cabezon, D. (CENER, Sarriguren (Spain)); Schlez, W.; Neubert, A.; Heath, M. (Garrad Hassan and Partners (Germany) (United Kingdom))

    2011-02-15

    This report summarises the research undertaken through the European Commission funded project UpWind Wp8:Flow. The objective of the work was to develop understanding of flow in large wind farms and to evaluate models of power losses due to wind turbine wakes focusing on complex terrain and offshore. A crosscutting activity was to improve and compare the performance of computational fluid dynamics models with wind farm models. The report contains 6 deliverable reports and guideline to wind farm wake analysis as appendices. (Author)

  5. Turbulent Flow Inside and Above a Wind Farm: A Wind-Tunnel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo P. Chamorro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind-tunnel experiments were carried out to better understand boundary layer effects on the flow pattern inside and above a model wind farm under thermally neutral conditions. Cross-wire anemometry was used to characterize the turbulent flow structure at different locations around a 10 by 3 array of model wind turbines aligned with the mean flow and arranged in two different layouts (inter-turbine separation of 5 and 7 rotor diameters in the direction of the mean flow by 4 rotor diameters in its span. Results suggest that the turbulent flow can be characterized in two broad regions. The first, located below the turbine top tip height, has a direct effect on the performance of the turbines. In that region, the turbulent flow statistics appear to reach equilibrium as close as the third to fourth row of wind turbines for both layouts. In the second region, located right above the first one, the flow adjusts slowly. There, two layers can be identified: an internal boundary layer where the flow is affected by both the incoming wind and the wind turbines, and an equilibrium layer, where the flow is fully adjusted to the wind farm. An adjusted logarithmic velocity distribution is observed in the equilibrium layer starting from the sixth row of wind turbines. The effective surface roughness length induced by the wind farm is found to be higher than that predicted by some existing models. Momentum recovery and turbulence intensity are shown to be affected by the wind farm layout. Power spectra show that the signature of the tip vortices, in both streamwise and vertical velocity components, is highly affected by both the relative location in the wind farm and the wind farm layout.

  6. Three Dimensional Dynamic Model Based Wind Field Reconstruction from Lidar Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raach, Steffen; Schlipf, David; Haizmann, Florian; Cheng, Po Wen

    2014-01-01

    Using the inflowing horizontal and vertical wind shears for individual pitch controller is a promising method if blade bending measurements are not available. Due to the limited information provided by a lidar system the reconstruction of shears in real-time is a challenging task especially for the horizontal shear in the presence of changing wind direction. The internal model principle has shown to be a promising approach to estimate the shears and directions in 10 minutes averages with real measurement data. The static model based wind vector field reconstruction is extended in this work taking into account a dynamic reconstruction model based on Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis. The presented method provides time series over several seconds of the wind speed, shears and direction, which can be directly used in advanced optimal preview control. Therefore, this work is an important step towards the application of preview individual blade pitch control under realistic wind conditions. The method is tested using a turbulent wind field and a detailed lidar simulator. For the simulation, the turbulent wind field structure is flowing towards the lidar system and is continuously misaligned with respect to the horizontal axis of the wind turbine. Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis is taken into account to model the wind evolution. For the reconstruction, the structure is discretized into several stages where each stage is reduced to an effective wind speed, superposed with a linear horizontal and vertical wind shear. Previous lidar measurements are shifted using again Taylor's Hypothesis. The wind field reconstruction problem is then formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem, which minimizes the residual between the assumed wind model and the lidar measurements to obtain the misalignment angle and the effective wind speed and the wind shears for each stage. This method shows good results in reconstructing the wind characteristics of a three

  7. Modulated Field Synchronous Generator for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Chioncel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modern electromechanical conversion systemsolution as the modulated field synchronous generator, offering on theone hand, an output voltage with constant frequency in terms of speedvariation of the wind turbine and on the other hand an advantagepower / weight ratio due to the high frequency for which the magneticcircuit of the electric machine is sized. The mathematical model of the modulated field synchronous generator is implemented in MatLABmodeling language, highlighting the command structure on thetransistors bases of the inverter transistors, through which thefunctioning of the electric machine can be studied, especially in terms of the frequency of the delivered voltage.

  8. TIBER-II TF [toroidal-field] winding pack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, J.A.; Miller, J.R.; Slack, D.S.; Summers, L.T.

    1987-01-01

    The superconducting, toroidal-field (TF) coils in the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Engineering Reactor (TIBER II) are designed with cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) using Nb 3 Sn composite strands. To design the CICC winding pack, we used an optimization technique that maximizes the conductor stability without violating the constraints imposed by the structure, electrical insulation, quench protection, and fabrication technique. Detailed helium-properties codes calculate the heat removal along a flow path, and detailed field calculations determine the temperature, current, and stability margins. The conductor sheath is designed as distributed structure to partially support the combined in-plane and out-of-plane loads generated within the winding pack. Pancakes of the coil are wound, reacted, and insulated before being potted in the case. This design is aggressive but fully consistent with good engineering practice. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Downstream wind flow path diversion and its effects on the performance of vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maganhar, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present experimental study efforts have been made to analysis path diversion effect of downstream wind flow on performance of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). For the blockage of downstream wind flow path at various linear displaced positions, a normal erected flat wall, semi-circular and cylindrical shapes were tested for path diverting geometries. Performance of VAWT in terms of improved rotor speed up to 45% was achieved. (author)

  10. Uncertainty quantification in wind farm flow models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murcia Leon, Juan Pablo

    uncertainties through a model chain are presented and applied to several wind energy related problems such as: annual energy production estimation, wind turbine power curve estimation, wake model calibration and validation, and estimation of lifetime equivalent fatigue loads on a wind turbine. Statistical...

  11. Understanding of bridge cable vibrations and the associate flow-field through the full-scale monitoring of vibrations and Wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acampora, Antonio

    This dissertation investigates the conditions that promote rain-wind-induced vibrations of inclined cable on cable-stayed bridges. Rain-wind-induced vibrations are known as the most common type of cable vibrations and capable of severe vibrations. The recent increase in the number of cable stayed...... bridges continuously becoming longer and lighter have resulted in a high number of observations of cable vibrations. A theoretical background for the tool used in this work is presented in terms of cables vibrations mechanisms, aerodynamic damping and system identification techniques. A detailed...... literature review of reported observations of rain-wind-induced cable vibrations of fullscale bridges is shown. The database of observed events on bridges collects information about the conditions that likely develop the phenomenon, together with the means used to suppress or reduce the occurrence of cable...

  12. Aerodynamic study of a small wind turbine with emphasis on laminar and transition flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, M. L.; Cojocaru, M. G.; Crunteanu, D. E.

    2016-06-01

    The wind energy is huge but unfortunately, wind turbines capture only a little part of this enormous green energy. Furthermore, it is impossible to put multi megawatt wind turbines in the cities because they generate a lot of noise and discomfort. Instead, it is possible to install small Darrieus and horizontal-axis wind turbines with low tip speed ratios in order to mitigate the noise as much as possible. Unfortunately, the flow around this wind turbine is quite complex because the run at low Reynolds numbers. Therefore, this flow is usually a mixture of laminar, transition and laminar regimes with bubble laminar separation that is very difficult to simulate from the numerical point of view. Usually, transition and laminar regimes with bubble laminar separation are ignored. For this reason, this paper deals with laminar and transition flows in order to provide some brightness in this field.

  13. Load flow analysis for variable speed offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Menghua; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    factors such as the different wind farm configurations, the control of wind turbines and the power losses of pulse width modulation converters are considered. The DC/DC converter model is proposed and integrated into load flow algorithm by modifying the Jacobian matrix. Two iterative methods are proposed...... and integrated into the load flow algorithm: one takes into account the control strategy of converters and the other considers the power losses of converters. In addition, different types of variable speed wind turbine systems with different control methods are investigated. Finally, the method is demonstrated......A serial AC-DC integrated load flow algorithm for variable speed offshore wind farms is proposed. It divides the electrical system of a wind farm into several local networks, and different load flow methods are used for these local networks sequentially. This method is fast, more accurate, and many...

  14. Bidirectional ionic wind in nonpremixed counterflow flames with DC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Daegeun; Chung, Suk-Ho; Cha, Min

    2016-01-01

    Under an electric field, ions in the reaction zone of a flame generate a bulk flow motion called ionic wind. Because the majority of ions are positive, ionic wind is commonly considered to be unidirectional toward the cathode. A more thorough

  15. Using Satellite SAR to Characterize the Wind Flow around Offshore Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Bay Hasager

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind farm cluster effects between neighboring wind farms increase rapidly with the large-scale deployment of offshore wind turbines. The wind farm wakes observed from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR are sometimes visible and atmospheric and wake models are here shown to convincingly reproduce the observed very long wind farm wakes. The present study mainly focuses on wind farm wake climatology based on Envisat ASAR. The available SAR data archive covering the large offshore wind farms at Horns Rev has been used for geo-located wind farm wake studies. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to mainly three issues: the limited number of samples per wind directional sector, the coastal wind speed gradient, and oceanic bathymetry effects in the SAR retrievals. A new methodology is developed and presented. This method overcomes effectively the first issue and in most cases, but not always, the second. In the new method all wind field maps are rotated such that the wind is always coming from the same relative direction. By applying the new method to the SAR wind maps, mesoscale and microscale model wake aggregated wind-fields results are compared. The SAR-based findings strongly support the model results at Horns Rev 1.

  16. Dune field pattern formation and recent transporting winds in the Olympia Undae Dune Field, north polar region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Peyret, Aymeric-Pierre B.; Kocurek, Gary; Bourke, Mary

    2010-08-01

    High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery of the central Olympia Undae Dune Field in the north polar region of Mars shows a reticulate dune pattern consisting of two sets of nearly orthogonal dune crestlines, with apparent slipfaces on the primary crests, ubiquitous wind ripples, areas of coarse-grained wind ripples, and deflated interdune areas. Geomorphic evidence and dune field pattern analysis of dune crest length, spacing, defect density, and orientation indicates that the pattern is complex, representing two constructional generations of dunes. The oldest and best-organized generation forms the primary crestlines and is transverse to circumpolar easterly winds. Gross bed form-normal analysis of the younger pattern of crestlines indicates that it emerged with both circumpolar easterly winds and NE winds and is reworking the older pattern. Mapping of secondary flow fields over the dunes indicates that the most recent transporting winds were from the NE. The younger pattern appears to represent an influx of sediment to the dune field associated with the development of the Olympia Cavi reentrant, with NE katabatic winds channeling through the reentrant. A model of the pattern reformation based upon the reconstructed primary winds and resulting secondary flow fields shows that the development of the secondary pattern is controlled by the boundary condition of the older dune topography.

  17. Interactive flow field around two Savonius turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigetomi, Akinari; Murai, Yuichi; Tasaka, Yuji; Takeda, Yasushi [Laboratory for Flow Control, Division of Energy and Environmental System, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13W8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    The use of a Savonius type of vertical axis wind turbine is expanding in urban environments as a result of its ability to withstand turbulence as well as its relatively quiet operation. In the past, single turbine performance has been investigated primarily for determining the optimum blade configuration. In contrast, combining multiple Savonius turbines in the horizontal plane produces extra power in particular configurations. This results from the interaction between the two flow fields around individual turbines. To understand quantitatively the interaction mechanism, we measured the flow field around two Savonius turbines in close configurations using particle image velocimetry. The phase-averaged flow fields with respect to the rotation angle of the turbines revealed two types of power-improvement interactions. One comes from the Magnus effect that bends the main stream behind the turbine to provide additional rotation of the downstream turbine. The other is obtained from the periodic coupling of local flow between the two turbines, which is associated with vortex shedding and cyclic pressure fluctuations. Use of this knowledge will assist the design of packaged installations of multiple Savonius turbines. (author)

  18. Turbulent wind field characterization and re-generation based on pitot tube measurements mounted on a wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard; Larsen, Torben J.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2015-01-01

    models that compensate for axial and tangential induction, approximated by blade element momentum theory, radial expansion of the inflow, rotor tilt, dynamic and skew inflow, tip loss, as well as braking and circulation of the flow local to the airfoil. The wind speeds measured on the rotating blades...... the measured wind speeds at the recording position. In the theoretical part of this study a quite good agreement is seen between load sensors on a turbine model exposed to the reference and the re-generated turbulence field. Finally the method is applied to full scale measurements and reasonable wind shear...

  19. Wind field forecast for accidental release of radiative materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Ling; Chen Jiayi; Cai Xuhui

    2003-01-01

    A meso-scale wind field forecast model was designed for emergency environmental assessment in case of accidental release of radiative materials from a nuclear power station. Actual practice of the model showed that it runs fast, has wind field prediction function, and the result given is accurate. With meteorological data collected from weather stations, and pre-treated by a wind field diagnostic model, the initial wind fields at different times were inputted as initial values and assimilation fields for the forecasting model. The model, in turn, worked out to forecast meso-scale wind field of 24 hours in a horizontal domain of 205 km x 205 km. And then, the diagnostic model was employed again with the forecasting data to obtain more detail information of disturbed wind field by local terrain in a smaller domain of 20.5 km x 20.5 km, of which the nuclear power station is at the center. Using observation data in January, April, July and October of 1996 over the area of Hangzhou Bay, wind fields in these 4 months were simulated by different assimilation time and number of the weather stations for a sensitive test. Results indicated that the method used here has increased accuracy of the forecasted wind fields. And incorporating diagnostic method with the wind field forecast model has greatly increased efficiency of the wind field forecast for the smaller domain. This model and scheme have been used in Environmental Consequence Assessment System of Nuclear Accident in Qinshan Area

  20. Hydrodynamical wind in magnetized accretion flows with convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbassi, Shahram; Mosallanezhad, Amin

    2012-01-01

    The existence of outflow and magnetic fields in the inner region of hot accretion flows has been confirmed by observations and numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. We present self-similar solutions for radiatively inefficient accretion flows (RIAFs) around black holes in the presence of outflow and a global magnetic field. The influence of outflow is taken into account by adopting a radius that depends on mass accretion rate M-dot = M-dot 0 (r/r 0 ) s with s > 0. We also consider convection through a mixing length formula to calculate convection parameter α con . Moreover we consider the additional magnetic field parameters β r,φ,z [ = c 2 r,φ,z /(2c 2 s )], where c 2 r,φ,z are the Alfvén sound speeds in three directions of cylindrical coordinates. Our numerical results show that by increasing all components of the magnetic field, the surface density and rotational velocity increase, but the sound speed and radial infall velocity of the disk decrease. We have also found that the existence of wind will lead to reduction of surface density as well as rotational velocity. Moreover, the radial velocity, sound speed, advection parameter and the vertical thickness of the disk will increase when outflow becomes important in the RIAF. (research papers)

  1. Flow separation on wind turbines blades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, G.P.

    2001-01-01

    In the year 2000, 15GW of wind power was installed throughout the world, producing 100PJ of energy annually. This contributes to the total electricity demand by only 0.2%. Both the installed power and the generated energy are increasing by 30% per year world-wide. If the airflow over wind turbine

  2. Wind-Induced Air-Flow Patterns in an Urban Setting: Observations and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Ahmed M. A.; Elhakeem, Mohamed; Gerges, Bishoy N.; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Gultepe, Ismail

    2018-04-01

    City planning can have a significant effect on wind flow velocity patterns and thus natural ventilation. Buildings with different heights are roughness elements that can affect the near- and far-field wind flow velocity. This paper aims at investigating the impact of an increase in building height on the nearby velocity fields. A prototype urban setting of buildings with two different heights (25 and 62.5 cm) is built up and placed in a wind tunnel. Wind flow velocity around the buildings is mapped at different heights. Wind tunnel measurements are used to validate a 3D-numerical Reynolds averaged Naviers-Stokes model. The validated model is further used to calculate the wind flow velocity patterns for cases with different building heights. It was found that increasing the height of some buildings in an urban setting can lead to the formation of large horseshoe vortices and eddies around building corners. A separation area is formed at the leeward side of the building, and the recirculation of air behind the building leads to the formation of slow rotation vortices. The opposite effect is observed in the wake (cavity) region of the buildings, where both the cavity length and width are significantly reduced, and this resulted in a pronounced increase in the wind flow velocity. A significant increase in the wind flow velocity in the wake region of tall buildings with a value of up to 30% is observed. The spatially averaged velocities around short buildings also increased by 25% compared to those around buildings with different heights. The increase in the height of some buildings is found to have a positive effect on the wind ventilation at the pedestrian level.

  3. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields (nonsteady winds)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques to predict the dynamic response and the structural dynamic loads of flat plate photovoltaic arrays due to wind turbulence were analyzed. Guidelines for use in predicting the turbulent portion of the wind loading on future similar arrays are presented. The dynamic response and the loads dynamic magnification factor of the two array configurations are similar. The magnification factors at a mid chord and outer chord location on the array illustrated and at four points on the chord are shown. The wind tunnel test experimental rms pressure coefficient on which magnification factors are based is shown. It is found that the largest response and dynamic magnification factor occur at a mid chord location on an array and near the trailing edge. A technique employing these magnification factors and the wind tunnel test rms fluctuating pressure coefficients to calculate design pressure loads due to wind turbulence is presented.

  4. Wind field re-construction of 3D Wake measurements from a turbine-installed scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Herges, Tommy; Astrup, Poul

    High-resolution wake flow measurements obtained from a turbine-mounted scanning lidar have been obtained from 1D to 5D behind a V27 test turbine. The measured line-of-sight projected wind speeds have, in connection with a fast CFD wind field reconstruction model, been used to generate 3D wind fie...

  5. Power and loads for wind turbines in yawed conditions. Analysis of field measurements and aerodynamic predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorsma, K. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    A description is given of the work carried out within the framework of the FLOW (Far and Large Offshore Wind) project on single turbine performance in yawed flow conditions. Hereto both field measurements as well as calculations with an aerodynamic code are analyzed. The rotors of horizontal axis wind turbines follow the changes in the wind direction for optimal performance. The reason is that the power is expected to decrease for badly oriented rotors. So, insight in the effects of the yaw angle on performance is important for optimization of the yaw control of each individual turbine. The effect of misalignment on performance and loads of a single 2.5 MW wind turbine during normal operation is investigated. Hereto measurements at the ECN Wind Turbine Test Site Wieringermeer (EWTW) are analyzed from December 2004 until April 2009. Also, the influence of yaw is studied using a design code and results from this design code are compared with wind tunnel measurements.

  6. The Astrobiology Field Guide in World Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalice, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    In collaboration with the Australian Centre for Astrobiology (ACA), and NASA Learning Technologies (NLT), and utilizing the powerful visualization capabilities of their "World Wind" software, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) is crafting a prototype "Astrobiology Field Guide" to bring the field experiences and stories of astrobiology science to the public and classrooms around the world. The prototype focuses on one region in particular - The Pilbara in Western Australia. This first Field Guide "hotspot" is an internationally recognized area hosting the best known example of the earliest evidence of life on Earth - a stromatolitic chert precipitation in the 3.45 Ga Warrawoona Group. The goal of the Astrobiology Field Guide is to engage students of all ages with the ongoing field expeditions of today's astrobiologists as they explore the ends of the Earth searching for clues to life's origin, evolution, and distribution in the Universe. The NAI hopes to expand this Field Guide to include many more astrobiologically relevant areas across the globe such as Cuatro Cienegas in Mexico, the Rio Tinto in Spain, Yellowstone National Park in the US, and the Lost City hydrothermal vent field on the mid-Atlantic ridge - and possibly sites on Mars. To that end, we will be conducting feasibility studies and evaluations with informal and formal education contacts. The Astrobiology Field Guide is also serving as a cornerstone to educational materials being developed focused on the Pilbara region for use in classrooms in Australia, the UK, and potentially the US. These materials are being developed by the Australian Centre for Astrobiology, and the ICT Innovations Centre at Macquarie University in Sydney, in collaboration with the NAI and the Centre for Astronomy and Science Education at the University of Glamorgan in the UK.

  7. Wind-Driven Ecological Flow Regimes Downstream from Hydropower Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, J.; Characklis, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    Conventional hydropower can be turned on and off quicker and less expensively than thermal generation (coal, nuclear, or natural gas). These advantages enable hydropower utilities to respond to rapid fluctuations in energy supply and demand. More recently, a growing renewable energy sector has underlined the need for flexible generation capacity that can complement intermittent renewable resources such as wind power. While wind power entails lower variable costs than other types of generation, incorporating it into electric power systems can be problematic. Due to variable and unpredictable wind speeds, wind power is difficult to schedule and must be used when available. As a result, integrating large amounts of wind power into the grid may result in atypical, swiftly changing demand patterns for other forms of generation, placing a premium on sources that can be rapidly ramped up and down. Moreover, uncertainty in wind power forecasts will stipulate increased levels of 'reserve' generation capacity that can respond quickly if real-time wind supply is less than expected. These changes could create new hourly price dynamics for energy and reserves, altering the short-term financial signals that hydroelectric dam operators use to schedule water releases. Traditionally, hourly stream flow patterns below hydropower dams have corresponded in a very predictable manner to electricity demand, whose primary factors are weather (hourly temperature) and economic activity (workday hours). Wind power integration has the potential to yield more variable, less predictable flows at hydro dams, flows that at times could resemble reciprocal wind patterns. An existing body of research explores the impacts of standard, demand-following hydroelectric dams on downstream ecological flows; but weighing the benefits of increased reliance on wind power against further impacts to ecological flows may be a novel challenge for the environmental community. As a preliminary step in meeting this

  8. Experimental Studies on the Effects of Thermal Bumps in the Flow-Field around a Flat Plate using a Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Bakelite Hylem F1361, which is a thermosetting plastic consisting of a medium weave fabric reinforced laminate with Melamine resin binder. This composite...can be used for high-speed flow control. The laser ablation was conducted on the aluminium alloy plate inside a pressure chamber, where the

  9. Numerical Investigation of the Turbulent Wind Flow Through Elevated Windbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashish; Irtaza, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of airflow through elevated windbreaks is presented in this paper. Permeable nets and impermeable film increases considerable wind forces on the windbreaks which is susceptible to damage during high wind. A comprehensive numerical investigation has been carried out to analyze the effects of wind on standalone elevated windbreak clad with various permeable nets and an impermeable film. The variation of airflow behavior around and through permeable nets and airflow behavior around impermeable film were also been investigated. Computational fluid dynamics techniques using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations has been used to predict the wind force coefficient and thus wind forces on panels supporting permeable nets and impermeable film for turbulent wind flow. Elevated windbreak panels were analyzed for seven different permeable nets having various solidity ratio, specific permeability and aerodynamic resistant coefficients. The permeable nets were modelled as porous jump media obeying Forchheimer's law and an impermeable film modelled as rigid wall.

  10. Numerical Investigation of the Turbulent Wind Flow Through Elevated Windbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashish; Irtaza, Hassan

    2018-06-01

    Analysis of airflow through elevated windbreaks is presented in this paper. Permeable nets and impermeable film increases considerable wind forces on the windbreaks which is susceptible to damage during high wind. A comprehensive numerical investigation has been carried out to analyze the effects of wind on standalone elevated windbreak clad with various permeable nets and an impermeable film. The variation of airflow behavior around and through permeable nets and airflow behavior around impermeable film were also been investigated. Computational fluid dynamics techniques using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations has been used to predict the wind force coefficient and thus wind forces on panels supporting permeable nets and impermeable film for turbulent wind flow. Elevated windbreak panels were analyzed for seven different permeable nets having various solidity ratio, specific permeability and aerodynamic resistant coefficients. The permeable nets were modelled as porous jump media obeying Forchheimer's law and an impermeable film modelled as rigid wall.

  11. A numerical study on the flow upstream of a wind turbine on complex terran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul; Bechmann, Andreas; Troldborg, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of a wind turbine with the upstream flow-field in complex and flat terrain is studied using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations with a two equation turbulence closure. The complex site modelled is Perdigao (Portugal), where a turbine is located on one of two parallel...... the wind turbine wake trajectory which in turn governs the orientation of the induction zone...

  12. Performing wind-tunnel modeling for better management of near-field risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ju-Chrong; Weber, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    All industrial complexes must be able to demonstrate that air pollutant concentrations from normal and accidental releases are within the bounds of stringent acceptance criteria. The offsite concentrations are comparatively easy to compute with the standard Gaussian models. By contrast, the onsite (in particular, near-field) concentrations can be more complex since the wind flows can interact with various structures in complex ways to create regions of relatively high local concentrations. Three methods can be used to predict the air pollutant concentrations: (1) mathematical models, (2) field experiments, and (3) fluid models (wind-tunnel testing). The complex flow in the vicinity of buildings is not amenable to simple mathematical generalizations. Field experiments cannot encompass the wind spectrum of meteorological conditions in the time generally allotted. Wind tunnel testing works best where numerical models fail and field testing is not applicable. This paper covers the following aspects related to the wind-tunnel modeling studies: (1) planning strategies; (2) types of wind-tunnel modeling studies flow visualization and concentration measurement experiments; (3) highlights (video tape show) of the wind tunnel experiments; (4) technical challenges; and (5) various applications

  13. Field Tests of Wind Turbine Unit with Tandem Wind Rotors and Double Rotational Armatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Ahmed Mohamed; Kanemoto, Toshiaki

    This paper discusses the field tests of the wind turbine unit, in which the front and the rear wind rotors drive the inner and the outer armatures of the synchronous generator. The wind rotors were designed conveniently by the traditional procedure for the single wind rotor, where the diameters of the front and the rear wind rotors are 2 m and 1.33 m. The tests were done on a pick-up type truck driven straightly at constant speed. The rotational torque of the unit is directly proportional to the induced electric current irrespective of the rotational speeds of the wind rotors, while the induced voltage is proportional to the relative rotational speed. The performance of the unit is significantly affected not only by the wind velocity, but also by the blade setting angles of both wind rotors and the applied load especially at lower wind velocity.

  14. Static and wind tunnel near-field/far-field jet noise measurements from model scale single-flow base line and suppressor nozzles. Summary report. [conducted in the Boeing large anechoic test chamber and the NASA-Ames 40by 80-foot wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeck, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    A test program was conducted in the Boeing large anechoic test chamber and the NASA-Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel to study the near- and far-field jet noise characteristics of six baseline and suppressor nozzles. Static and wind-on noise source locations were determined. A technique for extrapolating near field jet noise measurements into the far field was established. It was determined if flight effects measured in the near field are the same as those in the far field. The flight effects on the jet noise levels of the baseline and suppressor nozzles were determined. Test models included a 15.24-cm round convergent nozzle, an annular nozzle with and without ejector, a 20-lobe nozzle with and without ejector, and a 57-tube nozzle with lined ejector. The static free-field test in the anechoic chamber covered nozzle pressure ratios from 1.44 to 2.25 and jet velocities from 412 to 594 m/s at a total temperature of 844 K. The wind tunnel flight effects test repeated these nozzle test conditions with ambient velocities of 0 to 92 m/s.

  15. Lidar-based reconstruction of wind fields and application for wind turbine control

    OpenAIRE

    Kapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis horizontal, upwind scanning lidar systems of the focused continuous-wave type are regarded for wind turbines. The theory of wind field reconstruction is extended to a five parameter model describing the inflow in non-uniform conditions more accurately. Sensor requirements are derived. A new approach to spherically scan the inflow area is studied experimentally. Expected inaccuracies of the averaged wind direction signal in a wind farm environment are quantified and spatial inho...

  16. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an experimental analysis (boundary layer wind tunnel test) of the aerodynamic forces resulting from winds acting on flat plate photovoltaic arrays are presented. Local pressure coefficient distributions and normal force coefficients on the arrays are shown and compared to theoretical results. Parameters that were varied when determining the aerodynamic forces included tilt angle, array separation, ground clearance, protective wind barriers, and the effect of the wind velocity profile. Recommended design wind forces and pressures are presented, which envelop the test results for winds perpendicular to the array's longitudinal axis. This wind direction produces the maximum wind loads on the arrays except at the array edge where oblique winds produce larger edge pressure loads. The arrays located at the outer boundary of an array field have a protective influence on the interior arrays of the field. A significant decrease of the array wind loads were recorded in the wind tunnel test on array panels located behind a fence and/or interior to the array field compared to the arrays on the boundary and unprotected from the wind. The magnitude of this decrease was the same whether caused by a fence or upwind arrays.

  17. Heat transfer enhancement in a convective field by applying ionic wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Y.; Takimoto, A.; Hayashi, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that this study has been conducted to pursue the heat transfer enhancement in a convective field by applying electric field. Firstly, aimed at thinning boundary layer, swirl motions were caused by utilizing the ionic wind in a channel flow with parallel wire-electrode arrangement. Secondly, ionic wind was induced at right angle to the primary flow at regular intervals by using cross wire-electrode arrangement. Thirdly, to utilize the dynamical effect of adding particles under the Coulomb force, electric field was applied to gas-solid suspensions flow field. On the basis of these results, fundamental characteristics of the combined flow structure and the heat transfer in the EHD field were clarified, and the possibility of the practical application will be insighted

  18. Bidirectional ionic wind in nonpremixed counterflow flames with DC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Daegeun

    2016-05-05

    Under an electric field, ions in the reaction zone of a flame generate a bulk flow motion called ionic wind. Because the majority of ions are positive, ionic wind is commonly considered to be unidirectional toward the cathode. A more thorough understanding of the effects of electric fields on flames could be obtained by clarifying the role of minor negative ions in the ionic wind. Here, we report on the effects of direct current on nonpremixed counterflow flames by visualizing the ionic wind. We found that the original flow field separates near the flame when it locates at a flow stagnation plane, resulting in a double-stagnant flow configuration. This evidences a bidirectional ionic wind blowing from the flame to both the cathode and the anode due to the positive and the negative ions, respectively. Meanwhile, an electric body force pulls the flame toward the cathode. Thus, the electric field affects the strain rate and the axial location of the stoichiometry, which are important for characterizing nonpremixed counterflow flames. In addition, measurement of the electric current density roughly showed a nearly saturated current when these flames restabilized under relatively high voltage. Detailed explanations of flame behavior, electric currents, and flow characteristics of various fuels are discussed in this study.

  19. Ripple Field AC Losses in 10-MW Wind Turbine Generators With a MgB2 Superconducting Field Winding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Magnusson, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) synchronous generators are proposed as a promising candidate for 10-20-MW direct-drive wind turbines because they can have low weights and small sizes. A common way of designing an SC machine is to use SC wires with high current-carrying capability in the dc field winding...... and the ac armature winding is made with copper conductors. In such generators, the dc field winding is exposed to ac magnetic field ripples due to space harmonics from the armature. In generator design phases, the ac loss caused by these ripple fields needs to be evaluated to avoid local overheating...... and an excessive cooling budget. To determine the applicability of different design solutions in terms of ac losses, this paper estimates the ac loss level of 10-MW wind generator designs employing a MgB2 SC field winding. The effects on ac losses are compared between nonmagnetic and ferromagnetic teeth...

  20. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows in Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak

    This research is devoted to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), and to lesser extent, wind tunnel measurements of turbulent flows in wind energy. It starts with an introduction to the LES technique associated with the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, discretized using a finite......, should the mesh resolution, numerical discretization scheme, time averaging period, and domain size be chosen wisely. A thorough investigation of the wind turbine wake interactions is also conducted and the simulations are validated against available experimental data from external sources. The effect...... Reynolds numbers, and thereafter, the fully-developed infinite wind farm boundary later simulations are performed. Sources of inaccuracy in the simulations are investigated and it is found that high Reynolds number flows are more sensitive to the choice of the SGS model than their low Reynolds number...

  1. Calculation of Wind Power Limit adjusting the Continuation Power Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Fuentefria, Ariel; Castro Fernández, Miguel; Martínez García, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The wind power insertion in the power system is an important issue and can create some instability problems in voltage and system frequency due to stochastic origin of wind. Know the Wind Power Limit is a very important matter. Existing in bibliography a few methods for calculation of wind power limit. The calculation is based in static constrains, dynamic constraints or both. In this paper is developed a method for the calculation of wind power limit using some adjust in the continuation power flow, and having into account the static constrains. The method is complemented with Minimal Power Production Criterion. The method is proved in the Isla de la Juventud Electric System. The software used in the simulations was the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT). (author)

  2. Conductive solar wind models in rapidly diverging flow geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, T.E.; Leer, E.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed parameter study of conductive models of the solar wind has been carried out, extending the previous similar studies of Durney (1972) and Durney and Hundhausen (1974) by considering collisionless inhibition of thermal conduction, rapidly diverging flow geometries, and the structure of solutions for the entire n 0 -T 0 plane (n 0 and T 0 are the coronal base density and temperature). Primary emphasis is placed on understanding the complex effects of the physical processes operative in conductive solar wind models. There are five points of particular interest that have arisen from the study: (1) neither collisionless inhibition of thermal conduction nor rapidly diverging flow geometries can significantly increase the solar wind speed at 1 AU; (2) there exists a firm upper limit on the coronal base temperature consistent with observed values of the coronal base pressure and solar wind mass flux density; (3) the principal effect of rapidly diverging flow geometries is a decrease in the solar wind mass flux density at 1 AU and an increase in the mass flux density at the coronal base; (4) collisionless inhibition of thermal conduction can lead to a solar wind flow speed that either increases or decreases with increasing coronal base density (n 0 ) and temperature (T 0 , depending on the region of the n 0 -T 0 plane considered; (5) there is a region of the n 0 -T/sub o/ plane at high coronal base densities where low-speed, high-mass-flux, transonic solar wind flows exist: a region not previously considered

  3. IEA-Task 31 WAKEBENCH: Towards a protocol for wind farm flow model evaluation. Part 2: Wind farm wake models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Sanz Rodrigo, Javier; Gancarski, Pawel; Chuchfield, Matthew; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Hansen, Kurt S.; Machefaux, Ewan; Maguire, Eoghan; Castellani, Francesco; Terzi, Ludovico; Breton, Simon-Philippe; Ueda, Yuko

    2014-06-01

    Researchers within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 31: Wakebench have created a framework for the evaluation of wind farm flow models operating at the microscale level. The framework consists of a model evaluation protocol integrated with a web-based portal for model benchmarking (www.windbench.net). This paper provides an overview of the building-block validation approach applied to wind farm wake models, including best practices for the benchmarking and data processing procedures for validation datasets from wind farm SCADA and meteorological databases. A hierarchy of test cases has been proposed for wake model evaluation, from similarity theory of the axisymmetric wake and idealized infinite wind farm, to single-wake wind tunnel (UMN-EPFL) and field experiments (Sexbierum), to wind farm arrays in offshore (Horns Rev, Lillgrund) and complex terrain conditions (San Gregorio). A summary of results from the axisymmetric wake, Sexbierum, Horns Rev and Lillgrund benchmarks are used to discuss the state-of-the-art of wake model validation and highlight the most relevant issues for future development.

  4. IEA-Task 31 WAKEBENCH: Towards a protocol for wind farm flow model evaluation. Part 2: Wind farm wake models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Rodrigo, Javier Sanz; Gancarski, Pawel; Chuchfield, Matthew; Naughton, Jonathan W; Hansen, Kurt S; Machefaux, Ewan; Maguire, Eoghan; Castellani, Francesco; Terzi, Ludovico; Breton, Simon-Philippe; Ueda, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Researchers within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 31: Wakebench have created a framework for the evaluation of wind farm flow models operating at the microscale level. The framework consists of a model evaluation protocol integrated with a web-based portal for model benchmarking (www.windbench.net). This paper provides an overview of the building-block validation approach applied to wind farm wake models, including best practices for the benchmarking and data processing procedures for validation datasets from wind farm SCADA and meteorological databases. A hierarchy of test cases has been proposed for wake model evaluation, from similarity theory of the axisymmetric wake and idealized infinite wind farm, to single-wake wind tunnel (UMN-EPFL) and field experiments (Sexbierum), to wind farm arrays in offshore (Horns Rev, Lillgrund) and complex terrain conditions (San Gregorio). A summary of results from the axisymmetric wake, Sexbierum, Horns Rev and Lillgrund benchmarks are used to discuss the state-of-the-art of wake model validation and highlight the most relevant issues for future development

  5. Field test of a lidar wind profiler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Wind speeds and wind directions are measured remotely using an incoherent backscatter lidar system operating at a wavelength of 1.06 mm with a maximum repetition rate of 13 Hz. The principle of the measurements is based on following detectable atmospheric structures, which are transported by the

  6. Spatial-temporal analysis of coherent offshore wind field structures measured by scanning Doppler-lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valldecabres, L.; Friedrichs, W.; von Bremen, L.; Kühn, M.

    2016-09-01

    An analysis of the spatial and temporal power fluctuations of a simplified wind farm model is conducted on four offshore wind fields data sets, two from lidar measurements and two from LES under unstable and neutral atmospheric conditions. The integral length scales of the horizontal wind speed computed in the streamwise and the cross-stream direction revealed the elongation of the structures in the direction of the mean flow. To analyse the effect of the structures on the power output of a wind turbine, the aggregated equivalent power of two wind turbines with different turbine spacing in the streamwise and cross-stream direction is analysed at different time scales under 10 minutes. The fact of considering the summation of the power of two wind turbines smooths out the fluctuations of the power output of a single wind turbine. This effect, which is stronger with increasing spacing between turbines, can be seen in the aggregation of the power of two wind turbines in the streamwise direction. Due to the anti-correlation of the coherent structures in the cross-stream direction, this smoothing effect is stronger when the aggregated power is computed with two wind turbines aligned orthogonally to the mean flow direction.

  7. Aerodynamic flow simulation of wind turbine: Downwind versus upwind configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janajreh, Isam; Qudaih, Rana; Talab, Ilham; Ghenai, Chaouki

    2010-01-01

    Large scale wind turbines and wind farms continue to grow mounting 94.1 GW of the electrical grid capacity in 2007 and expected to reach 160.0 GW in 2010. Wind energy plays a vital role in the quest for renewable and sustainable energy as well as in reducing carbon emission. Early generation wind turbines (windmills) were used mainly for water pumping and seed grinding, whereas today they generate 1/5 of the current Denmark's electricity and will double its grid capacity reaching 12.5% in 2010. Wind energy is plentiful (72 TW estimated to be commercially viable) and clean while its intensive capital cost still impede widespread deployment. However, there are technological challenges, i.e. high fatigue load, noise emission, and meeting stringent reliability and safety standards. Newer inventions, e.g., downstream wind turbines and flapping rotor blades, are sought to enhance their performance, i.e. lower turning moments and cut-in speed and to absorb portion of the cost due to the absent of yaw mechanisms. In this work, numerical analysis of the downstream wind turbine blade is conducted. In particular, the interaction between the tower and the rotor passage is investigated. Circular cross sectional tower and aerofoil shapes are considered in a staggered configuration and under cross-stream motion. The resulting blade static pressure and aerodynamic forces are computed at different incident wind angles and wind speeds. The computed forces are compared to the conventional upstream wind turbine. Steady state and transient, incompressible, viscous Navier-Stokes and turbulent flow analysis are employed. The k-epsilon model is utilized as the turbulence closure. The passage of the rotor blade is governed by ALE and is represented numerically as a sliding mesh against the upstream fixed tower domain.

  8. Using wind speed from a blade-mounted flow sensor for power and load assessment on modern wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads M.; Larsen, Torben J.; Madsen, Helge Aa

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an alternative method to evaluate power performance and loads on wind turbines using a blade-mounted flow sensor is investigated. The hypothesis is that the wind speed measured at the blades has a high correlation with the power and loads such that a power or load assessment can...... be performed from a few hours or days of measurements. In the present study a blade-mounted five-hole pitot tube is used as the flow sensor as an alternative to the conventional approach, where the reference wind speed is either measured at a nearby met mast or on the nacelle using lidar technology or cup...... anemometers. From the flow sensor measurements, an accurate estimate of the wind speed at the rotor plane can be obtained. This wind speed is disturbed by the presence of the wind turbine, and it is therefore different from the free-flow wind speed. However, the recorded wind speed has a high correlation...

  9. Wake flow control using a dynamically controlled wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ricardo; Wang, Yeqin; Pol, Suhas; Swift, Andy; Hussain, Fazle; Westergaard, Carsten; Texas Tech University Team

    2016-11-01

    A wind tunnel based "Hyper Accelerated Wind Farm Kinematic-Control Simulator" (HAWKS) is being built at Texas Tech University to emulate controlled wind turbine flow physics. The HAWKS model turbine has pitch, yaw and speed control which is operated in real model time, similar to that of an equivalent full scale turbine. Also, similar to that of a full scale wind turbine, the controls are developed in a Matlab Simulink environment. The current diagnostic system consists of power, rotor position, rotor speed measurements and PIV wake characterization with four cameras. The setup allows up to 7D downstream of the rotor to be mapped. The purpose of HAWKS is to simulate control strategies at turnaround times much faster than CFD and full scale testing. The fundamental building blocks of the simulator have been tested, and demonstrate wake steering for both static and dynamic turbine actuation. Parameters which have been studied are yaw, rotor speed and combinations hereof. The measured wake deflections for static yaw cases are in agreement with previously reported research implying general applicability of the HAWKS platform for the purpose of manipulating the wake. In this presentation the general results will be introduced followed by an analysis of the wake turbulence and coherent structures when comparing static and dynamic flow cases. The outcome of such studies could ultimately support effective wind farm wake flow control strategies. Texas Emerging Technology Fund (ETF).

  10. Reattachment Zone Characterisation Under Offshore Winds With Flow Separation On The Lee Side Of Coastal Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Jackson, D.; Cooper, J. A.; Baas, A. C.; Lynch, K.; Beyers, M.

    2010-12-01

    Airflow separation, lee-side eddies and secondary flows play an essential role on the formation and maintenance of sand dunes. Downstream from dune crests the flow surface layer detaches from the ground and generates an area characterised by turbulent eddies in the dune lee slope (the wake). At some distance downstream from the dune crest, flow separates into a reversed component directed toward the dune toe and an offshore “re-attached” component. This reattachment zone (RZ) has been documented in fluvial and desert environments, wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations, but not yet characterised in coastal dunes. This study examines the extent and temporal evolution of the RZ and its implications for beach-dune interaction at Magilligan, Northern Ireland. Wind parameters were measured over a profile extending from an 11 m height dune crest towards the beach, covering a total distance of 65 m cross-shore. Data was collected using an array of nine ultrasonic anemometers (UAs) deployed in April-May 2010, as part of a larger experiment to capture airflow data under a range of incident wind velocities and offshore directions. UAs were located along the profile (5 m tower spacing) over the beach, which allowed a detailed examination of the RZ with empirical data. Numerical modelling using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software was also conducted with input data from anemometer field measurements, running over a surface mesh generated from LiDAR and DGPS surveys. Results demonstrate that there is a wind threshold of approximately 5-6 ms-1 under which no flow separation exists with offshore winds. As wind speed increases over the threshold, a flow reversal area is quickly formed, with the maximum extent of the RZ at approximately 3.5 dune heights (h). The maximum extent of the RZ increases up to 4.5h with stronger wind speeds of 8-10 ms-1 and remains relatively constant as wind speed further increases. This suggests that the spatial extent of the RZ is

  11. Visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1991-01-01

    Methods of automating the analysis and display of vector field topology in general and flow topology in particular are discussed. Two-dimensional vector field topology is reviewed as the basis for the examination of topology in three-dimensional separated flows. The use of tangent surfaces and clipping in visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows is addressed.

  12. Improvement of wind field hindcasts for tropical cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the improvement of wind field hindcasts for two typical tropical cyclones, i.e., Fanapi and Meranti, which occurred in 2010. The performance of the three existing models for the hindcasting of cyclone wind fields is first examined, and then two modification methods are proposed to improve the hindcasted results. The first one is the superposition method, which superposes the wind field calculated from the parametric cyclone model on that obtained from the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP reanalysis data. The radius used for the superposition is based on an analysis of the minimum difference between the two wind fields. The other one is the direct modification method, which directly modifies the CCMP reanalysis data according to the ratio of the measured maximum wind speed to the reanalyzed value as well as the distance from the cyclone center. Using these two methods, the problem of underestimation of strong winds in reanalysis data can be overcome. Both methods show considerable improvements in the hindcasting of tropical cyclone wind fields, compared with the cyclone wind model and the reanalysis data.

  13. Improvement of wind field hindcasts for tropical cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the improvement of wind field hindcasts for two typical tropical cyclones, i.e., Fanapi and Meranti, which occurred in 2010. The performance of the three existing models for the hindcasting of cyclone wind fields is first examined, and then two modification methods are proposed to improve the hindcasted results. The first one is the superposition method, which superposes the wind field calculated from the parametric cyclone model on that obtained from the cross-calibrated multi-platform (CCMP reanalysis data. The radius used for the superposition is based on an analysis of the minimum difference between the two wind fields. The other one is the direct modification method, which directly modifies the CCMP reanalysis data according to the ratio of the measured maximum wind speed to the reanalyzed value as well as the distance from the cyclone center. Using these two methods, the problem of underestimation of strong winds in reanalysis data can be overcome. Both methods show considerable improvements in the hindcasting of tropical cyclone wind fields, compared with the cyclone wind model and the reanalysis data.

  14. Wind Characteristics of Coastal and Inland Surface Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Chelakara; Lazarus, Steven; Jin, Tetsuya

    2015-11-01

    Lidar measurements of the winds in the surface layer (up to 80 m) inland and near the beach are studied to better characterize the velocity profile and the effect of roughness. Mean and root-mean-squared profiles of horizontal and vertical wind components are analyzed. The effects of variable time (18, 60 and 600 seconds) averaging on the above profiles are discussed. The validity of common surface layer wind profile models to estimate skin friction drag is assessed in light of these measurements. Other turbulence statistics such as auto- and cross- correlations in spatial and temporal domains are also presented. The help of FIT DMES field measurement crew is acknowledged.

  15. Fast Multilevel Panel Method for Wind Turbine Rotor Flow Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Garrel, Arne; Venner, Cornelis H.; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie

    2017-01-01

    A fast multilevel integral transform method has been developed that enables the rapid analysis of unsteady inviscid flows around wind turbines rotors. A low order panel method is used and the new multi-level multi-integration cluster (MLMIC) method reduces the computational complexity for

  16. Numerical simulation of flow field in cooling tower of passive residual heat removal system of HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaowei; Zhang Li; Wu Xinxin; He Shuyan

    2011-01-01

    Environmental wind will influence the working conditions of natural convection cooling tower. The velocity and temperature fields in the natural convection cooling tower of the HTGR residual heat removal system at different environmental wind velocities were numerically simulated. The results show that, if there is no wind baffle, the flow in the cooling tower is blocked when environmental wind velocity is higher than 6 m/s, residual heat can hardly be removed, and when wind velocity is higher than 9 m/s, the air even flow downwards in the tower, so wind baffle is very necessary. With the wind baffle installed, the cooling tower works well at the wind speed even higher than 9 m/s. The optimum baffle size and positions are also analyzed. (authors)

  17. AC-DC integrated load flow calculation for variable speed offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a sequential AC-DC integrated load flow algorithm for variable speed offshore wind farms. In this algorithm, the variable frequency and the control strategy of variable speed wind turbine systems are considered. In addition, the losses of wind turbine systems and the losses...... of converters are also integrated into the load flow algorithm. As a general algorithm, it can be applied to different types of wind farm configurations, and the load flow is related to the wind speed....

  18. Aerodynamic structures and processes in rotationally augmented flow fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreck, S.J.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Robinson, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    . Experimental measurements consisted of surface pressure data statistics used to infer sectional boundary layer state and to quantify normal force levels. Computed predictions included high-resolution boundary layer topologies and detailed above-surface flow field structures. This synergy was exploited...... to reliably identify and track pertinent features in the rotating blade boundary layer topology as they evolved in response to varying wind speed. Subsequently, boundary layer state was linked to above-surface flow field structure and used to deduce mechanisms; underlying augmented aerodynamic force...

  19. Hess Tower field study: sonic measurements at a former building-integrated wind farm site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Built in 2010, Hess Tower is a 29-story office building located in the heart of downtown Houston, TX. Unique to the building is a roof structure that was specifically engineered to house ten vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) to partially offset the energy demands of the building. Despite extensive atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind tunnel tests to predict the flow conditions on the roof before the building was constructed, the Hess VAWTs were eventually removed after allegedly one of the turbines failed and fell to the ground. This talk presents in-situ sonic anemometry measurements taken on the roof of Hess Tower at the former turbine locations. We compare this wind field characterization to the ABL wind tunnel data to draw conclusions about building-integrated wind farm performance and prediction capability.

  20. Fan array wind tunnel: a multifunctional, complex environmental flow manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Christopher; Veismann, Marcel; Gharib, Morteza

    2017-11-01

    The recent emergence of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has reshaped the aerospace testing environment. Traditional closed-loop wind tunnels are not particularly suited nor easily retrofit to take advantage of these coordinated, controls-based rotorcraft. As such, a highly configurable, novel wind tunnel aimed at addressing the unmet technical challenges associated with single or formation flight performance of autonomous drone systems is presented. The open-loop fan array wind tunnel features 1296 individually controllable DC fans arranged in a 2.88m x 2.88m array. The fan array can operate with and without a tunnel enclosure and is able to rotate between horizontal and vertical testing configurations. In addition to standard variable speed uniform flow, the fan array can generate both unsteady and shear flows. Through the aid of smaller side fan array units, vortex flows are also possible. Conceptual design, fabrication, and validation of the tunnel performance will be presented, including theoretical and computational predictions of flow speed and turbulence intensity. Validation of these parameters is accomplished through standard pitot-static and hot-wire techniques. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) of various complex flows will also be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the Center for Autonomous Systems and Technologies (CAST) at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories of the California Institute of Technology (GALCIT).

  1. IMPER: Characterization of the wind field over a large wind turbine rotor - final report; Improved performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Wagner, R.

    2012-01-15

    A modern wind turbine rotor with a contemporary rotor size would easily with the tips penetrate the air between 116 m and 30 m and herby experience effects of different wind. With current rules on power performance measurements such as IEC 61400-121 the reference wind speed is measured at hub height, an oversimplification of the wind energy power over the rotor disk area is carried out. The project comprised a number of innovative and coordinated measurements on a full scale turbine with remote sensing technology and simulations on a 500 kW wind turbine for the effects of wind field characterization. The objective with the present report is to give a short overview of the different experiments carried out and results obtained within the final phase of this project. (Author)

  2. Study on the wind field and pollutant dispersion in street canyons using a stable numerical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ji-Yang; Leung, Dennis Y C

    2005-01-01

    A stable finite element method for the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations was used for studying the wind flow and pollutant dispersion within street canyons. A three-step fractional method was used to solve the velocity field and the pressure field separately from the governing equations. The Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method was used to get stable numerical results. Numerical oscillation was minimized and satisfactory results can be obtained for flows at high Reynolds numbers. Simulating the flow over a square cylinder within a wide range of Reynolds numbers validates the wind field model. The Strouhal numbers obtained from the numerical simulation had a good agreement with those obtained from experiment. The wind field model developed in the present study is applied to simulate more complex flow phenomena in street canyons with two different building configurations. The results indicated that the flow at rooftop of buildings might not be assumed parallel to the ground as some numerical modelers did. A counter-clockwise rotating vortex may be found in street canyons with an inflow from the left to right. In addition, increasing building height can increase velocity fluctuations in the street canyon under certain circumstances, which facilitate pollutant dispersion. At high Reynolds numbers, the flow regimes in street canyons do not change with inflow velocity.

  3. INFLUENCE OF THE AMBIENT SOLAR WIND FLOW ON THE PROPAGATION BEHAVIOR OF INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Moestl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M. [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vrsnak, Bojan [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kaciceva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Odstrcil, Dusan [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We study three coronal mass ejection (CME)/interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) events (2008 June 1-6, 2009 February 13-18, and 2010 April 3-5) tracked from Sun to 1 AU in remote-sensing observations of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Heliospheric Imagers and in situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. We focus on the ICME propagation in interplanetary (IP) space that is governed by two forces: the propelling Lorentz force and the drag force. We address the question: which heliospheric distance range does the drag become dominant and the CME adjust to the solar wind flow. To this end, we analyze speed differences between ICMEs and the ambient solar wind flow as a function of distance. The evolution of the ambient solar wind flow is derived from ENLIL three-dimensional MHD model runs using different solar wind models, namely, Wang-Sheeley-Arge and MHD-Around-A-Sphere. Comparing the measured CME kinematics with the solar wind models, we find that the CME speed becomes adjusted to the solar wind speed at very different heliospheric distances in the three events under study: from below 30 R{sub Sun }, to beyond 1 AU, depending on the CME and ambient solar wind characteristics. ENLIL can be used to derive important information about the overall structure of the background solar wind, providing more reliable results during times of low solar activity than during times of high solar activity. The results from this study enable us to obtain greater insight into the forces acting on CMEs over the IP space distance range, which is an important prerequisite for predicting their 1 AU transit times.

  4. INFLUENCE OF THE AMBIENT SOLAR WIND FLOW ON THE PROPAGATION BEHAVIOR OF INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Möstl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M.; Vršnak, Bojan; Odstrčil, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    We study three coronal mass ejection (CME)/interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) events (2008 June 1-6, 2009 February 13-18, and 2010 April 3-5) tracked from Sun to 1 AU in remote-sensing observations of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Heliospheric Imagers and in situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. We focus on the ICME propagation in interplanetary (IP) space that is governed by two forces: the propelling Lorentz force and the drag force. We address the question: which heliospheric distance range does the drag become dominant and the CME adjust to the solar wind flow. To this end, we analyze speed differences between ICMEs and the ambient solar wind flow as a function of distance. The evolution of the ambient solar wind flow is derived from ENLIL three-dimensional MHD model runs using different solar wind models, namely, Wang-Sheeley-Arge and MHD-Around-A-Sphere. Comparing the measured CME kinematics with the solar wind models, we find that the CME speed becomes adjusted to the solar wind speed at very different heliospheric distances in the three events under study: from below 30 R ☉ , to beyond 1 AU, depending on the CME and ambient solar wind characteristics. ENLIL can be used to derive important information about the overall structure of the background solar wind, providing more reliable results during times of low solar activity than during times of high solar activity. The results from this study enable us to obtain greater insight into the forces acting on CMEs over the IP space distance range, which is an important prerequisite for predicting their 1 AU transit times.

  5. A cooling concept for improved field winding performance in large superconducting ac generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskaris, T.E.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical study of a flow circuit for large superconducting generator rotors is presented. The flow circuit provides regulation of the level of liquid in the rotor externally by adjusting the helium supply pressure. It also protects the vapour cooled structural members of the rotor from overcooling during transient periods of operation. Furthermore, it is capable of reducing the winding temperature below 4.2 K thereby enhancing the superconductor's performance. For example, a large generator rotor with NbTi superconducting field winding experiences approximately a 50% increase in its critical current density compared to that at 4.2 K. (author)

  6. Pressure field in measurement section of wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnidka Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The University of Defence in Brno has a new low-speed wind tunnel. In order to confirm the quality of the wind inside of the measurement section, several measurements of the dynamic pressure have been performed with the Pitot-static tube. The pressure fields are then analysed and quality of the field is evaluated. Measurement of a pressure drop on the body of a standing helicopter was conducted.

  7. Wind tunnel study of a vertical axis wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, Vincent; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are in a relatively infant state of development when compared to their cousins the horizontal axis wind turbines. Very few studies have been carried out to characterize the wake flow behind VAWTs, and virtually none to observe the influence of the atmospheric boundary layer. Here we present results from an experiment carried out at the EPFL-WIRE boundary-layer wind tunnel and designed to study the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer flow and a VAWT. Specifically we use stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to observe and quantify the influence of the boundary layer flow on the wake generated by a VAWT, as well as the effect the VAWT has on the boundary layer flow profile downstream. We find that the wake behind the VAWT is strongly asymmetric, due to the varying aerodynamic forces on the blades as they change their position around the rotor. We also find that the wake adds strong turbulence levels to the flow, particularly on the periphery of the wake where vortices and strong velocity gradients are present. The boundary layer is also shown to cause greater momentum to be entrained downwards rather than upwards into the wake.

  8. Airflow over Barchan dunes: field measurements, mathematical modelling and wind tunnel testing

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggs, G. F. S.

    1992-01-01

    There are few empirical measurements of velocity, shear velocity, sand transport, morphological change on the windward slopes of dunes.This thesis compares field measurements on a barchan dune in Oman with calculations using a mathematical model (FLOWSTAR) and measurements in a wind tunnel. All three techniques demonstrate similar patterns of velocity, confirming the acceleration of flow up the windward slope, deceleration between the crest and brink and significant flow decele...

  9. CFD Calculations of the Flow Around a Wind Turbine Nacelle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, J.; Bercebal, D.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to identify the influence of a MADE AE30 wind turbine nacelle on the site calibration anemometer placed on the upper back of the nacelle by means of flow simulations around the nacelle using FLUENT, a Commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code (CFD), which provides modeling capabilities for the simulation of wide range laminar and turbulent fluid flow problems. Different 2D and 3D simulations were accomplished in order to estimate the effects of the complex geometry on the flow behavior. The speed up and braking values of the air flow at the anemometer position are presented for different flow conditions. Finally some conclusions about the accuracy of results are mentioned. (Author) 5 refs

  10. CFD Calculations of the Flow Around a Wind Turbine Nacelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, J.; Bercebal, D. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to identify the influence of a MADE AE30 wind turbine nacelle on the site calibration anemometer placed on the upper back of the nacelle by means of flow simulations around the nacelle using FLUENT, a Commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code (CFD), which provides modeling capabilities for the simulation of wide range laminar and turbulent fluid flow problems. Different 2D and 3D simulations were accomplished in order to estimate the effects of the complex geometry on the flow behavior. The speed up and braking values of the air flow at the anemometer position are presented for different flow conditions. Finally some conclusions about the accuracy of results are mentioned. (Author) 5 refs.

  11. Improving Ambient Wind Environments of a Cross-flow Wind Turbine near a Structure by using an Inlet Guide Structure and a Flow Deflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tadakazu TANINO; Shinichiro NAKAO; Genki UEBAYASHI

    2005-01-01

    A cross-flow wind turbine near a structure was tested for the performance. The results showed that the performance of a cross-flow wind turbine near a structure was up to 30% higher than the one without a structure.In addition, we tried to get higher performance of a cross-flow wind turbine by using an Inlet Guide Structure and a Flow Deflector. An Inlet Guide Structure was placed on the edge of a structure and a Flow Deflector was set near a cross-flow wind turbine and can improve ambient wind environments of the wind turbine, the maximum power coefficients were about 15 to 40% higher and the tip speed ratio range showing the high power coefficient was wide and the positive gradients were steep apparently.

  12. Increasing power generation in horizontal axis wind turbines using optimized flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, John A., Jr.

    In order to effectively realize future goals for wind energy, the efficiency of wind turbines must increase beyond existing technology. One direct method for achieving increased efficiency is by improving the individual power generation characteristics of horizontal axis wind turbines. The potential for additional improvement by traditional approaches is diminishing rapidly however. As a result, a research program was undertaken to assess the potential of using distributed flow control to increase power generation. The overall objective was the development of validated aerodynamic simulations and flow control approaches to improve wind turbine power generation characteristics. BEM analysis was conducted for a general set of wind turbine models encompassing last, current, and next generation designs. This analysis indicated that rotor lift control applied in Region II of the turbine power curve would produce a notable increase in annual power generated. This was achieved by optimizing induction factors along the rotor blade for maximum power generation. In order to demonstrate this approach and other advanced concepts, the University of Notre Dame established the Laboratory for Enhanced Wind Energy Design (eWiND). This initiative includes a fully instrumented meteorological tower and two pitch-controlled wind turbines. The wind turbines are representative in their design and operation to larger multi-megawatt turbines, but of a scale that allows rotors to be easily instrumented and replaced to explore new design concepts. Baseline data detailing typical site conditions and turbine operation is presented. To realize optimized performance, lift control systems were designed and evaluated in CFD simulations coupled with shape optimization tools. These were integrated into a systematic design methodology involving BEM simulations, CFD simulations and shape optimization, and selected experimental validation. To refine and illustrate the proposed design methodology, a

  13. Large-Eddy Simulation of Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Flow Through a Wind Farm Sited on Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddin, Sina; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) has recently been well validated and applied in the context of wind turbines over flat terrain; however, to date its accuracy has not been tested systematically in the case of turbine-wake flows over topography. Here, we investigate the wake flow in a wind farm situated on hilly terrain using LES for a case where wind-tunnel experimental data are available. To this end, first boundary-layer flow is simulated over a two-dimensional hill in order to characterize the spatial distribution of the mean velocity and the turbulence statistics. A flow simulation is then performed through a wind farm consisting of five horizontal-axis wind turbines sited over the same hill in an aligned layout. The resulting flow characteristics are compared with the former case, i.e., without wind turbines. To assess the validity of the simulations, the results are compared with the wind-tunnel measurements. It is found that LES can reproduce the flow field effectively, and, specifically, the speed-up over the hilltop and the velocity deficit and turbulence intensity enhancement induced by the turbines are well captured by the simulations. Besides, the vertical profiles of the mean velocity and turbulence intensity at different streamwise positions match well those for the experiment. In addition, another numerical experiment is carried out to show how higher (and more realistic) thrust coefficients of the turbines lead to stronger wakes and, at the same time, higher turbulence intensities.

  14. Vector Fields and Flows on Differentiable Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the notions of vector field and flow on a general differentiable stack. Our main theorem states that the flow of a vector field on a compact proper differentiable stack exists and is unique up to a uniquely determined 2-cell. This extends the usual result on the existence...... of vector fields....

  15. Preliminary study on the flow field over Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pissimanis, D; Karras, G; Notaridou, V; Bartzis, J.G.

    1989-02-01

    Full text: For radiation risk assessment from long distance sources, the knowledge of the synoptic air flow field patterns over the territory under consideration is required. In the present study a first representation of the air flow field in the atmospheric boundary layer over Greece is attempted. For this purpose, synoptic weather maps at 850mb available for a ten-years period, as well as sounding data from six meteorological stations were utilized, while the Greek territory was divided into four parts, i.e. NW, NE, SW, SE, with a number of stations in each sector. It was shown that the prevailing wind directions of the upper flow are either of the W/SW sector (winter, spring) or the northern sector (summer, autumn). In the SE sector a stronger tendency towards winds from the nothern sector was shown, due to the thermal low near Cyprus. The main characteristics of the surface flow is the strong influence by topographical features. Typical examples are the strong NW winds in Northern Greece due to the Vardar Valley, and the sea breeze circulations at coastal environments. (author)

  16. Identification of wind fields for wave modeling near Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Sashikant; Balan Sobhana, Sandeepan; Panchang, Vijay

    2016-04-01

    Due to the development of coastal and offshore infrastructure in and around the Arabian Gulf, a large semi-enclosed sea, knowledge of met-ocean factors like prevailing wind systems, wind generated waves, and currents etc. are of great importance. Primarily it is important to identify the wind fields that are used as forcing functions for wave and circulation models for hindcasting and forecasting purposes. The present study investigates the effects of using two sources of wind-fields on the modeling of wind-waves in the Arabian Gulf, in particular near the coastal regions of Qatar. Two wind sources are considered here, those obtained from ECMWF and those generated by us using the WRF model. The wave model SWAN was first forced with the 6 hourly ERA Interim daily winds (from ECMWF) having spatial resolution of 0.125°. For the second option, wind fields were generated by us using the mesoscale wind model (WRF) with a high spatial resolution (0.1°) at every 30 minute intervals. The simulations were carried out for a period of two months (7th October-7th December, 2015) during which measurements were available from two moored buoys (deployed and operated by the Qatar Meteorological Department), one in the north of Qatar ("Qatar North", in water depth of 58.7 m) and other in the south ("Shiraouh Island", in water depth of 16.64 m). This period included a high-sea event on 11-12th of October, recorded by the two buoys where the significant wave heights (Hs) reached as high as 2.9 m (i.e. max wave height H ~ 5.22 m) and 1.9 (max wave height H ~ 3.4 m) respectively. Model results were compared with the data for this period. The scatter index (SI) of the Hs simulated using the WRF wind fields and the observed Hs was found to be about 30% and 32% for the two buoys (total period). The observed Hs were generally reproduced but there was consistent underestimation. (Maximum 27% for the high-sea event). For the Hs obtained with ERA interim wind fields, the underestimation was

  17. Signature of open magnetic field lines in the extended solar corona and of solar wind acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, E.; Giordano, S.; Benna, C.; Kohl, J. L.; Noci, G.; Michels, J.; Fineschi, S.

    1997-01-01

    The observations carried out with the ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) are discussed. The purpose of the observations was to determine the line of sight and radial velocity fields in coronal regions with different magnetic topology. The results showed that the regions where the high speed solar wind flows along open field lines are characterized by O VI 1032 and HI Lyman alpha 1216 lines. The global coronal maps of the line of sight velocity were reconstructed. The corona height, where the solar wind reaches 100 km/s, was determined.

  18. Visualization and PIV measurement of unsteady flow around a darrieus wind turbine in dynamic stall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibuya, Satoshi; Fujisawa, Nobuyuki; Takano, Tsuyoshi [Dept. of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Flow around a Darrieus wind turbine in dynamic stall is studied by flow visualization and PIV (particle image velocimeter) measurement in a rotating frame of reference, which allows the successive observation of the dynamic stall over the blade. The qualitative features of the flow field in dynamic stall observed by the flow visualization, such as the formation and shedding of the stall vortices, are quantitatively reproduced in the instantaneous velocity distributions near the blade by using PIV. These results indicate that two pairs of stall vortices are generated from the blade during one rotation of the blade and that the size and the generating blade angle of the stall vortices are enlarged as the tip-speed ratio decreases. These stall vortices are produced by the in-flow motion from the outer surface to the inner surface through the trailing edge of the blade and the flow separation over the inner surface of the blade. (author)

  19. Vertical axis wind turbine wake in boundary layer flow in a wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, Vincent; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    A vertical axis wind turbine is placed in a boundary layer flow in a wind tunnel, and its wake is investigated. Measurements are performed using an x-wire to measure two components of velocity and turbulence statistics in the wake of the wind turbine. The study is performed at various heights and crosswind positions in order to investigate the full volume of the wake for a range of tip speed ratios. The velocity deficit and levels of turbulence in the wake are related to the performance of the turbine. The asymmetric incoming boundary layer flow causes the rate of recovery in the wake to change as a function of height. Higher shear between the wake and unperturbed flow occurs at the top edge of the wake, inducing stronger turbulence and mixing in this region. The difference in flow relative to the blades causes the velocity deficit and turbulence level to change as a function of crosswind position behind the rotor. The relative difference diminishes with increasing tip speed ratio. Therefore, the wake becomes more homogeneous as tip speed ratio increases.

  20. Flow widening through a Darrieus wind turbine - Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comolet, R.; Harajli, I.; Mercier Des Rochettes, P.; Yeznasni, A.

    1982-11-01

    A two-dimensional multiple stream tube model is developed for the air flow through a Darrieus wind turbine. The model is configured to account for the widening of the flux tubes as they cross the interior of the actuator disk. Note is made of the lateral broadening of the flow as it moves through the area, leaving a turbulent wake. A relation is defined between the variation in the kinetic energy of the flow and the aerodynamic forces acting on the blades. The global efficiency and the power output of the machine are calculated. Experimental results are reported for a machine equipped with two NACA 0015 blades, each 110 cm long and with a 10 cm chord. The Darrieus had a 1 m diam and was tested in a wind tunnel at wind speeds of 0-18 m/sec. Soap bubbles inflated with He were used for visualization. Power output was found to match prediction. The model is recommended for use in calculating the forces acting on the machine and studying vibration and fatigue causative mechanisms.

  1. The effect of the equatorially symmetric zonal winds of Saturn on its gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John D.

    2018-04-01

    The penetration depth of Saturn’s cloud-level winds into its interior is unknown. A possible way of estimating the depth is through measurement of the effect of the winds on the planet’s gravitational field. We use a self-consistent perturbation approach to study how the equatorially symmetric zonal winds of Saturn contribute to its gravitational field. An important advantage of this approach is that the variation of its gravitational field solely caused by the winds can be isolated and identified because the leading-order problem accounts exactly for rotational distortion, thereby determining the irregular shape and internal structure of the hydrostatic Saturn. We assume that (i) the zonal winds are maintained by thermal convection in the form of non-axisymmetric columnar rolls and (ii) the internal structure of the winds, because of the Taylor-Proundman theorem, can be uniquely determined by the observed cloud-level winds. We calculate both the variation ΔJn , n = 2, 4, 6 … of the axisymmetric gravitational coefficients Jn caused by the zonal winds and the non-axisymmetric gravitational coefficients ΔJnm produced by the columnar rolls, where m is the azimuthal wavenumber of the rolls. We consider three different cases characterized by the penetration depth 0.36, R S, 0.2, R S and 0.1, R S, where R S is the equatorial radius of Saturn at the 1-bar pressure level. We find that the high-degree gravitational coefficient (J 12 + ΔJ 12) is dominated, in all the three cases, by the effect of the zonal flow with |ΔJ 12/J 12| > 100% and that the size of the non-axisymmetric coefficients ΔJ mn directly reflects the depth and scale of the flow taking place in the Saturnian interior.

  2. MHD Flows in Compact Astrophysical Objects Accretion, Winds and Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Beskin, Vasily S

    2010-01-01

    Accretion flows, winds and jets of compact astrophysical objects and stars are generally described within the framework of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) flows. Analytical analysis of the problem provides profound physical insights, which are essential for interpreting and understanding the results of numerical simulations. Providing such a physical understanding of MHD Flows in Compact Astrophysical Objects is the main goal of this book, which is an updated translation of a successful Russian graduate textbook. The book provides the first detailed introduction into the method of the Grad-Shafranov equation, describing analytically the very broad class of hydrodynamical and MHD flows. It starts with the classical examples of hydrodynamical accretion onto relativistic and nonrelativistic objects. The force-free limit of the Grad-Shafranov equation allows us to analyze in detail the physics of the magnetospheres of radio pulsars and black holes, including the Blandford-Znajek process of energy e...

  3. Wind field and dispersion modelling in complex terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartzis, J.G.; Varvayanni, M.; Catsaros, N.; Konte, K.; Amanatidis, G.

    1991-01-01

    Dispersion of airborne radioactive material can have an important environmental impact. Its prediction remains a difficult problem, especially over complex and inhomogeneous terrain, or under complicated atmospheric conditions. The ADREA-I code, a three-dimensional transport code especially designed for terrains of high complexity can be considered as contribution to the solution of the above problem. The code development has been initiated within the present CEC Radiation Program. New features are introduced into the code to describe the anomalous topography, the turbulent diffusion and numerical solution procedures. In this work besides a brief presentation of the main features of the code, a number of applications will be presented with the aim on one hand to illustrate the capability and reliability of the code and on the other hand to clarify the effects on windfield and dispersion in special cases of interest. Within the framework of ADREA-I verification studies, a I-D simulation of the experimental Wangara Day-33 mean boundary layer was attempted, reproducing the daytime wind speeds, temperatures, specific humidities and mixing depths. In order to address the effect of surface irregularities and inhomogeneities on contamination patterns, the flow field and dispersion were analyzed over a 2-D, 1000m high mountain range, surrounded by sea, with a point source assumed 40km offshore from one coastline. This terrain was studied as representing a greater Athens area idealization. The effects of a 2-D, 1000m high mountain range of Gaussian shape on long range transport has also been studied in terms of influence area, wind and concentration profile distortions and dry deposition patterns

  4. Four Methods for LIDAR Retrieval of Microscale Wind Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Naini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates four wind retrieval methods for micro-scale meteorology applications with volume and time resolution in the order of 30m3 and 5 s. Wind field vectors are estimated using sequential time-lapse volume images of aerosol density fluctuations. Suitably designed mono-static scanning backscatter LIDAR systems, which are sensitive to atmospheric density aerosol fluctuations, are expected to be ideal for this purpose. An important application is wind farm siting and evaluation. In this case, it is necessary to look at the complicated region between the earth’s surface and the boundary layer, where wind can be turbulent and fractal scaling from millimeter to kilometer. The methods are demonstrated using first a simple randomized moving hard target, and then with a physics based stochastic space-time dynamic turbulence model. In the latter case the actual vector wind field is known, allowing complete space-time error analysis. Two of the methods, the semblance method and the spatio-temporal method, are found to be most suitable for wind field estimation.

  5. High-speed solar wind flow parameters at 1 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Gosling, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    To develop a set of constraints for theories of solar wind high-speed streams, a detailed study was made of the fastest streams observed at 1 AU during the time period spanning March 1971 through July 1974. Streams were accepted for study only if (1) the maximum speed exceeded 650 km s -1 ; (2) effects of stream-stream dynamical interaction on the flow parameters could be safely separated from the intrinsic characteristics of the high-speed regions; (3) the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the stream when mapped back to 20 solar radii by using a constant speed approximation was greater than 45degree in Carrington longitude; and (4) there were no obvious solar-activity-induced contaminating effects. Nineteen streams during this time interval satisfied these criteria. Average parameters at 1 AU for those portions of these streams above V=650 km s -1 are given.Not only is it not presently known why electrons are significantly cooler than the protons within high-speed regions, but also observed particle fluxes and convected energy fluxes for speed greater than 650 km s -1 are substantially larger than those values predicted by any of the existing theories of solar wind high-speed streams. More work is therefore needed in refining present solar wind models to see whether suitable modifications and/or combinations of existing theories based on reasonable coronal conditions can accommodate the above high-speed flow parameters

  6. Numerical analysis of air pollution in a combined field of land/sea breeze and mountain/valley wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, T.; Igarashi, K.; Owada, M.

    1986-01-01

    Air pollution in the presence of two types of local flows (i.e., land/sea breeze and mountain/valley wind) was studies by advection simulation of the cluster of hypothetical fluid particles, and transport/chemistry calculation employing a three-dimensional Eulerian model for 20 advected species and about 90 chemical reactions. Three-dimensional flow fields over the River Yahagi basin in Japan were estimated for 48 h using an objective method with routine wind observations. Those obtained showed characteristics of the combined local flows such that in the daytime sea breeze and valley wind tend to form one united flow with substantial wind velocity in the whole region and, in contrast, land breeze and mountain wind during the nighttime form two separated circulating flows with a clear weak-wind area between the two local flow regimes. The results of the advection simulation of fluid particles and the transport/chemistry calculation using those flows as inputs elucidated how the features found in the diurnally varying, complex local flows contribute to produce characteristic time-variations of the concentrations of both primary and secondary pollutants. Among others, dynamics of NO 2 , HNO 3 , PAN, O 3 , SO 2 , and SO 4 /sup =/ concentrations are discussed

  7. Flow visualization of a low density hypersonic flow field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, B.S.; Jumper, E.J.; Walters, E.; Segalman, T.Y.; Founds, N.D.

    1989-01-01

    Characteristics of laser induced iodine fluorescence (LIIF) in low density hypersonic flows are being investigated for use as a diagnostic technique. At low pressures, doppler broadening dominates the iodine absorption profile producing a fluorescence signal that is primarily temperature and velocity dependent. From this dependency, a low pressure flow field has the potential to be mapped for its velocity and temperature fields. The theory for relating iodine emission to the velocity and temperature fields of a hypersonic flow is discussed in this paper. Experimental observations are made of a fluorescencing free expansion and qualitatively related to the theory. 7 refs

  8. Blob formation and acceleration in the solar wind: role of converging flows and viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lapenta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of viscosity and of converging flows on the formation of blobs in the slow solar wind is analysed by means of resistive MHD simulations. The regions above coronal streamers where blobs are formed (Sheeley et al., 1997 are simulated using a model previously proposed by Einaudi et al. (1999. The result of our investigation is two-fold. First, we demonstrate a new mechanism for enhanced momentum transfer between a forming blob and the fast solar wind surrounding it. The effect is caused by the longer range of the electric field caused by the tearing instability forming the blob. The electric field reaches into the fast solar wind and interacts with it, causing a viscous drag that is global in nature rather than local across fluid layers as it is the case in normal uncharged fluids (like water. Second, the presence of a magnetic cusp at the tip of a coronal helmet streamer causes a converging of the flows on the two sides of the streamer and a direct push of the forming island by the fast solar wind, resulting in a more efficient momentum exchange.

  9. Statistical Analysis of the Impact of Wind Power on Market Quantities and Power Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Jónsson, Tryggvi; Zugno, Marco

    2012-01-01

    In view of the increasing penetration of wind power in a number of power systems and markets worldwide, we discuss some of the impacts that wind energy may have on market quantities and cross-border power flows. These impacts are uncovered through statistical analyses of actual market and flow data...... of load and wind power forecasts on Danish and German electricity markets....

  10. Results of verification and investigation of wind velocity field forecast. Verification of wind velocity field forecast model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Takeshi; Kayano, Mitsunaga; Kikuchi, Hideo; Abe, Takeo; Saga, Kyoji

    1995-01-01

    In Environmental Radioactivity Research Institute, the verification and investigation of the wind velocity field forecast model 'EXPRESS-1' have been carried out since 1991. In fiscal year 1994, as the general analysis, the validity of weather observation data, the local features of wind field, and the validity of the positions of monitoring stations were investigated. The EXPRESS which adopted 500 m mesh so far was improved to 250 m mesh, and the heightening of forecast accuracy was examined, and the comparison with another wind velocity field forecast model 'SPEEDI' was carried out. As the results, there are the places where the correlation with other points of measurement is high and low, and it was found that for the forecast of wind velocity field, by excluding the data of the points with low correlation or installing simplified observation stations to take their data in, the forecast accuracy is improved. The outline of the investigation, the general analysis of weather observation data and the improvements of wind velocity field forecast model and forecast accuracy are reported. (K.I.)

  11. A Study of the Flow Field Surrounding Interacting Line Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Maynard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of converging fires often leads to significant changes in fire behavior, including increased flame length, angle, and intensity. In this paper, the fluid mechanics of two adjacent line fires are studied both theoretically and experimentally. A simple potential flow model is used to explain the tilting of interacting flames towards each other, which results from a momentum imbalance triggered by fire geometry. The model was validated by measuring the velocity field surrounding stationary alcohol pool fires. The flow field was seeded with high-contrast colored smoke, and the motion of smoke structures was analyzed using a cross-correlation optical flow technique. The measured velocities and flame angles are found to compare reasonably with the predicted values, and an analogy between merging fires and wind-blown flames is proposed.

  12. Using Free Flow Energy Cumulation in Wind and Hydro Power Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Ktitorov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When approaching a conventional wind turbine, the air flow is slowed down and widened. This results in a loss of turbine efficiency. In order to exploit wind or water flow power as effectively as possible, it was suggested that the turbine should be placed inside a shroud, which consists of 4 wing-shaped surfaces. Two internal airfoils improve the turbine performance by speeding up the flow acting on the turbine blades, two external wings create a field of low pressure behind the turbine, thus, helping to draw more mass flow to the turbine and avoid the loss of efficiency due to flow deceleration.  The system accumulates kinetic energy of the flow in a small volume where the smaller (and, therefore, cheaper turbine can be installed. A smaller system can be installed inside the bigger one, which would help to accumulate even more kinetic energy on the turbine. We call this method the kinetic energy summation with local flow redistribution. Both experiments and CFD simulations demonstrate a significant increase in velocity and generated mechanical power in comparison of those for a bare turbine.

  13. MHD effects of the solar wind flow around planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Biernat

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the interaction of the solar wind with magnetized and unmagnetized planets forms a central topic of space research. Focussing on planetary magnetosheaths, we review some major developments in this field. Magnetosheath structures depend crucially on the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field, the solar wind Alfvén Mach number, the shape of the obstacle (axisymmetric/non-axisymmetric, etc., the boundary conditions at the magnetopause (low/high magnetic shear, and the degree of thermal anisotropy of the plasma. We illustrate the cases of Earth, Jupiter and Venus. The terrestrial magnetosphere is axisymmetric and has been probed in-situ by many spacecraft. Jupiter's magnetosphere is highly non-axisymmetric. Furthermore, we study magnetohydrodynamic effects in the Venus magnetosheath.

  14. TradeWind Deliverable 5.1: Effects of increasing wind power penetration on the power flows in European grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemström, Bettina; Uski-Joutsenvuo, Sanna; Holttinen, Hannele

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the main activities and results of Work Package 5 – Effects of increasing wind power penetration on the power flows in European grids in the TradeWind project. VTT is the leader of Work Package 5 and carries the overall responsibility of this report. The work is based on power...... flow simulations with a grid and market model developed in TradeWind Work Package 3, led by Sintef Energy Research. VTT, Sintef Energy Research and Risø have carried out the simulations of the different scenarios, analysed the results and written Chapter 4 about the impact of wind power on cross...

  15. Merging of magnetic fields with field-aligned plasma flow components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, H.G. Jr.; Kan, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The Sonnerup merging model for an incompressible plasma is extended to allow a flow component along the field lines in the inflow regions. Solutions are found to exist as long as the difference between the quantities B. V for the two inflow regions does not exceed a critical magnitude dependent on the inflow field magnitudes and plasma densities. All such solutions satisfy Vasyliunas' definition of merging, but some classes of solution have radically altered geometries, i.e. geometries in which the inflow regions are much smaller than the outflow regions. The necessary but not sufficient condition for these unusual geometries is that the field-aligned flow component in at least one inflow region be super-Alfvenic. A solution for the case of a vacuum field in one inflow region is obtained in which any flow velocity is allowed in the non-vacuum inflow region, although super-Alfvenic flow can still result in an unusual geometry. For symmetric configurations, the usual geometry, that of Petschek and Sonnerup, is retained as long as both field-aligned flow components in the inflow regions are less than twice the inflow Alfven speed. For the case of a vacuum field on one side and fields approximating the boundary between the solar wind and the earth's dayside magnetosphere, the usual geometry is retained for flow less than about 2.5 times the local Alfven speed. (author)

  16. Construction of Solar-Wind-Like Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dana Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Fluctuations in the solar wind fields tend to not only have velocities and magnetic fields correlated in the sense consistent with Alfven waves traveling from the Sun, but they also have the magnitude of the magnetic field remarkably constant despite their being broadband. This paper provides, for the first time, a method for constructing fields with nearly constant magnetic field, zero divergence, and with any specified power spectrum for the fluctuations of the components of the field. Every wave vector, k, is associated with two polarizations the relative phases of these can be chosen to minimize the variance of the field magnitude while retaining the\\random character of the fields. The method is applied to a case with one spatial coordinate that demonstrates good agreement with observed time series and power spectra of the magnetic field in the solar wind, as well as with the distribution of the angles of rapid changes (discontinuities), thus showing a deep connection between two seemingly unrelated issues. It is suggested that using this construction will lead to more realistic simulations of solar wind turbulence and of the propagation of energetic particles.

  17. Distinct wind convergence patterns in the Mexico City basin due to the interaction of the gap winds with the synoptic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mexico City lies in a high altitude basin where air quality and pollutant fate is strongly influenced by local winds. The combination of high terrain with weak synoptic forcing leads to weak and variable winds with complex circulation patterns. A gap wind entering the basin in the afternoon leads to very different wind convergence lines over the city depending on the meteorological conditions. Surface and upper-air meteorological observations are analysed during the MCMA-2003 field campaign to establish the meteorological conditions and obtain an index of the strength and timing of the gap wind. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5 is used in combination with high-resolution satellite data for the land surface parameters and soil moisture maps derived from diurnal ground temperature range. A simple method to map the lines of wind convergence both in the basin and on the regional scale is used to show the different convergence patterns according to episode types. The gap wind is found to occur on most days of the campaign and is the result of a temperature gradient across the southern basin rim which is very similar from day to day. Momentum mixing from winds aloft into the surface layer is much more variable and can determine both the strength of the flow and the pattern of the convergence zones. Northerly flows aloft lead to a weak jet with an east-west convergence line that progresses northwards in the late afternoon and early evening. Westerlies aloft lead to both stronger gap flows due to channelling and winds over the southern and western basin rim. This results in a north-south convergence line through the middle of the basin starting in the early afternoon. Improved understanding of basin meteorology will lead to better air quality forecasts for the city and better understanding of the chemical regimes in the urban atmosphere.

  18. Distinct wind convergence patterns in the Mexico City basin due to the interaction of the gap winds with the synoptic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Foy, B.; Clappier, A.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-04-01

    Mexico City lies in a high altitude basin where air quality and pollutant fate is strongly influenced by local winds. The combination of high terrain with weak synoptic forcing leads to weak and variable winds with complex circulation patterns. A gap wind entering the basin in the afternoon leads to very different wind convergence lines over the city depending on the meteorological conditions. Surface and upper-air meteorological observations are analysed during the MCMA-2003 field campaign to establish the meteorological conditions and obtain an index of the strength and timing of the gap wind. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) is used in combination with high-resolution satellite data for the land surface parameters and soil moisture maps derived from diurnal ground temperature range. A simple method to map the lines of wind convergence both in the basin and on the regional scale is used to show the different convergence patterns according to episode types. The gap wind is found to occur on most days of the campaign and is the result of a temperature gradient across the southern basin rim which is very similar from day to day. Momentum mixing from winds aloft into the surface layer is much more variable and can determine both the strength of the flow and the pattern of the convergence zones. Northerly flows aloft lead to a weak jet with an east-west convergence line that progresses northwards in the late afternoon and early evening. Westerlies aloft lead to both stronger gap flows due to channelling and winds over the southern and western basin rim. This results in a north-south convergence line through the middle of the basin starting in the early afternoon. Improved understanding of basin meteorology will lead to better air quality forecasts for the city and better understanding of the chemical regimes in the urban atmosphere.

  19. Ionospheric cusp flows pulsed by solar wind Alfvén waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prikryl

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed ionospheric flows (PIFs in the cusp foot-print have been observed by the SuperDARN radars with periods between a few minutes and several tens of minutes. PIFs are believed to be a consequence of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF reconnection with the magnetospheric magnetic field on the dayside magnetopause, ionospheric signatures of flux transfer events (FTEs. The quasiperiodic PIFs are correlated with Alfvénic fluctuations observed in the upstream solar wind. It is concluded that on these occasions, the FTEs were driven by Alfvén waves coupling to the day-side magnetosphere. Case studies are presented in which the dawn-dusk component of the Alfvén wave electric field modulates the reconnection rate as evidenced by the radar observations of the ionospheric cusp flows. The arrival of the IMF southward turning at the magnetopause is determined from multipoint solar wind magnetic field and/or plasma measurements, assuming plane phase fronts in solar wind. The cross-correlation lag between the solar wind data and ground magnetograms that were obtained near the cusp footprint exceeded the estimated spacecraft-to-magnetopause propagation time by up to several minutes. The difference can account for and/or exceeds the Alfvén propagation time between the magnetopause and ionosphere. For the case of short period ( < 13 min PIFs, the onset times of the flow transients appear to be further delayed by at most a few more minutes after the IMF southward turning arrived at the magnetopause. For the case of long period (30 – 40 min PIFs, the observed additional delays were 10–20 min. We interpret the excess delay in terms of an intrinsic time scale for reconnection (Russell et al., 1997 which can be explained by the surface-wave induced magnetic reconnection mechanism (Uberoi et al., 1999. Here, surface waves with wavelengths larger than the thickness of the neutral layer induce a tearing-mode instability whose rise time explains the

  20. Research on wind field algorithm of wind lidar based on BP neural network and grey prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Chun-Li; Luo, Xiong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Ze-hou; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Xiao-ding; Wang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses the BP neural network and grey algorithm to forecast and study radar wind field. In order to reduce the residual error in the wind field prediction which uses BP neural network and grey algorithm, calculating the minimum value of residual error function, adopting the residuals of the gray algorithm trained by BP neural network, using the trained network model to forecast the residual sequence, using the predicted residual error sequence to modify the forecast sequence of the grey algorithm. The test data show that using the grey algorithm modified by BP neural network can effectively reduce the residual value and improve the prediction precision.

  1. Electron wind in strong wave guide fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienen, F.

    1985-03-01

    The X-ray activity observed near highly powered waveguide structures is usually caused by local electric discharges originating from discontinuities such as couplers, tuners or bends. In traveling waves electrons move in the direction of the power flow. Seed electrons can multipactor in a traveling wave, the moving charge pattern is different from the multipactor in a resonant structure and is self-extinguishing. The charge density in the wave guide will modify impedance and propagation constant of the wave guide. The radiation level inside the output wave guide of the SLAC, 50 MW, S-band, klystron is estimated. Possible contributions of radiation to window failure are discussed.

  2. Field Flows of Dark Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahn, Robert N.; de Putter, Roland; Linder, Eric V.

    2008-07-08

    Scalar field dark energy evolving from a long radiation- or matter-dominated epoch has characteristic dynamics. While slow-roll approximations are invalid, a well defined field expansion captures the key aspects of the dark energy evolution during much of the matter-dominated epoch. Since this behavior is determined, it is not faithfully represented if priors for dynamical quantities are chosen at random. We demonstrate these features for both thawing and freezing fields, and for some modified gravity models, and unify several special cases in the literature.

  3. Evaluation of wind flow with a nacelle-mounted, continuous wave wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medley, John; Barker, Will; Harris, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Nacelle-mounted lidar is becoming widely recognized as a tool with potential for assessing power curves, understanding wind flow characteristics, and controlling turbines. As rotor diameters continue to increase, and the deployment of turbines in complex terrain becomes more widespread, knowledge...... mounted on the nacelle of a 550 kW turbine at the Risø campus of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Lidar measurements of wind speed and turbulence were compared against those made by anemometers on a high-quality traditional mast. Analysis showed excellent correlation between mast and Zeph...... that this is the first time that a commercially available nacelle-mounted lidar has been used to evaluate such rotor-equivalent power curves....

  4. Counterstreaming solar wind halo electron events on open field lines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, J. T.; Mccomas, D. J.; Phillips, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Counterstreaming solar wind halo electron events have been identified as a common 1 AU signature of coronal mass ejection events, and have generally been interpreted as indicative of closed magnetic field topologies, i.e., magnetic loops or flux ropes rooted at both ends in the Sun, or detached plasmoids. In this paper we examine the possibility that these events may instead occur preferentially on open field lines, and that counterstreaming results from reflection or injection behind interplanetary shocks or from mirroring from regions of compressed magnetic field farther out in the heliosphere. We conclude that neither of these suggested sources of counterstreaming electron beams is viable and that the best interpretation of observed counterstreaming electron events in the solar wind remains that of passage of closed field structures.

  5. Synoptic climatology evaluation of wind fields in the alpine region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotteraner, C.

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation basically consists of two parts: In the first part, a 22-year set of 3-hourly 2D-wind analyses (1980-2001) that have been generated within the framework of the VERACLIM (VERA-Climatology) project are evaluated climatologically over the Alpine region. VERACLIM makes use of the VERA (Vienna Enhanced Resolution Analysis) analysis system, combining both the high spatial resolution as provided by the analysis algorithm and the high temporal resolution of a comprehensive synop data set, provided by ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) data archives. The obtained charts of averaged wind speed and the mean wind vector as well as the evaluations of frequency distribution of wind speed and wind direction on gridpoints for several different time periods should be interpreted very carefully as orographic influence is not taken into consideration in the analysis algorithm. However, the 3-hourly wind analyses of the time period 1980-2001 are suitable for investigation of the so-called Alpine Pumping. For that purpose, an arbitrarily chosen border has been drawn around the Alps and the Gauss theorem has been applied in a way that the mean diurnal variations of the two-dimensional divergence over the Alps could be evaluated. The sinusoidal run of the curve not only visualizes the 'breathing of the Alps' in an impressive way, it also enables us to roughly estimate the diurnal air volume exchange on days with a weak large-scale pressure gradient and strong incoming solar radiation. The second part of this investigation deals with the development of three different 'wind-fingerprints' which are included in the VERA-system in order to improve the analysis quality. The wind-fingerprints are designed in a way that they reflect the wind field pattern in the Alpine region on days with weak large-scale pressure gradient and strong incoming solar radiation. Using the fingerprints, both the effects of channelling as well as thermally induced

  6. Transient behavior of flare-associated solar wind. II - Gas dynamics in a nonradial open field region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, F.

    1984-01-01

    Transient behavior of flare-associated solar wind in the nonradial open field region is numerically investigated, taking into account the thermal and dynamical coupling between the chromosphere and the corona. A realistic steady solar wind is constructed which passes through the inner X-type critical point in the rapidly diverging region. The wind speed shows a local maximum at the middle, O-type, critical point. The wind's density and pressure distributions decrease abruptly in the rapidly diverging region of the flow tube. The transient behavior of the wind following flare energy deposition includes ascending and descending conduction fronts. Thermal instability occurs in the lower corona, and ascending material flows out through the throat after the flare energy input ceases. A local density distribution peak is generated at the shock front due to the pressure deficit just behind the shock front.

  7. Solar wind flows associated with hot heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.

    1980-05-01

    Solar wind heavy ion spectra measured with the Vela instrumentation have been studied with the goal of determining the solar origins of various solar wind structures which contain anomalously high ionization states. Since the ionization states freeze-in close to the sun they are good indicators of the plasma conditions in the low and intermediate corona. Heavy ion spectra from three different periods throughout the solar cycle have been analyzed. These data are consistent with freezing-in temperatures ranging from approx. 1.5 x 10 6 K to higher than 9 x 10 6 . The spectra indicating hot coronal conditions occur in roughly 1/7 of all measurements and almost exclusively in postshock flows (PSFs), nonshock related helium abundance enhancements (HAEs), or noncompressive density enhancements (NCDEs). The PSFs and HAEs are both probably interplanetary manifestations of solar flares. The observation of several flare-related HAEs which were not preceded by an interplanetary shock suggests that the flare-heated plasma can evolve into the solar wind without producing a noticeable shock at 1 AU. The NCDEs with hot heavy ions differ from the PSF-HAEs in several ways implying that they evolve from events or places with lower temperatures and less energy than those associated with the flares, but with higher temperatures and densities than the quiet corona. Active regions, coronal mass ejections, and equatorial streamers are possible sources for the NCDEs with spectra indicating hot coronal conditions. These events owe their enhanced densities to coronal processes as opposed to interplanetary dynamical processes. Models of the solar wind expansion demonstrate how some NCDEs can have extreme, nonequilibrium ionization distributions

  8. Comparison of Experimental Surface and Flow Field Measurements to Computational Results of the Juncture Flow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozeboom, Nettie H.; Lee, Henry C.; Simurda, Laura J.; Zilliac, Gregory G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Wing-body juncture flow fields on commercial aircraft configurations are challenging to compute accurately. The NASA Advanced Air Vehicle Program's juncture flow committee is designing an experiment to provide data to improve Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling in the juncture flow region. Preliminary design of the model was done using CFD, yet CFD tends to over-predict the separation in the juncture flow region. Risk reduction wind tunnel tests were requisitioned by the committee to obtain a better understanding of the flow characteristics of the designed models. NASA Ames Research Center's Fluid Mechanics Lab performed one of the risk reduction tests. The results of one case, accompanied by CFD simulations, are presented in this paper. Experimental results suggest the wall mounted wind tunnel model produces a thicker boundary layer on the fuselage than the CFD predictions, resulting in a larger wing horseshoe vortex suppressing the side of body separation in the juncture flow region. Compared to experimental results, CFD predicts a thinner boundary layer on the fuselage generates a weaker wing horseshoe vortex resulting in a larger side of body separation.

  9. Design and numerical investigation of Savonius wind turbine with discharge flow directing capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahani, Mojtaba; Rabbani, Ali; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Savonius vertical axis wind turbines due to their capabilities and positive properties have gained a significant attention. The objective of this study is to design and model a Savonius-style vertical axis wind turbine with direct discharge flow capability in order to ventilate buildings...... to improve the discharge flow rate. Results indicate that the twist on Savonius wind rotor reduces the negative torque and improves its performance. According to the results, a twisted Savonius wind turbine with conical shaft is associated with 18% increase in power coefficient and 31% increase in discharge...... flowrate compared to simple Savonius wind turbine. Also, wind turbine with variable cut plane has a 12% decrease in power coefficient and 5% increase in discharge flow rate compared to simple Savonius wind turbine. Therefore, it can be inferred that twisted wind turbine with conical shaft indicated...

  10. Analytical Model for Mean Flow and Fluxes of Momentum and Energy in Very Large Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    As wind-turbine arrays continue to be installed and the array size continues to grow, there is an increasing need to represent very large wind-turbine arrays in numerical weather prediction models, for wind-farm optimization, and for environmental assessment. We propose a simple analytical model for boundary-layer flow in fully-developed wind-turbine arrays, based on the concept of sparsely-obstructed shear flows. In describing the vertical distribution of the mean wind speed and shear stress within wind farms, our model estimates the mean kinetic energy harvested from the atmospheric boundary layer, and determines the partitioning between the wind power captured by the wind turbines and that absorbed by the underlying land or water. A length scale based on the turbine geometry, spacing, and performance characteristics, is able to estimate the asymptotic limit for the fully-developed flow through wind-turbine arrays, and thereby determine if the wind-farm flow is fully developed for very large turbine arrays. Our model is validated using data collected in controlled wind-tunnel experiments, and its usefulness for the prediction of wind-farm performance and optimization of turbine-array spacing are described. Our model may also be useful for assessing the extent to which the extraction of wind power affects the land-atmosphere coupling or air-water exchange of momentum, with implications for the transport of heat, moisture, trace gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, and ecologically important oxygen.

  11. SMART wind turbine rotor. Design and field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Jonathan Charles; Resor, Brian Ray; Paquette, Joshua A.; White, Jonathan Randall

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Energy Technologies department at Sandia National Laboratories has developed and field tested a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of rotor aerodynamics. The SMART Rotor project was funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was conducted to demonstrate active rotor control and evaluate simulation tools available for active control research. This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This report begins with an overview of active control research at Sandia and the objectives of this project. The SMART blade, based on the DOE / SNL 9-meter CX-100 blade design, is then documented including all modifications necessary to integrate the trailing edge flaps, sensors incorporated into the system, and the fabrication processes that were utilized. Finally the test site and test campaign are described.

  12. Optical Flow for Flight and Wind Tunnel Background Oriented Schlieren Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathanial T.; Heineck, James T.; Schairer, Edward T.

    2017-01-01

    Background oriented Schlieren images have historically been generated by calculating the observed pixel displacement between a wind-on and wind-o image pair using normalized cross-correlation. This work uses optical flow to solve the displacement fields which generate the Schlieren images. A well established method used in the computer vision community, optical flow is the apparent motion in an image sequence due to brightness changes. The regularization method of Horn and Schunck is used to create Schlieren images using two data sets: a supersonic jet plume shock interaction from the NASA Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, and a transonic flight test of a T-38 aircraft using a naturally occurring background, performed in conjunction with NASA Ames and Armstrong Research Centers. Results are presented and contrasted with those using normalized cross-correlation. The optical flow Schlieren images are found to provided significantly more detail. We apply the method to historical data sets to demonstrate the broad applicability and limitations of the technique.

  13. Transient flows of the solar wind associated with small-scale solar activity in solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Veselovsky, Igor; Kuzin, Sergey; Gburek, Szymon; Ulyanov, Artyom; Kirichenko, Alexey; Shugay, Yulia; Goryaev, Farid

    The data obtained by the modern high sensitive EUV-XUV telescopes and photometers such as CORONAS-Photon/TESIS and SPHINX, STEREO/EUVI, PROBA2/SWAP, SDO/AIA provide good possibilities for studying small-scale solar activity (SSA), which is supposed to play an important role in heating of the corona and producing transient flows of the solar wind. During the recent unusually weak solar minimum, a large number of SSA events, such as week solar flares, small CMEs and CME-like flows were observed and recorded in the databases of flares (STEREO, SWAP, SPHINX) and CMEs (LASCO, CACTUS). On the other hand, the solar wind data obtained in this period by ACE, Wind, STEREO contain signatures of transient ICME-like structures which have shorter duration (<10h), weaker magnetic field strength (<10 nT) and lower proton temperature than usual ICMEs. To verify the assumption that ICME-like transients may be associated with the SSA events we investigated the number of weak flares of C-class and lower detected by SPHINX in 2009 and STEREO/EUVI in 2010. The flares were classified on temperature and emission measure using the diagnostic means of SPHINX and Hinode/EIS and were confronted with the parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density, ion composition and temperature, magnetic field, pitch angle distribution of the suprathermal electrons). The outflows of plasma associated with the flares were identified by their coronal signatures - CMEs (only in few cases) and dimmings. It was found that the mean parameters of the solar wind projected to the source surface for the times of the studied flares were typical for the ICME-like transients. The results support the suggestion that weak flares can be indicators of sources of transient plasma flows contributing to the slow solar wind at solar minimum, although these flows may be too weak to be considered as separate CMEs and ICMEs. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme

  14. Cooperative field test program for wind systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollmeier, W.S. II; Dodge, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    The objectives of the Federal Wind Energy Program, managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are (1) to assist industry and utilities in achieving a multi-regional US market penetration of wind systems, and (2) to establish the United States as the world leader in the development of advanced wind turbine technology. In 1984, the program conducted a series of planning workshops with representatives from the wind energy industry to obtain input on the Five-Year Research Plan then being prepared by DOE. One specific suggestion that came out of these meetings was that the federal program should conduct cooperative research tests with industry to enhance the technology transfer process. It was also felt that the active involvement of industry in DOE-funded research would improve the state of the art of wind turbine technology. DOE established the Cooperative Field Test Program (CFTP) in response to that suggestion. This program was one of the first in DOE to feature joint industry-government research test teams working toward common objectives.

  15. Statistics-Based Compression of Global Wind Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Jaehong

    2017-02-07

    Wind has the potential to make a significant contribution to future energy resources. Locating the sources of this renewable energy on a global scale is however extremely challenging, given the difficulty to store very large data sets generated by modern computer models. We propose a statistical model that aims at reproducing the data-generating mechanism of an ensemble of runs via a Stochastic Generator (SG) of global annual wind data. We introduce an evolutionary spectrum approach with spatially varying parameters based on large-scale geographical descriptors such as altitude to better account for different regimes across the Earth\\'s orography. We consider a multi-step conditional likelihood approach to estimate the parameters that explicitly accounts for nonstationary features while also balancing memory storage and distributed computation. We apply the proposed model to more than 18 million points of yearly global wind speed. The proposed SG requires orders of magnitude less storage for generating surrogate ensemble members from wind than does creating additional wind fields from the climate model, even if an effective lossy data compression algorithm is applied to the simulation output.

  16. Statistics-Based Compression of Global Wind Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Jaehong; Castruccio, Stefano; Crippa, Paola; Genton, Marc G.

    2017-01-01

    Wind has the potential to make a significant contribution to future energy resources. Locating the sources of this renewable energy on a global scale is however extremely challenging, given the difficulty to store very large data sets generated by modern computer models. We propose a statistical model that aims at reproducing the data-generating mechanism of an ensemble of runs via a Stochastic Generator (SG) of global annual wind data. We introduce an evolutionary spectrum approach with spatially varying parameters based on large-scale geographical descriptors such as altitude to better account for different regimes across the Earth's orography. We consider a multi-step conditional likelihood approach to estimate the parameters that explicitly accounts for nonstationary features while also balancing memory storage and distributed computation. We apply the proposed model to more than 18 million points of yearly global wind speed. The proposed SG requires orders of magnitude less storage for generating surrogate ensemble members from wind than does creating additional wind fields from the climate model, even if an effective lossy data compression algorithm is applied to the simulation output.

  17. Visualization of numerically simulated aerodynamic flow fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hian, Q.L.; Damodaran, M.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to describe the development and the application of an interactive integrated software to visualize numerically simulated aerodynamic flow fields so as to enable the practitioner of computational fluid dynamics to diagnose the numerical simulation and to elucidate essential flow physics from the simulation. The input to the software is the numerical database crunched by a supercomputer and typically consists of flow variables and computational grid geometry. This flow visualization system (FVS), written in C language is targetted at the Personal IRIS Workstations. In order to demonstrate the various visualization modules, the paper also describes the application of this software to visualize two- and three-dimensional flow fields past aerodynamic configurations which have been numerically simulated on the NEC-SXIA Supercomputer. 6 refs

  18. Moisture convergence using satellite-derived wind fields - A severe local storm case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, A. J.; Vonder Haar, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    Five-minute interval 1-km resolution SMS visible channel data were used to derive low-level wind fields by tracking small cumulus clouds on NASA's Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System. The satellite-derived wind fields were combined with surface mixing ratios to derive horizontal moisture convergence in the prestorm environment of April 24, 1975. Storms began developing in an area extending from southwest Oklahoma to eastern Tennessee 2 h subsequent to the time of the derived fields. The maximum moisture convergence was computed to be 0.0022 g/kg per sec and areas of low-level convergence of moisture were in general indicative of regions of severe storm genesis. The resultant moisture convergence fields derived from two wind sets 20 min apart were spatially consistent and reflected the mesoscale forcing of ensuing storm development. Results are discussed with regard to possible limitations in quantifying the relationship between low-level flow and between low-level flow and satellite-derived cumulus motion in an antecedent storm environment.

  19. Passive Acoustic Detection of Wind Turbine In-Flow Conditions for Active Control and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Nathan E.

    2012-03-12

    Wind is a significant source of energy; however, the human capability to produce electrical energy still has many hurdles to overcome. One of these is the unpredictability of the winds in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The ABL is highly turbulent in both stable and unstable conditions (based on the vertical temperature profile) and the resulting fluctuations can have a dramatic impact on wind turbine operation. Any method by which these fluctuations could be observed, estimated, or predicted could provide a benefit to the wind energy industry as a whole. Based on the fundamental coupling of velocity fluctuations to pressure fluctuations in the nearly incompressible flow in the ABL, This work hypothesizes that a ground-based array of infrasonic pressure transducers could be employed to estimate the vertical wind profile over a height relevant for wind turbines. To analyze this hypothesis, experiments and field deployments were conducted. Wind tunnel experiments were performed for a thick turbulent boundary layer over a neutral or heated surface. Surface pressure and velocity probe measurements were acquired simultaneously. Two field deployments yielded surface pressure data from a 49 element array. The second deployment at the Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, TX, also included data from a smaller aperture, 96-element array and a 200-meter tall meteorological tower. Analysis of the data successfully demonstrated the ability to estimate the vertical velocity profile using coherence data from the pressure array. Also, dynamical systems analysis methods were successful in identifying and tracking a gust type event. In addition to the passive acoustic profiling method, this program also investigated a rapid response Doppler SODAR system, the optimization of wind turbine blades for enhanced power with reduced aeroacoustic noise production, and the implementation of a wireless health monitoring system for the wind turbine blades. Each of these other objectives

  20. Flow-synchronous field motion refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassen, Charles N.

    2017-08-22

    An improved method to manage the flow of heat in an active regenerator in a magnetocaloric or an electrocaloric heat-pump refrigeration system, in which heat exchange fluid moves synchronously with the motion of a magnetic or electric field. Only a portion of the length of the active regenerator bed is introduced to or removed from the field at one time, and the heat exchange fluid flows from the cold side toward the hot side while the magnetic or electric field moves along the active regenerator bed.

  1. Wind farm electrical power production model for load flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura-Heras, Isidoro; Escriva-Escriva, Guillermo; Alcazar-Ortega, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The importance of renewable energy increases in activities relating to new forms of managing and operating electrical power: especially wind power. Wind generation is increasing its share in the electricity generation portfolios of many countries. Wind power production in Spain has doubled over the past four years and has reached 20 GW. One of the greatest problems facing wind farms is that the electrical power generated depends on the variable characteristics of the wind. To become competitive in a liberalized market, the reliability of wind energy must be guaranteed. Good local wind forecasts are therefore essential for the accurate prediction of generation levels for each moment of the day. This paper proposes an electrical power production model for wind farms based on a new method that produces correlated wind speeds for various wind farms. This method enables a reliable evaluation of the impact of new wind farms on the high-voltage distribution grid. (author)

  2. Basin-scale wind transport during the MILAGRO field campaign and comparison to climatology using cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The MILAGRO field campaign was a multi-agency international collaborative project to evaluate the regional impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume as a means of understanding urban impacts on the global climate. Mexico City lies on an elevated plateau with mountains on three sides and has complex mountain and surface-driven wind flows. This paper asks what the wind transport was in the basin during the field campaign and how representative it was of the climatology. Surface meteorology and air quality data, radiosondes and radar wind profiler data were collected at sites in the basin and its vicinity. Cluster analysis was used to identify the dominant wind patterns both during the campaign and within the past 10 years of operational data from the warm dry season. Our analysis shows that March 2006 was representative of typical flow patterns experienced in the basin. Six episode types were identified for the basin-scale circulation providing a way of interpreting atmospheric chemistry and particulate data collected during the campaign. Decoupling between surface winds and those aloft had a strong influence in leading to convection and poor air quality episodes. Hourly characterisation of wind circulation during the MILAGRO, MCMA-2003 and IMADA field campaigns enables the comparisons of similar air pollution episodes and the evaluation of the impact of wind transport on measurements of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the basin.

  3. Numerical forecast test on local wind fields at Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoqiu

    2005-01-01

    Non-hydrostatic, full compressible atmospheric dynamics model is applied to perform numerical forecast test on local wind fields at Qinshan nuclear power plant, and prognostic data are compared with observed data for wind fields. The results show that the prognostic of wind speeds is better than that of wind directions as compared with observed results. As the whole, the results of prognostic wind field are consistent with meteorological observation data, 54% of wind speeds are within a factor of 1.5, about 61% of the deviation of wind direction within the 1.5 azimuth (≤33.75 degrees) in the first six hours. (authors)

  4. A flow visualization study of spore release using a wind tunnel-mounted laser light sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Eisner, A.D.; Wiener, R.W.; Main, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    A phase Doppler anemometry system in combination with a laser light sheet was used in a low-speed recirculating wind tunnel to examine the flow field around an individual leaf. Turbulence similar to that encountered near the surface of the earth in a neutral stability boundary layer was generated using a grid at the upwind end of the wind tunnel test section. Individual healthy and diseased plant leaves were introduced into the tunnel with the leaf tip pointing downwind. The Mie-scattered radiation from the spores departing the diseased leaf was captured on videotape. Image processing software was used to enhance the visual quality of the individual frames from the videotape and to make spore velocity calculations. Three main vortex regions around the leaf were identified. The importance of these regions to the separation of the spores from the leaf surface and their subsequent downwind movement was analyzed

  5. Validation of the Actuator Line Model for Simulating Flows past Yawed Wind Turbine Rotors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Yang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The Actuator Line/Navier-Stokes model is validated against wind tunnel measurements for flows past the yawed MEXICO rotor and past the yawed NREL Phase VI rotor. The MEXICO rotor is operated at a rotational speed of 424 rpm, a pitch angle of −2.3˚, wind speeds of 10, 15, 24 m/s and yaw angles of 15......˚, 30˚ and 45˚. The computed loads as well as the velocity field behind the yawed MEXICO rotor are compared to the detailed pressure and PIV measurements which were carried out in the EU funded MEXICO project. For the NREL Phase VI rotor, computations were carried out at a rotational speed of 90.2 rpm...

  6. Channel flow analysis. [velocity distribution throughout blade flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanis, T.

    1973-01-01

    The design of a proper blade profile requires calculation of the blade row flow field in order to determine the velocities on the blade surfaces. An analysis theory is presented for several methods used for this calculation and associated computer programs that were developed are discussed.

  7. An Assessment of Wind Plant Complex Flows Using Advanced Doppler Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, W. S.; Schroeder, J.; Hirth, B.; Duncan, J.; Guynes, J.

    2015-12-01

    As installed wind energy capacity continues to steadily increase, the need for comprehensive measurements of wind plant complex flows to further reduce the cost of wind energy has been well advertised by the industry as a whole. Such measurements serve diverse perspectives including resource assessment, turbine inflow and power curve validation, wake and wind plant layout model verification, operations and maintenance, and the development of future advanced wind plant control schemes. While various measurement devices have been matured for wind energy applications (e.g. meteorological towers, LIDAR, SODAR), this presentation will focus on the use of advanced Doppler radar systems to observe the complex wind flows within and surrounding wind plants. Advanced Doppler radars can provide the combined advantage of a large analysis footprint (tens of square kilometers) with rapid data analysis updates (a few seconds to one minute) using both single- and dual-Doppler data collection methods. This presentation demonstrates the utility of measurements collected by the Texas Tech University Ka-band (TTUKa) radars to identify complex wind flows occurring within and nearby operational wind plants, and provide reliable forecasts of wind speeds and directions at given locations (i.e. turbine or instrumented tower sites) 45+ seconds in advance. Radar-derived wind maps reveal commonly observed features such as turbine wakes and turbine-to-turbine interaction, high momentum wind speed channels between turbine wakes, turbine array edge effects, transient boundary layer flow structures (such as wind streaks, frontal boundaries, etc.), and the impact of local terrain. Operational turbine or instrumented tower data are merged with the radar analysis to link the observed complex flow features to turbine and wind plant performance.

  8. Field investigation of a wake structure downwind of a VANT (Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine) in a wind farm array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. T.; Buck, J. W.; Germain, A. C.; Hinchee, M. E.; Solt, T. S.; Leroy, G. M.; Srnsky, R. A.

    1988-09-01

    The effects of upwind turbine wakes on the performance of a FloWind 17-m vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) were investigated through a series of field experiments conducted at the FloWind wind farm on Cameron Ridge, Tehachapi, California. From the field measurements, we derived the velocity and power/energy deficits under various turbine on/off configurations. Much information was provided to characterize the structure of VAWT wakes and to assess their effects on the performance of downwind turbines. A method to estimate the energy deficit was developed based on the measured power deficit and the wind speed distributions. This method may be adopted for other turbine types and sites. Recommendations are made for optimizing wind farm design and operations, as well as for wind energy management.

  9. Interaction of mass-loaded solar wind flow with blunt body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breus, T.K.; Krymskii, A.M.; Mitnitskii, V.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the numerical modeling of the solar wind interaction with Venus taking into account the mass loading effect due to the photoionization of the Venus neutral oxygen corona. The analysis has shown that this effect unambiguously explains the number of peculiarities of the SW-Venus interaction pattern that could not be quantitatively explained before, namely the shock front position, and the characteristics of the SW flow and magnetic field in the Venus ionosheath observed from experiments onboard of Venera-9 and -10 and Pioneer-Venus spacecraft. (author)

  10. In situ magnetic field measurements during AMPTE solar wind Li+ releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luehr, H.; Southwood, D.J.; Kloecker, N.; Acuna, M.; Haeusler, B.; Dunlop, M.W.; Mier-Jedrzejowicz, W.A.C.; Rijnbeek, R.P.; Six, M.

    1986-01-01

    Data recorded by the magnetometers on the German (IRM) and British (UKS) spacecraft of the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) spacecraft mission are described during the immediate period following the two releases of lithium from the IRM during September. Ions created in the first seconds of the release form a coherent obstacle to solar wind flow. A cavity from which the interplanetary magnetic field is excluded is detected. Outside the cavity the field is compressed, and subsequently the cavity is convected downstream. We compare what is observed with other relevant natural interactions but also emphasize the unique features of this experiment

  11. Wind tunnel and field assessment of pollen dispersal in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Although genetically modified (GM) soybean has never been cultivated commercially in Japan, it is essential to set up the isolation distance required to prevent out-crossing between GM and conventional soybean in preparation for any future possibility of pollen transfer. The airborne soybean pollen was sampled using some Durham pollen samplers located in the range of 20 m from the field edge. In addition, the dispersal distance was assessed in a wind tunnel under constant air flow and then it was compared with the anticipated distances based on the pollen diameter. In the field, the maximum pollen density per day observed was 1.235 grains cm(-2) day(-1) at three observation points within 2.5 m from the field and inside the field the mean density did not reach the rate of 1 grain cm(-2 )day(-1) during 19 flowering days. The results of the wind tunnel experiment also showed that the plants had almost no airborne release of pollen and the dispersal distance was shorter than theoretical value due to clustered dispersal. This study showed little airborne pollen in and around the soybean field and the dispersal is restricted to a small area. Therefore, wind-mediated pollination appears to be negligible.

  12. Toward the Experimental Characterization of an Unmanned Air System Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, John-Michael; Connors, Jacob; Glauser, Mark

    2017-11-01

    The velocity flow field around a small unmanned air system (sUAS) is investigated in a series of experiments at Syracuse University. Experiments are conducted in the 2'x2' sub-sonic wind tunnel at Syracuse University and the Indoor Flow Lab. The goal of these experiments is to gain a better understanding of the rich, turbulent flow field that a sUAS creates. Comparison to large, multi-rotor manned vehicles is done to gain a better understanding of the flow physics that could be occurring with the sUAS. Regions of investigation include the downwash, above the vehicle, and far downstream. Characterization of the flow is performed using hotwire anemometry. Investigation of several locations around the sUAS show that dominant frequencies exist within the flow field. Analysis of the flow field using power spectral density will be presented as well as looking at which parameters have an effect on these dominant frequencies.

  13. X-band COSMO-SkyMed wind field retrieval, with application to coastal circulation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Montuori

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, X-band COSMO-SkyMed© synthetic aperture radar (SAR wind field retrieval is investigated, and the obtained data are used to force a coastal ocean circulation model. The SAR data set consists of 60 X-band Level 1B Multi-Look Ground Detected ScanSAR Huge Region COSMO-SkyMed© SAR data, gathered in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea during the summer and winter seasons of 2010. The SAR-based wind vector field estimation is accomplished by resolving both the SAR-based wind speed and wind direction retrieval problems independently. The sea surface wind speed is retrieved by means of a SAR wind speed algorithm based on the azimuth cut-off procedure, while the sea surface wind direction is provided by means of a SAR wind direction algorithm based on the discrete wavelet transform multi-resolution analysis. The obtained wind fields are compared with ground truth data provided by both ASCAT scatterometer and ECMWF model wind fields. SAR-derived wind vector fields and ECMWF model wind data are used to construct a blended wind product regularly sampled in both space and time, which is then used to force a coastal circulation model of a southern Tyrrhenian coastal area to simulate wind-driven circulation processes. The modeling results show that X-band COSMO-SkyMed© SAR data can be valuable in providing effective wind fields for coastal circulation modeling.

  14. Modelling and Measuring Flow and Wind Turbine Wakes in Large Wind Farms Offshore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs

    2009-01-01

    power losses due to wakes and loads. The research presented is part of the EC-funded UpWind project, which aims to radically improve wind turbine and wind farm models in order to continue to improve the costs of wind energy. Reducing wake losses, or even reduce uncertainties in predicting power losses...

  15. Using Satellite SAR to Characterize the Wind Flow around Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Vincent, Pauline; Badger, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Offshore wind farm cluster effects between neighboring wind farms increase rapidly with the large-scale deployment of offshore wind turbines. The wind farm wakes observed from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) are sometimes visible and atmospheric and wake models are here shown to convincingly repro...

  16. The role of streamline curvature in sand dune dynamics: evidence from field and wind tunnel measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggs, Giles F. S.; Livingstone, Ian; Warren, Andrew

    1996-09-01

    Field measurements on an unvegetated, 10 m high barchan dune in Oman are compared with measurements over a 1:200 scale fixed model in a wind tunnel. Both the field and wind tunnel data demonstrate similar patterns of wind and shear velocity over the dune, confirming significant flow deceleration upwind of and at the toe of the dune, acceleration of flow up the windward slope, and deceleration between the crest and brink. This pattern, including the widely reported upwind reduction in shear velocity, reflects observations of previous studies. Such a reduction in shear velocity upwind of the dune should result in a reduction in sand transport and subsequent sand deposition. This is not observed in the field. Wind tunnel modelling using a near-surface pulse-wire probe suggests that the field method of shear velocity derivation is inadequate. The wind tunnel results exhibit no reduction in shear velocity upwind of or at the toe of the dune. Evidence provided by Reynolds stress profiles and turbulence intensities measured in the wind tunnel suggest that this maintenance of upwind shear stress may be a result of concave (unstable) streamline curvature. These additional surface stresses are not recorded by the techniques used in the field measurements. Using the occurrence of streamline curvature as a starting point, a new 2-D model of dune dynamics is deduced. This model relies on the establishment of an equilibrium between windward slope morphology, surface stresses induced by streamline curvature, and streamwise acceleration. Adopting the criteria that concave streamline curvature and streamwise acceleration both increase surface shear stress, whereas convex streamline curvature and deceleration have the opposite effect, the relationships between form and process are investigated in each of three morphologically distinct zones: the upwind interdune and concave toe region of the dune, the convex portion of the windward slope, and the crest-brink region. The

  17. Improved modeling techniques for turbomachinery flow fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshminarayana, B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fagan, J.R. Jr. [Allison Engine Company, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This program has the objective of developing an improved methodology for modeling turbomachinery flow fields, including the prediction of losses and efficiency. Specifically, the program addresses the treatment of the mixing stress tensor terms attributed to deterministic flow field mechanisms required in steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models for turbo-machinery flow fields. These mixing stress tensors arise due to spatial and temporal fluctuations (in an absolute frame of reference) caused by rotor-stator interaction due to various blade rows and by blade-to-blade variation of flow properties. These tasks include the acquisition of previously unavailable experimental data in a high-speed turbomachinery environment, the use of advanced techniques to analyze the data, and the development of a methodology to treat the deterministic component of the mixing stress tensor. Penn State will lead the effort to make direct measurements of the momentum and thermal mixing stress tensors in high-speed multistage compressor flow field in the turbomachinery laboratory at Penn State. They will also process the data by both conventional and conditional spectrum analysis to derive momentum and thermal mixing stress tensors due to blade-to-blade periodic and aperiodic components, revolution periodic and aperiodic components arising from various blade rows and non-deterministic (which includes random components) correlations. The modeling results from this program will be publicly available and generally applicable to steady-state Navier-Stokes solvers used for turbomachinery component (compressor or turbine) flow field predictions. These models will lead to improved methodology, including loss and efficiency prediction, for the design of high-efficiency turbomachinery and drastically reduce the time required for the design and development cycle of turbomachinery.

  18. Wind field and trajectory models for tornado-propelled objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    1978-01-01

    This report contains the results of the second phase of a research program which has as its objective the development of a mathematical model to predict the trajectory of tornado-borne objects postulated to be in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. An improved tornado wind field model satisfies the no-slip ground boundary condition of fluid mechanics and includes the functional dependence of eddy viscosity with altitude. Sub-scale wind tunnel data are obtained for all of the missiles currently specified for nuclear plant design. Confirmatory full-scale data are obtained for a 12-inch pipe and automobile. The original six-degree-of-freedom trajectory model is modified to include the improved wind field and increased capability as to body shapes and inertial characteristics that can be handled. The improved trajectory model is used to calculate maximum credible speeds, which for all of the heavy missiles are considerably less than those currently specified for design. Equivalent coefficients for use in three-degree-of-freedom models are developed and the sensitivity of range and speed to various trajectory parameters for the 12-inch diameter pipe is examined

  19. Design, construction and calibration of a portable boundary layer wind tunnel for field use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind tunnels have been used for several decades to study wind erosion processes. Portable wind tunnels offer the advantage of testing natural surfaces in the field, but they must be carefully designed to insure that a logarithmic boundary layer is formed and that wind erosion processes may develop ...

  20. Observation of wind field over heterogeneous terrain by the French-German airborne Doppler lidar WIND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabas, A.; Werner, C.; Delville, P.; Reitebuch, O.; Drobinski, P.; Cousin, F.

    2003-04-01

    In summer 2001, the French-German airborne Doppler lidar WIND participated to field campaign ESCOMPTE. ESCOMPTE was carried out in the region of Marseille along the Mediterranean coast of France. It was dedicated to the observation of heavy pollution events in this industrialized, densely populated region of nearly 4 million inhabitants. The aim was to gather a data base as comprehensive as possible on several pollution events and use them to check the ability of several regional forecast models to predict such events. The specific mission devoted to WIND was the characterization at mesoscale of the wind field and the topography of the planetary boundary layer. Both are complex around Marseille due the heterogeneity of the surface with a transition sea/land to the south, the fore-Alps to the North, the Rhône valley to the North-West etc... Seven, 3-hr flights were carried out and gave excellent results. In 2002, first comparisons were made with mesoscale models. They will be shown during the presentation. They are good examples of the usefulness of airborne Doppler lidar for validating and improving atmospheric model simulations.

  1. Vapor Bubbles in Flow and Acoustic Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, Andrea; Hao, Yue; Sadhal, S.S

    2002-01-01

    A review of several aspects of the interaction of bubbles with acoustic and flow fields is presented. The focus of the paper is on bubbles in hot liquids, in which the bubble contains mostly vapor, with little or no permanent gas. The topics covered include the effect of translation on condensation

  2. Flow field mapping in data rack model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěcha J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to map the flow field inside the data rack model, fitted with three 1U server models. The server model is based on the common four-processor 1U server. The main dimensions of the data rack model geometry are taken fully from the real geometry. Only the model was simplified with respect to the greatest possibility in the experimental measurements. The flow field mapping was carried out both experimentally and numerically. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry method was used for the experimental flow field mapping, when the flow field has been mapped for defined regions within the 2D/3D data rack model. Ansys CFX and OpenFOAM software were used for the numerical solution. Boundary conditions for numerical model were based on data obtained from experimental measurement of velocity profile at the output of the server mockup. This velocity profile was used as the input boundary condition in the calculation. In order to achieve greater consistency of the numerical model with experimental data, the numerical model was modified with regard to the results of experimental measurements. Results from the experimental and numerical measurements were compared and the areas of disparateness were identified. In further steps the obtained proven numerical model will be utilized for the real geometry of data racks and data.

  3. Dynamical and statistical-dynamical modelling of wind farm flows with WRF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Patrick; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2016-01-01

    the power production of a target wind farm and (II) how large wind farms can get if they are to remain efficient and productive power generators. The modelling of wind farm wake flows is challenging, since it includes processes from the micro- to mesoscale meteorology. We use the Weather Research......A pledge to increase the share of renewable energies has led to a focus on offshore wind energy in many western European countries. With an increasing number of offshore wind farms to be installed it becomes important to understand (I) the degree to which wakes from neighbouring wind farms affect...... and Forecast (WRF) model that allows us to simulate mesoscale features of wind farm wakes. Its limited horizontal resolution – in microscale terms – however, requires flow characteristics, such as single turbine wakes, to be parametrised....

  4. Enhanced gauge symmetry and winding modes in double field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldazabal, G. [Centro Atómico Bariloche,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNC) and CONICET,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Graña, M. [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/ Saclay,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Iguri, S. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Universidad de Buenos Aires,1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mayo, M. [Centro Atómico Bariloche,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNC) and CONICET,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Nuñez, C. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Universidad de Buenos Aires,1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires,C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosabal, J.A. [Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires,C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-03-15

    We provide an explicit example of how the string winding modes can be incorporated in double field theory. Our guiding case is the closed bosonic string compactified on a circle of radius close to the self-dual point, where some modes with non-zero winding or discrete momentum number become massless and enhance the U(1)×U(1) symmetry to SU(2)×SU(2). We compute three-point string scattering amplitudes of massless and slightly massive states, and extract the corresponding effective low energy gauge field theory. The enhanced gauge symmetry at the self-dual point and the Higgs-like mechanism arising when changing the compactification radius are examined in detail. The extra massless fields associated to the enhancement are incorporated into a generalized frame with ((O(d+3,d+3))/(O(d+3)×O(d+3))) structure, where d is the number of non-compact dimensions. We devise a consistent double field theory action that reproduces the low energy string effective action with enhanced gauge symmetry. The construction requires a truly non-geometric frame which explicitly depends on both the compact coordinate along the circle and its dual.

  5. IEA-Task 31 WAKEBENCH: Towards a protocol for wind farm flow model evaluation. Part 2: Wind farm wake models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Rodrigo, Javier Sanz; Gancarski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Researchers within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 31: Wakebench have created a framework for the evaluation of wind farm flow models operating at the microscale level. The framework consists of a model evaluation protocol integrated with a web-based portal for model benchmarking (www.......windbench.net). This paper provides an overview of the building-block validation approach applied to wind farm wake models, including best practices for the benchmarking and data processing procedures for validation datasets from wind farm SCADA and meteorological databases. A hierarchy of test cases has been proposed...

  6. Evaluation of the Wind Flow Variability Using Scanning Doppler Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, S. C.; Pichugina, Y. L.; Brewer, A.

    2016-12-01

    Better understanding of the wind flow variability at the heights of the modern turbines is essential to accurately assess of generated wind power and efficient turbine operations. Nowadays the wind energy industry often utilizes scanning Doppler lidar to measure wind-speed profiles at high spatial and temporal resolution.The study presents wind flow features captured by scanning Doppler lidars during the second Wind Forecast and Improvement Project (WFIP 2) sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This 18-month long experiment in the Columbia River Basin aims to improve model wind forecasts complicated by mountain terrain, coastal effects, and numerous wind farms.To provide a comprehensive dataset to use for characterizing and predicting meteorological phenomena important to Wind Energy, NOAA deployed scanning, pulsed Doppler lidars to two sites in Oregon, one at Wasco, located upstream of all wind farms relative to the predominant westerly flow in the region, and one at Arlington, located in the middle of several wind farms.In this presentation we will describe lidar scanning patterns capable of providing data in conical, or vertical-slice modes. These individual scans were processed to obtain 15-min averaged profiles of wind speed and direction in real time. Visualization of these profiles as time-height cross sections allows us to analyze variability of these parameters with height, time and location, and reveal periods of rapid changes (ramp events). Examples of wind flow variability between two sites of lidar measurements along with examples of reduced wind velocity downwind of operating turbines (wakes) will be presented.

  7. CFD and experimental data of closed-loop wind tunnel flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kaiser Calautit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article were the basis for the study reported in the research articles entitled ‘A validated design methodology for a closed loop subsonic wind tunnel’ (Calautit et al., 2014 [1], which presented a systematic investigation into the design, simulation and analysis of flow parameters in a wind tunnel using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The authors evaluated the accuracy of replicating the flow characteristics for which the wind tunnel was designed using numerical simulation. Here, we detail the numerical and experimental set-up for the analysis of the closed-loop subsonic wind tunnel with an empty test section.

  8. Using wind speed from a blade-mounted flow sensor for power and load assessment on modern wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pedersen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an alternative method to evaluate power performance and loads on wind turbines using a blade-mounted flow sensor is investigated. The hypothesis is that the wind speed measured at the blades has a high correlation with the power and loads such that a power or load assessment can be performed from a few hours or days of measurements.In the present study a blade-mounted five-hole pitot tube is used as the flow sensor as an alternative to the conventional approach, where the reference wind speed is either measured at a nearby met mast or on the nacelle using lidar technology or cup anemometers. From the flow sensor measurements, an accurate estimate of the wind speed at the rotor plane can be obtained. This wind speed is disturbed by the presence of the wind turbine, and it is therefore different from the free-flow wind speed. However, the recorded wind speed has a high correlation with the actual power production as well as the flap-wise loads as it is measured close to the blade where the aerodynamic forces are acting.Conventional power curves are based on at least 180 h of 10 min mean values, but using the blade-mounted flow sensor both the observation average time and the overall assessment time can potentially be shortened. The basis for this hypothesis is that the sensor is able to provide more observations with higher accuracy, as the sensor follows the rotation of the rotor and because of the high correlation between the flow at the blades and the power production. This is the research question addressed in this paper.The method is first tested using aeroelastic simulations where the dependence of the radial position and effect of multiple blade-mounted flow sensors are also investigated. Next the method is evaluated on the basis of full-scale measurements on a pitch-regulated, variable-speed 3.6 MW wind turbine.It is concluded that the wind speed derived from the blade-mounted flow sensor is highly correlated with the

  9. Numerical simulation of the aerodynamic field in complex terrain wind farm based on actuator disk model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Li, Chen Qi; Han, Xing Xing

    2015-01-01

    Study on the aerodynamic field in complex terrain is significant to wind farm micro-sitting and wind power prediction. This paper modeled the wind turbine through an actuator disk model, and solved the aerodynamic field by CFD to study the influence of meshing, boundary conditions and turbulence ...

  10. AIR FLOW AND ENVIRONMENTAL WIND VISUALIZATION USING A CW DIODE PUMPED FREQUENCY DOUBLED Nd:YAG Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea UDREA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results obtained in developing a visualisation technique for non-invasive analysis of air flow inside INCAS subsonic wind tunnel and its appendages are presented. The visualisation technique is based on using a green light sheet generated by a continuous wave (cw longitudinally diode pumped and frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. The output laser beam is expanded on one direction and collimated on rectangular direction. The system is tailored to the requirements of qualitative analysis and vortex tracking requirements inside the INCAS 2.5m x 2.0m subsonic wind tunnel test section, for measurements performed on aircraft models. Also the developed laser techniques is used for non-invasive air flow field analysis into environmental facilities settling room (air flow calming area. Quantitative analysis is enabled using special image processing tools upon movies and pictures obtained during the experiments. The basic experimental layout in the wind tunnel takes advantage of information obtained from the investigation of various aircraft models using the developed visualisation technique. These results are further developed using a Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV experimental technique.The focus is on visualisation techniques to be used for wind flow characterization at different altitudes in indus-trial and civil buildings areas using a light sheet generated by a Nd:YAG cw pumped and doubled laser at 532 nm wave-length. The results are important for prevention of biological/chemical disasters such as spreading of extremely toxic pol-lutants due to wind. Numerical simulations of wind flow and experimental visualisation results are compared. A good agreement between these results is observed.

  11. Numerical flow simulation over clean and iced wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalpando, F.; Reggio, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Ilinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Wind Energy Group

    2009-07-01

    The impact of ice accretion on the drag and lift coefficients of a wind turbine blade was studied. Computerized simulations were conducted for both clean and ice-accreted 2-D airfoils at various angles of attack. The finite volume-based commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program FLUENT was used to simulate the 2-D geometries of turbulent, unsteady and incompressible flow around the airfoils. Pressure coefficients and the contribution of pressure and friction forces to the lift and drag coefficients were analyzed. The study showed that traditional calculations over-predict the lift and drag of ice-accreted airfoil profiles. Ice accreted over the profile's pressure side provoked a bigger lift reduction and drag increase than that caused by ice accreted on the suction side. The poor performance of the aerodynamic coefficients was attributed to the contribution of pressure forces. Further experimentation is required to determine if de-icing systems for turbine blades should be developed to prevent or melt ice over the profile pressure side. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 15 figs.

  12. Flow field of flexible flapping wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallstrom, Erik

    The agility and maneuverability of natural fliers would be desirable to incorporate into engineered micro air vehicles (MAVs). However, there is still much for engineers to learn about flapping flight in order to understand how such vehicles can be built for efficient flying. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for capturing high quality flow field data around flexible flapping wings in a hover environment and to interpret it to gain a better understanding of how aerodynamic forces are generated. The flow field data was captured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and required that measurements be taken around a repeatable flapping motion to obtain phase-averaged data that could be studied throughout the flapping cycle. Therefore, the study includes the development of flapping devices with a simple repeatable single degree of freedom flapping motion. The acquired flow field data has been examined qualitatively and quantitatively to investigate the mechanisms behind force production in hovering flight and to relate it to observations in previous research. Specifically, the flow fields have been investigated around a rigid wing and several carbon fiber reinforced flexible membrane wings. Throughout the whole study the wings were actuated with either a sinusoidal or a semi-linear flapping motion. The semi-linear flapping motion holds the commanded angular velocity nearly constant through half of each half-stroke while the sinusoidal motion is always either accelerating or decelerating. The flow fields were investigated by examining vorticity and vortex structures, using the Q criterion as the definition for the latter, in two and three dimensions. The measurements were combined with wing deflection measurements to demonstrate some of the key links in how the fluid-structure interactions generated aerodynamic forces. The flow fields were also used to calculate the forces generated by the flapping wings using momentum balance methods which yielded

  13. RAMSIM: A fast computer model for mean wind flow over hills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, J-F.

    2007-06-15

    The Riso Atmospheric Mixed Spectral-Integration Model (RAMSIM) is a micro-scale, linear flow model developed to quickly calculate the mean wind flow field over orography. It was designed to bridge the gap between WAsP and similar models that are fast but insufficiently accurate over steep slopes, and non-linear CFD models that are accurate but too computationally expensive for routine use on a PC. RAMSIM is governed by the RANS and E-{epsilon} turbulence closure equations, expressed in non-Cartesian coordinates. A terrain-following coordinate system is created from a simple analytical expression. The equations are linearized by a perturbation expansion about the flat-terrain case. The first-order equations, representing the spatial correction due to the presence of orography, are Fourier-transformed analytically in the two horizontal dimensions. The pressure and horizontal velocity components are eliminated, resulting in a set of four ordinary differential equations (ODEs). RAMSIM is currently implemented and tested in two-dimensional space; a 3D version has been formulated but not yet implemented. In the 2D case, there are only three ODEs, depending on only two non-dimensional parameters. This is exploited by solving the ODEs by Runge-Kutta integration for all useful combinations of these parameters, and storing the results in look-up tables (LUT). The flow field over any given orography is then quickly obtained by interpolating from the LUTs and scaling the value of the flow variables for each wavenumber component of the orography, and returning to real space by inverse Fourier transform. RAMSIM was tested against measurements, as well as other authors' flow models, in four test cases: two laboratory flows over idealized terrain, and two field experiments. RAMSIM calculations generally agree with measurements over upward slopes and hilltops, but overestimate the speed very near the ground at hilltops. RAMSIM appears to have an edge over other linear models

  14. Two-component wind fields over ocean waves using atmospheric lidar and motion estimation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, S. D.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical models, such as large eddy simulations, are capable of providing stunning visualizations of the air-sea interface. One reason for this is the inherent spatial nature of such models. As compute power grows, models are able to provide higher resolution visualizations over larger domains revealing intricate details of the interactions of ocean waves and the airflow over them. Spatial observations on the other hand, which are necessary to validate the simulations, appear to lag behind models. The rough ocean environment of the real world is an additional challenge. One method of providing spatial observations of fluid flow is that of particle image velocimetry (PIV). PIV has been successfully applied to many problems in engineering and the geosciences. This presentation will show recent research results that demonstate that a PIV-style approach using pulsed-fiber atmospheric elastic backscatter lidar hardware and wavelet-based optical flow motion estimation software can reveal two-component wind fields over rough ocean surfaces. Namely, a recently-developed compact lidar was deployed for 10 days in March of 2015 in the Eureka, California area. It scanned over the ocean. Imagery reveal that breaking ocean waves provide copius amounts of particulate matter for the lidar to detect and for the motion estimation algorithms to retrieve wind vectors from. The image below shows two examples of results from the experiment. The left panel shows the elastic backscatter intensity (copper shades) under a field of vectors that was retrieved by the wavelet-based optical flow algorithm from two scans that took about 15 s each to acquire. The vectors, that reveal offshore flow toward the NW, were decimated for clarity. The bright aerosol features along the right edge of the sector scan were caused by ocean waves breaking on the beach. The right panel is the result of scanning over the ocean on a day when wave amplitudes ranged from 8-12 feet and whitecaps offshore beyond the

  15. Measured and modelled local wind field over a frozen lake in a mountainous area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedman, A.S.; Bergstroem, H.; Hoegstroem, U. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-03-01

    The study is a follow-up of a previous paper and concentrates on two very characteristic flow regimes: forced channeling, where the driving geostrophic wind and the lake axis are roughly aligned, and pressure-driven channeling or gap winds, which are characterized by a geostrophic wind direction more or less perpendicular to the lake axis. Both situations produce winds along the main axis of the lake. In the forced channeling case the wind direction varies insignificantly with height and the wind speed increases monotonically with height. The gap wind flow, which can give supergeostrophic speed, is restricted to the lowest 500 m above the lake surface, drops in speed to near zero just above that layer, changing to an across-wind direction higher up. Gap winds are found to require slightly stable stratification for their existence; strong stability forces the flow to go round the mountains rather than over, and neutral conditions give a turbulent wake in the lee of the mountains. The gap wind starts at any occasion as a sudden warm front approaching from either of the two along-lake directions (115 or 295 degrees). It is argued that the relative warmth of the `gap wind air` is due to air originally flowing at mountain top height across the lake axis being gradually turned and accelerated along the synoptic pressure gradient while descending. The strongly sheared layer at the top of the gap wind region is dynamically highly unstable, giving rise to vertically coherent variations in wind speed and direction which appear to be triggered by gravity waves. When the driving geostrophic wind is high enough, the disturbed region reaches all the way down to the ground surface. Then periods with strong turbulence and low mean wind alternate with pronounced gap winds on typically a 10 minute scale. 11 refs, 18 figs

  16. Sultan - forced flow, high field test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, I.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1981-01-01

    Three European laboratories: CNEN (Frascati, I) ECN (Petten, NL) and SIN (Villigen, CH) decided to coordinate their development efforts and to install a common high field forced flow test facility at Villigen Switzerland. The test facility SULTAN (Supraleiter Testanlage) is presently under construction. As a first step, an 8T/1m bore solenoid with cryogenic periphery will be ready in 1981. The cryogenic system, data acquisition system and power supplies which are contributed by SIN are described. Experimental feasibilities, including cooling, and instrumentation are reviewed. Progress of components and facility construction is described. Planned extension of the background field up to 12T by insert coils is outlined. 5 refs

  17. Field measurement of wind pressure and wind-induced vibration of large-span spatial cable-truss system under strong wind or typhoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhihong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure wind-resistance safety of large-span pre-stressed flexible system in southeast coast area of China,and to prepare something for revising of current codes of practice or technical standards,the present paper conducts field measurement of wind pressure and wind-induced vibration of a practical and typical large-span spatial cable-truss system-lunar stadium in Yueqing city.Wind loading and wind effects on full-scale structure under strong wind or typhoon in real architectural environment can be obtained directly and effectively.Field measurement is the best way to investigate the wind loading property,wind effects,and wind-structure interactions of large-span flexible system.Measured data will be highly valuable for scientific research and practical design.On the other hand,it also provides the basis of wind-resistance safety design of this kind of tension structures.If any creative development,it would dramatically improve the research level of large-span pre-stressed flexible system in our country.

  18. Simulation of flow over double-element airfoil and wind tunnel test for use in vertical axis wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2014-01-01

    been made to utilize high lift technology for vertical axis wind turbines in order to improve power efficiency. High lift is obtained by double-element airfoil mainly used in aeroplane wing design. In this current work a low Reynolds number airfoil is selected to design a double-element airfoil blade...... for use in vertical axis wind turbine to improve the power efficiency. Double-element airfoil blade design consists of a main airfoil and a slat airfoil. Orientation of slat airfoil is a parameter of investigation in this paper and air flow simulation over double-element airfoil. With primary wind tunnel...... that there is an increase in the lift coefficient by 26% for single-element airfoil at analysed conditions. The CFD simulation results were validated with wind tunnel tests. It is also observe that by selecting proper airfoil configuration and blade sizes an increase in lift coefficient can further be achieved....

  19. Closed and open magnetic fields in stellar winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, D. J.; Steinolfson, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical study of the interaction between a thermal wind and a global dipole field in the sun and in a giant star is reported. In order for closed field lines to persist near the equator (where a helmet-streamer-like configuration appears), the coronal temperature must be less than a critical value Tc, which scales as M/R. This condition is found to be equivalent to the following: for a static helmet streamer to persist, the sonic point above the helmet must not approach closer to the star than 2.2-2.6 stellar radii. Implications for rapid mass loss and X-ray emission from cool giants are pointed out. The results strengthen the case for identifying empirical dividing lines in the H-R diagram with a magnetic topology transition locus (MTTL). Support for the MTTL concept is also provided by considerations of the breakdown of magnetostatic equilibrium.

  20. Observation of high-resolution wind fields and offshore wind turbine wakes using TerraSAR-X imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Tobias; Jacobsen, Sven; Lehner, Susanne; Pleskachevsky, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    1. Introduction Numerous large-scale offshore wind farms have been built in European waters and play an important role in providing renewable energy. Therefore, knowledge of behavior of wakes, induced by large wind turbines and their impact on wind power output is important. The spatial variation of offshore wind turbine wake is very complex, depending on wind speed, wind direction, ambient atmospheric turbulence and atmospheric stability. In this study we demonstrate the application of X-band TerraSAR-X (TS-X) data with high spatial resolution for studies on wind turbine wakes in the near and far field of the offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus, located in the North Sea. Two cases which different weather conditions and different wake pattern as observed in the TS-X image are presented. 2. Methods The space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a unique sensor that provides two-dimensional information on the ocean surface. Due to their high resolution, daylight and weather independency and global coverage, SARs are particularly suitable for many ocean and coastal applications. SAR images reveal wind variations on small scales and thus represent a valuable means in detailed wind-field analysis. The general principle of imaging turbine wakes is that the reduced wind speed downstream of offshore wind farms modulates the sea surface roughness, which in turn changes the Normalized Radar Cross Section (NRCS, denoted by σ0) in the SAR image and makes the wake visible. In this study we present two cases at the offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus to investigate turbine-induced wakes and the retrieved sea surface wind field. Using the wind streaks, visible in the TS-X image and the shadow behind the offshore wind farm, induced by turbine wake, the sea surface wind direction is derived and subsequently the sea surface wind speed is calculated using the latest generation of wind field algorithm XMOD2. 3. Case study alpha ventus Alpha Ventus is located approximately 45 km from the

  1. Remote Sensing of Complex Flows by Doppler Wind Lidar: Issues and Preliminary Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boquet, Matthieu [Leosphere, Orsay (France); Burin Des Roziers, Edward [UL International Gmbh, Freemont, CA (United States); Westerhellweg, Annette [UL International Gmbh, Freemont, CA (United States); Hofsass, Martin [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany). Stuttgart Wind Energy; Klaas, Tobias [Fraunhofer Inst. for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology, Freiburg (Germany); Vogstad, Klaus [Meventus, Hamburg (Germany); Clive, Peter [Sgurr Energy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Harris, Mike [ZephIR Limited, Kirkcudbrightshire (United Kingdom); Wylie, Scott [ZephIR Limited, Kirkcudbrightshire (United Kingdom); Osler, Evan [Renewable NRG Systems, Hinesburg, VT (United States); Banta, Bob [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Choukulkar, Aditya [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Lundquist, Julie [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Aitken, Matthew [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing of winds using lidar has become popular and useful in the wind energy industry. Extensive experience has been gained with using lidar for applications including land-based and offshore resource assessment, plant operations, and turbine control. Prepared by members of International Energy Agency Task 32, this report describes the state of the art in the use of Doppler wind lidar for resource assessment in complex flows. The report will be used as input for future recommended practices on this topic.

  2. CFD modelling and PIV experimental validation of flow fields in urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnatowska Renata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of flow field in the urban boundary-layer (UBL in aspects of wind comfort around buildings and pollutant dispersion has grown in importance since human activity has become so intense that it started to have considerable impact on environment. The issue of wind comfort in urban areas is the result of complex interactions of many flow phenomena and for a long time it arouses a great interest of the research centres. The aim of article is to study urban atmospheric flow at the local scale, which allows for both a detailed reproduction of the flow phenomena and the development of wind comfort criteria. The proposed methodology involves the use of PIV wind tunnel experiments as well as numerical simulations (Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD in order to enhance understanding of the flow phenomena at this particular scale in urban environments. The analysis has been performed for the 3D case of two surface-mounted buildings arranged in tandem, which were placed with one face normal to the oncoming flow. The local characteristics of flow were obtained by the use of commercial CFD code (ANSYS Fluent. The validation was carried out with reference to the PIV results.

  3. Wind dependence on the flow rate in a natural draught cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, E.; Ernst, G.; Wurz, D.

    1981-01-01

    The efficiency of a natural draught cooling tower depends, among other things, on the effect of the wind on the flow in the tower stack. Determinations were made on a natural draught wet cooling tower 100 metres high, for the purpose of studying this effects. As characteristic quantity, a typical height was determined, the values of which were worked out from the results of the measurements. The efficiency of the stack is affected the most in the case of average wind velocities (when the velocity of the wind is about equal to the mean velocity of the plume). This effect diminishes when the velocity of the wind increases. In the case of average wind velocities, the direction of the wind has an effect, owing to the neighbouring buildings; for slightly greater wind velocities, no effect could be found [fr

  4. Experimental and numerical study of the flow field around a small car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrev Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the aerodynamic study of a small car, which participated in Shell Ecomarathon Europe competition in the Urban Concept Hydrogen class. The goal is to understand the flow field around the vehicle. First, the flow is studied numerically using computational aerodynamics. The numerical simulation is carried out by means of CFD Fluent in order to obtain the drag force experienced by the vehicle and also the flow field. Then the flow field around the car is studied in a wind tunnel by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV. The comparison of the flow fields obtained numerically and experimentally shows good correspondence. The obtained results are very helpful for future car development and permit to improve the drag and to obtain a good stability.

  5. Mesoscale to microscale wind farm flow modeling and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz Rodrigo, Javier; Chávez Arroyo, Roberto Aurelio; Moriarty, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The increasing size of wind turbines, with rotors already spanning more than 150m diameter and hub heights above 100m, requires proper modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) from the surface to the free atmosphere. Furthermore, large wind farm arrays create their own boundary layer stru...

  6. Spiral field inhibition of thermal conduction in two-fluid solar wind models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerney, S.; Barnes, A.

    1978-01-01

    The two-fluid solar wind equations, including inhibition of heat conduction by the spiral magnetic field, have been solved for steady radial flow, and the results are compared with those of our previous study of two-fluid models with straight interplanetary field lines. The main effects of the spiral field conduction cutoff are to bottle up electron heat inside 1 AU and to produce adiabatic electron (an proton) temperature profiles at large heliocentric distances. Otherwise, the spiral field models are nearly identical with straight field models with the same temperatures and velocity at 1 AU, except for models associated with very low coronal base densities (n 0 approx.10 6 cm -3 at 1R/sub s/). Low base density spiral models give a nearly isothermal electron temperature profile over 50--100 AU together with high velocities and temperatures at 1 AU. In general, high-velocity models do not agree well with observed high-velocity streams: lower-velocity states can be represented reasonably well at 1 AU, but only for very high proton temperatures (T/sub p/approx.2T/sub e/) at the coronal base. For spherically symmetric base conditions the straight field and spiral field models can be regarded, in lowest order, as approximations to the polar and equatorial three-dimensional flows, respectively. This viewpoint suggests a pole to equator electron temperature gradient in the region 1-10 AU, which would be associated with a meridional velocity of approx.0.5-1.0 km/s, diverging away from the equatorial plane. The formalism developed in this paper shows rather stringent limits to the mass loss rate for conductively driven winds and, in particular, illustrates that putative T Tauri outflows could not be conductively driven

  7. Wind energy conversion systems with electric transmission to the water pumping with field control to constant flow; Sistema de conversao de energia eolica com transmissao eletrica para bombeamento de agua com controle de campo a fluxo constante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Juraci Carlos de Castro

    1989-07-01

    The stead-state analysis of a Wind Energy Conversion Systems, consisting on a Windmill, Synchronous Generator, transmission Line and Induction Motor driving a Centrifugal Pump is developed. The performance of the system operating at variable Speed with a flux control is examined using mathematical and digital simulation. The control scheme is proposed and tested in laboratory and a tested in laboratory and a test centre to be compared with simulation results. (author)

  8. Analysis of environmental dispersion in a wetland flow under the effect of wind: Extended solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huilin; Huai, Wenxin

    2018-02-01

    The accurate analysis of the contaminant transport process in wetland flows is essential for environmental assessment. However, dispersivity assessment becomes complicated when the wind strength and direction are taken into consideration. Prior studies illustrating the wind effect on environmental dispersion in wetland flows simply focused on the mean longitudinal concentration distribution. Moreover, the results obtained by these analyses are not accurate when done on a smaller scale, namely, the initial stage of the contaminant transport process. By combining the concentration moments method (the Aris' method) and Gill's expansion theory, the previous researches on environmental dispersion in wetland flows with effect of wind have been extended. By adopting up to 4th-order moments, the wind effect-as illustrated by dimensionless parameters Er (wind force) and ω (wind direction)-on kurtosis and skewness is discussed, the up to 4th-order vertical concentration distribution is obtained, and the two-dimensional concentration distribution is illustrated. This work demonstrates that wind intensity and direction can significantly affect the contaminant dispersion. Moreover, the study presents a more accurate analytical solution of environmental dispersion in wetland flows under various wind conditions.

  9. Numerical modeling of the flow conditions in a closed-circuit low-speed wind tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Blocken, B.J.E.; Roels, S.; Carmeliet, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    A methodology for numerically simulating the flow conditions in closed-circuit wind tunnels is developed as a contribution to the general philosophy of incorporating Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in wind tunnel design and testing and to CFD validation studies. The methodology is applied to the

  10. Air flow and pollution in a real, heterogeneous urban street canyon: A field and laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, Styliani; Malki-Epshtein, Liora; Neophytou, Marina K.-A.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we investigate the influence of real world conditions, including heterogeneity and natural variability of background wind, on the air flow and pollutant concentrations in a heterogeneous urban street canyon using both a series of field measurements and controlled laboratory experiments. Field measurements of wind velocities and Carbon Monoxide (CO) concentrations were taken under field conditions in a heterogeneous street in a city centre at several cross-sections along the length of the street (each cross-section being of different aspect ratio). The real field background wind was in fact observed to be highly variable and thus different Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) represented by a different mean wind velocity and different wind variability were defined. Observed pollution concentrations reveal high sensitivity to local parameters: there is a bias towards the side closer to the traffic lane; higher concentrations are found in the centre of the street as compared to cross-sections closer to the junctions; higher concentrations are found at 1.5 height from the ground than at 2.5 m height, all of which are of concern regarding pedestrian exposure to traffic-related pollution. A physical model of the same street was produced for the purpose of laboratory experiments, making some geometrical simplifications of complex volumes and extrusions. The physical model was tested in an Atmospheric Boundary Layer water channel, using simultaneously Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF), for flow visualisation as well as for quantitative measurement of concentrations and flow velocities. The wind field conditions were represented by a steady mean approach velocity in the laboratory simulation (essentially representing periods of near-zero wind variability). The laboratory investigations showed a clear sensitivity of the resulting flow field to the local geometry and substantial three-dimensional flow patterns were

  11. Wind field near complex terrain using numerical weather prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chim, Kin-Sang

    The PennState/NCAR MM5 model was modified to simulate an idealized flow pass through a 3D obstacle in the Micro- Alpha Scale domain. The obstacle used were the idealized Gaussian obstacle and the real topography of Lantau Island of Hong Kong. The Froude number under study is ranged from 0.22 to 1.5. Regime diagrams for both the idealized Gaussian obstacle and Lantau island were constructed. This work is divided into five parts. The first part is the problem definition and the literature review of the related publications. The second part briefly discuss as the PennState/NCAR MM5 model and a case study of long- range transport is included. The third part is devoted to the modification and the verification of the PennState/NCAR MM5 model on the Micro-Alpha Scale domain. The implementation of the Orlanski (1976) open boundary condition is included with the method of single sounding initialization of the model. Moreover, an upper dissipative layer, Klemp and Lilly (1978), is implemented on the model. The simulated result is verified by the Automatic Weather Station (AWS) data and the Wind Profiler data. Four different types of Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) parameterization schemes have been investigated in order to find out the most suitable one for Micro-Alpha Scale domain in terms of both accuracy and efficiency. Bulk Aerodynamic type of PBL parameterization scheme is found to be the most suitable PBL parameterization scheme. Investigation of the free- slip lower boundary condition is performed and the simulated result is compared with that with friction. The fourth part is the use of the modified PennState/NCAR MM5 model for an idealized flow simulation. The idealized uniform flow used is nonhydrostatic and has constant Froude number. Sensitivity test is performed by varying the Froude number and the regime diagram is constructed. Moreover, nondimensional drag is found to be useful for regime identification. The model result is also compared with the analytic

  12. Exploring the nearshore marine wind profile from field measurements and numerical hindcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Jesus, F.; Menendez, M.; Guanche, R.; Losada, I.

    2012-12-01

    Wind power is the predominant offshore renewable energy resource. In the last years, offshore wind farms have become a technically feasible source of electrical power. The economic feasibility of offshore wind farms depends on the quality of the offshore wind conditions compared to that of onshore sites. Installation and maintenance costs must be balanced with more hours and a higher quality of the available resources. European offshore wind development has revealed that the optimum offshore sites are those in which the distance from the coast is limited with high available resource. Due to the growth in the height of the turbines and the complexity of the coast, with interactions between inland wind/coastal orography and ocean winds, there is a need for field measurements and validation of numerical models to understand the marine wind profile near the coast. Moreover, recent studies have pointed out that the logarithmic law describing the vertical wind profile presents limitations. The aim of this work is to characterize the nearshore vertical wind profile in the medium atmosphere boundary layer. Instrumental observations analyzed in this work come from the Idermar project (www.Idermar.es). Three floating masts deployed at different locations on the Cantabrian coast provide wind measurements from a height of 20 to 90 meters. Wind speed and direction are measured as well as several meteorological variables at different heights of the profile. The shortest wind time series has over one year of data. A 20 year high-resolution atmospheric hindcast, using the WRF-ARW model and focusing on hourly offshore wind fields, is also analyzed. Two datasets have been evaluated: a European reanalysis with a ~15 Km spatial resolution, and a hybrid downscaling of wind fields with a spatial resolution of one nautical mile over the northern coast of Spain.. These numerical hindcasts have been validated based on field measurement data. Several parameterizations of the vertical wind

  13. Simulation of flow over double-element airfoil and wind tunnel test for use in vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R K

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, small vertical axis wind turbines are receiving more attention due to their suitability in micro-electricity generation. There are few vertical axis wind turbine designs with good power curve. However, the efficiency of power extraction has not been improved. Therefore, an attempt has been made to utilize high lift technology for vertical axis wind turbines in order to improve power efficiency. High lift is obtained by double-element airfoil mainly used in aeroplane wing design. In this current work a low Reynolds number airfoil is selected to design a double-element airfoil blade for use in vertical axis wind turbine to improve the power efficiency. Double-element airfoil blade design consists of a main airfoil and a slat airfoil. Orientation of slat airfoil is a parameter of investigation in this paper and air flow simulation over double-element airfoil. With primary wind tunnel test an orientation parameter for the slat airfoil is initially obtained. Further a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to obtain the aerodynamic characteristics of double-element airfoil. The CFD simulations were carried out using ANSYS CFX software. It is observed that there is an increase in the lift coefficient by 26% for single-element airfoil at analysed conditions. The CFD simulation results were validated with wind tunnel tests. It is also observe that by selecting proper airfoil configuration and blade sizes an increase in lift coefficient can further be achieved

  14. Remote Sensing of Complex Flows by Doppler Wind Lidar: Summary of Issues and Preliminary Recommendations from IEA Wind Task 32 Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew

    2017-06-21

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. In Phase 1 of the task, a working group looked at the state of the art of wind lidar in complex flow conditions. This presentation is a short summary of that work, given at the start of Phase 2.

  15. Impact of Wind Power Generation on European Cross-Border Power Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    analysis is employed in order to reduce the problem dimension. Then, nonlinear relationships between forecast wind power production as well as spot price in Germany, by far the largest wind power producer in Europe, and power flows are modeled using local polynomial regression. We find that both forecast...... wind power production and spot price in Germany have substantial nonlinear effects on power transmission on a European scale.......A statistical analysis is performed in order to investigate the relationship between wind power production and cross-border power transmission in Europe. A dataset including physical hourly cross-border power exchanges between European countries as dependent variables is used. Principal component...

  16. Measurement of pressure distributions and velocity fields of water jet intake flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Eun Ho; Yoon, Sang Youl; Kwon, Seong Hoon; Chun, Ho Hwan; Kim, Mun Chan; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2002-01-01

    Waterjet propulsion system can avoid cavitation problem which is being arised conventional propeller propulsion system. The main issue of designing waterjet system is the boundary layer separation at ramp and lib of water inlet. The flow characteristics are highly depended on Jet to Velocity Ratio(JVR) as well as the intake geometry. The present study is conducted in a wind tunnel to provide accurate pressure destribution at the inlet wall and velocity field of the inlet and exit planes. Particle image velocimetry technique is used to obtain detail velocity fields. Pressure distributions and velocity field are discussed with accelerating and deaccelerating flow zones and the effect of JVR

  17. Load Flow Analysis of Hybrid AC-DC Power System with Offshore Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhua, Debasish; Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    The offshore wind power has received immense attention because of higher wind speed and lower opposition for construction. A wide range of combinations of high-voltage ACDC transmission have been proposed for integrating offshore wind farms and long-distance power transmission. This paper...... is to model such hybrid AC-DC systems including the interfacing converters, which have several control parameters that can change the load flow of the hybrid systems. Then, the paper proposes a Load Flow algorithm based on the Newton-Raphson method, which covers three different section types...

  18. Wind energy: an application of Bernoulli's theorem generalized to isentropic flow of ideal gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Luca, R; Desideri, P

    2013-01-01

    By considering the extension of Bernoulli's theorem to the case of the isentropic flow of ideal gases we conceive a small-scale wind–energy system able to work in the presence of low wind velocities in any direction. The flow of air inside a hyperbolically shaped pipe is studied using elementary physics concepts. The results obtained show that wind velocity in the system increases for decreasing cross-sectional areas, allowing a lower cut-in wind speed and an increase in the annual energy production of the device. (paper)

  19. Numerical analysis of ion wind flow using space charge for optimal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Han Seo; Shin, Dong Ho; Baek, Soo Hong

    2014-11-01

    Ion wind flow has been widly studied for its advantages of a micro fluidic device. However, it is very difficult to predict the performance of the ion wind flow for various conditions because of its complicated electrohydrodynamic phenomena. Thus, a reliable numerical modeling is required to design an otimal ion wind generator and calculate velocity of the ion wind for the proper performance. In this study, the numerical modeling of the ion wind has been modified and newly defined to calculate the veloctiy of the ion wind flow by combining three basic models such as electrostatics, electrodynamics and fluid dynamics. The model has included presence of initial space charges to calculate transfer energy between space charges and air gas molecules using a developed space charge correlation. The simulation has been performed for a geometry of a pin to parallel plate electrode. Finally, the results of the simulation have been compared with the experimental data for the ion wind velocity to confirm the accuracy of the modified numerical modeling and to obtain the optimal design of the ion wind generator. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MEST) (No. 2013R1A2A2A01068653).

  20. Spatial structure of kinetic energy spectra in LES simulations of flow in an offshore wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruh, Wolf-Gerrit; Creech, Angus

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of wind turbine and wind farm wakes was investigated numerically for the case of Lillgrund wind farm consisting of a tightly packed array of 48 turbines. The simulations for a number of wind directions at a free wind speed of just under the rated wind speed in a neutrally stable atmosphere were carried out using Large-Eddy Simulations with the adaptive Finite-Element CFD solver Fluidity. The results were interpolated from the irregularly spaced mesh nodes onto a regular grid with comparable spatial resolution at horizontal slices at various heights. To investigate the development of the wake as the flow evolves through the array, spectra of the kinetic energy in sections perpendicular to the wind directions within the wake and to the sides of the array were calculated. This paper will present the key features and spectral slopes of the flow as a function of downstream distance from the front turbine through and beyond the array. The main focus will be on the modification of the spectra as the flow crosses a row of turbines followed by its decay in the run-up to the next row, but we will also present to wake decay of the wind farm wake downstream of the array.

  1. Incorporation of a Wind Generator Model into a Dynamic Power Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeles-Camacho C.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is nowadays one of the most cost-effective and practical options for electric generation from renewable resources. However, increased penetration of wind generation causes the power networks to be more depend on, and vulnerable to, the varying wind speed. Modeling is a tool which can provide valuable information about the interaction between wind farms and the power network to which they are connected. This paper develops a realistic characterization of a wind generator. The wind generator model is incorporated into an algorithm to investigate its contribution to the stability of the power network in the time domain. The tool obtained is termed dynamic power flow. The wind generator model takes on account the wind speed and the reactive power consumption by induction generators. Dynamic power flow analysis is carried-out using real wind data at 10-minute time intervals collected for one meteorological station. The generation injected at one point into the network provides active power locally and is found to reduce global power losses. However, the power supplied is time-varying and causes fluctuations in voltage magnitude and power fl ows in transmission lines.

  2. Bluff body flow and vortex—its application to wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Some interesting phenomena of vortex flows we have found in past experimental research are described. For a given flow configuration, multiple flow patterns can exist and a sudden change from one flow pattern to another can occur. We observed the alternate switching of the flow patterns with irregular periods around a bluff body. The change of vortex flow pattern around a bluff body with geometrical parameters or stratification is not always continuous but often shows a sudden change in the whole flow pattern. Based on our research on vortex flows, an innovative application of the vortex flow to a shrouded wind turbine is made in which the power output of a wind turbine is remarkably enhanced. Unlike the majority of conventional aerodynamic machinery, which tends to minimize vortex shedding, the vortex formation of our ‘brimmed’ shroud plays an important role in capturing and concentrating wind energy. Furthermore, aerodynamic noise is reduced in this design. The blade tip vortex is weakened by a counter-rotating vortex generated along the inner side of the shroud as they travel downstream, making the shrouded wind turbine much quieter than conventional turbines. (paper)

  3. Bluff body flow and vortex—its application to wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohya, Yuji, E-mail: ohya@riam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    Some interesting phenomena of vortex flows we have found in past experimental research are described. For a given flow configuration, multiple flow patterns can exist and a sudden change from one flow pattern to another can occur. We observed the alternate switching of the flow patterns with irregular periods around a bluff body. The change of vortex flow pattern around a bluff body with geometrical parameters or stratification is not always continuous but often shows a sudden change in the whole flow pattern. Based on our research on vortex flows, an innovative application of the vortex flow to a shrouded wind turbine is made in which the power output of a wind turbine is remarkably enhanced. Unlike the majority of conventional aerodynamic machinery, which tends to minimize vortex shedding, the vortex formation of our ‘brimmed’ shroud plays an important role in capturing and concentrating wind energy. Furthermore, aerodynamic noise is reduced in this design. The blade tip vortex is weakened by a counter-rotating vortex generated along the inner side of the shroud as they travel downstream, making the shrouded wind turbine much quieter than conventional turbines. (paper)

  4. Design and evaluation of an aeroacoustic wind tunnel for measurement of axial flow fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilka, M; Anthoine, J; Schram, C

    2011-12-01

    An anechoic wind tunnel dedicated to fan self-noise studies has been designed and constructed at the von Karman Institute The multi-chamber, mass flow driven design allows for all fan performance characteristics, aerodynamic quantities (e.g., wake turbulence measurements), and acoustic properties to be assessed in the same facility with the same conditions. The acoustic chamber performance is assessed using the optimum reference method and found to be within the ISO 3745 standards down to 150 Hz for pure tone and broadband source mechanisms. The additional influence of installation effects of an aerodynamic inlet was found to create a scattered sound field only near the source location, while still providing good anechoic results at more distant sound pressure measurement positions. It was found to have inflow properties, span-wise uniformity, and low turbulence intensity, consistent with those desired for fan self-noise studies. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  5. Short-range dynamics and prediction of mesoscale flow patterns in the MISTRAL field experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.O.; Kaufmann, P.; Talkner, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In a limited area of about 50 km by 50 km with complex topography, wind measurements on a dense network were performed during the MISTRAL field experiment in 1991-1992. From these data the characteristic wind fields were identified by an automated classification method. The dynamics of the resulting twelve typical regional flow patterns is studied. It is discussed how transitions between the flow patterns take place and how well the transition probabilities can be described in the framework of a Markov model. Guided by this discussion, a variety of prediction models were tested which allow a short-term forecast of the flow pattern type. It is found that a prediction model which uses forecast information from the synoptic scale has the best forecast skill. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  6. Measurement of two-dimensional Doppler wind fields using a field widened Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Jeffery A; Ward, William E; Scott, Alan; Arsenault, Dennis L

    2013-03-10

    An implementation of the field widened Michelson concept has been applied to obtain high resolution two-dimensional (2D) images of low velocity (interferometer scanning mirror position is controlled to subangstrom precision with subnanometer repeatability using the multi-application low-voltage piezoelectric instrument control electronics developed by COM DEV Ltd.; it is the first implementation of this system as a phase stepping Michelson. In this paper the calibration and characterization of the Doppler imaging system is described and the planned implementation of this new technique for imaging 2D wind and irradiance fields using the earth's airglow is introduced. Observations of Doppler winds produced by a rotating wheel are reported and shown to be of sufficient precision for buoyancy wave observations in airglow in the mesopause region of the terrestrial atmosphere.

  7. Plasma flow in a curved magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, L.

    1977-09-01

    A beam of collisionless plasma is injected along a longitudinal magnetic field into a region of curved magnetic field. Two unpredicted phenomena are observed: The beam becomes deflected in the direction opposite to that in which the field is curved, and it contracts to a flat slab in the plane of curvature of the magnetic field. The phenomenon is of a general character and can be expected to occur in a very wide range of densities. The lower density limit is set by the condition for self-polarization, nm sub(i)/epsilon 0 B 2 >> 1 or, which is equivalent, c 2 /v 2 sub(A) >> 1, where c is the velocity of light, and v sup(A) the Alfven velocity. The upper limit is presumably set by the requirement ωsub(e)tau(e) >> 1. The phenomenon is likely to be of importance e.g. for injection of plasma into magnetic bottles and in space and solar physics. The paper illustrates the comlexity of plasma flow phenomena and the importance of close contact between experimental and theoretical work. (author)

  8. Analysis of unsteady flow over Offshore Wind Turbine in combination with different types of foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesbe, Israa; Abdel-Maksoud, Moustafa; Aljabair, Sattar

    2017-06-01

    Environmental effects have an important influence on Offshore Wind Turbine (OWT) power generation efficiency and the structural stability of such turbines. In this study, we use an in-house Boundary Element (BEM)— panMARE code—to simulate the unsteady flow behavior of a full OWT with various combinations of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loads in the time domain. This code is implemented to simulate potential flows for different applications and is based on a three-dimensional first-order panel method. Three different OWT configurations consisting of a generic 5 MW NREL rotor with three different types of foundations (Monopile, Tripod, and Jacket) are investigated. These three configurations are analyzed using the RANSE solver which is carried out using ANSYS CFX for validating the corresponding results. The simulations are performed under the same environmental atmospheric wind shear and rotor angular velocity, and the wave properties are wave height of 4 m and wave period of 7.16 s. In the present work, wave environmental effects were investigated firstly for the two solvers, and good agreement is achieved. Moreover, pressure distribution in each OWT case is presented, including detailed information about local flow fields. The time history of the forces at inflow direction and its moments around the mudline at each OWT part are presented in a dimensionless form with respect to the mean value of the last three loads and the moment amplitudes obtained from the BEM code, where the contribution of rotor force is lower in the tripod case and higher in the jacket case and the calculated hydrodynamic load that effect on jacket foundation type is lower than other two cases.

  9. Analysis of Unsteady Flow over Offshore Wind Turbines in Combination with Different types of Foundations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Israa Alesbe; Moustafa Abdel-Maksoud; Sattar Aljabair

    2017-01-01

    Environmental effects have an important influence on Offshore Wind Turbine (OWT) power generation efficiency and the structural stability of such turbines.In this study,we use an in-house Boundary Element (BEM)-panMARE code-to simulate the unsteady flow behavior of a full OWT with various combinations of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loads in the time domain.This code is implemented to simulate potential flows for different applications and is based on a three-dimensional first-order panel method.Three different OWT configurations consisting of a generic 5 MW NREL rotor with three different types of foundations (Monopile,Tripod,and Jacket) are investigated.These three configurations are analyzed using the RANSE solver which is carried out using ANSYS CFX for validating the corresponding results.The simulations are performed under the same environmental atmospheric wind shear and rotor angular velocity,and the wave properties are wave height of 4 m and wave period of 7.16 s.In the present work,wave environmental effects were investigated firstly for the two solvers,and good agreement is achieved.Moreover,pressure distribution in each OWT case is presented,including detailed information about local flow fields.The time history of the forces at inflow direction and its moments around the mudline at each OWT part are presented in a dimensionless form with respect to the mean value of the last three loads and the moment amplitudes obtained from the BEM code,where the contribution of rotor force is lower in the tripod case and higher in the jacket case and the calculated hydrodynamic load that effect on jacket foundation type is lower than other two cases.

  10. Low-frequency magnetic field fluctuations in Venus' solar wind interaction region: Venus Express observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guicking

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate wave properties of low-frequency magnetic field fluctuations in Venus' solar wind interaction region based on the measurements made on board the Venus Express spacecraft. The orbit geometry is very suitable to investigate the fluctuations in Venus' low-altitude magnetosheath and mid-magnetotail and provides an opportunity for a comparative study of low-frequency waves at Venus and Mars. The spatial distributions of the wave properties, in particular in the dayside and nightside magnetosheath as well as in the tail and mantle region, are similar to observations at Mars. As both planets do not have a global magnetic field, the interaction process of the solar wind with both planets is similar and leads to similar instabilities and wave structures. We focus on the spatial distribution of the wave intensity of the fluctuating magnetic field and detect an enhancement of the intensity in the dayside magnetosheath and a strong decrease towards the terminator. For a detailed investigation of the intensity distribution we adopt an analytical streamline model to describe the plasma flow around Venus. This allows displaying the evolution of the intensity along different streamlines. It is assumed that the waves are generated in the vicinity of the bow shock and are convected downstream with the turbulent magnetosheath flow. However, neither the different Mach numbers upstream and downstream of the bow shock, nor the variation of the cross sectional area and the flow velocity along the streamlines play probably an important role in order to explain the observed concentration of wave intensity in the dayside magnetosheath and the decay towards the nightside magnetosheath. But, the concept of freely evolving or decaying turbulence is in good qualitative agreement with the observations, as we observe a power law decay of the intensity along the streamlines. The observations support the assumption of wave convection through the magnetosheath, but

  11. Performance of a vanadium redox flow battery with and without flow fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Q.; Zhao, T.S.; Zhang, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The performances of a VRFB with/without flow fields are compared. • The respective maximum power efficiency occurs at different flow rates. • The battery with flow fields Exhibits 5% higher energy efficiency. - Abstract: A flow field is an indispensable component for fuel cells to macroscopically distribute reactants onto electrodes. However, it is still unknown whether flow fields are also required in all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). In this work, the performance of a VRFB with flow fields is analyzed and compared with the performance of a VRFB without flow fields. It is demonstrated that the battery with flow fields has a higher discharge voltage at higher flow rates, but exhibits a larger pressure drop. The maximum power-based efficiency occurs at different flow rates for the both batteries with and without flow fields. It is found that the battery with flow fields Exhibits 5% higher energy efficiency than the battery without flow fields, when operating at the flow rates corresponding to each battery's maximum power-based efficiency. Therefore, the inclusion of flow fields in VRFBs can be an effective approach for improving system efficiency

  12. Comparison of interpolation methods for sparse data: Application to wind and concentration fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodin, W.R.; McRae, G.J.; Seinfield, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    in order to produce gridded fields of pollutant concentration data and surface wind data for use in an air quality model, a number of techniques for interpolating sparse data values are compared. The techniques are compared using three data sets. One is an idealized concentration distribution to which the exact solution is known, the second is a potential flow field, while the third consists of surface ozone concentrations measured in the Los Angeles Basin on a particular day. The results of the study indicate that fitting a second-degree polynomial to each subregion (triangle) in the plane with each data point weighted according to its distance form the subregion provides a good compromise between accuracy and computational cost

  13. WAsP engineering flow model for wind over land and sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the basic wind flow model of WAsP Engineering. The model consists in principle of three parts: the LINCOM model for neutrally stable flow over terrain with hills and varying surface roughness, a sea surface roughness model, and anobstacle model. To better predict flow over...... of literature data for the Charnock parameter as function of the so called wave age, the ratio between wave velocity and friction velocity, plus a correlation ofwave age to the geometrically obtainable water fetch. A model for the influence on the wind of multiple, finite size, interacting obstacles with any...

  14. Power Flow Simulations of a More Renewable California Grid Utilizing Wind and Solar Insolation Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, E. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Dvorak, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Time series power flow analyses of the California electricity grid are performed with extensive addition of intermittent renewable power. The study focuses on the effects of replacing non-renewable and imported (out-of-state) electricity with wind and solar power on the reliability of the transmission grid. Simulations are performed for specific days chosen throughout the year to capture seasonal fluctuations in load, wind, and insolation. Wind farm expansions and new wind farms are proposed based on regional wind resources and time-dependent wind power output is calculated using a meteorological model and the power curves of specific wind turbines. Solar power is incorporated both as centralized and distributed generation. Concentrating solar thermal plants are modeled using local insolation data and the efficiencies of pre-existing plants. Distributed generation from rooftop PV systems is included using regional insolation data, efficiencies of common PV systems, and census data. The additional power output of these technologies offsets power from large natural gas plants and is balanced for the purposes of load matching largely with hydroelectric power and by curtailment when necessary. A quantitative analysis of the effects of this significant shift in the electricity portfolio of the state of California on power availability and transmission line congestion, using a transmission load-flow model, is presented. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to determine the effects of forecasting errors in wind and insolation on load-matching and transmission line congestion.

  15. A device for regulating the field generated by a superconducting winding or the gradient of same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, Denis; Dunand, J.-J.

    1974-01-01

    Description is given of a stabilizing device which does not require the use of a specific solvent. Changes occurring in the field generated by the main winding and the correcting winding are transmitted by a superconducting unit to a quantum superconducting interferometer. An impedance measurement provides an error-signal, the latter being integrated for feeding the correcting winding. A form of embodiment relates to the regulation of a modulated field. This can be applied to nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers [fr

  16. Coordinated voltage control for multiple wind plants in Eastern Wyoming. Analysis, field experience and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Nicholas; MacDowell, Jason; Chmiel, Gary; Konopinski, Ryan; Gautam, Durga [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States); Laughter, Grant; Hagen, Dave [PacifiCorp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-07-01

    At high levels of wind power penetration, multiple wind plants may be the predominant generation resource over large geographic areas. Thus, not only do wind plants need to provide a high level of functionality, they must coordinate properly with each other. This paper describes the analysis and field testing of wind plant voltage controllers designed to improve system voltage performance through passive coordination. The described wind power plant controls can coordinate the real and reactive power response of multiple wind turbines and thereby make the plant function as a single ''grid friendly'' power generation source. For this application, involving seven large wind plants with predominantly GE wind turbines in Eastern Wyoming, the voltage portion of the controllers were configured and tuned to allow the collective reactive power response of multiple wind plants in the region to work well together. This paper presents the results of the initial configuration and tuning study, and the results of the subsequent field tuning and testing of the modified controls. The paper also presents some comparisons of the measured field performance with the stability simulation models, which show that the available wind plant models provide accurate, high fidelity results for actual operating conditions of commercial wind power plants. (orig.)

  17. The flow field around a micropillar confined in a microchannel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Junkyu; Kuo, C.-J.; Peles, Yoav; Amitay, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The flow field over a low aspect ratio (AR) circular pillar (L/D = 1.5) in a microchannel was studied experimentally. Microparticle image velocimetry (μPIV) was employed to quantify flow parameters such as flow field, spanwise vorticity, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the microchannel. Flow regimes of cylinder-diameter-based Reynolds number at 100 ⩽ Re D ⩽ 700 (i.e., steady, transition from quasi-steady to unsteady, and unsteady flow) were elucidated at the microscale. In addition, active flow control (AFC), via a steady control jet (issued from the pillar itself in the downstream direction), was implemented to induce favorable disturbances to the flow in order to alter the flow field, promote turbulence, and increase mixing. Together with passive flow control (i.e., a circular pillar), turbulent kinetic energy was significantly increased in a controllable manner throughout the flow field.

  18. Multilevel panel method for wind turbine rotor flow simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Garrel, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Simulation methods of wind turbine aerodynamics currently in use mainly fall into two categories: the first is the group of traditional low-fidelity engineering models and the second is the group of computationally expensive CFD methods based on the Navier-Stokes equations. For an engineering

  19. A review of wind turbine-oriented active flow control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrun, Sandrine; Leroy, Annie; Devinant, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    To reduce the levelized cost of energy, the energy production, robustness and lifespan of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) have to be improved to ensure optimal energy production and operational availability during periods longer than 15-20 years. HAWTs are subject to unsteady wind loads that generate combinations of unsteady mechanical loads with characteristic time scales from seconds to minutes. This can be reduced by controlling the aerodynamic performance of the wind turbine rotors in real time to compensate the overloads. Mitigating load fluctuations and optimizing the aerodynamic performance at higher time scales need the development of fast-response active flow control (AFC) strategies located as close as possible to the torque generation, i.e., directly on the blades. The most conventional actuators currently used in HAWTs are mechanical flaps/tabs (similar to aeronautical accessories), but some more innovative concepts based on fluidic and plasma actuators are very promising since they are devoid of mechanical parts, have a fast response and can be driven in unsteady modes to influence natural instabilities of the flow. In this context, the present paper aims at giving a state-of-the-art review of current research in wind turbine-oriented flow control strategies applied at the blade scale. It provides an overview of research conducted in the last decade dealing with the actuators and devices devoted to developing AFC on rotor blades, focusing on the flow phenomena that they cause and that can lead to aerodynamic load increase or decrease. After providing some general background on wind turbine blade aerodynamics and on the atmospheric flows in which HAWTs operate, the review focuses on flow separation control and circulation control mainly through experimental investigations. It is followed by a discussion about the overall limitations of current studies in the wind energy context, with a focus on a few studies that attempt to provide a global

  20. Analysis of counter flow of corona wind for heat transfer enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Ho; Baek, Soo Hong; Ko, Han Seo

    2018-03-01

    A heat sink for cooling devices using the counter flow of a corona wind was developed in this study. Detailed information about the numerical investigations of forced convection using the corona wind was presented. The fins of the heat sink using the counter flow of a corona wind were also investigated. The corona wind generator with a wire-to-plate electrode arrangement was used for generating the counter flow to the fin. The compact and simple geometric characteristics of the corona wind generator facilitate the application of the heat sink using the counter flow, demonstrating the heat sink is effective for cooling electronic devices. Parametric studies were performed to analyze the effect of the counter flow on the fins. Also, the velocity and temperature were measured experimentally for the test mock-up of the heat sink with the corona wind generator to verify the numerical results. From a numerical study, the type of fin and its optimal height, length, and pitch were suggested for various heat fluxes. In addition, the correlations to calculate the mass of the developed heat sink and its cooling performance in terms of the heat transfer coefficient were derived. Finally, the cooling efficiencies corresponding to the mass, applied power, total size, and noise of the devices were compared with the existing commercial central processing unit (CPU) cooling devices with rotor fans. As a result, it was confirmed that the heat sink using the counter flow of the corona wind showed appropriate efficiencies for cooling electronic devices, and is a suitable replacement for the existing cooling device for high power electronics.

  1. Flow Simulation of Modified Duct System Wind Turbines Installed on Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosly, N.; Mohd, S.; Zulkafli, M. F.; Ghafir, M. F. Abdul; Shamsudin, S. S.; Muhammad, W. N. A. Wan

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of airflow with a flow guide installed and output power generated by wind turbine system being installed on a pickup truck. The wind turbine models were modelled by using SolidWorks 2015 software. In order to investigate the characteristic of air flow inside the wind turbine system, a computer simulation (by using ANSYS Fluent software) is used. There were few models being designed and simulated, one without the rotor installed and another two with rotor installed in the wind turbine system. Three velocities being used for the simulation which are 16.7 m/s (60 km/h), 25 m/s (90 km/h) and 33.33 m/s (120 km/h). The study proved that the flow guide did give an impact to the output power produced by the wind turbine system. The predicted result from this study is the velocity of the air inside the ducting system of the present model is better that reference model. Besides, the flow guide implemented in the ducting system gives a big impact on the characteristics of the air flow.

  2. Experimental Vision Studies of Flow and Structural Effects on Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Najafi, Nadia

    In the present thesis, two modern vision technologies are developed and used to study wind turbines: 1- Stereo vision to study vibrations and dynamics of the Vertical Axes Wind Turbine (VAWT) via operational modal analysis (OMA) 2- Background-oriented Schlieren (BOS) method to study the tip...... vortices that are shed from a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) blades The thesis starts with an introduction to the stereo vision and OMA and is followed by two practical implementations of the basics derived in the introduction. In the first experiment, we developed the image processing tools...... a Nordtank horizontal axis wind turbine based on the density gradient in the vortex. The BOS method does not need complicated equipment such as special cameras or seeded flow, which makes it a convenient method to study large scale flows. However, the challenging part in the current case is the small...

  3. Emission-line widths and stellar-wind flows in T Tauri stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, C.; Lago, M.T.V.T.

    1986-01-01

    Spectra are reported of T Tauri stars taken with the IPCS on the Isaac Newton Telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at a dispersion of l7 A mm -1 . These were taken in order to determine emission-line widths and hence flow velocities in the winds of these stars following the successful modelling of the wind from RU Lupi using such data. Line widths in RW Aur suggest a similar pattern to the wind flow as in RU Lupi with velocities rising in the inner chromosphere of the star and then entering a 'ballistic' zone. The wind from DFTau is also similar but velocities are generally much lower and the lines sharper. (author)

  4. Wind farm struggles in Flanders fields: A sociological perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepermans, Yves; Loots, Ilse

    2013-01-01

    In this article we analyse how protests against wind farms reflect symbolic distances or alienations, typical to Flanders (Belgium), as consequences of wider societal trends. A thorough qualitative study of three wind farm projects in Flanders, including group discussions and interviews with crucial stakeholders, shows that the current siting process reinforces disagreements and leads to a stalemate between different framings of the wind farms. Using insights from our case studies and the literature, we argue for spatial planning which strives for a negotiation over acceptable solutions rather than acceptance of fixed proposals. - Highlights: • Flemish wind farm siting is characterized by social, spatial and political distances. • These symbolic distances make the legitimacy of new infrastructure less self-evident. • The current ‘decide-announce and defend’ siting procedure is a problem for acceptance. • We propose a siting procedure for wind farms which allows democratic debate over alternatives between stakeholders

  5. Utilizing a vanadium redox flow battery to avoid wind power deviation penalties in an electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turker, Burak; Arroyo Klein, Sebastian; Komsiyska, Lidiya; Trujillo, Juan José; Bremen, Lueder von; Kühn, Martin; Busse, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Vanadium redox flow battery utilized for wind power grid integration was studied. • Technical and financial analyses at single wind farm level were performed. • 2 MW/6 MW h VRFB is suitable for mitigating power deviations for a 10 MW wind farm. • Economic incentives might be required in the short-term until the VRFB prices drop. - Abstract: Utilizing a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) for better market integration of wind power at a single wind farm level was evaluated. A model which combines a VRFB unit and a medium sized (10 MW) wind farm was developed and the battery was utilized to compensate for the deviations resulting from the forecast errors in an electricity market bidding structure. VRFB software model which was introduced in our previous paper was integrated with real wind power data, power forecasts and market data based on the Spanish electricity market. Economy of the system was evaluated by financial assessments which were done by considering the VRFB costs and the amount of deviation penalty payments resulting from forecast inaccuracies

  6. Dynamics in the Modern Upper Atmosphere of Venus: Zonal Wind Transition to Subsolar-to-Antisolar Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livengood, T. A.; Kostiuk, T.; Hewagama, T.; Fast, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    We observed Venus on 19-23 Aug 2010 (UT) to investigate equatorial wind velocities from above the cloud tops through the lower thermosphere. Measurements were made from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Heterodyne Instrument for Planetary Winds and Composition. High-resolution spectra were acquired on a CO2 pressure-broadened absorption feature that probes the lower mesosphere ( 70 km altitude) with a non-LTE core emission of the same transition that probes the lower thermosphere ( 110 km). The resolving power of λ/Δλ≈3×107 determines line-of-sight velocity from Doppler shifts to high precision. The altitude differential between the features enables investigating the transition from zonal wind flow near the cloud tops to subsolar-to-antisolar flow in the thermosphere. The fully-resolved carbon dioxide transition was measured near 952.8808 cm-1 (10.494 µm) rest frequency at the equator with 1 arcsec field-of-view on Venus (24 arcsec diameter) distributed about the central meridian and across the terminator at ±15° intervals in longitude. The non-LTE emission is solar-pumped and appears only on the daylight side, probing subsolar-to-antisolar wind velocity vector flowing radially from the subsolar point through the terminator, which was near the central meridian in these observations and had zero line-of-sight wind projection at the terminator. The velocity of the zonal flow is approximately uniform, with maximum line-of-sight projection at the limb, and can be measured by the frequency of the absorption line on both the daylight and dark side. Variations in Doppler shift between the observable features and the differing angular dependence of the contributing wind phenomena thus provide independent mechanisms to distinguish the dynamical processes at the altitude of each observed spectral feature. Winds up to >100 m/s were determined in previous investigations with uncertainties of order 10 m/s or less.

  7. Investigation of air flow in open-throat wind tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Eastman N

    1930-01-01

    Tests were conducted on the 6-inch wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to form a part of a research on open-throat wind tunnels. The primary object of this part of the research was to study a type of air pulsation which has been encountered in open-throat tunnels, and to find the most satisfactory means of eliminating such pulsations. In order to do this it was necessary to study the effects of different variable on all of the important characteristics of the tunnel. This paper gives not only the results of the study of air pulsations and methods of eliminating them, but also the effects of changing the exit-cone diameter and flare and the effects of air leakage from the return passage. It was found that the air pulsations in the 6-inch wind tunnel could be practically eliminated by using a moderately large flare on the exit cone in conjunction with leakage introduced by cutting holes in the exit cone somewhat aft of its minimum diameter.

  8. Experimental investigation of flow field around the elastic flag flapping in periodic state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yongxia; Jia, Lichao; Su, Zhuang; Yuan, Huijing

    2018-05-01

    The flapping of a flag in the wind is a classical fluid-structure problem that concerns the interaction of elastic bodies with ambient fluid. We focus on the desirable experimental results of the flow around the flapping flag. By immersing the elastic yet self-supporting heavy flag into water flow, we use particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques to obtain the whole flow field around the midspan of the flag interacting with a fluid in periodic state. A unique PIV image processing method is used to measure near-wall flow velocities around a moving elastic flag. There exists a thin flow circulation region on the suction side of the flag in periodic state. This observation suggests that viscous flow models may be needed to improve the theoretical predictions of the flapping flag in periodic state, especially in a large amplitude.

  9. Appendix I1-2 to Wind HUI Initiative 1: Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Zack; Deborah Hanley; Dora Nakafuji

    2012-07-15

    This report is an appendix to the Hawaii WindHUI efforts to dev elop and operationalize short-term wind forecasting and wind ramp event forecasting capabilities. The report summarizes the WindNET field campaign deployment experiences and challenges. As part of the WindNET project on the Big Island of Hawaii, AWS Truepower (AWST) conducted a field campaign to assess the viability of deploying a network of monitoring systems to aid in local wind energy forecasting. The data provided at these monitoring locations, which were strategically placed around the Big Island of Hawaii based upon results from the Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS) observational targeting study (Figure 1), provided predictive indicators for improving wind forecasts and developing responsive strategies for managing real-time, wind-related system events. The goal of the field campaign was to make measurements from a network of remote monitoring devices to improve 1- to 3-hour look ahead forecasts for wind facilities.

  10. Demonstration of synchronised scanning Lidar measurements of 2D velocity fields in a boundary-layer wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, M F; Kühn, M.; Petrovic, V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper combines the currently relevant research methodologies of scaled wind turbine model experiments in wind tunnels with remote-sensing short-range WindScanner Lidar measurement technology. The wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano was equipped with three wind turbine models and two short...... compared to hot wire probe measurements commonly used in wind tunnels. This yielded goodness of fit coefficients of 0.969 and 0.902 for the 1 Hz averaged u- and v-components of the wind speed, respectively, validating the 2D measurement capability of the Lidar scanners. Subsequently, the measurement...... for accurately measuring small scale flow structures in a wind tunnel....

  11. Global surface wind and flux fields from model assimilation of Seasat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, R.; Busalacchi, A. J.; Kalnay, E.; Bloom, S.; Ghil, M.

    1986-01-01

    Procedures for dealiasing Seasat data and developing global surface wind and latent and sensible heat flux fields are discussed. Seasat data from September 20, 1978 was dealiased using the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) analysis/forecast system. The wind data obtained with the objective GLA forecast model are compared to the data subjectively dealiased by Peteherych et al. (1984) and Hoffman (1982, 1984). The GLA procedure is also verified using simulated Seasat data. The areas of high and low heat fluxes and cyclonic and anticyclonic wind stresses detected in the generated fields are analyzed and compared to climatological fields. It is observed that there is good correlation between the time-averaged analyses of wind stress obtained subjectively and objectively, and the monthly mean wind stress and latent fluxes agree with climatological fields and atmospheric and oceanic features.

  12. Unsteady Flow in Different Atmospheric Boundary Layer Regimes and Its Impact on Wind-Turbine Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohari, Iman; Korobenko, Artem; Yan, Jinhui; Bazilevs, Yuri; Sarkar, Sutanu

    2016-11-01

    Wind is a renewable energy resource that offers several advantages including low pollutant emission and inexpensive construction. Wind turbines operate in conditions dictated by the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and that motivates the study of coupling ABL simulations with wind turbine dynamics. The ABL simulations can be used for realistic modeling of the environment which, with the use of fluid-structure interaction, can give realistic predictions of extracted power, rotor loading, and blade structural response. The ABL simulations provide inflow boundary conditions to the wind-turbine simulator which uses arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian variational multiscale formulation. In the present work, ABL simulations are performed to examine two different scenarios: (i) A neutral ABL with zero heat-flux and inversion layer at 350m, in which the wind turbine experiences maximum mean shear; (2) A shallow ABL with the surface cooling-rate of -1 K/hr, in which the wind turbine experiences maximum mean velocity at the low-level-jet nose height. We will discuss differences in the unsteady flow between the two different ABL conditions and their impact on the performance of the wind turbine cluster in the coupled ABL-wind turbine simulations.

  13. Application of data assimilation technique for flow field simulation for Kaiga site using TAPM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, R.; Oza, R.B.; Puranik, V.D.; Hegde, M.N.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2008-01-01

    The data assimilation techniques are becoming popular nowadays to get realistic flow field simulation for the site under consideration. The present paper describes data assimilation technique for flow field simulation for Kaiga site using the air pollution model (TAPM) developed by CSIRO, Australia. In this, the TAPM model was run for Kaiga site for a period of one month (Nov. 2004) using the analysed meteorological data supplied with the model for Central Asian (CAS) region and the model solutions were nudged with the observed wind speed and wind direction data available for the site. The model was run with 4 nested grids with grid spacing varying from 30km, 10km, 3km and 1km respectively. The models generated results with and without nudging are statistically compared with the observations. (author)

  14. Plasma Flows in Crossed Magnetic and Electric Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the magnitude and direction of an external electric field on the plasma flowing through a magnetic barrier is studied by numerically solving two-fluid MHD equations. The drift velocity of the plasma flow and the distribution of the flow electrons over transverse velocities are found to depend on the magnitude and direction of the electric field. It is shown that the direction of the induced longitudinal electric field is determined by the direction of the external field and that the electric current generated by the plasma flow significantly disturbs the barrier field

  15. Analysis of Wind Vorticity and Divergence in the High-latitude Lower Thermosphere: Dependence on the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sil Kwak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the physical processes that control the high-latitude lower thermospheric dynamics, we analyze the divergence and vorticity of the high-latitude neutral wind field in the lower thermosphere during the southern summertime for different IMF conditions. For this study the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR-TIEG CM is used. The analysis of the large-scale vorticity and divergence provides basic understanding flow configurations to help elucidate the momentum sources that ultimately determine the total wind field in the lower polar thermosphere and provides insight into the relative strengths of the different sources of momentum responsible for driving winds. The mean neutral wind pattern in the high-latitude lower thermosphere is dominated by rotational flow, imparted primarily through the ion drag force, rather than by divergent flow, imparted primarily through Joule and solar heating. The difference vorticity, obtained by subtracting values with zero IMF from those with non-zero IMF, in the high-latitude lower thermosphere is much larger than the difference divergence for all IMF conditions, indicating that a larger response of the thermospheric wind system to enhancement in the momentum input generating the rotational motion with elevated IMF than the corresponding energy input generating the divergent motion. the difference vorticity in the high-latitude lower thermosphere depends on the direction of the IMF. The difference vorticity for negative and positive B_y shows positive and negative, respectively, at higher magnetic latitudes than -70°. For negative B_z, the difference vorticities have positive in the dusk sector and negative in the dawn sector. The difference vorticities for positive B_z have opposite sign. Negative IMF B_z has a stronger effect on the vorticity than does positive B_z.

  16. The spiral field inhibition of thermal conduction in two-fluid solar wind models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerney, S.; Barnes, A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reports on two-field models which include the inhibition of thermal conduction by the spiraling interplanetary field to determine whether any of the major conclusions obtained by Nerney and Barnes (1977) needs to be modified. Comparisons with straight field line models reveal that for most base conditions, the primary effect of the inhibition of thermal conduction is the bottling-up of heat in the electrons as well as the quite different temperature profiles at a large heliocentric radius. The spiral field solutions show that coronal hole boundary conditions do not correspond to states of high-speed streams as observed at 1 AU. The two-fluid models suggest that the spiral field inhibition of thermal conduction in the equatorial plane will generate higher gas pressures in comparison with flows along the solar rotation axis (between 1 and 10 AU). In particular, massive outflows of stellar winds, such as outflow from T Tauri stars, cannot be driven by thermal conduction. The conclusions of Nerney and Barnes remain essentially unchanged.

  17. Probabilistic Constrained Load Flow Considering Integration of Wind Power Generation and Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachogiannis, Ioannis (John)

    2009-01-01

    A new formulation and solution of probabilistic constrained load flow (PCLF) problem suitable for modern power systems with wind power generation and electric vehicles (EV) demand or supply is represented. The developed stochastic model of EV demand/supply and the wind power generation model...... are incorporated into load flow studies. In the resulted PCLF formulation, discrete and continuous control parameters are engaged. Therefore, a hybrid learning automata system (HLAS) is developed to find the optimal offline control settings over a whole planning period of power system. The process of HLAS...

  18. Magnetic fields in the solar system planets, moons and solar wind interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Wicht, Johannes; Gilder, Stuart; Holschneider, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    This book addresses and reviews many of the still little understood questions related to the processes underlying planetary magnetic fields and their interaction with the solar wind. With focus on research carried out within the German Priority Program ”PlanetMag”, it also provides an overview of the most recent research in the field. Magnetic fields play an important role in making a planet habitable by protecting the environment from the solar wind. Without the geomagnetic field, for example, life on Earth as we know it would not be possible. And results from recent space missions to Mars and Venus strongly indicate that planetary magnetic fields play a vital role in preventing atmospheric erosion by the solar wind. However, very little is known about the underlying interaction between the solar wind and a planet’s magnetic field. The book takes a synergistic interdisciplinary approach that combines newly developed tools for data acquisition and analysis, computer simulations of planetary interiors an...

  19. Near-wake flow structure downwind of a wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei; Markfort, Corey D. [University of Minnesota, Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Porte-Agel, Fernando [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), ENAC-IIE-WIRE, Wind Engineering and Renewable Energy Laboratory (WIRE), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-05-15

    Wind turbines operate in the surface layer of the atmospheric boundary layer, where they are subjected to strong wind shear and relatively high turbulence levels. These incoming boundary layer flow characteristics are expected to affect the structure of wind turbine wakes. The near-wake region is characterized by a complex coupled vortex system (including helicoidal tip vortices), unsteadiness and strong turbulence heterogeneity. Limited information about the spatial distribution of turbulence in the near wake, the vortex behavior and their influence on the downwind development of the far wake hinders our capability to predict wind turbine power production and fatigue loads in wind farms. This calls for a better understanding of the spatial distribution of the 3D flow and coherent turbulence structures in the near wake. Systematic wind-tunnel experiments were designed and carried out to characterize the structure of the near-wake flow downwind of a model wind turbine placed in a neutral boundary layer flow. A horizontal-axis, three-blade wind turbine model, with a rotor diameter of 13 cm and the hub height at 10.5 cm, occupied the lowest one-third of the boundary layer. High-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure velocities in multiple vertical stream-wise planes (x-z) and vertical span-wise planes (y-z). In particular, we identified localized regions of strong vorticity and swirling strength, which are the signature of helicoidal tip vortices. These vortices are most pronounced at the top-tip level and persist up to a distance of two to three rotor diameters downwind. The measurements also reveal strong flow rotation and a highly non-axisymmetric distribution of the mean flow and turbulence structure in the near wake. The results provide new insight into the physical mechanisms that govern the development of the near wake of a wind turbine immersed in a neutral boundary layer. They also serve as important data for the development and

  20. Wind fields of storms from surface isobars for wave hindcasting

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Vaithiyanathan, R.; Santanam, K.

    Marine operations of various types are critically linked to mean and extreme wave statistics. In the Indian seas extreme wave conditions are caused by cyclones and steady strong monsoon winds. Wave data from cyclone areas are not directly available...

  1. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Jonathan C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Resor, Brian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Paquette, Joshua A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, Jonathan R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-01-29

    This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This work established hypothetical approaches for integrating active aerodynamic devices (AADs) into the wind turbine structure and controllers.

  2. Dune field pattern formation and recent transporting winds in the Olympia Undae Dune Field, north polar region of Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Peyret, Aymeric-Pierre B.; Kocurek, Gary; Bourke, Mary

    2010-01-01

    High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery of the central Olympia Undae Dune Field in the north polar region of Mars shows a reticulate dune pattern consisting of two sets of nearly orthogonal dune crestlines, with apparent slipfaces on the primary crests, ubiquitous wind ripples, areas of coarse-grained wind ripples, and deflated interdune areas. Geomorphic evidence and dune field pattern analysis of dune crest length, spacing, defect density, and orientation indicates that ...

  3. Wind field reconstruction from nacelle-mounted lidar short-range measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borraccino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Profiling nacelle lidars probe the wind at several heights and several distances upstream of the rotor. The development of such lidar systems is relatively recent, and it is still unclear how to condense the lidar raw measurements into useful wind field characteristics such as speed, direction, vertical and longitudinal gradients (wind shear. In this paper, we demonstrate an innovative method to estimate wind field characteristics using nacelle lidar measurements taken within the induction zone. Model-fitting wind field reconstruction techniques are applied to nacelle lidar measurements taken at multiple distances close to the rotor, where a wind model is combined with a simple induction model. The method allows robust determination of free-stream wind characteristics. The method was applied to experimental data obtained with two different types of nacelle lidar (five-beam Demonstrator and ZephIR Dual Mode. The reconstructed wind speed was within 0.5 % of the wind speed measured with a mast-top-mounted cup anemometer at 2.5 rotor diameters upstream of the turbine. The technique described in this paper overcomes measurement range limitations of the currently available nacelle lidar technology.

  4. On the role of neutral flow in field-aligned currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Anthony J.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.; Meng, Xing; McGranaghan, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    In this brief note we explore the role of the neutral atmosphere in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. We analyze momentum balance in the ion rest frame to form hypotheses regarding the role of neutral momentum in the lower ionosphere during geomagnetic storms. Neutral momentum that appears in the ion rest frame is likely the result of momentum imparted to ionospheric ions by solar wind flow and the resultant magnetospheric dynamics. The resulting ion-neutral collisions lead to the existence of an electric field. Horizontal electron flow balances the momentum supplied by this electric field. We suggest a possible role played by the neutral atmosphere in generating field-aligned currents due to local auroral heating. Our physical interpretation suggests that thermospheric neutral dynamics plays a complementary role to the high-latitude field-aligned currents and electric fields resulting from magnetospheric dynamics.

  5. On the role of neutral flow in field-aligned currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Mannucci

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this brief note we explore the role of the neutral atmosphere in magnetosphere–ionosphere coupling. We analyze momentum balance in the ion rest frame to form hypotheses regarding the role of neutral momentum in the lower ionosphere during geomagnetic storms. Neutral momentum that appears in the ion rest frame is likely the result of momentum imparted to ionospheric ions by solar wind flow and the resultant magnetospheric dynamics. The resulting ion-neutral collisions lead to the existence of an electric field. Horizontal electron flow balances the momentum supplied by this electric field. We suggest a possible role played by the neutral atmosphere in generating field-aligned currents due to local auroral heating. Our physical interpretation suggests that thermospheric neutral dynamics plays a complementary role to the high-latitude field-aligned currents and electric fields resulting from magnetospheric dynamics.

  6. Numerical simulation of transitional flow on a wind turbine airfoil with RANS-based transition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Sun, Zhengzhong; van Zuijlen, Alexander; van Bussel, Gerard

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of transitional flow on the wind turbine airfoil DU91-W2-250 with chord-based Reynolds number Rec = 1.0 × 106. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes based transition model using laminar kinetic energy concept, namely the k - kL - ω model, is employed to resolve the boundary layer transition. Some ambiguities for this model are discussed and it is further implemented into OpenFOAM-2.1.1. The k - kL - ω model is first validated through the chosen wind turbine airfoil at the angle of attack (AoA) of 6.24° against wind tunnel measurement, where lift and drag coefficients, surface pressure distribution and transition location are compared. In order to reveal the transitional flow on the airfoil, the mean boundary layer profiles in three zones, namely the laminar, transitional and fully turbulent regimes, are investigated. Observation of flow at the transition location identifies the laminar separation bubble. The AoA effect on boundary layer transition over wind turbine airfoil is also studied. Increasing the AoA from -3° to 10°, the laminar separation bubble moves upstream and reduces in size, which is in close agreement with wind tunnel measurement.

  7. Characterization of the unsteady flow in the nacelle region of a modern wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2011-01-01

    A three-dimensional Navier–Stokes solver has been used to investigate the flow in the nacelle region of a wind turbine where anemometers are typically placed to measure the flow speed and the turbine yaw angle. A 500 kW turbine was modelled with rotor and nacelle geometry in order to capture...... the complex separated flow in the blade root region of the rotor. A number of steady state and unsteady simulations were carried out for wind speeds ranging from 6 m s−1 to 16 m s−1 as well as two yaw and tilt angles. The flow in the nacelle region was found to be highly unsteady, dominated by unsteady vortex...... anemometry showed significant dependence on both yaw and tilt angles with yaw errors of up to 10 degrees when operating in a tilted inflow. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  8. Geosynchronous magnetic field responses to fast solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements: MHD field model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Sun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We performed global MHD simulations of the geosynchronous magnetic field in response to fast solar wind dynamic pressure (Pd enhancements. Taking three Pd enhancement events in 2000 as examples, we found that the main features of the total field B and the dominant component Bz can be efficiently predicted by the MHD model. The predicted B and Bz varies with local time, with the highest level near noon and a slightly lower level around mid-night. However, it is more challenging to accurately predict the responses of the smaller component at the geosynchronous orbit (i.e., Bx and By. In contrast, the limitations of T01 model in predicting responses to fast Pd enhancements are presented.

  9. Field experiments on seed dispersal by wind in ten umbelliferous species (Apiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongejans, E.; Telenius, A.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents data from experiments on seed dispersal by wind for ten species of the family Apiaceae. Seed shadows were obtained in the field under natural conditions, using wind speeds between four and ten m/s. The flight of individual seeds was followed by eye, and seed shadows were

  10. Armature reaction effects on a high temperature superconducting field winding of an synchronous machine: experimental results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results from the Superwind laboratory setup. Particular focus in the paper has been placed on describing and quantifying the influence of armature reaction on performance of the HTS filed winding. Presented experimental results have confirmed the HTS field winding...

  11. Measurement of the temperature and flow fields of the magnetically stabilized cross-flow N2 arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebald, N.

    1980-01-01

    A straight, steady-state cross-flow arc is burning in an N 2 wind tunnel. The arc is held in position by the balance of the Lorentz forces produced by an external magnetic field perpendicular to the arc axis and by the viscous forces of the gas flow acting on the arc column. The temperature field in the discharge is determined spectroscopically using the radiation of N I lines. For known local temperature the mass flow field inside the arc may be evaluated from the convective term of the energy equation and the continuity equation. This is done by expanding the terms of these two equations around the point of the temperature maximum into Fourier-Taylor series and determining coefficients of the same order and power. The solution of the resulting set of algebraic equations yields the unknown coefficients of the mass flow. The flow field obtained by these calculations shows a relatively strong counter-flow through the arc core. In the region for which the series expansions holds a partial structure pertaining to a closed double vortex can be recognized. The terms of the momentum equation are calculated on the basis of these results. In order to obtain a better understanding of the importance attributed to the individual local forces acting on the plasma, a simple model was devised which separates the momentum equation into gradient and curl terms. It is shown that viscosity as a damping mechanism is necessary for the existence of stationary flow fields as investigated in this work. (orig./CDS) 891 CDS/orig.- 892 ARA

  12. Partial analysis of wind power limit in an electric micro system using continuation power flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiallo Guerrero, Jandry; Santos Fuentefria, Ariel; Castro Fernández, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The wind power insertion in the power system is an important issue and can create some instability problems in voltage and system frequency due to stochastic origin of wind. Know the Wind Power Limit that can insert in an electric grid without losing stability is a very important matter. Existing in bibliography a few methods for calculation of wind power limit, some of them are based in static constrains, an example is a method based in a continuation power flow analysis. In the present work the method is applied in an electric micro system formed when the system is disconnected of the man grid, the main goal was prove the method in a weak and island network. The software used in the simulations was the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT). (author)

  13. Numerical simulation of flows around deformed aircraft model in a wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenkov, A. V.; Bosnyakov, S. M.; Glazkov, S. A.; Gorbushin, A. R.; Kuzmina, S. I.; Kursakov, I. A.; Matyash, S. V.; Ishmuratov, F. Z.

    2016-10-01

    To obtain accurate data of calculation method error requires detailed simulation of the experiment in wind tunnel with keeping all features of the model, installation and gas flow. Two examples of such detailed data comparison are described in this paper. The experimental characteristics of NASA CRM model obtained in the ETW wind tunnel (Cologne, Germany), and CFD characteristics of this model obtained with the use of EWT-TsAGI application package are compared. Following comparison is carried out for an airplane model in the T-128 wind tunnel (TsAGI, Russia). It is seen that deformation influence on integral characteristics grows with increasing Re number and, accordingly, the dynamic pressure. CFD methods application for problems of experimental research in the wind tunnel allows to separate viscosity and elasticity effects.

  14. The Morphology of the Solar Wind Magnetic Field Draping on the Dayside of Mars and Its Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaohua; Ma, Yingjuan; Luhmann, Janet; Dong, Yaxue; Brain, David; Hurley, Dana; Dong, Chuanfei; Lee, Christina O.; Jakosky, Bruce

    2018-04-01

    The magnetic field draping pattern in the magnetosheath of Mars is of interest for what it tells us about both the solar wind interaction with the Mars obstacle and the use of the field measured there as a proxy for the upstream interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angle. We apply a time-dependent, global magnetohydrodynamic model toward quantifying the spatial and temporal variations of the magnetic field draping direction on the Martian dayside above 500-km altitude. The magnetic field and plasma are self-consistently solved over one Mars rotation period, with the dynamics of the field morphology considered as the result of the rotation of the crustal field orientation. Our results show how the magnetic field direction on the plane perpendicular to the solar wind flow direction gradually departs from the IMF as the solar wind penetrates toward the obstacle and into the tail region. This clock angle departure occurs mainly inside the magnetic pileup region and tailward of the terminator plane, exhibiting significant dawn-dusk and north-south asymmetries. Inside the dayside sheath region, the field direction has the greatest departure from the IMF-perpendicular component direction downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock, which for the nominal Parker spiral is over the dawn quadrant. Thus, the best region to obtain an IMF clock angle proxy is within the dayside magnetosheath at sufficiently high altitudes, particularly over subsolar and dusk sectors. Our results illustrate that the crustal field has only a mild influence on the magnetic field draping direction within the magnetosheath region.

  15. Analysis of the pressure fields in a swirling annular jet flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percin, M.; Vanierschot, M.; Oudheusden, B. W. van

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the flow structures and pressure fields of a free annular swirling jet flow undergoing vortex breakdown. The flow field is analyzed by means of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry measurements, which enable the reconstruction of the three-dimensional time-resolved pressure fields using the governing flow equations. Both time-averaged and instantaneous flow structures are discussed, including a characterization of the first- and second-order statistical moments. A Reynolds decomposition of the flow field shows that the time-averaged flow is axisymmetric with regions of high anisotropic Reynolds stresses. Two recirculation zones exist that are surrounded by regions of very intense mixing. Notwithstanding the axisymmetric nature of the time-averaged flow, a non-axisymmetric structure of the instantaneous flow is revealed, comprising a central vortex core which breaks up into a precessing vortex core. The winding sense of this helical structure is opposite to the swirl direction and it is wrapped around the vortex breakdown bubble. It precesses around the central axis of the flow at a frequency corresponding to a Strouhal number of 0.27. The precessing vortex core is associated with a low-pressure region along the central axis of the jet and the maximum pressure fluctuations occur upstream of the vortex breakdown location, where the azimuthal velocity component also reaches peak values as a result of the inward motion of the fluid and the conservation of angular momentum. The POD analysis of the pressure fields suggests that the precessing helical vortex formation is the dominant coherent structure in the instantaneous flow.

  16. Transient behavior of a flare-associated solar wind. I - Gas dynamics in a radial open field region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, F.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical investigation is conducted into the way in which a solar wind model initially satisfying both steady state and energy balance conditions is disturbed and deformed, under the assumption of heating that correspoonds to the energy release of solar flares of an importance value of approximately 1 which occur in radial open field regions. Flare-associated solar wind transient behavior is modeled for 1-8 solar radii. The coronal temperature around the heat source region rises, and a large thermal conductive flux flows inward to the chromosphere and outward to interplanetary space along field lines. The speed of the front of expanding chromospheric material generated by the impingement of the conduction front on the upper chromosphere exceeds the local sound velocity in a few minutes and eventually exceeds 100 million cm/sec.

  17. Laboratory Study of Topographic Effects on the Near-surface Tornado Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Alireza; Sarkar, Partha P.

    2018-03-01

    To study topographic effects on the near-surface tornado flow field, the Iowa State University tornado simulator was used to simulate a translating tornado passing over three different two-dimensional topographies: a ridge, an escarpment and a valley. The effect of the translation speed on maximum horizontal wind speeds is observed for translation speeds of 0.15 and 0.50 m s^{-1} , with the lower value resulting in a larger maximum horizontal wind speed. The tornado translation over the three topographies with respect to flat terrain is assessed for changes in: (a) the maximum horizontal wind speeds in terms of the flow-amplification factor; (b) the maximum aerodynamic drag in terms of the tornado speed-up ratio; (c) the maximum duration of exposure at any location to high wind speeds of a specific range in terms of the exposure amplification factor. Results show that both the maximum wind amplification factor of 14%, as well as the maximum speed-up ratio of 14%, occur on the ridge. For all topographies, the increase in aerodynamic drag is observed to be maximized for low-rise buildings, which illustrates the importance of the vertical profiles of the horizontal wind speed near the ground. The maximum exposure amplification factors, estimated for the range of wind speeds corresponding to the EF2 (50-60 m s^{-1} ) and EF3 (61-75 m s^{-1}) scales, are 86 and 110% for the ridge, 4 and 60% for the escarpment and - 6 and 47% for the valley, respectively.

  18. Influence of Wind Speed on Heat Flow through Polypropylene Insulating Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yu-chai; CHENG Zhong-hao; FENG Xun-wei

    2006-01-01

    The heat transfer properties of polypropylene insulation at different ambient temperature against wind were analysed.A theoretical model of the combined conductive, convective and radiative heat flow through fibrous insulating material was presented. Detail study was carried out by using the finite element method. The theoretical results are in accordance to the experimental results which were accomplished in an artificial climate chamber.

  19. 3D wake measurements from a scanning wind lidar in combination with a fast wind field reconstruction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Herges, T. G.; Astrup, Poul

    2017-01-01

    University of Denmark. The purpose of the SpinnerLidar measurements at SWIFT is to measure the response of a V27 turbine wake to varying inflow conditions and turbine operating states. Although our fast scanning SpinnerLidar is able to measure the line-of-sight projected wind speed at up to 400 points per......-Stokes CFD code “Lincom Cyclop-buster model,”3 the corresponding 3D wind vector field (u, v, w) can be reconstructed under constraints for conservation of mass and momentum. The resulting model calculated line-of-sight projections of the 3D wind velocity vectors will become consistent with the line...

  20. Weaving the history of the solar wind with magnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado Gomez, Julian

    2017-08-01

    Despite its fundamental role for the evolution of the solar system, our observational knowledge of the wind properties of the young Sun comes from a single stellar observation. This unexpected fact for a field such as astrophysics arises from the difficulty of detecting Sun-like stellar winds. Their detection relies on the appearance of an astrospheric signature (from the stellar wind-ISM interaction region), visible only with the aid of high-resolution HST Lyman-alpha spectra. However, observations and modelling of the present day Sun have revealed that magnetic fields constitute the main driver of the solar wind, providing guidance on how such winds would look like back in time. In this context we propose observations of four young Sun-like stars in order to detect their astrospheres and characterise their stellar winds. For all these objects we have recovered surface magnetic field maps using the technique of Zeeman Doppler Imaging, and developed detailed wind models based on these observed field distributions. Even a single detection would represent a major step forward for our understanding of the history of the solar wind, and the outflows in more active stars. Mass loss rate estimates from HST will be confronted with predictions from realistic models of the corona/stellar wind. In one of our objects the comparison would allow us to quantify the wind variability induced by the magnetic cycle of a star, other than the Sun, for the first time. Three of our targets are planet hosts, thus the HST spectra would also provide key information on the high-energy environment of these systems, guaranteeing their legacy value for the growing field of exoplanet characterisation.

  1. Influence of omni-directional guide vane on the performance of cross-flow rotor for urban wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, Yoga Arob; Tjahjana, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija; Hadi, Syamsul

    2018-02-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine like cross-flow rotor have some advantage there are, high self-starting torque, low noise, and high stability; so, it can be installed in the urban area to produce electricity. But, the urban area has poor wind condition, so the cross-flow rotor needs a guide vane to increase its performance. The aim of this study is to determine experimentally the effect of Omni-Directional Guide Vane (ODGV) on the performance of a cross-flow wind turbine. Wind tunnel experiment has been carried out for various configurations. The ODGV was placed around the cross-flow rotor in order to increase ambient wind environment of the wind turbine. The maximum power coefficient is obtained as Cpmax = 0.125 at 60° wind direction. It was 21.46% higher compared to cross-flow wind turbine without ODGV. This result showed that the ODGV able to increase the performance of the cross-flow wind turbine.

  2. Surface drag effects on simulated wind fields in high-resolution atmospheric forecast model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Kyo Sun; Lim, Jong Myoung; Ji, Young Yong [Environmental Radioactivity Assessment Team,Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hye Yum [NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton (United States); Hong, Jin Kyu [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    It has been reported that the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model generally shows a substantial over prediction bias at low to moderate wind speeds and winds are too geostrophic (Cheng and Steenburgh 2005), which limits the application of WRF model in the area that requires the accurate surface wind estimation such as wind-energy application, air-quality studies, and radioactive-pollutants dispersion studies. The surface drag generated by the subgrid-scale orography is represented by introducing a sink term in the momentum equation in their studies. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the simulated meteorological fields in the high-resolution WRF framework, that includes the parameterization of subgrid-scale orography developed by Mass and Ovens (2010), and enhance the forecast skill of low-level wind fields, which plays an important role in transport and dispersion of air pollutants including radioactive pollutants. The positive bias in 10-m wind speed is significantly alleviated by implementing the subgrid-scale orography parameterization, while other meteorological fields including 10-m wind direction are not changed. Increased variance of subgrid- scale orography enhances the sink of momentum and further reduces the bias in 10-m wind speed.

  3. Wind Tunnel Test of a Risk-Reduction Wing/Fuselage Model to Examine Juncture-Flow Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; Neuhart, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    A wing/fuselage wind-tunnel model was tested in the Langley 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel in preparation for a highly-instrumented Juncture Flow Experiment to be conducted in the same facility. This test, which was sponsored by the NASA Transformational Tool and Technologies Project, is part of a comprehensive set of experimental and computational research activities to develop revolutionary, physics-based aeronautics analysis and design capability. The objectives of this particular test were to examine the surface and off-body flow on a generic wing/body combination to: 1) choose a final wing for a future, highly instrumented model, 2) use the results to facilitate unsteady pressure sensor placement on the model, 3) determine the area to be surveyed with an embedded laser-doppler velocimetry (LDV) system, 4) investigate the primary juncture corner- flow separation region using particle image velocimetry (PIV) to see if the particle seeding is adequately entrained and to examine the structure in the separated region, and 5) to determine the similarity of observed flow features with those predicted by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This report documents the results of the above experiment that specifically address the first three goals. Multiple wing configurations were tested at a chord Reynolds number of 2.4 million. Flow patterns on the surface of the wings and in the region of the wing/fuselage juncture were examined using oil- flow visualization and infrared thermography. A limited number of unsteady pressure sensors on the fuselage around the wing leading and trailing edges were used to identify any dynamic effects of the horseshoe vortex on the flow field. The area of separated flow in the wing/fuselage juncture near the wing trailing edge was observed for all wing configurations at various angles of attack. All of the test objectives were met. The staff of the 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel provided outstanding support and delivered

  4. Wind tunnel study of the wind turbine interaction with a boundary-layer flow: Upwind region, turbine performance, and wake region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastankhah, M.; Porté-Agel, F.

    2017-06-01

    Comprehensive wind tunnel experiments were carried out to study the interaction of a turbulent boundary layer with a wind turbine operating under different tip-speed ratios and yaw angles. Force and power measurements were performed to characterize the variation of thrust force (both magnitude and direction) and generated power of the wind turbine under different operating conditions. Moreover, flow measurements, collected using high-resolution particle-image velocimetry as well as hot-wire anemometry, were employed to systematically study the flow in the upwind, near-wake, and far-wake regions. These measurements provide new insights into the effect of turbine operating conditions on flow characteristics in these regions. For the upwind region, the results show a strong lateral asymmetry under yawed conditions. For the near-wake region, the evolution of tip and root vortices was studied with the use of both instantaneous and phase-averaged vorticity fields. The results suggest that the vortex breakdown position cannot be determined based on phase-averaged statistics, particularly for tip vortices under turbulent inflow conditions. Moreover, the measurements in the near-wake region indicate a complex velocity distribution with a speed-up region in the wake center, especially for higher tip-speed ratios. In order to elucidate the meandering tendency of far wakes, particular focus was placed on studying the characteristics of large turbulent structures in the boundary layer and their interaction with wind turbines. Although these structures are elongated in the streamwise direction, their cross sections are found to have a size comparable to the rotor area, so that they can be affected by the presence of the turbine. In addition, the study of spatial coherence in turbine wakes reveals that any statistics based on streamwise velocity fluctuations cannot provide reliable information about the size of large turbulent structures in turbine wakes due to the effect of wake

  5. Surge flow irrigation under short field conditions in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, S.M.; Depeweg, H.; Schultz, E.

    2004-01-01

    Several studies carried out in long furrows have shown that surge flow irrigation offers the potential of increasing the efficiency of irrigation. The effects of surge flow in short fields, such as in Egypt, are still not well known, however. To investigate the effect of surge flow irrigation in

  6. Estimation of Centers and Stagnation points in optical flow fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1997-01-01

    In a topological sense fluid flows are characterised by their stagnation points. Given a temporal sequence of images of fluids we will consider the application of local polynomials to the estimation of smooth fluid flow fields. The normal flow at intensity contours is estimated from the local dis...

  7. Armature reaction effects on HTS field winding in HTS machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    sensitivity to both armature reaction intensity and angular position with respect to the HTS coils. Furthermore, the characterization of the HTS feld winding has been correlated to the electromagnetic torque of the machine where the maximal Ic reduction of 21% has been observed for the maximum torque....

  8. Description of flow field in the wheelhouses of cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regert, Tamas; Lajos, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    RANS and URANS modeling of flow past simplified vehicle bodies with wheelhouses and rotating wheels have been carried out in order to understand the flow phenomena through detailed analyses of flow in the wheelhouses. The vortex skeleton method was used to characterize the flow structure. The second invariant of the velocity gradient tensor (Q) and iso-surfaces of total pressure have been applied for detecting dynamically significant vortical structures. It was found that the flow field in the wheelhouse can be characterized by several large recirculation zones, of which six can be classified as qualitatively independent of the grid, numerical scheme, turbulence model and the shape of the vehicle body. The change of flow field structure was investigated for various wheelhouse geometries, and for closed lower and/or lateral gaps between the wheelhouse and the external flow field. Aerodynamic forces acting on the body, wheelhouse and wheel were determined separately for different configurations

  9. Flow field studies on a micro-air-vehicle-scale cycloidal rotor in forward flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Andrew H.; Jarugumilli, Tejaswi; Benedict, Moble; Lakshminarayan, Vinod K.; Jones, Anya R.; Chopra, Inderjit

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines the flow physics and principles of force production on a cycloidal rotor (cyclorotor) in forward flight. The cyclorotor considered here consists of two blades rotating about a horizontal axis, with cyclic pitch angle variation about the blade quarter-chord. The flow field at the rotor mid-span is analyzed using smoke flow visualization and particle image velocimeV are compared with flow fields predicted using 2D CFD and time-averaged force measurements acquired in an open-jet wind tunnel at three advance ratios. It is shown that the experimental flow field is nearly two dimensional at μ = 0.73 allowing for qualitative comparisons to be made with CFD. The incoming flow velocity decreases in magnitude as the flow passes through the retreating (upper) half of the rotor and is attributed to power extraction by the blades. A significant increase in flow velocity is observed across the advancing (lower) half of the rotor. The aerodynamic analysis demonstrates that the blades accelerate the flow through the lower aft region of the rotor, where they operate in a high dynamic pressure environment. This is consistent with CFD-predicted values of instantaneous aerodynamic forces which reveal that the aft section of the rotor is the primary region of force production. Phase-averaged flow field measurements showed two blade wakes in the flow, formed by each of the two blades. Analysis of the blades at several azimuthal positions revealed two significant blade-wake interactions. The locations of these blade-wake interactions are correlated with force peaks in the CFD-predicted instantaneous blade forces and highlight their importance to the generation of lift and propulsive force of the cyclorotor.

  10. Nonlinear Dynamics of Wind Turbine Wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther

    , large wind turbines become increasingly flexible and dynamically sensitive. This project focuses on the structural analysis of highly flexible wind turbine wings, and the aerodynamic loading of wind turbine wings under large changes in flow field due to elastic deformations and changing wind conditions....

  11. Estimation of Dense Image Flow Fields in Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Conradsen, Knut; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    or an estimate there-of is known. Estimated flow fields in weather satellite imagery might also be used on an operational basis as inputs to short-term weather prediction. In this article we describe a method for the estimation of dense flow fields. Local measurements of motion are obtained by analysis...

  12. Estimation of Dense Image Flow Fields in Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Conradsen, Knut; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    1998-01-01

    or an estimate there-of is known. Estimated flow fields in weather satellite imagery might also be used on an operational basis as inputs to short-term weather prediction. In this article we describe a method for the estimation of dense flow fields. Local measurements of motion are obtained by analysis...

  13. Meso-beta scale perturbations of the wind field by thunderstorm cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanski, S. L.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Data from the high density storm-scale rawinsonde network of the Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment revealed temporal and spatial changes in the divergence fields of the troposphere in response to severe storm evolution on May 2, 1979; these changes were detectable on the meso-beta scale. This unique set of data was subsequently used to study the evolution of the wind, divergence and vertical motion fields in the presence of intense convection. Mid- and upper-tropospheric divergence was superimposed over low-level convergence. The divergence, which has a maximum value of .0004/s, occurred 75 to 100 km upwind as well as over the tornadic cells. To the south of the storm cells, the kinematic pattern was in reverse, upper level convergence was superimposed over low-level divergence. A vertical motion doublet was found to ascend over the squall line and descend about 70 km south of the squall line. It is suggested that the following effects are accountable for the nature of the kinematic fields: (1) blocking of tropospheric environmental flow by the storm cells, (2) anvil outflows, particularly from the tornadic cells, and (3) divergence from the exit region of the jet stream.

  14. Effects of wind turbines on UHF television reception: field tests in Denmark, November 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.T.

    1992-01-01

    As a result of a planning application for a wind farm comprising 20 wind turbines at Tynewydd Farm, Gilfach Goch in Mid Glamorgan, it became necessary to produce a Report discussing any detrimental effects the proposal might have on UHF television reception. In order to make that Report as definitive as possible, it was decided to carry out field tests on the exact model of wind turbine to be used to Tynewydd. This required a field trip to Denmark, and the opportunity was taken to make measurements on two other models of turbine at the same time. This Report presents the analysis of the results for all three turbines. (Author)

  15. The use of mirror image symmetry in coil winding, applications and advantages in magnetic field generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, an improved method of winding inductors, transformers and motors is discovered. This invention greatly enhances the ability to generate magnetic fields with a given amount of wire. This invention may be as fundamental to the use of magnetic fields as was Nikola Tesla's use of rotating magnetic fields for the generation of alternating current

  16. Computational analysis of the flow field downstream of flow conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdal, Asbjoern

    1997-12-31

    Technological innovations are essential for maintaining the competitiveness for the gas companies and here metering technology is one important area. This thesis shows that computational fluid dynamic techniques can be a valuable tool for examination of several parameters that may affect the performance of a flow conditioner (FC). Previous design methods, such as screen theory, could not provide fundamental understanding of how a FC works. The thesis shows, among other things, that the flow pattern through a complex geometry, like a 19-hole plate FC, can be simulated with good accuracy by a k-{epsilon} turbulence model. The calculations illuminate how variations in pressure drop, overall porosity, grading of porosity across the cross-section and the number of holes affects the performance of FCs. These questions have been studied experimentally by researchers for a long time. Now an understanding of the important mechanisms behind efficient FCs emerges from the predictions. 179 ref., 110 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Sutudy on exchange flow under the unstably stratified field

    OpenAIRE

    文沢, 元雄

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the exchange flow under the unstably stratified field. The author developed the effective measurement system as well as the numerical analysis program. The system and the program are applied to the helium-air exchange flow in a rectangular channel with inclination. Following main features of the exchange flow were discussed based on the calculated results.(1) Time required for establishing a quasi-steady state exchange flow.(2) The relationship between the inclination an...

  18. Study on magnetic field distribution in superconducting magnetic systems with account of magnetization of a superconducting winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhtarin, V.N.; Koshurnikov, E.K.

    1977-01-01

    A method for investigating a magnetic field in a superconducting magnetic system with an allowance for magnetization of the superconducting winding material is described. To find the field, use was made of the network method for solving a nonlinear differential equation for the scalar magnetic potential of the magnetization field with adjustment of the boundary conditions by the boundary relaxation method. It was assumed that the solenoid did not pass into the normal state, and there were no flow jumps. The calculated dependences for the magnetization field of a superconducting solenoid with an inner diameter of 43 mm, an outer diameter of 138 mm, and a winding of 159 mm length are presented. The solenoid is wound with a 37-strand niobium-titanium wire. The magnetization field gradient in the area of the geometrical centre with a magnetic field strength of 43 kOe was equal to 1 Oe/cm, this meaning that within a sphere of 1 cm radius the inhomogeneity of the magnetization field was 2.5 x 10 -5

  19. CFD ANALYSIS OF THE AIR FLOW AROUND THE BLADES OF THE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Musab Gavgali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of calculations of flow around the vertical axis wind turbine. Three-dimensional calculations were performed using ANSYS Fluent. They were made at steady-state conditions for a wind speed of 3 m/s for 4 angular settings of the three-bladed rotor. The purpose of the calculations was to determine the values of the aerodynamic forces acting on the individual blades and to present the pressure contours on the surface of turbine rotor blades. The calculations were made for 4 rotor angular settings.

  20. Wake effect on a uniform flow behind wind-turbine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Naumov, I. V.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2015-01-01

    LDA experiments were carried out to study the development of mean velocity profiles of the very far wake behind a wind turbine model in a water flume. The model of the rotor is placed in a middle of the flume. The initial flume flow is subjected to a very low turbulence level, limiting...... speed ratios from 3 to 9, and at different cross-sections from 10 to 100 rotor radii downstream from the rotor. By using regression techniques to fit the velocity profiles it was possible to obtain accurate velocity deficits and estimate length scales of the wake attenuation. The data are compared...... with different analytical models for wind turbine wakes....

  1. Modeling the wind-fields of accidental releases with an operational regional forecast model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albritton, J.R.; Lee, R.L.; Sugiyama, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is an operational emergency preparedness and response organization supported primarily by the Departments of Energy and Defense. ARAC can provide real-time assessments of atmospheric releases of radioactive materials at any location in the world. ARAC uses robust three-dimensional atmospheric transport and dispersion models, extensive geophysical and dose-factor databases, meteorological data-acquisition systems, and an experienced staff. Although it was originally conceived and developed as an emergency response and assessment service for nuclear accidents, the ARAC system has been adapted to also simulate non-radiological hazardous releases. For example, in 1991 ARAC responded to three major events: the oil fires in Kuwait, the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, and the herbicide spill into the upper Sacramento River in California. ARAC's operational simulation system, includes two three-dimensional finite-difference models: a diagnostic wind-field scheme, and a Lagrangian particle-in-cell transport and dispersion scheme. The meteorological component of ARAC's real-time response system employs models using real-time data from all available stations near the accident site to generate a wind-field for input to the transport and dispersion model. Here we report on simulation studies of past and potential release sites to show that even in the absence of local meteorological observational data, readily available gridded analysis and forecast data and a prognostic model, the Navy Operational Regional Atmospheric Prediction System, applied at an appropriate grid resolution can successfully simulate complex local flows

  2. Field campaign for the comparison of SOUSY radar wind measurements with rawinsonde and model data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Steinhagen

    Full Text Available A field campaign was carried out from 26 October to 7 November 1992, using the SOUSY-VHF radar and a mobile rawinsonde system installed and operated nearby to produce vertical wind profiles. The purpose of this campaign was to compare the two types of wind measurements with one another and with results from forecast models. Numerical algorithms were developed and applied to the radar data in order to eliminate random errors, correct for velocity aliasing, and calculate the effective zenith angle of the off-vertical beams. Differences between wind profiler data and rawinsonde or model results depend not only upon the errors of the different systems, but also on temporal and spatial variations of the wind field. Therefore, methods for the comparison of radar and rawinsonde data were developed which take into consideration these variations. The practical potential of these methods is demonstrated by comparisons of rawinsonde and radar wind profiles. The comparison of radar data and model output shows excellent agreement in the direction and in the speed of the wind at virtually all altitudes. An evaluation of the quality of wind profiler measurements is possible using the estimation of variance and variability of wind components.

  3. Field campaign for the comparison of SOUSY radar wind measurements with rawinsonde and model data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Steinhagen

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available A field campaign was carried out from 26 October to 7 November 1992, using the SOUSY-VHF radar and a mobile rawinsonde system installed and operated nearby to produce vertical wind profiles. The purpose of this campaign was to compare the two types of wind measurements with one another and with results from forecast models. Numerical algorithms were developed and applied to the radar data in order to eliminate random errors, correct for velocity aliasing, and calculate the effective zenith angle of the off-vertical beams. Differences between wind profiler data and rawinsonde or model results depend not only upon the errors of the different systems, but also on temporal and spatial variations of the wind field. Therefore, methods for the comparison of radar and rawinsonde data were developed which take into consideration these variations. The practical potential of these methods is demonstrated by comparisons of rawinsonde and radar wind profiles. The comparison of radar data and model output shows excellent agreement in the direction and in the speed of the wind at virtually all altitudes. An evaluation of the quality of wind profiler measurements is possible using the estimation of variance and variability of wind components.

  4. Wind tunnel experimental study on effect of inland nuclear power plant cooling tower on air flow and dispersion of pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Qingdang; Yao Rentai; Guo Zhanjie; Wang Ruiying; Fan Dan; Guo Dongping; Hou Xiaofei; Wen Yunchao

    2011-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment for the effect of the cooling tower at Taohuajiang nuclear power plant on air flow and dispersion of pollutant was introduced in paper. Measurements of air mean flow and turbulence structure in different directions of cooling tower and other buildings were made by using an X-array hot wire probe. The effects of the cooling tower and its drift on dispersion of pollutant from the stack were investigated through tracer experiments. The results show that the effect of cooling tower on flow and dispersion obviously depends on the relative position of stack to cooling towers, especially significant for the cooling tower parallel to stack along wind direction. The variation law of normalized maximum velocity deficit and perturbations in longitudinal turbulent intensity in cooling tower wake was highly in accordance with the result of isolated mountain measured by Arya and Gadiyaram. Dispersion of pollutant in near field is significantly enhanced and plume trajectory is changed due to the cooling towers and its drift. Meanwhile, the effect of cooling tower on dispersion of pollutant depends on the height of release. (authors)

  5. Challenges in wind farm optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    To achieve the optimal economic output from a wind farm over its lifetime, an optimal balance between capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, fatigue lifetime consumption of turbine components and power production is to be determined on a rational basis. This has implications both...... for the wind turbine modeling, where aeroelastic models are required, and for the wind farm flow field description, where in-stationary flow field modeling is needed to capture the complicated mixture of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows and upstream emitted meandering wind turbine wakes, which together...... dictates the fatigue loading of the individual wind turbines. Within an optimization context, the basic challenge in describing the in-stationary wind farm flow field is computational speed. The Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model includes the basic features of a CFD Large Eddy Simulation approach...

  6. Geology of the Tyrrhenus Mons Lava Flow Field, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, David A.; Mest, Scott C.

    2014-11-01

    The ancient, eroded Martian volcano Tyrrhenus Mons exhibits a central caldera complex, layered flank deposits dissected by radial valleys, and a 1000+ km-long flow field extending to the southwest toward Hellas Planitia. Past studies suggested an early phase of volcanism dominated by large explosive eruptions followed by subsequent effusive activity at the summit and to the southwest. As part of a new geologic mapping study of northeast Hellas, we are examining the volcanic landforms and geologic evolution of the Tyrrhenus Mons flow field, including the timing and nature of fluvial activity and effects on volcanic units. New digital geologic mapping incorporates THEMIS IR (100 m/pixel) and CTX (5 m/pixel) images as well as constraints from MOLA topography.Mapping results to-date include delineation of the boundaries of the flow field, identification and mapping of volcanic and erosional channels within the flow field, and mapping and analysis of lava flow lobes. THEMIS IR and CTX images allow improved discrimination of the numerous flow lobes that are observed in the flow field, including refinement of the margins of previously known flows and identification of additional and smaller lobes. A prominent sinuous rille extending from Tyrrhenus Mons’ summit caldera is a major feature that supplied lava to the flow field. Smaller volcanic channels are common throughout the flow field; some occur in segments along crests of local topographic highs and may delineate lava tubes. In addition to volcanic channels, the flow field surface is characterized by several types of erosional channels, including wide troughs with scour marks, elongate sinuous channels, and discontinuous chains of elongate pits and troughs. High-resolution images reveal the widespread and significant effects of fluvial activity in the region, and further mapping studies will examine spatial and temporal interactions between volcanism and fluvial processes.

  7. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations in the Inner Heliosphere: A Wind and MESSENGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Adam; Koval, A.

    2011-01-01

    The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the similar observations made by the MESSENGER spacecraft in the inner heliosphere affords an opportunity to compare magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of radial distance from the Sun under different solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the approx.2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The powe'r spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions. Wind and MESSENGER magnetic fluctuations are compared for times when the two spacecraft are close to radial and Parker field alignment. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed.

  8. International co-operation in the field of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The use of wind energy is expanding rapidly worldwide. At the end of 1996 over 6000 MW was installed and the annual increase has during the last years exceeded 1000 MW. The development is also reaching more and more countries. In order to maintain technical and commercial development international co-operation is needed to secure cost-effectiveness, reliability and safety of the technology. International recommendations, harmonisation and standardisation is promoted by several international organizations like IEA, IEC and the classification organisations

  9. Measuring electromagnetic fields (EMF) around wind turbines in Canada: is there a human health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Knopper, Loren D; Ferguson, Glenn M; Ollson, Christopher A

    2014-02-15

    The past five years has seen considerable expansion of wind power generation in Ontario, Canada. Most recently worries about exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from wind turbines, and associated electrical transmission, has been raised at public meetings and legal proceedings. These fears have not been based on any actual measurements of EMF exposure surrounding existing projects but appear to follow from worries from internet sources and misunderstanding of the science. The study was carried out at the Kingsbridge 1 Wind Farm located near Goderich, Ontario, Canada. Magnetic field measurements were collected in the proximity of 15 Vestas 1.8 MW wind turbines, two substations, various buried and overhead collector and transmission lines, and nearby homes. Data were collected during three operational scenarios to characterize potential EMF exposure: 'high wind' (generating power), 'low wind' (drawing power from the grid, but not generating power) and 'shut off' (neither drawing, nor generating power). Background levels of EMF (0.2 to 0.3 mG) were established by measuring magnetic fields around the wind turbines under the 'shut off' scenario. Magnetic field levels detected at the base of the turbines under both the 'high wind' and 'low wind' conditions were low (mean = 0.9 mG; n = 11) and rapidly diminished with distance, becoming indistinguishable from background within 2 m of the base. Magnetic fields measured 1 m above buried collector lines were also within background (≤ 0.3 mG). Beneath overhead 27.5 kV and 500 kV transmission lines, magnetic field levels of up to 16.5 and 46 mG, respectively, were recorded. These levels also diminished rapidly with distance. None of these sources appeared to influence magnetic field levels at nearby homes located as close as just over 500 m from turbines, where measurements immediately outside of the homes were ≤ 0.4 mG. The results suggest that there is nothing unique to wind farms with respect to EMF exposure; in

  10. Propulsion efficiency and imposed flow fields of a copepod jump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, H.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Pelagic copepods jump to relocate, to attack prey and to escape predators. However, there is a price to be paid for these jumps in terms of their energy costs and the hydrodynamic signals they generate to rheotactic predators. Using observed kinematics of various types of jumps, we computed...... the imposed flow fields and associated energetics of jumps by means of computational fluid dynamics simulations by modeling the copepod as a self-propelled body. The computational fluid dynamics simulation was validated by particle image velocimetry data. The flow field generated by a repositioning jump...... the flow structure. The flow field associated with an escape jump sequence also includes two dominant vortex structures: one leading wake vortex generated as a result of the first jump and one around the body, but between these two vortex structures is an elongated, long-lasting flow trail with flow...

  11. Flume experiments on wind induced flow in static water bodies in the presence of protruding vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirtha; Muste, Marian; Katul, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    The problem of wind-induced flow in inland waters is drawing significant research attention given its relevance to a plethora of applications in wetlands including treatment designs, pollution reduction, and biogeochemical cycling. The present work addresses the role of wind induced turbulence and waves within an otherwise static water body in the presence of rigid and flexible emergent vegetation through flume experimentation and time series analysis. Because no prior example of Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) experiments involving air-water and flexible oscillating components have been found in the literature, a spectral analysis framework is needed and proposed here to guide the analysis involving noise, wave and turbulence separation. The experiments reveal that wave and turbulence effects are simultaneously produced at the air-water interface and the nature of their coexistence is found to vary with different flow parameters including water level, mean wind speed, vegetation density and its flexibility. For deep water levels, signature of fine-scaled inertial turbulence is found at deeper layers of the water system. The wave action appears stronger close to the air-water interface and damped by the turbulence deeper inside the water system. As expected, wave action is found to be dominated in a certain frequency range driven by the wind forcing, while it is also diffused to lower frequencies by means of (wind-induced) oscillations in vegetation. Regarding the mean water velocity, existence of a counter-current flow and its switching to fully forward flow in the direction of the wind under certain combinations of flow parameters were studied. The relative importance of wave and turbulence to the overall energy, degree of anisotropy in the turbulent energy components, and turbulent momentum transport at different depths from the air-water interface and flow combinations were then quantified. The flume experiments reported here differ from previous laboratory

  12. Optimization Design of Bipolar Plate Flow Field in PEM Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; He, Kanghao; Li, Peilong; Yang, Lei; Deng, Li; Jiang, Fei; Yao, Yong

    2017-12-01

    A new design of bipolar plate flow field in proton exchange membrane (PEM) stack was presented to develop a high-performance transfer efficiency of the two-phase flow. Two different flow fields were studied by using numerical simulations and the performance of the flow fields was presented. the hydrodynamic properties include pressure gap between inlet and outlet, the Reynold’s number of the two types were compared based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Computer aided optimization software was implemented in the design of experiments of the preferable flow field. The design of experiments (DOE) for the favorable concept was carried out to study the hydrodynamic properties when changing the design parameters of the bipolar plate.

  13. Simulating flow around scaled model of a hypersonic vehicle in wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, T. V.; Aksenov, A. A.; Zhluktov, S. V.; Savitsky, D. V.; Gavrilov, A. D.; Son, E. E.; Prokhorov, A. N.

    2016-11-01

    A prospective hypersonic HEXAFLY aircraft is considered in the given paper. In order to obtain the aerodynamic characteristics of a new construction design of the aircraft, experiments with a scaled model have been carried out in a wind tunnel under different conditions. The runs have been performed at different angles of attack with and without hydrogen combustion in the scaled propulsion engine. However, the measured physical quantities do not provide all the information about the flowfield. Numerical simulation can complete the experimental data as well as to reduce the number of wind tunnel experiments. Besides that, reliable CFD software can be used for calculations of the aerodynamic characteristics for any possible design of the full-scale aircraft under different operation conditions. The reliability of the numerical predictions must be confirmed in verification study of the software. The given work is aimed at numerical investigation of the flowfield around and inside the scaled model of the HEXAFLY-CIAM module under wind tunnel conditions. A cold run (without combustion) was selected for this study. The calculations are performed in the FlowVision CFD software. The flow characteristics are compared against the available experimental data. The carried out verification study confirms the capability of the FlowVision CFD software to calculate the flows discussed.

  14. Performance of a prototype micro wind turbine in the manmade wind field from air conditioner of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Goh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing waste energy from the manmade air fields of buildings presents a new area of renewable energy to explore. Due to the unpredictability of the natural wind, this study is to evaluate the practicality for harnessing waste energy from the air conditioner exhaust units which are a more constant and predictable source available in the buildings. A prototype of the micro wind turbine has been designed to minimize the negative effect of the exhaust sources. After the micro wind turbine was manufactured, the performance of the turbine was tested in the selected air conditioner exhaust unit. Increasing the rotor solidity and decreasing the resistance of the generator contribute to improved starting torque and decreased generator break in torque respectively in the design. The power generation of the micro wind turbine increases with an increase of the rotor speed. The 24-hour operation of the prototype presents an observation for both exhaust performance and power generation prediction when the prototype is mounted on the exhaust unit.

  15. Robust optimization-based DC optimal power flow for managing wind generation uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchuay, Chanwit; Tomsovic, Kevin; Li, Fangxing; Ongsakul, Weerakorn

    2012-11-01

    Integrating wind generation into the wider grid causes a number of challenges to traditional power system operation. Given the relatively large wind forecast errors, congestion management tools based on optimal power flow (OPF) need to be improved. In this paper, a robust optimization (RO)-based DCOPF is proposed to determine the optimal generation dispatch and locational marginal prices (LMPs) for a day-ahead competitive electricity market considering the risk of dispatch cost variation. The basic concept is to use the dispatch to hedge against the possibility of reduced or increased wind generation. The proposed RO-based DCOPF is compared with a stochastic non-linear programming (SNP) approach on a modified PJM 5-bus system. Primary test results show that the proposed DCOPF model can provide lower dispatch cost than the SNP approach.

  16. Full-Scale Field Test of a Blade-Integrated Dual-Telescope Wind Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas

    . Simultaneously, data regarding wind speed, rotational speed, and pitch angle recorded by the turbine was logged as well as data from a nearby met mast. The encouraging results of this first campaign include wind speed measurements at 20 Hz data rate along the rotor plane, acquired during the co...... in the top and bottom of the rotor plane. Conclusion We present here what we believe is the first successful wind speed measurements from a dual-telescope lidar installed on the blade of an operating wind turbine. The full-scale field test performed in the summer of 2012 has clearly demonstrated...... the possibility of integrating lidar telescopes into turbine blades as well as the capability of the lidar to measure the required wind speeds and to operate in the challenging environment of a rotating spinner and vibrating blade. The use of two separate telescopes allows a direct measurement of the blade’s AOA...

  17. Design and field testing of Savonius wind pump in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, K.V.O.; Osawa, B.M.

    1995-04-01

    We present here improvements in the wind-scoop geometry and efficiency of a double-stack Savonius rotor, developed through a series of wind tunnel and field testing in East Africa. On an aerodynamic performance basis, the Savonius rotor cannot generally compete with other types of wind turbines. This is entirely due to its mode of operation. Unlike its counter-parts that operate by rotating around a horizontal axis, it rotates around a vertical axis. This has the unfortunate effect of lowering its efficiency, but it has several compensating factors. Its main advantages are that it has better starting torque performance with operating characteristics independent of the wind direction. In addition, it is simple in structure and the fabrication technology required is less sophisticated when compared to similar types of windmills. This makes it a suitable system for small scale applications in wind energy conversion; especially in remote rural regions in developing countries. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  18. Local relativistic invariant flows for quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Hoeegh-Krahn, R.; Sirugue, M.

    1983-01-01

    For quantum fields with trigonometric interaction in arbitrary space dimension we construct a representation of the Lorentz group by automorphisms on a Banach space generated by the Weyl algebra. (orig.)

  19. PIV Measurements of Gas Flow Fields from Burning End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yifei; Wu, Junzhang; Zeng, Jingsong; Tang, Darong; Du, Liang

    2017-12-01

    To study the influence of cigarette gas on the environment, it is necessary to know the cigarette gas flow fields from burning end. By using PIV technique, in order to reveal velocity characteristics of gas flow fields, the velocities of cigarette gas flow fields was analyzed with different stepping motor frequencies corresponding to suction pressures, and the trend of velocity has been given with image fitting. The results shows that the velocities of the burning end increased with suction pressures; Between velocities of the burning end and suction pressures, the relations present polynomial rule; The cigarette gas diffusion in combustion process is faster than in the smoldering process.

  20. Modulating patterns of two-phase flow with electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dingsheng; Hakimi, Bejan; Volny, Michael; Rolfs, Joelle; Anand, Robbyn K; Turecek, Frantisek; Chiu, Daniel T

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the use of electro-hydrodynamic actuation to control the transition between three major flow patterns of an aqueous-oil Newtonian flow in a microchannel: droplets, beads-on-a-string (BOAS), and multi-stream laminar flow. We observed interesting transitional flow patterns between droplets and BOAS as the electric field was modulated. The ability to control flow patterns of a two-phase fluid in a microchannel adds to the microfluidic tool box and improves our understanding of this interesting fluid behavior.

  1. Conjunction of 2D and 3D modified flow solvers for simulating spatio-temporal wind induced hydrodynamics in the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zounemat-Kermani, Mohammad; Sabbagh-Yazdi, Saeed-Reza

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this study is the simulation of flow dynamics in the deep parts of the Caspian Sea, in which the southern and middle deep regions are surrounded by considerable areas of shallow zones. To simulate spatio-temporal wind induced hydrodynamics in deep waters, a conjunctive numerical model consisting of a 2D depth average model and a 3D pseudo compressible model is proposed. The 2D model is applied to determine time dependent free surface oscillations as well as the surface velocity patterns and is conjunct to the 3D flow solver for computing three-dimensional velocity and pressure fields which coverage to steady state for the top boundary condition. The modified 2D and 3D sets of equations are conjunct considering interface shear stresses. Both sets of 2D and 3D equations are solved on unstructured triangular and tetrahedral meshes using the Galerkin Finite Volume Method. The conjunctive model is utilized to investigate the deep currents affected by wind, Coriolis forces and the river inflow conditions of the Caspian Sea. In this study, the simulation of flow field due to major winds as well as transient winds in the Caspian Sea during a period of 6 hours in the winter season has been conducted and the numerical results for water surface level are then compared to the 2D numerical results.

  2. Effect of Wind Flow on Convective Heat Losses from Scheffler Solar Concentrator Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nene, Anita Arvind; Ramachandran, S.; Suyambazhahan, S.

    2018-05-01

    Receiver is an important element of solar concentrator system. In a Scheffler concentrator, solar rays get concentrated at focus of parabolic dish. While radiation losses are more predictable and calculable since strongly related to receiver temperature, convective looses are difficult to estimate in view of additional factors such as wind flow direction, speed, receiver geometry, prior to current work. Experimental investigation was carried out on two geometries of receiver namely cylindrical and conical with 2.7 m2 Scheffler to find optimum condition of tilt to provide best efficiency. Experimental results showed that as compared to cylindrical receiver, conical receiver gave maximum efficiency at 45° tilt angle. However effect of additional factors like wind speed, wind direction on especially convective losses could not be separately seen. The current work was undertaken to investigate further the same two geometries using computation fluid dynamics using FLUENT to compute convective losses considering all variables such at tilt angle of receiver, wind velocity and wind direction. For cylindrical receiver, directional heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is remarkably high to tilt condition meaning this geometry is critical to tilt leading to higher convective heat losses. For conical receiver, directional average HTC is remarkably less to tilt condition leading to lower convective heat loss.

  3. Numerical analysis of the flow around the Bach-type Savonius wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacprzak, K; Sobczak, K

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the Bach-type Savonius wind turbine with a constant cross-section is examined by means of quasi 2D and 3D flow predictions obtained from ANSYS CFX. Simulations were performed in a way allowing for a comparison with the wind tunnel data presented by Kamoji et al. The comparison with the experiment has revealed that 2D solutions give much higher deviation from the reference data than the 3D ones, which guarantees a good solution quality. It can be stated that even simplified (lack of laminar-turbulence transition modelling and a coarser mesh) 3D simulations can yield more accurate results than complex 2D solutions for turbines with a low aspect ratio. The paper also presents a systematic analysis of the most characteristic flow structures which are identified in the rotor.

  4. Numerical analysis of the flow around the Bach-type Savonius wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, K.; Sobczak, K.

    2014-08-01

    The performance of the Bach-type Savonius wind turbine with a constant cross-section is examined by means of quasi 2D and 3D flow predictions obtained from ANSYS CFX. Simulations were performed in a way allowing for a comparison with the wind tunnel data presented by Kamoji et al. The comparison with the experiment has revealed that 2D solutions give much higher deviation from the reference data than the 3D ones, which guarantees a good solution quality. It can be stated that even simplified (lack of laminar-turbulence transition modelling and a coarser mesh) 3D simulations can yield more accurate results than complex 2D solutions for turbines with a low aspect ratio. The paper also presents a systematic analysis of the most characteristic flow structures which are identified in the rotor.

  5. Taylor-Couette flow stability with toroidal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalybkov, D

    2005-01-01

    The linear stability of the dissipative Taylor-Couette flow with imposed azimuthal magnetic field is considered. Unlike to ideal flow, the magnetic field is fixed function of radius with two parameters only: a ratio of inner to outer cylinder radii and a ratio of the magnetic field values on outer and inner cylinders. The magnetic field with boundary values ratio greater than zero and smaller than inverse radii ratio always stabilizes the flow and called stable magnetic field below. The current free magnetic field is the stable magnetic field. The unstable magnetic field destabilizes every flow if the magnetic field (or Hartmann number) exceeds some critical value. This instability survives even without rotation (for zero Reynolds number). For the stable without the magnetic field flow, the unstable modes are located into some interval of the vertical wave numbers. The interval length is zero for critical Hartmann number and increases with increasing Hartmann number. The critical Hartmann numbers and the length of the unstable vertical wave numbers interval is the same for every rotation law. There are the critical Hartmann numbers for m = 0 sausage and m = 1 kink modes only. The critical Hartmann numbers are smaller for kink mode and this mode is the most unstable mode like to the pinch instability case. The flow stability do not depend on the magnetic Prandtl number for m = 0 mode. The same is true for critical Hartmann numbers for m = 0 and m = 1 modes. The typical value of the magnetic field destabilizing the liquid metal Taylor-Couette flow is order of 100 Gauss

  6. Modeling and analysis of solar wind generated contributions to the near-Earth magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Moretto, T.; Rastatter, L.

    2006-01-01

    Solar wind generated magnetic disturbances are currently one of the major obstacles for improving the accuracy in the determination of the magnetic field due to sources internal to the Earth. In the present study a global MHD model of solar wind magnetosphere interaction is used to obtain...... a physically consistent, divergence-free model of ionospheric, field-aligned and magnetospheric currents in a realistic magnetospheric geometry. The magnetic field near the Earth due to these currents is analyzed by estimating and comparing the contributions from the various parts of the system, with the aim...... of identifying the most important aspects of the solar wind disturbances in an internal field modeling context. The contribution from the distant magnetospheric currents is found to consist of two, mainly opposing, contributions from respectively the dayside magnetopause currents and the cross-tail current...

  7. Latitude dependence of the solar wind speed: Influence of the coronal magnetic field geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pneuman, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    The dependence of solar wind speed on latitude as influenced by the magnetic field configuration of the inner corona is studied. It is found that in general, a dipolelike field geometry characteristic of a minimum-type corona tends to produce a solar wind speed distribution which increases with heliographic latitude, in accordance with observations. At very high coronal base densities and temperatures, however, this effect is minimal or even inverted. Physically, the field affects the wind speed through its area divergence, a larger divergence resulting in correspondingly lower speeds. During solar minimum, eclipse photographs suggest that the field divergence increases from pole to equator, a characteristic not apparent during solar maximum. Hence we expect the latitudinal increase in speed to be most pronounced at the minimum phase of solar activity

  8. Measuring electromagnetic fields (EMF) around wind turbines in Canada: is there a human health concern?

    OpenAIRE

    McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Knopper, Loren D; Ferguson, Glenn M; Ollson, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Background The past five years has seen considerable expansion of wind power generation in Ontario, Canada. Most recently worries about exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from wind turbines, and associated electrical transmission, has been raised at public meetings and legal proceedings. These fears have not been based on any actual measurements of EMF exposure surrounding existing projects but appear to follow from worries from internet sources and misunderstanding of the science. Meth...

  9. Probabilistic Path Planning of Montgolfier Balloons in Strong, Uncertain Wind Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Blackmore, James C.; Kuwata, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Lighter-than-air vehicles such as hot-air balloons have been proposed for exploring Saturn s moon Titan, as well as other bodies with significant atmospheres. For these vehicles to navigate effectively, it is critical to incorporate the effects of surrounding wind fields, especially as these winds will likely be strong relative to the control authority of the vehicle. Predictive models of these wind fields are available, and previous research has considered problems of planning paths subject to these predicted forces. However, such previous work has considered the wind fields as known a priori, whereas in practical applications, the actual wind vector field is not known exactly and may deviate significantly from the wind velocities estimated by the model. A probabilistic 3D path-planning algorithm was developed for balloons to use uncertain wind models to generate time-efficient paths. The nominal goal of the algorithm is to determine what altitude and what horizontal actuation, if any is available on the vehicle, to use to reach a particular goal location in the least expected time, utilizing advantageous winds. The solution also enables one to quickly evaluate the expected time-to-goal from any other location and to avoid regions of large uncertainty. This method is designed for balloons in wind fields but may be generalized for any buoyant vehicle operating in a vector field. To prepare the planning problem, the uncertainty in the wind field is modeled. Then, the problem of reaching a particular goal location is formulated as a Markov decision process (MDP) using a discretized space approach. Solving the MDP provides a policy of what actuation option (how much buoyancy change and, if applicable, horizontal actuation) should be selected at any given location to minimize the expected time-to-goal. The results provide expected time-to-goal values from any given location on the globe in addition to the action policy. This stochastic approach can also provide

  10. Numerical simulation of flow fields and particle trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    . The time-dependent flow is approximated with a continuous sequence of steady state creeping flow fields, where metachronously beating ciliary bands are modelled by linear combinations of singularity solutions to the Stokes equations. Generally, the computed flow fields can be divided into an unsteady......A model describing the ciliary driven flow and motion of suspended particles in downstream suspension feeders is developed. The quasi-steady Stokes equations for creeping flow are solved numerically in an unbounded fluid domain around cylindrical bodies using a boundary integral formulation...... in the simulated unsteady ciliary driven flow. A fraction of particles appear to follow trajectories, that resemble experimentally observed particle capture events in the downstream feeding system of the polycheate Sabella penicillus, indicating that particles can be captured by ciliary systems without mechanical...

  11. Surface and Flow Field Measurements on the FAITH Hill Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James H.; Heineck, James T.; Zilliac, Gregory; Mehta, Rabindra D.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2012-01-01

    A series of experimental tests, using both qualitative and quantitative techniques, were conducted to characterize both surface and off-surface flow characteristics of an axisymmetric, modified-cosine-shaped, wall-mounted hill named "FAITH" (Fundamental Aero Investigates The Hill). Two separate models were employed: a 6" high, 18" base diameter machined aluminum model that was used for wind tunnel tests and a smaller scale (2" high, 6" base diameter) sintered nylon version that was used in the water channel facility. Wind tunnel and water channel tests were conducted at mean test section speeds of 165 fps (Reynolds Number based on height = 500,000) and 0.1 fps (Reynolds Number of 1000), respectively. The ratio of model height to boundary later height was approximately 3 for both tests. Qualitative techniques that were employed to characterize the complex flow included surface oil flow visualization for the wind tunnel tests, and dye injection for the water channel tests. Quantitative techniques that were employed to characterize the flow included Cobra Probe to determine point-wise steady and unsteady 3D velocities, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to determine 3D velocities and turbulence statistics along specified planes, Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) to determine mean surface pressures, and Fringe Imaging Skin Friction (FISF) to determine surface skin friction (magnitude and direction). This initial report summarizes the experimental set-up, techniques used, data acquired and describes some details of the dataset that is being constructed for use by other researchers, especially the CFD community. Subsequent reports will discuss the data and their interpretation in more detail

  12. Flow field induced particle accumulation inside droplets in rectangular channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Michael; Moskopp, Michael; Seemann, Ralf

    2015-07-07

    Particle concentration is a basic operation needed to perform washing steps or to improve subsequent analysis in many (bio)-chemical assays. In this article we present field free, hydrodynamic accumulation of particles and cells in droplets flowing within rectangular micro-channels. Depending on droplet velocity, particles either accumulate at the rear of the droplet or are dispersed over the entire droplet cross-section. We show that the observed particle accumulation behavior can be understood by a coupling of particle sedimentation to the internal flow field of the droplet. The changing accumulation patterns are explained by a qualitative change of the internal flow field. The topological change of the internal flow field, however, is explained by the evolution of the droplet shape with increasing droplet velocity altering the friction with the channel walls. In addition, we demonstrate that accumulated particles can be concentrated, removing excess dispersed phase by splitting the droplet at a simple channel junction.

  13. Hall-magnetohydrodynamic waves in flowing ideal incompressible solar-wind plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelyazkov, I

    2010-01-01

    It is well established now that the solar atmosphere, from the photosphere to the corona and the solar wind, is a highly structured medium. Satellite observations have confirmed the presence of steady flows there. Here, we investigate the propagation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) eigenmodes (kink and sausage surface waves) travelling along an ideal incompressible flowing plasma cylinder (flux tube) surrounded by a flowing plasma environment in the framework of the Hall magnetohydrodynamics. The propagation characteristics of the waves are studied in a reference frame moving with the mass flow outside the tube. In general, the flows change the waves' phase velocities compared with their magnitudes in a static MHD flux tube and the Hall effect extends the number of the possible wave dispersion curves. It turns out that while the kink waves, considered in the context of the standard magnetohydrodynamics, are unstable against the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, they become stable when the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law is taken into account. The sausage waves are stable in both considerations. All results concerning the waves' propagation and their stability/instability status are obtained on the basis of the linearized Hall-magnetohydrodynamic equations and are applicable mainly to the solar wind plasmas.

  14. Propagation of Shock on NREL Phase VI Wind Turbine Airfoil under Compressible Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on numeric analysis of compressible flow around National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL phase VI wind turbine blade airfoil S809. Although wind turbine airfoils are low Reynolds number airfoils, a reasonable investigation of compressible flow under extreme condition might be helpful. A subsonic flow (mach no. M=0.8 has been considered for this analysis and the impacts of this flow under seven different angles of attack have been determined. The results show that shock takes place just after the mid span at the top surface and just before the mid span at the bottom surface at zero angle of attack. Slowly the shock waves translate their positions as angle of attack increases. A relative translation of the shock waves in upper and lower face of the airfoil are presented. Variation of Turbulent viscosity ratio and surface Y+ have also been determined. A k-ω SST turbulent model is considered and the commercial CFD code ANSYS FLUENT is used to find the pressure coefficient (Cp as well as the lift (CL and drag coefficients (CD. A graphical comparison of shock propagation has been shown with different angle of attack. Flow separation and stream function are also determined.

  15. Viscous-inviscid method for the simulation of turbulent unsteady wind turbine airfoil flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, L.; Velazquez, A.; Matesanz, A. [Thermal Engineering Area, Carlos III University of Madrid, Avd. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    A Viscous-inviscid interaction method is presented that allows for the simulation of unsteady airfoil flow in the context of wind turbine applications. The method couples a 2-D external unsteady potential flow to a 2-D unsteady turbulent boundary layer. The separation point on the airfoil leeward side is determined in a self-consistent way from the boundary-layer equations, and the separated flow region is modelled independently. Wake shape and motion are also determined in a self-consistent way, while an unsteady Kutta condition is implemented. The method is able to deal with attached flow and light stall situations characterised by unsteady turbulent boundary-layer separation size up to 50% of the airfoil chord length. The results of the validation campaign show that the method could be used for industrial design purposes because of its numerical robustness, reasonable accuracy, and limited computational time demands.

  16. Influence of trees on the dispersion of pollutants in an urban street canyon - experimental investigation of the flow and concentration field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Ruck, B.

    2007-01-01

    Flow field and concentration measurements have been performed in an idealized model of an urban street canyon with one row of trees arranged along the center axis. The model was set up in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel and the approach flow was directed perpendicular to the street axis. A

  17. Josephson flux-flow oscillators in nonuniform microwave fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, Mario; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2000-01-01

    We present a simple theory for Josephson flux-flow oscillators in the presence of nonuniform microwave fields. In particular we derive an analytical expression for the I-V characteristic of the oscillator from which we show that satellite steps are spaced around the main flux-flow resonance by only...

  18. Reduction of the Random Variables of the Turbulent Wind Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2012-01-01

    .e. Importance Sampling (IS) or Subset Simulation (SS), will be deteriorated on problems with many random variables. The problem with PDEM is that a multidimensional integral has to be carried out over the space defined by the random variables of the system. The numerical procedure requires discretization......Applicability of the Probability Density Evolution Method (PDEM) for realizing evolution of the probability density for the wind turbines has rather strict bounds on the basic number of the random variables involved in the model. The efficiency of most of the Advanced Monte Carlo (AMC) methods, i...... of the integral domain; this becomes increasingly difficult as the dimensions of the integral domain increase. On the other hand efficiency of the AMC methods is closely dependent on the design points of the problem. Presence of many random variables may increase the number of the design points, hence affects...

  19. Effects of Blade Boundary Layer Transition and Daytime Atmospheric Turbulence on Wind Turbine Performance Analyzed with Blade-Resolved Simulation and Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Tarak Nath

    Relevant to utility scale wind turbine functioning and reliability, the present work focuses on enhancing our understanding of wind turbine responses from interactions between energy-dominant daytime atmospheric turbulence eddies and rotating blades of a GE 1.5 MW wind turbine using a unique data set from a GE field experiment and computer simulations at two levels of fidelity. Previous studies have shown that the stability state of the lower troposphere has a major impact on the coherent structure of the turbulence eddies, with corresponding differences in wind turbine loading response. In this study, time-resolved aerodynamic data measured locally at the leading edge and trailing edge of three outer blade sections on a GE 1.5 MW wind turbine blade and high-frequency SCADA generator power data from a daytime field campaign are combined with computer simulations that mimic the GE wind turbine within a numerically generated atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow field which is a close approximation of the atmospheric turbulence experienced by the wind turbine in the field campaign. By combining the experimental and numerical data sets, this study describes the time-response characteristics of the local loadings on the blade sections in response to nonsteady nonuniform energetic atmospheric turbulence eddies within a daytime ABL which have spatial scale commensurate with that of the turbine blade length. This study is the first of its kind where actuator line and blade boundary layer resolved CFD studies of a wind turbine field campaign are performed with the motivation to validate the numerical predictions with the experimental data set, and emphasis is given on understanding the influence of the laminar to turbulent transition process on the blade loadings. The experimental and actuator line method data sets identify three important response time scales quantified at the blade location: advective passage of energy-dominant eddies (≈25 - 50 s), blade rotation (1P

  20. Implementation of the Actuator Cylinder Flow Model in the HAWC2 code for Aeroelastic Simulations on Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the implementation of the Actuator Cylinder (AC) flow model in the HAWC2 aeroelastic code originally developed for simulation of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) aeroelasticity. This is done within the DeepWind project where the main objective is to explore the competitiveness...

  1. Power flow control and damping enhancement of a large wind farm using a superconducting magnetic energy storage unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, S. S.; Wang, L.; Lee, W. J.

    2009-01-01

    A novel scheme using a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit to perform both power flow control and damping enhancement of a large wind farm (WF) feeding to a utility grid is presented. The studied WF consisting of forty 2 MW wind induction generators (IGs) is simulated...

  2. The efficiency of windbreaks on the basis of wind field and optical porosity measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Středa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Windbreaks have been used for many years to reduce wind speed as a wind-erosion control mea­su­re. To assessment of windbreak efficiency two main parameters are using: height of windbreak (H and aerodynamic porosity. In South Moravian Region the total area of windbreaks is approximately 1200 ha. For purposes of horizontal profile measurement of wind speed and wind direction windbreaks with various spices composition, age and construction in cadastral territory Suchá Loz and Micmanice were chosen. Windbreak influence on horizontal wind profile was found out in distance of 50, 100, 150 and 200 m in front and behind windbreak in two-meter height above surface. For the optical porosity measurement the ImageTool program was used. The wind field measurement results of windbreak in Suchá Loz cadastral shows limited effect of windbreak on wind speed. The windbreak is created mainly by Canadian poplars (Populus × canadensis. In dependence on main species foliage stage the effect of windbreak was obvious on leeward side to distance of 100–150 m (c. 5–7 H. Average optical porosity of windbreak in Suchá Loz was 50% (April. Reduction of average wind speed was about 17% maximally in this stage. Optical porosity was 20% and wind speed reduction was about 37% during second measurement (October. The second monitored windbreak (Micmanice had a significant influence on wind speed even to the maximal measured distance (200 m, c. 14 H. This windbreak crea­ted mainly by Acer sp. and Fraxinus excelsior reduced the wind speed about 64%. During first measurement (May the optical porosity of 20% and maximal wind speed reduction of 64% were assessed. For optical porosity of 21% (October the wind speed reduction was about 55%. Close relation between optical porosity and wind speed reduction was found out by statistical evaluation. Correlation coefficient regardless locality for distance of 50 m was −0.80, 100 m −0.92, 150 m −0.76 and for distance of 200 m

  3. Can a Wind Model Mimic a Convection-Dominated Accretion Flow Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heon-Young

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we investigate the properties of advection-dominated accretion flows(ADAFs) in case that outflows carry away infalling matter with its angular momentum and energy. Positive Bernoulli numbers in ADAFs allow a fraction of the gas to be ex-pelled in a form of outflows. The ADAFs are also unstable to convection. We present self-similar solutions for advection-dominated accretion flows in the presence of out-flows from the accretion flows (ADIOS). The axisymmetric flow is treated in variables integrated over polar sections and the effects of outflows on the accretion rlow are parameterized for possible configurations compatible with the one dimensional self-similar ADAF solution. We explicitly derive self-similar solutions of ADAFs in the presence of outflows and show that the strong outflows in the accretion flows result in a flatter density profile, which is similar to that of the convection-dominated accretion flows (CDAFs) in which convection transports the a! ngular momentum inward and the energy outward. These two different versions of the ADAF model should show similar behaviors in X-ray spectrum to some extent. Even though the two models may show similar behaviors, they should be distinguishable due to different physical properties. We suggest that for a central object of which mass is known these two different accretion flows should have different X-ray flux value due to deficient matter in the wind model.

  4. Can a Wind Model Mimic a Convection-Dominated Accretion Flow Model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heon-Young Chang

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the properties of advection-dominated accretion flows(ADAFs in case that outflows carry away infalling matter with its angular momentum and energy. Positive Bernoulli numbers in ADAFs allow a fraction of the gas to be ex-pelled in a form of outflows. The ADAFs are also unstable to convection. We present self-similar solutions for advection-dominated accretion flows in the presence of out-flows from the accretion flows (ADIOS. The axisymmetric flow is treated in variables integrated over polar sections and the effects of outflows on the accretion rlow are parameterized for possible configurations compatible with the one dimensional self-similar ADAF solution. We explicitly derive self-similar solutions of ADAFs in the presence of outflows and show that the strong outflows in the accretion flows result in a flatter density profile, which is similar to that of the convection-dominated accretion flows (CDAFs in which convection transports the a! ngular momentum inward and the energy outward. These two different versions of the ADAF model should show similar behaviors in X-ray spectrum to some extent. Even though the two models may show similar behaviors, they should be distinguishable due to different physical properties. We suggest that for a central object of which mass is known these two different accretion flows should have different X-ray flux value due to deficient matter in the wind model.

  5. Numerical simulation of flow field in the China advanced research reactor flow-guide tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Changjiang

    2002-01-01

    The flow-guide tank in China advanced research reactor (CARR) acts as a reactor inlet coolant distributor and play an important role in reducing the flow-induced vibration of the internal components of the reactor core. Numerical simulations of the flow field in the flow-guide tank under different conceptual designing configurations are carried out using the PHOENICS3.2. It is seen that the inlet coolant is well distributed circumferentially into the flow-guide tank with the inlet buffer plate and the flow distributor barrel. The maximum cross-flow velocity within the flow-guide tank is reduced significantly, and the reduction of flow-induced vibration of reactor internals is expected

  6. MMS Observations of Reconnection at Dayside Magnetopause Crossings During Transitions of the Solar Wind to Sub-Alfvenic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Lugaz, N.; Alm, L.; Vasquez, B. J.; Argall, M. R.; Kucharek, H.; Matsui, H.; Torbert, R. B.; Lavraud, B.; Le Contel, O.; Shuster, J. R.; Burch, J. L.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Giles, B. L.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Ergun, R.; Eastwood, J. P.; Cohen, I. J.; Dorelli, J.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Marklund, G. T.; Paulson, K.; Petrinec, S.; Phan, T.; Pollock, C.

    2017-12-01

    We present MMS) observations during two dayside magnetopause crossingsunder hitherto unexamined conditions: (i) when the bow shock is weakening and the solar wind transitioning to sub-Alfvenic flow, and (ii) when it is reforming. Interplanetary conditions consist of a magnetic cloud with (i) a strong B ( 20 nT) pointing south, and (ii) a density profile with episodic decreases to values of 0.3 /cc followed by moderate recovery. During the crossings he magnetosheath magnetic field is stronger than the magnetosphere field by a factor of 2.2. As a result, during the outbound crossing through the ion diffusion region, MMS observed an inversion of relative positions of the X and stagnation (S) lines from that typically the case: the S line was closer to the magnetosheath side. The S-line appears in the form of a slow expansion fan near which most of the energy dissipation is taking place. While in the magnetosphere between the crossings, MMS observed strong field and flow perturbations, which we argue to be due kinetic Alfvén waves.During the reconnection interval, whistler mode waves generated by an electron temperature anisotropy (Tperp>Tpar) were observed. Another aim of the paper isto distinguish bow shock-induced field and flow perturbations from reconnection-related signatures.The high resolution MMS data together with 2D hybrid simulations of bow shock dynamics helped us to distinguish between the two sources. We show examples of bow shock-related effects (such as heating) and reconnection effects such as accelerated flows satisfying the Walen relation.

  7. The impacts of wind power integration on sub-daily variation in river flows downstream of hydroelectric dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jordan D; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Characklis, Gregory W

    2014-08-19

    Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. However, more coordinated use of wind and hydropower resources may exacerbate the impacts dams have on downstream environmental flows, that is, the timing and magnitude of water flows needed to sustain river ecosystems. In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). Results show that the greatest potential for wind energy to impact downstream flows occurs at high (∼25%) wind market penetration, when the dam sells more reserves in order to exploit spikes in real-time electricity prices caused by negative wind forecast errors. Nonetheless, compared to the initial impacts of dam construction (and the dam's subsequent operation as a peaking resource under baseline conditions) the marginal effects of any increased wind market penetration on downstream flows are found to be relatively minor.

  8. Retrieving 3D Wind Field from Phased Array Radar Rapid Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The previous two-dimensional simple adjoint method for retrieving horizontal wind field from a time sequence of single-Doppler scans of reflectivity and/or radial velocity is further developed into a new method to retrieve both horizontal and vertical winds at high temporal and spatial resolutions. This new method performs two steps. First, the horizontal wind field is retrieved on the conical surface at each tilt (elevation angle of radar scan. Second, the vertical velocity field is retrieved in a vertical cross-section along the radar beam with the horizontal velocity given from the first step. The method is applied to phased array radar (PAR rapid scans of the storm winds and reflectivity in a strong microburst event and is shown to be able to retrieve the three-dimensional wind field around a targeted downdraft within the storm that subsequently produced a damaging microburst. The method is computationally very efficient and can be used for real-time applications with PAR rapid scans.

  9. Suspended sediment diffusion mechanisms in the Yangtze Estuary influenced by wind fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Zhou, Yunxuan; Shen, Fang

    2018-01-01

    The complexity of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) distribution and diffusion has been widely recognized because it is influenced by sediment supply and various hydrodynamic forcing conditions that vary over space and over time. Sediment suspended by waves and transported by currents are the dominant sediment transport mechanisms in estuarine and coastal areas. However, it is unclear to what extent the SSC distribution is impacted by each hydrodynamic factor. Research on the quantitative influence of wind fields on the SSC diffusion range will contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of sediment transport change and sedimentary geomorphic evolution. This study determined SSC from three Envisat Medium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer acquisitions, covering the Yangtze Estuary and adjacent water area under the same season and tidal conditions but with varying wind conditions. SSC was examined based on the Semi-Empirical Radiative Transfer model, which has been well validated with the observation data. Integrating the corresponding wind field information from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts further facilitated the discussion of wind fields affecting SSC, and in turn the influence of water and suspended sediment transportation and diffusion in the Yangtze estuarine and coastal area. The results demonstrated that the SSC present much more distinctive fluvial features in the inner estuary and wind fields are one of the major factors controlling the range of turbid water diffusion.

  10. A verification study and trend analysis of simulated boundary layer wind fields over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenberg, Janna

    2011-07-01

    Simulated wind fields from regional climate models (RCMs) are increasingly used as a surrogate for observations which are costly and prone to homogeneity deficiencies. Compounding the problem, a lack of reliable observations makes the validation of the simulated wind fields a non trivial exercise. Whilst the literature shows that RCMs tend to underestimate strong winds over land these investigations mainly relied on comparisons with near surface measurements and extrapolated model wind fields. In this study a new approach is proposed using measurements from high towers and a robust validation process. Tower height wind data are smoother and thus more representative of regional winds. As benefit this approach circumvents the need to extrapolate simulated wind fields. The performance of two models using different downscaling techniques is evaluated. The influence of the boundary conditions on the simulation of wind statistics is investigated. Both models demonstrate a reasonable performance over flat homogeneous terrain and deficiencies over complex terrain, such as the Upper Rhine Valley, due to a too coarse spatial resolution ({proportional_to}50 km). When the spatial resolution is increased to 10 and 20 km respectively a benefit is found for the simulation of the wind direction only. A sensitivity analysis shows major deviations of international land cover data. A time series analysis of dynamically downscaled simulations is conducted. While the annual cycle and the interannual variability are well simulated, the models are less effective at simulating small scale fluctuations and the diurnal cycle. The hypothesis that strong winds are underestimated by RCMs is supported by means of a storm analysis. Only two-thirds of the observed storms are simulated by the model using a spectral nudging approach. In addition ''False Alarms'' are simulated, which are not detected in the observations. A trend analysis over the period 1961 - 2000 is conducted

  11. Discharge characteristics in inhomogeneous fields under air flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Holbøll, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    the frequency and magnitude of partial discharges in the vicinity of the electrode due to an increased rate of space charge removal around the tip of the needle and in the gap. The positive polarity shows higher dependency on air flow compared to the negative polarity. It is shown that positive breakdown......This research investigates the impact of high velocity air flow on Partial Discharge (PD) patterns generated in strongly inhomogeneous fields. In the laboratory, a needle plane electrode configuration was exposed to a high electrical DC-field and a laminar air flow up to 22 ms. The needle...

  12. Polymer electrolyte fuel cells: flow field for efficient air operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechi, F N; Tsukada, A; Haas, O; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A new flow field was designed for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack with an active area of 200 cm{sup 2} for operation at low air stoichiometry and low air over pressure. Optimum of gas flow and channel dimensions were calculated based on the required pressure drop in the fluid. Single cells and a bi-cell stack with the new flow field show an improved current/voltage characteristic when operated at low air stoichiometries as compared to that of the previous non optimized design. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.

  13. Hazard Monitoring of Growing Lava Flow Fields Using Seismic Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, E. P. S.; Bean, C. J.; Jónsdottir, I.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Thordarson, T.; Coppola, D.; Witt, T.; Walter, T. R.

    2017-12-01

    An effusive eruption in 2014/15 created a 85 km2 large lava flow field in a remote location in the Icelandic highlands. The lava flows did not threaten any settlements or paved roads but they were nevertheless interdisciplinarily monitored in detail. Images from satellites and aircraft, ground based video monitoring, GPS and seismic recordings allowed the monitoring and reconstruction of a detailed time series of the growing lava flow field. While the use of satellite images and probabilistic modelling of lava flows are quite common tools to monitor the current and forecast the future growth direction, here we show that seismic recordings can be of use too. We installed a cluster of seismometers at 15 km from the vents and recorded the ground vibrations associated with the eruption. This seismic tremor was not only generated below the vents, but also at the edges of the growing lava flow field and indicated the parts of the lava flow field that were most actively growing. Whilst the time resolution is in the range of days for satellites, seismic stations easily sample continuously at 100 Hz and could therefore provide a much better resolution and estimate of the lava flow hazard in real-time.

  14. Pedestrian Flow in the Mean Field Limit

    KAUST Repository

    Haji Ali, Abdul Lateef

    2012-11-01

    We study the mean-field limit of a particle-based system modeling the behavior of many indistinguishable pedestrians as their number increases. The base model is a modified version of Helbing\\'s social force model. In the mean-field limit, the time-dependent density of two-dimensional pedestrians satisfies a four-dimensional integro-differential Fokker-Planck equation. To approximate the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation we use a time-splitting approach and solve the diffusion part using a Crank-Nicholson method. The advection part is solved using a Lax-Wendroff-Leveque method or an upwind Backward Euler method depending on the advection speed. Moreover, we use multilevel Monte Carlo to estimate observables from the particle-based system. We discuss these numerical methods, and present numerical results showing the convergence of observables that were calculated using the particle-based model as the number of pedestrians increases to those calculated using the probability density function satisfying the Fokker-Planck equation.

  15. On the stringy nature of winding modes in noncommutative thermal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Arcioni, G; Gomis, J P; Vázquez-Mozo, Miguel Angel; Gomis, Joaquim

    2000-01-01

    We show that thermal noncommutative field theories admit a version of `channel duality' reminiscent of open/closed string duality, where non-planar thermal loops can be replaced by an infinite tower of tree-level exchanges of effective fields. These effective fields resemble closed strings in three aspects: their mass spectrum is that of closed-string winding modes, their interaction vertices contain extra moduli, and they can be regarded as propagating in a higher-dimensional `bulk' space-time. In noncommutative models that can be embedded in a D-brane, we show the precise relation between the effective `winding fields' and closed strings propagating off the D-brane. The winding fields represent the coherent coupling of the infinite tower of closed-string oscillator states. We derive a sum rule that expresses this effective coupling in terms of the elementary couplings of closed strings to the D-brane. We furthermore clarify the relation between the effective propagating dimension of the winding fields and t...

  16. Hydrodynamic Simulations of the Inner Accretion Flow of Sagittarius A* Fueled By Stellar Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, S. M.; Quataert, E.; Stone, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present Athena++ grid-based, hydrodynamic simulations of accretion onto Sagittarius A* via the stellar winds of the ˜30 Wolf-Rayet stars within the central parsec of the galactic center. These simulations span ˜ 4 orders of magnitude in radius, reaching all the way down to 300 gravitational radii of the black hole, ˜32 times further in than in previous work. We reproduce reasonably well the diffuse thermal X-ray emission observed by Chandra in the central parsec. The resulting accretion flow at small radii is a superposition of two components: 1) a moderately unbound, sub-Keplerian, thick, pressure-supported disc that is at most (but not all) times aligned with the clockwise stellar disc, and 2) a bound, low-angular momentum inflow that proceeds primarily along the southern pole of the disc. We interpret this structure as a natural consequence of a few of the innermost stellar winds dominating accretion, which produces a flow with a broad distribution of angular momentum. Including the star S2 in the simulation has a negligible effect on the flow structure. Extrapolating our results from simulations with different inner radii, we find an accretion rate of ˜ a few × 10-8M⊙/yr at the horizon scale, consistent with constraints based on modeling the observed emission of Sgr A*. The flow structure found here can be used as more realistic initial conditions for horizon scale simulations of Sgr A*.

  17. Free-stream turbulence effects on the flow around an S809 wind turbine airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Nieves, Sheilla; Maldonado, Victor; Lebron, Jose [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Kang, Hyung-Suk [United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Meneveau, Charles [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Castillo, Luciano [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Two-dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (2-D PIV) measurements were performed to study the effect of free-stream turbulence on the flow around a smooth and rough surface airfoil, specifically under stall conditions. A 0.25-m chord model with an S809 profile, common for horizontal-axis wind turbine applications, was tested at a wind tunnel speed of 10 m/s, resulting in Reynolds numbers based on the chord of Re{sub c} {approx} 182,000 and turbulence intensity levels of up to 6.14%. Results indicate that when the flow is fully attached, turbulence significantly decreases aerodynamic efficiency (from L/D {approx} 4.894 to L/D {approx} 0.908). On the contrary, when the flow is mostly stalled, the effect is reversed and aerodynamic performance is slightly improved (from L/D {approx} 1.696 to L/D {approx} 1.787). Analysis of the mean flow over the suction surface shows that, contrary to what is expected, free-stream turbulence is actually advancing separation, particularly when the turbulent scales in the free-stream are of the same order as the chord. This is a result of the complex dynamics between the boundary layer scales and the free-stream turbulence length scales when relatively high levels of active-grid generated turbulence are present. (orig.)

  18. A combined aeroelastic-aeroacoustic model for wind turbine noise: Verification and analysis of field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Fischer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, semi-empirical engineering models for the three main wind turbine aerodynamic noise sources, namely, turbulent inflow, trailing edge and stall noise, are introduced. They are implemented into the in-house aeroelastic code HAWC2 commonly used for wind turbine load calculations...... and design. The results of the combined aeroelastic and aeroacoustic model are compared with field noise measurements of a 500kW wind turbine. Model and experimental data are in fairly good agreement in terms of noise levels and directivity. The combined model allows separating the various noise sources...... and highlights a number of mechanisms that are difficult to differentiate when only the overall noise from a wind turbine is measured....

  19. Resuspension of toxic aerosol using MATHEW--ADPIC wind field--transport and diffusion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porch, W.M.

    1979-01-01

    Computer codes have been written which estimate toxic aerosol resuspension based on computed deposition from a primary source, wind, and surface characteristics. The primary deposition pattern and the transport, diffusion, and redeposition of the resuspended toxic aerosol are calculated using a mass-consistent wind field model including topography (MATHEW) and a particle-in-cell diffusion and transport model (ADPIC) which were developed at LLL. The source term for resuspended toxic aerosol is determined by multiplying the total aerosol flux as a function of wind speed by the area of highest concentration and the fraction of suspended material estimated to be toxic. Preliminary calculations based on a test problem at the Nevada Test Site determined an hourly averaged maximum resuspension factor of 10 -4 for a 15 m/sec wind which is within an admittedly large range of resuspension factor measurements using experimental data

  20. Numerical simulation of interior flow field of nuclear model pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunlin; Peng Na; Kang Can; Zhao Baitong; Zhang Hao

    2009-01-01

    Reynolds time-averaged N-S equations and the standard k-ε turbulent model were adopted, and three-dimensional non-structural of tetrahedral mesh division was used for modeling. Multiple reference frame model of rotating fluid mechanical model was used, under the design condition, the three-dimensional incompressible turbulent flow of nuclear model pump was simulated, and the results preferably post the characteristics of the interior flow field. This paper first analyzes the total pressure and velocity distribution in the flow field, and then describes the interior flow field characteristics of each part such as the impeller, diffuser and spherical shell, and also discusses the reasons that cause these characteristics. The study results can be used to estimate the performance of nuclear model pump, and will provide some useful references for its hydraulic optimized design. (authors)

  1. Instabilities in the flow past localized magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, Alberto; Cuevas, Sergio; Smolentsev, Sergey

    2007-01-01

    The flow in a shallow layer of an electrically conducting fluid past a localized magnetic field is analyzed numerically. The field occupies only a small fraction of the total flow domain and resemblances the magnetic field created by a permanent magnet located close to the fluid layer. Two different physical cases are considered. In the first one, the fluid layer is free from externally injected electric currents, therefore, only induced currents are present. In the second case, an external electric current is injected to the fluid layer, transversally to the main flow direction. It is shown that the Lorentz force created by the interaction of the electric currents with the non-uniform magnetic field acts as an obstacle for the flow and creates different flow patterns similar to those observed in the flow past bluff bodies. A quasi-two-dimensional model that takes into account the existence of the bottom wall through a linear Hartmann-Rayleigh friction term is considered. When inertial and magnetic forces are strong enough, the wake formed behind the zone of high magnetic field is destabilized and a periodic vortex shedding similar to the classical von Karman street is found. The effect of Hartmann-Rayleigh friction in the emergence of the instability is analyzed

  2. Effects of wind turbines on UHF television reception: field tests in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, B.

    1992-01-01

    As a result of a planning application for a windfarm comprising 20 wind turbines at Tynewydd Farm, Gilfach Goch in Mid Glamorgan, a report discussing any detrimental effects the proposal might have on u.h.f. television reception was produced. In order to make the report as definitive as possible, it was decided to carry out field tests on the exact model of wind turbine to be used at Tynewydd. This required a field trip to Denmark, and the opportunity was taken to make measurements on two other models of turbine at the same time. This report presents the analysis of the results for all three turbines. (author)

  3. Denmarks future as leading centre of competence within the field of wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Megavind has developed the present report with the intention of assessing the challenges involved, if Denmark is to maintain its position as an internationally leading centre of competence within the field of wind power. Furthermore, with the report, the partnership Megavind also wishes to point out specific initiatives within testing, demonstration, innovation and research as well as presenting recommendations for a strengthened effort within education that can take part in developing Denmark as an internationally leading centre of competence within the field of wind power. (au)

  4. MHD shear flows with non-constant transverse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Núñez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Viscous conducting flows parallel to a fixed plate are studied. In contrast with the Hartmann setting, the problem is not linearized near a fixed transverse magnetic field, although the field tends to be transversal far from the wall. While general solutions may be formally obtained for all cases, their behavior is far more clear when the magnetic Prandtl number equals one. We consider two different instances: a fixed magnetic field at the wall, or an insulating sheet. The evolution of the flow and the magnetic field both near the plate and far from it are detailed, analyzing the possibility of reverse flow and instability of the solutions. -- Highlights: ► A conducting shear flow does not leave a transverse magnetic field invariant. ► Solutions are found for all cases, but these are more useful when kinetic and magnetic diffusivities coincide. ► Dirichlet and Neumann conditions on the magnetic field are studied. ► Reverse flow, and eventual instability, are possible.

  5. Magnetic field correlations in random flow with strong steady shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolokolov, I. V.; Lebedev, V. V.; Sizov, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the magnetic kinematic dynamo in a conducting fluid where a stationary shear flow is accompanied by relatively weak random velocity fluctuations. The diffusionless and diffusion regimes are described. The growth rates of the magnetic field moments are related to the statistical characteristics of the flow describing divergence of the Lagrangian trajectories. The magnetic field correlation functions are examined, and their growth rates and scaling behavior are established. General assertions are illustrated by the explicit solution of a model where the velocity field is short-correlated in time.

  6. Numerical analysis of flow fields generated by accelerating flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurylo, J.

    1977-12-01

    Presented here is a numerical technique for the analysis of non-steady flow fields generated by accelerating flames in gaseous media. Of particular interest in the study is the evaluation of the non-steady effects on the flow field and the possible transition of the combustion process to detonation caused by an abrupt change in the burning speed of an initially steady flame propagating in an unconfined combustible gas mixture. Optically recorded observations of accelerating flames established that the flow field can be considered to consist of non-steady flow fields associated with an assembly of interacting shock waves, contact discontinuities, deflagration and detonation fronts. In the analysis, these flow fields are treated as spatially one-dimensional, the influence of transport phenomena is considered to be negligible, and unburned and burned substances are assumed to behave as perfect gases with constant, but different, specific heats. The basis of the numerical technique is an explicit, two step, second order accurate, finite difference scheme employed to integrate the flow field equations expressed in divergence form. The burning speed, governing the motion of the deflagration, is expressed in the form of a power law dependence on pressure and temperature immediately ahead of its front. The steady wave solution is obtained by the vector polar interaction technique, that is, by determining the point of intersection between the loci of end states in the plane of the two interaction invariants, pressure and particle velocity. The technique is illustrated by a numerical example in which a steady flame experiences an abrupt change in its burning speed. Solutions correspond either to the eventual reestablishment of a steady state flow field commensurate with the burning speed or to the transition to detonation. The results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental observations.

  7. Upper Meter Processes: Short Wind Waves, Surface Flow, and Micro-Turbulence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaehne, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to advance the knowledge of small-scale air-sea interaction processes at the ocean surface, focussing on the dynamics of short waves, the surface flow field and the micro-turbulence...

  8. CFD Numerical Simulation of the Complex Turbulent Flow Field in an Axial-Flow Water Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-You Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Further optimal design of an axial-flow water pump calls for a thorough recognition of the characteristics of the complex turbulent flow field in the pump, which is however extremely difficult to be measured using the up-to-date experimental techniques. In this study, a numerical simulation procedure based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD was elaborated in order to obtain the fully three-dimensional unsteady turbulent flow field in an axial-flow water pump. The shear stress transport (SST k-ω model was employed in the CFD calculation to study the unsteady internal flow of the axial-flow pump. Upon the numerical simulation results, the characteristics of the velocity field and pressure field inside the impeller region were discussed in detail. The established model procedure in this study may provide guidance to the numerical simulations of turbomachines during the design phase or the investigation of flow and pressure field characteristics and performance. The presented information can be of reference value in further optimal design of the axial-flow pump.

  9. Analysis of a solar collector field water flow network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, J. E.; Knoll, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    A number of methods are presented for minimizing the water flow variation in the solar collector field for the Solar Building Test Facility at the Langley Research Center. The solar collector field investigated consisted of collector panels connected in parallel between inlet and exit collector manifolds to form 12 rows. The rows were in turn connected in parallel between the main inlet and exit field manifolds to complete the field. The various solutions considered included various size manifolds, manifold area change, different locations for the inlets and exits to the manifolds, and orifices or flow control valves. Calculations showed that flow variations of less than 5 percent were obtainable both inside a row between solar collector panels and between various rows.

  10. Wind-induced transmission tower foundation loads. A field study-design code comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savory, E. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont. (Canada); Parke, G.A.R.; Disney, P.; Toy, N. [School of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    This paper presents a comparison between the wind-induced foundation loads measured on a type L6 transmission line tower during a field study in the UK and those computed using the UK Code of Practice for lattice tower and transmission line design (BS8100). In this work, the Code provisions have been generalised to give the wind-induced strain in each of the tower legs immediately above the foundation as a function of wind direction and wind speed at the top of the tower. The complete data set from the field monitoring has been decomposed to provide a similar formulation for comparison purposes. The analysis shows excellent agreement between the Code calculations and the measured results, within the overall accuracy of the field data. This indicates that, at least for the tower type examined here, the existing design Code provides a reliable transformation of the local wind speed at the top of the tower into tension and compression loads on the foundations. (author)

  11. Flow Driven by an Archimedean Helical Permanent Magnetic Field. Part I: Flow Patterns and Their Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Xiaodong; Etay, Jacqueline; Na, Xianzhao; Zhang, Xinde; Fautrelle, Yves

    2016-04-01

    In this study, an Archimedean helical permanent magnetic field was constructed and its driving effects on liquid metal were examined. A magnetic stirrer was constructed using a series of arc-like magnets. The helical distribution of its magnetic field, which was confirmed via Gauss probe measurements and numerical simulations, can be considered a combination of rotating and traveling magnetic fields. The characteristics of the flow patterns, particularly the transitions between the meridian secondary flow (two vortices) and the global axial flow (one vortex), driven by this magnetic field were quantitatively measured using ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry. The transient and modulated flow behaviors will be presented in a companion article. The D/ H dimension ratio was used to characterize the transitions of these two flow patterns. The results demonstrated that the flow patterns depend on not only the intrinsic structure of the magnetic field, e.g., the helix lead angle, but also the performance parameters, e.g., the dimensional ratio of the liquid bulk. The notable opposing roles of these two flow patterns in the improvement of macrosegregations when imposing such magnetic fields near the solidifying front were qualitatively addressed.

  12. Solution of wind integrated thermal generation system for environmental optimal power flow using hybrid algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish Panda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new evolutionary hybrid algorithm (HA has been proposed in this work for environmental optimal power flow (EOPF problem. The EOPF problem has been formulated in a nonlinear constrained multi objective optimization framework. Considering the intermittency of available wind power a cost model of the wind and thermal generation system is developed. Suitably formed objective function considering the operational cost, cost of emission, real power loss and cost of installation of FACTS devices for maintaining a stable voltage in the system has been optimized with HA and compared with particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSOA to prove its effectiveness. All the simulations are carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment taking IEEE30 bus as the test system.

  13. Laboratory observation of magnetic field growth driven by shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intrator, T. P., E-mail: intrator@lanl.gov; Feng, Y.; Sears, J.; Weber, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M.S. E526, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Dorf, L. [Applied Materials, Inc., Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Sun, X. [University of Science and Technology, Hefei (China)

    2014-04-15

    Two magnetic flux ropes that collide and bounce have been characterized in the laboratory. We find screw pinch profiles that include ion flow v{sub i}, magnetic field B, current density J, and plasma pressure. The electron flow v{sub e} can be inferred, allowing the evaluation of the Hall J×B term in a two fluid magnetohydrodynamic Ohm's Law. Flux ropes that are initially cylindrical are mutually attracted and compress each other, which distorts the cylindrical symmetry. Magnetic field is created via the ∇×v{sub e}×B induction term in Ohm's Law where in-plane (perpendicular) shear of parallel flow (along the flux rope) is the dominant feature, along with some dissipation and magnetic reconnection. We predict and measure the growth of a quadrupole out-of-plane magnetic field δB{sub z}. This is a simple and coherent example of a shear flow driven dynamo. There is some similarity with two dimensional reconnection scenarios, which induce a current sheet and thus out-of-plane flow in the third dimension, despite the customary picture that considers flows only in the reconnection plane. These data illustrate a general and deterministic mechanism for large scale sheared flows to acquire smaller scale magnetic features, disordered structure, and possibly turbulence.

  14. Microrelief-Controlled Overland Flow Generation: Laboratory and Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface microrelief affects overland flow generation and the related hydrologic processes. However, such influences vary depending on other factors such as rainfall characteristics, soil properties, and initial soil moisture conditions. Thus, in-depth research is needed to better understand and evaluate the combined effects of these factors on overland flow dynamics. The objective of this experimental study was to examine how surface microrelief, in conjunction with the factors of rainfall, soil, and initial moisture conditions, impacts overland flow generation and runoff processes in both laboratory and field settings. A series of overland flow experiments were conducted for rough and smooth surfaces that represented distinct microtopographic characteristics and the experimental data were analyzed and compared. Across different soil types and initial moisture conditions, both laboratory and field experiments demonstrated that a rough soil surface experienced a delayed initiation of runoff and featured a stepwise threshold flow pattern due to the microrelief-controlled puddle filling-spilling-merging dynamics. It was found from the field experiments that a smooth plot surface was more responsive to rainfall variations especially during an initial rainfall event. However, enhanced capability of overland flow generation and faster puddle connectivity of a rough field plot occurred during the subsequent rain events.

  15. Internal Flow of a High Specific-Speed Diagonal-Flow Fan (Rotor Outlet Flow Fields with Rotating Stall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Shiomi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We carried out investigations for the purpose of clarifying the rotor outlet flow fields with rotating stall cell in a diagonal-flow fan. The test fan was a high–specific-speed (ns=1620 type of diagonal-flow fan that had 6 rotor blades and 11 stator blades. It has been shown that the number of the stall cell is 1, and its propagating speed is approximately 80% of its rotor speed, although little has been known about the behavior of the stall cell because a flow field with a rotating stall cell is essentially unsteady. In order to capture the behavior of the stall cell at the rotor outlet flow fields, hot-wire surveys were performed using a single-slant hotwire probe. The data obtained by these surveys were processed by means of a double phase-locked averaging technique, which enabled us to capture the flow field with the rotating stall cell in the reference coordinate system fixed to the rotor. As a result, time-dependent ensemble averages of the three-dimensional velocity components at the rotor outlet flow fields were obtained. The behavior of the stall cell was shown for each velocity component, and the flow patterns on the meridional planes were illustrated.

  16. Reducing Turbine Mechanical Loads Using Flow Model-Based Wind Farm Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazda, Jonas; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    Cumulated O&M costs of offshore wind farms are comparable with wind turbine CAPEX of such wind farm. In wind farms, wake effects can result in up to 80% higher fatigue loads at downstream wind turbines [1] and consequently larger O&M costs. The present work therefore investigates to reduce...... these loads during the provision of grid balancing services using optimal model-based wind farm control. Wind farm controllers coordinate the operating point of wind turbines in a wind farm in order to achieve a given objective. The investigated objective of the control in this work is to follow a total wind...... farm power reference while reducing the tower bending moments of the turbines in the wind farm. The wind farm controller is tested on a 8 turbine array, which is representative of a typical offshore wind farm. The operation of the wind farm is simulated using the dynamic wind farm simulation tool S imWind...

  17. Wide Field-of-View Soft X-Ray Imaging for Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B. M.; Collier, M. R.; Kuntz, K. D.; Porter, F. S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Snowden, S. L.; Carter, J. A.; Collado-Vega, Y.; Connor, H. K.; Cravens, T. E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Soft X-ray imagers can be used to study the mesoscale and macroscale density structures that occur whenever and wherever the solar wind encounters neutral atoms at comets, the Moon, and both magnetized and unmagnetized planets. Charge exchange between high charge state solar wind ions and exospheric neutrals results in the isotropic emission of soft X-ray photons with energies from 0.1 to 2.0 keV. At Earth, this process occurs primarily within the magnetosheath and cusps. Through providing a global view, wide field-of-view imaging can determine the significance of the various proposed solar wind-magnetosphere interaction mechanisms by evaluating their global extent and occurrence patterns. A summary of wide field-of-view (several to tens of degrees) soft X-ray imaging is provided including slumped micropore microchannel reflectors, simulated images, and recent flight results.

  18. Fermi bubbles inflated by winds launched from the hot accretion flow in Sgr A*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou, Guobin; Yuan, Feng; Bu, Defu; Sun, Mouyuan; Su, Meng

    2014-01-01

    A pair of giant gamma-ray Bubbles has been revealed by Fermi-LAT. In this paper we investigate their formation mechanism. Observations have indicated that the activity of the supermassive black hole located at the Galactic center, Sgr A*, was much stronger than at the present time. Specifically, one possibility is that while Sgr A* was also in the hot accretion regime, the accretion rate should be 10 3 -10 4 times higher during the past ∼10 7 yr. On the other hand, recent magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of hot accretion flows have unambiguously shown the existence and obtained the properties of strong winds. Based on this knowledge, by performing three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, we show in this paper that the Fermi Bubbles could be inflated by winds launched from the 'past' hot accretion flow in Sgr A*. In our model, the active phase of Sgr A* is required to last for about 10 million years and it was quenched no more than 0.2 million years ago. The central molecular zone (CMZ) is included and it collimates the wind orientation toward the Galactic poles. Viscosity suppresses the Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and results in the smoothness of the Bubbles edge. The main observational features of the Bubbles can be well explained. Specifically, the ROSAT X-ray features are interpreted by the shocked interstellar medium and the interaction region between the wind and CMZ gas. The thermal pressure and temperature obtained in our model are consistent with recent Suzaku observations.

  19. The Floor in the Solar Wind Magnetic Field Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    index of geomagnetic activity (Svalgaard and Cliver, 2005). This empir- ical/historical evidence for a lower limit or floor in B was substantiated by...with the model of Fisk and Schwadron (2001) for the reversal of the polar magnetic fields at solar maximum. The Fisk and Schwadron model, based on the...interdiurnal variability [IDV] index of geomagnetic activity (Svalgaard and Cliver, 2005, 2010). DM, for minima preceding cycles 22 – 24, is the absolute

  20. Pitot-pressure distributions of the flow field of a delta-wing orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Pitot pressure distributions of the flow field of a 0.0075-scale model of a typical delta wing shuttle orbiter are presented. Results are given for the windward and leeward sides on centerline in the angle-of-attack plane from wind tunnel tests conducted in air. Distributions are shown for three axial stations X/L = .35, .60, and .98 and for angles of attack from 0 to 60 deg. The tests were made at a Mach number of 7.4 and for Reynolds numbers based on body length from 1,500,000 to 9,000,000. The windward distributions at the two survey stations forward of the body boat tail demonstrate the compressive aspects of the flow from the shock wave to the body. Conversely, the distributions at the aft station display an expansion of the flow that is attributed to body boat tail. On the lee side, results are given at low angles of attack that illustrate the complicating aspects of the canopy on the flow field, while results are given to show the effects of flow separation at high angles of attack.

  1. On Variable Reverse Power Flow-Part I: Active-Reactive Optimal Power Flow with Reactive Power of Wind Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aouss Gabash

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that using battery storage systems (BSSs to provide reactive power provision in a medium-voltage (MV active distribution network (ADN with embedded wind stations (WSs can lead to a huge amount of reverse power to an upstream transmission network (TN. However, unity power factors (PFs of WSs were assumed in those studies to analyze the potential of BSSs. Therefore, in this paper (Part-I, we aim to further explore the pure reactive power potential of WSs (i.e., without BSSs by investigating the issue of variable reverse power flow under different limits on PFs in an electricity market model. The main contributions of this work are summarized as follows: (1 Introducing the reactive power capability of WSs in the optimization model of the active-reactive optimal power flow (A-R-OPF and highlighting the benefits/impacts under different limits on PFs. (2 Investigating the impacts of different agreements for variable reverse power flow on the operation of an ADN under different demand scenarios. (3 Derivation of the function of reactive energy losses in the grid with an equivalent-π circuit and comparing its value with active energy losses. (4 Balancing the energy curtailment of wind generation, active-reactive energy losses in the grid and active-reactive energy import-export by a meter-based method. In Part-II, the potential of the developed model is studied through analyzing an electricity market model and a 41-bus network with different locations of WSs.

  2. Conceptual design of an airborne laser Doppler velocimeter system for studying wind fields associated with severe local storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, J. A. L.; Davies, A. R.; Sulzmann, K. G. P.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne laser Doppler velocimeter was evaluated for diagnostics of the wind field associated with an isolated severe thunderstorm. Two scanning configurations were identified, one a long-range (out to 10-20 km) roughly horizontal plane mode intended to allow probing of the velocity field around the storm at the higher altitudes (4-10 km). The other is a shorter range (out to 1-3 km) mode in which a vertical or horizontal plane is scanned for velocity (and possibly turbulence), and is intended for diagnostics of the lower altitude region below the storm and in the out-flow region. It was concluded that aircraft flight velocities are high enough and severe storm lifetimes are long enough that a single airborne Doppler system, operating at a range of less than about 20 km, can view the storm area from two or more different aspects before the storm characteristics change appreciably.

  3. IEA-Task 31 WAKEBENCH: Towards a protocol for wind farm flow model evaluation. Part 1: Flow-over-terrain models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Javier Sanz; Gancarski, Pawel; Arroyo, Roberto Chavez

    2014-01-01

    The IEA Task 31 Wakebench is setting up a framework for the evaluation of wind farm flow models operating at microscale level. The framework consists on a model evaluation protocol integrated on a web-based portal for model benchmarking (www.windbench.net). This paper provides an overview...... of the building-block validation approach applied to flow-over-terrain models, including best practices for the benchmarking and data processing procedures for the analysis and qualification of validation datasets from wind resource assessment campaigns. A hierarchy of test cases has been proposed for flow...

  4. Field-effect Flow Control in Polymer Microchannel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniadecki, Nathan; Lee, Cheng S.; Beamesderfer, Mike; DeVoe, Don L.

    2003-01-01

    A new Bio-MEMS electroosmotic flow (EOF) modulator for plastic microchannel networks has been developed. The EOF modulator uses field-effect flow control (FEFC) to adjust the zeta potential at the Parylene C microchannel wall. By setting a differential EOF pumping rate in two of the three microchannels at a T-intersection with EOF modulators, the induced pressure at the intersection generated pumping in the third, field-free microchannel. The EOF modulators are able to change the magnitude and direction of the pressure pumping by inducing either a negative or positive pressure at the intersection. The flow velocity is tracked by neutralized fluorescent microbeads in the microchannels. The proof-of-concept of the EOF modulator described here may be applied to complex plastic ,microchannel networks where individual microchannel flow rates are addressable by localized induced-pressure pumping.

  5. Different elution modes and field programming in gravitational field-flow fractionation. III. Field programming by flow-rate gradient generated by a programmable pump

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plocková, Jana; Chmelík, Josef

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 918, č. 2 (2001), s. 361-370 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031805 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : field-flow fractionation * field programming * flow-rate gradients Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2001

  6. An optimization of a GPU-based parallel wind field module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, André L.S.; Shirru, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric radionuclide dispersion systems (ARDS) are important tools to predict the impact of radioactive releases from Nuclear Power Plants and guide people evacuation from affected areas. Four modules comprise ARDS: Source Term, Wind Field, Plume Dispersion and Doses Calculations. The slowest is the Wind Field Module that was previously parallelized using the CUDA C language. The statement purpose of this work is to show the speedup gain with the optimization of the already parallel code of the GPU-based Wind Field module, based in WEST model (Extrapolated from Stability and Terrain). Due to the parallelization done in the wind field module, it was observed that some CUDA processors became idle, thus contributing to a reduction in speedup. It was proposed in this work a way of allocating these idle CUDA processors in order to increase the speedup. An acceleration of about 4 times can be seen in the comparative case study between the regular CUDA code and the optimized CUDA code. These results are quite motivating and point out that even after a parallelization of code, a parallel code optimization should be taken into account. (author)

  7. An optimization of a GPU-based parallel wind field module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, André L.S.; Shirru, Roberto [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Pereira, Cláudio M.N.A., E-mail: apinheiro99@gmail.com, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Atmospheric radionuclide dispersion systems (ARDS) are important tools to predict the impact of radioactive releases from Nuclear Power Plants and guide people evacuation from affected areas. Four modules comprise ARDS: Source Term, Wind Field, Plume Dispersion and Doses Calculations. The slowest is the Wind Field Module that was previously parallelized using the CUDA C language. The statement purpose of this work is to show the speedup gain with the optimization of the already parallel code of the GPU-based Wind Field module, based in WEST model (Extrapolated from Stability and Terrain). Due to the parallelization done in the wind field module, it was observed that some CUDA processors became idle, thus contributing to a reduction in speedup. It was proposed in this work a way of allocating these idle CUDA processors in order to increase the speedup. An acceleration of about 4 times can be seen in the comparative case study between the regular CUDA code and the optimized CUDA code. These results are quite motivating and point out that even after a parallelization of code, a parallel code optimization should be taken into account. (author)

  8. Propulsion efficiency and imposed flow fields of a copepod jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Houshuo; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    Pelagic copepods jump to relocate, to attack prey and to escape predators. However, there is a price to be paid for these jumps in terms of their energy costs and the hydrodynamic signals they generate to rheotactic predators. Using observed kinematics of various types of jumps, we computed the imposed flow fields and associated energetics of jumps by means of computational fluid dynamics simulations by modeling the copepod as a self-propelled body. The computational fluid dynamics simulation was validated by particle image velocimetry data. The flow field generated by a repositioning jump quickly evolves into two counter-rotating viscous vortex rings that are near mirror image of one another, one in the wake and one around the body of the copepod; this near symmetrical flow may provide hydrodynamic camouflage because it contains no information about the position of the copepod prey within the flow structure. The flow field associated with an escape jump sequence also includes two dominant vortex structures: one leading wake vortex generated as a result of the first jump and one around the body, but between these two vortex structures is an elongated, long-lasting flow trail with flow velocity vectors pointing towards the copepod; such a flow field may inform the predator of the whereabouts of the escaping copepod prey. High Froude propulsion efficiency (0.94-0.98) was obtained for individual power stroke durations of all simulated jumps. This is unusual for small aquatic organisms but is caused by the rapidity and impulsiveness of the jump that allows only a low-cost viscous wake vortex to travel backwards.

  9. Gap Flows through Idealized Topography. Part I: Forcing by Large-Scale Winds in the Nonrotating Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabersek, Sasa.; Durran, Dale R.

    2004-12-01

    Gap winds produced by a uniform airstream flowing over an isolated flat-top ridge cut by a straight narrow gap are investigated by numerical simulation. On the scale of the entire barrier, the proportion of the oncoming flow that passes through the gap is relatively independent of the nondimensional mountain height , even over that range of for which there is the previously documented transition from a “flow over the ridge” regime to a “flow around” regime.The kinematics and dynamics of the gap flow itself were investigated by examining mass and momentum budgets for control volumes at the entrance, central, and exit regions of the gap. These analyses suggest three basic behaviors: the linear regime (small ) in which there is essentially no enhancement of the gap flow; the mountain wave regime ( 1.5) in which vertical mass and momentum fluxes play a crucial role in creating very strong winds near the exit of the gap; and the upstream-blocking regime ( 5) in which lateral convergence generates the strongest winds near the entrance of the gap.Trajectory analysis of the flow in the strongest events, the mountain wave events, confirms the importance of net subsidence in creating high wind speeds. Neglect of vertical motion in applications of Bernoulli's equation to gap flows is shown to lead to unreasonable wind speed predictions whenever the temperature at the gap exit exceeds that at the gap entrance. The distribution of the Bernoulli function on an isentropic surface shows a correspondence between regions of high Bernoulli function and high wind speeds in the gap-exit jet similar to that previously documented for shallow-water flow.

  10. Variation of Magnetic Field (By , Bz) Polarity and Statistical Analysis of Solar Wind Parameters during the Magnetic Storm Period

    OpenAIRE

    Ga-Hee Moon

    2011-01-01

    It is generally believed that the occurrence of a magnetic storm depends upon the solar wind conditions, particularly the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) component. To understand the relationship between solar wind parameters and magnetic storms, variations in magnetic field polarity and solar wind parameters during magnetic storms are examined. A total of 156 storms during the period of 1997~2003 are used. According to the interplanetary driver, magnetic storms are ...

  11. Flow and turbulence control in a boundary layer wind tunnel using passive hardware devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Ribičić, Mihael; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Plut, Mihael; Trush, Arsenii; Kozmar, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2017), s. 643-661 ISSN 0732-8818 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12892S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : turbulent flow * atmospheric boundary layer * wind-tunnel simulation * castellated barrier wall * Counihan vortex generators * surface roughness elements * hot-wire measurements Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Construction engineering, Municipal and structural engineering Impact factor: 0.932, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40799-017-0196-z

  12. Flow field measurements in the cell culture unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephen; Wilder, Mike; Dimanlig, Arsenio; Jagger, Justin; Searby, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    The cell culture unit (CCU) is being designed to support cell growth for long-duration life science experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The CCU is a perfused loop system that provides a fluid environment for controlled cell growth experiments within cell specimen chambers (CSCs), and is intended to accommodate diverse cell specimen types. Many of the functional requirements depend on the fluid flow field within the CSC (e.g., feeding and gas management). A design goal of the CCU is to match, within experimental limits, all environmental conditions, other than the effects of gravity on the cells, whether the hardware is in microgravity ( micro g), normal Earth gravity, or up to 2g on the ISS centrifuge. In order to achieve this goal, two steps are being taken. The first step is to characterize the environmental conditions of current 1g cell biology experiments being performed in laboratories using ground-based hardware. The second step is to ensure that the design of the CCU allows the fluid flow conditions found in 1g to be replicated from microgravity up to 2g. The techniques that are being used to take these steps include flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow visualization using the injection of dye has been used to gain a global perspective of the characteristics of the CSC flow field. To characterize laboratory cell culture conditions, PIV is being used to determine the flow field parameters of cell suspension cultures grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on orbital shakers. These measured parameters will be compared to PIV measurements in the CSCs to ensure that the flow field that cells encounter in CSCs is within the bounds determined for typical laboratory experiments. Using CFD, a detailed simulation is being developed to predict the flow field within the CSC for a wide variety of flow conditions, including microgravity environments. Results from all these measurements and analyses of the

  13. Procedures for Computing Transonic Flows for Control of Adaptive Wind Tunnels. Ph.D. Thesis - Technische Univ., Berlin, Mar. 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebstock, Rainer

    1987-01-01

    Numerical methods are developed for control of three dimensional adaptive test sections. The physical properties of the design problem occurring in the external field computation are analyzed, and a design procedure suited for solution of the problem is worked out. To do this, the desired wall shape is determined by stepwise modification of an initial contour. The necessary changes in geometry are determined with the aid of a panel procedure, or, with incident flow near the sonic range, with a transonic small perturbation (TSP) procedure. The designed wall shape, together with the wall deflections set during the tunnel run, are the input to a newly derived one-step formula which immediately yields the adapted wall contour. This is particularly important since the classical iterative adaptation scheme is shown to converge poorly for 3D flows. Experimental results obtained in the adaptive test section with eight flexible walls are presented to demonstrate the potential of the procedure. Finally, a method is described to minimize wall interference in 3D flows by adapting only the top and bottom wind tunnel walls.

  14. Field evaluation of remote wind sensing technologies: Shore-based and buoy mounted LIDAR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrington, Thomas [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    2017-11-03

    the evaluation of LIDAR-based wind measurement systems to validate the accuracy of remotely measured wind data in marine applications. Specifically, the test-bed will be utilized to systematically evaluate the capability of emerging scanning LIDAR and buoy mounted vertically profiling LIDAR by: (1) Evaluating a fixed scanning LIDAR against land-based 50 and 60 meter high meteorological masts fitted with research quality cup-vane and/or sonic anemometers; (2) Evaluating a buoy mounted vertically profiling LIDAR fixed on land and floating in a sheltered bay against a co-located 60 meter high meteorological mast fitted with a research quality cup-vane and/or sonic anemometers and the fixed scanning LIDAR; and (3) Offshore field evaluation of both LIDAR platforms through a comparison of the fixed scanning LIDAR data and data obtained by the buoy mounted LIDAR located 10 miles offshore. The proposed research will systematically validate Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) based wind measurement systems and assess the temporal and spatial variability of the offshore wind resource in the Mid-Atlantic east of New Jersey. The goal of the proposed project is to address the technical and commercial challenges of the offshore wind energy industry by validating and assessing cost-effective, over ocean wind resource characterization technologies. The objective is to systematically evaluate the capability of both scanning and vertically profiling LIDARs to accurately measure 3D wind fields through comparison with fixed met masts and intercomparison among LIDAR platforms. Once validated, data collected by both buoy mounted vertically profiling LIDARs and shore-based, pulsed horizontally scanning LIDARs can be used to accurately assess offshore wind resources and to quantify the spatial and temporal variability in the offshore wind fields. One of the fundamental research questions to be addressed in phase 1 is the assessment of various measurement and data processing schemes to

  15. Computational study: The influence of omni-directional guide vane on the flow pattern characteristic around Savonius wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, Yoga Arob; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.

    2017-01-01

    Standart Savonius wind turbine have a low performance such as low coefficient of power and low coefficient of torque compared with another type of wind turbine. This phenomenon occurs because the wind stream can cause the negative pressure at the returning rotor. To solve this problem, standard Savonius combined with Omni Directional Guide Vane (ODGV) proposed. The aim of this research is to study the influence of ODGV on the flow pattern characteristic around of Savonius wind turbine. The numerical model is based on the Navier-Stokes equations with the standard k-ɛ turbulent model. This equation solved by a finite volume discretization method. This case was analyzed by commercial computational fluid dynamics solver such as SolidWorks Flow Simulations. Simulations were performed at the different wind directions; there are 0°, 30°,60° at 4 m/s wind speed. The numerical method validated with the past experimental data. The result indicated that the ODGV able to augment air flow to advancing rotor and decrease the negative pressure in the upstream of returning rotor compared to the bare Savonius wind turbine.

  16. Modeling and simulation of flow field in giant magnetostrictive pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yapeng; Ren, Shiyong; Lu, Quanguo

    2017-09-01

    Recent years, there has been significant research in the design and analysis of giant magnetostrictive pump. In this paper, the flow field model of giant magnetostrictive pump was established and the relationship between pressure loss and working frequency of piston was studied by numerical simulation method. Then, the influence of different pump chamber height on pressure loss in giant magnetostrictive pump was studied by means of flow field simulation. Finally, the fluid pressure and velocity vector distribution in giant magnetostrictive pump chamber were simulated.

  17. Complex analysis with applications to flows and fields

    CERN Document Server

    Braga da Costa Campos, Luis Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Complex Analysis with Applications to Flows and Fields presents the theory of functions of a complex variable, from the complex plane to the calculus of residues to power series to conformal mapping. The book explores numerous physical and engineering applications concerning potential flows, the gravity field, electro- and magnetostatics, steady heat conduction, and other problems. It provides the mathematical results to sufficiently justify the solution of these problems, eliminating the need to consult external references.The book is conveniently divided into four parts. In each part, the ma

  18. Field and numerical study of wind and surface waves at short fetches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydakov, Georgy; Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Sergeev, Daniil; Papko, Vladislav; Kandaurov, Alexander; Vdovin, Maxim; Troitskaya, Yuliya

    2016-04-01

    Measurements were carried out in 2012-2015 from May to October in the waters of Gorky Reservoir belonging to the Volga Cascade. The methods of the experiment focus on the study of airflow in the close proximity to the water surface. The sensors were positioned at the oceanographic Froude buoy including five two-component ultrasonic sensors WindSonic by Gill Instruments at different levels (0.1, 0.85, 1.3, 2.27, 5.26 meters above the mean water surface level), one water and three air temperature sensors, and three-channel wire wave gauge. One of wind sensors (0.1 m) was located on the float tracking the waveform for measuring the wind speed in the close proximity to the water surface. Basic parameters of the atmospheric boundary layer (the friction velocity u∗, the wind speed U10 and the drag coefficient CD) were calculated from the measured profiles of wind speed. Parameters were obtained in the range of wind speeds of 1-12 m/s. For wind speeds stronger than 4 m/s CD values were lower than those obtained before (see eg. [1,2]) and those predicted by the bulk parameterization. However, for weak winds (less than 3 m/s) CD values considerably higher than expected ones. The new parameterization of surface drag coefficient was proposed on the basis of the obtained data. The suggested parameterization of drag coefficient CD(U10) was implemented within wind input source terms in WAVEWATCH III [3]. The results of the numerical experiments were compared with the results obtained in the field experiments on the Gorky Reservoir. The use of the new drag coefficient improves the agreement in significant wave heights HS [4]. At the same time, the predicted mean wave periods are overestimated using both built-in source terms and adjusted source terms. We associate it with the necessity of the adjusting of the DIA nonlinearity model in WAVEWATCH III to the conditions of the middle-sized reservoir. Test experiments on the adjusting were carried out. The work was supported by the

  19. Validating the WRF-Chem model for wind energy applications using High Resolution Doppler Lidar data from a Utah 2012 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M. J.; Pichugina, Y. L.; Banta, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Models are important tools for assessing potential of wind energy sites, but the accuracy of these projections has not been properly validated. In this study, High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL) data obtained with high temporal and spatial resolution at heights of modern turbine rotors were compared to output from the WRF-chem model in order to help improve the performance of the model in producing accurate wind forecasts for the industry. HRDL data were collected from January 23-March 1, 2012 during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) field campaign. A model validation method was based on the qualitative comparison of the wind field images, time-series analysis and statistical analysis of the observed and modeled wind speed and direction, both for case studies and for the whole experiment. To compare the WRF-chem model output to the HRDL observations, the model heights and forecast times were interpolated to match the observed times and heights. Then, time-height cross-sections of the HRDL and WRF-Chem wind speed and directions were plotted to select case studies. Cross-sections of the differences between the observed and forecasted wind speed and directions were also plotted to visually analyze the model performance in different wind flow conditions. A statistical analysis includes the calculation of vertical profiles and time series of bias, correlation coefficient, root mean squared error, and coefficient of determination between two datasets. The results from this analysis reveals where and when the model typically struggles in forecasting winds at heights of modern turbine rotors so that in the future the model can be improved for the industry.

  20. Possibilities of Utilization the Risk – Based Techniques in the Field of Offshore Wind Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the risk-based concept that may be applicable to offshore wind power plants has been presented. The aim of the concept is to aid designers in the early design and retrofit phases of the project in case of lack or insufficient information in relevant international standards. Moreover the initial classification of components within main system parts of offshore wind power plant has been performed. Such classification is essential in order to apply risk-based concept. However further scientific researches need to be performed in that field to develop detailed concept useful for future practical applications.

  1. Stand-alone excitation synchronous wind power generators with power flow management strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzuen-Lih Chern

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a stand-alone excitation synchronous wind power generator (SESWPG with power flow management strategy (PFMS. The rotor speed of the excitation synchronous generator tracks the utility grid frequency by using servo motor tracking technologies. The automatic voltage regulator governs the exciting current of generator to achieve the control goals of stable voltage. When wind power is less than the needs of the consumptive loading, the proposed PFMS increases motor torque to provide a positive power output for the loads, while keeping the generator speed constant. Conversely, during the periods of wind power greater than output loads, the redundant power of generator production is charged to the battery pack and the motor speed remains constant with very low power consumption. The advantage of the proposed SESWPG is that the generator can directly output stable alternating current (AC electricity without using additional DC–AC converters. The operation principles with software simulation for the system are described in detail. Experimental results of a laboratory prototype are shown to verify the feasibility of the system.

  2. Measurement of flow field in the pebble bed type high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sa Ya; Lee, Jae Young

    2008-01-01

    In this study, flow field measurement of the Pebble Bed Reactor(PBR) for the High Temperature Gascooled Reactor(HTGR) was performed. Large number of pebbles in the core of PBR provides complicated flow channel. Due to the complicated geometries, numerical analysis has been intensively made rather than experimental observation. However, the justification of computational simulation by the experimental study is crucial to develop solid analysis of design method. In the present study, a wind tunnel installed with pebbles stacked was constructed and equipped with the Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV). We designed the system scaled up to realize the room temperature condition according to the similarity. The PIV observation gave us stagnation points, low speed region so that the suspected high temperature region can be identified. With the further supplementary experimental works, the present system may produce valuable data to justify the Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) simulation method

  3. Hybrid RANS/LES method for wind flow over complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2010-01-01

    for flows at high Reynolds numbers. To reduce the computational cost of traditional LES, a hybrid method is proposed in which the near-wall eddies are modelled in a Reynolds-averaged sense. Close to walls, the flow is treated with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations (unsteady RANS...... rough walls. Previous attempts of combining RANS and LES has resulted in unphysical transition regions between the two layers, but the present work improves this region by using a stochastic backscatter model. To demonstrate the ability of the proposed hybrid method, simulations are presented for wind...... the turbulent kinetic energy, whereas the new method captures the high turbulence levels well but underestimates the mean velocity. The presented results are for a relative mild configuration of complex terrain, but the proposed method can also be used for highly complex terrain where the benefits of the new...

  4. Flow field bipolar plates in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell: Analysis & modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahraman, Huseyin; Orhan, Mehmet F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Covers a comprehensive review of available flow field channel configurations. • Examines the main design considerations and limitations for a flow field network. • Explores the common materials and material properties used for flow field plates. • Presents a case study of step-by-step modeling for an optimum flow field design. - Abstract: This study investigates flow fields and flow field plates (bipolar plates) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. In this regard, the main design considerations and limitations for a flow field network have been examined, along with a comprehensive review of currently available flow field channel configurations. Also, the common materials and material properties used for flow field plates have been explored. Furthermore, a case study of step-by-step modeling for an optimum flow field design has been presented in-details. Finally, a parametric study has been conducted with respect to many design and performance parameters in a flow field plate.

  5. Predictions of local ground geomagnetic field fluctuations during the 7-10 November 2004 events studied with solar wind driven models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wintoft

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The 7-10 November 2004 period contains two events for which the local ground magnetic field was severely disturbed and simultaneously, the solar wind displayed several shocks and negative Bz periods. Using empirical models the 10-min RMS and at Brorfelde (BFE, 11.67° E, 55.63° N, Denmark, are predicted. The models are recurrent neural networks with 10-min solar wind plasma and magnetic field data as inputs. The predictions show a good agreement during 7 November, up until around noon on 8 November, after which the predictions become significantly poorer. The correlations between observed and predicted log RMS is 0.77 during 7-8 November but drops to 0.38 during 9-10 November. For RMS the correlations for the two periods are 0.71 and 0.41, respectively. Studying the solar wind data for other L1-spacecraft (WIND and SOHO it seems that the ACE data have a better agreement to the near-Earth solar wind during the first two days as compared to the last two days. Thus, the accuracy of the predictions depends on the location of the spacecraft and the solar wind flow direction. Another finding, for the events studied here, is that the and models showed a very different dependence on Bz. The model is almost independent of the solar wind magnetic field Bz, except at times when Bz is exceptionally large or when the overall activity is low. On the contrary, the model shows a strong dependence on Bz at all times.

  6. Predictions of local ground geomagnetic field fluctuations during the 7-10 November 2004 events studied with solar wind driven models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wintoft

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The 7-10 November 2004 period contains two events for which the local ground magnetic field was severely disturbed and simultaneously, the solar wind displayed several shocks and negative Bz periods. Using empirical models the 10-min RMS and at Brorfelde (BFE, 11.67° E, 55.63° N, Denmark, are predicted. The models are recurrent neural networks with 10-min solar wind plasma and magnetic field data as inputs. The predictions show a good agreement during 7 November, up until around noon on 8 November, after which the predictions become significantly poorer. The correlations between observed and predicted log RMS is 0.77 during 7-8 November but drops to 0.38 during 9-10 November. For RMS the correlations for the two periods are 0.71 and 0.41, respectively. Studying the solar wind data for other L1-spacecraft (WIND and SOHO it seems that the ACE data have a better agreement to the near-Earth solar wind during the first two days as compared to the last two days. Thus, the accuracy of the predictions depends on the location of the spacecraft and the solar wind flow direction. Another finding, for the events studied here, is that the and models showed a very different dependence on Bz. The model is almost independent of the solar wind magnetic field Bz, except at times when Bz is exceptionally large or when the overall activity is low. On the contrary, the model shows a strong dependence on Bz at all times.

  7. Turbulent Reynolds stress and quadrant event activity in wind flow over a coastal foredune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Connie A.; Walker, Ian J.; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bauer, Bernard O.; Davidson-Arnott, Robin G. D.

    2012-05-01

    Recent research on quasi-instantaneous turbulent kinematic Reynolds stresses (RS, - u'w') and decomposed quadrant event activity (e.g., ejections and sweeps) over dunes in fluvial settings and in wind tunnels has shown that turbulent stresses at the toe of a dune often exceed time-averaged, streamwise shear stress (ρ u * 2) estimates. It is believed that semi-coherent turbulent structures are conveyed toward the bed along concave streamlines in this region and that impact of these structures cause fluctuations in local surface stresses that assist in grain entrainment. This has been hypothesized to explain how sand is supplied to the windward slope through a region of flow stagnation. Toward the crest, surface stress increases and becomes dominated by streamwise accelerations resulting from streamline compression and convexity that suppress vertical motions. High-frequency (32 Hz) measurements of turbulent wind flow from 3-D ultrasonic anemometers are analyzed for oblique onshore flow over a vegetated coastal foredune in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Reynolds stress and quadrant activity distributions varied with height (0.60 m and 1.66 m) and location over the dune. In general, quadrant 2 ejection (u' 0) and quadrant 4 sweep activity (u' > 0, w' 0, w' > 0) and quadrant 3 inward interaction (u' dune and may help to explain sand transport potential and dune maintenance. For example, areas with a high frequency of ejection and sweep activity may have higher rates of sediment entrainment and transport, whereas areas with lower ejection and sweep activity and an increase in outward and inward interactions, which contribute negatively to Reynolds stress generation, may experience a greater potential for deposition. Further research on associations between quadrant event activity and coincident sand transport is required to confirm this hypothesis and the resultant significance of the flow exuberance effect in aeolian dune morphodynamics.

  8. A wind tunnel study of flows over idealised urban surfaces with roughness sublayer corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yat-Kiu; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2017-10-01

    Dynamics in the roughness (RSLs) and inertial (ISLs) sublayers in the turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) over idealised urban surfaces are investigated analytically and experimentally. In this paper, we derive an analytical solution to the mean velocity profile, which is a continuous function applicable to both RSL and ISL, over rough surfaces in isothermal conditions. Afterwards, a modified mixing-length model for RSL/ISL transport is developed that elucidates how surface roughness affects the turbulence motions. A series of wind tunnel experiments are conducted to measure the vertical profiles of mean and fluctuating velocities, together with momentum flux over various configurations of surface-mounted ribs in cross flows using hot-wire anemometry (HWA). The analytical solution agrees well with the wind tunnel result that improves the estimate to mean velocity profile over urban surfaces and TBL dynamics as well. The thicknesses of RSL and ISL are calculated by monitoring the convergence/divergence between the temporally averaged and spatio-temporally averaged profiles of momentum flux. It is found that the height of RSL/ISL interface is a function of surface roughness. Examining the direct, physical influence of roughness elements on near-surface RSL flows reveals that the TBL flows over rough surfaces exhibit turbulence motions of two different length scales which are functions of the RSL and ISL structure. Conclusively, given a TBL, the rougher the surface, the higher is the RSL intruding upward that would thinner the ISL up to 50 %. Therefore, the conventional ISL log-law approximation to TBL flows over urban surfaces should be applied with caution.

  9. Pressure fluctuation characteristics of flow field of mixed flow nuclear primary pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunlin; Yang Xiaoyong; Li Changjun; Jia Fei; Zhao Binjuan

    2013-01-01

    In order to research the pressure fluctuation characteristics of flow field of mixed flow nuclear primary pump, this study used the technique of ANSYS-Workbench and CFX fluid solid heat coupling to do numerical simulation analysis for model pump. According to the situation of pressure fluctuation of time domain and frequency domain, the main cause of pressure fluctuation was discussed. For different flow, the pressure fluctuations were compared. This study shows it is feasible that large eddy simulation method is used for the research of pressure fluctuation. The pressure fluctuation amplitudes of four sections are increasing from wheel hub to wheel rim. The pressure fluctuation of inlet and outlet of impeller depends on the rotational frequency of impeller. Along with the fluid flowing away from the impeller, the effect of the impeller on the fluid pressure fluctuation weakens gradually. Comparing the different results of three flow conditions, the pressure fluctuation in design condition flow is superior to the others. (authors)

  10. Design of Offshore Wind Turbine Support Structures: Selected topics in the field of geotechnical engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc

    .D. thesis was to enable low-cost and low-risk support structures to be designed in order to improve the economic feasibility of future offshore wind farms. The research work was divided in the following four selected research topics in the field of geotechnical engineering, relating to the monopile......Breaking the dependence on fossil fuels offers many opportunities for strengthened competitiveness, technological development and progress. Offshore wind power is a domestic, sustainable and largely untapped energy resource that provides an alternative to fossil fuels, reduces carbon emissions......, and decreases the economic and supply risks associated with reliance on imported fuels. Today, the modern offshore wind turbine offers competitive production prices for renewable energy and is therefore a key technology in achieving the energy and climate goals of the future. The overall aim of this Ph...

  11. The flow field structure of highly stabilized partially premixed flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with coflow

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.; Zayed, M.F.; Samy, M.; Roberts, William L.; Mansour, Mohy S.

    2015-01-01

    The stability limits, the stabilization mechanism, and the flow field structure of highly stabilized partially premixed methane flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with air co-flow have been investigated and presented in this work

  12. Ulysses Observations of Tripolar Guide-Magnetic Field Perturbations Across Solar Wind Reconnection Exhausts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S.; Peng, B.; Markidis, S.; Gosling, J. T.; McComas, D. J.; Lapenta, G.; Newman, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    We report observations from 15 solar wind reconnection exhausts encountered along the Ulysses orbit beyond 4 AU in 1996-1999 and 2002-2005. The events, which lasted between 17 and 45 min, were found at heliospheric latitudes between -36o and 21o with one event detected as high as 58o. All events shared a common characteristic of a tripolar guide-magnetic field perturbation being detected across the observed exhausts. The signature consists of an enhanced guide field magnitude within the exhaust center and two regions of significantly depressed guide-fields adjacent to the center region. The events displayed magnetic field shear angles as low as 37o with a mean of 89o. This corresponds to a strong external guide field relative to the anti-parallel reconnecting component of the magnetic field with a mean ratio of 1.3 and a maximum ratio of 3.1. A 2-D kinetic reconnection simulation for realistic solar wind conditions reveals that tripolar guide fields form at current sheets in the presence of multiple X-lines as two magnetic islands interact with one another for such strong guide fields. The Ulysses observations are also compared with the results of a 3-D kinetic simulation of multiple flux ropes in a strong guide field.

  13. On the use of mass-conserving wind fields in chemistry-transport models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bregman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method has been developed that provides mass-conserving wind fields for global chemistry-transport models. In previous global Eulerian modeling studies a mass-imbalance was found between the model mass transport and the surface pressure tendencies. Several methods have been suggested to correct for this imbalance, but so far no satisfactory solution has been found. Our new method solves these problems by using the wind fields in a spherical harmonical form (divergence and vorticity by mimicing the physics of the weather forecast model as closely as possible. A 3-D chemistry-transport model was used to show that the calculated ozone fields with the new processing method agree remarkably better with ozone observations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. In addition, the calculated age of air in the lower stratosphere show better agreement with observations, although the air remains still too young in the extra-tropical stratosphere.

  14. The Effect of Air Density on Sand Transport Structures and the Adobe Abrasion Profile: A Field Wind-Tunnel Experiment Over a Wide Range of Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingjie; Qu, Jianjun; Dong, Zhibao; Zu, Ruiping; Zhang, Kecun; Wang, Hongtao; Xie, Shengbo

    2014-02-01

    Aeolian sand transport results from interactions between the surface and the airflow above. Air density strongly constrains airflow characteristics and the resulting flow of sand, and therefore should not be neglected in sand transport models. In the present study, we quantify the influence of air density on the sand flow structure, sand transport rate, adobe abrasion profiles, and abrasion rate using a portable wind-tunnel in the field. For a given wind speed, the flow's ability to transport sand decreases at low air density, so total sand transport decreases, but the saltation height increases. Thus, the damage to human structures increases compared with what occurs at lower altitudes. The adobe abrasion rate by the cloud of blowing sand decreases exponentially with increasing height above the surface, while the wind erosion and dust emission intensity both increase with increasing air density. Long-term feedback processes between air density and wind erosion suggest that the development of low-altitude areas due to long-term deflation plays a key role in dust emission, and will have a profound significance for surface Aeolian processes and geomorphology.

  15. Computational investigation of flow control by means of tubercles on Darrieus wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinç, K.; Özdamar, G.; Şentürk, U.; Özdamar, A.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents the current status of the computational study of the boundary layer control of a vertical axis wind turbine blade by modifying the blade geometry for use in wind energy conversion. The control method is a passive method which comprises the implementation of the tubercle geometry of a humpback whale flipper onto the leading edge of the blades. The baseline design is an H-type, three-bladed Darrieus turbine with a NACA 0015 cross-section. Finite-volume based software ANSYS Fluent was used in the simulations. Using the optimum control parameters for a NACA 634-021 profile given by Johari et al. (2006), turbine blades were modified. Three dimensional, unsteady, turbulent simulations for the blade were conducted to look for a possible improvement on the performance. The flow structure on the blades was investigated and flow phenomena such as separation and stall were examined to understand their impact on the overall performance. For a tip speed ratio of 2.12, good agreement was obtained in the validation of the baseline model with a relative error in time- averaged power coefficient of 1.05%. Modified turbine simulations with a less expensive but less accurate turbulence model yielded a decrease in power coefficient. Results are shown comparatively.

  16. The sound field of a rotating dipole in a plug flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Huan; Belyaev, Ivan V; Zhang, Xiao-Zheng; Bi, Chuan-Xing; Faranosov, Georgy A; Dowell, Earl H

    2018-04-01

    An analytical far field solution for a rotating point dipole source in a plug flow is derived. The shear layer of the jet is modelled as an infinitely thin cylindrical vortex sheet and the far field integral is calculated by the stationary phase method. Four numerical tests are performed to validate the derived solution as well as to assess the effects of sound refraction from the shear layer. First, the calculated results using the derived formulations are compared with the known solution for a rotating dipole in a uniform flow to validate the present model in this fundamental test case. After that, the effects of sound refraction for different rotating dipole sources in the plug flow are assessed. Then the refraction effects on different frequency components of the signal at the observer position, as well as the effects of the motion of the source and of the type of source are considered. Finally, the effect of different sound speeds and densities outside and inside the plug flow is investigated. The solution obtained may be of particular interest for propeller and rotor noise measurements in open jet anechoic wind tunnels.

  17. Wind power development field test project at Ashibe-cho. Detailed wind characteristics survey; Ashibecho ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A detailed wind characteristics survey was conducted at Ashibe-cho, Iki-gun, Nagasaki Prefecture, on the assumption that a wind power generation system would be constructed. The survey was a 1-year project from October 1998 through September 1999, and wind characteristics such as the average wind speed, average wind direction, standard deviation of wind velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind speed were observed. The observation point was fixed at 20m above ground, the minimum time unit for observation was 10 minutes, and the 10-minute average value was defined as the measured value. For the maximum instantaneous wind speed, the minimum time unit for observation was set to be 2 seconds. The yearly average wind speed was 5.8m/s and the maximum wind speed in the period was 35m/s. Winds came from the prevailing direction of NE (21.3%), and then from NNE (14.7%) and ENE (7.9%). The wind axis was in the NE-SW direction, and the total wind direction occurrence rate from the 6 directions was 60.2%. Turbulence intensity was 0.19 at wind speed 2.0m/s or more and 0.17 at wind speed 4.0m/s or more. Estimated wind turbine yearly operating factors of 66-84% were obtained using rated values of a 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW-class wind turbines. (NEDO)

  18. Large eddy simulation study of the kinetic energy entrainment by energetic turbulent flow structures in large wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    VerHulst, Claire; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we address the question of how kinetic energy is entrained into large wind turbine arrays and, in particular, how large-scale flow structures contribute to such entrainment. Previous research has shown this entrainment to be an important limiting factor in the performance of very large arrays where the flow becomes fully developed and there is a balance between the forcing of the atmospheric boundary layer and the resistance of the wind turbines. Given the high Reynolds numbers and domain sizes on the order of kilometers, we rely on wall-modeled large eddy simulation (LES) to simulate turbulent flow within the wind farm. Three-dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis is then used to identify the most energetic flow structures present in the LES data. We quantify the contribution of each POD mode to the kinetic energy entrainment and its dependence on the layout of the wind turbine array. The primary large-scale structures are found to be streamwise, counter-rotating vortices located above the height of the wind turbines. While the flow is periodic, the geometry is not invariant to all horizontal translations due to the presence of the wind turbines and thus POD modes need not be Fourier modes. Differences of the obtained modes with Fourier modes are documented. Some of the modes are responsible for a large fraction of the kinetic energy flux to the wind turbine region. Surprisingly, more flow structures (POD modes) are needed to capture at least 40% of the turbulent kinetic energy, for which the POD analysis is optimal, than are needed to capture at least 40% of the kinetic energy flux to the turbines. For comparison, we consider the cases of aligned and staggered wind turbine arrays in a neutral atmospheric boundary layer as well as a reference case without wind turbines. While the general characteristics of the flow structures are robust, the net kinetic energy entrainment to the turbines depends on the presence and relative

  19. DEM simulation of granular flows in a centrifugal acceleration field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Peng, Chong; Wu, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The main purpose of mass-flow experimental models is abstracting distinctive features of natural granular flows, and allow its systematic study in the laboratory. In this process, particle size, space, time, and stress scales must be considered for the proper representation of specific phenomena [5]. One of the most challenging tasks in small scale models, is matching the range of stresses and strains among the particle and fluid media observed in a field event. Centrifuge modelling offers an alternative to upscale all gravity-driven processes, and it has been recently employed in the simulation of granular flows [1, 2, 3, 6, 7]. Centrifuge scaling principles are presented in Ref. [4], collecting a wide spectrum of static and dynamic models. However, for the case of kinematic processes, the non-uniformity of the centrifugal acceleration field plays a major role (i.e., Coriolis and inertial effects). In this work, we discuss a general formulation for the centrifugal acceleration field, implemented in a discrete element model framework (DEM), and validated with centrifuge experimental results. Conventional DEM simulations relate the volumetric forces as a function of the gravitational force Gp = mpg. However, in the local coordinate system of a rotating centrifuge model, the cylindrical centrifugal acceleration field needs to be included. In this rotating system, the centrifugal acceleration of a particle depends on the rotating speed of the centrifuge, as well as the position and speed of the particle in the rotating model. Therefore, we obtain the formulation of centrifugal acceleration field by coordinate transformation. The numerical model is validated with a series of centrifuge experiments of monodispersed glass beads, flowing down an inclined plane at different acceleration levels and slope angles. Further discussion leads to the numerical parameterization necessary for simulating equivalent granular flows under an augmented acceleration field. The premise of

  20. Field research program for unsaturated flow and transport experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidwell, V.C.; Rautman, C.A.; Glass, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, a field research program has been developed to refine and validate models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock. Validation of these models within the range of their application for performance assessment requires a more sophisticated understanding of the processes that govern flow and transport within fractured porous media than currently exists. In particular, our research is prioritized according to understanding and modeling processes that, if not accurately incorporated into performance assessment models, would adversely impact the project's ability to evaluate repository performance. For this reason, we have oriented our field program toward enhancing our understanding of scaling processes as they relate to effective media property modeling, as well as to the conceptual modeling of complex flow and transport phenomena

  1. Measurement of Unsteady Aerodynamics Load on the Blade of Field Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Yasunari; Maeda, Takao; Naito, Keita; Ouchi, Yuu; Kozawa, Masayoshi

    This paper describes an experimental field study of the rotor aerodynamics of wind turbines. The test wind turbine is a horizontal axis wind turbine, or: HAWT with a diameter of 10m. The pressure distributions on the rotating blade are measured with multi point pressure transducers. Sectional aerodynamic forces are analyzed from pressure distribution. Blade root moments are measured simultaneously by a pair of strain gauges. The inflow wind is measured by a three component sonic anemometer, the local inflow of the blade section are measured by a pair of 7 hole Pitot tubes. The relation between the aerodynamic moments on the blade root from pressure distribution and the mechanical moment from strain gauges is discussed. The aerodynamic moments are estimated from the sectional aerodynamic forces and show oscillation caused by local wind speed and direction change. The mechanical moment shows similar oscillation to the aerodynamic excepting the short period oscillation of the blade first mode frequency. The fluctuation of the sectional aerodynamic force triggers resonant blade oscillations. Where stall is present along the blade section, the blade's first mode frequency is dominant. Without stall, the rotating frequency is dominant in the blade root moment.

  2. Electron heat flux dropouts in the solar wind: Evidence for interplanetary magnetic field reconnection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Gosling, J.T.; Phillips, J.L.; Bame, S.J.; Luhmann, J.G.; Smith, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Electron heat flux dropout events have been observed in the solar wind using the ISEE 3 plasma electron data set. These events manifest themselves as dropouts of the solar wind halo electrons which are normally found streaming outward along the local magnetic field. These dropouts leave nearly isotropic distributions of solar wind halo electrons, and consequently, the heat flux in these events is reduced to near the observational noise level. We have examined ISEE 3 data from shortly after launch (August 16, 1978) through the end of 1978 and identified 25 such events ranging in duration from 20 min to over 11 hours. Comparison with the ISEE 3 magnetometer data indicates that these intervals nearly always occur in conjunction with large rotations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Statistical analyses of the plasma and magnetic field data for the 25 dropout intervals indicate that heat flux dropouts generally occur in association with high plasma densities low plasma velocities, low ion and electron temperatures, and low magnetic field magnitudes. A second set of 25 intervals chosen specifically to lie at large field rotations, but at times at which not heat flux dropouts were observed, do not show these characteristic plalsma variations. This suggests that the dropout intervals comprise a unique set of events. Since the hot halo electrons normally found streaming outward from the Sun along the interplanetary magnetic field (the solar wind electron heat flux) are a result of direct magnetic connection to the hot solar corona, heat flux dropout intervals may indicate that the spacecraft is sampling plasma regimes which are magnetically disconnected from the Sun and instead are connected to the outer heliosphere at both ends

  3. Factors affecting particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    colloidal material is illustrated through the evaluation of thermal diffusion coefficient of PS ... Field-flow fractionation (FFF) is a separation method introduced by Giddings in 1966 [1]. It is a ... no stationary phase is used in FFF. .... that the inversion diameter (diameter at which order of retention changes) can be shifted up or.

  4. factors affecting particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we report a range of factors which affect the retention of colloidal particles in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These results are observed among different sizes of polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in both aqueous and nonaqueous liquid carriers and very low density lipoproteins in a phosphate ...

  5. Magnetic and velocity fields MHD flow of a stretched vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analytical solutions for heat and mass transfer by laminar flow of Newtonian, viscous, electrically conducting and heat generation/absorbing fluid on a continuously moving vertical permeable surface with buoyancy in the presence of a magnetic field and a first order chemical reaction are reported. The solutions for magnetic ...

  6. High-resolution observations of the near-surface wind field over an isolated mountain and in a steep river canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. W. Butler; N. S. Wagenbrenner; J. M. Forthofer; B. K. Lamb; K. S. Shannon; D. Finn; R. M. Eckman; K. Clawson; L. Bradshaw; P. Sopko; S. Beard; D. Jimenez; C. Wold; M. Vosburgh

    2015-01-01

    A number of numerical wind flow models have been developed for simulating wind flow at relatively fine spatial resolutions (e.g., 100 m); however, there are very limited observational data available for evaluating these high-resolution models. This study presents high-resolution surface wind data sets collected from an isolated mountain and a steep river canyon. The...

  7. Flow field design for high-pressure PEM electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    -water distributes. Water not only serves a reactant, it also aids in cooling due to its high specific heat capacity. The movement of liquid water at the anode is difficult to model, since it is highly coupled to the formation of gas bubbles. To capture the complex two-phase flow behaviour that takes place within...... micro-channels and porous media, our research group has developed an Euler-Euler model in the computational fluid dynamics modelling framework of ANSYS CFX. In addition to two-phase flow, the model accounts for turbulence, species transport in the gas phase, heat transport in all three phases (i.......e. solid, gas and liquid), as well as charge transport of electrons and ions. Our recent improvements have focused on the models ability to account for phase change and electrochemistry as well as the modelling of two-phase flow regimes. For comparison, an interdigitated and parallel channel flow field...

  8. Distillation and Visualization of Spatiotemporal Structures in Turbulent Flow Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hege, Hans-Christian; Hotz, Ingrid; Kasten, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Although turbulence suggests randomness and disorder, organized motions that cause spatiotemporal 'coherent structures' are of particular interest. Revealing such structures in numerically given turbulent or semi-turbulent flows is of interest both for practically working engineers and theoretically oriented physicists. However, as long as there is no common agreement about the mathematical definition of coherent structures, extracting such structures is a vaguely defined task. Instead of searching for a general definition, the data visualization community takes a pragmatic approach and provides various tool chains implemented in flexible software frameworks that allow the user to extract distinct flow field structures. Thus physicists or engineers can select those flow structures which might advance their insight best. We present different approaches to distill important features from turbulent flows and discuss the necessary steps to be taken on the example of Lagrangian coherent structures.

  9. Particle trajectories in full 3D flow field of turbomachinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Z.G.; Huang, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Particle trajectory prediction is important for particulate laden flow turbomachinery as it helps to understand the cause of erosion phenomena and to improve the design of blade passages. In this paper, on the basis of previous works, particle trajectories in turbine stages are predicted in connection with full 3D gas flow field solved by time marching method. The secondary flow effect is also partially considered by assuming a total pressure distribution at the inlet of the moving blade row. The results show that passage vortex due to secondary flow will cause upward and downward divergence of particle trajectories at the rear part of near blade pressure surface which is evidenced by the real appearance of eroded trace on turbine blade after long period of operation

  10. Flow in porous media under the influence of thermal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bories, S; Thirriot, C

    1970-01-01

    Fluid flow in porous media, including natural convection caused by temperature fields, is of particular importance in the exploitation of petroleum deposits. Laboratory experiments with a horizontal Hele-Shaw model in which the convection currents can be visually observed, are reported. The main observations are concerned with fairly stable flow regime cells and the velocity distribution. Photos of the flow, and graphs of the temperature distribution measured by interferometric methods, are given. The essential elements observed are well-represented by a simplified theory; at large Reynolds numbers, large temperature gradients have been observed in the vicinity of the isothermal boundaries. The temperature distribution can be expressed by a dimensionless law, and it seems possible to generalize the observations from the Hele-Shaw model to flow in porous media.

  11. Study of the flow field past dimpled aerodynamic surfaces: numerical simulation and experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binci, L.; Clementi, G.; D'Alessandro, V.; Montelpare, S.; Ricci, R.

    2017-11-01

    This work presents the study of the flow field past of dimpled laminar airfoil. Fluid dynamic behaviour of these elements has been not still deeply studied in the scientific community. Therefore Computational Fluid-Dynamics (CFD) is here used to analyze the flow field induced by dimples on the NACA 64-014A laminar airfoil at Re = 1.75 · 105 at α = 0°. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) were compared with wind tunnel measurements in order to evaluate their effectiveness in the modeling this kind of flow field. LES equations were solved using a specifically developed OpenFOAM solver adopting an L-stable Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta (SDIRK) technique with an iterated PISO-like procedure for handling pressure-velocity coupling within each RK stage. Dynamic Smagorinsky subgrid model was employed. LES results provided good agreement with experimental data, while RANS equations closed with \\[k-ω -γ -\\overset{}{\\mathop{{{\\operatorname{Re}}θ, \\text{t}}}} \\] approach overstimates laminar separation bubble (LSB) extension of dimpled and un-dimpled configurations. Moreover, through skin friction coefficient analysis, we found a different representation of the turbulent zone between the numerical models; indeed, with RANS model LSB seems to be divided in two different parts, meanwhile LES model shows a LSB global reduction.

  12. A model to relate wind tunnel measurements to open field odorant emissions from liquid area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucernoni, F.; Capelli, L.; Busini, V.; Sironi, S.

    2017-05-01

    Waste Water Treatment Plants are known to have significant emissions of several pollutants and odorants causing nuisance to the near-living population. One of the purposes of the present work is to study a suitable model to evaluate odour emissions from liquid passive area sources. First, the models describing volatilization under a forced convection regime inside a wind tunnel device, which is the sampling device that typically used for sampling on liquid area sources, were investigated. In order to relate the fluid dynamic conditions inside the hood to the open field and inside the hood a thorough study of the models capable of describing the volatilization phenomena of the odorous compounds from liquid pools was performed and several different models were evaluated for the open field emission. By means of experimental tests involving pure liquid acetone and pure liquid butanone, it was verified that the model more suitable to describe precisely the volatilization inside the sampling hood is the model for the emission from a single flat plate in forced convection and laminar regime, with a fluid dynamic boundary layer fully developed and a mass transfer boundary layer not fully developed. The proportionality coefficient for the model was re-evaluated in order to account for the specific characteristics of the adopted wind tunnel device, and then the model was related with the selected model for the open field thereby computing the wind speed at 10 m that would cause the same emission that is estimated from the wind tunnel measurement furthermore, the field of application of the proposed model was clearly defined for the considered models during the project, discussing the two different kinds of compounds commonly found in emissive liquid pools or liquid spills, i.e. gas phase controlled and liquid phase controlled compounds. Lastly, a discussion is presented comparing the presented approach for emission rates recalculation in the field, with other approaches

  13. FLOW PHYSICS OF 3-BLADED STRAIGHT CHORD H-DARRIEUS WIND TURBINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Gupta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Steady-state two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations were performed using Fluent 6.0 software to analyze the flow physics of 3-bladed straight chord H-Darrieus wind turbine having blade twist of 300 for 10% of its chord at the trailing ends. The flow was simulated using finite volume method coupled with moving mesh technique to solve mass and momentum conservation equations. The standard k-ε turbulence model with enhanced wall condition was used. Second-order upwind discretization scheme was adopted for pressure-velocity coupling of the flow. Flow physics of the turbine was analyzed with the help of pressure and velocity contours. It was found that velocity magnitude decreases from upstream to downstream side across the turbine, which will cause overall lift for the turbine. Further, blade twist at the trailing ends creates circulations that interact with the blades in a direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the turbine which would enhance power production for the three bladed turbine.

  14. FLOW PHYSICS OF 3-BLADED STRAIGHT CHORD H- DARRIEUS WIND TURBINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Steady-state two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations were performed using Fluent 6.0 software to analyze the flow physics of 3-bladed straight chord H-Darrieus wind turbine having blade twist of 300 for 10% of its chord at the trailing ends. The flow was simulated using finite volume method coupled with moving mesh technique to solve mass and momentum conservation equations. The standard k- ε turbulence model with enhanced wall condition was used. Second-order upwind discretization scheme was adopted for pressure-velocity coupling of the flow. Flow physics of the turbine was analyzed with the help of pressure and velocity contours. It was found that velocity magnitude decreases from upstream to downstream side across the turbine, which will cause overall lift for the turbine. Further, blade twist at the trailing ends creates circulations that interact with the blades in a direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the turbine which would enhance power production for the three bladed turbine.

  15. A Reduced Order Model to Predict Transient Flows around Straight Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Le Clainche

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop a reduced order model to represent the complex flow behaviour around vertical axis wind turbines. First, we simulate vertical axis turbines using an accurate high order discontinuous Galerkin–Fourier Navier–Stokes Large Eddy Simulation solver with sliding meshes and extract flow snapshots in time. Subsequently, we construct a reduced order model based on a high order dynamic mode decomposition approach that selects modes based on flow frequency. We show that only a few modes are necessary to reconstruct the flow behaviour of the original simulation, even for blades rotating in turbulent regimes. Furthermore, we prove that an accurate reduced order model can be constructed using snapshots that do not sample one entire turbine rotation (but only a fraction of it, which reduces the cost of generating the reduced order model. Additionally, we compare the reduced order model based on the high order Navier–Stokes solver to fast 2D simulations (using a Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes turbulent model to illustrate the good performance of the proposed methodology.

  16. Mass conservative fluid flow visualization for CFD velocity fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhenquan; Mallinson, Gordon D.

    2001-01-01

    Mass conservation is a key issue for accurate streamline and stream surface visualization of flow fields. This paper complements an existing method (Feng et al., 1997) for CFD velocity fields defined at discrete locations in space that uses dual stream functions to generate streamlines and stream surfaces. Conditions for using the method have been examined and its limitations defined. A complete set of dual stream functions for all possible cases of the linear fields on which the method relies are presented. The results in this paper are important for developing new methods for mass conservative streamline visualization from CFD data and using the existing method

  17. Wind power development field test project at Hirashima, Sakito-cho. Detailed wind characteristics survey; Sakitocho Hirashima ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A detailed wind characteristics survey was conducted at Hirashima, Sakito-cho, Nishisonogi-gun, Nagasaki Prefecture, on the assumption that a wind power generation system would be constructed. The survey was a 1-year project from October 1998 through September 1999, and wind characteristics such as the average wind speed, average wind direction, standard deviation of wind velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind speed were observed. The observation point was fixed at 20m above ground, the minimum time unit for observation was 10 minutes, and the 10-minute average value was defined as the measured value. For the maximum instantaneous wind speed, the minimum time unit for observation was set to be 2 seconds. The yearly average wind speed was 7.1m/s and the maximum wind speed in the period was 37m/s. Winds came prevalently from N (13.9%), and then from NNE (13.3%), NW (12.2%), and NE (10.7%). The total wind direction occurrence rate involving the 4 directions was 50.1%. Turbulence intensity was 0.14 at wind speed 2.0m/s or more and 0.12 at wind speed 4.0m/s or more. Estimated wind turbine yearly operating factors of 77-87% were obtained using rated values of a 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW-class wind turbines. (NEDO)

  18. On the Use of Coupled Wind, Wave, and Current Fields in the Simulation of Loads on Bottom-Supported Offshore Wind Turbines during Hurricanes: March 2012 - September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eungsoo [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Manuel, Lance [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Curcic, Milan [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Chen, Shuyi S. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Phillips, Caleb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Veers, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, potential offshore wind plant sites have been identified along the Atlantic seaboard and in the Gulf of Mexico. It is imperative that we define external conditions associated with hurricanes and severe winter storms and consider load cases for which wind turbines may need to be designed. We selected two hurricanes, Ike (2008) and Sandy (2012), and investigated the effect these tropical storms would have on bottom-supported offshore wind turbines that were hypothetically in or close to their path as they made landfall. For realistic turbine loads assessment, it is important that the coupled influences of the changing wind, wave, and current fields are simulated throughout the evolution of the hurricanes. We employed a coupled model--specifically, the University of Miami Coupled Model (UMCM)--that integrates atmospheric, wave, and ocean components to produce needed wind, wave, and current data. The wind data are used to generate appropriate vertical wind profiles and full wind velocity fields including turbulence; the current field over the water column is obtained by interpolated discrete output current data; and short-crested irregular second-order waves are simulated using output directional wave spectra from the coupled model. We studied two monopile-supported offshore wind turbines sited in 20 meters of water in the Gulf of Mexico to estimate loads during Hurricane Ike, and a jacket space-frame platform-supported offshore wind turbine sited in 50 meters of water in the mid-Atlantic region to estimate loads during Hurricane Sandy. In this report we discuss in detail how the simulated hurricane wind, wave, and current output data are used in turbine loads studies. In addition, important characteristics of the external conditions are studied, including the relative importance of swell versus wind seas, aerodynamic versus hydrodynamic forces, current velocity effects, yaw control options for the turbine, hydrodynamic drag versus inertia forces

  19. An emergency computation model for the wind field and diffusion during accidental nuclear pollutants releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Kimura, F.; Koide, T.; Kurita, S.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1986, a simple computation model for a nuclear accident has been operating in the emergency information center of Japan Agency for Science and Technology. It was developed by introducing the variation method for wind and a random walk particle model for diffusion in 50-100 km scale. Furthermore, we developed a new model with dynamic equations and a diffusion equation to predict more accurately the wind and diffusion, including local thermal convection. The momentum equation and the continuity equation are solved numerically in nonhydrostatic and incompressible conditions, using a finite difference technique. Then, the equation of thermal energy preservation is solved for potential temperature in the predicted wind field of every time step. The diffusion of nuclear pollutants is computed numerically in the predicted wind field, using diffusion coefficients obtained from the predictive dynamic equations. These computations were verified with meteorological surveys and gas tracer diffusion experiments over flat land, along a sea shore and over a mountainous area. Horizontal circulations and vertical convections can be computed in any mesh size from several tens of meters to several kilometers, while small vertical convections less than 1 km or so cannot be represented with the former hydrostatic circulation models. (author)

  20. A Laminar Model for the Magnetic Field Structure in Bow-Shock Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciantini, N.

    2018-05-01

    Bow Shock Pulsar Wind Nebulae are a class of non-thermal sources, that form when the wind of a pulsar moving at supersonic speed interacts with the ambient medium, either the ISM or in a few cases the cold ejecta of the parent supernova. These systems have attracted attention in recent years, because they allow us to investigate the properties of the pulsar wind in a different environment from that of canonical Pulsar Wind Nebulae in Supernova Remnants. However, due to the complexity of the interaction, a full-fledged multidimensional analysis is still laking. We present here a simplified approach, based on Lagrangian tracers, to model the magnetic field structure in these systems, and use it to compute the magnetic field geometry, for various configurations in terms of relative orientation of the magnetic axis, pulsar speed and observer direction. Based on our solutions we have computed a set of radio emission maps, including polarization, to investigate the variety of possible appearances, and how the observed emission pattern can be used to constrain the orientation of the system, and the possible presence of turbulence.

  1. Multi-Time Scale Coordinated Scheduling Strategy with Distributed Power Flow Controllers for Minimizing Wind Power Spillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The inherent variability and randomness of large-scale wind power integration have brought great challenges to power flow control and dispatch. The distributed power flow controller (DPFC has the higher flexibility and capacity in power flow control in the system with wind generation. This paper proposes a multi-time scale coordinated scheduling model with DPFC to minimize wind power spillage. Configuration of DPFCs is initially determined by stochastic method. Afterward, two sequential procedures containing day-head and real-time scales are applied for determining maximum schedulable wind sources, optimal outputs of generating units and operation setting of DPFCs. The generating plan is obtained initially in day-ahead scheduling stage and modified in real-time scheduling model, while considering the uncertainty of wind power and fast operation of DPFC. Numerical simulation results in IEEE-RTS79 system illustrate that wind power is maximum scheduled with the optimal deployment and operation of DPFC, which confirms the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Assimilating concentration observations for transport and dispersion modeling in a meandering wind field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Sue Ellen; Beyer-Lout, Anke; Long, Kerrie J.; Young, George S.

    Assimilating concentration data into an atmospheric transport and dispersion model can provide information to improve downwind concentration forecasts. The forecast model is typically a one-way coupled set of equations: the meteorological equations impact the concentration, but the concentration does not generally affect the meteorological field. Thus, indirect methods of using concentration data to influence the meteorological variables are required. The problem studied here involves a simple wind field forcing Gaussian dispersion. Two methods of assimilating concentration data to infer the wind direction are demonstrated. The first method is Lagrangian in nature and treats the puff as an entity using feature extraction coupled with nudging. The second method is an Eulerian field approach akin to traditional variational approaches, but minimizes the error by using a genetic algorithm (GA) to directly optimize the match between observations and predictions. Both methods show success at inferring the wind field. The GA-variational method, however, is more accurate but requires more computational time. Dynamic assimilation of a continuous release modeled by a Gaussian plume is also demonstrated using the genetic algorithm approach.

  3. Using optic flow in the far peripheral field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Meaghan; D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2017-07-01

    Self-motion information can be used to update spatial memory of location through an estimate of a change in position. Viewing optic flow alone can create Illusory self-motion or "vection." Early studies suggested that peripheral vision is more effective than central vision in evoking vection, but controlling for retinal area and perceived distance suggests that all retinal areas may be equally effective. However, the contributions of the far periphery, beyond 90°, have been largely neglected. Using a large-field Edgeless Graphics Geometry display (EGG, Christie, Canada, field of view ±112°) and systematically blocking central (±20° to ±90°) or peripheral (viewing through tunnels ±20° to ±40°) parts of the field, we compared the effectiveness of different retinal regions at evoking forwards linear vection. Fifteen participants indicated when they had reached the position of a previously presented target after visually simulating motion down a simulated corridor. The amount of simulated travel needed to match a given target distance was modelled with a leaky spatial integrator model to estimate gains (perceived/actual distance) and a spatial decay factor. When optic flow was presented only in the far periphery (beyond 90°) gains were significantly higher than for the same motion presented full field or in only the central field, resulting in accurate performance in the range of speeds associated with normal walking. The increased effectiveness of optic flow in the peripheral field alone compared to full-field motion is discussed in terms of emerging neurophysiological studies that suggest brain areas dedicated to processing information from the far peripheral field.

  4. Experimental Measurement of the Flow Field of Heavy Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Browand; Charles Radovich

    2005-05-31

    Flat flaps that enclose the trailer base on the sides and top are known to reduce truck drag and reduce fuel consumption. Such flapped-truck geometries have been studied in laboratory wind tunnels and in field tests. A recent review of wind tunnel data for a variety of truck geometries and flow Reynolds numbers show roughly similar values of peak drag reduction, but differ in the determination of the optimum flap angle. Optimum angles lie in the range 12 degrees-20 degrees, and may be sensitive to Reynolds number and truck geometry. The present field test is undertaken to provide additional estimates of the magnitude of the savings to be expected on a typical truck for five flap angles 10, 13, 16, 19, and 22 degrees. The flaps are constructed from a fiberglass-epoxy-matrix material and are one-quarter of the base width in length (about 61 cm, or 2 feet). They are attached along the rear door hinge lines on either side of the trailer, so that no gap appears at the joint between the flap and the side of the trailer The flap angle is adjusted by means of two aluminum supports. The present test is performed on the NASA Crows Landing Flight Facility at the northern end of the San Joaquin valley in California. The main runway is approximately 2400 meters in length, and is aligned approximately in a north-south direction The test procedure is to make a series of runs starting at either end of the runway. All runs are initiated under computer control to accelerate the truck to a target speed of 60 mph (96 6 km/hr), to proceed at the target speed for a fixed distance, and to decelerate at the far end of the runway. During a run, the broadcast fuel rate, the engine rpm, forward speed, elapsed time--as well as several other parameters (10 in all)--are digitized at a rate of 100 digitizations per second. Various flapped-conditions are interspersed with the ''no flaps'' control, and are sequenced in a different order on different days. Approximately 310 runs

  5. A Semi-analytical Model for Wind-fed Black Hole High-mass X-Ray Binaries: State Transition Triggered by Magnetic Fields from the Companion Star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaji, Kentaro; Yamada, Shinya; Masai, Kuniaki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa 1-1, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2017-10-01

    We propose a mechanism of state transition in wind-fed black hole (BH) binaries (high-mass X-ray binaries) such as Cyg X-1 and LMC X-1. Modeling a line-driven stellar wind from the companion by two-dimensional hydrodynamical calculations, we investigate the processes of wind capture by, and accretion onto, the BH. We assume that the wind acceleration is terminated at the He ii ionization front because ions responsible for line-driven acceleration are ionized within the front, i.e., the He iii region. It is found that the mass accretion rate inferred from the luminosity is remarkably smaller than the capture rate. Considering the difference, we construct a model for the state transition based on the accretion flow being controlled by magnetorotational instability. The outer flow is torus-like, and plays an important role to trigger the transition. The model can explain why state transition does occur in Cyg X-1, while not in LMC X-1. Cyg X-1 exhibits a relatively low luminosity, and then the He ii ionization front is located and can move between the companion and BH, depending on its ionizing photon flux. On the other hand, LMC X-1 exhibits too high luminosity for the front to move considerably; the front is too close to the companion atmosphere. The model also predicts that each state of high-soft or low-hard would last fairly long because the luminosity depends weakly on the wind velocity. In the context of the model, the state transition is triggered by a fluctuation of the magnetic field when its amplitude becomes comparable to the field strength in the torus-like outer flow.

  6. Field aligned flows driven by neutral puffing at MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, I.; Frerichs, H.; Silburn, S.; Feng, Y.; Harrison, J.; Kirk, A.; Schmitz, O.

    2018-06-01

    Neutral deuterium gas puffing at the high field side of the mega ampere spherical tokamak (MAST) is shown to drive carbon impurity flows that are aligned with the trajectory of the magnetic field lines in the plasma scrape-off-layer. These impurity flows were directly imaged with emissions from C2+ ions at MAST by coherence imaging spectroscopy and were qualitatively reproduced in deuterium plasmas by modeling with the EMC3-EIRENE plasma edge fluid and kinetic neutral transport code. A reduced one-dimensional momentum and particle balance shows that a localized increase in the static plasma pressure in front of the neutral gas puff yields an acceleration of the plasma due to local ionization. Perpendicular particle transport yields a decay from which a parallel length scale can be determined. Parameter scans in EMC3-EIRENE were carried out to determine the sensitivity of the deuterium plasma flow phenomena to local fueling and diffusion parameters and it is found that these flows robustly form across a wide variety of plasma conditions. Finally, efforts to couple this behavior in the background plasma directly to the impurity flows observed experimentally in MAST using a trace impurity model are discussed. These results provide insight into the fueling and exhaust features at this pivotal point of the radial and parallel particle flux balance, which is a major part of the plasma fueling and exhaust characteristics in a magnetically confined fusion device.

  7. Simulations of Wind Field Effect on Two-Stream Waves in the Equatorial Electrojet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Lon Fern

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wind field effect on the phase veloc i ties of 3- to 10-me ter Farley-Buneman two-stream waves in the equato rial E region ion o sphere at al titudes in the range of 95 - 110 km is stud ied by nu mer i cal simu la tion. The behav ior of this two-stream wave in the uni form wind field Un in a plane per pen dic u lar to the Earth’s mag netic field is simu lated with a two-di men sional two-fluid code in which elec tron in er tia is ne glected while ion in er tia is re tained. It is con firmed that, the thresh old con di tion for the ap pear ance of two-stream waves is VD C U th » + s + n (1 / cos Y0 q ; and the phase ve loc ity of the two-stream wave at the thresh old con di tion is Vp » Cs + Un cos q, where q is the ele va tion an gle of the wave prop a ga tion in a limited range and Y0 = ninnen / WiWe. The first formula in di cates that the wind field paral lel (anti-par al lel to the elec tron drift ve loc ity will raise (lower the thresh old drift ve loc ity by the amount of the wind speed. This means that par al lel wind is a sta ble fac tor, while anti-paral lel wind is an un sta ble fac tor of two-stream waves. This may ex plain why high speed (larger than acous tic speed two-stream waves were rarely ob served, since larger thresh old drift veloc ity de mands larger po larization elec tric field. The result of the simu la tions at the sat u ra tion stage show that when VD was only slightly larger than VD th , the hor i zon tal phase ve loc ity of the two-stream wave would grad u ally down-shift to the thresh old phase ve loc ity Cs + Un. The physical implications of which are discussed

  8. Path planning in uncertain flow fields using ensemble method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Tong

    2016-08-20

    An ensemble-based approach is developed to conduct optimal path planning in unsteady ocean currents under uncertainty. We focus our attention on two-dimensional steady and unsteady uncertain flows, and adopt a sampling methodology that is well suited to operational forecasts, where an ensemble of deterministic predictions is used to model and quantify uncertainty. In an operational setting, much about dynamics, topography, and forcing of the ocean environment is uncertain. To address this uncertainty, the flow field is parametrized using a finite number of independent canonical random variables with known densities, and the ensemble is generated by sampling these variables. For each of the resulting realizations of the uncertain current field, we predict the path that minimizes the travel time by solving a boundary value problem (BVP), based on the Pontryagin maximum principle. A family of backward-in-time trajectories starting at the end position is used to generate suitable initial values for the BVP solver. This allows us to examine and analyze the performance of the sampling strategy and to develop insight into extensions dealing with general circulation ocean models. In particular, the ensemble method enables us to perform a statistical analysis of travel times and consequently develop a path planning approach that accounts for these statistics. The proposed methodology is tested for a number of scenarios. We first validate our algorithms by reproducing simple canonical solutions, and then demonstrate our approach in more complex flow fields, including idealized, steady and unsteady double-gyre flows.

  9. Transient simulation in interior flow field of lobe pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y B; Sang, X H; Shen, H; Jia, K; Meng, Q W

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this paper is mainly focused on the development and control of the double folium and trifolium lobe pump profiles by using the principle of involute engagement and use CAD to get an accurate involute profile. We use the standard k-ε turbulence model and PISO algorithm based on CFD software FLUENT. The dynamic mesh and UDF technology is introduced to simulate the interior flow field inside a lobe pump, and the variation of interior flow field under the condition of the lobe rotating is analyzed. We also analyse the influence produced by the difference in lobes, and then reveal which lobe is best. The results show that dynamic variation of the interior flow field is easily obtained by dynamic mesh technology and the distribution of its pressure and velocity. Because of the small gaps existing between the rotors and pump case, the higher pressure area will flow into the lower area though the small gaps which cause the working area keep with higher pressure all the time. Both of the double folium and trifolium are existing the vortex during the rotting time and its position, size and shape changes all the time. The vortexes even disappear in a circle period and there are more vortexes in double folium lobe pump. The velocity and pressure pulsation of trifolium pump are lower than that of the double folium

  10. On the geometry of field lines in plasma flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagewadi, C.S.; Prasanna Kumar, K.N.

    1988-01-01

    Many research investigators have applied differential geometry to plasma. Intrinsic properties of fluid flows in streamline, vortex line geometries are we ll known under certain set of geometric conditions. Though this approach has yielded some interesting results but the most general properties of flows can be obtained, using eight geometric parameters ksub(s), tsub(s) θsub(ns), θsub(bs), phisub(s), Ωsub(s), div n, div b and the basic necessary conditions to be satisfied by the flow in general anholonomic co-ordinate system together with the conditions to be satisfied by the geometric parameters of triply orthogonal spatial curves of congruences. Adopting the above techniques for triply orthogonal spatial curves of congruences related to the lines of forces, Purushottam has studied the geometric properties of spatial hydromagnetic fluid flows. Again these results have been studied by him in general along the field lines. These results have been studied for plasma along field lines and the basic equations of plasma have been expressed in intrinsic decomposition forms. Furthe r complex lamellar magnetic field have been studied by introducing Lie surface. (a uthor)

  11. RANS study of unsteady flow around a profile blade : application to stall of horizontal axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkheir, N. [Khemis Miliana Univ., Ain Defla (Algeria); Dizene, R. [Univ. des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Algiers (Algeria). Laboratoire de Mecanique Avancee; Khelladi, S.; Massouh, F.; Dobrev, I. [Arts et Metiers Paris Tech., Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    The shape of an airfoil is designed to achieve the best aerodynamic performance. An aerofoil section undergoes dynamic stall when subjected to any form of unsteady angle of pitch. The study of a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) under wind operating conditions is complex because it is subject to instantaneous speed and wind direction variation. When turbine blades are driven into a dynamic stall, the lift coefficient drops suddenly resulting in a degradation in aerodynamic performance. This study presented steady and unsteady wind load predictions over an oscillating S809 airfoil tested in a subsonic wind tunnel. A model of sinusoidal pitch oscillations was used. The values for the angles of attack in steady state ranged from -20 to +40 degrees. The model considered 3 frequencies and 2 amplitudes. The two-dimensional numerical model simulated the instantaneous change of wind direction with respect to the turbine blade. Results were compared with data measurements of S809 aerofoil. Reasonable deviations were obtained between the predicted and experimental results for pitch oscillations. The URANS approach was used to predict the stall while the software FLUENT was used for the numerical solution. It was concluded that the behaviour of the unsteady flow in the wind farm must be considered in order to obtain an accurate estimate of the wind turbine aerodynamic load. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Performance enhancement of iron-chromium redox flow batteries by employing interdigitated flow fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhou, X. L.; Zeng, L.; Yan, X. H.; Zhao, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    The catalyst for the negative electrode of iron-chromium redox flow batteries (ICRFBs) is commonly prepared by adding a small amount of Bi3+ ions in the electrolyte and synchronously electrodepositing metallic particles onto the electrode surface at the beginning of charge process. Achieving a uniform catalyst distribution in the porous electrode, which is closely related to the flow field design, is critically important to improve the ICRFB performance. In this work, the effects of flow field designs on catalyst electrodeposition and battery performance are investigated. It is found that compared to the serpentine flow field (SFF) design, the interdigitated flow field (IFF) forces the electrolyte through the porous electrode between the neighboring channels and enhances species transport during the processes of both the catalyst electrodeposition and iron/chromium redox reactions, thus enabling a more uniform catalyst distribution and higher mass transport limitation. It is further demonstrated that the energy efficiency of the ICRFB with the IFF reaches 80.7% at a high current density (320 mA cm-2), which is 8.2% higher than that of the ICRFB with the SFF. With such a high performance and intrinsically low-cost active materials, the ICRFB with the IFF offers a great promise for large-scale energy storage.

  13. Topology Optimization of a High-Temperature Superconducting Field Winding of a Synchronous Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzi, Matias; Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents topology optimization (TO) of the high-temperature superconductor (HTS) field winding of an HTS synchronous machine. The TO problem is defined in order to find the minimum HTS material usage for a given HTS synchronous machine design. Optimization is performed using a modified...... genetic algorithm with local optimization search based on on/off sensitivity analysis. The results show an optimal HTS coil distribution, achieving compact designs with a maximum of approximately 22% of the available space for the field winding occupied with HTS tape. In addition, this paper describes...... potential HTS savings, which could be achieved using multiple power supplies for the excitation of the machine. Using the TO approach combined with two excitation currents, an additional HTS saving of 9.1% can be achieved....

  14. Field Test Results of Using a Nacelle-Mounted Lidar for Improving Wind Energy Capture by Reducing Yaw Misalignment (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, P.; Scholbrock, A.; Wright, A.

    2014-11-01

    Presented at the Nordic Wind Power Conference on November 5, 2014. This presentation describes field-test campaigns performed at the National Wind Technology Center in which lidar technology was used to improve the yaw alignment of the Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) 2 and CART3 wind turbines. The campaigns demonstrated that whether by learning a correction function to the nacelle vane, or by controlling yaw directly with the lidar signal, a significant improvement in power capture was demonstrated.

  15. Field and numerical studies of flow structure in Lake Shira (Khakassia) in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubaylik, Tatyana; Kompaniets, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Investigations of Lake Shira are conducted within a multidisciplinary approach that includes the study of biodiversity, biochemistry, geology of lake sediments, as well as its hydrophysics. Our report focuses on field measurements in the lake during the 2009 - 2013 and numerical modeling of flow structure. The flow velocity, temperature and salinity distribution and fluctuations of the thermocline (density) were measured in summer. An analysis of spatial and temporal variability of the major hydrophysical characteristics leads us to conclusion that certain meteorological conditions may cause internal waves in this lake. Digital terrain model is constructed from measurements of Lake bathymetry allowing us to carry out numerical simulation. Three-dimensional primitive equation numerical model GETM is applied to simulate hydrophysical processes in Lake Shira. The model is hydrostatic and Boussinesq. An algorithm of high order approximation is opted for calculating the equations of heat and salt transfer. Temperature and salinity distributions resulting from field observations are taken as initial data for numerical simulations. Model calculations as well as calculations with appropriate real wind pattern being observed on Lake Shira have been carried out. In the model calculations we follow (1). Significant differences are observed between model calculations with constant wind and calculations with real wind pattern. Unsteady wind pattern leads to the appearance of horizontal vortexes and a significant increase of vertical fluctuations in temperature (density, impurities). It causes lifting of the sediments to the upper layers at the areas where the thermocline contacts the bottom. It is important for understanding the overall picture of the processes occurring in the lake in summer. Comparison of the results of numerical experiments with the field data shows the possibility of such a phenomena in Lake Shira. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for

  16. Experiments on the flow field physics of confluent boundary layers for high-lift systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert C.; Thomas, F. O.; Chu, H. C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of sub-scale wind tunnel test data to predict the behavior of commercial transport high lift systems at in-flight Reynolds number is limited by the so-called 'inverse Reynolds number effect'. This involves an actual deterioration in the performance of a high lift device with increasing Reynolds number. A lack of understanding of the relevant flow field physics associated with numerous complicated viscous flow interactions that characterize flow over high-lift devices prohibits computational fluid dynamics from addressing Reynolds number effects. Clearly there is a need for research that has as its objective the clarification of the fundamental flow field physics associated with viscous effects in high lift systems. In this investigation, a detailed experimental investigation is being performed to study the interaction between the slat wake and the boundary layer on the primary airfoil which is known as a confluent boundary layer. This little-studied aspect of the multi-element airfoil problem deserves special attention due to its importance in the lift augmentation process. The goal of this research is is to provide an improved understanding of the flow physics associated with high lift generation. This process report will discuss the status of the research being conducted at the Hessert Center for Aerospace Research at the University of Notre Dame. The research is sponsored by NASA Ames Research Center under NASA grant NAG2-905. The report will include a discussion of the models that have been built or that are under construction, a description of the planned experiments, a description of a flow visualization apparatus that has been developed for generating colored smoke for confluent boundary layer studies and some preliminary measurements made using our new 3-component fiber optic LDV system.

  17. Correlation of Magnetic Fields with Solar Wind Plasma Parameters at 1AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, F.

    2017-12-01

    The physical parameters of the solar wind observed in-situ near 1AU have been studied for several decades, and relationships between them, such as the positive correlation between the solar wind plasma temperature T and velocity V, and the negative correlation between density N and velocity V, are well known. However, the magnetic field intensity does not appear to be well correlated with any individual plasma parameter. In this paper, we discuss previously under-reported correlations between B and the combined plasma parameters √NV2 as well as between B and √NT. These two correlations are strong during the periods of corotating interaction regions and high speed streams, moderate during intervals of slow solar wind, and rather poor during the passage of interplanetary coronal mass ejections. The results indicate that the magnetic pressure in the solar wind is well correlated both with the plasma dynamic pressure and the thermal pressure. Then, we employ a 3D MHD model to simulate the formation of the relationships between the magnetic strength B and √NV2 as well as √NT observed at 1AU. The inner boundary condition is derived by empirical models, with the magnetic field and density are optional. Five kinds of boundary conditions at the inner boundary of heliosphere are tested. In the cases that the magnetic field is related to speed at the inner boundary, the correlation coefficients between B and √NV2 as well as between B and √NT are even higher than that in the observational results. At 1AU the simulated radial magnetic field shows little latitude dependence, which matches the observation of Ulysses. Most of the modeled characters in these cases are closer to observation than others. This inner boundary condition may more accurately characterize Sun's magnetic influence on the heliosphere. The new input may be able to improve the simulation of CME propagation in the inner heliosphere and the space weather forecasting.

  18. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris‒flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris‒flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris‒flow events had a large‒magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time‒averaged mean force), high‒frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time‒averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time‒averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse‒grained granular surges and water‒rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite

  19. High resolution modelling of wind fields for optimization of empirical storm flood predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, B.; Frank, H.

    2014-05-01

    High resolution wind fields are necessary to predict the occurrence of storm flood events and their magnitude. Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) created a catalogue of detailed wind fields of 39 historical storms at the German North Sea coast from the years 1962 to 2011. The catalogue is used by the Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Wasser-, Küsten- und Naturschutz (NLWKN) coastal research center to improve their flood alert service. The computation of wind fields and other meteorological parameters is based on the model chain of the DWD going from the global model GME via the limited-area model COSMO with 7 km mesh size down to a COSMO model with 2.2 km. To obtain an improved analysis COSMO runs are nudged against observations for the historical storms. The global model GME is initialised from the ERA reanalysis data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). As expected, we got better congruency with observations of the model for the nudging runs than the normal forecast runs for most storms. We also found during the verification process that different land use data sets could influence the results considerably.

  20. Report on the field test project for wind power development at Kamiyaku Town (wind characteristics investigation); Kamiyakucho ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Wind characteristics are observed for a year at the above town located at the northern end of the Yakushima island, Kagoshima Prefecture. The exponential index of the wind speed distribution in the vertical direction is 6.06 with all the directions averaged, and is so high as 8.4/13.6 in the wind directions (W/E). Prudence should be exercised, when to estimate the wind speed at the wind turbine hub altitude, against disjunction from the simple exponential law due to geographical peculiarities of the observation location. Turbulence intensity is low and is 0.15 when the wind speed is 2m/s or more, not exerting an ill effect on wind power development. As for the total wind direction occurrence rate on the prevalent wind axis, 78.2% is recorded, which is much higher than the reference value (60%). The average wind speed on this wind axis is high, and this shows that the location is quite suitable for wind power development. The annual average wind speed of 6.3m/s is much higher than the reference value, this again promising a success. The wind energy density of 478W/m{sup 2} is sufficiently high, as compared with the reference value (215W/m{sup 2}). Since there are possibilities of a maximum instantaneous wind speed of over 60m/s, caution is to be used in determining wind endurance for the wind turbine design. The annual capacity ratios for the 150/300/750kW wind turbine models are 33.8/36.5/36.9%, respectively, higher than the NEDO-provided reference value (17% or higher) and predicting sufficient power generation. (NEDO)

  1. Data report: the wake of a horizontal-axis wind turbine model, measurements in uniform approach flow and in a simulated atmospheric boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Wake effects will cause power loss when wínd turbínes are grouped in so called wind turbine parks. Wind tunnel measurements of the wake of a wind turbíne model are conducted in order to refine calculatíons of wake effects. Wake effects caused by tower and nacelle are studied in uniform flow. Wake

  2. A New Wind Turbine Generating System Model for Balanced and Unbalanced Distribution Systems Load Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Koksoy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine generating systems (WTGSs, which are conventionally connected to high voltage transmission networks, have frequently been employed as distributed generation units in today’s distribution networks. In practice, the distribution networks always have unbalanced bus voltages and line currents due to uneven distribution of single or double phase loads over three phases and asymmetry of the lines, etc. Accordingly, in this study, for the load flow analysis of the distribution networks, Conventional Fixed speed Induction Generator (CFIG based WTGS, one of the most widely used WTGS types, is modelled under unbalanced voltage conditions. The Developed model has active and reactive power expressions in terms of induction machine impedance parameters, terminal voltages and input power. The validity of the Developed model is confirmed with the experimental results obtained in a test system. The results of the slip calculation based phase-domain model (SCP Model, which was previously proposed in the literature for CFIG based WTGSs under unbalanced voltages, are also given for the comparison. Finally, the Developed model and the SCP model are implemented in the load flow analysis of the IEEE 34 bus test system with the CFIG based WTGSs and unbalanced loads. Thus, it is clearly pointed out that the results of the load flow analysis implemented with both models are very close to each other, and the Developed model is computationally more efficient than the SCP model.

  3. Detailed analysis of the blade root flow of a horizontal axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Herráez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The root flow of wind turbine blades is subjected to complex physical mechanisms that influence significantly the rotor aerodynamic performance. Spanwise flows, the Himmelskamp effect, and the formation of the root vortex are examples of interrelated aerodynamic phenomena that take place in the blade root region. In this study we address those phenomena by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV measurements and Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS simulations. The numerical results obtained in this study are in very good agreement with the experiments and unveil the details of the intricate root flow. The Himmelskamp effect is shown to delay the stall onset and to enhance the lift force coefficient Cl even at moderate angles of attack. This improvement in the aerodynamic performance occurs in spite of the negative influence of the mentioned effect on the suction peak of the involved blade sections. The results also show that the vortex emanating from the spanwise position of maximum chord length rotates in the opposite direction to the root vortex, which affects the wake evolution. Furthermore, the aerodynamic losses in the root region are demonstrated to take place much more gradually than at the tip.

  4. Identification of flow paths and quantification of return flow volumes and timing at field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, N.; Paige, G. B.; Parsekian, A.

    2017-12-01

    Flood irrigation, which constitutes a large part of agricultural water use, accounts for a significant amount of the water that is diverted from western streams. Return flow, the portion of the water applied to irrigated areas that returns to the stream, is important for maintaining base flows in streams and ecological function of riparian zones and wetlands hydrologically linked with streams. Prediction of timing and volumes of return flow during and after flood irrigation pose a challenge due to the heterogeneity of pedogenic and soil physical factors that influence vadose zone processes. In this study, we quantify volumes of return flow and potential pathways in the subsurface through a vadose zone flow model that is informed by both hydrological and geophysical observations in a Bayesian setting. We couple a two-dimensional vadose zone flow model through a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach with time lapse ERT, borehole NMR datasets that are collected during and after flood irrigation experiments, and soil physical lab analysis. The combination of both synthetic models and field observations leads to flow path identification and allows for quantification of volumes and timing and associated uncertainties of subsurface return that stems from flood irrigation. The quantification of the impact of soil heterogeneity enables us to translate these results to other sites and predict return flow under different soil physical settings. This is key when managing irrigation water resources and predictions of outcomes of different scenarios have to be evaluated.

  5. Elevator mode convection in flows with strong magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Li; Zikanov, Oleg, E-mail: zikanov@umich.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan-Dearborn, 48128-1491 Michigan (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Instability modes in the form of axially uniform vertical jets, also called “elevator modes,” are known to be the solutions of thermal convection problems for vertically unbounded systems. Typically, their relevance to the actual flow state is limited by three-dimensional breakdown caused by rapid growth of secondary instabilities. We consider a flow of a liquid metal in a vertical duct with a heated wall and strong transverse magnetic field and find elevator modes that are stable and, thus, not just relevant, but a dominant feature of the flow. We then explore the hypothesis suggested by recent experimental data that an analogous instability to modes of slow axial variation develops in finite-length ducts, where it causes large-amplitude fluctuations of temperature. The implications for liquid metal blankets for tokamak fusion reactors that potentially invalidate some of the currently pursued design concepts are discussed.

  6. Numerical computation of space shuttle orbiter flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannehill, John C.

    1988-01-01

    A new parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code has been developed to compute the hypersonic, viscous chemically reacting flow fields around 3-D bodies. The flow medium is assumed to be a multicomponent mixture of thermally perfect but calorically imperfect gases. The new PNS code solves the gas dynamic and species conservation equations in a coupled manner using a noniterative, implicit, approximately factored, finite difference algorithm. The space-marching method is made well-posed by special treatment of the streamwise pressure gradient term. The code has been used to compute hypersonic laminar flow of chemically reacting air over cones at angle of attack. The results of the computations are compared with the results of reacting boundary-layer computations and show excellent agreement.

  7. Streamwise-body-force-model for rapid simulation combining internal and external flow fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Rong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A streamwise-body-force-model (SBFM is developed and applied in the overall flow simulation for the distributed propulsion system, combining internal and external flow fields. In view of axial stage effects, fan or compressor effects could be simplified as body forces along the streamline. These body forces which are functions of local parameters could be added as source terms in Navier-Stokes equations to replace solid boundary conditions of blades and hubs. The validation of SBFM with uniform inlet and distortion inlet of compressors shows that pressure performance characteristics agree well with experimental data. A three-dimensional simulation of the integration configuration, via a blended wing body aircraft with a distributed propulsion system using the SBFM, has been completed. Lift coefficient and drag coefficient agree well with wind tunnel test results. Results show that to reach the goal of rapid integrated simulation combining internal and external flow fields, the computational fluid dynamics method based on SBFM is reasonable.

  8. Wake effect on a uniform flow behind wind-turbine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulov, V. L.; Naumov, I. V.; Mikkelsen, R. F.; Sørensen, J. N.

    2015-06-01

    LDA experiments were carried out to study the development of mean velocity profiles of the very far wake behind a wind turbine model in a water flume. The model of the rotor is placed in a middle of the flume. The initial flume flow is subjected to a very low turbulence level, limiting the influence of external disturbances on the development of the inherent wake instability. The rotor is three-bladed and designed using Glauert's optimum theory at a tip speed ratio λ = 5 with a constant of the lift coefficient along the span, CL= 0.8. The wake development has been studied in the range of tip speed ratios from 3 to 9, and at different cross-sections from 10 to 100 rotor radii downstream from the rotor. By using regression techniques to fit the velocity profiles it was possible to obtain accurate velocity deficits and estimate length scales of the wake attenuation. The data are compared with different analytical models for wind turbine wakes.

  9. Solar wind stagnation near comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, A.A.; Cravens, T.E.; Gombosi, T.I.

    1983-03-01

    The nature of the solar wind flow near comets is examined analytically. In particular, the typical values for the stagnation pressure and magnetic barrier strength are estimated, taking into account the magnetic field line tension and the charge exchange cooling of the mass loaded solar wind. Knowledge of the strength of the magnetic barrier is required in order to determine the location of the contact discontinuity which separates the contaminated solar wind plasma and the outflowing plasma of the cometary ionosphere. (author)

  10. Comparative analysis of turbulence models for flow simulation around a vertical axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, S.; Saha, U.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Guwahati (India)

    2012-07-01

    An unsteady computational investigation of the static torque characteristics of a drag based vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) has been carried out using the finite volume based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package Fluent 6.3. A comparative study among the various turbulence models was conducted in order to predict the flow over the turbine at static condition and the results are validated with the available experimental results. CFD simulations were carried out at different turbine angular positions between 0 deg.-360 deg. in steps of 15 deg.. Results have shown that due to high static pressure on the returning blade of the turbine, the net static torque is negative at angular positions of 105 deg.-150 deg.. The realizable k-{epsilon} turbulent model has shown a better simulation capability over the other turbulent models for the analysis of static torque characteristics of the drag based VAWT. (Author)

  11. Cutting risk, boosting cash flow and developing marginal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baustad, T.; Courtin, G.; Davies, T.; Kenison, R.; Turnbull, J.; Gray, B.; Jalali, Y.; Remondet, J.C.; Hjelmsmark, L.; Oldfield, T.; Romano, C.; Saier, R.; Rannestad, G.

    1996-01-01

    To minimize financial risk and accelerate return on investment, oil companies are using low-cost, reusable production systems. The scope of these development options is illustrated by looking at three offshore case studies that range from extended well test to marginal field development. In each case, production systems technology has been deployed to provide superior data, early oil or both, thus reducing economic uncertainty and delivering accelerated cash flow. 10 figs., 23 refs

  12. A fast wind-farm boundary-layer model to investigate gravity wave effects and upstream flow deceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan

    2017-11-01

    Wind farm design and control often relies on fast analytical wake models to predict turbine wake interactions and associated power losses. Essential input to these models are the inflow velocity and turbulent intensity at hub height, which come from prior measurement campaigns or wind-atlas data. Recent LES studies showed that in some situations large wind farms excite atmospheric gravity waves, which in turn affect the upstream wind conditions. In the current study, we develop a fast boundary-layer model that computes the excitation of gravity waves and the perturbation of the boundary-layer flow in response to an applied force. The core of the model is constituted by height-averaged, linearised Navier-Stokes equations for the inner and outer layer, and the effect of atmospheric gravity waves (excited by the boundary-layer displacement) is included via the pressure gradient. Coupling with analytical wake models allows us to study wind-farm wakes and upstream flow deceleration in various atmospheric conditions. Comparison with wind-farm LES results shows excellent agreement in terms of pressure and boundary-layer displacement levels. The authors acknowledge support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, Grant No. 306471).

  13. Inverse measurement of wall pressure field in flexible-wall wind tunnels using global wall deformation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth; Brown, Julian; Patil, Mayuresh; Devenport, William

    2018-02-01

    The Kevlar-wall anechoic wind tunnel offers great value to the aeroacoustics research community, affording the capability to make simultaneous aeroacoustic and aerodynamic measurements. While the aeroacoustic potential of the Kevlar-wall test section is already being leveraged, the aerodynamic capability of these test sections is still to be fully realized. The flexibility of the Kevlar walls suggests the possibility that the internal test section flow may be characterized by precisely measuring small deflections of the flexible walls. Treating the Kevlar fabric walls as tensioned membranes with known pre-tension and material properties, an inverse stress problem arises where the pressure distribution over the wall is sought as a function of the measured wall deflection. Experimental wall deformations produced by the wind loading of an airfoil model are measured using digital image correlation and subsequently projected onto polynomial basis functions which have been formulated to mitigate the impact of measurement noise based on a finite-element study. Inserting analytic derivatives of the basis functions into the equilibrium relations for a membrane, full-field pressure distributions across the Kevlar walls are computed. These inversely calculated pressures, after being validated against an independent measurement technique, can then be integrated along the length of the test section to give the sectional lift of the airfoil. Notably, these first-time results are achieved with a non-contact technique and in an anechoic environment.

  14. Evaluation of the impact of adjusting the angle of the axis of a wind turbine rotor relative to the flow of air stream on operating parameters of a wind turbine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumuła Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of regulation of an axis of a wind turbine rotor to the direction of wind on the volume of energy produced by wind turbines. A role of an optimal setting of the blades of the wind turbine rotor was specified, as well. According to the measurements, changes in the tilt angle of the axis of the wind turbine rotor in relation to the air stream flow direction cause changes in the use of wind energy. The publication explores the effects of the operating conditions of wind turbines on the possibility of using wind energy. A range of factors affect the operation of the wind turbine, and thus the volume of energy produced by the plant. The impact of design parameters of wind power plant, climatic factors or associated with the location seismic challenges can be shown from among them. One of the parameters has proved to be change settings of the rotor axis in relation to direction of flow of the air stream. Studies have shown that the accurate determination of the optimum angle of the axis of the rotor with respect to flow of air stream strongly influences the characteristics of the wind turbine.

  15. Experimental tests of the effect of rotor diameter ratio and blade number to the cross-flow wind turbine performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Sandi; Tjahjana, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija; Santoso, Budi

    2018-02-01

    Cross-flow wind turbine is one of the alternative energy harvester for low wind speeds area. Several factors that influence the power coefficient of cross-flow wind turbine are the diameter ratio of blades and the number of blades. The aim of this study is to find out the influence of the number of blades and the diameter ratio on the performance of cross-flow wind turbine and to find out the best configuration between number of blades and diameter ratio of the turbine. The experimental test were conducted under several variation including diameter ratio between outer and inner diameter of the turbine and number of blades. The variation of turbine diameter ratio between inner and outer diameter consisted of 0.58, 0.63, 0.68 and 0.73 while the variations of the number of blades used was 16, 20 and 24. The experimental test were conducted under certain wind speed which are 3m/s until 4 m/s. The result showed that the configurations between 0.68 diameter ratio and 20 blade numbers is the best configurations that has power coefficient of 0.049 and moment coefficient of 0.185.

  16. Interaction of the solar wind with the planet Mars: Phobos 2 magnetic field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedler, W.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Lichtenegger, H.

    1991-01-01

    The magnetometers on board the Phobos 2 spacecraft provided the opportunity to study the magnetic environment around Mars, including regions which have never been explored before, such as at low altitudes (down to 850 km above the surface of Mars) and in the tail. The data revealed a bow shock, characterized by a distinct jump in the magnetic field strength and a boundary denoted ''planetopause'', where the level of turbulence of the magnetic field changes. Inside the planetopause the field remains quiet. Some of the main characteristics of the bow shock and the magnetosheath can be reproduced by computer simulations within the framework of a gas-dynamic model using the observed planetopause as an obstacle for the incoming solar wind. In many spacecraft orbits around Mars, reversals of the B x -component were found which are typical for tail crossings. A first analysis of the tail data from the circular orbits at a distance of 2.8 Mars radii showed several cases where the reversal of the tail lobes was controlled by the IMF. This supports the idea of an induced character of the solar wind interaction with Mars outside a distance of about 2.8 Mars radii. However, there are certain features in the magnetic field data which could be interpreted as traces of a weak Martian intrinsic field. (author)

  17. Generating wind fluctuations for Large Eddy Simulation inflow boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekele, S.A.; Hangan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulation (LES) studies of flows over bluff bodies immersed in a boundary layer wind environment require instantaneous wind characteristics. The influences of the wind environment on the building pressure distribution are a well-established fact in the experimental study of wind engineering. Measured wind data of full or model scale are available only at a limited number of points. A method of obtaining instantaneous wind data at all mesh points of the inlet boundary for LES computation is necessary. Herein previous and new wind inflow generation techniques are presented. The generated wind data is then applied to a LES computation of a channel flow. The characteristics of the generated wind fluctuations in comparison to the measured data and the properties of the flow field computed from these two wind data are discussed. (author)

  18. Optimal Power Flow Modelling and Analysis of Hybrid AC-DC Grids with Offshore Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhua, Debasish; Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to develop renewables based energy systems, the installation of the offshore wind power plants (WPPs) is globally encouraged. However, wind power generation is intermittent and uncertain. An accurate modelling and evaluation reduces investment and provide better operation. Hence......, the wind power production level also plays a major role in a hybrid system on transmission loss evaluation. The developed model is tested in Low, Medium and High wind power production levels to determine the objective function of the OPF solution. MATLAB Optimization Toolbox and MATLAB script are used......, it is essential to develop a suitable model and apply optimization algorithms for different application scenarios. The objective of this work is to develop a generalized model and evaluate the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) solutions in a hybrid AC/DC system including HVDC (LCC based) and offshore WPP (VSC based...

  19. Stochastic Dynamic AC Optimal Power Flow Based on a Multivariate Short-Term Wind Power Scenario Forecasting Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlei Bai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The deterministic methods generally used to solve DC optimal power flow (OPF do not fully capture the uncertainty information in wind power, and thus their solutions could be suboptimal. However, the stochastic dynamic AC OPF problem can be used to find an optimal solution by fully capturing the uncertainty information of wind power. That uncertainty information of future wind power can be well represented by the short-term future wind power scenarios that are forecasted using the generalized dynamic factor model (GDFM—a novel multivariate statistical wind power forecasting model. Furthermore, the GDFM can accurately represent the spatial and temporal correlations among wind farms through the multivariate stochastic process. Fully capturing the uncertainty information in the spatially and temporally correlated GDFM scenarios can lead to a better AC OPF solution under a high penetration level of wind power. Since the GDFM is a factor analysis based model, the computational time can also be reduced. In order to further reduce the computational time, a modified artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm is used to solve the AC OPF problem based on the GDFM forecasting scenarios. Using the modified ABC algorithm based on the GDFM forecasting scenarios has resulted in better AC OPF’ solutions on an IEEE 118-bus system at every hour for 24 h.

  20. Particle Based Modeling of Electrical Field Flow Fractionation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonguc O. Tasci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Field Flow Fractionation (ElFFF is a sub method in the field flow fractionation (FFF family that relies on an applied voltage on the channel walls to effect a separation. ElFFF has fallen behind some of the other FFF methods because of the optimization complexity of its experimental parameters. To enable better optimization, a particle based model of the ElFFF systems has been developed and is presented in this work that allows the optimization of the main separation parameters, such as electric field magnitude, frequency, duty cycle, offset, flow rate and channel dimensions. The developed code allows visualization of individual particles inside the separation channel, generation of realistic fractograms, and observation of the effects of the various parameters on the behavior of the particle cloud. ElFFF fractograms have been generated via simulations and compared with experiments for both normal and cyclical ElFFF. The particle visualizations have been used to verify that high duty cycle voltages are essential to achieve long retention times and high resolution separations. Furthermore, by simulating the particle motions at the channel outlet, it has been demonstrated that the top channel wall should be selected as the accumulation wall for cyclical ElFFF to reduce band broadening and achieve high efficiency separations. While the generated particle based model is a powerful tool to estimate the outcomes of the ElFFF experiments and visualize particle motions, it can also be used to design systems with new geometries which may lead to the design of higher efficiency ElFFF systems. Furthermore, this model can be extended to other FFF techniques by replacing the electrical field component of the model with the fields used in the other FFF techniques.