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Sample records for wind erosion electronic

  1. Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. S. Wagenbrenner; M. J. Germino; B. K. Lamb; R. B. Foltz; P. R. Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are largely unstudied in the post-wildfire environment, but recent studies have shown that wind erosion can play a major role in burned landscapes. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned area (Figure 1). This paper...

  2. Soil cover and wind erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryrear, D.W.

    Wind erosion on agricultural lands can be reduced if the soil surface is protected with crop residues. In evaluating the influence of residues on wind erosion, previous research has expressed residues of various crops as an equivalent of flat, small grain. This becomes difficult as the density of the residue changes with weathering, or as crops other than the major cultivated crops are grown. Soil losses due to wind erosion were determined by covering various percentages of the soil surface with simulated flat residues (wood dowels 3.1 to 25.4 mm in diameter). Covering 20% of the soil surface reduced soil losses 57%, and a 50% cover reduced soil losses 95%. The expression SLR = 1.81 e/sup x/ where x = /sup -0.072% SC/ describes the relationship between soil loss ratio (SLR) and percent soil cover (% SC) with a correlation coefficient of -0.94 (soil cover limits 8 to 80%). The cover can be any nonerodible material such as large clods, gravel, cotton gin trash, or any diameter stick between 3.1 and 25.4 mm. Percent soil cover is easily measured in the field or can be estimated with a minimum of training and experience.

  3. Wind erosion modelling in a Sahelian environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faye-Visser, S.M.; Sterk, G.; Karssenberg, D.

    2005-01-01

    In the Sahel field observations of wind-blown mass transport often show considerable spatial variation related to the spatial variation of the wind erosion controlling parameters, e.g. soil crust and vegetation cover. A model, used to predict spatial variation in wind erosion and deposition is a

  4. The prevention of wind erosion in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaslavsky, D.

    1977-01-01

    The wind erosion is a problem over more than 80 000 hectares in the Netherlands. The damage in wind erodible areas is on the average at least 150 Dfl. per hectare per year. A lot of damages very probably pass unobserved or unreported.

  5. On the geoethical implications of wind erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Károly, Tatárvári

    2016-04-01

    Human activities exerts an ever growing impact on our environment, and this is undeniably the responsibility of mankind. In spite of this fact there is almost no process in our environment that can be described exactly with complete exactness, and the working of which is known in full extent. Wind erosion is such a process. Although water erosion is mentioned ever more often in scientific circles as a from of erosion, its effect is restrained to a certain region, although it may cause perceptibly damage of a greater extent in short time. Wind erosion, apart from the fact that it may have global impact, may play an important role in the warming of our climate according to recent studies. First of all, wind erosion may cause damage far from its origin in human health, nutrition, or in the environment in general. Today several surveys have proved, that erosion caused by wind significantly contributes to the air pollution of cities, the fine dust carried as drift by the wind may cause severe environmental damage in accumulation zones. Microbes, toxic material may attach themselves to the dust carried this way and carried on and by the wings of the wind they may cause health issues in humans animals and plants as well. In spite of these facts there are almost no measures against wind erosion employed in arable land, although our ever doughtier climate and changes would make these necessary. Reduction of organic matter content presents a great problem in a large part of cultivated land, so the risk of the production of high quality food raises questions of more and more ethical nature. Who is responsible? The fact, that the chemicals used in a growing extent by agriculture may reach many people causing considerable damage to the environment also raises serious ethical questions. More and more periods with extreme weather conditions are experienced in Hungary and Europe as the effect of climate change. Drought periods are longer and more frequent as the intensity of

  6. Modelling of environmental and climatic problems: Wind and water erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Magnitude of wind and water erosion mainly depend on wind velocity, rainfall rate, slope and soil characteristics. The main purpose of this lecture is to define the role of small, meso and large scale phenomena (local and synoptic fluctuations) on water and wind erosion. These lecture notes present some results on wind speed simulation and seasonal fluctuations of water deficit for the selected station in different erosion risque and transition regions of Turkey. (author)

  7. Wind and water erosion control on semiarid lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddoway, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial crop production on semiarid lands is difficult because insufficient water is often present to manage the system effectively. Erosion control presents the major management problem. The factors contributing to wind erosion and their interaction have been quantified into a wind erosion equation. The control of wind erosion through agronomic alteration of the various factors is discussed. The quantification and control of water erosion is also discussed with respect to the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Radioisotopes tracers have been used in conjunction with these erosion equations to measure soil losses. (author)

  8. Soil deflation analyses from wind erosion events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Lackóová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are various methods to assess soil erodibility for wind erosion. This paper focuses on aggregate analysis by a laser particle sizer ANALYSETTE 22 (FRITSCH GmbH, made to determine the size distribution of soil particles detached by wind (deflated particles. Ten soil samples, trapped along the same length of the erosion surface (150–155 m but at different wind speeds, were analysed. The soil was sampled from a flat, smooth area without vegetation cover or soil crust, not affected by the impact of windbreaks or other barriers, from a depth of maximum 2.5 cm. Prior to analysis the samples were prepared according to the relevant specifications. An experiment was also conducted using a device that enables characterisation of the vertical movement of the deflated material. The trapped samples showed no differences in particle size and the proportions of size fractions at different hourly average wind speeds. It was observed that most of particles travelling in saltation mode (size 50–500 μm – 58–70% – moved vertically up to 26 cm above the soil surface. At greater heights, particles moving in suspension mode (floating in the air; size < 100 μm accounted for up to 90% of the samples. This result suggests that the boundary between the two modes of the vertical movement of deflated soil particles lies at about 25 cm above the soil surface.

  9. Testing compost as an anti wind erosion agent in a wind tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The potential of compost as an anti wind erosion agent was studied in a wind tunnel on a sandy soil susceptible to wind erosion. Soil treated with a compost-water mixture, which forms a crust on the soil surface after drying, was exposed to a series of increasing wind speeds. Two composts were

  10. Development of an Integrated Water and Wind Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, D. C.; Ascough, J. C.; Wagner, L. E.; Geter, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Prediction technologies for soil erosion by the forces of wind or water have largely been developed independently from one another, especially within the United States. Much of this has been due to the initial creation of equations and models which were empirical in nature (i.e., Universal Soil Loss Equation, Wind Erosion Equation) and based upon separate water erosion or wind erosion plot and field measurements. Additionally, institutional organizations in place typically divided research efforts and funding to unique wind or water erosion research and modeling projects. However, during the past 20 years computer technologies and erosion modeling have progressed to the point where it is now possible to merge physical process-based computer simulation models into an integrated water and wind erosion prediction system. In a physically- based model, many of the processes which must be simulated for wind and water erosion computations are the same, e.g., climate, water balance, runoff, plant growth, etc. Model components which specifically deal with the wind or water detachment, transport and deposition processes are those that must differ, as well as any necessary parameterization of input variables (e.g., adjusted soil erodibilities, critical shear stresses, etc.) for those components. This presentation describes current efforts towards development of a combined wind and water erosion model, based in part upon technologies present in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) and the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) models. Initial efforts during the past two years have resulted in modular modeling components that allow for prediction of infiltration, surface runoff, and water erosion at a hillslope scale within an Object Modeling System. Additional components currently in development include wind detachment at a single field point, continuous water balance, and unified plant growth. Challenges in this project are many, and include adequate field

  11. Potential threat of southern Moravia soils by wind erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dufková

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion is caused by meteorological factors such as wind, precipitation and evaporation that influence the soil humidity. Erosive-climatological factor expresses wind and humidity conditions of particular landscape. This is an index of the influence of average soil surface humidity and average wind velocity on average soil erodibility by wind. On the basis of average wind velocity and Konček’s humidity index, the values of the erosive-climatological factor for three chosen areas of Czech republic (Telč-Kostelní Myslová, Znojmo-Kuchařovice and Brno-Tuřany, where the pro-cesses of wind erosion could exist, were evaluated. Thus, the change of the factor’s value during the period of 1961 – 2000 was studied. The linear trend for the region of Brno and Znojmo (dry areas shows increasing threat of soils by wind erosion, the contrary situation is at the humid area (Telč. The results prove the influence of soil humidity on the erosive-climatological factor and hereby the influence on wind erosion spreadout.

  12. Comparative rates of wind versus water erosion from a small semiarid watershed in southern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both wind erosion and water erosion can be serious land degradation processes in semi-arid dry-lands. However, the relative erosion rates of wind and water erosion have rarely been studied simultaneously and are poorly quantified. In this study, wind erosion and water erosion rates were simultaneous...

  13. Wind erosion control of soils using polymeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Movahedan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion of soils is one of the most important problems in environment and agriculture which could affects several fields. Agricultural lands, water reservoires, irrigation canals, drains and etc. may be affected by wind erosion and suspended particles. As a result wind erosion control needs attention in arid and semi-arid regions. In recent years, some polymeric materials have been used for improvement of structural stability, increasing aggregate stability and soil stabilization, though kind of polymer, quantity of polymer, field efficiency and durability and environmental impacts are some important parameters which should be taken into consideration. In this study, a Polyvinil Acetate-based polymer was used to treat different soils. Then polymer-added soil samples were investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel to verify the effecte of polymer on wind erosion control of the soils and the results were compared with water treated soil samples. The results of wind tunnel experiments with a maximum 26 m/s wind velocity showed that there was a significat difference between the erosion of polymer treated and water treated soil samples. Application of 25g/m2 polymer to Aeolian sands reduced the erosion of Aeolian sands samples to zero related to water treated samples. For silty and calyey soils treated by polymer, the wind erosion reduced minimum 90% in relation to water treated samples.

  14. Integrated spatial assessment of wind erosion risk in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Négyesi, Gábor; Laborczi, Annamária; Kovács, Tamás; László, Elemér; Bihari, Zita

    2016-11-01

    Wind erosion susceptibility of Hungarian soils was mapped on the national level integrating three factors of the complex phenomenon of deflation (physical soil features, wind characteristics, and land use and land cover). Results of wind tunnel experiments on erodibility of representative soil samples were used for the parametrization of a countrywide map of soil texture compiled for the upper 5 cm layer of soil, which resulted in a map representing threshold wind velocity exceedance. Average wind velocity was spatially estimated with 0.5' resolution using the Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenised Data Basis (MISH) method elaborated for the spatial interpolation of surface meteorological elements. The probability of threshold wind velocity exceedance was determined based on values predicted by the soil texture map at the grid locations. Ratio values were further interpolated to a finer 1 ha resolution using sand and silt content of the uppermost (0-5 cm) layer of soil as spatial co-variables. Land cover was also taken into account, excluding areas that are not relevant to wind erosion (forests, water bodies, settlements, etc.), to spatially assess the risk of wind erosion. According to the resulting map of wind erosion susceptibility, about 10 % of the total area of Hungary can be identified as susceptible to wind erosion. The map gives more detailed insight into the spatial distribution of wind-affected areas in Hungary compared to previous studies.

  15. Integrated spatial assessment of wind erosion risk in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pásztor

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion susceptibility of Hungarian soils was mapped on the national level integrating three factors of the complex phenomenon of deflation (physical soil features, wind characteristics, and land use and land cover. Results of wind tunnel experiments on erodibility of representative soil samples were used for the parametrization of a countrywide map of soil texture compiled for the upper 5 cm layer of soil, which resulted in a map representing threshold wind velocity exceedance. Average wind velocity was spatially estimated with 0.5′ resolution using the Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenised Data Basis (MISH method elaborated for the spatial interpolation of surface meteorological elements. The probability of threshold wind velocity exceedance was determined based on values predicted by the soil texture map at the grid locations. Ratio values were further interpolated to a finer 1 ha resolution using sand and silt content of the uppermost (0–5 cm layer of soil as spatial co-variables. Land cover was also taken into account, excluding areas that are not relevant to wind erosion (forests, water bodies, settlements, etc., to spatially assess the risk of wind erosion. According to the resulting map of wind erosion susceptibility, about 10 % of the total area of Hungary can be identified as susceptible to wind erosion. The map gives more detailed insight into the spatial distribution of wind-affected areas in Hungary compared to previous studies.

  16. Scaling up from field to region for wind erosion prediction using a field-scale wind erosion model and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobeck, T.M.; Parker, N.C.; Haskell, S.; Guoding, K.

    2000-01-01

    Factors that affect wind erosion such as surface vegetative and other cover, soil properties and surface roughness usually change spatially and temporally at the field-scale to produce important field-scale variations in wind erosion. Accurate estimation of wind erosion when scaling up from fields to regions, while maintaining meaningful field-scale process details, remains a challenge. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of using a field-scale wind erosion model with a geographic information system (GIS) to scale up to regional levels and to quantify the differences in wind erosion estimates produced by different scales of soil mapping used as a data layer in the model. A GIS was used in combination with the revised wind erosion equation (RWEQ), a field-scale wind erosion model, to estimate wind erosion for two 50 km2 areas. Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery from 1993 with 30 m resolution was used as a base map. The GIS database layers included land use, soils, and other features such as roads. The major land use was agricultural fields. Data on 1993 crop management for selected fields of each crop type were collected from local government agency offices and used to 'train' the computer to classify land areas by crop and type of irrigation (agroecosystem) using commercially available software. The land area of the agricultural land uses was overestimated by 6.5% in one region (Lubbock County, TX, USA) and underestimated by about 21% in an adjacent region (Terry County, TX, USA). The total estimated wind erosion potential for Terry County was about four times that estimated for adjacent Lubbock County. The difference in potential erosion among the counties was attributed to regional differences in surface soil texture. In a comparison of different soil map scales in Terry County, the generalised soil map had over 20% more of the land area and over 15% greater erosion potential in loamy sand soils than did the detailed soil map. As

  17. Wind Erosion in SA – An Economic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Adam; Bright, Melissa; Forward, Giles

    2005-01-01

    Wind erosion has long been seen as a significant environmental issue within South Australia. But is it really an economic issue? This study suggests that even though it is acknowledged that wind erosion has an environmental cost, it is not economic to simply try and fix all wind erosion prone areas in South Australia. Land managers and therefore government policy needs to be selective about the areas they treat, and the strategies used, in order for there to be an economic benefit of ameliora...

  18. Wind erosion potential after land application of biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    PI, H.; Sharratt, B. S.; Schillinger, W. F.; Bary, A.; Cogger, C.

    2017-12-01

    The world population is currently 7.6 billion and, along with continued population growth, comes the challenge of disposing of wastewater and sewage sludge (biosolids). Applying biosolids to agricultural land to replace synthetic fertilizers represents a relatively safe method to recycle or sustainably use biosolids. While land application of biosolids is recognized as a sustainable management practice for enhancing soil health, no studies have determined the effects of biosolids on soil wind erosion. Wind erosion potential of a silt loam was assessed using a portable wind tunnel after applying synthetic and biosolid fertilizer to conventional and conservation tillage practices during the summer fallow phase of a winter wheat-summer fallow rotation in 2015 and 2016 in east-central Washington. Little difference in soil loss was observed between biosolid and synthetic fertilizer treatments, but this result appeared to be dependent on susceptibility of the soil to erosion. Regression analysis between soil loss from fertilizer or tillage treatments indicated that soil loss was lower from biosolid versus synthetic fertilizer and conservation versus conventional tillage at high erosion rates. This suggests that biosolids may reduce wind erosion under highly erodible conditions. Meanwhile, heavy metal concentrations in the windblown sediment were similar for the biosolid and synthetic fertilizer treatments whereas metal loss in windblown sediment was 10% lower from biosolid than synthetic fertilizer. Our results indicate that land application of biosolids did not accelerate the loss of metals or nutrients from soils during high winds. KeywordsLand application of biosolids; wind erosion; wind tunnel; sustainable agriculture

  19. A Multidirectional Wind Erosion Model for Western Saxony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simon; Meusburger, Katrin; de Figueiredo, Tomás; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Wind erosion can trigger a non-visible loss of fine soil up to 40 t ha-1 per single event and is as such a major soil threat and environmental concern in areas susceptible to wind erosion. Western Saxony was assessed to be among the most susceptible landscapes not only within Germany but even within Europe (Borelli et al., 2015; Borelli et al., 2014). Moreover, wind erosion events in eastern Germany cause very severe off-site effects with impacts on road traffic. So far the wind erosion model that is normally applied in Germany is based on the norm DIN standard 19706. The DIN standard 19706 was revised by new controlling factors and fuzzy logic to consider the multi-directionality of wind and make it more realistic to wind erosion processes. The new factors are based on different datasets like (i) wind and temperature data (1hr resolution) for 9 gauging stations and interpolated long-term wind speed (1981-2000, 200m resolution) provided by the German Weather Service, (ii) soil erodibility extracted from the digital soil map 1:50,000, (iii) landscape components from different data sources (ATKIS, OpenStreetMap and others), and (iv) a DEM (20m resolution) for local orographic modeling. For a risky sub-region, local wind speeds and directions were modelled based on the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Programs (WAsP) orography-model to assess road bodies for priority actions. Major improvements of the proposed model are the consideration of changing wind directions and the implementation of factors on soil cover and field length. An estimation of the long-term spatiotemporal variability under changing climate is possible with the model conception. The revised model assesses 3.6% of western Saxonies agricultural fields under very high risk to wind erosion. Larger fields (greater than 116 ha) are connected to a higher frequency (51.7%) of very high risk. Only a small proportion (5.2%) of the high risk class was found in small fields (smaller than 21 ha). Fields under

  20. 7 CFR 610.13 - Equations for predicting soil loss due to wind erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equations for predicting soil loss due to wind erosion... Erosion Prediction Equations § 610.13 Equations for predicting soil loss due to wind erosion. (a) The equation for predicting soil loss due to wind in the Wind Erosion Equation (WEQ) is E = f(IKCLV). (For...

  1. Building Chinese wind data for Wind Erosion Prediction System using surrogate US data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a global problem, especially in arid and semiarid regions of the world, which leads to land degradation and atmosphere pollution. The process-based Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS), developed by the USDA, is capable of simulating the windblown soil loss with changing weather and...

  2. Mechanics of Interrill Erosion with Wind-Driven Rain (WDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article provides an evaluation analysis for the performance of the interrill component of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model for Wind-Driven Rain (WDR) events. The interrill delivery rates (Di) were collected in the wind tunnel rainfall simulator facility of the International Cen...

  3. Mechanics of interrill erosion with wind-driven rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vector physics of wind-driven rain (WDR) differs from that of wind-free rain, and the interrill soil detachment equations in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model were not originally developed to deal with this phenomenon. This article provides an evaluation of the performance of the...

  4. Effects of tailing dam profiles on relative wind erosion rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, P.S.; Scott, W.D.; Summers, K.J.

    Erosion from mine treatment and associated residue areas can pose a significant environmental problem for surrounding locations from dust and other transported materials. The shape of such residue areas can influence windfield behavior by causing significant wind speed increases. Residue areas are often unprotected so that increasing the speed of wind passing over these areas will cause extra erosion. Values of wind speed-up predicted by an empirical model for wind flow over hills of low slope were compared with measured values over approach slopes to a tailings dam. Hunt's model used in this study relates wind speed from a point on the hill to that observed if there was no hill. Measured values are in agreement with those predicted by the model. Shear stress values calculated from the wind flow model are then used to determine the friction velocity which, in turn, predict the relative rates of erosion. This prediction is based on the cubic relation between the friction velocity and erosion rate observed by Bagnold. These calculations are repeated for the various possible hill shapes allowed by the plant layout and the need to integrate long term spoil heaps with existing topography. A strategy for minimizing erosion of mine tailings through shape selection can then form part of the environmental considerations associated with tailings dams.

  5. Beryllium-7 measurements of wind erosion on sloping fields in the wind-water erosion crisscross region on the Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaqiong; Yang, Mingyi; Deng, Xinxin; Liu, Zhang; Zhang, Fengbao; Zhou, Weiying

    2018-02-15

    Soil erosion is complex in the wind-water erosion crisscross region of the Chinese Loess Plateau, as interleaving of wind and water erosion occurs on both temporal and spatial scales. It is difficult to distinguish wind erosion from the total erosion in previous studies due to the untraceable of aeolian particles and the limitation of feasible methods and techniques. This study used beryllium-7 measurements to study wind erosion in the wind-water erosion crisscross region on the Chinese Loess Plateau arms to delineate wind erosion distribution, to analyze its implication to erosive winds and surface microrelief, and to determine correlations between erosion rates and slope gradients. Results obtained using beryllium-7 measurements based on observation plots were verified with saltating particle collection method, and were also verified on a field scale. Results indicated that the effective resultant erosion wind was from northward, which was proved by the eight-directional distributed saltating particles. The microrelief of the ground surface contributed to the formation of high or low erosion centers. Wind erosion rates increased with a linear (R 2 ≥0.95) or exponential (R 2 ≥0.83) fitting increase in the slope gradients as reported in previous studies. Compared to wind erosion on field scale, both the plots and fields exhibited similar distribution patterns in wind erosion isolines. We also determined that the wind erosion rate for two fields estimated, based on equations developed from plot scale was acceptable. This study validates the feasibility of beryllium-7 measurements for soil-wind erosion field experiments and the potential to expand this approach to real field conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of wind erosion intensity on heavy clay soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kozlovsky Dufková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion, common problem of light-textured soils, was determined on heavy clay soils in the foothills of Bílé Karpaty Mountains, Czech Republic. Soil erodibility by wind was determined from the Map of potential erodibility of soil by wind and from the calculation of potential and real soil loss by wind. All the determinations show underestimation of soil erodibility by wind on heavy clay soils, because methods that are used for this are based above all on the assessment of clay particles content and the presumption the more clay particles soil contains, the less vulnerable to wind erosion is. The potential erodibility of soil by wind is 0,09 t . ha−1 per year. The determined value does not exceed the tolerable soil loss limit 10 t . ha−1 per year for deep soils. The real average erodibility of soil by wind has the highest value 1,47 g . m−2 on November 30th, 2008. Other soil losses that do not exceed the tolerable soil loss limit 1,4 g . m−2, were determined on March 18th and 28th, 2008. Big difficulties come with the assessment of the erodibility of heavy clay soils in the areas, where soil erosion ve­ri­fia­bly exists, but it is not assessable by objective calculating methods. Evident necessity of new know­ledge concerning the determination of wind erosion intensity follows from the results.

  7. Using albedo to reform wind erosion modelling, mapping and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Adrian; Webb, Nicholas P.

    2016-12-01

    Wind erosion and dust emission models are used to assess the impacts of dust on radiative forcing in the atmosphere, cloud formation, nutrient fertilisation and human health. The models are underpinned by a two-dimensional geometric property (lateral cover; L) used to characterise the three-dimensional aerodynamic roughness (sheltered area or wakes) of the Earth's surface and calibrate the momentum it extracts from the wind. We reveal a fundamental weakness in L and demonstrate that values are an order of magnitude too small and significant aerodynamic interactions between roughness elements and their sheltered areas have been omitted, particularly under sparse surface roughness. We describe a solution which develops published work to establish a relation between sheltered area and the proportion of shadow over a given area; the inverse of direct beam directional hemispherical reflectance (black sky albedo; BSA). We show direct relations between shadow and wind tunnel measurements and thereby provide direct calibrations of key aerodynamic properties. Estimation of the aerodynamic parameters from albedo enables wind erosion assessments over areas, across platforms from the field to airborne and readily available satellite data. Our new approach demonstrated redundancy in existing wind erosion models and thereby reduced model complexity and improved fidelity. We found that the use of albedo enabled an adequate description of aerodynamic sheltering to characterise fluid dynamics and predict sediment transport without the use of a drag partition scheme (Rt) or threshold friction velocity (u∗t). We applied the calibrations to produce global maps of aerodynamic properties which showed very similar spatial patterns to each other and confirmed the redundancy in the traditional parameters of wind erosion modelling. We evaluated temporal patterns of predicted horizontal mass flux at locations across Australia which revealed variation between land cover types that would not

  8. Determination of wind erosion next to shelterbelts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dufková

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of shelterbelts on the erodibility of soil by wind was studied at three chosen shelterbelts of Southern Moravia, Czech Republic – near the shelterbelts in the cadastral areas of Dolní Dunajovice, Micmanice and Suchá Loz. Ambulatory measurements of wind velocity as so as soil sampling for soil humidity analyses, non-erodible and clay particles analyses were done during the year of 2006. Subsequently, real erodibility of soil by wind was determined at these three areas. Results of the measurements and calculations verify positive effect of shelterbelts consisted in wind velocity decreasing (at about 78% in average, soil humidity increasing (at about 102% in average and soil resistance increasing (at about 70% in average at the leeward side of the shelterbelts.

  9. 75 FR 75961 - Notice of Implementation of the Wind Erosion Prediction System for Soil Erodibility System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Wind Erosion Prediction System for Soil Erodibility System Calculations for the Natural Resources... Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) for soil erodibility system calculations scheduled for implementation for... Erosion Equation (WEQ) where applicable. DATES: Effective Date: This is effective December 7, 2010...

  10. An index guiding temporal planting policies for wind erosion reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, C.X.; Zheng, D.W.; Stigter, C.J.; He, W.Q.; Tuo, D.B.; Zhao, P.

    2006-01-01

    Vegetation cover has spatial as well as temporal characteristics, but the latter are often neglected. Temporal cover characteristics were explored to recommend planting policies for returning arable land into land better protected from serious wind erosion during late autumn, winter, and

  11. Enhancing wind erosion monitoring and assessment for US rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a major resource concern for rangeland managers because it can impact soil health, ecosystem structure and function, hydrologic processes, agricultural production and air quality. Despite its significance, little is known about which landscapes are eroding, by how much, and when. T...

  12. Crater Mound Formation by Wind Erosion on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, L. J.; Kite, E. S.; Michaels, T. I.

    2018-01-01

    Most of Mars' ancient sedimentary rocks by volume are in wind-eroded sedimentary mounds within impact craters and canyons, but the connections between mound form and wind erosion are unclear. We perform mesoscale simulations of different crater and mound morphologies to understand the formation of sedimentary mounds. As crater depth increases, slope winds produce increased erosion near the base of the crater wall, forming mounds. Peak erosion rates occur when the crater depth is ˜2 km. Mound evolution depends on the size of the host crater. In smaller craters mounds preferentially erode at the top, becoming more squat, while in larger craters mounds become steeper sided. This agrees with observations where smaller craters tend to have proportionally shorter mounds and larger craters have mounds encircled by moats. If a large-scale sedimentary layer blankets a crater, then as the layer recedes across the crater it will erode more toward the edges of the crater, resulting in a crescent-shaped moat. When a 160 km diameter mound-hosting crater is subject to a prevailing wind, the surface wind stress is stronger on the leeward side than on the windward side. This results in the center of the mound appearing to "march upwind" over time and forming a "bat-wing" shape, as is observed for Mount Sharp in Gale crater.

  13. A history of wind erosion prediction models in the United States Department of Agriculture: The Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) was officially inaugurated in 1985 by United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) scientists in response to customer requests, particularly those coming from the USDA Soil Conservation Service (SCS), for im...

  14. Meteorological conditions during extreme wind erosion events on heavy soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislava Mužíková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion in the Czech Republic conditions poses relatively a lot of danger, especially for the most fertile areas, where agricultural land is more vulnerable due to the large pieces of land and inappropriate crop rotation. This process causes damage to agriculture by loss of topsoil, fertilizers, seeds and crop damage as well as sedimentation in water recipients and on roads. It also has negative impacts on human health (airborne dust. Wind erosion is especially affected by climatic elements (wind, temperature, precipitation and evaporation etc. and soil characteristics (soil type, content of erodible particles, soil moisture. Wind erosion affects mainly light and medium heavy soil. South Moravia is an example of the territories to which this rule does not apply. Although soils in the Carpathian flysch subsoil are mainly heavy, erosion has been causing damage here for many decades. Quite strong dust storms are not rare, especially at the end of winter and in early spring when the soil is not covered by vegetation.Notable cases of dust storms in the area were recorded in local chronicles, and then written in the summary publication by dr. Švehlík. Interest of this publication was focused on the most destructive cases of dust storms in Bílé Karpaty foothills. The aim was to study meteorological conditions during the period before and during the occurrence of dust storms in the area in detail and to find the relationship between weather and the intensity of wind erosion. The data of wind speed and direction, temperature, precipitation and snow were evaluated. In all cases the average daily air temperature and ground air temperature was over the freezing point or closely under it. The temperature generally increased before the dust storm occurrence and it often happened from negative to positive temperature and the soil probably defrosted. Snow cover was very small or there was no snow cover at all. In the course of April wind erosion

  15. WIND EROSION INTENSITY DETERMINATION USING SOIL PARTICLE CATCHER DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Lackóová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To analyze wind erosion events in the real terrain conditions, we proposed to construct a prototype of soil particle catcher devices to trap soil particles. With these devices we are able to measure the intensity of wind erosion at six different heights above the soil surface in one location or at three different heights in two places. It is possible to use them for six different places at the same time as well. We performed field measurements to determine the amount of soil particles transported by the wind between 26th – 31st March 2012. Each measuring took 60 minutes. After this time the soil particle catchers were emptied and further measurements carried out. At the beginning we selected two places for measurement (soil HPJ 16 and 37 at two heights, one above the other. Then we used two measuring systems 40 m apart at two sites (D2 and D4 and the soil captured at two heights (0, 1. The maximum weight of soil particles trapped in measuring system D2 at height (0 was 1242.7 g at a wind speed of 9.6 ms-1. At measurement height (1 the maximum weight was 72.7 g trapped at the same average hourly rate, but during different measurement events. The measuring system at D4 trapped the highest amount of soil at a wind speed of 8.9 ms-1 (1141.7 g at height (0 and at a speed of 9.3 ms-1 (22.3 g at height (1. During the measurements with the two basic measuring systems D4 and D2, we measured the wind erosion intensity together with soil particle catchers D1 and D3. D3 was placed between devices D4 and D2, D1 was 20 m ahead D2. Soil particle catchers were placed on the soil surface at height position (0. We measured increasing soil erosion downwind on four locations spaced at 20 m. The results show that with there is an increasing quantity of particles collected as the erosive surface length increases, due to the so-called snowball effect. We analyzed selected trapped soil samples in order to determine the size of the soil particles and their proportion

  16. [Impact of wind-water alternate erosion on the characteristics of sediment particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Deng-Feng; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Ma, Xin-Xin; Zheng, Shi-Qing

    2014-02-01

    Wind and water are the two dominant erosion agents that caused soil and water losses in the wind-water alternate erosion region on the Loess Plateau. It is meaningful to study the impact of wind-water alternate erosion on the characteristics of soil particles for understanding the response of soil quality and environment to erosion. Through wind tunnel combined rainfall simulation, this paper studied the characteristics of the erosive sediment particles under the effect of wind-water alternate erosion. The results showed that the particles of 0-1 cm soil were coarsened by wind erosion at the wind speeds of 11 and 14 m x s(-1) compared with no wind erosion. Soil fine particles ( 0.05 mm) increased by 16.8%-20.8%. The physical property of surface soil was changed by the wind erosion, which, in turn, caused an increase in finer particles content in the sediment. Compared with no wind erosion, fine particles (water-wind alternate erosion increased by 2.7%-18.9% , and coarse particles (> 0.05 mm) decreased by 3.7%-9.3%. However, the changing trend of erosive sediment particles after the wind erosion at wind speeds of 11 and 14 m x s(-1) was different along with the rainfall intensity and duration. The erosive sediment particles at the rainfall intensities of 60, 80, 100 mm x h(-1) changed to greater extents than at the 150 mm x h(-1) rainfall intensity with longer than 15 min runoff flowing.

  17. Ice-Release and Erosion Resistant Materials for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Brinn, Cameron; Cook, Alex; Pascual-Marquez, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Icing conditions may cause wind turbine generators to partially lose productivity or to be completely shut down to avoid structural damage. At present, commercially available technologies to mitigate this problem consist of expensive, energy hungry heating elements, which costs roughly 70,000 euro per medium size turbine. Conventional passive ice protection coating systems heavily rely on delicate surface structures and expensive materials to create water repellent superhydrophobic / low surface energy surfaces, which have been proven to be ineffective against ice accumulation. The lack of performance among conventional ice protection materials stems from a flaw in the approach to the problem: failure to recognize that water in its liquid form (WATER) and water in its solid form (ICE) are two different things. Something that works for WATER does not automatically work for ICE. Another reason is that many superhydrophobic materials are often reliant upon often fragile micro-structured surfaces to achieve their intended effects. This paper discusses a fundamentally different approach to the creation of a robust, low cost, durable, and multifunctional materials for ice release and erosion resistance. This National Science Foundation sponsored ice-release coating technology holds promise for protecting wind turbine blades and towers, thus potentially increasing reliability for power generation under icing conditions. Because of the vulnerability of wind turbine blades to ice buildup and erosion damages, wind farm facilities stand to reap considerable benefits.

  18. Techniques for simultaneous quantification of wind and water erosion in semi-arid regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.M.; Sterk, G.; Ribolzi, O.

    2004-01-01

    Wind and water erosion are usually studied as two separate processes. However, in semi-arid zones both processes contribute significantly to soil degradation. Whereas for water erosion the direction of sediment transport is controlled by topography, in wind erosion the direction of transport is

  19. Soil erosion rates caused by wind and saltating sand stresses in a wind tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1993-02-01

    Wind erosion tests were performed in a wind tunnel in support of the development of long-term protective barriers to cap stabilized waste sites at the Hanford Site. Controlled wind and saltating sand erosive stresses were applied to physical models of barrier surface layers to simulate worst-case eolian erosive stresses. The goal of these tests was to provide information useful to the design and evaluation of the surface layer composition of an arid-region waste site barrier concept that incorporates a deep fine-soil reservoir. A surface layer composition is needed that will form an armor resistant to eolian erosion during periods of extreme dry climatic conditions, especially when such conditions result in the elimination or reduction of vegetation by water deprivation or wildfire. Because of the life span required of Hanford waste barriers, it is important that additional work follow these wind tunnel studies. A modeling effort is planned to aid the interpretation of test results with respect to the suitability of pea gravel to protect the finite-soil reservoir during long periods of climatic stress. It is additionally recommended that wind tunnel tests be continued and field data be obtained at prototype or actual barrier sites. Results wig contribute to barrier design efforts and provide confidence in the design of long-term waste site caps for and regions

  20. Soil erosion rates caused by wind and saltating sand stresses in a wind tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1993-02-01

    Wind erosion tests were performed in a wind tunnel in support of the development of long-term protective barriers to cap stabilized waste sites at the Hanford Site. Controlled wind and saltating sand erosive stresses were applied to physical models of barrier surface layers to simulate worst-case eolian erosive stresses. The goal of these tests was to provide information useful to the design and evaluation of the surface layer composition of an arid-region waste site barrier concept that incorporates a deep fine-soil reservoir. A surface layer composition is needed that will form an armor resistant to eolian erosion during periods of extreme dry climatic conditions, especially when such conditions result in the elimination or reduction of vegetation by water deprivation or wildfire. Because of the life span required of Hanford waste barriers, it is important that additional work follow these wind tunnel studies. A modeling effort is planned to aid the interpretation of test results with respect to the suitability of pea gravel to protect the finite-soil reservoir during long periods of climatic stress. It is additionally recommended that wind tunnel tests be continued and field data be obtained at prototype or actual barrier sites. Results wig contribute to barrier design efforts and provide confidence in the design of long-term waste site caps for and regions.

  1. Wind erosion potential of a winter wheat–summer fallow rotation after land application of biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    While land application of biosolids is recognized as a sustainable management practice for enhancing soil health, no studies have determined the effects of biosolids on soil wind erosion. Wind erosion potential of a silt loam was assessed using a portable wind tunnel after applying synthetic and bio...

  2. Wind erosion in the Sahelian zone of Niger : processes, models, and control techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the Sahelian zone of Niger, severe wind erosion occurs mainly in the first half of the rainy season (May - July), when violent winds preceding thunderstorms result in intense sediment transport. Quantification of this wind erosion is difficult due to a high degree of temporal and spatial

  3. Estimation of wind erosion from construction of a railway in arid northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    A state-of-the-art wind erosion simulation model, the Wind Erosion Prediction System and the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s AP-42 emission factors formula, were combined together to evaluate wind-blown dust emissions from various construction units from a railway construction projec...

  4. Multi-scale wind erosion monitoring and assessment for US rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a major resource concern for rangeland managers. Although wind erosion is a naturally occurring process in many drylands, land use activities, and land management in particular, can accelerate wind-driven soil loss – impacting ecosystem dynamics and agricultural production, air quali...

  5. Early-season wind erosion influenced by soil-incorporated green manure in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management strategies are sought to minimize wind erosion of irrigated agricultural soils along the Columbia River of the Inland Pacific Northwest, particularly during the early season (March-April) when high winds coincide with sowing of vegetable crops. Early-season wind erosion potential from soi...

  6. Wind erosion research at an uranium mill tailings site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehmel, G A

    1977-07-01

    A uranium mill tailings pile at Grants, New Mexico, was selected for wind erosion research since the configuration provides flat area containing fine sand and made up of larger particles. The wind erosion experiment is discussed. Experimental equipment consists of meteorological instrumentation to automatically activate air samplers as a function of wind speed increments and direction, particle cascade impactors to measure airborne respirable concentrations as a function of particle size, inertial impaction devices to measure nonrespirable fluxes of airborne particles, a virtual particle cascade impactor to measure airborne concentrations of toxic trace elements, and soil depth gauges to measure changes in surface soil elevations as a function of time. Both radioactive particles as well as toxic trace element concentrations are measured. Radioactive particles are measured with both particle cascade impactors as well as high-volume air samplers. In contrast, toxic trace element airborne concentrations are measured only with a two-stage virtual particle cascade impactor. Fluxes of nonrespirable airborne particles are measured with inertial impaction devices. At particle cascade impactor sites, a rotating cyclone preseparator collects nonrespirable particles. In addition at all sites, fluxes of nonrespirable particles are measured using an open cavity inertial impaction device. (JGB)

  7. Wind Tunnel Experiments: Influence of Erosion and Deposition on Wind-Packing of New Snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian G. Sommer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind sometimes creates a hard, wind-packed layer at the surface of a snowpack. The formation of such wind crusts was observed during wind tunnel experiments with combined SnowMicroPen and Microsoft Kinect sensors. The former provides the hardness of new and wind-packed snow and the latter spatial snow depth data in the test section. Previous experiments had shown that saltation is necessary but not sufficient for wind-packing. The combination of hardness and snow depth data now allows to study the case with saltation in more detail. The Kinect data requires complex processing but with the appropriate corrections, snow depth changes can be measured with an accuracy of about 1 mm. The Kinect is therefore well suited to quantify erosion and deposition. We found that no hardening occurred during erosion and that a wind crust may or may not form when snow is deposited. Deposition is more efficient at hardening snow in wind-exposed than in wind-sheltered areas. The snow hardness increased more on the windward side of artificial obstacles placed in the wind tunnel. Similarly, the snow was harder in positions with a low Sx parameter. Sx describes how wind-sheltered (high Sx or wind-exposed (low Sx a position is and was calculated based on the Kinect data. The correlation between Sx and snow hardness was −0.63. We also found a negative correlation of −0.4 between the snow hardness and the deposition rate. Slowly deposited snow is harder than a rapidly growing accumulation. Sx and the deposition rate together explain about half of the observed variability of snow hardness.

  8. An Evaluation of the Wind Erosion Module in DUSTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, William J.; Allwine, K Jerry; Fritz, Brad G.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Chapman, Elaine G.

    2008-03-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a dust transport model (DUSTRAN), which calculates atmospheric dust concentrations that result from both natural and human activity. DUSTRAN is a comprehensive dispersion modeling system, consisting of a dust-emissions module, a diagnostic meteorological model, and dispersion models that are integrated seamlessly into GIS software. DUSTRAN functions as a console application and allows the user to interactively create a release scenario and run the underlying models. We have recently had the opportunity to compare dust concentrations calculated by DUSTRAN with observations of wind erosion made on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. In this paper we describe both DUSTRAN’s algorithm for predicting the source strength of windblown dust and the comparison of simulated dust concentrations with data. The comparisons use observations of PM10 concentrations for three separate dust events on the Hanford Site in 2001. The dust measurements were made as part of an effort to monitor site recovery following a large range fire that occurred on the Hanford Site in 2000. The comparisons have provided both encouragement as to the practical value of the wind erosion module in DUSTRAN and examples of occasions when the simulations and observations diverge. In general, the maximum dust concentrations from the simulations and the observations for each dust event agreed closely. Because of the lack of soil moisture information, the model was run in a “dry” mode. However, some discrepancies between the observations and the model suggest that accounting for soil moisture should be done where possible. For low dust concentrations, DUSTRAN tends to overestimate PM10 levels. This may be a weakness in the simple form of the dust flux parameterization. It could also be a reflection of deviations of the threshold friction velocity from our nominal value of 20 cm s-1. Overall, however, we have

  9. New Insights into the Geography and Modelling of Wind Erosion in the European Agricultural Land. Application of a Spatially Explicit Indicator of Land Susceptibility to Wind Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Borrelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the art in erosion research does not provide answers about the “where” and “when” of wind erosion in European agricultural lands. Questions about the implications for the agricultural productivity remain unanswered. Tackling this research gap, the study provides a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial patterns of land susceptibility to wind erosion in European agricultural lands. The Index of Land Susceptibility to Wind Erosion (ILSWE was applied in a GIS environment. A harmonized input dataset ranked following a fuzzy logic technique was employed. Within the 36 European countries under investigation, moderate (17.3 million ha and high levels (8.8 million ha of land susceptibility to wind erosion were predicted. This corresponds to 8.0% and 4.1% of total agricultural land, respectively.

  10. Accelerated rain erosion of wind turbine blade coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shizhong

    During operation, the fast-moving blades of wind turbines are exposed to continuous impacts with rain droplets, hail, insects, or solid particles. This can lead to erosion of the blades, whereby the electrical efficiency is compromised and expensive repairs may be required. One possible solution...... to this problem is elastic blade coatings, which are able to absorb the impact energy without crack formation. The purpose of the work presented in this thesis has been to design and construct a laboratory experimentation device, which allows an accelerated and reliable evaluation of existing or novel blade...

  11. In-transit wind erosion losses of coal and method of control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimerick, K.H.; Laflin, G.P.

    1979-08-01

    Wind tunnel tests show the effects of wind velocity and particle size on the amount of coal lost while in transit. Different coals were evaluated to determine the variables associated with wind erosion. The erosion losses can be substantially reduced by using a binder, or crusting agent, to consolidate the surfaces of the coal into a solid mass which resists erosion. This not only reduces economic loss but minimizes pollution.

  12. Spatial and temporal variations of wind erosion climatic erosivity in the farming-pastoral zone of Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Shuping; Yang, Ruixin; Yan, Yechao; Yang, Zhengwei; Wang, Dandan

    2018-03-01

    Wind erosion climatic erosivity is an important parameter to assess the possible effects of climatic conditions on wind erosion. In this paper, the wind erosion climatic factor (C-factor), which was used to quantify the wind erosion climatic erosivity, was calculated for the period 1960-2014 based on monthly meteorological data collected from 101 stations in the farming-pastoral zone of Northern China. The Mann-Kendall (M-K) test, trend analysis, and geostatistical analysis methods were used to explore the spatial and temporal characteristics of the wind erosion climatic erosivity in this region. The result suggests that the annual C-factor, with a maximum of 76.05 in 1969 and a minimum of 26.57 in 2007, has a significant decreasing trend over the past 55 years. Strong seasonality in the C-factor was found, with the highest value in spring, which accounts for a significant proportion of the annual C-factor (41.46%). However, the coefficient of variation of the seasonal C-factor reaches a maximum in winter and a minimum in spring. The mean annual C-factor varies substantially across the region. Areas with high values of the mean annual C-factor (C ≥ 100) are located in Ulanqab and Dingxi, while areas with low values (C ≤ 10) lie in Lanzhou, Linxia, Dingxi, Xining, and Chengde. Spatial analysis on the trend of the C-factor reveals that 81% of the stations show statistically significant decreases at a 90% confidence level. An examination of the concentration ratio of the C-factor shows that the wind erosion climatic erosivity is concentrated in spring, especially in April, which makes this period particularly important for implementing soil conservation measures.

  13. Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzhaf, J.; Leihner, D.E.; Buerkert, A. (Univ. of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany)); Serafini, P.G. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

    Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s[sup [minus]1] as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banzhaf, J.; Leihner, D.E.; Buerkert, A.; Serafini, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s -1 as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs

  15. [Sediment-yielding process and its mechanisms of slope erosion in wind-water erosion crisscross region of Loess Plateau, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Deng-Feng; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Zheng, Shi-Qing; Li, Qiang

    2012-12-01

    Due to the coupling effects of wind and water erosions in the wind-water erosion crisscross region of Loess Plateau, the slope erosion in the region was quite serious, and the erosion process was quite complicated. By using wind tunnel combined with simulated rainfall, this paper studied the sediment-yielding process and its mechanisms of slope erosion under the effects of wind-water alternate erosion, and quantitatively analyzed the efffects of wind erosion on water erosion and the relationships between wind and water erosions. There was an obvious positive interaction between wind and water erosions. Wind erosion promoted the development of microtopography, and altered the quantitative relationship between the sediment-yielding under water erosion and the variation of rainfall intensity. At the rainfall intensity of 60 and 80 mm x h(-1), the sediment-yielding without wind erosion decreased with the duration of rainfall and tended to be stable, but the sediment-yielding with wind erosion decreased to a certain valley value first, and then showed an increasing trend. At the rainfall intensity of 60, 80, and 100 mm x h(-1), the sediment-yielding with the wind erosion at speeds of 11 and 14 m x s(-1) increased by 7.3%-27.9% and 23.2%-39.0%, respectively, as compared with the sediment-yielding without wind erosion. At the rainfall intensity of 120 and 150 mm x h(-1) and in the rainfall duration of 15 minutes, the sediment-yielding with and without wind erosion presented a decreasing trend, but, with the increase of rainfall duration, the sediment-yielding with wind erosion showed a trend of decreasing first and increasing then, as compared with the sediment-yielding without wind erosion. The mechanisms of wind-water alternate erosion were complicated, reflecting in the mutual relation and mutual promotion of wind erosion and water erosion in the aspects of temporal-spatial distribution, energy supply, and action mode of erosion forces.

  16. Wind erosion on heavy-textured soils: calculation and mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kozlovsky Dufková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The equation that expresses the influence of factors affecting soil aggregates breakdown, and thus wind erosion, originated from the results of laboratory simulations of soil aggregates breakdown due to low temperatures treatment, field measurements of air temperature and soil moisture, and statistical evaluation of gained outcomes. All the analyses, whether field or laboratory, were realized on three different soils from three different localities of the Bílé Karpaty Mountains foothills – Ostrožská Nová Ves, Blatnice pod Svatým Antonínkem, and Suchá Loz. The statistically significant factors, influencing the soil aggregates breakdown, were determined using multiple regression analysis and stepwise regression. Soil moisture content at time of freezing was the most significant factor affecting soil aggregates breakdown, content of soil particles < 0.01 mm was the least significant one. Based on the results of laboratory and field research there was created a map of heavy-textured soils that are vulnerable to wind erosion.

  17. Wind tunnel experiments on the effects of tillage ridge features on wind erosion horizontal fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kardous

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the well-known soil factors which control wind erosion on flat, unridged surfaces, two specific processes affect the susceptibility of tillage ridged surfaces to wind erosion: ridge-induced roughness and ridge- trapping efficiency. In order to parameterize horizontal soil fluxes produced by wind over tillage ridges, eight-ridge configurations composed of sandy soil and exhibiting ridge heights to ridge spacing (RH/RS ratios ranging from 0.18 to 0.38 were experimented in a wind tunnel. These experiments are used to develop a parameterization of the horizontal fluxes over tillage ridged surfaces based only on the geometric characteristics of the ridges. Indeed, the key parameters controlling the horizontal flux, namely the friction velocity, threshold friction velocity and the adjustment coefficient, are derived through specific expressions, from ridge heights (RH and ridge spacing (RS. This parameterization was evaluated by comparing the results of the simulations to an additional experimental data set and to the data set obtained by Hagen and Armbrust (1992. In both cases, predicted and measured values are found to be in a satisfying agreement. This parameterization was used to evaluate the efficiency of ridges in reducing wind erosion. The results show that ridged surfaces, when compared to a loose, unridged soil surface, lead to an important reduction in the horizontal fluxes (exceeding 60%. Moreover, the effect of ridges in trapping particles contributes for more than 90% in the flux reduction while the ridge roughness effect is weak and decreases when the wind velocity increases.

  18. Wind tunnel experiments on the effects of tillage ridge features on wind erosion horizontal fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kardous

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the well-known soil factors which control wind erosion on flat, unridged surfaces, two specific processes affect the susceptibility of tillage ridged surfaces to wind erosion: ridge-induced roughness and ridge- trapping efficiency.

    In order to parameterize horizontal soil fluxes produced by wind over tillage ridges, eight-ridge configurations composed of sandy soil and exhibiting ridge heights to ridge spacing (RH/RS ratios ranging from 0.18 to 0.38 were experimented in a wind tunnel. These experiments are used to develop a parameterization of the horizontal fluxes over tillage ridged surfaces based only on the geometric characteristics of the ridges. Indeed, the key parameters controlling the horizontal flux, namely the friction velocity, threshold friction velocity and the adjustment coefficient, are derived through specific expressions, from ridge heights (RH and ridge spacing (RS. This parameterization was evaluated by comparing the results of the simulations to an additional experimental data set and to the data set obtained by Hagen and Armbrust (1992. In both cases, predicted and measured values are found to be in a satisfying agreement.

    This parameterization was used to evaluate the efficiency of ridges in reducing wind erosion. The results show that ridged surfaces, when compared to a loose, unridged soil surface, lead to an important reduction in the horizontal fluxes (exceeding 60%. Moreover, the effect of ridges in trapping particles contributes for more than 90% in the flux reduction while the ridge roughness effect is weak and decreases when the wind velocity increases.

  19. Wind erosion in semiarid landscapes: Predictive models and remote sensing methods for the influence of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, H. Brad

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: to develop and test predictive relations for the quantitative influence of vegetation canopy structure on wind erosion of semiarid rangeland soils, and to develop remote sensing methods for measuring the canopy structural parameters that determine sheltering against wind erosion. The influence of canopy structure on wind erosion will be investigated by means of wind-tunnel and field experiments using structural variables identified by the wind-tunnel and field experiments using model roughness elements to simulate plant canopies. The canopy structural variables identified by the wind-tunnel and field experiments as important in determining vegetative sheltering against wind erosion will then be measured at a number of naturally vegetated field sites and compared with estimates of these variables derived from analysis of remotely sensed data.

  20. The Reduction of Partitioned Wind and Water Erosion by Conservation Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil loss due to wind and water erosion degrades the soil and results in environmental problems downstream and downwind of the source field. Wind and water erosion may both occur to varying extents particularly in semi-arid environments. Soil conservation strategies require information about the p...

  1. Wind Erosion Processes and Control Techniques in the Sahelian Zone of Niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, G.; Stroosnijder, L.; Raats, P.A.C.

    1999-01-01

    Wind Erosion Processes and Control Techniques in the Sahelian Zone of Niger G. Sterk, L. Stroosnijder, and P.A.C. Raats Abstract The objective of this paper is to present the main results and conclusions from three years of field research on wind erosion processes and control techniques in the

  2. Farmers' perceptions of erosion by wind and water in northern Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.M.; Leenders, J.K.; Leeuwis, M.

    2003-01-01

    Wind and water erosion are widespread phenomena throughout the Sahel, especially in the early rainy season, when high-intensity rainstorms are often preceded by severe windstorms. This paper describes the results of a survey on the farmers' perceptions of wind and water erosion processes and control

  3. Wind erosion control with scattered vegetation in the Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Sahelian zone ofAfricais the region that is globally most subjected to land degradation, with wind erosion being the most important soil degradation process. By using control measures, the negative effects of wind erosion can be reduced. At present, adoption of

  4. Using state-and-transition models to evaluate impacts of land cover change on wind erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion of rangeland soils is a global problem exacerbated by land cover change. Despite efforts to quantify the impacts of land cover change on wind erosion, assessment uncertainty remains large. We address this uncertainty by evaluating the application of ecological sites and state-and-transi...

  5. Effect of vegetation cover and transitions on regional wind erosion in drylands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, I.F.

    2012-01-01

    Wind erosion is a critical environmental problem that threatens mainly the arid and semi-arid regions of our planet. Usually this problem is associated with desertification, poverty and other environmental and socioeconomic problems. Wind erosion causes the loss of fertile topsoil, and has a

  6. Estimating the offsite household damages from wind erosion in the western United States. Staff report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, S.; Lee, L.K.

    1989-06-01

    Wind erosion contributes significantly to particulate air pollution in some regions of the Western United States. As a result, wind erosion imposes damages on households in the form of increased interior and exterior cleaning, reduced recreational opportunities, and impaired health. Costs are difficult to estimate because of limited data availability. However, damages appear to be much larger offsite than onsite.

  7. Research of wind erosion intensity in the region of Subotica-Horgos sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velizar Velasevic; Ljubomir Letic

    1991-01-01

    Wind is an important erosional process in the areas of steppe-savanna climate in Europe as typified by the Bojvodina plain in Yugoslavia. Cultivated and forested plots on the Subotica-Horgos Sands were used to study aeolian erosion processes. Wind erosion on the cultivated plot was 3-29 times greater than that occurring on a plot planted to forest trees. That erosion...

  8. Ecological site-based assessments of wind and water erosion: informing accelerated soil erosion management in rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated soil erosion occurs when anthropogenic processes modify soil, vegetation or climatic conditions causing erosion rates at a location to exceed their natural variability. Identifying where and when accelerated erosion occurs is a critical first step toward its effective management. Here we explore how erosion assessments structured in the context of ecological sites (a land classification based on soils, landscape setting and ecological potential) and their vegetation states (plant assemblages that may change due to management) can inform systems for reducing accelerated soil erosion in rangelands. We evaluated aeolian horizontal sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA, using monitoring data and rangeland-specific wind and water erosion models. Across the ecological sites, plots in shrub-encroached and shrub-dominated vegetation states were consistently susceptible to aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion. Both processes were found to be highly variable for grassland and grass-succulent states across the ecological sites at the plot scale (0.25 Ha). We identify vegetation thresholds that define cover levels below which rapid (exponential) increases in aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion occur across the ecological sites and vegetation states. Aeolian sediment flux and fluvial erosion in the study area can be effectively controlled when bare ground cover is 100 cm in length is less than ~35%. Land use and management activities that alter cover levels such that they cross thresholds, and/or drive vegetation state changes, may increase the susceptibility of areas to erosion. Land use impacts that are constrained within the range of natural variability should not result in accelerated soil erosion. Evaluating land condition against the erosion thresholds identified here will enable identification of areas susceptible to accelerated soil erosion and the development of

  9. Ecological site‐based assessments of wind and water erosion: informing accelerated soil erosion management in rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P; Herrick, Jeffrey E; Duniway, Michael C

    Accelerated soil erosion occurs when anthropogenic processes modify soil, vegetation, or climatic conditions causing erosion rates at a location to exceed their natural variability. Identifying where and when accelerated erosion occurs is a critical first step toward its effective management. Here we explored how erosion assessments structured in the context of ecological sites (a land classification based on soils, landscape setting, and ecological potential) and their vegetation states (plant assemblages that may change due to management) can inform systems for reducing accelerated soil erosion in rangelands. We evaluated aeolian horizontal sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA, using monitoring data and rangeland-specific wind and water erosion models. Across the ecological sites, plots in shrub-encroached and shrub-dominated vegetation states were consistently susceptible to aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion. Both processes were found to be highly variable for grassland and grass–succulent states across the ecological sites at the plot scale (0.25 ha). We identified vegetation thresholds that define cover levels below which rapid (exponential) increases in aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion occur across the ecological sites and vegetation states. Aeolian sediment flux and fluvial erosion in the study area could be effectively controlled when bare ground cover was 100 cm in length was less than ∼35%. Land use and management activities that alter cover levels such that they cross thresholds, and/or drive vegetation state changes, may increase the susceptibility of areas to erosion. Land use impacts that are constrained within the range of natural variability should not result in accelerated soil erosion. Evaluating land condition against the erosion thresholds identified here will enable identification of areas susceptible to accelerated soil erosion and the

  10. Determination of Soil Endangerment by Wind Erosion with Consideration of Legislative Changes in Acceptable Soil Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streďanský Jozef

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Value tightening of acceptable soil loss by wind erosion in amendment to the Act No. 220/2004 on Protection and Use of Agricultural Land in the Slovak Republic from 1st of April 2013 is necessary to reconsider wind erosion intensity in agricultural territories. The paper presents results of wind erosion intensity calculation by using Wind Erosion Equation (WEQ that is recommended by Act No. 220/2004. As observed we choose cadastral area Moèenok territory and had determined and compared changes in levels of soil endangerment of arable land by wind and spatial delamination of wind erosion in specific territory of Moèenok. According to WEQ calculation, we determined that soil loss from 3778.85 ha arable land is 1220.52 ha, which is highly endangerment by wind erosion. By defining levels of soil erosion endangerment (LSEE, we found out that area in 3rd class of endangerment rose from 1.48% to 43.37% after changing acceptable soil from 40 to 15 t ha-1 year-1. Results enable us to specify priority areas where to implement erosion control measures in according to sustainable use and protection of arable land in model area.

  11. Erosion of solid neon by keV electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Børgesen, P.; Ellegaard, Ole

    1986-01-01

    The erosion of solid neon by keV electrons has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Electronic sputtering as well as temperature-enhanced sublimation are investigated by a frequency-change measurement on a quartz crystal or in some cases by the change in intensity of reflected electrons....... The erosion yield increases with increasing temperature for substrate temperatures above 7K. Below this temperature sputtering via electronic transitions is the dominant process. The yield shows a clear minimum for film thicknesses about (5-7)×1016 Ne atoms/cm2 for 2-keV electrons. The sputtering yield...

  12. Soil erosion rates from mixed soil and gravel surfaces in a wind tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1990-08-01

    Protective barriers have been identified as integral components of plans to isolate defense waste on the Hanford Site. The use of natural materials to construct protective barriers over waste site is being considered. Design requirements for protective barriers include preventing exposure of buried waste, and restricting penetration or percolation of surface waters through the waste zone. Studies were initiated to evaluate the effects of wind erosion on candidate protective barrier surfaces. A wind tunnel was used to provide controlled erosive stresses and to investigate the erosive effects of wind forces on proposed surface layers for protective barriers. Mixed soil and gravel surfaces were prepared and tested for resistance to wind erosion at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Aerosol Wind Tunnel Research Facility. These tests were performed to investigate surface deflation caused by suspension of soil from various surface layer configurations and to provide a comparison of the relative resistance of the different surfaces to wind erosion. Planning, testing, and analyzing phases of this wind erosion project were coordinated with other tasks supporting the development of protective barriers. These tasks include climate-change predictions, field studies and modeling efforts. This report provides results of measurements of deflation caused by wind forces over level surfaces. Section 2.0 reviews surface layer characteristics and previous relevant studies on wind erosion, describes effects of erosion, and discusses wind tunnel modeling. Materials and methods of the wind tunnel tests are discussed in Section 3.0. Results and discussion are presented in Section 4.0, and conclusions and recommendations Section 5.0. 53 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Raindrop and flow interactions for interrill erosion with wind-driven rain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erpul, G.; Gabriels, D.; Darell Norton, L.; Dennis, C.; Huang, C.H.; Visser, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Wind-driven rain (WDR) experiments were conducted to evaluate the interrill component of the Water Erosion Prediction Project model with a two-dimensional experimental set-up in a wind tunnel. Synchronized wind and rain simulations were applied to soil surfaces on windward and leeward slopes of 7,

  14. [Influences of land using patterns on the anti-wind erosion of meadow grassland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yao-Zhi; Wang-Xu; Yang, Gui-Xia; Xin, Xiao-Ping

    2008-05-01

    In order to analyse the effects of the human disturbances to the ability of anti-wind erosion of the Hulunbuir meadow grassland, the methods of vegetation investigation and the wind tunnel experiment were made to research the changes of vegetation and the abilities of anti-wind erosion of meadow grassland under different using patterns of meadow grassland. The results indicate that, under different grazing intensities of meadow grassland, the critical wind velocity of soil erosion (v) changes with the vegetation cover according to the relation of second power function. Along with the grazing intensities increasing and the vegetation cover reducing, the velocity of soil erosion rapidly increased on the condition of similar wind velocity which is speedier than the critical wind velocity of soil erosion. When the meadow grassland is mildly grazed which the vegetation cover maintains 63%, the velocity of soil erosion is small even there is gale that the wind velocity reach 25 m/s. When the vegetation cover of meadow grassland reduced to less than 35%, the velocity of soil erosion rapidly increased with the vegetation cover's reducing on the condition of the wind velocity is among 20-25 m/s. And owing to the no-tillage cropland of meadow grassland is completely far from the protection of the vegetation, the soil wind erosion quantity achieves 682.1 kg/hm2 in a minute when the wind velocity is 25 m/s, which approaches the average formation quantity of soil (1 000 kg/hm2) in a year.

  15. A New Instrument for Testing Wind Erosion by Soil Surface Shape Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-xing Hai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion, a primary cause of soil degeneration, is a problem in arid and semiarid areas throughout the world. Many methods are available to study soil erosion, but there is no an effective method for making quantitative measurements in the field. To solve this problem, we have developed a new instrument that can measure the change in the shape of the soil surface, allowing quick quantification of wind erosion. In this paper, the construction and principle of the new instrument are described. Field experiments are carried out using the instrument, and the data are analyzed. The erosion depth is found to vary by 11% compared to the average for measurement areas ranging from 30×30 cm2 to 10×10 cm2. The results show that the instrument is convenient and reliable for quantitatively measuring wind erosion in the field.

  16. Wind born(e) landscapes: the role of wind erosion in agricultural land management and nature development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Wind has played an important role in the geological development of the north-western Europe. Various aeolian deposits such as inland dunes, river dunes, cover sands, drift sands and coastal dunes, form the base of large areas in our present landscape. The role of wind erosion in today's north-west

  17. Long term erosion resistance of unprotected radon suppression earth covers to wind stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bander, T.J.

    1980-10-01

    Estimates of the amount of soil cover lost due to wind erosion are obtained using three different models. One model developed by W. S. Chepil employs a wind erosion equation which is based on wind tunnel and agricultural field measurements. The second model is based on an analytical solution of the saltation process obtained by P. R. Owen and agrees well with the data of Bagnold and Zingg. The third model was developed by Gillette and is based on a modification of the horizontal flux equation used by Bagnold and Chepil. Basic differences between the models are examined and a comparison of the soil movement predicted by each is presented. The usefulness of these wind erosion models as guidance in designing long term erosion-resistant covers for tailings piles is considered.

  18. Leading edge erosion of coated wind turbine blades: Review of coating life models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, H.M.; Gelinck, E.R.M.; Rentrop, A.; van der Heide, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Erosion of the leading edge of wind turbine blades by droplet impingement wear, reduces blade aerodynamic efficiency and power output. Eventually, it compromises the integrity of blade surfaces. Elastomeric coatings are currently used for erosion resistance, yet the life of such coatings cannot be

  19. A Review of Power Electronics for Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    The paper reviews the power electronic applications for wind energy systems. Main wind turbine systems with different generators and power electronic converters are described. The electrical topologies of wind farms with power electronic conversion are discussed. Power electronic applications...

  20. Estimation of wind erosion from construction of a railway in arid Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benli Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art wind erosion simulation model, the Wind Erosion Prediction System and the United States Environmental Protection Agency's AP 42 emission factors formula, were combined together to evaluate wind-blown dust emissions from various construction units from a railway construction project in the dry Gobi land in Northwest China. The influence of the climatic factors: temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, soil condition, protective measures, and construction disturbance were taken into account. Driven by daily and sub-daily climate data and using specific detailed management files, the process-based WEPS model was able to express the beginning, active, and ending phases of construction, as well as the degree of disturbance for the entire scope of a construction project. The Lanzhou-Xinjiang High-speed Railway was selected as a representative study because of the diversities of different climates, soil, and working schedule conditions that could be analyzed. Wind erosion from different working units included the building of roadbeds, bridges, plants, temporary houses, earth spoil and barrow pit areas, and vehicle transportation were calculated. The total wind erosion emissions, 7406 t, for the first construction area of section LXS-15 with a 14.877 km length was obtained for quantitative analysis. The method used is applicable for evaluating wind erosion from other complex surface disturbance projects.

  1. Emission factors for wind erosion of exposed aggregates at surface coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowherd, C.

    1982-06-01

    The information presented in this paper is directed to those interested in inventorying dust emissions generated by wind erosion of exposed aggregates at surface coal mines. A testing program is described which entailed the use of a portable wind tunnel and an isokinetic sampling system to measure windblown dust emissions from coal and overburden materials at three western mine sites. Test measurements consisted of particle mass emission rates and size distributions for various control wind speeds and times after the initiation of wind erosion. The results indicate that natural surface crusts are very effective in mitigating suspended dust emissions and that a given surface has a finite potential for wind erosion subsequent to mechanical disturbance. Test data are used to develop a predictive emission factor equation which relates emission rate (per unit surface area) to the frequency of disturbance and the erosion potential corresponding to the fastest mile of wind for the period between disturbances. This equation can be used directly for flat surfaces or it can be coupled with an analysis of wind flow patterns around elevated storage piles to develop dust emission estimates for overall pile erosion.

  2. A history of wind erosion prediction models in the United States Department of Agriculture Prior to the Wind Erosion Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains experienced an influx of settlers in the late 1850s to 1900. Periodic drought was hard on both settlers and the soil and caused severe wind erosion. The period known as the Dirty Thirties, 1931 to 1939, produced many severe windstorms, and the resulting dusty sky over Washington, D....

  3. PM2.5 and PM10 Emission from agricultural soils by wind erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil tillage and wind erosion are a major source of particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) emission from cultivated soil. Fifteen cultivated soils collected from 5 states were tested as crushed (<2.0 mm) and uncrushed (natural aggregation) at 8, 10, and 13 m s-1 wind velocity in...

  4. Soil erosion rates from mixed soil and gravel surfaces in a wind tunnel: A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1988-12-01

    Tests of wind erosion were performed in a controlled-environment wind tunnel to support the development of natural-material protective barriers for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Barrier performance standards currently being developed for internal and external barrier performance are expected to mandate a surface layer that is resistant to wind erosion. The purpose of this study was to initiate a series of tests to determine suitable soil and gravel mixtures for such a barrier and to test worst-case surface layer conditions under the influence of high wind speeds. Six mixed soil and gravel surfaces were prepared, weathered to represent natural wind-blown desert areas, and subjected to controlled wind erosion forces in a wind tunnel. The applied erosive forces, including surface shear forces, were characterized to provide a means of relating wind tunnel results with actual field conditions. Soil particle losses from the surfaces caused by suspension, saltation, and surface creep were monitored by aerosol sample probes and mass balance measurements. 23 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Modelling nutrient losses by wind and water erosion in northern Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the semi-arid environment of northern Burkina Faso the processes of wind and water erosion occur almost simultaneously and may cause severe soil degradation. Especially in the early rainy season when soils are bare and unprotected, violent winds preceding intense rainfall events result in intense

  6. Soil erosion rates from mixed soil and gravel surfaces in a wind tunnel: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1988-12-01

    Tests of wind erosion were performed in a controlled-environment wind tunnel to support the development of natural-material protective barriers for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Barrier performance standards currently being developed for internal and external barrier performance are expected to mandate a surface layer that is resistant to wind erosion. The purpose of this study was to initiate a series of tests to determine suitable soil and gravel mixtures for such a barrier and to test worst-case surface layer conditions under the influence of high wind speeds. Six mixed soil and gravel surfaces were prepared, weathered to represent natural wind-blown desert areas, and subjected to controlled wind erosion forces in a wind tunnel. The applied erosive forces, including surface shear forces, were characterized to provide a means of relating wind tunnel results with actual field conditions. Soil particle losses from the surfaces caused by suspension, saltation, and surface creep were monitored by aerosol sample probes and mass balance measurements. 23 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  7. The erosion and erosion products of tungsten and carbon based materials bombarded by high energy pulse electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiang; Zhang Fu; Xu Zengyu; Liu Yong; Yoshida, N.; Noda, N.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the erosion behaviors and erosion products of tungsten and some carbon based materials, such as graphite, C/C composite and B 4 C/Cu functionally graded material, were investigated by using a pulse electron beam to simulate the vertical displacement events (VDE) process. The authors will focus on the forms and differences of erosion products among these testing materials, and make clear to their erosion mechanisms

  8. Influence of climate conditions on the intensity and spreading of wind erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dufková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of climate conditions on the intensity and spreading of wind erosion was considered in the area of South Moravia. For this purpose, 16 meteorological stations were selected on the basis of accessibility of required data, their adequate representativeness, homogeneity, and position of the stations. It was necessary to make the database of climatological factors (such as wind velocity, precipitation and air temperature of the period of 1961–2003 for the analyses of climatological data. The climatological data was then evaluated for the periods of 1961–2003, 1961–1990, 1991–2000, and 1971–2000. Clima- tic erosion factor, which explains potential erodibility of soil by wind, was determined through the analyses of factors influencing the wind erosion. The assessment of influence of expected climate change on the intensity and spreading of wind erosion consists in the selection of suitable climatological model and climate change scenarios on the basis of ability to model the three climatological factors (wind velocity, precipitation and air temperature. Climate change scenarios were then applied on the data of the selected climatological stations and the assessment of changes in data sets and the comparative analysis of the outputs of the scenarios with measured data from the normal period of 1961–1990 were done. The climatic erosion factor was also determined from the altered data of the scenarios.

  9. The Methods of Locating Areas Exposed to Wind Erosion in the South Moravia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Podhrázská

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the development of wind erosion are determined by the soil and climatic conditions as well as by the presence or absence of wind barriers. It is because of its climatic and soil conditions that the territory of the South Moravia Region has been affected by erosion for centuries. Combined with the atmospheric conditions, the dry and warm climate enables the development of aeolian processes both in light, drying soils and – under certain climatic conditions – in heavy, clay-loam soils. Soil erosion exposure maps have been prepared in order to identify the territories which are potentially exposed to wind erosion in terms of the soil and climatic conditions. Six exposure categories have been applied to the soils. However, the impact of permanent vegetation barriers – line elements – must be considered in order to identify the most exposed areas. Protective forest belts were planted in the 1950s to counter the effects of wind erosion and they are included in the database of the Institute for Economic Forest Management. The network of these wind barriers and the heath condition of the individual elements are often unsatisfactory because of poor maintenance. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the spatial function of the network of protective forest belts using the map of the potential exposure of soil in the Region of South Moravia. The method used to evaluate the spatial function of the windbreaks presented in the study using GIS instruments.

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of agricultural mulches for reducing post-wildfire wind erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, P. R.; Jennewein, J.; Sharratt, B. S.; Lewis, S. A.; Brown, R. E.

    2017-08-01

    Post-wildfire soil erosion can be caused by water or aeolian processes, yet most erosion research has focused on predominantly water-driven erosion. This study investigates the effectiveness of three agricultural mulches, with and without a tackifier, on aeolian sediment transport processes. A wind tunnel was used to simulate post-wildfire wind erosion at three wind speeds (6, 11 and 18 m s-1). Shallow trays containing soil collected after a wildfire were treated with chopped rice, wheat or chopped wheat mulch; mulch treatments were also compounded with liquid treatments, tackifier to water ratios of 1:6, 1:3 and water. The mulch treatments were generally easily moved at all wind speeds with cover reductions greater than 90% at the highest wind speed. As expected, sediment loss was greatest for the bare soil treatment, ranging from 6.5 g m-2 at the lowest wind speed which increases to 6258 g m-2 at the highest wind speed. Adding wheat or chopped wheat mulch significantly reduced sediment loss by an order or magnitude (698 and 298 g m-2, respectively) at the highest wind speed. Adding chopped rice straw reduced sediment loss by a half to 3573 g m-2 at the highest wind speed, but the effect was not significant due to mobilization of the mulch. The most effective sediment loss mitigation was achieved with liquid tackifier treatments when applied to bare soil and when compounded with various mulch treatments, particularly at the highest wind speed. These results may aid management decisions when mitigating aeolian sediment transport after wildfires.

  11. Effect of changes in some climatic factors on wind erosion risks – the case study of South Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Podhrázská

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of wind erosion is determined by climatic factors (wind direction and wind speed, precipitation, temperature, humidity, presence of negative temperatures, soil and geological factors (geological composition of the area, the size and shape of soil particles, soil moisture, soil structure, mechanical stability of soil, vegetation factors (vegetation cover, crop residues, geomorphological factors (shape and distribution of the slopes, the incidence planes and leeward sites and anthropogenic factors (length and orientation of land, farming, irrigation. Potential exposure of the wind erosion can be expressed through indexes of soil susceptibility to wind erosion in conjunction with the effects of climatic factors. In connection with the fluctuating values of climatic factors induced by climate changes, differences can be expected to occur also in the size of areas threatened by wind erosion. One of the areas, most endangered by wind erosion in the Czech Republic, is South Moravia. In this region there was performed the regionalization of localities, endangered by wind erosion. This paper presents results of analysis the erosion risks according to climatic and soil characteristics statistically processed for the period from 1901–1950. These are then compared with areas endangered by wind erosion that were established based on the updated set of climatic data and its statistical processing from the period of years 1961–2000. The results are processed into map outputs by using GIS.

  12. Using Cesium-137 technique to study the characteristics of different aspect of soil erosion in the Wind-water Erosion Crisscross Region on Loess Plateau of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mian E-mail: hnli-mian@163.com; Li Zhanbin; Liu Puling; Yao Wenyi

    2005-01-01

    The most serious soil erosion on Loess Plateau exists in the Wind-water Erosion Crisscross Region. In the past 20 years, the types and intensity of soil erosion and its temporal and spatial distribution were studied, but studies on the difference of soil erosion between slope aspects and slope positions in this area have no report. However, it is very important to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the characteristics of different aspects and positions of soil loss for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in this area. The spatial pattern of net soil loss on 4 downslope transects in four aspects (east, west, south and north) on a typical Mao (round loess mound) in Liudaogou catchment in Wind-water Erosion Crisscross Region was measured in 2000 using the resident cesium-137 deficit technique. The purposes of this investigation were undertaken to determine whether or not {sup 137}Cs measurement would give a useful indication of the extent of soil loss and their characteristics from cultivated hillsides in different slope aspect and slope position in the study area. The results showed that the difference of soil erosion in different aspect was significant and the erosion rate was in this order: north>east>south>west. Compared with other areas, the difference of erosion rate between north hillside and south hillside was on the contrary, and the possible explanations could be the effect of wind erosion. Also, the percentage of wind erosion was estimated to be at least larger than 18% of total soil loss by comparing the difference of erosion amount in south hillside and north hillside. The erosion rates on different slope positions in all aspects were also different, the highest net soil loss occurred in the lower slope position, and the upper and middle slope positions were slight. The general trend of net soil loss on sloping surface was to increase in fluctuation with increasing downslope distance.

  13. Dust emission and soil loss due to anthropogenic activities by wind erosion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katra, Itzhak; Swet, Nitzan; Tanner, Smadar

    2017-04-01

    Wind erosion is major process of soil loss and air pollution by dust emission of clays, nutrients, and microorganisms. Many soils throughout the world are currently or potentially associated with dust emissions, especially in dryland zones. The research focuses on wind erosion in semi-arid soils (Northern Negev, Israel) that are subjected to increased human activities of urban development and agriculture. A boundary-layer wind tunnel has been used to study dust emission and soil loss by simulation and quantification of high-resolution wind processes. Field experiments were conducted in various surface types of dry loess soils. The experimental plots represent soils with long-term and short term influences of land uses such as agriculture (conventional and organic practices), grazing, and natural preserves. The wind tunnel was operated under various wind velocities that are above the threshold velocity of aeolian erosion. Total soil sediment and particulate matter (PM) fluxes were calculated. Topsoil samples from the experimental plots were analysed in the laboratory for physical and chemical characteristics including aggregation, organic matter, and high-resolution particle size distribution. The results showed variations in dust emission in response to surface types and winds to provide quantitative estimates of soil loss over time. Substantial loss of particulate matter that is management strategies as well as for PM loading to the atmosphere and air pollution.

  14. Wind Erosion Induced Soil Degradation in Northern China: Status, Measures and Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongling Guo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is one of the most serious ecological problems in the world. In arid and semi-arid northern China, soil degradation predominantly arises from wind erosion. Trends in soil degradation caused by wind erosion in northern China frequently change with human activities and climatic change. To decrease soil loss by wind erosion and enhance local ecosystems, the Chinese government has been encouraging residents to reduce wind-induced soil degradation through a series of national policies and several ecological projects, such as the Natural Forest Protection Program, the National Action Program to Combat Desertification, the “Three Norths” Shelter Forest System, the Beijing-Tianjin Sand Source Control Engineering Project, and the Grain for Green Project. All these were implemented a number of decades ago, and have thus created many land management practices and control techniques across different landscapes. These measures include conservation tillage, windbreak networks, checkerboard barriers, the Non-Watering and Tube-Protecting Planting Technique, afforestation, grassland enclosures, etc. As a result, the aeolian degradation of land has been controlled in many regions of arid and semiarid northern China. However, the challenge of mitigating and further reversing soil degradation caused by wind erosion still remains.

  15. Implications of climate change on wind erosion of agricultural lands in the Columbia plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Sharratt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change may impact soil health and productivity as a result of accelerated or decelerated rates of erosion. Previous studies suggest a greater risk of wind erosion on arid and semi-arid lands due to loss of biomass under a future warmer climate. There have been no studies conducted to assess the impact of climate change on wind erosion in the Columbia Plateau of the Pacific Northwest United States where wind erosion of agricultural lands can cause exceedance of national air quality standards. The Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS was used to assess wind erosion and PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 µm in aerodynamic diameter emissions under a future climate projected by downscaling 18 Global Climate Models (GCM for a conservative emissions pathway. Wind erosion simulations were conducted at Lacrosse and Lind, WA and Moro, OR on a winter wheat-summer fallow (WW-SF rotation and at Lind on an additional winter wheat-camelina-summer fallow (WW-Cam-SF rotation. Each rotation was subject to conservation or conventional tillage practices for a baseline (1970–1999 and mid-21st century climate (2035–2064. A significant increase in temperature and nominal increases in precipitation were projected by an ensemble of climate models for the Columbia Plateau by the mid-21st century. Soil and PM10 losses were 25–84% lower for a mid-21st century climate, due in part to greater biomass production associated with CO2 fertilization and warmer temperatures. The reduction in soil and PM10 loss is projected to be more apparent for conservation tillage practices in the future. Soil and PM10 losses were greater from a WW-Cam-SF rotation than WW-SF rotation when conservation tillage practices were employed during the fallow phase of the rotations. Despite accounting for differences in the length of each rotation, annual soil and PM10 losses remained higher for the WW-Cam-SF rotation than the WW-SF rotation. Soil and PM10 losses were more variable across

  16. Wind erosion potential influenced by tillage in an irrigated potato-sweet corn rotation in the Columbia Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a concern within the Columbia Basin of the Inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) United States due to the sandy texture of soils and small amount of residue retained on the soil surface after harvest of vegetable crops like potato. This study assessed potential wind erosion of an irrigated ...

  17. Literature review of models for estimating soil erosion and deposition from wind stresses on uranium-mill-tailings covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon-suppression cover applied to uranium-mill tailings. The mechanics of wind erosion, as well as of soil deposition, are discussed in this report. Several wind erosion models are reviewed to determine if they can be used to estimate the erosion of soil from a mill-tailings cover. One model, developed by W.S. Chepil, contains the most-important factors that describe variables that influence wind erosion. Particular features of other models are also discussed, as well as the application of Chepil's model to a particular tailings pile. For this particular tailings pile, the estimated erosion was almost one inch per year for an unprotected tailings soil surface. Wide variability in the deposition velocity and lack of adequate deposition models preclude reliable estimates of the rate at which airborne particles are deposited.

  18. Literature review of models for estimating soil erosion and deposition from wind stresses on uranium-mill-tailings covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon-suppression cover applied to uranium-mill tailings. The mechanics of wind erosion, as well as of soil deposition, are discussed in this report. Several wind erosion models are reviewed to determine if they can be used to estimate the erosion of soil from a mill-tailings cover. One model, developed by W.S. Chepil, contains the most-important factors that describe variables that influence wind erosion. Particular features of other models are also discussed, as well as the application of Chepil's model to a particular tailings pile. For this particular tailings pile, the estimated erosion was almost one inch per year for an unprotected tailings soil surface. Wide variability in the deposition velocity and lack of adequate deposition models preclude reliable estimates of the rate at which airborne particles are deposited

  19. Investigation of gas particle flow in an erosion wind tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabakoff, W.; Hamed, A.; Beacher, B.

    1983-04-01

    Trajectories of small particles approaching the test specimen in an erosion tunnel are analytically determined. The two-dimensional equations of motion are solved for a spherical particle under the sole influence of aerodynamic drag. The two-dimensional gradients of gas properties in the flow field are determined by a numerical solution of the equations describing a compressible inviscid fluid. At one inlet condition, the trajectories are computed for coal ash particles of various sizes approaching test specimens at several orientations. Trends are identified in the approaching characteristics that may be related to the observed erosion. The results indicate that, for ash particles with diameters less than 10 ..mu..m, significant numbers are deflected away from the specimen. These particles would otherwise impact with the specimen if they had to resist the turning effect of the flow field.

  20. Evaluation of chemical stabilizers and windscreens for wind erosion control of uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1984-08-01

    Potential wind erosion of uranium mill tailings is a concern for the surface disposal of tailings at uranium mills. Wind-blown tailings may subsequently be redeposited on areas outside the impoundment. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating techniques for fugitive dust control at uranium mill tailings piles. Laboratory tests, including wind tunnel studies, were conducted to evaluate the relative effectiveness of 43 chemical stabilizers. Seventeen of the more promising stabilizers were applied to test plots on a uranium tailings pile at the American Nuclear Corporation-Gas Hills Project mill site in central Wyoming. The durabilities of these materials under actual site conditions were evaluated over time. In addition, field testing of commercially available windscreens was conducted. Test panels were constructed of eight different materials at the Wyoming test site to compare their durability. A second test site was established near PNL to evaluate the effectiveness of windscreens at reducing wind velocity, and thereby reduce the potential for wind erosion of mill tailings. Results of the laboratory land field tests of the chemical stabilizers and windscreens are presented, along with costs versus effectiveness of these techniques for control of wind erosion at mill tailings piles. 12 references, 4 figures, 6 tables.

  1. Nutrient dynamics - wind and water erosion at the village scale in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.M.; Sterk, G.

    2007-01-01

    The loss of nutrients by wind erosion is generally attributed to losses by suspension, since suspension selectively removes the finest particles. However, because the main mass of sediment is moved by saltation during an event, the main mass of nutrients is also moved by saltation. Nutrient losses

  2. Crop production and economic loss due to wind erosion in hot arid ecosystem of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Priyabrata; Moharana, P. C.; Kumar, Mahesh; Soni, M. L.; Pandey, C. B.; Chaudhari, S. K.; Sikka, A. K.

    2017-10-01

    Wind erosion is a severe land degradation process in hot arid western India and affects the agricultural production system. It affects crop yield directly by damaging the crops through abrasion, burial, dust deposition etc. and indirectly by reducing soil fertility. In this study, an attempt was made to quantify the indirect impact of wind erosion process on crop production loss and associated economic loss in hot arid ecosystem of India. It has been observed that soil loss due to wind erosion varies from minimum 1.3 t ha-1 to maximum 83.3 t ha-1 as per the severity. Yield loss due to wind erosion was found maximum for groundnut (Arachis hypogea) (5-331 kg ha-1 yr-1), whereas minimum for moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) (1-93 kg ha-1 yr-1). For pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), which covers a major portion of arable lands in western Rajasthan, the yield loss was found 3-195 kg ha-1 yr-1. Economic loss was found higher for groundnut and clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) than rest crops, which are about

  3. Consistency of wind erosion assessments across land use and land cover types: A critical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent decades, large areas of rangeland have been converted to cropland or vice versa in the western United States and elsewhere in the world, driven largely by increased crop prices, loss of access to irrigation water, and agricultural expansion / contraction. Wind erosion and dust emissions ar...

  4. Fire and grazing effects on wind erosion, soil water content, and soil temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeire, Lance T; Wester, David B; Mitchell, Robert B; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D

    2005-01-01

    Selective grazing of burned patches can be intense if animal distribution is not controlled and may compound the independent effects of fire and grazing on soil characteristics. Our objectives were to quantify the effects of patch burning and grazing on wind erosion, soil water content, and soil temperature in sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia Torr.) mixed prairie. We selected 24, 4-ha plots near Woodward, OK. Four plots were burned during autumn (mid-November) and four during spring (mid-April), and four served as nonburned controls for each of two years. Cattle were given unrestricted access (April-September) to burned patches (erosion, soil water content, and soil temperature were measured monthly. Wind erosion varied by burn, year, and sampling height. Wind erosion was about 2 to 48 times greater on autumn-burned plots than nonburned plots during the dormant period (December-April). Growing-season (April-August) erosion was greatest during spring. Erosion of spring-burned sites was double that of nonburned sites both years. Growing-season erosion from autumn-burned sites was similar to nonburned sites except for one year with a dry April-May. Soil water content was unaffected by patch burn treatments. Soils of burned plots were 1 to 3 degrees C warmer than those of nonburned plots, based on mid-day measurements. Lower water holding and deep percolation capacity of sandy soils probably moderated effects on soil water content and soil temperature. Despite poor growing conditions following fire and heavy selective grazing of burned patches, no blowouts or drifts were observed.

  5. Accelerated rain erosion of wind turbine blade coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shizhong; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Bernad Jr., Pablo L.

    2014-01-01

    Under drift udsættes de hurtigt roterende vinger på vindmøller for gentagne kollisioner med regndråber, hagl, insekter eller partikler. Det kan føre til erosion af vingerne, hvilket går udover den elektriske effektivitet, og dyre reparationer kan blive nødvendige. En mulig løsning på dette problem er elastiske vingecoatings, der er i stand til at absorbere kollisionsenergien uden at revner eller andre skader dannes. Formålet med arbejdet, der præsenteres i denne afhandling, har været at desig...

  6. Wind erosion model of a multiple sized particles bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descamps, I.; Pons, A.; Harion, J.-L. [IMP-CNRS UPR 8521, Perpignan (France)

    2006-07-01

    A model has been developed in order to predict more accurately fugitive dust emissions by aeolian erosion on industrial sites. This model takes into account the time evolution of the bed surface features during erosion by a turbulent flow. It consists of four parts corresponding to aerodynamic entrainment and is based on the interaction between particle take-off and wall turbulence. A take-off criterion compares the lift force exerted by the flow on the particle with the sum of the weight and adhesive force. Bed pavement and saltation are also taken into account. Bed pavement is induced by the non-erodible particles. On steel plants stockpiles, ores and coals have granulometric spectra going a few microns to a few centimetres in diameter. In fact, the non-erodible particles, that cannot take-off because of their inertia, form obstacles in the finer particle take-off and lead to a time decrease in emitted mass flux. The new model has been tested for the case of a bimodal size distribution by comparison with relevant experimental data. The results demonstrate that the mode allows predicting the mass flux time decrease due to non-erodible particles. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Power Electronics in Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Teodorescu, Remus

    2006-01-01

    the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...... electronics is changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. By that wind power is also getting an added value in the power system operation....

  8. Environmental risks associated to wind erosion in a metal mining area from SE Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Fernandez, G.; Romero Diaz, A.

    2009-07-01

    Soils and mining wastes from the Mediterranean mining area placed in the Sierra Minera Mountains are highly enriched in heavy metals such as lead and zinc, but also other metals such as cadmium and arsenic. Wind erosion in this area could be considered extremely high and hazards associated to this eroded sediments seems to be high because the huge amount of metals present in this wastes. Therefore, combination of high erosion rates and high metal concentration in this mining waste, make those environmental risks can be considered high for the surrounding ecosystems, but also for public health of the nearby villages and towns. In order, to study these wind erosion processes over these mining materials, some experiments for the evaluation of the transportation of soil particles were carried out. Erosion rates in this realm is particularly important during spring months, when increased activity of the eastern winds brings intense soil dragging, with strong effects on the metals dispersion, including the massive removal of sediments. (Author) 16 refs.

  9. Responses of wind erosion to climate-induced vegetation changes on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Belnap, Jayne; Okin, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Projected increases in aridity throughout the southwestern United States due to anthropogenic climate change will likely cause reductions in perennial vegetation cover, which leaves soil surfaces exposed to erosion. Accelerated rates of dust emission from wind erosion have large implications for ecosystems and human well-being, yet there is poor understanding of the sources and magnitude of dust emission in a hotter and drier climate. Here we use a two-stage approach to compare the susceptibility of grasslands and three different shrublands to wind erosion on the Colorado Plateau and demonstrate how climate can indirectly moderate the magnitude of aeolian sediment flux through different responses of dominant plants in these communities. First, using results from 20 y of vegetation monitoring, we found perennial grass cover in grasslands declined with increasing mean annual temperature in the previous year, whereas shrub cover in shrublands either showed no change or declined as temperature increased, depending on the species. Second, we used these vegetation monitoring results and measurements of soil stability as inputs into a field-validated wind erosion model and found that declines in perennial vegetation cover coupled with disturbance to biological soil crust resulted in an exponential increase in modeled aeolian sediment flux. Thus the effects of increased temperature on perennial plant cover and the correlation of declining plant cover with increased aeolian flux strongly suggest that sustained drought conditions across the southwest will accelerate the likelihood of dust production in the future on disturbed soil surfaces.

  10. Effects of stubble and mulching on soil erosion by wind in semi-arid China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Peifei; Yin, Guanghua; Gu, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Soil erosion is a growing challenge for agricultural production in Northern China. To explore the effect of variation in stubble height and mulching biomass on soil erosion caused by wind, we conducted a field experiment using a quadratic rotation combination design. Results showed that the quantity of straw mulch was the dominant factor affecting soil erosion, and stubble height was of secondary importance. The soil water content in stubble and straw mulching treatments was higher than in a control treatment at 0-20 cm soil, and the tendency in the amount of soil water content was opposite to the amount of wind erosion (r = -0.882, n = 10, p mulch treatments at the 15-20 cm depth was higher than the change from 0-5 cm to 5-10 cm. Combined, the influence of a stubble height of 34 cm and mulch quantity of 4260 kg·ha-1 lowered the amount of erosion to 0.42 t·ha-1, and increased the corn yield to 11900 kg·ha-1. We determined that those were the most appropriate levels of stubble height and straw mulch for crop fields in the semi-arid regions of Northern China.

  11. Effects of stubble and mulching on soil erosion by wind in semi-arid China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Peifei; Yin, Guanghua; Gu, Jian

    2016-07-18

    Soil erosion is a growing challenge for agricultural production in Northern China. To explore the effect of variation in stubble height and mulching biomass on soil erosion caused by wind, we conducted a field experiment using a quadratic rotation combination design. Results showed that the quantity of straw mulch was the dominant factor affecting soil erosion, and stubble height was of secondary importance. The soil water content in stubble and straw mulching treatments was higher than in a control treatment at 0-20 cm soil, and the tendency in the amount of soil water content was opposite to the amount of wind erosion (r = -0.882, n = 10, p soil water content observed in the stubble and mulch treatments at the 15-20 cm depth was higher than the change from 0-5 cm to 5-10 cm. Combined, the influence of a stubble height of 34 cm and mulch quantity of 4260 kg·ha(-1) lowered the amount of erosion to 0.42 t·ha(-1), and increased the corn yield to 11900 kg·ha(-1). We determined that those were the most appropriate levels of stubble height and straw mulch for crop fields in the semi-arid regions of Northern China.

  12. Wind erosion reduces soil organic carbon sequestration falsely indicating ineffective management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Adrian; Baldock, Jeffrey A.

    2016-09-01

    Improved management of agricultural land has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to reduce atmospheric CO2 via soil carbon sequestration. However, SOC stocks are reduced by soil erosion which is commonly omitted from calculations of crop production, C cycling, C sequestration and C accounting. We used fields from the wind eroded dryland cropping region of Western Australia to demonstrate the global implications for C sequestration and C accounting of omitting soil erosion. For the fields we previously estimated mean net (1950s-1990) soil erosion of 1.2 ± 1.0 t ha-1 y-1. The mean net (1990-2013) soil erosion increased by nearly four times to 4.4 ± 2.1 t ha-1 y-1. Conservation agriculture has evidently not reduced wind erosion in this region. The mean net (1990-2013) SOC erosion was up to 0.2 t C ha-1 y-1 across all sampled fields and similar to measured sequestration rates in the region (up to 0.5 t C ha-1 y-1; 10 years) for many management practices recommended for building SOC stocks. The minimum detectable change (MDC; 10 years) of SOC without erosion was up to 0.2 t C ha-1 y-1 whilst the MDC of SOC with erosion was up to 0.4 t C ha-1 y-1. These results illustrate the generally applicable outcome: (i) if SOC erosion is equal to (or greater than) the increase in SOC due to management practices, the change will not be detectable (or a loss will be evident); (ii) without including soil erosion in SOC sequestration calculations, the monitoring of SOC stocks will lead to, at best the inability to detect change and, at worst the false impression that management practices have failed to store SOC. Furthermore, continued omission of soil erosion in crop production, C accounting and C sequestration will most likely undermine confidence in policy designed to encourage adoption of C farming and the attendant benefits for soil stewardship and food security.

  13. Manufacturing issues which affect coating erosion performance in wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, E.; Sánchez, F.; Domenech, L.; Olivares, A.; Young, T. M.; O'Carroll, A.; Chinesta, F.

    2017-10-01

    Erosion damage, caused by repeated rain droplet impact on the leading edges of wind turbine blades, is a major cause for cost concern. Resin Infusion (RI) is used in wind energy blades where low weight and high mechanical performance materials are demanded. The surface coating plays a crucial role in the manufacturing and performance response. The Leading Edge coating is usually moulded, painted or sprayed onto the blade surface so adequate adhesion in the layers' characterization through the thickness is required for mechanical performance and durability reasons. In the current work, an investigation has been directed into the resulting rain erosion durability of the coating was undertaken through a combination of mass loss testing measurements with manufacturing processing parameter variations. The adhesion and erosion is affected by the shock wave caused by the collapsing water droplet on impact. The stress waves are transmitted to the substrate, so microestructural discontinuities in coating layers and interfaces play a key role on its degradation. Standard industrial systems are based on a multilayer system, with a high number of interfaces that tend to accelerate erosion by delamination. Analytical and numerical models are commonly used to relate lifetime prediction and to identify suitable coating and composite substrate combinations and their potential stress reduction on the interface. In this research, the input parameters for the appropriate definition of the Cohesive Zone Modelling (CZM) of the coating-substrate interface are outlined by means of Pull off testing and Peeling testing results. It allowed one to optimize manufacturing and coating process for blades into a knowledge-based guidance for leading edge coating material development. It was achieved by investigating the erosion degradation process using both numerical and laboratory techniques (Pull off, Peeling and Rain Erosion Testing in a whirling arm rain erosion test facility).

  14. Development and validation of a method to estimate the potential wind erosion risk in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Roger; Deumlich, Detlef; Völker, Lidia

    2017-04-01

    The introduction of the Cross Compliance (CC) regulations for soil protection resulted in the demand for the classification of the the wind erosion risk on agricultural areas in Germany nationwide. A spatial highly resolved method was needed based on uniform data sets and validation principles, which provides a fair and equivalent procedure for all affected farmers. A GIS-procedure was developed, which derives the site specific wind erosion risk from the main influencing factors: soil texture, wind velocity, wind direction and landscape structure following the German standard DIN 19706. The procedure enables different approaches in the Federal States and comparable classification results. Here, we present the approach of the Federal State of Brandenburg. In the first step a complete soil data map was composed in a grid size of 10 x 10 m. Data were taken from 1.) the Soil quality Appraisal (scale 1:10.000), 2.) the Medium-scale Soil Mapping (MMK, 1:25.000), 3.) extrapolating the MMK, 4.) new Soil quality Appraisal (new areas after coal-mining). Based on the texture and carbon content the wind erosion susceptibility was divided in 6 classes. This map was combined with data of the annual average wind velocity resulting in an increase of the risk classes for wind velocities > 5 ms-1 and a decrease for virtual shadows behind the landscape elements for eight directions. The relative frequency of wind from each direction was used as a weighting factor and multiplied with the numerical values of the shadowed cells. Depending on the distance to the landscape element the shadowing effect was combined with the risk classes. The results show that the wind erosion risk is obviously reduced by integrating landscape structures into the risk assessment. After the renewed classification for the entire Federal State, about 60% of the area in the highest, and 40% in the medium risk classes changed into lower classes. The area of the highest potential risk class decreased from 40% to

  15. Near-surface meteorological conditions associated with active resuspension of dust by wind erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgin, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    The meteorological conditions associated with extreme winds in the lee of the Colorado Rocky Mountains were studied from the viewpoint of dust resuspension and dispersion. Wind, dispersion, temperature, and dew point conditions occurring near the surface were discussed in detail for a selected event. Near-surface wind speeds were compared to observations made at a standard sampling height. These field data were developed to aid in validation and interpretation of wind tunnel observations and application of dispersion models to wind erosion resuspension. Three conclusions can immediately be drawn from this investigation. First, wind storms in nature are quite gusty, with gusts exceeding the mean speed by 50 percent or more. However, wind direction variations are small by comparison. Thus, wind tunnel studies should be able to simulate the large along-flow turbulence, while keeping cross-flow turbulence to a moderate level. This also has an application to the puff modeling of high winds. Puff models normally assume that the along-flow dispersion coefficient is equal to the cross-flow value. This study suggests that the along-flow coefficient should be much larger than its cross-flow counterpart. Another conclusion involves the usual assumption of Pasquill-Gifford stability class D. In the event studied here, the atmosphere was well mixed with near-neutral thermal stability, yet the horizontal dispersion stability class varied from G to A. Thus, an assumption of Class D horizontal dispersion during high winds would not have been valid during this case. A final conclusion involves the widely applied assumption of a logarithmic wind speed profile during high wind events. This study has indicated that such an assumption is appropriate.

  16. Erosion of a relativistic electron beam propagating in a plasma channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, P.W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Smith, J.R.; Struve, K.W.; Lipinski, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    A relativistic electron beam has propagated 91 m in a laser-ionized plasma channel across applied magnetic fields much larger than the geomagnetic field. Beam currents ranged from 0.3 to 1.0 kA and transverse magnetic field from 0.1 to 4.0 G. Beam degradation in the form of a shortening of the current pulse (erosion) was observed. The erosion processes were inductive and magnetic erosion. Observed total erosion rates are in agreement with the summation of the theoretical inductive and magnetic erosion rates. Magnetic erosion was enhanced when the beam radius was larger than the channel

  17. Keeping up with coal technology. Minimizing frozen-coal, wind-erosion problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    A freeze-conditioning agent is described which reduces the strength of the ice which forms on coal. The product has MSHA approval for use in U.S. underground mines. Coal losses from wind erosion during transit can be reduced by use of chemical crusting agents or car covers, or by the addition of several inches of large lumps of coal on top of the smaller particles.

  18. A universal meteorological method to identify potential risk of wind erosion on heavy-textured soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Středová Hana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The climate of Central Europe, mainly winter seasons with no snow cover at lower altitudes and a spring drought as well, might cause erosion events on heavy-textured soils. The aim of this paper is to define a universal method to identify the potential risk of wind erosion on heavy-textured soils. The categorization of potential wind erosion risk due to meteorological conditions is based on: (i an evaluation of the number of freeze-thaw episodes forming bare soil surfaces during the cold period of year; and (ii, an evaluation of the number of days with wet soil surfaces during the cold period of year. In the period 2001–2012 (from November to March, episodes with temperature changes from positive to negative and vice versa (thaw-freeze and freeze-thaw cycles and the effects of wet soil surfaces in connection with aggregate disintegration, are identified. The data are spatially interpolated by GIS tools for areas in the Czech Republic with heavy-textured soils. Blending critical categories is used to locate potential risks. The level of risk is divided into six classes. Those areas identified as potentially most vulnerable are the same localities where the highest number of erosive episodes on heavy-textured soils was documented.

  19. Glyphosate and AMPA contents in sediments produced by wind erosion of agricultural soils in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Aimar, Silvia; De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Buschiazzo, Daniel; Mendez, Mariano; Costa, José Luis

    2014-05-01

    Wind erosion of soils is an important event in arid and semiarid regions of Argentina. The magnitude of wind erosion occurring under different management practices is relatively well known in this region but less information is available on the quality of the eroded material. Considering that the intensification of agriculture may increase the concentrations of substances in the eroded material, producing potential negative effects on the environment, we analyzed the amount of glyphosate and AMPA in sediments produced by wind erosion of agricultural soils of Argentina. Wind eroded materials were collected by means of BSNE samplers in two loess sites of the semiarid region of Argentina: Chaco and La Pampa. Samples were collected from 1 ha square fields at 13.5, 50 and 150 cm height. Results showed that at higher heights the concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA were mostly higher. The glyphosate concentration was more variable and higher in Chaco (0.66 to 313 µg kg-1) than in La Pampa (4.17 to 114 µg kg-1). These results may be due to the higher use of herbicides in Chaco, where the predominant crops are soybeans and corn, produced under no-tillage. Under these conditions the use of glyphosate for weeds control is a common practice. Conversely, AMPA concentrations were higher in La Pampa (13.1 to 101.3 µg kg-1) than in Chaco (1.3 to 83 µg kg-1). These preliminary results show high concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA in wind eroded materials of agricultural soils of Argentina. More research is needed to confirm these high concentrations in other conditions in order to detect the temporal and spatial distribution patterns of the herbicide.

  20. Wind-Driven Erosion and Exposure Potential at Mars 2020 Rover Candidate-Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Banks, Maria; Urso, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Aeolian processes have likely been the predominant geomorphic agent for most of Mars’ history and have the potential to produce relatively young exposure ages for geologic units. Thus, identifying local evidence for aeolian erosion is highly relevant to the selection of landing sites for future missions, such as the Mars 2020 Rover mission that aims to explore astrobiologically relevant ancient environments. Here we investigate wind-driven activity at eight Mars 2020 candidate-landing sites to constrain erosion potential at these locations. To demonstrate our methods, we found that contemporary dune-derived abrasion rates were in agreement with rover-derived exhumation rates at Gale crater and could be employed elsewhere. The Holden crater candidate site was interpreted to have low contemporary erosion rates, based on the presence of a thick sand coverage of static ripples. Active ripples at the Eberswalde and southwest Melas sites may account for local erosion and the dearth of small craters. Moderate-flux regional dunes near Mawrth Vallis were deemed unrepresentative of the candidate site, which is interpreted to currently be experiencing low levels of erosion. The Nili Fossae site displayed the most unambiguous evidence for local sand transport and erosion, likely yielding relatively young exposure ages. The downselected Jezero crater and northeast Syrtis sites had high-flux neighboring dunes and exhibited substantial evidence for sediment pathways across their ellipses. Both sites had relatively high estimated abrasion rates, which would yield young exposure ages. The downselected Columbia Hills site lacked evidence for sand movement, and contemporary local erosion rates are estimated to be relatively low. PMID:29568719

  1. Wind-Driven Erosion and Exposure Potential at Mars 2020 Rover Candidate-Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Banks, Maria; Urso, Anna

    2018-02-01

    Aeolian processes have likely been the predominant geomorphic agent for most of Mars' history and have the potential to produce relatively young exposure ages for geologic units. Thus, identifying local evidence for aeolian erosion is highly relevant to the selection of landing sites for future missions, such as the Mars 2020 Rover mission that aims to explore astrobiologically relevant ancient environments. Here we investigate wind-driven activity at eight Mars 2020 candidate-landing sites to constrain erosion potential at these locations. To demonstrate our methods, we found that contemporary dune-derived abrasion rates were in agreement with rover-derived exhumation rates at Gale crater and could be employed elsewhere. The Holden crater candidate site was interpreted to have low contemporary erosion rates, based on the presence of a thick sand coverage of static ripples. Active ripples at the Eberswalde and southwest Melas sites may account for local erosion and the dearth of small craters. Moderate-flux regional dunes near Mawrth Vallis were deemed unrepresentative of the candidate site, which is interpreted to currently be experiencing low levels of erosion. The Nili Fossae site displayed the most unambiguous evidence for local sand transport and erosion, likely yielding relatively young exposure ages. The downselected Jezero crater and northeast Syrtis sites had high-flux neighboring dunes and exhibited substantial evidence for sediment pathways across their ellipses. Both sites had relatively high estimated abrasion rates, which would yield young exposure ages. The downselected Columbia Hills site lacked evidence for sand movement, and contemporary local erosion rates are estimated to be relatively low.

  2. Wind-Driven Erosion and Exposure Potential at Mars 2020 Rover Candidate-Landing Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Banks, Maria; Urso, Anna

    2018-02-01

    Aeolian processes have likely been the predominant geomorphic agent for most of Mars' history and have the potential to produce relatively young exposure ages for geologic units. Thus, identifying local evidence for aeolian erosion is highly relevant to the selection of landing sites for future missions, such as the Mars 2020 Rover mission that aims to explore astrobiologically relevant ancient environments. Here we investigate wind-driven activity at eight Mars 2020 candidate-landing sites to constrain erosion potential at these locations. To demonstrate our methods, we found that contemporary dune-derived abrasion rates were in agreement with rover-derived exhumation rates at Gale crater and could be employed elsewhere. The Holden crater candidate site was interpreted to have low contemporary erosion rates, based on the presence of a thick sand coverage of static ripples. Active ripples at the Eberswalde and southwest Melas sites may account for local erosion and the dearth of small craters. Moderate-flux regional dunes near Mawrth Vallis were deemed unrepresentative of the candidate site, which is interpreted to currently be experiencing low levels of erosion. The Nili Fossae site displayed the most unambiguous evidence for local sand transport and erosion, likely yielding relatively young exposure ages. The downselected Jezero crater and northeast Syrtis sites had high-flux neighboring dunes and exhibited substantial evidence for sediment pathways across their ellipses. Both sites had relatively high estimated abrasion rates, which would yield young exposure ages. The downselected Columbia Hills site lacked evidence for sand movement, and contemporary local erosion rates are estimated to be relatively low.

  3. Bidirectional solar wind electron heat flux events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Baker, D.N.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Zwickl, R.D.; Smith, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Normally the approx. >80-eV electrons which carry the solar wind electron heat flux are collimated along the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the direction pointing outward away from the sun. Occasionally, however, collimated fluxes of approx. >80-eV electrons are observed traveling both parallel and antiparallel to the IMF. Here we present the results of a survey of such bidirectional electron heat flux events as observed with the plasma and magnetic field experiments aboard ISEE 3 at times when the spacecraft was not magnetically connected to the earth's bow shock. The onset of a bidirectional electron heat flux at ISEE 3 usually signals spacecraft entry into a distinct solar wind plasma and field entity, most often characterized by anomalously low proton and electron temperatures, a strong, smoothly varying magnetic field, a low plasma beta, and a high total pressure. Significant field rotations often occur at the beginning and/or end of bidirectional heat flux events, and, at times, the large field rotations characteristic of ''magnetic clouds'' are present. Approximately half of all bidirectional heat flux events are associated with and follow interplanetary shocks, while the other events have no obvious shock associations

  4. Climatological changing effects on wind, precipitation and erosion: Large, meso and small scale analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The Fourier transformation analysis for monthly average values of meteorological parameters has been considered, and amplitudes, phase angles have been calculated by using ground measurements in Turkey. The first order harmonics of meteorological parameters show large scale effects, while higher order harmonics show the effects of small scale fluctuations. The variations of first through sixth order harmonic amplitudes and phases provide a useful means of understanding the large and local scale effects on meteorological parameters. The phase angle can be used to determine the time of year the maximum or minimum of a given harmonic occurs. The analysis helps us to distinguish different pressure, relative humidity, temperature, precipitation and wind speed regimes and transition regions. Local and large scale phenomenon and some unusual seasonal patterns are also defined near Keban Dam and the irrigation area. Analysis of precipitation based on long term data shows that semi-annual fluctuations are predominant in the study area. Similarly, pressure variations are mostly influenced by semi-annual fluctuations. Temperature and humidity variations are mostly influenced by meso and micro scale fluctuations. Many large and meso scale climate change simulations for the 21st century are based on concentration of green house gases. A better understanding of these effects on soil erosion is necessary to determine social, economic and other impacts of erosion. The second part of this study covers the time series analysis of precipitation, rainfall erosivity and wind erosion at the Marmara Region. Rainfall and runoff erosivity factors are defined by considering the results of field measurements at 10 stations. Climatological changing effects on rainfall erosion have been determined by monitoring meteorological variables. In the previous studies, Fournier Index is defined to estimate the rainfall erosivity for the study area. The Fournier Index or in other words a climatic index

  5. Separation of dry and wet periods from regular weather station data for the analysis of wind erosion risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naeini, Mohammadali Saremi; Fister, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    ), climate (e.g. air temperature, solar radiation, evaporation) and soil (e.g. infiltration rate, adhesion). The purpose of this study is to overcome the lack of soil moisture data for wind erosion risk assessment by developing a method to estimate the soil wetness based on easy available weather data......Soil moisture is one of the most important dynamic factors determining soil erodibility, because it affects the stability of soil aggregates and threshold velocities for particle detachment by wind. Soil moisture should, therefore, be included in wind erosion risk assessments. However, despite its...... importance, soil moisture content is often ignored in the analysis of wind data for wind erosion studies. The main reason most probably being the lack of soil moisture sensors in conventional climate stations. Soil moisture at a given point in time is determined by rain (e.g. rainfall amount, duration...

  6. Remote sensing of land use/cover changes and its effect on wind erosion potential in southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahrooz Rezaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion is a complex process influenced by different factors. Most of these factors are stable over time, but land use/cover and land management practices are changing gradually. Therefore, this research investigates the impact of changing land use/cover and land management on wind erosion potential in southern Iran. We used remote sensing data (Landsat ETM+ and Landsat 8 imagery of 2004 and 2013 for land use/cover mapping and employed the Iran Research Institute of Forest and Rangeland (IRIFR method to estimate changes in wind erosion potential. For an optimal mapping, the performance of different classification algorithms and input layers was tested. The amount of changes in wind erosion and land use/cover were quantified using cross-tabulation between the two years. To discriminate land use/cover related to wind erosion, the best results were obtained by combining the original spectral bands with synthetic bands and using Maximum Likelihood classification algorithm (Kappa Coefficient of 0.8 and 0.9 for Landsat ETM+ and Landsat 8, respectively. The IRIFR modelling results indicate that the wind erosion potential has increased over the last decade. The areas with a very high sediment yield potential have increased, whereas the areas with a low, medium, and high sediment yield potential decreased. The area with a very low sediment yield potential have remained constant. When comparing the change in erosion potential with land use/cover change, it is evident that soil erosion potential has increased mostly in accordance with the increase of the area of agricultural practices. The conversion of rangeland to agricultural land was a major land-use change which lead to more agricultural practices and associated soil loss. Moreover, results indicate an increase in sandification in the study area which is also a clear evidence of increasing in soil erosion.

  7. Sonic anemometry and sediment traps to evaluate the effectiveness of windbreaks in preventing wind erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro López

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present work analyzes the effectiveness of windbreaks against wind erosion through the study of streamline patterns and turbulent flow by means of sonic anemometry and sediment traps. To this end, windbreaks composed of plastic meshes (7.5 m long and 0.7 m tall were used. Windbreaks are a good means to reduce wind erosion, as they produce a positive effect on the characteristics of air currents that are related to wind erosion processes. Due to their ease of installation and dismantling, plastic meshes are widely used in areas where they are not required permanently. In our study, the use of a mesh of 13 × 30 threads cm−2 and 39 % porosity resulted in an average reduction of 85 % in face velocity at a height of 0.4 m and a distance of 1 m from the windbreak. The turbulence intensity i increased behind the windbreak because the reduction of mean of air speed on the leeside caused by the flow of air through the windbreak. Fluctuation levels, however, remained stable. The mean values of turbulence kinetic energy k decreased by 65 % to 86 % at a distance of 1 m from the windbreak and at a height of 0.4 m. The windbreak reduces erosion and sediment transportation 2 m downwind (2.9 times the windbreak height. Nevertheless, sediment transportation was not reduced at a height of 1.0 m and the effect of the windbreak was not observed at a distance of 6 m downwind (8.6 m times the windbreak height.

  8. A Maine romance. [Solar heating, wind power and cliff erosion control at a Maine site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.A.

    1979-09-01

    The construction of a house on the coast of Maine included terracing of the bluff for erosion control, installation of water solar collectors for space and water heating, and construction of a wind turbine for electric power generation. A total of 4,027 ft/sup 2/ of house area is heated by a system of 10 collectors and 4,000 gal water storage. Insulation values are R-19 in the walls, R-40 in the ceiling, R-26 in the floors, and R-14 in the basement. South-facing windows provide additional heat gain. The wind turbine and generator system supplies alternating current to the house and also heats auxiliary water storage when necessary. The house, collectors, and wind turbine are designed to supply 85% of the heating load.

  9. First quantification of severe wind erosion in yardang fields using cosmogenic 10Be within the western Qaidam Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, A.; Heermance, R.; Kapp, P. A.; Mc-Callister, A.

    2010-12-01

    Desert environments are a major source of global loess and may undergo substantial wind-erosion as evidenced by yardangs, which are streamlined bedrock ridges sculpted from uni-directional winds. However, there are few quantitative estimates of wind erosion rates in deflationary deserts, globally. Here, we report the first quantitative rates of bedrock wind erosion determined using cosmogenic 10Be in the western Qaidam basin, China, where roughly one-third of the modern basin floor (~3.88 × 104 km2) exposes yardangs. Eleven Neogene bedrock sandstone samples and one pre-Cenozoic granite sample were analyzed for 10Be concentrations. The Neogene samples were collected from crests and limbs of broad and actively growing anticlines, where in most places strata have been wind-sculpted into yardangs. Sedimentary bedrock erosion rates vary from 0.04-0.34 mm/yr, although 60 percent (n=7) of all samples cluster tightly at 0.1 ± 0.03 mm/yr. Erosion rates assume steady-state erosion over ~10,000 years. The lowest rate of 0.0025 mm/yr was obtained from a granite bedrock sample along the Altyn-Tagh range bounding the northwestern margin of the Qaidam basin and is consistent with other 10Be bedrock erosion rates collected from granitic bedrock elsewhere on the Tibetan Plateau. These results demonstrate the importance of lithology in controlling bedrock erodibility by wind. The highest erosion rates of 0.17, 0.25, and 0.34 mm/yr were determined along a transect across an active anticline. The lowest of the three rates was obtained from the top of the structure, suggesting that wind erosion and thus wind speeds are highest on the limbs of an anticline as wind is forced around the obstacle (Bernoulli-effect), rather than flowing over it. The determined sedimentary bedrock erosion rates of 0.04-0.34 mm/yr are in good agreement with previous analysis of basin wide-average erosion rates from geological cross-sections (0.29 mm/yr) and simple erosion calculations using previous lake

  10. Wind Erosion Caused by Land Use Changes Significantly Reduces Ecosystem Carbon Storage and Carbon Sequestration Potentials in Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Chi, Y. G.; Wang, J.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Wind erosion exerts a fundamental influence on the biotic and abiotic processes associated with ecosystem carbon (C) cycle. However, how wind erosion under different land use scenarios will affect ecosystem C balance and its capacity for future C sequestration are poorly quantified. Here, we established an experiment in a temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia, and simulated different intensity of land uses: control, 50% of aboveground vegetation removal (50R), 100% vegetation removal (100R) and tillage (TI). We monitored lateral and vertical carbon flux components and soil characteristics from 2013 to 2016. Our study reveals three key findings relating to the driving factors, the magnitude and consequence of wind erosion on ecosystem C balance: (1) Frequency of heavy wind exerts a fundamental control over the severity of soil erosion, and its interaction with precipitation and vegetation characteristics explained 69% variation in erosion intensity. (2) With increases in land use intensity, the lateral C flux induced by wind erosion increased rapidly, equivalent to 33%, 86%, 111% and 183% of the net ecosystem exchange of the control site under control, 50R, 100R and TI sites, respectively. (3) After three years' treatment, erosion induced decrease in fine fractions led to 31%, 43%, 85% of permanent loss of C sequestration potential in the surface 5cm soil for 50R, 100R and TI sites. Overall, our study demonstrates that lateral C flux associated with wind erosion is too large to be ignored. The loss of C-enriched fine particles not only reduces current ecosystem C content, but also results in irreversible loss of future soil C sequestration potential. The dynamic soil characteristics need be considered when projecting future ecosystem C balance in aeolian landscape. We also propose that to maintain the sustainability of grassland ecosystems, land managers should focus on implementing appropriate land use rather than rely on subsequent managements on degraded soils.

  11. Soil drying and wind erosion as affected by different types of shelterbelts planted in the desert region of western Rajasthan, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, J.P.; Rao, G.G.S.N.; Gupta, G.N.; Rao, B.V.R.

    1983-03-01

    Studies on the effects of 8-year-old shelterbelt plantations indicate a general reduction in wind velocity, wind erosion and evaporative loss of moisture from fields protected with Prosopis juliflora, Cassia siamea and Acacia tortilis. Cassia siamea shelterbelts are the most effective in checking wind erosion and delaying drying of the soil. (Refs. 13).

  12. Soil wind erosion in ecological olive trees in the Tabernas desert (southeastern Spain): a wind tunnel experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Carlos; Lozano, Francisco Javier; Gallardo, Pedro; Giménez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Wind erosion is a key component of the soil degradation processes. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of material loss from wind on soil properties for different soil types and changes in soil properties in olive groves when they are tilled. The study area is located in the north of the Tabernas Desert, in the province of Almería, southeastern Spain. It is one of the driest areas in Europe, with a semiarid thermo-Mediterranean type of climate. We used a new wind tunnel model over three different soil types (olive-cropped Calcisol, Cambisol and Luvisol) and studied micro-plot losses and deposits detected by an integrated laser scanner. We also studied the image processing possibilities for examining the particles attached to collector plates located at the end of the tunnel to determine their characteristics and whether they were applicable to the setup. Samples collected in the traps at the end of the tunnel were analyzed. We paid special attention to the influence of organic carbon, carbonate and clay contents because of their special impact on soil crusting and the wind-erodible fraction. A principal components analysis (PCA) was carried out to find any relations on generated dust properties and the intensity and behavior of those relationships. Component 1 separated data with high N and OC contents from samples high in fine silt, CO3= and available K content. Component 2 separated data with high coarse silt and clay contents from data with high fine sand content. Component 3 was an indicator of available P2O5 content. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to analyze the effect of soil type and sampling height on different properties of trapped dust. Calculations based on tunnel data showed overestimation of erosion in soil types and calculation of the fraction of soil erodible by wind done by other authors for Spanish soils. As the highest loss was found in Cambisols, mainly due to the effect on soil crusting and the wind

  13. A Terrestrial Wind Erosion Analog for Mound and Moat Morphology of Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M. A.; Netoff, D. I.

    2016-12-01

    A striking feature of Gale crater is the 5.5 km high, layered mound called Mount Sharp- the major exploration target for the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity. Within the 154 km diameter crater, low plains (e.g. Aeolis Palus) resemble a moat surrounding Mount Sharp. Current studies debate whether sedimentary layers completely filled the crater, as well as how the units were sculpted to their current morphology. Areas of southern Utah are favorable for terrestrial comparisons to Mars due to the exceptional exposure and lack of vegetation in the desert climate. Here, water is key in shaping large geomorphic features, but wind is also an effective sculptor of the landscape. In Grand Staircase Escalante National Monument, a distinctive weathering pit with a central mound and moat occurs in bleached eolian facies of the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone. This pit is 60 m wide by 20 m deep and was informally dubbed "inselberg pit", although it has recently gained notoriety under the name of "cosmic navel" or "cosmic ashtray". Inside the pit, loose dune sand shifts periodically and seasonally across the pit floor and up against the walls. Eolian abrasion features of cm to m scales include: grooves, flutes, and erosional-shaped fingers or stalks topped with concretions. Strong regional and local winds are funneled to amplify their velocity and produce a venturi effect that sculpts the pit via wind abrasion, creating an internal mound and moat morphology. Although the Navajo pit is significantly smaller than Gale crater on Mars by several orders of magnitude, both show comparable mound and moat morphologies accompanied by erosional wind features. In Gale crater, evidence for wind erosion includes yardangs, dunes, and wind streaks. The natural Navajo analogy suggests that strong, dynamic, focused winds on Mars could be capable of carving deeply into sedimentary layers over long periods of time to generate Mount Sharp, surrounded by low, eroded plains within Gale crater.

  14. Simulated effects of crop rotations and residue management on wind erosion in Wuchuan, west-central Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erda; Harman, Wyatte L; Williams, Jimmy R; Xu, Cheng

    2002-01-01

    For decades, wind erosion has triggered dust and sand storms, buffeting Beijing and areas of northwestern China to the point of being hazardous to human health while rapidly eroding crop and livestock productivity. The EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) field-scale simulation model was used to assess long-term effects of improved crop rotations and crop residue management practices on wind erosion in Wuchuan County in Inner Mongolia. Simulation results indicate that preserving crop stalks until land is prepared by zone tillage for the next year's crop in lieu of using them as a source of heating fuel or livestock fodder significantly reduces wind erosion by 60%. At the same time, grain and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yields were maintained or improved. Significant reductions in erosion, 35 to 46%, also resulted from delaying stalk removal until late January through late April. Yearly wind erosion was concentrated in April and May, the windiest months. Additionally, the use of alternative crop rotations resulted in differences in wind erosion, largely due to a difference in residue stature and quality and differences in biomass produced. As a result, altering current crop rotation systems by expanding corn (Zea mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and millet [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] and reducing potato and pea (Pisum sativum L.) production significantly reduced simulated wind erosion, thus diminishing the severity of dust and sand storms in northwestern China. Saving and protecting topsoil over time will sustain land productivity and have long-term implications for improving conditions of rural poverty in the region.

  15. Ion sputtering of minerals and glasses: a first step to the simulation of solar wind erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, K.; Sassmannshausen, U.; Kuelzer, H.; Herr, W. (Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kernchemie)

    1982-09-01

    Selected rockforming minerals (plagioclase, augite, olivine, ilmenite, silicate and metal phases of the meteorite 'Brenham') as well as silicate and phosphate glasses were irradiated with heavy ions (/sup 4/He/sup +/, /sup 14/N/sup +/, /sup 20/Ne/sup +/, /sup 40/Ar/sup +/, /sup 56/Fe/sup +/, Xe/sup +/sub(nat)) in the energy range of 50 to 130 keV in order to study ion-induced sputtering. Sputtering yields were measured independently by means of multiple beam interferometry and particle track autoradiography. The theory of sputtering by Sigmund, modified by Smith, was used to convert experimental heavy ion sputtering yields to H/sup +/- and He/sup +/-sputtering yields of the same target. Taking into account solar wind irradiation conditions at the lunar surface, an estimate of lunar erosion rates due to solar wind sputtering is given for the targets studied.

  16. Assessment of future scenarios for wind erosion sensitivity changes based on ALADIN and REMO regional climate model simulation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezősi Gábor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The changes in rate and pattern of wind erosion sensitivity due to climate change were investigated for 2021–2050 and 2071–2100 compared to the reference period (1961–1990 in Hungary. The sensitivities of the main influencing factors (soil texture, vegetation cover and climate factor were evaluated by fuzzy method and a combined wind erosion sensitivity map was compiled. The climate factor, as the driving factor of the changes, was assessed based on observed data for the reference period, while REMO and ALADIN regional climate model simulation data for the future periods. The changes in wind erosion sensitivity were evaluated on potentially affected agricultural land use types, and hot spot areas were allocated. Based on the results, 5–6% of the total agricultural areas were high sensitive areas in the reference period. In the 21st century slight or moderate changes of wind erosion sensitivity can be expected, and mostly ‘pastures’, ‘complex cultivation patterns’, and ‘land principally occupied by agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation’ are affected. The applied combination of multi-indicator approach and fuzzy analysis provides novelty in the field of land sensitivity assessment. The method is suitable for regional scale analysis of wind erosion sensitivity changes and supports regional planning by allocating priority areas where changes in agro-technics or land use have to be considered.

  17. Variability of Some soil physical and chemical properties along a transect under wind erosion processes in Segzi district, Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ghiesari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arid and semiarid environment is the main climatic condition in central Iran, as well as 80 million km 2 of Iran (> 50% is affected by wind erosion. During the last decades, the area affected by wind erosion and desertification processes has increased as a result of human activity, climate change and recent drought (Karimzadeh, 2001. Thus, it is crucial to control wind erosion in the arid regions of Iran as the most serious environmental problem. In this regard, the information on the rate of soil erosion is needed for developing management practices and making strategic decisions.. Soil erosion rate has increased as a result of improper gypsum and clay mining operations In the Segzi region of Isfahan,. coarsening of the soil texture (as a result of the loss of fine textured materials, depletion of soil organic matter and degeneration of vegetation are wind erosion damages occurred widely. The objective of this study was to estimate wind erosion rates with 137Cs technique, and also to determine changes in soil physical and chemical properties by wind erosion process, along the wind erosion transect across the Segzi district, east of Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in arid region of east of Isfahan Province. sixteen sites were selected along a northeast- southwest transect with 42 km length. Eighty soil samples were taken from 0-30 cm in 5 cm layer depth sections. Some physical and chemical properties were measured and a reference site with lowest rate of soil erosion and sedimentation was also studied. 137-Cs technique was used for determination of erosional and depositional sites. Analysis of variance was used to compare physical and chemical properties sites to reference site. Results and Discussion: The results showed that sites of 1 to 8, 10 and 12-16 were identified as erosional sites and two sites of 9 and 11 were recognized as depositional sites. Soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents were

  18. Experimental study on influence of vegetation coverage on runoff in wind-water erosion crisscross region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhua; Zhang, Ronggang; Sun, Juan

    2018-02-01

    Using artificial rainfall simulation method, 23 simulation experiments were carried out in water-wind erosion crisscross region in order to analyze the influence of vegetation coverage on runoff and sediment yield. The experimental plots are standard plots with a length of 20m, width of 5m and slope of 15 degrees. The simulation experiments were conducted in different vegetation coverage experimental plots based on three different rainfall intensities. According to the experimental observation data, the influence of vegetation coverage on runoff and infiltration was analyzed. Vegetation coverage has a significant impact on runoff, and the higher the vegetation coverage is, the smaller the runoff is. Under the condition of 0.6mm/min rainfall intensity, the runoff volume from the experimental plot with 18% vegetation coverage was 1.2 times of the runoff from the experimental with 30% vegetation coverage. What’s more, the difference of runoff is more obvious in higher rainfall intensity. If the rainfall intensity reaches 1.32mm/min, the runoff from the experimental plot with 11% vegetation coverage is about 2 times as large as the runoff from the experimental plot with 53%vegetation coverage. Under the condition of small rainfall intensity, the starting time of runoff in the experimental plot with higher vegetation coverage is later than that in the experimental plot with low vegetation coverage. However, under the condition of heavy rainfall intensity, there is no obvious difference in the beginning time of runoff. In addition, the higher the vegetation coverage is, the deeper the rainfall infiltration depth is.The results can provide reference for ecological construction carried out in wind erosion crisscross region with serious soil erosion.

  19. Model for the accumulation of solar wind radiation damage effects in lunar dust grains, based on recent results concerning implantation and erosion effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, J.; Bibring, J.P.; Cowsik, G.; Langevin, Y.; Maurette, M.

    1983-02-15

    In this paper we present our most recent results on ion implantation and erosion effects, intended to reproduce the superficial amorphous layers of radiation damage observed with a high voltage electron microscope on ..mu..m-sized grains extracted from the lunar regolith and which result from the exposure of the grains to the solar wind. We next outline theoretical computations which yield the thickness distribution of such amorphous layers as a function of the exposure time of the grains at the surface of the moon, the He/H ratio, and the speed distribution in the solar wind. From this model, the position of the peak in the solar wind speed distribution is the major parameter controlling the thickness of the amorphous layer.

  20. Power Electronics as key technology in wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper discuss the development in wind turbines in a two-decade perspective looking at the technology based on track records. Different power electronic topologies for interfacing the wind turbine to the grid are discussed and related to the possibility for the wind turbine to act as a power...

  1. Wind erosion as an environmental transport pathway of glyphosate and AMPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Célia P. M.; Goossens, Dirk; Rezaei, Mahrooz; Riksen, Michel; Mol, Hans G. J.; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2017-04-01

    health risk assessment studies. Moreover, glyphosate applications during dry periods in regions susceptible to wind erosion should be avoided.

  2. High Power Electronics - Key Technology for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter the developments of technology and market trends in wind power application are discussed. Different wind turbine concepts as well as some dominant and promising power converter solutions are reviewed respectively. Furthermore the control methods, grid demands as well as the emerging...... reliability challenges for the future wind turbines are explained. It is concluded that the wind turbine behavior/performance can be significantly improved by introducing power electronics, and there will be higher requirements for the power electronics performances in wind power application....

  3. The Measurement of Electron-Induced Erosion of Condensed Gases: Experimental Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Børgesen, P.

    1984-01-01

    Two experimental methods for measuring the erosion yield of condensed gases are described. One, the frequency-change method, utilizes a quartz-crystal microbalance operating at liquid-helium temperature. The other, the emissivity-change method is based on the strongly varying electron emission...... as a function of the condensed-gas film thickness. Satisfactory results have been obtained for both methods for solid Ne and D2 at electron energies up to 3 keV, and the mutual agreement is good as well. Accurate measurements are affected critically by the beam conditions, particularly if the erosion yield...... depends on the film thickness. The erosion yield has been measured for dominant electron sputtering of solid Ne ( ≈ 28 Ne-atoms/electron) as well as for beam-induced evaporation at 2 keV. In the latter case a clear lateral broadening of the erosion spot is observed....

  4. I Got Them Dust Bowl Blues: Wind Erosion in the Music of the Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with the role of wind erosion and blowing dust on the music of the Dust Bowl region, a portion of the southern Great Plains of the United States. A defining characteristic of the region is dust storms, and in the 1930s, severe dust storms created dramatic images that came to symbolize all of the economic, social and environmental hardships suffered by the people during the 1930s. The music of the time, by Woody Guthrie and others, suggested that the region was being destroyed, never to recover. The region was resilient, however, and in recent decades, dust has been depicted in songs either as an adversity to be endured or simply as a normal part of life in the area. It may be that blowing dust has become a defining characteristic of the region because of a somewhat warped sense of pride in living in an often-difficult environment.

  5. Drawing a representative sample from the NCSS soil database: Building blocks for the national wind erosion network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing national wind erosion models for the continental United States requires a comprehensive spatial representation of continuous soil particle size distributions (PSD) for model input. While the current coverage of soil survey is nearly complete, the most detailed particle size classes have c...

  6. A large source of dust missing in particulate matter emission inventories? Wind erosion of post-fire landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. S. Wagenbrenner; S. H. Chung; B. K. Lamb

    2017-01-01

    Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire contributes substantial particulate matter (PM) in the form of dust to the atmosphere, but the magnitude of this dust source is largely unknown. It is important to accurately quantify dust emissions because they can impact human health, degrade visibility, exacerbate dust-on-snow issues (including snowmelt timing, snow chemistry...

  7. Future on Power Electronics for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    generators, power electronic systems, and control solutions have to be introduced to improve the characteristics of the wind power plant and make it more suitable to be integrated into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are also some emerging technology challenges, which need to be further clarified...... and investigated. This paper gives an overview and discusses some development trends in the technologies used for wind power systems. First, the developments of technology and market are generally discussed. Next, several state-of-the-art wind turbine concepts, as well as the corresponding power electronic......Wind power is still the most promising renewable energy in the year of 2013. The wind turbine system (WTS) started with a few tens of kilowatt power in the 1980s. Now, multimegawatt wind turbines are widely installed even up to 6-8 MW. There is a widespread use of wind turbines in the distribution...

  8. Sand transport by wind, erosion and deposition and the origin of aeolian bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran Vinent, Orencio

    2014-05-01

    Aeolian processes involve the wind action on a sedimentary substrate, namely erosion, sand transport and deposition. They are responsible for the emergence of aeolian dunes and ripples. Here, we discuss the physics of aeolian sediment transport from a physical point of view. Relevant time and length scales associated to turbulent wind fluctuations are summarized using aerodynamic theory. At the microscopic scale, the main forces acting on the grains are detailed. Sand transport is then studied using two phase numerical simulations based on a discrete element method for particles coupled to a continuum Reynolds averaged description of hydrodynamics. We then introduce the concepts - e.g. saturated flux, saturation length - and the relevant framework for the development of a continuum (macroscopic) quantitative description of transport at the core of our current understanding of aeolian dunes formation. At smaller scales, aeolian ripples arise from the interaction of sediment transport and topography. At larger scales, the nonlinear nature of the interaction between dunes leads to the formation of dune fields.

  9. Power Electronics Converters for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2012-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power together with the upscaling of the single wind turbine power capability has pushed the research and development of power converters toward full-scale power conversion, lowered cost pr kW, increased power density, and also the need for higher reliability......, in the latter case with attention to series connection and parallel connection either electrical or magnetic ones (multiphase/windings machines/transformers). It is concluded that as the power level increases in wind turbines, medium-voltage power converters will be a dominant power converter configuration...

  10. Scanning-electron-microscope study of normal-impingement erosion of ductile metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.; Salik, J.

    1980-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the erosion of annealed copper and aluminum surfaces produced by both single- and multiple-particle impacts. Macroscopic 3.2 mm diameter steel balls and microscopic, brittle erodant particles were projected by a gas gun system so as to impact at normal incidence at speeds up to 140 m/sec. During the impacts by the brittle erodant particles, at lower speeds the erosion behavior was similar to that observed for the larger steel balls. At higher velocities, particle fragmentation and the subsequent cutting by the radial wash of debris created a marked change in the erosion mechanism.

  11. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    The wind power generation has been steadily growing both for the total installed capacity and for the individual turbine size. Due to much more significant impacts to the power grid, the power electronics, which can change the behavior of wind turbines from an unregulated power source to an active...... generation unit, are becoming crucial in the wind turbine system. The objective of this project is to study the power electronics technology used for the next generation wind turbines. Some emerging challenges as well as potentials like the cost of energy and reliability are going to be addressed. First...... several potential converter topologies and power semiconductor devices for the future wind power application are presented in respect to the advantages/drawbacks. And then the criteria for evaluating the wind power converter are generally discussed, where the importance of thermal stress in the power...

  12. Power electronics converters for wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2011-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power which reached 200 GW capacity in 2010, together with the up-scaling of the single wind turbine power capability - 7 MW’s has been announced by manufacturers - has pushed the research and development of power converters towards full scale power conversion,...

  13. Maximum wind energy extraction strategies using power electronic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quincy Qing

    2003-10-01

    This thesis focuses on maximum wind energy extraction strategies for achieving the highest energy output of variable speed wind turbine power generation systems. Power electronic converters and controls provide the basic platform to accomplish the research of this thesis in both hardware and software aspects. In order to send wind energy to a utility grid, a variable speed wind turbine requires a power electronic converter to convert a variable voltage variable frequency source into a fixed voltage fixed frequency supply. Generic single-phase and three-phase converter topologies, converter control methods for wind power generation, as well as the developed direct drive generator, are introduced in the thesis for establishing variable-speed wind energy conversion systems. Variable speed wind power generation system modeling and simulation are essential methods both for understanding the system behavior and for developing advanced system control strategies. Wind generation system components, including wind turbine, 1-phase IGBT inverter, 3-phase IGBT inverter, synchronous generator, and rectifier, are modeled in this thesis using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results have been verified by a commercial simulation software package, PSIM, and confirmed by field test results. Since the dynamic time constants for these individual models are much different, a creative approach has also been developed in this thesis to combine these models for entire wind power generation system simulation. An advanced maximum wind energy extraction strategy relies not only on proper system hardware design, but also on sophisticated software control algorithms. Based on literature review and computer simulation on wind turbine control algorithms, an intelligent maximum wind energy extraction control algorithm is proposed in this thesis. This algorithm has a unique on-line adaptation and optimization capability, which is able to achieve maximum wind energy conversion efficiency through

  14. A case for wind enhanced tectonics: Plio-Quaternary sedimentation, erosion, and structural evolution controlled by wind within the Qaidam Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heermance, R. V.; Kapp, P. A.; Pullen, A.; Garzione, C. N.

    2012-12-01

    The interplay between tectonics and localized erosion through fluvial and/or glacial processes has been widely documented. Wind erosion, however, has gone largely un-recognized as a potentially important process in this concept. We document an acceleration in shortening in response to wind deflation above actively deforming fault propagation anticlines since ~3.0 Ma in the Qaidam Basin, China. Evidence for this comes from a 1750 m measured section along the southwestern flank of an intra-basin anticline (38.33°N, 93.46°E) and regional cross-sections. Magnetostratigraphy provides age control for prominent stratigraphic and isotopic changes within the section. A positive shift of ~6‰ in the δ18O values of lake carbonates occurs at 1090 m (3.1 Ma), interpreted to be the result of increased aridity at that time. An intraformational angular unconformity, associated with anticline growth, appears at 1172 m (3.0 Ma) and records the initiation of growth strata deposition. At 1235 m (2.6 Ma), a marked lithofacies change to sub-aerial, evaporitic conditions is observed, and is associated with a 3-fold reduction in sedimentation rate. Paleo-yardangs, which are wind-eroded landforms preserved in the stratigraphic record, appear at 1260 m (2.4 Ma). These observations indicate that regional aridification at 3.1 Ma was followed closely by or coincident with fold growth. Facies changes to more evaporitic strata and erosion of the basin floor (based on paleo-yardangs) trailed initial climate and tectonic changes by 500,000-700,000 years. Although the on-lap relationship of post-growth strata implies that syn-tectonic strata may have pinched-out along the flanks of the anticline, our new analysis indicates that at least 1172 m of pre-growth strata must have been eroded from the core of the anticline since 3.0 Ma at a time-averaged rate of ~0.4 mm/year, comparable to fluvial and glacial erosion rates within active tectonic settings. The lack of an integrated fluvial channel

  15. Contributions of solar-wind induced potential sputtering to the lunar surface erosion rate and it's exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnussirat, S. T.; Barghouty, A. F.; Edmunson, J. E.; Sabra, M. S.; Rickman, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    Sputtering of lunar regolith by solar-wind protons and heavy ions with kinetic energies of about 1 keV/amu is an important erosive process that affects the lunar surface and exosphere. It plays an important role in changing the chemical composition and thickness of the surface layer, and in introducing material into the exosphere. Kinetic sputtering is well modeled and understood, but understanding of mechanisms of potential sputtering has lagged behind. In this study we differentiate the contributions of potential sputtering from the standard (kinetic) sputtering in changing the chemical composition and erosion rate of the lunar surface. Also we study the contribution of potential sputtering in developing the lunar exosphere. Our results show that potential sputtering enhances the total characteristic sputtering erosion rate by about 44%, and reduces sputtering time scales by the same amount. Potential sputtering also introduces more material into the lunar exosphere.

  16. Retrospection of recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area of North China using Cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhifan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China) and College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China)], E-mail: chenzhf0604@163.com; Zhao Ye [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: zhaoye@bnu.edu.cn; Qiao Jiejuan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang Qing [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Protection, Beijing 100088 (China); Zhu Yuen [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China); Xu Cuihua [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Protection, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The Luanhe River Source Area belongs to typical semi-arid, agro-pastoral ecotone of North China. It is very important for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in North China to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in this area. Based on long field observations, soil samples from different depths in a representative wind-deposited soil profile in the Luanhe River Source Area were collected. Then the {sup 137}Cs activity of soil samples from different depths in the soil profile was determined using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM-100), and their soil properties, such as the soil particle fraction and so on, were analyzed. According to the detected {sup 137}Cs activity of different depths, a continuous time sequence of the wind-deposited soil profile in the study area was established. Furthermore, through assumption on a soil relative wind erosion intensity index (SWEI), recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area were retrospected . The analysis results revealed that weaker soil wind erosion occurred in the study area from the 1970s to the early 1980s and from the late 1980s to the mid to late 1990s. Conversely, intense periods of soil wind erosion occurred in the mid-1980s and from the late 1990s to 2002.

  17. Conceptual survey of Generators and Power Electronics for Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.H.; Helle, L.; Blaabjerg, F.; Ritchie, E.; Munk-Nielsen, S.; Bindner, H.; Soerensen, P.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2001-12-01

    This report presents a survey on generator concepts and power electronic concepts for wind turbines. The report is aimed as a tool for decision-makers and development people with respect to wind turbine manufactures, utilities, and independent system operators as well as manufactures of generators and power electronics. The survey is focused on the electric development of wind turbines and it yields an overview on: State of the art on generators and power electronics; future concepts and technologies within generators and power electronics; market needs in the shape of requirements to the grid connection, and; consistent system solutions, plus an evaluation of these seen in the prospect of market needs. This survey on of generator and power electronic concepts was carried out in co-operation between Aalborg University and Risoe National Laboratory in the scope of the research programme Electric Design and Control. (au)

  18. Conceptual survey of generators and power electronics for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.H.; Helle, L.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a survey on generator concepts and power electronic concepts for wind turbines. The report is aimed as a tool for decision-makers and development people with respect to wind turbine manufactures, utilities, and independent systemoperators as well as manufactures of generators...... and power electronics. The survey is focused on the electric development of wind turbines and it yields an overview on: - State of the art on generators and power electronics. - future concepts andtechnologies within generators and power electronics. - market needs in the shape of requirements to the grid...... connection, and - consistent system solutions, plus an evaluation of these seen in the prospect of market needs. This survey on of generatorand power electronic concepts was carried out in co-operation between Aalborg University and Risø National Laboratory in the scope of the research programme Electric...

  19. Assessment of wind erosion threat for soils in cadastral area of Hajske

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchova, Z.; Stredanska, A.

    2008-01-01

    This contribution illustrates the application of methods of erosion threat assessment in lan adaptation projects. Calculations of the soil erosion index of particular soil blocks are demonstrated for the cadastral area of Hajske. Two methods for assessment of erosion threat have been applied. First the assessment based on the ecological soil-quality units (ESQU) has been performed. Next, the Pasak method for a detailed analysis of the soil erosion threat was applied. Both of the mentioned approaches are recommended for the land adaption projects. Based on the results, the soil blocks have been ranked by their soil erosion threat. (authors)

  20. A Review of the State of the Art of Power Electronics for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Guerrero, Josep M.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the power electronic applications for wind energy systems. Various wind turbine systems with different generators and power electronic converters are described, and different technical features are compared. The electrical topologies of wind farms with different wind turbines a...... are summarized and the possible uses of power electronic converters with wind farms are shown. Finally, the possible methods of using the power electronic technology for improving wind turbine performance in power systems to meet the main grid connection requirements are discussed....

  1. Kappa-Electrons Downstream of the Solar Wind Termination Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    A theoretical description of the solar wind electron distribution function downstream of the termination shock under the influence of the shock-induced injection of overshooting KeV-energetic electrons will be presented. A kinetic phasespace transport equation in the bulk frame of the heliosheath plasma flow is developed for the solar wind electrons, taking into account shock-induced electron injection, convective changes, magnetic cooling processes and whistler wave-induced energy diffusion. Assuming that the local electron distribution under the prevailing Non-LTE conditions can be represented by a local kappa function with a local kappa parameter that varies with the streamline coordinates, we determine the parameters of the resulting, initial kappa distribution for the downstream electrons. From this initial function spectral electron fluxes can be derived and can be compared with those measured by the VOYAGER-1 spacecraft in the range between 40 to 70 KeV. It can then be shown that with kappa values around kappa = 6 one can in fact fit these data very satisfactorily. In addition it is shown that for isentropic electron flows kappa-distributed electrons have to undergo simultaneous changes of both parameters, i.e. kappa and theta, of the electron kappa function. It is also shown then that under the influence of energy sinks and sources the electron flux becomes non-isentropic with electron entropies changing along the streamline.

  2. [Estimation of the effect derived from wind erosion of soil and dust emission in Tianjin suburbs on the central district based on WEPS model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Han, Ting-Ting; Li, Tao; Ji, Ya-Qin; Bai, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Bin

    2012-07-01

    Due to the lack of a prediction model for current wind erosion in China and the slow development for such models, this study aims to predict the wind erosion of soil and the dust emission and develop a prediction model for wind erosion in Tianjin by investigating the structure, parameter systems and the relationships among the parameter systems of the prediction models for wind erosion in typical areas, using the U.S. wind erosion prediction system (WEPS) as reference. Based on the remote sensing technique and the test data, a parameter system was established for the prediction model of wind erosion and dust emission, and a model was developed that was suitable for the prediction of wind erosion and dust emission in Tianjin. Tianjin was divided into 11 080 blocks with a resolution of 1 x 1 km2, among which 7 778 dust emitting blocks were selected. The parameters of the blocks were localized, including longitude, latitude, elevation and direction, etc.. The database files of blocks were localized, including wind file, climate file, soil file and management file. The weps. run file was edited. Based on Microsoft Visualstudio 2008, secondary development was done using C + + language, and the dust fluxes of 7 778 blocks were estimated, including creep and saltation fluxes, suspension fluxes and PM10 fluxes. Based on the parameters of wind tunnel experiments in Inner Mongolia, the soil measurement data and climate data in suburbs of Tianjin, the wind erosion module, wind erosion fluxes, dust emission release modulus and dust release fluxes were calculated for the four seasons and the whole year in suburbs of Tianjin. In 2009, the total creep and saltation fluxes, suspension fluxes and PM10 fluxes in the suburbs of Tianjin were 2.54 x 10(6) t, 1.25 x 10(7) t and 9.04 x 10(5) t, respectively, among which, the parts pointing to the central district were 5.61 x 10(5) t, 2.89 x 10(6) t and 2.03 x 10(5) t, respectively.

  3. A modeling study of aeolian erosion enhanced by surface wind confluences over Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using erosion and air quality models, a study on the effect of PM10 episodes in Mexico City is presented. The important contribution of Aeolian erosion on urban air quality, its genesis, morphology, location and regional implications such as the role played by surface confluences, the dry Lake of T...

  4. Electron characteristics in the high speed solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental work done since 1976 on the physics of electrons in the high speed solar wind is reviewed. The main new results are most electron parameters are uniform in the high speed solar wind indicating that it is a well defined, structure-free state of the coronal expansion. The higher energy unbound part of electron velocity distributions (the halo) is consistent with nearly collisionless propagation to 1AU from some heliocentric distance in the range between about 10 and 30 solar radii. The low energy bound electron (core) component appears to be strongly coupled to the protons as well as to one another through Coulomb and wave electron collisions. The first measured radial profile of the core-electron temperature in the high speed solar wind is best characterized in terms of two separate power laws applicable in the distance ranges between 0.47 and 0.62 AU and between 0.62 and 1.0 AU respectively. The best estimate for the power law indices in the inner and outer regions are α 1 = -1.14 +-0.24 and α 0 = +0.28 +-0.13, respectively. A relations of the form Q = γN/sub c/kT/sub c/U/(1 + βγ/sub sigma11 γcp) with = 10.7 and β = 4.2 may be useful in closing the Vlasov moment equations describing general solar wind flows in interplanetary space. The quantity Q is the total heat flux, N/sub c/ and T/sub c/ are the core-electron density and temperature respectively, k is Boltzmann's constant, U is the proton bulk speed in the solar corotating reference frame, /sub tsigma/ is the bounce period of a typical core electron and /+ sub tcp/ is the average core electron-proton Coulomb deflection time. 16 refs

  5. [Vegetation above-ground biomass and its affecting factors in water/wind erosion crisscross region on Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-guo; Fan, Jun; Wang, Quan-jiu; Wang, Li

    2011-03-01

    Field investigations were conducted in Liudaogou small watershed in late September 2009 to study the differences of vegetation above-ground biomass, soil moisture content, and soil nutrient contents under different land use patterns, aimed to approach the vegetation above-ground biomass level and related affecting factors in typical small watershed in water/wind erosion crisscross region on Loess Plateau. The above-ground dry biomass of the main vegetations in Liudaogou was 177-2207 g x m(-2), and that in corn field, millet field, abandoned farmland, artificial grassland, natural grassland, and shrub land was 2097-2207, 518-775, 248-578, 280-545, 177-396, and 372-680 g x m(-2), respectively. The mean soil moisture content in 0-100 layer was the highest (14.2%) in farmlands and the lowest (10.9%) in shrub land. The coefficient of variation of soil moisture content was the greatest (26. 7% ) in abandoned farmland, indicating the strong spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture in this kind of farmland. The mean soil water storage was in the order of farmland > artificial grassland > natural grassland > shrub land. Soil dry layer was observed in alfalfa and caragana lands. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.639, P water storage, and also, a very significant positive correlation between above-ground fresh biomass and vegetation height. The above-ground biomass of the higher vegetations could potentially better control the wind and water erosion in the water/wind erosion crisscross region. Vegetation above-ground biomass was highly correlated with soil moisture and nutrient contents, but had no significant correlations with elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, and soil bulk density.

  6. Electron energetics in the expanding solar wind via Helios observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štverák, Štěpán; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Hellinger, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 10 (2015), s. 8177-8193 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/2041; GA ČR GA15-17490S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : solar wind * electrons energetics * transport processes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015

  7. The Dissipation of Solar Wind Turbulent Fluctuations at Electron Scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Camporeale (Enrico); D. Burgess

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe present two-dimensional fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations of decaying electromagnetic fluctuations. The computational box is such that wavelengths ranging from electron to ion gyroradii are resolved. The parameters used are realistic for the solar wind, and the

  8. Shelter effect on a row of coal piles to prevent wind erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, A.R.; Viergas, D.X.

    1988-08-01

    The shelter effect of porous wind breakers over a row of coal piles was studied in a wind tunnel. Two sets of tests are described, one performed in two dimensional configuration in which the shelter effect of several barriers with different heights and porosities is evaluated. The effect of wind direction is considered using a tridimensional model. Wall shear stress measurements performed with a hot film sensor allowed the characterization of the transport properties of fine particles of coal. By integration of the local wind properties the rates of pollutant emission were determined leading to the conclusion of an effective shelter action of the porous wind breakers.

  9. Power Electronics and Controls for Large Wind Turbines and Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Shipurkar, Udai; Ionel, Dan M.

    2017-01-01

    Wind power represents a major and growing source of renewable energy for electric power systems. This chapter provides an overview of state-of-the-art technologies and anticipated developments in the area of power electronic drives, controls, and electric generators for large multi-megawatt (MW) ...

  10. Kinetic Theory and Fast Wind Observations of the Electron Strahl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horaites, Konstantinos; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Wilson, Lynn B., III; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Merka, Jan

    2018-02-01

    We develop a model for the strahl population in the solar wind - a narrow, low-density and high-energy electron beam centred on the magnetic field direction. Our model is based on the solution of the electron drift-kinetic equation at heliospheric distances where the plasma density, temperature and the magnetic field strength decline as power laws of the distance along a magnetic flux tube. Our solution for the strahl depends on a number of parameters that, in the absence of the analytic solution for the full electron velocity distribution function (eVDF), cannot be derived from the theory. We however demonstrate that these parameters can be efficiently found from matching our solution with observations of the eVDF made by the Wind satellite's SWE strahl detector. The model is successful at predicting the angular width (FWHM) of the strahl for the Wind data at 1 au, in particular by predicting how this width scales with particle energy and background density. We find that the strahl distribution is largely determined by the local temperature Knudsen number γ ∼ |T dT/dx|/n, which parametrizes solar wind collisionality. We compute averaged strahl distributions for typical Knudsen numbers observed in the solar wind, and fit our model to these data. The model can be matched quite closely to the eVDFs at 1 au; however, it then overestimates the strahl amplitude at larger heliocentric distances. This indicates that our model may be improved through the inclusion of additional physics, possibly through the introduction of 'anomalous diffusion' of the strahl electrons.

  11. Wind, rain and soil erosion rates on bare and plant covered agriculture plots at the experimental station of El Teularet -Sierra de Enguera, Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; Azorin-Molina, C.; Iserloh, Th.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion is being scientifically researched for more tan one century, but there is some knowledge lacks that should be researched. Within the factors of the soil erosion wind and rain were studied, but little is know about the impact of the combination of both. Soil erosion by wind was mainly studied on drylands and agriculture land (Sterk and Spaan, 1997; Bielders et al., 2002; Rajot et al., 2003; Zobeck et al., 2003). Soil erosion by water was studied in many ecosystems but it is especially active on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009) and under Mediterranean climatic conditions (Cerdà et al., 2010). The importance of wind on soil erosion is base in the fact that rainstorms occurs with wind, adding a driving component to the falling raindrops. The influence of wind on raindrops is clear, but there is not measurements and there is no information of this influence under field conditions with natural rainfall events.This paper aims to determine the interaction between wind and rain as factors of the soil losses under Mediterranean climatic conditions and different agriculture managements and land uses. Since 2003, the El Teularet-Serra de Enguera Soil Erosion Experimental Station located in Eastern Spain is measuring the soil losses in plots under different land uses and land managements. The station is devoted to study the soil water erosion processes under rain-fed agriculture fields and the rangelands by means of simulated rainfall experiments and plots of different sizes. The soil erosion measure ments are done by means of 13 plots, each of them composed of 5 subplots of 1, 2, 4, 16 and 48 m2 under different land uses and managements. Two plots are covered by two different types of shrubs: Quercus coccifera and Ulex parviflorus, respectively. Three plots reproduce the use of herbicides, one is ploughed, and three plots follow conservation practices (oats and beans with no-tillage, with tillage, and with a vege- tation cover of weeds). Other plots are

  12. Significance of frost action and surface soil characteristics to wind erosion at Rocky Flats, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caine, N.

    1978-09-01

    This study of the potential links between soil freezing and wind erosion was conducted at Rocky Flats during 4 winters. Most of the study has involved the conditions leading to the growth of segregation ice in the surface soil and the ground heave which that produces. This occurs about 15 times in the average winter at Rocky Flats, always on a diurnal cycle. Such frost action is preferentially distributed in time and space and cannot be estimated from air temperatures alone. November and March are the months of most frequent frost heave, and then only in the days following precipitation or snowmelt. The most marked frost effects are found on exposed interfluve and hillcrest situations, where there are patches of bare soil. Almost no effects are found on the valley floors. Soil disturbance by segregation ice leads to a marked decrease in soil bulk density, and presumably in soil strength though this change has not been quantitatively defined. However, this does not lead to wind erosion of the soil at the study site because that surface is more influenced by the vegetation cover than by the soil characteristics.

  13. Application of a modeling approach to designate soil and soil organic carbon loss to wind erosion on long-term monitoring sites (BDF) in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerger, Rainer; Funk, Roger; Cordsen, Eckhard; Fohrer, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) loss is a serious problem in maize monoculture areas of Northern Germany. Sites of the soil monitoring network (SMN) "Boden-Dauerbeobachtung" show long-term soil and SOC losses, which cannot be explained by conventional SOC balances nor by other non-Aeolian causes. Using a process-based model, the main objective was to determine whether these losses can be explained by wind erosion. In the long-term context of 10 years, wind erosion was not measured directly but often observed. A suitable estimation approach linked high-quality soil/farming monitoring data with wind erosion modeling results. The model SWEEP, validated for German sandy soils, was selected using 10-minute wind speed data. Two similar local SMN study sites were compared, however, site A was characterized by high SOC loss and often affected by wind erosion, while the reference site B was not. At site A soil mass and SOC stock decreased by 49.4 and 2.44 kg m-2 from 1999 to 2009. Using SWEEP, a total soil loss of 48.9 kg m-2 resulted for 16 erosion events (max. single event 12.6 kg m-2). A share of 78% was transported by suspension with a SOC enrichment ratio (ER) of 2.96 (saltation ER 0.98), comparable to the literature. At the reference site measured and modeled topsoil losses were minimal. The good agreement between monitoring and modeling results suggested that wind erosion caused significant long-term soil and SOC losses. The approach uses results of prior studies and is applicable to similar well-studied sites without other noteworthy SOC losses.

  14. The National Wind Erosion Research Network: Building a standardized long-term data resource for aeolian research, modeling and land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Van Zee, Justin W; Courtright, Ericha M; Hugenholtz, Ted M; Zobeck, Ted M; Okin, Gregory S.; Barchyn, Thomas E; Billings, Benjamin J; Boyd, Robert A.; Clingan, Scott D; Cooper, Brad F; Duniway, Michael C.; Derner, Justin D.; Fox, Fred A; Havstad, Kris M.; Heilman, Philip; LaPlante, Valerie; Ludwig, Noel A; Metz, Loretta J; Nearing, Mark A; Norfleet, M Lee; Pierson, Frederick B; Sanderson, Matt A; Sharrat, Brenton S; Steiner, Jean L; Tatarko, John; Tedela, Negussie H; Todelo, David; Unnasch, Robert S; Van Pelt, R Scott; Wagner, Larry

    2016-01-01

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the United States Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the United States Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for a long-term research program to meet critical challenges in wind erosion research and management in the United States. The Network has three aims: (1) provide data to support understanding of basic aeolian processes across land use types, land cover types, and management practices, (2) support development and application of models to assess wind erosion and dust emission and their impacts on human and environmental systems, and (3) encourage collaboration among the aeolian research community and resource managers for the transfer of wind erosion technologies. The Network currently consists of thirteen intensively instrumented sites providing measurements of aeolian sediment transport rates, meteorological conditions, and soil and vegetation properties that influence wind erosion. Network sites are located across rangelands, croplands, and deserts of the western US. In support of Network activities, http://winderosionnetwork.org was developed as a portal for information about the Network, providing site descriptions, measurement protocols, and data visualization tools to facilitate collaboration with scientists and managers interested in the Network and accessing Network products. The Network provides a mechanism for engaging national and international partners in a wind erosion research program that addresses the need for improved understanding and prediction of aeolian processes across complex and diverse land use types and management practices.

  15. Wind reduction patterns around isolated biomass for wind erosion control in a desertified area of Central Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasr Al-amin, N.K.; Stigter, C.J.; El-Tayeb Mohammed, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of sparse vegetation, feature common in arid zone, to reduce wind force (velocity) and hence protect the surface and regions downwind from drifting sand and their consequences. Respectively 4 (with heights h of 4, 3.2, 2 and 1.66 m), 2 (with h of

  16. Power Electronics Control of Wind Energy in Distributed Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is an urgent demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that the power capacity has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of energy should be as efficient as possible and incentives to save...... energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...

  17. Electron temperature anisotropy constraints in the solar wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štverák, Štěpán; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Maksimovic, M.; Marsch, E.; Fazakerley, A.; Scime, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 113, A3 /2008/ (2008), A03103/1-A03103/10 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420602 Grant - others:EU(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501; CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : solar wind electrons * temperature anisotropy * radial Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.147, year: 2008

  18. Solar Wind Turbulence at Sub-Ion and Electron Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, O.; Lacombe, C.; Matteini, L.; Zaslavsky, A.; Orel, I.

    2017-12-01

    We study magnetic fluctuations at sub-ion scales and down to sub-electron scales (from 1 to 200Hz) using two complementary approaches: (i) a statistical study of the turbulent spectra of the different field components in the reference frame based on the quasi-local mean field B and velocity V; (ii) a detailed analysis of magnetic waveforms in the same reference frame. For this statistical study, we consider 93 10-minute intervals of Cluster/STAFF measurements. We find that the fluctuations are non-gyrotropic at a given frequency f, a property already observed at larger scales. This non-gyrotropy provides indications on the angular distribution of the wave vectors k: at f> k||, mainly in the fast wind; at f>10Hz, the k are more isotropic. We then consider the magnetic compressibility of the fluctuations: it increases with f and at electron scales the fluctuations become isotropic. From 1 to 20Hz, there is a strong correlation between the observed compressibility and the one expected for the kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs), which only depends on the total plasma beta. For f>20Hz, the observed compressibility is larger than the one expected for classical KAWs, and it is stronger in the slow wind: this could be an indication of the presence of a slow-ion acoustic mode of fluctuations, which is more compressive and is favoured by the larger values of the electron to proton temperature ratio generally observed in the slow wind. For the analysis of the magnetic waveforms, we use burst mode intervals in the solar wind and in the Earth's magnetosheath during the Cluster Guest Investigator campaign in 2015, when C3 and C4 were at 7km apart only. Time-frequency analysis using Morlet wavelets shows that the turbulence is non-homogeneous and filled in with intermittent events. A detailed study of magnetic fluctuations on C3 and C4 shows signatures of electron-scale magnetic vortices, but with strong compressible components, in agreement with our statistical study discussed above

  19. Dust records in the Pleistocene sediments of Fraser Island: palaeoclimatic reconstruction of wind erosion over the last 600 ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmore, M.E. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). Dept of Geography; McTainsh, G.H. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, QLD (Australia). Fac of Environmental Sciences

    1997-12-31

    Full text: Pleistocene lake sediments from a relic perched freshwater lake on Fraser Island have been found to date back to ca.600 ka using U/Th analysis of the organics. This sequence is one of the three longest terrestrial records of environmental change in Australia and the contained evidence of vegetation, fire and lake level changes (Longmore and Heijnis, 1996) and is an invaluable contribution to palaeoclimatic reconstruction. A younger sequence, dated by conventional radiocarbon analysis, has 6.5 m of continuous organic sedimentation from ca. 30 ka to the present. The last 8.5 ka has been analysed in detail, showing a mid-Holocene `dry` period (Longmore, 1996). Continental aeolian dust from extreme wind erosional events has been measured in modern atmospheres (McTainsh, 1989; Knight et al., 1995) and deep sea cores (Hesse, 1994), but the terrestrial record of wind erosion during the Pleistocene is sparse. We will report on a pilot project to determine the presence of aeolian dust from extreme wind erosional events in the past in the sediments of Fraser Island lakes. Due to the highly weathered, well-sorted, siliceous nature of the dune sands forming the Island and the highly organic nature of the lake sediments (80-95% LOI), these are some of the few terrestrial sequences that permit separation of aeolian dust from local catchment materials. In the future, oxygen isotope and XRD analysis of the extracted dust will allow the most likely source of the entrained material to be determined and thus provide further evidence as to the wind regime during the last 600ka and 30ka respectively. The separation of dust from these terrestrial sequences is a major achievement and potentially may make a significant contribution to global palaeoclimatic models. Paper no. 78. 5 refs.

  20. Interactive effects of moss-dominated crusts and Artemisia ordosica on wind erosion and soil moisture in Mu Us sandland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongsheng; Bu, Chongfeng; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Zhang, Kankan

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs) on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1) The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2) Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3) Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion.

  1. Interactive Effects of Moss-Dominated Crusts and Artemisia ordosica on Wind Erosion and Soil Moisture in Mu Us Sandland, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongsheng; Bu, Chongfeng; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Zhang, Kankan

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs) on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1) The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2) Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3) Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion. PMID:24982973

  2. Interactive Effects of Moss-Dominated Crusts and Artemisia ordosica on Wind Erosion and Soil Moisture in Mu Us Sandland, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1 The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2 Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3 Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion.

  3. Rain erosion of wind turbine blade coatings using discrete water jets: Effects of water cushioning, substrate geometry, impact distance, and coating properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shizhong; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Bernad, Pablo L.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and reliable rain erosion screening of blade coatings for wind turbines is a strong need in the coatings industry. One possibility in this direction is the use of discrete water jets, where so-called jet slugs are impacted on a coating surface. Previous investigations have mapped the influe......Rapid and reliable rain erosion screening of blade coatings for wind turbines is a strong need in the coatings industry. One possibility in this direction is the use of discrete water jets, where so-called jet slugs are impacted on a coating surface. Previous investigations have mapped......, impact, hardness, and abrasion experiments, were also conducted. The ranking of abrasion resistance of the blade coatings was in agreement with the ranking of rain erosion resistance measured in the whirling arm rig (an industrial standard).Results of this work, with more pertinent parameters explored...

  4. Erosion of volatile elemental condensed gases by keV electron and light-ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schou, J.

    1991-11-01

    Erosion of the most volatile elemental gases by keV electron and light-ion bombardment has been studied at the experimental setup at Risoe. The present work includes frozen neon, argon, krypton, nitrogen, oxygen and three hydrogen isotopes, deuterium, hydrogen deuteride and hydrogen. The yield of these condensed gases has been measured as a function of film thickness and primary energy for almost all combinations of primary particles (1-3 keV electrons, 5-10 keV hydrogen- and helium ions) and ices. These and other existing results show that there are substantial common features for the sputtering of frozen elemental gases. Within the two groups, the solid rare gases and the solid molecular gases, the similarity is striking. The hydrogenic solids deviate in some respects from the other elements. The processes that liberate kinetic energy for the particle ejection in sputtering are characteristic of the specific gas. (au) 3 tabs., 12 ills., 159 refs

  5. Effect of erosion on the solar wind stand-off distance at Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavin, J.A.; Holzer, R.E.

    1979-05-01

    Recent studies have provided quantitative measurements of the effect of dayside magnetic reconnection on the position of the earth's forward magnetopause. By scaling these terrestrial observations to Mercury, it is predicted that the mean solar wind stand-off distance for average solar wind dynamic pressure conditions will be 0.2--0.7 R/sub m/ inward from its 'ground state' position. Furthermore, it is expected that the magnetopause will be eroded and/or compressed to within 0.2R/sub m/ of Mercury's surface a significant portion of the time. Empirical formulae derived for the earth's magnetosphere are used to determine both solar wind stand-off distances and solar wind dynamic pressures for the two Mariner 10 encounters with Mercury's magnetosphere. It is found that for the first encounter when the interplanetary magnetic field was often southward and substorm signatures are observed inside the magnetosphere, the mean stand-off distance inferred from the boundary crossings is 1.5R/sub m/(for P/sub s/w=6.0 x 10/sup 8/dynes/cm/sup 2/). At the time of the final encounter, the Mariner 10 magnetometer observed no significant southward component in the IMF and no substorm activity was evident. For this encounter, the mean inferred stand-off distance is 1.9R/sub m/ consistent with the expected effects of magnetic flux transfer within a terrestrial-type magnetosphere. A dipole moment of 6 +- 2 x 10/sup 22/ G-cm/sup 3/ is calculated from the observed bow shock and magnetopause positions. Finally, the importance of magnetic flux transfer in the solar wind-magnetospher-atmosphere-surface interaction at Mercury is briefly discussed.

  6. Power Electronics and Controls for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    The electrical energy consumption continues to grow and more applications will be based on electricity in the next decades. We can expect that more 60 % of all energy consumption will be converted and used as electricity. It is a demand that production, distribution and use of electrical energy a...... electronics, is changing the future electrical infrastructure and also contributes steadily to non-carbon based electricity production. The paper’s focus is on the power electronics technologies used in wind turbine systems....... term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use power electronics to achieve high efficiency in power generation, transmission/distribution and utilization. This paper discuss trends of the most promising renewable energy sources, wind energy, which ,integrated with power......The electrical energy consumption continues to grow and more applications will be based on electricity in the next decades. We can expect that more 60 % of all energy consumption will be converted and used as electricity. It is a demand that production, distribution and use of electrical energy...

  7. Wind tunnel tests of biodegradable fugitive dust suppressants being considered to reduce soil erosion by wind at radioactive waste construction sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Dennis, G.W.; Bushaw, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed of three fugitive dust control agents derived from potato and sugar beet products. These materials are being considered for use as dust suppressants to reduce the potential for transport of radioactive materials by wind from radioactive waste construction and remediation sites. Soil and dust control agent type, solution concentrations, application quantities, aging (or drying) conditions, surface disturbance, and wind and saltating sand eolian erosive stresses were selected and controlled to simulate application and exposure of excavated soil surfaces in the field. A description of the tests, results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this report. The results of this study indicate that all three dust control agents can protect exposed soil surfaces from extreme eolian stresses. It is also clear that the interaction and performance of each agent with various soil types may differ dramatically. Thus, soils similar to that received from ML should be best protected by high concentration (∼2.5%) solutions of potato starch at low water application levels (∼1 to 2 L/m 2 ). Because the effectiveness of PS on this soil type is degraded after a moderate amount of simulated rainfall, other options or additives should be considered if surfaces are to be protected for long intervals or during periods of intermittent rainfall and hot, windy conditions. On the other hand, XDCA should be considered when excavating sandy soils. It should be noted, however, that because the Hanford soil test results are based on a small number of tests, it would be prudent to perform additional tests prior to selecting a fugitive dust control agent for use at the Hanford Site. While fermented potato waste was not the best fixative used on either soil, it did perform reasonably well on both soil types (better than XDCA on Idaho soil and better than PS on Hanford soil)

  8. Wind tunnel tests of biodegradable fugitive dust suppressants being considered to reduce soil erosion by wind at radioactive waste construction sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Dennis, G.W.; Bushaw, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed of three fugitive dust control agents derived from potato and sugar beet products. These materials are being considered for use as dust suppressants to reduce the potential for transport of radioactive materials by wind from radioactive waste construction and remediation sites. Soil and dust control agent type, solution concentrations, application quantities, aging (or drying) conditions, surface disturbance, and wind and saltating sand eolian erosive stresses were selected and controlled to simulate application and exposure of excavated soil surfaces in the field. A description of the tests, results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this report. The results of this study indicate that all three dust control agents can protect exposed soil surfaces from extreme eolian stresses. It is also clear that the interaction and performance of each agent with various soil types may differ dramatically. Thus, soils similar to that received from ML should be best protected by high concentration ({approximately}2.5%) solutions of potato starch at low water application levels ({approximately}1 to 2 L/m{sup 2}). Because the effectiveness of PS on this soil type is degraded after a moderate amount of simulated rainfall, other options or additives should be considered if surfaces are to be protected for long intervals or during periods of intermittent rainfall and hot, windy conditions. On the other hand, XDCA should be considered when excavating sandy soils. It should be noted, however, that because the Hanford soil test results are based on a small number of tests, it would be prudent to perform additional tests prior to selecting a fugitive dust control agent for use at the Hanford Site. While fermented potato waste was not the best fixative used on either soil, it did perform reasonably well on both soil types (better than XDCA on Idaho soil and better than PS on Hanford soil).

  9. Solar Wind Electron Scattering by Kinetic Instabilities and Whistler Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    The expansion of the solar wind away from the Sun drives electron velocity distributions away from the thermal Maxwellian form, yielding distributions near 1 AU which typically can be characterized as consisting of three anisotropic components: a more dense, relatively cool core, a relatively tenuous , relatively warm halo and a similarly tenuous, warm strahl. Each of these nonthermal components are potential sources of kinetic plasma instabilities; the enhanced waves from each instability can scatter the electrons, acting to reduce the various anisotropies and making their overall velocity distribution more nearly (but not completely) thermal. In contrast, simulations are demonstrating that the forward decay of whistler turbulence can lead to the development of a T||> T_perp electron anisotropy. This presentation will review linear theories of electron-driven kinetic instabilities (following the presentation by Daniel Verscharen at the 2015 SHINE Workshop), and will further consider the modification of electron velocity distributions as obtained from particle-in-cell simulations of such instabilities as well as from the decay of whistler turbulence.

  10. Parametrization of the increase of the aeolian erosion threshold wind friction velocity due to soil moisture for arid and semi-arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fécan

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale simulation of the soil-derived dust emission in semi-arid regions needs to account for the influence of the soil moisture on the wind erosion threshold. Soil water retention consists of molecular adsorption on the soil grain surface and capillary forces between the grain. Interparticle capillary forces (characterized by the moisture tension are the main factor responsible for the increase of the wind erosion threshold observed when the soil moisture increases. When the soil moisture content is close to but smaller than the maximum amount of adsorbed water, w' (depending on the soil texture, these capillary forces are considered as not strong enough to significantly increase the erosion threshold. An expression of the moisture tension as a function of soil moisture and w' is derived from retention curves. From this expression, a parametrization of the ratio of the wet to dry erosion thresholds has been developed as a function of soil moisture and soil texture. The coefficients of this parametrization have been determined by using experimental data from the literature. An empirical relationship between w' and soil clay content has been established. The erosion threshold ratios simulated for different soil textures were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (Aerosols and particles · Hydrology (soil moisture

  11. Parametrization of the increase of the aeolian erosion threshold wind friction velocity due to soil moisture for arid and semi-arid areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecan, F.; Marticorena, B.; Bergametti, G. [Paris-7 Univ. (France). Lab. Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques

    1999-01-01

    Large-scale simulation of the soil-derived dust emission in semiarid regions needs to account for the influence of the soil moisture on the wind erosion threshold. Soil water retention consists of molecular adsorption on the soil grain surface and capillary forces between the grain. Interparticle capillary forces (characterized by the moisture tension) are the main factor responsible for the increase of the wind erosion threshold observed when the soil moisture increases. When the soil moisture content is close to but smaller than the maximum amount of adsorbed water, w` (depending on the soil texture), these capillary forces are considered as not strong enough to significantly increase the erosion threshold. An expression of the moisture tension as a function of soil moisture and w` is derived from retention curves. From this expression, a parametrization of the ratio of the wet to dry erosion thresholds has been developed as a function of soil moisture and soil texture. The coefficients of this parametrization have been determined by using experimental data from the literature. An empirical relationship between w` and soil clay content has been established. The erosion threshold ratios simulated for different soil textures were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig.) 24 refs.

  12. Parametrization of the increase of the aeolian erosion threshold wind friction velocity due to soil moisture for arid and semi-arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fécan

    Full Text Available Large-scale simulation of the soil-derived dust emission in semi-arid regions needs to account for the influence of the soil moisture on the wind erosion threshold. Soil water retention consists of molecular adsorption on the soil grain surface and capillary forces between the grain. Interparticle capillary forces (characterized by the moisture tension are the main factor responsible for the increase of the wind erosion threshold observed when the soil moisture increases. When the soil moisture content is close to but smaller than the maximum amount of adsorbed water, w' (depending on the soil texture, these capillary forces are considered as not strong enough to significantly increase the erosion threshold. An expression of the moisture tension as a function of soil moisture and w' is derived from retention curves. From this expression, a parametrization of the ratio of the wet to dry erosion thresholds has been developed as a function of soil moisture and soil texture. The coefficients of this parametrization have been determined by using experimental data from the literature. An empirical relationship between w' and soil clay content has been established. The erosion threshold ratios simulated for different soil textures were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (Aerosols and particles · Hydrology (soil moisture

  13. Changes in wind erosion over a 25-year restoration chronosequence on the south edge of the Tengger Desert, China: implications for preventing desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Quanlin; Fehmi, Jeffrey S; Zhang, Dekui; Fan, Baoli; Chen, Fang

    2017-08-23

    Wind erosion is a primary cause of desertification as well as being a serious ecological problem in arid and semi-arid areas across the world. To determine mechanisms for restoring desertified lands, an unrestored shifting sand dune and three formerly shifting sand dunes (desertified lands) that had been enclosed and afforested for 5, 15, and 25 years were selected for evaluation on the south edge of the Tengger Desert, China. Based on sampling heights between 0.2 and 3 m, the critical threshold average wind speed was 6.5 m s -1 at 2 m where the sand transport rate was reduced from 285.9 kg m -2  h -1 on the unrestored dunes to 9.1 and 1.8 kg m -2  h -1 on the sites afforested and enclosed for 5 and 15 years, respectively. The percentage of wind eroded area was reduced from 99.9% on the unrestored dune to 94.5, 9.0, and 0.5% on the sites afforested and enclosed for 5, 15, and 25 years, respectively. Wind erosion was effectively reduced after 15 years. Although there were different driving factors for wind erosion mitigation on the different restoration stages, an increase in the vegetation cover, surface roughness, soil shear strength, soil clay content, organic matter, and reduction in the near-surface wind speed were the primary variables associated with the restoration chronosequence. We conclude that reducing the wind speed and developing a biological crust through vegetation restoration were the critical components for restoration of desertified land.

  14. SCALING OF THE ELECTRON DISSIPATION RANGE OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahraoui, F.; Belmont, G.; Rétino, A.; Robert, P.; De Patoul, J.; Huang, S. Y.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Electron scale solar wind (SW) turbulence has attracted great interest in recent years. Considerable evidence exists that the turbulence is not fully dissipated near the proton scale, but continues cascading down to electron scales. However, the scaling of the magnetic energy spectra as well as the nature of the plasma modes involved at those small scales are still not fully determined. Here we survey 10 yr of the Cluster STAFF search-coil magnetometer waveforms measured in the SW and perform a statistical study of the magnetic energy spectra in the frequency range [1, 180] Hz. We found that 75% of the analyzed spectra exhibit breakpoints near the electron gyroscale ρ e , followed by steeper power-law-like spectra. We show that the scaling below the electron breakpoint cannot be determined unambiguously due to instrumental limitations that we discuss in detail. We compare our results to those reported in other studies and discuss their implications for the physical mechanisms involved and for theoretical modeling of energy dissipation in the SW

  15. A large source of dust missing in Particulate Matter emission inventories? Wind erosion of post-fire landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Wagenbrenner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire contributes substantial particulate matter (PM in the form of dust to the atmosphere, but the magnitude of this dust source is largely unknown. It is important to accurately quantify dust emissions because they can impact human health, degrade visibility, exacerbate dust-on-snow issues (including snowmelt timing, snow chemistry, and avalanche danger, and affect ecological and biogeochemical cycles, precipitation regimes, and the Earth’s radiation budget. We used a novel modeling approach in which local-scale winds were used to drive a high-resolution dust emission model parameterized for burned soils to provide a first estimate of post-fire PM emissions. The dust emission model was parameterized with dust flux measurements from a 2010 fire scar. Here we present a case study to demonstrate the ability of the modeling framework to capture the onset and dynamics of a post-fire dust event and then use the modeling framework to estimate PM emissions from burn scars left by wildfires in U.S. western sagebrush landscapes during 2012. Modeled emissions from 1.2 million ha of burned soil totaled 32.1 Tg (11.7–352 Tg of dust as PM10 and 12.8 Tg (4.68–141 Tg as PM2.5. Despite the relatively large uncertainties in these estimates and a number of underlying assumptions, these first estimates of annual post-fire dust emissions suggest that post-fire PM emissions could substantially increase current annual PM estimates in the U.S. National Emissions Inventory during high fire activity years. Given the potential for post-fire scars to be a large source of PM, further on-site PM flux measurements are needed to improve emission parameterizations and constrain these first estimates.

  16. Precision Electron Density Measurements in the SSX MHD Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen-Lewis, Emma M.; Barbano, Luke J.; Shrock, Jaron E.; Kaur, Manjit; Schaffner, David A.; Brown, Michael R.

    2017-10-01

    We characterize fluctuations of the line averaged electron density of Taylor states produced by the magnetized coaxial plasma gun of the SSX device using a 632.8 nm HeNe laser interferometer. The analysis method uses the electron density dependence of the refractive index of the plasma to determine the electron density of the Taylor states. Typical magnetic field and density values in the SSX device approach about B ≅ 0.3 T and n = 0 . 4 ×1016 cm-3 . Analysis is improved from previous density measurement methods by developing a post-processing method to remove relative phase error between interferometer outputs and to account for approximately linear phase drift due to low-frequency mechanical vibrations of the interferometer. Precision density measurements coupled with local measurements of the magnetic field will allow us to characterize the wave composition of SSX plasma via density vs. magnetic field correlation analysis, and compare the wave composition of SSX plasma with that of the solar wind. Preliminary results indicate that density and magnetic field appear negatively correlated. Work supported by DOE ARPA-E ALPHA program.

  17. Ion and sulfate-isotope ratios in arid soils subject to wind erosion in the southwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, W.H.; Peterjohn, W.T.

    Our objective was to evaluate the potential for arid-land soil dusts to contribute significantly to the content of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and other ions in precipitation. Soil samples collected at 102 locations throughout southwestern USA deserts were extracted with distilled water and analyzed for major ionic constituents and the stable isotope ratios (/sup 34/S//sup 32/S) in soluble sulfate. Most samples were dominated by Ca/sup 2 +/ and HCO/sub 3//sup -/, and were undersaturated with respect to gypsum. Only a weak correlation was found between Ca/sup 2 +/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ in samples from upland sites. Median delta /sup 34/S of soil SO/sub 4/ was +6.2 per thousand compared to +3.9 per thousand reported for precipitation. However, the median ratios for Ca/SO/sub 4/ (12.00) and Mg/SO/sub 4/ (1.84) in soil extracts were much larger than the same ratios in precipitation, suggesting that wind erosion of undisturbed desert soils is not a major source of the SO/sub 4/ in precipitation. Calcite aerosols from desert soils may act to neutralize acid rain in the western USA.

  18. Pop-Cola Acids and Tooth Erosion: An In Vitro, In Vivo, Electron-Microscopic, and Clinical Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirfirooz Borjian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Manufactured Colas are consumed universally as soft drinks. Evidence about the acid contents of Cola-beverages and its effects on teeth is rare. Aim. To assess (i cola acidity and buffering capacity in vitro, (ii tooth erosion after swishing with colas in vivo (iii scanning electron microscopic effects on teeth of colas, and tooth-brush abrasion, and (iv report a clinical case of erosion from cola consumption. Materials and Methods. (i We measured six commercially available pop “Cola beverages”, pH, and buffering capacities using a pH-Mettler Automatic Titrator, with weak solution of Sodium Hydroxide (ii two cohorts, one with teeth, the second without teeth rinsed with aliquots of Cola for 60 seconds. Swished cola samples tested for calcium and phosphorus contents using standardized chemical analytical methods (iii enamel, dentine, and the enamel-cemental junction from unerupted extracted wisdom teeth were examined with a scanning electron microscope after exposure to colas, and tested for tooth-brush abrasion; (iv a clinical case of pop cola erosion presentation, are all described. Results. Comparisons among pop colas tested in vitro reveal high acidity with very low pH. Buffering capacities in millilitres of 0.5 M NaOH needed to increase one pH unit, to pH 5.5 and pH 7 are reported. Rinsing in vivo with pop cola causes leeching of calcium from teeth; SEM shows dental erosion, and pop-cola consumption induces advanced dental erosion and facilitates abrasion. Conclusions. (i Pop-Cola acid activity is below the critical pH 5.5 for tooth dissolution, with high buffering capacities countering neutralization effects of saliva; (ii calcium is leeched out of teeth after rinsing with pop colas; (iii SEM evidence explains why chronic exposure to acid pop colas causes dental frangibles; (iv a clinical case of pop-cola erosion confirms this.

  19. Strategies for mitigating the ionization-induced beam head erosion problem in an electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. An

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for mitigating ionization-induced beam head erosion in an electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA are explored when the plasma and the wake are both formed by the transverse electric field of the beam itself. Beam head erosion can occur in a preformed plasma because of a lack of focusing force from the wake at the rising edge (head of the beam due to the finite inertia of the electrons. When the plasma is produced by field ionization from the space charge field of the beam, the head erosion is significantly exacerbated due to the gradual recession (in the beam frame of the 100% ionization contour. Beam particles in front of the ionization front cannot be focused (guided causing them to expand as in vacuum. When they expand, the location of the ionization front recedes such that even more beam particles are completely unguided. Eventually this process terminates the wake formation prematurely, i.e., well before the beam is depleted of its energy. Ionization-induced head erosion can be mitigated by controlling the beam parameters (emittance, charge, and energy and/or the plasma conditions. In this paper we explore how the latter can be optimized so as to extend the beam propagation distance and thereby increase the energy gain. In particular we show that, by using a combination of the alkali atoms of the lowest practical ionization potential (Cs for plasma formation and a precursor laser pulse to generate a narrow plasma filament in front of the beam, the head erosion rate can be dramatically reduced. Simulation results show that in the upcoming “two-bunch PWFA experiments” on the FACET facility at SLAC national accelerator laboratory the energy gain of the trailing beam can be up to 10 times larger for the given parameters when employing these techniques. Comparison of the effect of beam head erosion in preformed and ionization produced plasmas is also presented.

  20. Pop-cola acids and tooth erosion: an in vitro, in vivo, electron-microscopic, and clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjian, Amirfirooz; Ferrari, Claudia C F; Anouf, Antoni; Touyz, Louis Z G

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Manufactured Colas are consumed universally as soft drinks. Evidence about the acid contents of Cola-beverages and its effects on teeth is rare. Aim. To assess (i) cola acidity and buffering capacity in vitro, (ii) tooth erosion after swishing with colas in vivo (iii) scanning electron microscopic effects on teeth of colas, and tooth-brush abrasion, and (iv) report a clinical case of erosion from cola consumption. Materials and Methods. (i) We measured six commercially available pop "Cola beverages", pH, and buffering capacities using a pH-Mettler Automatic Titrator, with weak solution of Sodium Hydroxide (ii) two cohorts, one with teeth, the second without teeth rinsed with aliquots of Cola for 60 seconds. Swished cola samples tested for calcium and phosphorus contents using standardized chemical analytical methods (iii) enamel, dentine, and the enamel-cemental junction from unerupted extracted wisdom teeth were examined with a scanning electron microscope after exposure to colas, and tested for tooth-brush abrasion; (iv) a clinical case of pop cola erosion presentation, are all described. Results. Comparisons among pop colas tested in vitro reveal high acidity with very low pH. Buffering capacities in millilitres of 0.5 M NaOH needed to increase one pH unit, to pH 5.5 and pH 7 are reported. Rinsing in vivo with pop cola causes leeching of calcium from teeth; SEM shows dental erosion, and pop-cola consumption induces advanced dental erosion and facilitates abrasion. Conclusions. (i) Pop-Cola acid activity is below the critical pH 5.5 for tooth dissolution, with high buffering capacities countering neutralization effects of saliva; (ii) calcium is leeched out of teeth after rinsing with pop colas; (iii) SEM evidence explains why chronic exposure to acid pop colas causes dental frangibles; (iv) a clinical case of pop-cola erosion confirms this.

  1. Quantitative tests of a steady state theory of solar wind electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, W. C.; Asbridge, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Gosling, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison is made of IMP 6, 7 and 8 electron data with the predictions of a solar wind electron steady state theory in which the control of transport by the macroscopic interplanetary electric and magnetic fields, as well as elastic Coulomb collisions with solar wind protons and thermal electrons, is assumed. While a ratio of forward to backward phase density for field-aligned extrathermal electrons of 6:1 is predicted, electron distribution measurements within the high speed solar wind show this ratio to be typically about an order of magnitude larger. A set of solar wind bulk speed anticorrelations predicted by the theory on the basis of a larger set of assumptions cannot be found in the IMP electron data set, so that improved agreement may require such modifications of the theory's assumptions as the inclusion of inelastic Coulomb and/or wave electron collisions.

  2. Wind Power - A Power Source Enabled by Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2004-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. The production, distribution and the use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should be set up. The deregul......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. The production, distribution and the use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should be set up....... The deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in bigger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be very high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change the electrical power production sources from...... the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...

  3. Effects of Long-term Conservation Tillage on Soil Nutrients in Sloping Fields in Regions Characterized by Water and Wind Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chunjian; Cao, Xue; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Weiyu; Feng, Yongzhong; Qiao, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Conservation tillage is commonly used in regions affected by water and wind erosion. To understand the effects of conservation tillage on soil nutrients and yield, a long-term experiment was set up in a region affected by water and wind erosion on the Loess Plateau. The treatments used were traditional tillage (CK), no tillage (NT), straw mulching (SM), plastic-film mulching (PM), ridging and plastic-film mulching (RPM) and intercropping (In). Our results demonstrate that the available nutrients in soils subjected to non-traditional tillage treatments decreased during the first several years and then remained stable over the last several years of the experiment. The soil organic matter and total nitrogen content increased gradually over 6 years in all treatments except CK. The nutrient content of soils subjected to conservative tillage methods, such as NT and SM, were significantly higher than those in soils under the CK treatment. Straw mulching and film mulching effectively reduced an observed decrease in soybean yield. Over the final 6 years of the experiment, soybean yields followed the trend RPM > PM > SM > NT > CK > In. This trend has implications for controlling soil erosion and preventing non-point source pollution in sloping fields by sacrificing some food production.

  4. Effects of Long-term Conservation Tillage on Soil Nutrients in Sloping Fields in Regions Characterized by Water and Wind Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chunjian; Cao, Xue; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Weiyu; Feng, Yongzhong; Qiao, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Conservation tillage is commonly used in regions affected by water and wind erosion. To understand the effects of conservation tillage on soil nutrients and yield, a long-term experiment was set up in a region affected by water and wind erosion on the Loess Plateau. The treatments used were traditional tillage (CK), no tillage (NT), straw mulching (SM), plastic-film mulching (PM), ridging and plastic-film mulching (RPM) and intercropping (In). Our results demonstrate that the available nutrients in soils subjected to non-traditional tillage treatments decreased during the first several years and then remained stable over the last several years of the experiment. The soil organic matter and total nitrogen content increased gradually over 6 years in all treatments except CK. The nutrient content of soils subjected to conservative tillage methods, such as NT and SM, were significantly higher than those in soils under the CK treatment. Straw mulching and film mulching effectively reduced an observed decrease in soybean yield. Over the final 6 years of the experiment, soybean yields followed the trend RPM > PM > SM > NT > CK > In. This trend has implications for controlling soil erosion and preventing non-point source pollution in sloping fields by sacrificing some food production.

  5. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, W; Thorne, RM; Bortnik, J; Baker, DN; Reeves, GD; Kanekal, SG; Spence, HE; Green, JC

    2015-01-01

    ©2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration is crucial for predicting radiation belt electron dynamics. Using Van Allen Probes electron observations ( > 1 MeV) from 2012 to 2015, we identify a number of efficient and inefficient acceleration events separately to perform a superposed epoch analysis of the corresponding solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. By directly c...

  6. Electronically commutated serial-parallel switching for motor windings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-03-27

    A method and a circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises controlling a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected between a multiphase voltage source and the phase windings to switch the phase windings between a parallel connection and a series connection while providing commutation discharge paths for electrical current resulting from inductance in the phase windings. This provides extra torque for starting a vehicle from lower battery current.

  7. Erosion of wind turbine blade coatings - Design and analysis of jet-based laboratory equipment for performance evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shizhong; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Nørkjær, Sten

    2015-01-01

    of up to 22 coating samples that is based on water jet slugs. Our objective is to study the effect of the parameters involved in the rain erosion process and to correlate our experimental results with data obtained with the complex and expensive whirling arm rig, which has become the industry standard...... method of test for rain erosion. Our results showed that water slug velocity and impact frequency are the most influential parameters in the coating erosion rate. Coating defects, often present on the specimens tested, appeared to play an important role in the erosion mechanism. Two particular...... and the potential significance of the presence of a thin water film on the coated surfaces. Our results endorse the complex nature of the rain erosion phenomenon, which is the result of the simultaneous combination of complex mechanisms and as such, it is difficult to reproduce at the laboratory scale....

  8. High Power Density Power Electronic Converters for Large Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk

    In large wind turbines (in MW and multi-MW ranges), which are extensively utilized in wind power plants, full-scale medium voltage (MV) multi-level (ML) voltage source converters (VSCs) are being more preferably employed nowadays for interfacing these wind turbines with electricity grids. For the......In large wind turbines (in MW and multi-MW ranges), which are extensively utilized in wind power plants, full-scale medium voltage (MV) multi-level (ML) voltage source converters (VSCs) are being more preferably employed nowadays for interfacing these wind turbines with electricity grids....... For these VSCs, high power density is required due to limited turbine nacelle space. Also, high reliability is required since maintenance cost of these remotely located wind turbines is quite high and these turbines operate under harsh operating conditions. In order to select a high power density and reliability...... VSC solution for wind turbines, first, the VSC topology and the switch technology to be employed should be specified such that the highest possible power density and reliability are to be attained. Then, this qualitative approach should be complemented with the power density and reliability...

  9. On the Material Characterisation of Wind Turbine Blade Coatings: The Effect of Interphase Coating–Laminate Adhesion on Rain Erosion Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cortés

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rain erosion damage, caused by repeated droplet impact on wind turbine blades, is a major cause for concern, even more so at offshore locations with larger blades and higher tip speeds. Due to the negative economic influence of blade erosion, all wind turbine Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs are actively seeking solutions. In most cases, since the surface coating plays a decisive role in the blade manufacture and overall performance, it has been identified as an area where a solution may be obtained. In this research, two main coating technologies have been considered: In-mould coatings (Gel coating applied during moulding on the entire blade surface and the post-mould coatings specifically developed for Leading Edge Protection (LEP. The coating adhesion and erosion is affected by the shock waves created by the collapsing water droplets on impact. The stress waves are reflected and transmitted to the laminate substrate, so microstructural discontinuities in coating layers and interfaces play a key role on its degradation and may accelerate erosion by delamination. Analytical and numerical models are commonly used to relate lifetime prediction and to identify suitable coating and composite substrate combinations based on their potential stress reduction on the interface. Nevertheless, in order to use them, it is necessary to measure the contact adhesion resistance of the multi-layered system interfaces. The rain erosion performance is assessed using an accelerated testing technique, whereby the test material is repeatedly impacted at high speed with water droplets in a Whirling Arm Rain Erosion Rig (WARER. The materials, specifically the coating–laminate interphase region and acoustic properties, are further characterised by several laboratory tests, including Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, pull-off testing, peeling–adhesion testing and nanoindentation testing. This body of work includes a number of case studies. The first case

  10. On the Material Characterisation of Wind Turbine Blade Coatings: The Effect of Interphase Coating-Laminate Adhesion on Rain Erosion Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Enrique; Sánchez, Fernando; O'Carroll, Anthony; Madramany, Borja; Hardiman, Mark; Young, Trevor M

    2017-09-28

    Rain erosion damage, caused by repeated droplet impact on wind turbine blades, is a major cause for concern, even more so at offshore locations with larger blades and higher tip speeds. Due to the negative economic influence of blade erosion, all wind turbine Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are actively seeking solutions. In most cases, since the surface coating plays a decisive role in the blade manufacture and overall performance, it has been identified as an area where a solution may be obtained. In this research, two main coating technologies have been considered: In-mould coatings (Gel coating) applied during moulding on the entire blade surface and the post-mould coatings specifically developed for Leading Edge Protection (LEP). The coating adhesion and erosion is affected by the shock waves created by the collapsing water droplets on impact. The stress waves are reflected and transmitted to the laminate substrate, so microstructural discontinuities in coating layers and interfaces play a key role on its degradation and may accelerate erosion by delamination. Analytical and numerical models are commonly used to relate lifetime prediction and to identify suitable coating and composite substrate combinations based on their potential stress reduction on the interface. Nevertheless, in order to use them, it is necessary to measure the contact adhesion resistance of the multi-layered system interfaces. The rain erosion performance is assessed using an accelerated testing technique, whereby the test material is repeatedly impacted at high speed with water droplets in a Whirling Arm Rain Erosion Rig (WARER). The materials, specifically the coating-laminate interphase region and acoustic properties, are further characterised by several laboratory tests, including Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), pull-off testing, peeling-adhesion testing and nanoindentation testing. This body of work includes a number of case studies. The first case study compares two

  11. The Coincidence Tracker: Electronic Equipment for a Time-of-Flight Wind-Speed Measurement System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Christian

    1982-01-01

    The electronic part of a laser-beam measuring system for wind velocity is described. Pulses of light scattered from aerosols are treated, first in a pair of adaptive filters, then in a tracker that calculates the wind velocity on-line while applying some knowledge about the velocity to be expected...

  12. The Electronic Valve Instrument (EVI), an electronic musical wind controller for playing synthesizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Nyle A.

    2004-05-01

    The Electronic Valve Instrument (EVI) is an electronic musical wind instrument with playing techniques similar to that of a trumpet. Invented by Nyle Steiner in the early 1970's, it was designed to give the performer control of dynamics from breath pressure and the ability to make a humanly generated vibrato. Other musical paramaters can be controlled as well. It has a playing range of seven octaves (similar to that of a piano). When musical lines are played using this instrument (controller) connected to an electronic music synthesizer, the sound is much more natural sounding and expressive than when a normal musical keyboard is used. The evolution of this instrument from the pre-Midi era to it latest Midi configuration, principles of operation, synthesizer programming, and its wide use in movie and TV scoring will be discussed. The EVI has played featured musical lines in many major movie soundtracks and TV shows such as Apocalypse Now, Witness, Dead Poets Society, Fatal Attraction, No Way Out, Gorillas in the Mist, and many others. The EVI design has also been adapted as an Electronic Woodwind Instrument (EWI) by Nyle Steiner and has been manufactured and sold worldwide by the AKAI Co. in Japan.

  13. Developement and introduction of measures for protecting coal from wind erosion during transportation. Razrabotka, vnedrenie mer i sredstv zashchity uglei ot vetrovoi ehrozii pri transportirovanii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, V.M.; Radovitskii, I.V.; Sazhin, O.B.; Yakubovich, I.L.

    1985-01-01

    Ways are discussed of reducing coal losses during transportation, totalling around 10 million tons per annum (about 50% due to wind erosion). The paper reviews coal protection in USA, FRG, Japan, Czechoslovakia and German Democratic Republic, protective covers, characteristics of water-in-oil emulsions (60% water phase) and their application, results of industrial scale tests, development and principal application of devices for creating protective covering of coal in open trucks, new protective materials for prevention of coal losses (water soluble latex, waste from oil refineries, etc.). Basic physical properties of oil refinery waste are given. Tests proved that this kind of cover can reliably prevent small coal from flying away at railway speeds of 110-120 km/h. The paper describes prevention of coal losses during storage (effect of oxygen, atmospheric precipitation and wind) by special emulsion covers, devices for preparing and depositing protective covering (water saturated steam) and automation of protective covering devices. 5 references.

  14. Wind generator with electronic variable-speed drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, A.; Buchheit, N.; Jakobsen, H.

    1996-12-31

    Variable speed drives have been inserted between the network and the generator on certain recent wind power facilities. They have the following advantages: the drive allows the wind generator to operate at low speed with a significant reduction in acoustic noise, an important point if the facilities are sited near populated areas; the drive optimizes energy transfer, providing a gain of 4 to 10 %; the drive can possibly replace certain mechanical parts (the starting system and it in some cases, the reduction gear); the drive not only provides better transient management in relation to the network for less mechanical stress on the wind generator, it is also able to control reactive power. One commercial drive design sold by several manufacturers has already been installed on several wind generators with outputs of between 150 and 600 kw. In addition, such a solution is extremely well suited to mixed renewable energy systems. This design uses two inverse rectifier type converters and can therefore exchange energy in both directions. The equivalent drive with a single IGBT converter on the motor side and a diode converter on the network side is the solution most widely adopted throughout industry (with more than 50, 000 units installed in France per year). It still remains to be seen whether such a solution could be profitable in wind generator application (since the cost of the drive is quite high). This technical analysis is more destined for the converter-machine assembly specialists and is presented in this document, paying particular attention as it does to the modelling of the `wind energy - generator - drive - network` assembly, the associated drive command and control strategies and the simulations obtained during various transients. A 7.5 kW test bed has been installed in the Laboratoire d`Electronique de Puissance de Clamart, enabling tests to be carried out which emulate the operation of a wind generator.

  15. Change of precipitation characteristics in the water-wind erosion crisscross region on the Loess Plateau, China, from 1958 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingkai; Li, Zengyao; Zhu, Qingke

    2017-08-14

    Precipitation plays an important and crucial role in processes in the water-wind erosion crisscross region of the Loess Plateau than in other parts of the region. We analyzed precipitation data and standardized precipitation index (SPI) at 14 representative synoptic stations from 1958 to 2015 used trend-free prewhitening, linear trend estimation, Spearman's rho test, the Mann-Kendall trend test, the Mann-Kendall abrupt change test and rescaled range analysis. The following conclusions were drawn. First, the analysis of monthly precipitation at all stations suggested that precipitation during the rainy season (July, August, September), especially rain in July and August, exhibited a general decreasing trend, while both increasing and decreasing trends were observed in other months. Moreover, the annual precipitation of all stations continued to exhibit decreasing trends except Wuzhai. Erosive rainfall frequency in the rainy season and the annual scale was weakly reduced but erosive force of single rainfall has been enhanced. Second, the SPI exhibited different increasing degrees in winter, while decreasing trends were observed in other seasons. Additionally, the annual-scale SPI at most stations exhibited a stable and sustained downward trend. Therefore, this region is currently associated with a drought trend, and the drought degree will likely continue to increase.

  16. Solar wind and cosmic ray irradiation of grains and ices - application to erosion and synthesis of organic compounds in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocard, F.; Benit, J.; Meunier, J. P.; Bibring, R.; Vassent, B.

    1984-01-01

    Solar wind and cosmic and cosmic ray irradiation of grains induces physical and chemical effects including their erosion and the synthesis of molecular compounds within the implanted layers. The experiments performed with H2O ice implanted by keV ions are presented. The ion implantation is intended to simulate the irradiation of comets, ring grains, and satellites of outer planets, either by the primitive solar particles or by contemporary solar wind (SW) or solar cosmic rays (SCR) fluxes. The detection of molecules was obtained through in-situ infrared spectroscopy. A model is proposed for the formation of organic matter within icy solar system bodies which is in agreement with experimental results of erosion rates. The organic molecules, frozen-in within the icy mantles of the grains present in the protosolar nebula, would originate from their primitive irradiation. Such an irradiation would have taken place during an early stage of the proto-sun, when both the SW and SCR particles were more intense by orders of magnitude.

  17. Electron energetics in the expanding solar wind via Helios observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štverák, Štěpán; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Hellinger, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 10 (2015), s. 8177-8193 ISSN 2169-9380 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar wind plasma * plasma energization * transport processes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015JA021368/abstract

  18. Power Electronic Drives, Controls, and Electric Generators for Large Wind Turbines - An Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Tutelea, L.; Boldea, Ion

    2015-01-01

    of power electronics, ranging from devices to circuit topologies, and similar matters for electric generators, together with results of optimal design studies are included. It is shown that the individual power rating of wind turbines has increased over the years, and technologies required to reach......Wind represents a major and growing source of renewable energy for the electric power systems. This article provides an overview of state-of-the-art technologies and anticipated developments in the area of power electronic drives, controls, and electric generators for large multi-megawatt wind...... turbine systems. The principal components employed in a turbine for energy conversion from wind to electricity are described, and the main solutions that are commercially available are briefly reviewed. The specific issues of complex mission profiles, power codes, and reliability are discussed. Topics...

  19. On the electron temperature downstream of the solar wind termination shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Chashei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the temperatures of electrons convected with the solar wind to large solar distances and finally transported over the solar wind termination shock. Nearly nothing, unless at high energies in the cosmic ray regime, is known about the thermodynamical behaviour of these distant electrons from in~situ plasma observations. Hence it is tacitly assumed these electrons, due to their adiabatic behaviour and vanishing heat conduction or energization processes, have rapidly cooled off to very low temperatures once they eventually arrive at the solar wind termination shock (at about 100 AU. In this paper we show that such electrons, however, at their passage over the termination shock due to the shock–electric field action undergo an over-adiabatic heating and therefore appear on the downstream side as a substantially heated plasma species. Looking quantitatively into this heating process we find that solar wind electrons achieve temperatures of the order of 2–4 × 106 K downstream of the termination shock, depending on the upstream solar wind bulk velocity and the shock compression ratio. Hence these electrons therewith play an important dynamical role in structuring this shock and determining the downstream plasma flow properties. Furthermore, they present an additional ionization source for incoming neutral interstellar hydrogen and excite X-ray emission. They also behave similar to cosmic ray electrons and extend to some limited region upstream of the shock of the order of 0.1 AU by spatial diffusion and thereby also modify the upstream solar wind properties.

  20. Soil Erosion. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    Soil erosion is the detachment and movement of topsoil or soil material from the upper part of the soil profile. It may occur in the form of rill, gully, sheet, or wind erosion. Agents of erosion may be water, wind, glacial ice, agricultural implements, machinery, and animals. Soil conservation measures require a thorough understanding of the…

  1. Comparative Analysis of Dentinal Erosion after Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation versus Irrigation with Reciprocating Activation: An Environmental Scanning Electron Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simezo, Ana Paula; da Silveira Bueno, Carlos Eduardo; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Pelegrine, Rina Andrea; Rocha, Daniel Guimarães Pedro; de Martin, Alexandre Sigrist; Kato, Augusto Shoji

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess ex vivo the erosive effects of passive ultrasonic irrigation versus irrigation with reciprocating activation on the dentinal surface of the root canal at 3 predetermined levels using environmental scanning electron microscopy. Ten roots of mandibular premolars were prepared using the ProTaper Universal system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). The specimens were embedded in flasks cleaved longitudinally, and indentations were made 3.0, 6.0, and 9.0 mm from the apex. The specimens in the control group (n = 10) were cleaned in an ultrasonic bath containing 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA and then dried. Then, environmental scanning electron microscopic images were obtained at magnification × 800. The specimens were then reassembled in their flasks, and the NaOCl and EDTA solutions were activated according to the conditions established for the experimental groups (ie, the passive ultrasonic irrigation group [n = 5] and the EasyClean (Easy Equipamentos Odontológicos, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil) group, irrigation with reciprocating activation with the EasyClean instrument [n = 5]). The specimens of both experimental groups were analyzed in the same manner as in the control group. Analysis of the dentinal surface topography was conducted using the 3D Roughness Reconstruction program (Phenom-World BV, Eindhoven, the Netherlands) as a means for assessing erosion. The data were evaluated by means of the Kruskal-Wallis, Student-Newman-Keuls, and Mann-Whitney tests. In the EasyClean group, the degree of dentinal erosion at 3.0 mm was significantly higher than at 9.0 mm. In the other comparisons, there was no statistically significant difference (P < .05). The final irrigation techniques tested were equivalent in relation to the degree of erosion caused to the dentinal surface. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasma Wind Tunnel Testing of Electron Transpiration Cooling Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    and Rockets, Vol. 21, No. 6 (1984), pp. 534-541.” J. Spacecraft Rock ., Vol. 21, No. 6, 1984, pp. 534–541. [3] Yoshizumi, T. and Hayashi, K...Report no. sc-rr-4960, Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico , USA, 1964. [10] Kolesnikov, A. F., “Conditions of Simulation of Stagnation...Flows, RTO EN -8, Rhode-Saint-Genèse, Belgium, October 1999, pp. 6–01 – 6–26. [12] Barbante, P. and Chazot, O., “Flight Extrapolation of Plasma Wind

  3. Interaction of suprathermal solar wind electron fluxes with sheared whistler waves: fan instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Krafft

    Full Text Available Several in situ measurements performed in the solar wind evidenced that solar type III radio bursts were some-times associated with locally excited Langmuir waves, high-energy electron fluxes and low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves; moreover, in some cases, the simultaneous identification of energetic electron fluxes, Langmuir and whistler waves was performed. This paper shows how whistlers can be excited in the disturbed solar wind through the so-called "fan instability" by interacting with energetic electrons at the anomalous Doppler resonance. This instability process, which is driven by the anisotropy in the energetic electron velocity distribution along the ambient magnetic field, does not require any positive slope in the suprathermal electron tail and thus can account for physical situations where plateaued reduced electron velocity distributions were observed in solar wind plasmas in association with Langmuir and whistler waves. Owing to linear calculations of growth rates, we show that for disturbed solar wind conditions (that is, when suprathermal particle fluxes propagate along the ambient magnetic field, the fan instability can excite VLF waves (whistlers and lower hybrid waves with characteristics close to those observed in space experiments.

    Key words. Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities – Radio Science (waves in plasma – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (radio emissions

  4. Interaction of suprathermal solar wind electron fluxes with sheared whistler waves: fan instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Krafft

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Several in situ measurements performed in the solar wind evidenced that solar type III radio bursts were some-times associated with locally excited Langmuir waves, high-energy electron fluxes and low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves; moreover, in some cases, the simultaneous identification of energetic electron fluxes, Langmuir and whistler waves was performed. This paper shows how whistlers can be excited in the disturbed solar wind through the so-called "fan instability" by interacting with energetic electrons at the anomalous Doppler resonance. This instability process, which is driven by the anisotropy in the energetic electron velocity distribution along the ambient magnetic field, does not require any positive slope in the suprathermal electron tail and thus can account for physical situations where plateaued reduced electron velocity distributions were observed in solar wind plasmas in association with Langmuir and whistler waves. Owing to linear calculations of growth rates, we show that for disturbed solar wind conditions (that is, when suprathermal particle fluxes propagate along the ambient magnetic field, the fan instability can excite VLF waves (whistlers and lower hybrid waves with characteristics close to those observed in space experiments.Key words. Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities – Radio Science (waves in plasma – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (radio emissions

  5. Whistler Mode Waves and the Electron Heat Flux in the Solar Wind: Cluster Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, C.; Alexandrova, O.; Matteini, L.; Santolík, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Mangeney, A.; de Conchy, Y.; Maksimovic, M.

    2014-11-01

    The nature of the magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind between the ion and electron scales is still under debate. Using the Cluster/STAFF instrument, we make a survey of the power spectral density and of the polarization of these fluctuations at frequencies f in [1, 400] Hz, during five years (2001-2005), when Cluster was in the free solar wind. In ~10% of the selected data, we observe narrowband, right-handed, circularly polarized fluctuations, with wave vectors quasi-parallel to the mean magnetic field, superimposed on the spectrum of the permanent background turbulence. We interpret these coherent fluctuations as whistler mode waves. The lifetime of these waves varies between a few seconds and several hours. Here, we present, for the first time, an analysis of long-lived whistler waves, i.e., lasting more than five minutes. We find several necessary (but not sufficient) conditions for the observation of whistler waves, mainly a low level of background turbulence, a slow wind, a relatively large electron heat flux, and a low electron collision frequency. When the electron parallel beta factor β e∥ is larger than 3, the whistler waves are seen along the heat flux threshold of the whistler heat flux instability. The presence of such whistler waves confirms that the whistler heat flux instability contributes to the regulation of the solar wind heat flux, at least for β e∥ >= 3, in slow wind at 1 AU.

  6. Whistler mode waves and the electron heat flux in the solar wind: cluster observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacombe, C.; Alexandrova, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Mangeney, A.; De Conchy, Y.; Maksimovic, M. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, UPMC Université Paris 06, Université Paris-Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Matteini, L. [Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Santolík, O. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics ASCR, 141 31 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-20

    The nature of the magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind between the ion and electron scales is still under debate. Using the Cluster/STAFF instrument, we make a survey of the power spectral density and of the polarization of these fluctuations at frequencies f in [1, 400] Hz, during five years (2001-2005), when Cluster was in the free solar wind. In ∼10% of the selected data, we observe narrowband, right-handed, circularly polarized fluctuations, with wave vectors quasi-parallel to the mean magnetic field, superimposed on the spectrum of the permanent background turbulence. We interpret these coherent fluctuations as whistler mode waves. The lifetime of these waves varies between a few seconds and several hours. Here, we present, for the first time, an analysis of long-lived whistler waves, i.e., lasting more than five minutes. We find several necessary (but not sufficient) conditions for the observation of whistler waves, mainly a low level of background turbulence, a slow wind, a relatively large electron heat flux, and a low electron collision frequency. When the electron parallel beta factor β {sub e∥} is larger than 3, the whistler waves are seen along the heat flux threshold of the whistler heat flux instability. The presence of such whistler waves confirms that the whistler heat flux instability contributes to the regulation of the solar wind heat flux, at least for β {sub e∥} ≥ 3, in slow wind at 1 AU.

  7. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) county-level alkaline emission estimates for unpaved roads. Dust Devils and wind erosion, 1985 (for microcomputers). Data file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masser, C.C.; Barnard, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The two floppy diskettes contain the data summary tables included in Appendices A, B, and C of the report Development of County-Level Wind Erosion and Unpaved Road Alkaline Emission Estimates for the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory. The data tables are formatted in LOTUS 1-2-3 version 2.01 format (although they were written using Microsoft EXCEL Version 2.1). Each of the files represent one of the Appendices. It should be noted that in the report, only counties that had non-zero Dust Devil emissions were included in Appendix C. The corresponding file provides information for all counties in the continental U.S. even though most counties have Dust Devil emissions equal to zero.

  8. Mixing the Solar Wind Proton and Electron Scales: Effects of Electron Temperature Anisotropy on the Oblique Proton Firehose Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva, Y.; Lazar, M.; Vinas, A.; Poedts, S.

    2016-01-01

    The double adiabatic expansion of the nearly collisionless solar wind plasma creates conditions for the firehose instability to develop and efficiently prevent the further increase of the plasma temperature in the direction parallel to the interplanetary magnetic field. The conditions imposed by the firehose instability have been extensively studied using idealized approaches that ignore the mutual effects of electrons and protons. Recently, more realistic approaches have been proposed that take into account the interplay between electrons and protons,? unveiling new regimes of the parallel oscillatory modes. However, for oblique wave propagation the instability develops distinct branches that grow much faster and may therefore be more efficient than the parallel firehose instability in constraining the temperature anisotropy of the plasma particles. This paper reports for the first time on the effects of electron plasma properties on the oblique proton firehose (PFH) instability and provides a comprehensive vision of the entire unstable wave-vector spectrum, unifying the proton and the smaller electron scales. The plasma ß and temperature anisotropy regimes considered here are specific for the solar wind and magnetospheric conditions, and enable the electrons and protons to interact via the excited electromagnetic fluctuations. For the selected parameters, simultaneous electron and PFH instabilities can be observed with a dispersion spectrum of the electron firehose (EFH) extending toward the proton scales. Growth rates of the PFH instability are markedly boosted by the anisotropic electrons, especially in the oblique direction where the EFH growth rates are orders of magnitude higher.

  9. Patchiness in wind erosion-deposition patterns in response to a recent state change reversal in the Chihuahuan Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifts from shrub-dominated states to grasslands are believed to be irreversible as a result of positive feedbacks between woody plants and soil properties. In the Chihuahuan Desert, mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) expansion into black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) grasslands is maintained by wind redis...

  10. Resource assessment and removal analysis for corn stover and wheat straw in the Eastern and Midwestern United States - rainfall and wind-induced soil erosion methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.G. [Enersol Resources, Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The focus of this study was to develop a methodology to estimate 'hectare-weighted', county-level, corn stover and spring and winter wheat straw removable residue quantities in the USA for 1995-1997 in 37 states (north-south line from North Dakota to Texas and all states east) such that tolerable rainfall and wind soil loss limits were not exceeded.The methodology developed and employed in this study was based on the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and the wind erosion equation (WEQ), which were used to predict individual county-level corn or wheat yields required at harvest to insure that the amount of soil loss would not exceed the tolerable soil loss limit. These yields were then compared to actual county-level corn or wheat yields to determine the quantity of removable residue. Results of this study indicate an annual average of over 42 and 8 million metric tons of corn stover and straw (spring and winter wheat), respectively (46.2 and 8.8 million tons) were potentially available for removal between 1995 and 1997 in these 37 states. (Author)

  11. The Electron Temperature and Anisotropy in the Solar Wind. Comparison of the Core and Halo Populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pierrard, V.; Lazar, M.; Poedts, S.; Štverák, Štěpán; Maksimovic, M.; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 7 (2016), s. 2165-2179 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-17490S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : solar wind * electron velocity distributions * temperature anisotropy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2016

  12. The electron temperature and anisotropy in the solar wind. Comparison of the core and halo populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pierrard, V.; Lazar, M.; Poedts, S.; Štverák, Štěpán; Maksimovic, M.; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 7 (2016), s. 2165-2179 ISSN 0038-0938 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar wind * electron velocity distributions * temperature anisotropy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11207-016-0961-7

  13. Application of a Heat Flux Sensor in Wind Power Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Baygildina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and investigates the application of the gradient heat flux sensor (GHFS for measuring the local heat flux in power electronics. Thanks to its thinness, the sensor can be placed between the semiconductor module and the heat sink. The GHFS has high sensitivity and yields direct measurements without an interruption to the normal power device operation, which makes it attractive for power electronics applications. The development of systems for monitoring thermal loading and methods for online detection of degradation and failure of power electronic devices is a topical and crucial task. However, online condition monitoring (CM methods, which include heat flux sensors, have received little research attention so far. In the current research, an insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT module-based test setup with the GHFS implemented on the base plate of one of the IGBTs is introduced. The heat flux experiments and the IGBT power losses obtained by simulations show similar results. The findings give clear evidence that the GHFS can provide an attractive condition monitoring method for the thermal loading of power devices.

  14. Responses of wind erosion to disturbance in a desert scrub grassland: grass vs. bush cover, and a snapshot into recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddock, M.; Zobeck, T. M.; D'Odorico, P.; van Pelt, S.; Ravi, S.; Over, T. M.; Bhattachan, A.

    2010-12-01

    The mixture of grass and bush vegetation that typifies many desert scrublands is a distinctive feature of the northern Chihuahuan Desert, where it represents a change in land cover driven by shrub encroachment. In such environments, the redistribution of nutrients by aeolian transport has been recognized as an important biophysical process, with a role in sustaining shrub presence. Investigation of disturbances in these landscapes (e.g. fire and grazing) will enable better understanding of their dust emission behavior with changing climate, perturbance regime and management scenarios. Here we use a portable wind tunnel to investigate the impact of fire and animals on soil erodibilty and dust emissions from different vegetation types in the Sevilleta Wildlife Refuge, central New Mexico. Plots were selected that were a) predominantly creosote bush or b) predominantly grass covered. Dust emission was measured for these surfaces both before and after a prescribed burn was conducted. The grass plots were also clipped and artificially trampled to simulate grazing. PM10 concentrations and emission rates from the test surfaces are shown for initial blow-off experiments as the wind tunnel flow accelerates to a target velocity, plus the steady state emission flux produced under constant wind flow with an added abrader sand. An adjacent area burned 8 months previously also allowed investigation of the change in erodibility of the soil for a known time after fire. Our preliminary results indicate the extent that dust emission is changed by the introduced disturbances, and their differing effect on creosote bush and grass dominated covers.

  15. Kinetic and Potential Sputtering Enhancements of Lunar Regolith Erosion: The Contribution of the Heavy Multicharged (Minority) Solar Wind Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. W.; Barghouty, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    We report preliminary results for H+, Ar+1, Ar+6 and Ar+9 ion sputtering of JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant at solar wind velocities, obtain ed at the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility using quadrupole ma ss spectrometry. The multi-charged Ar ions were used as proxies for i ntermediate mass solar wind multicharged ions. Prior to the Ar beam e xposures, the sample was exposed to high fluence H+ irradiation to si mulate H-loading due to the dominant solar wind constituent. A x80 en hancement of oxygen sputtering by Ar+ over same velocity H+ was measu red and an additional x2 increase for Ar+9 over same velocity Ar+ was demonstrated, giving clear evidence of the importance of potential s puttering by multicharged ions. This enhancement was observed to pers ist to the maximum fluences investigated (approx 10(exp 16)/sq cm). As discussed in a companion abstract by N. Barghouty, such persistent s puttering enhancement has significant implications on weathering and aging of lunar regolith. In addition, XPS measurements showed strong evidence of Fe reduction for those target areas that had been exposed to high fluence Ar+ and Ar+8 beams. Preferential oxidation of the Fe -reduced beam-exposed regions during transfer to the XPS system led t o enhanced O concentrations in those regions as well. On the basis of these very promising preliminary results, a NASA-LASER project on mo re extensive measurements was recently selected for funding. The prop osal expands the collaboration with NASA-MSFC for the simulation effort, and adds a new collaboration with NASA-GSFC for lunar mission-rele vant measurements.

  16. Power electronics and control for wind power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that it has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save...... energy at the end-user should be set up. Deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be increased in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change...... the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging...

  17. Special Tests for the Power Electronic Converters of Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Lars; Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    -side VSCs is used to estimate the switch junction temperatures through the simulation of wind turbine grid interface operation. A discussion of the power density and reliability of the grid-side VSCs with respect to press-pack switches, gate driver, and cooling plate is included. A test set-up for a single......Power electronic converters for wind turbines are characterized by high specific power density and high reliability. Special tests for such converters are performed in order to determine the power loss and thermal models, which are dependent of the load profile and converter structure. Two multi......-level medium-voltage source converter topologies, of the 3L-ANPC-VSC and 3L-HB-VSC type, are considered in the paper. Both converters employ press-pack IGBT-diode pairs and interface a 6 MW wind turbine to a medium voltage grid. The power loss and thermal model data applicable for both grid and generator...

  18. Erosion simulation of first wall beryllium armour after ITER transient heat loads and runaway electrons action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazylev, B.; Igitkhanov, Yu.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Loarte, A.

    2011-01-01

    Beryllium is foreseen as plasma facing armour for the first wall (FW) in ITER in form of Be-clad blanket modules in macrobrush design with brush size about 8-10 cm. In ITER significant heat loads during transient events (TE) and runaway electrons impact are expected at the main chamber wall that may leads to the essential damage of the Be armour. The main mechanisms of metallic target damage remain surface melting, evaporation, and melt motion, which determine the life-time of the plasma facing components. The melt motion damages of Be macrobrush armour caused by the tangential friction force and the J x B forces are analyzed for bulk Be and different sizes of Be-brushes. The damage of the FW due to heat loads caused by runaway electrons is numerically simulated.

  19. Powering embedded electronics for wind turbine monitoring using multi-source energy harvesting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, S. R.; Taylor, S. G.; Raby, E. Y.; Farinholt, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    With a global interest in the development of clean, renewable energy, wind energy has seen steady growth over the past several years. Advances in wind turbine technology bring larger, more complex turbines and wind farms. An important issue in the development of these complex systems is the ability to monitor the state of each turbine in an effort to improve the efficiency and power generation. Wireless sensor nodes can be used to interrogate the current state and health of wind turbine structures; however, a drawback of most current wireless sensor technology is their reliance on batteries for power. Energy harvesting solutions present the ability to create autonomous power sources for small, low-power electronics through the scavenging of ambient energy; however, most conventional energy harvesting systems employ a single mode of energy conversion, and thus are highly susceptible to variations in the ambient energy. In this work, a multi-source energy harvesting system is developed to power embedded electronics for wind turbine applications in which energy can be scavenged simultaneously from several ambient energy sources. Field testing is performed on a full-size, residential scale wind turbine where both vibration and solar energy harvesting systems are utilized to power wireless sensing systems. Two wireless sensors are investigated, including the wireless impedance device (WID) sensor node, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and an ultra-low power RF system-on-chip board that is the basis for an embedded wireless accelerometer node currently under development at LANL. Results indicate the ability of the multi-source harvester to successfully power both sensors.

  20. Identifying the Areas Benefitting from the Prevention of Wind Erosion by the Key Ecological Function Area for the Protection of Desertification in Hunshandake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on the spatial flow of ecosystem services can help to identify the spatial relationships between service-providing areas (SPAs and service-benefitting areas (SBAs. In this study, we used the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model to stimulate the flow paths of the wind erosion prevented by ecosystems in Hunshandake, China. By interpolating these paths, the SBAs were identified, and their benefits in terms of land cover, population, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP were determined. The results indicated that the flow paths mostly extended to the eastern part of the study area, and the estimated cover of the SBAs was 39.21% of the total area of China. The grid cells through which many (≥10% of the trajectories passed were mainly located in the western part of north-eastern China and the eastern part of northern China. The benefitting population accounted for 74.51% of the total population of China, and the GDP was 67.11% of the total in 2010. Based on this research, we described a quantitative relationship between the SPAs and the SBAs and identified the actual beneficiaries. This work may provide scientific knowledge that can be used by decision makers to develop management strategies, such as ecological compensation to mitigate damage from sandstorms in the study area.

  1. Patches structure succession based on spatial point pattern features in semi-arid ecosystems of the water-wind erosion crisscross region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Min Hao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial point-pattern analysis can give insights to the underlying processes of patch succession and restoration. It is unclear whether inter-shrub competition determines patch succession. In this paper, we assessed the spatial patterns along patch succession using spatial statistics such as univariate and bivariate O-ring statistics, in the water-wind erosion crisscross region in semi-arid ecosystems of the Loess Plateau. Point pattern analysis results showed that there were no significant difference in three positions of the slope. The small and middle shrub patches were aggregatedly distributed in small spatial scale, meanwhile the large shrub patches were regularly distributed and dead shrub patches were randomly distributed. The small shrub patches were respectively aggregated to the middle and large patches at fine scales. Competition-induced regular distribution or negative relationship becomes obvious when analyzing the shift towards less aggregated perceptible effect of competition, a time component should always be included in spatial pattern-based inference of competition. Our results revealed that regular, clumped and random shrub patch patterns could occur, pending on size of shrub patches, and the shrub patches are distributed in different ways and they can present variant spatial point pattern features along patch size succession.

  2. Resource assessment and removal analysis for corn stover and wheat straw in the United States : rainfall and wind-induced soil erosion methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.G. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Walsh, M.; Graham, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oakridge, TN (United States); Sheehan, J.J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a newly developed methodology to estimate the quantities of crop residues that can be removed while maintaining rain or wind erosion at less than or equal to the tolerable soil-loss level. Several factors directly influence the removal of agricultural residues for bioenergy and bioproduct use such as grain yield, crop rotation, field management practices within a rotation, climate, and physical characteristics of the soil. The authors analyzed six corn and wheat rotations in the 10 largest corn-producing states, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. An evaluation for conventional, mulch-reduced, and no-till field operations was performed of residue removal rates for each rotation. The results showed that potential removable maximum quantities vary from almost 5.5 million dry metric tons per year for a continuous corn rotation using conventional till in Kansas, to in excess of 97 million dry metric tons per year for a corn-wheat rotation using no-till in Illinois. 9 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. Plant materials and amendments for controlling wind and water erosion on a fly ash disposal area: TVA Colbert Fossil Plant, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, J.J.; Behel, D.; Soileau, J.M.; Kelsoe, J.

    1996-12-31

    Fly ash disposal sites adjacent to fossil fueled generating plants are subject to wind and water erosion which increases the operation and maintenance costs. Gullies and unstable areas in the disposal sites require expensive leveling and filling practices. Test evaluated both warm- and cool-season cover crops established by either sod or seed. Amendments to the ash consisted of composted poultry litter (CPL), soil, soil+CPL, fertilizer and beneficial soil microbes including mycorrhizal fungi. Turf sods (419 Bermuda, Emerald zoysia, and Raleigh St. Augustine) were compared in greenhouse and field studies. Six legumes and 12 grass species were tested in the greenhouse as seeded cover crops using similar amendments and raw poultry litter (PL). Legumes grew better with CPL and Boil amendments and grasses grew better on PL and soil amendments possibly due to differences in N requirements and N supply. Cool season crops generally grew faster than warm season species in the greenhouse tests. Amendments should be mixed with the FA to ameliorate the effects of boron and salt toxicity and to increase the water holding capacity. Bermuda sod grew faster than either St, Augustine or Emerald zoysia, but requires more water. A microbial amendment increased dry matter yields of bermuda sod 2 to 3 times after 40 to 60 days over unamended controls. Microbial amendments may be justified on an economic and sustainable basis. A field study is assessing the environmental and cultural requirements to grow a cover crop on an annual basis.

  4. Integrated analysis of DFIG drive-train and power electronics dynamics during electrical AC faults and wind disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barahona Garzón, Braulio; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Anaya-Lara, Olimpo

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of a 2 MW DFIG wind turbine are studied during electrical AC faults, and wind disturbances. A simulation platform that couples HAWC2, and Matlab/Simulink was used. High frequencies of the gear box, and power electronics are neglected. It was shown that the dynamics of the dc......-link are influenced by turbulence, and wind gusts. An AC fault that triggers protection systems was simulated, and the influence on the dc-link voltage, shaft and tower loading illustrated....

  5. Space Environmental Erosion of Polar Icy Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, William M.; Killen, R. M.; Vondrak, R. R.; Hurley, D. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Delory, G. T.; Halekas, J. S.; Zimmerman, M. I.

    2011-01-01

    While regions at the floors of permanently shadowed polar craters are isolated from direct sunlight, these regions are still exposed to the harsh space environment, including the interplanetary Lyman-a background, meteoric impacts, and obstacle-affected solar wind. We demonstrate that each of these processes can act to erode the polar icy regolith located at or near the surface along the crater floor. The Lyman-a background can remove/erode the icy-regolith via photon stimulated desorption [1], meteoric impacts can vaporize the regolith [2], and redirected solar wind ions can sputter the ice-regolith mix [3]. As an example we shall examine in detail the inflow of solar wind ions and electrons into polar craters, One might expect such ions to flow horizontally over the crater top (see Figure). However, we find that plasma ambipolar processes act to deflect passing ions into the craters [3]. We examine this plasma process and determine the ion flux as a function of position across a notional crater floor. We demonstrate that inflowing solar wind ions can indeed create sputtering along the crater floor, effectively eroding the surface. Erosion time scales rrom sputtering will be presented. We shall also consider the effect of impact vaporization on buried icy-regolith regions. There will also be a discussion of solar wind electrons that enter into the PSR, demonstrating that these also have the ability rree surface-bound atoms via electron stimulated desorption processes [l].

  6. Shaping the solar wind electron temperature anisotropy by the interplay of core and suprathermal populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban Hamd, S. M.; Lazar, M.; Poedts, S.; Pierrard, V.; Štverák

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of an advanced parametrization of the temperature anisotropy of electrons in the slow solar wind and the electromagnetic instabilities resulting from the interplay of their thermal core and suprathermal halo populations. A large set of observational data (from the Ulysses, Helios and Cluster missions) is used to parametrize these components and establish their correlations. Comparative analysis demonstrates for the first time a particular implication of the suprathermal electrons which are less dense but hotter than thermal electrons. The instabilities are significantly stimulated by the interplay of the core and halo populations, leading to lower thresholds which shape the observed limits of the temperature anisotropy for both the core and halo populations. This double agreement strongly suggests that the selfgenerated instabilities play the major role in constraining the electron anisotropy.

  7. Eolian erosion of the Martian surface. I - Erosion rate similitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, J. D.; White, B. R.; Greeley, R.; Pollack, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    A similitude parameter is derived which is based on theoretical considerations of erosion due to sand in saltation. This parameter has been used to correlate wind tunnel experiments of particle flow over model craters. The characteristics of the flow field in the vicinity and downstream of a crater are discussed and it is shown that erosion is initiated in areas lying under a pair of trailing vortices. The erosion rate parameter is used to calculate erosion rates on Mars, reported in Part 2, to be published later.

  8. Solar wind-driven ULF activity in Earth's inner radiation belt: Effects on trapped electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, K. D.; Gerrard, A. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Mitchell, D. G.

    2013-12-01

    We report that, before and during multi-banded energetic electron events observed at near-equatorial, low L-values in the Van Allen Probes RBSPICE electron flux data, ULF power is distributed quasi-uniformly across broad ULF ranges (e.g., 9-20 minutes) for hours at a time. Data are used from 40+ conjugate ground-based magnetometers within the L-shell range [1-2]. This finding of geomagnetic power levels is in contrast to previous conclusions from low Earth-orbit DEMETER spacecraft data that similar trapped particle structures result from power distributed quasi-monochromatically at some central period within this band. Though modeling results associated with previous claims reproduce the multi-band energy structure in the simulated electron flux data, the model hinges on the existence of a sole monochromatic wave whose power is distributed over a range of azimuthal wave numbers. Given that we find the magnetometer data from many sites to have power distributed quasi-uniformly over a broad ULF range, we note that it's possible to isolate a "quasi-monochromatic" ULF wave of one's choosing from such a spectrum given the right choice of a filter. We also show that the ribbed energy structures in the RBSPICE electron fluxes are highly associated with the Kp Index and solar wind data; specifically, the structures seem to be associated with the speed of the solar wind, and therefore with the passage of interplanetary structures past Earth.

  9. Final Report DE-EE0005380: Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Hao [The University of Texas at Austin; Hamilton, Mark F. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Bhalla, Rajan [Science Applications International Corporation; Brown, Walter E. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Hay, Todd A. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Whitelonis, Nicholas J. [The University of Texas at Austin; Yang, Shang-Te [The University of Texas at Austin; Naqvi, Aale R. [The University of Texas at Austin

    2013-09-30

    Offshore wind energy is a valuable resource that can provide a significant boost to the US renewable energy portfolio. A current constraint to the development of offshore wind farms is the potential for interference to be caused by large wind farms on existing electronic and acoustical equipment such as radar and sonar systems for surveillance, navigation and communications. The US Department of Energy funded this study as an objective assessment of possible interference to various types of equipment operating in the marine environment where offshore wind farms could be installed. The objective of this project was to conduct a baseline evaluation of electromagnetic and acoustical challenges to sea surface, subsurface and airborne electronic systems presented by offshore wind farms. To accomplish this goal, the following tasks were carried out: (1) survey electronic systems that can potentially be impacted by large offshore wind farms, and identify impact assessment studies and research and development activities both within and outside the US, (2) engage key stakeholders to identify their possible concerns and operating requirements, (3) conduct first-principle modeling on the interactions of electromagnetic signals with, and the radiation of underwater acoustic signals from, offshore wind farms to evaluate the effect of such interactions on electronic systems, and (4) provide impact assessments, recommend mitigation methods, prioritize future research directions, and disseminate project findings. This report provides a detailed description of the methodologies used to carry out the study, key findings of the study, and a list of recommendations derived based the findings.

  10. Empirical Constraints on Proton and Electron Heating in the Fast Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, Steven R.; Matthaeus, William H.; Breech, Benjamin A.; Kasper, Justin C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of measured proton and electron temperatures in the high-speed solar wind that are used to calculate the separate rates of heat deposition for protons and electrons. It was found that the protons receive about 60% of the total plasma heating in the inner heliosphere, and that this fraction increases to approximately 80% by the orbit of Jupiter. The empirically derived partitioning of heat between protons and electrons is in rough agreement with theoretical predictions from a model of linear Vlasov wave damping. For a modeled power spectrum consisting only of Alfvenic fluctuations, the best agreement was found for a distribution of wavenumber vectors that evolves toward isotropy as distance increases.

  11. A simple method to downscale daily wind statistics to hourly wind data

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Zhongling

    2013-01-01

    Wind is the principal driver in the wind erosion models. The hourly wind speed data were generally required for precisely wind erosion modeling. In this study, a simple method to generate hourly wind speed data from daily wind statistics (daily average and maximum wind speeds together or daily average wind speed only) was established. A typical windy location with 3285 days (9 years) measured hourly wind speed data were used to validate the downscaling method. The results showed that the over...

  12. On the Relationship Between High Speed Solar Wind Streams and Radiation Belt Electron Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua

    2011-01-01

    Both past and recent research results indicate that solar wind speed has a close connection to radiation belt electron fluxes [e.g., Paulikas and Blake, 1979; Reeves et aI., 2011]: a higher solar wind speed is often associated with a higher level of radiation electron fluxes. But the relationship can be very complex [Reeves et aI., 2011]. The study presented here provides further corroboration of this viewpoint by emphasizing the importance of a global perspective and time history. We find that all the events during years 2010 and 2011 where the >0.8 MeV integral electron flux exceeds 10(exp 5) particles/sq cm/sr/s (pfu) at GEO orbit are associated with the high speed streams (HSS) following the onset of the Stream Interaction Region (SIR), with most of them belonging to the long-lasting Corotating Interaction Region (CIR). Our preliminary results indicate that during HSS events, a maximum speed of 700 km/s and above is a sufficient but not necessary condition for the > 0.8 MeV electron flux to reach 10(exp 5) pfu. But in the exception cases of HSS events where the electron flux level exceeds the 10(exp 5) pfu value but the maximum solar wind speed is less than 700 km/s, a prior impact can be noted either from a CME or a transient SIR within 3-4 days before the arrival of the HSS - stressing the importance of time history. Through superposed epoch analysis and studies providing comparisons with the CME events and the HSS events where the flux level fails to reach the 10(exp 5) pfu, we will present the quantitative assessment of behaviors and relationships of various quantities, such as the time it takes to reach the flux threshold value from the stream interface and its dependence on different physical parameters (e.g., duration of the HSS event, its maximum or average of the solar wind speed, IMF Bz, Kp). The ultimate goal is to apply what is derived to space weather forecasting.

  13. Characterization of a Power Electronic Grid Simulator for Wind Turbine Generator Compliance Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob Bærholm; Gevorgian, V.; Wallen, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the commissioning results and testing capabilities of a multi-megawatt power electronic grid simulator situated in National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) new testing facility. The commissioning is done using a commercial type 4 multi-megawatt sized wind turbine...... generator (WTG) installed in NREL’s new 5 MW dynamometer and a kilowatt sized type 1 WTG connected to the existing 2.5 MW dynamometer at NREL. The paper demonstrates the outstanding testing capability of the grid simulator and its application in the grid code compliance evaluation of WTGs including balanced...

  14. Spacecraft radio scattering observations of the power spectrum of electron density fluctuations in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, R.; Armstrong, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Solar wind electron density power spectra in the solar equatorial region are inferred from observations of phase scintillations and spectral broadening made with the Viking, Helios, and Pioneer spacecraft. The heliocentric distance range covered is 2--215 R/sub S/, and for some observations close to the sun the spectra extend to fluctuation frequencies as high as 100 Hz. For heliocentric distances > or approx. =20 R/sub S/ the equivalent spacecraft-measured one-dimensional density spectrym V/sub n/e is well modeled by a single power law (f/sup -alpha/) in the frequency range 10 -4 -5 x 10 -2 Hz. The mean spectral index α is 1.65, very close to the Kolmogorov value of 5/3. Under the assumption of constant solar wind speed, V/sub n/e varies as R/sup -3.45/, where R is heliocentric distance. Within 20 R/sub S/, V/sub n/e can still be modeled by a single power law over the frequency range 10 -3 -10 1 Hz, but the spectral index becomes smaller, αapprox.1.1. The flattening of the density spectrum with 20 R/sub S/ is presumably associated with energy deposition in the near-sun region and acceleration of the solar wind

  15. Suprathermal electron loss cone distributions in the solar wind: Ulysses observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J. L.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.; Hammond, C. M.; Forsyth, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    We present observations by the Ulysses solar wind plasma experiment of a new class of suprathermal electron signatures. At low solar latitudes and heliocentric distances beyond 3.37 AU Ulysses encountered seven intervals, ranging in duration from 1 hour to 22 hours, in which the suprathermal distributions included an antisunward field-aligned beam and a return population with a flux dropout typically spanning ±60 deg. from the sunward field-aligned direction. All events occurred between the forward and reverse shocks or waves bounding corotating interaction regions (CIRs). The observations support a scenario in which the sunward-moving electrons result from reflection of the prevailing antisunward field-aligned beam at magnetic field compressions downstream from the spacecraft, with wide loss cones caused by the relatively weak mirror ratio. This hypothesis requires that the field magnitude within the CIRs actually increased locally with increasing field-aligned distance from the Sun

  16. [Seasonal characteristics of soil respiration and affecting factors under typical vegetations in the water-wind erosion crisscross region of the Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui-Hui; Fan, Jun; Qi, Li-Bin; Hao, Ming-De

    2010-12-01

    By the soil respiration system, the characteristics of soil respiration were investigated to explore the correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature, soil water and soil nutrient under different land use patterns in the water-wind erosion crisscross region of the Loess Plateau. The results indicated that the seasonal changing characteristics of soil respiration were distinguished significantly among different vegetations, and soil water content and temperature were the main influencing factors. Soil respiration seasonal changing ranges, such as bare land, crop land, Medicago sativa land, Caragana korshinskii land, abandoned wild grass land, Stipa bungeana land, wild grass land, degraded Medicago sativa land, sloping Medicago sativa land, sloping abandoned wild grass land, sloping crop land and terraced crop land, were 0.32-0.82, 0.41-2.83, 0.74-2.81, 0.76-3.07, 0.67-2.79, 0.51-2.12, 0.56-2.05, 0.59-1.66, 0.42-2.09, 0.31-1.86, 0.32-1.93 and 0.41-3.17 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1). Comparing seasonal changing magnitudes of soil respiration, crop land was the biggest (167% - 203%), abandoned wild grass land (117% -154%), Caragana korshinskii land (134%), Stipa bungeana land (129%), Medicago sativa land (119%-120%) and bare land (94%) followed crop land. The smallest was degraded Medicago sativa land (92%). Bare land and degraded Medicago sativa land had small seasonal variation during the study period. Monthly average values of soil carbon flux (soil respiration) of Medicago sativa land and Caragana korshinskii land were maximal, but the maximum values under crop land were observed in July and August. Besides Q10 of crop land was also maximal, which reached 1.86. There were significant correlations between soil respiration and soil organic matter and available K. Moreover, soil respiration was affected by soil organic matter and total nitrogen in July and August when the water and heat condition were plentiful, but soil ammonium nitrogen had negative impact

  17. ON QUIET-TIME SOLAR WIND ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS IN DYNAMICAL EQUILIBRIUM WITH LANGMUIR TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer, S.; Yoon, P. H.

    2013-01-01

    A recent series of papers put forth a self-consistent theory of an asymptotically steady-state electron distribution function and Langmuir turbulence intensity. The theory was developed in terms of the κ distribution which features Maxwellian low-energy electrons and a non-Maxwellian energetic power-law tail component. The present paper discusses a generalized κ distribution that features a Davydov-Druyvesteyn type of core component and an energetic power-law tail component. The physical motivation for such a generalization is so that the model may reflect the influence of low-energy electrons interacting with low-frequency kinetic Alfvénic turbulence as well as with high-frequency Langmuir turbulence. It is shown that such a solution and the accompanying Langmuir wave spectrum rigorously satisfy the balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced emission processes in both the particle and wave kinetic equations, and approximately satisfy the similar balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced scattering processes, which are nonlinear. In spite of the low velocity modification of the electron distribution function, it is shown that the resulting asymptotic velocity power-law index α, where f e ∼ v –α is close to the average index observed during the quiet-time solar wind condition, i.e., α ∼ O(6.5) whereas α average ∼ 6.69, according to observation

  18. Erosive gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, S.H.; Conrad, C.; Kjoergaad, J.

    1982-01-01

    Erosive gastritis is a well-defined radiologic and endoscopic entity. It is one of the common causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, yet it is seldom diagnosed and often confused with a number of other diseases. This communication re-emphasizes the characteristic endoscopic and radiologic features of erosive gastritis and its differential diagnosis. Two representative cases are reported. (orig.)

  19. Gyrokinetic Simulations of Solar Wind Turbulence from Ion to Electron Scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howes, G. G.; TenBarge, J. M.; Dorland, W.; Numata, R.; Quataert, E.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Tatsuno, T.

    2011-01-01

    A three-dimensional, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation of plasma turbulence resolving scales from the ion to electron gyroradius with a realistic mass ratio is presented, where all damping is provided by resolved physical mechanisms. The resulting energy spectra are quantitatively consistent with a magnetic power spectrum scaling of k -2.8 as observed in in situ spacecraft measurements of the 'dissipation range' of solar wind turbulence. Despite the strongly nonlinear nature of the turbulence, the linear kinetic Alfven wave mode quantitatively describes the polarization of the turbulent fluctuations. The collisional ion heating is measured at subion-Larmor radius scales, which provides evidence of the ion entropy cascade in an electromagnetic turbulence simulation.

  20. Characterization of a Power Electronic Grid Simulator for Wind Turbine Generator Compliance Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob Bærholm; Gevorgian, V.; Wallen, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the commissioning results and testing capabilities of a multi-megawatt power electronic grid simulator situated in National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) new testing facility. The commissioning is done using a commercial type 4 multi-megawatt sized wind turbine...... generator (WTG) installed in NREL’s new 5 MW dynamometer and a kilowatt sized type 1 WTG connected to the existing 2.5 MW dynamometer at NREL. The paper demonstrates the outstanding testing capability of the grid simulator and its application in the grid code compliance evaluation of WTGs including balanced...... and unbalanced voltage low and high fault ride-through. Furthermore, the paper provides insight into the performance of commercial WTGs during both normal and abnormal operating conditions....

  1. Novel Power Electronics Systems for Wind Energy Applications: Final Report; Period of Performance: August 24, 1999 -- November 30, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.; Angkititrakul, S.; Al-Naseem, O.; Lujan, G.

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this work was to develop new approaches to the power electronics of variable-speed wind power systems, with the goal of improving the associated cost of energy. Of particular importance is the converter efficiency at low-wind operating points. Developing converter approaches that maintain high efficiency at partial power, without sacrificing performance at maximum power, is desirable, as is demonstrating an approach that can use emerging power component technologies to attain these performance goals with low projected capital costs. In this report, we show that multilevel conversion is an approach that can meet these performance requirements. In the wind power application, multilevel conversion proves superior to conventional converter technologies because it is callable to high power and higher voltage levels, it extends the range of high converter efficiency to lower wind speeds, and it allows superior low-voltage fast-switching semiconductor devices to be used in high-voltage high-power applications.

  2. Reliability Assessment of Solder Joints in Power Electronic Modules by Crack Damage Model for Wind Turbine Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Wind turbine reliability is an important issue for wind energy cost minimization, especially by reduction of operation and maintenance costs for critical components and by increasing wind turbine availability. To develop an optimal operation and maintenance plan for critical components......, it is necessary to understand the physics of their failure and be able to develop reliability prediction models. Such a model is proposed in this paper for an IGBT power electronic module. IGBTs are critical components in wind turbine converter systems. These are multi-layered devices where layers are soldered...... and propagation processes is discussed. A statistical analysis is performed for appropriate model parameter selection. Based on the proposed model, a layout for component life prediction with crack movement is described in details....

  3. Explaining the diverse response of ultra-relativistic Van Allen belt electrons to solar wind forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ian; Ozeke, Louis; Murphy, Kyle; Claudepierre, Seth; Rae, Jonathan; Milling, David; Kale, Andy; Baker, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The NASA Van Allen Probes have opened a new window on the dynamics of ultra-relativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts. Under different solar wind forcing the outer belt is seen to respond in a variety of apparently diverse and sometimes remarkable ways. For example, sometimes a third radiation belt is carved out (e.g., September 2012), or the belts can remain depleted for 10 days or more (September 2014). More usually there is a sequential response of a strong and sometimes rapid depletion followed by a re-energization, the latter increasing outer belt electron flux by orders of magnitude on hour timescales during some of the strongest storms of this solar cycle (e.g., March 2013, March 2015). Such dynamics also appear to be always bounded at low-L by an apparently impenetrable barrier below L 2.8 through which ultra-relativistic electrons do not penetrate. Many studies in the Van Allen Probes era have sought explanations for these apparently diverse features, often incorporating the effects from multiple plasma waves. In contrast, we show how this apparently diverse behaviour can instead be explained by one simple dominant process: ULF wave radial transport. Once ULF wave transport rates are accurately specified by observations, and coupled to the dynamical variation of the outer boundary condition at the edge of the outer belt, the observed diverse responses can all be explained. In order to get good agreement with observations, the modeling reveals the importance of still currently unexplained fast loss in the main phase which decouples pre- and post-storm ultra-relativistic electron flux on hour timescales. Similarly, varying plasmasheet source populations are seen to be of critical importance such that near-tail dynamics likely play a crucial role in Van Allen belt dynamics. Nonetheless, simple models incorporating accurate transport rates derived directly from ULF wave measurements are shown to provide a single natural and compelling explanation

  4. Analysis of Martian ionosphere and solar wind electron gas data from the planar retarding potential analyzer on the Viking spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantas, G. P.; Hanson, W. B.

    1987-01-01

    Approximate expressions for the electron current collected by a planar retarding potential analyzer (RPA) mounted on a moving, conducting, charged spacecraft are derived. They are utilized for the analysis of electron current data obtained by the RPAs on the Viking spacecraft in the ionosphere of Mars and in the disturbed and undisturbed solar wind near this planet. It is shown that contamination currents by photoelectrons emitted from the spacecraft can be distinguished and removed from the signal. Parameters deduced from the analysis of RPA electron sampling data are the multicomponent electron temperatures, the number densities, and the spacecraft potential.

  5. Radial evolution of nonthermal electron populations in the low-latitude solar wind: Helios, Cluster, and Ulysses Observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štverák, Štěpán; Maksimovic, M.; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Marsch, E.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Scime, E. E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 114, - (2009), A05104/1-A05104/15 ISSN 0148-0227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : solar wind * radial evolution * non- thermal electron properties Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.082, year: 2009

  6. Compressor Impeller Erosion Resistant Surface Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riley, Michael

    2000-01-01

    ...). Coatings based on tungsten carbide tantalum carbide. titanium carbide all with a cobalt matrix were evaluated for high velocity particle erosion in conventional wear test studies as well as wind tunnel testing...

  7. Analysis of trends between solar wind velocity and energetic electron fluxes at geostationary orbit using the reverse arrangement test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Homayon; Boynton, Richard J.; Walker, Simon N.

    2013-02-01

    A correlation between solar wind velocity (VSW) and energetic electron fluxes (EEF) at the geosynchronous orbit was first identified more than 30 years ago. However, recent studies have shown that the relation between VSW and EEF is considerably more complex than was previously suggested. The application of process identification technique to the evolution of electron fluxes in the range 1.8 - 3.5 MeV has also revealed peculiarities in the relation between VSW and EEF at the geosynchronous orbit. It has been revealed that for a constant solar wind density, EEF increase with VSW until a saturation velocity is reached. Beyond the saturation velocity, an increase in VSW is statistically not accompanied with EEF enhancement. The present study is devoted to the investigation of saturation velocity and its dependency upon solar wind density using the reverse arrangement test. In general, the results indicate that saturation velocity increases as solar wind density decreases. This implies that solar wind density plays an important role in defining the relationship between VSW and EEF at the geosynchronous orbit.

  8. Relativistic electrons in the outer-zone: An 11 year cycle, their relation to the solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belian, R.D.; Cayton, T.E.; Christensen, R.A.; Ingraham, J.C.; Meier, M.M.; Reeves, G.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lazarus, A.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    We examine Los Alamos energetic electron data from 1979 through the present to show long term trends in the trapped relativistic electron populations at geosynchronous-earth-orbit (GEO). Data is examined from several CPA and SOPA instruments to cover the interval from 1979 through June 1994. It is shown that the higher energy electrons fluxes (E > 300 keV) displayed a cycle of {approx}11 years. In agreement with other investigators, we also show that the relativistic electron cycle is out of phase with the sunspot cycle. We compare the occurrences of relativistic electrons and solar wind high speed streams and determine that on the time scale of 15 years the two do not correlate well. The long-term data set we provide here shows a systematic change of the electron energy spectrum during the course of the solar cycle. This information should be useful to magnetospheric scientists, model designers and space flight planners.

  9. Seasonal dependence of the longitudinal variations of nighttime ionospheric electron density and equivalent winds at southern midlatitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Luan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been indicated that the observed Weddell Sea anomaly (WSA appeared to be an extreme manifestation of the longitudinal variations in the Southern Hemisphere, since the WSA is characterized by greater evening electron density than the daytime density in the region near the Weddell Sea. In the present study, the longitudinal variations of the nighttime F2-layer peak electron density at southern midlatitudes are analyzed using the observations of the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC satellites between 2006 and 2008. It is found that significant longitudinal difference (> 150% relative to the minimum density at each local time prevails in all seasons, although the WSA phenomenon is only evident in summer under this solar minimum condition. Another interesting feature is that in summer, the maximum longitudinal differences occur around midnight (~ 23:00–00:00 LT rather than in the evening (19:00–21:00 LT in the evening, when the most prominent electron density enhancement occurs for the WSA phenomenon. Thus the seasonal–local time patterns of the electron density longitudinal variations during nighttime at southern midlatitudes cannot be simply explained in terms of the WSA. Meanwhile, the variations of the geomagnetic configuration and the equivalent magnetic meridional winds/upward plasma drifts are analyzed to explore their contributions to the longitudinal variations of the nighttime electron density. The maximum longitudinal differences are associated with the strongest wind-induced vertical plasma drifts after 21:00 LT in the Western Hemisphere. Besides the magnetic declination–zonal wind effects, the geographic meridional winds and the magnetic inclination also have significant effects on the upward plasma drifts and the resultant electron density.

  10. Assessing the vegetation canopy influences on wind flow using wind ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effectiveness of vegetation in reducing wind ... Wind erosion; roughness length; shear velocity ratio; shear stress ratio; roughness density; wind tunnel. J. Earth .... flow direction induced by its kinematic viscosity. An increase in shear stress causes a proportional increase in the height-dependent change in wind velocity.

  11. Evaluation of the RWEQ and SWEEP in simulating soil and PM10 loss from a portable wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion threatens sustainable agriculture and environmental quality in the Columbia Plateau region of the US Pacific Northwest. Wind erosion models such as Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) and the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) have been developed as tools for identifying practices t...

  12. On the relation between radiation belt electrons and solar wind parameters/geomagnetic indices: dependence on the first adiabatic invariant and L*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, H.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Li, X.; Elkington, S. R.; Kanekal, S. G.; Spence, H. E.; Boyd, A. J.; Huang, C-L; Forsyth, C.

    2017-01-01

    The relation between radiation belt electrons and solar wind/magnetospheric processes is of particular interest due to both scientific and practical needs. Though many studies have focused on this topic, electron data from Van Allen Probes with wide L shell coverage and fine energy resolution, for the first time, enabled this statistical study on the relation between radiation belt electrons and solar wind parameters/geomagnetic indices as a function of first adiabatic invariant μ and L*. Goo...

  13. Development of county-level wind-erosion and unpaved-road alkaline emission estimates for the 1985 NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) emissions inventory. Documentation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The report details the methods used and the result of the conversion of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's (NAPAP's) alkaline-material emissions information for wind erosion, unpaved roads, and dust devils from their current spatial resolution to county-level resolution. Additionally, methods for converting the county-level data to NAPAP's Modelers Inventory grid system are proposed. NAPAP is developing a nationwide emissions inventory of substances contributing to acid precipitation. Also of interest are substances that can neutralize acids in precipitation. Information from NAPAP's natural sources task group on the emissions of alkaline materials (calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium) is available, but the spatial resolution is not currently in a form that lends itself to use by either the National Emissions Data System or modelers using the NAPAP Resolved Modelers Inventory grid system.

  14. On the relation between radiation belt electrons and solar wind parameters/geomagnetic indices: Dependence on the first adiabatic invariant and L*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Li, X.; Elkington, S. R.; Kanekal, S. G.; Spence, H. E.; Boyd, A. J.; Huang, C.-L.; Forsyth, C.

    2017-02-01

    The relation between radiation belt electrons and solar wind/magnetospheric processes is of particular interest due to both scientific and practical needs. Though many studies have focused on this topic, electron data from Van Allen Probes with wide L shell coverage and fine energy resolution, for the first time, enabled this statistical study on the relation between radiation belt electrons and solar wind parameters/geomagnetic indices as a function of first adiabatic invariant μ and L*. Good correlations between electron phase space density (PSD) and solar wind speed, southward IMF Bz, SYM-H, and AL indices are found over wide μ and L* ranges, with higher correlation coefficients and shorter time lags for low-μ electrons than high-μ electrons; the anticorrelation between electron PSD and solar wind proton density is limited to high-μ electrons at high L*. The solar wind dynamic pressure has dominantly positive correlation with low-μ electrons and negative correlation with high-μ electrons at different L*. In addition, electron PSD enhancements also correlate well with various solar wind/geomagnetic parameters, and for most parameters this correlation is even better than that of electron PSD while the time lag is also much shorter. Among all parameters investigated, AL index is shown to correlate the best with electron PSD enhancements, with correlation coefficients up to 0.8 for low-μ electrons (time lag 0 day) and 0.7 for high-μ electrons (time lag 1-2 days), suggesting the importance of seed and source populations provided by substorms in radiation belt electron PSD enhancements.

  15. Performance tests of a power-electronics converter for multi-megawatt wind turbines using a grid emulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averous, Nurhan Rizqy; Berthold, Anica; Monti, Antonello; De Doncker, Rik W.; Schneider, Alexander; Schwimmbeck, Franz

    2016-01-01

    A vast increase of wind turbines (WT) contribution in the modern electrical grids have led to the development of grid connection requirements. In contrast to the conventional test method, testing power-electronics converters for WT using a grid emulator at Center for Wind Power Drives (CWD) RWTH Aachen University offers more flexibility for conducting test scenarios. Further analysis on the performance of the device under test (DUT) is however required when testing with grid emulator since the characteristic of the grid emulator might influence the performance of the DUT. This paper focuses on the performance analysis of the DUT when tested using grid emulator. Beside the issue regarding the current harmonics, the performance during Fault Ride-Through (FRT) is discussed in detail. A power hardware in the loop setup is an attractive solution to conduct a comprehensive study on the interaction between the power-electronics converters and the electrical grids. (paper)

  16. Performance tests of a power-electronics converter for multi-megawatt wind turbines using a grid emulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizqy Averous, Nurhan; Berthold, Anica; Schneider, Alexander; Schwimmbeck, Franz; Monti, Antonello; De Doncker, Rik W.

    2016-09-01

    A vast increase of wind turbines (WT) contribution in the modern electrical grids have led to the development of grid connection requirements. In contrast to the conventional test method, testing power-electronics converters for WT using a grid emulator at Center for Wind Power Drives (CWD) RWTH Aachen University offers more flexibility for conducting test scenarios. Further analysis on the performance of the device under test (DUT) is however required when testing with grid emulator since the characteristic of the grid emulator might influence the performance of the DUT. This paper focuses on the performance analysis of the DUT when tested using grid emulator. Beside the issue regarding the current harmonics, the performance during Fault Ride-Through (FRT) is discussed in detail. A power hardware in the loop setup is an attractive solution to conduct a comprehensive study on the interaction between the power-electronics converters and the electrical grids.

  17. Understanding Power Electronics and Electrical Machines in Multidisciplinary Wind Energy Conversion System Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, M. J.; Barrero, F.; Pozo-Ruz, A.; Guzman, F.; Fernandez, J.; Guzman, H.

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy conversion systems (WECS) nowadays offer an extremely wide range of topologies, including various different types of electrical generators and power converters. Wind energy is also an application of great interest to students and with a huge potential for engineering employment. Making WECS the main center of interest when teaching…

  18. Power Electronic Systems for Switched Reluctance Generator based Wind Farms and DC Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo

    . Under these circumstances, research on dc network connection with a novel wind power generator system is presented in this thesis, which mainly consists of two major parts: control of a Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG) system and development of dc-dc converters for a dc network system in a wind farm...... for generators in wind turbine systems. However, despite all these advantageous features, the SRG has not been widely employed in wind energy applications. The most renowned technical disadvantages of the SRG are its nonlinearity and high torque ripples, which should be overcome to promote the application...... are presented to verify the feasibility and operational principles of the proposed converters. Finally, modelling and control of a dc-grid wind farm using one of the proposed dc-dc converters are presented. An average model provides insight into the overall performance of the system. Meanwhile, a switching...

  19. Mechanics of aeolian processes: Soil erosion and dust production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    Aeolian (wind) processes occur as a result of atmosphere/land-surface system interactions. A thorough understanding of these processes and their physical/mechanical characterization on a global scale is essential to monitoring global change and, hence, is imperative to the fundamental goal of the Earth observing system (Eos) program. Soil erosion and dust production by wind are of consequence mainly in arid and semi arid regions which cover 36 percent of the Earth's land surface. Some recent models of dust production due to wind erosion of agricultural soils and the mechanics of wind erosion in deserts are reviewed and the difficulties of modeling the aeolian transport are discussed.

  20. Erosion behavior of EEDS cermet coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Guo; Xu Binshi; Wang Haidou; Yin Liang; Li Qingfen; Wei Shicheng; Cui Xiufang

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the erosion performance of electro-thermal explosion directional spraying (EEDS) cermet WC/Co coatings using an air solid particle erosion rig. The influences of the different parameters such as impact angle, impingement velocity, environment temperature, particle diameter, on the erosion property of the coatings were studied. The eroded surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and the erosion mechanisms were discussed. The structure and bond characters of the coatings were also determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM. The results indicate that the EEDS WC/Co coatings are characterized by fine grain structure, good metallurgical bond and brittle erosion character. The erosion rates of the coatings decrease with temperature increasing and increase with impact angle and impingement velocity increasing. At elevated temperature, the oxidation happens on the coatings surface, which affects the erosion behavior

  1. The « 3-D donut » electrostatic analyzer for millisecond timescale electron measurements in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthomier, M.; Techer, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding electron acceleration mechanisms in planetary magnetospheres or energy dissipation at electron scale in the solar wind requires fast measurement of electron distribution functions on a millisecond time scale. Still, since the beginning of space age, the instantaneous field of view of plasma spectrometers is limited to a few degrees around their viewing plane. In Earth's magnetosphere, the NASA MMS spacecraft use 8 state-of-the-art sensor heads to reach a time resolution of 30 milliseconds. This costly strategy in terms of mass and power consumption can hardly be extended to the next generation of constellation missions that would use a large number of small-satellites. In the solar wind, using the same sensor heads, the ESA THOR mission is expected to reach the 5ms timescale in the thermal energy range, up to 100eV. We present the « 3-D donut » electrostatic analyzer concept that can change the game for future space missions because of its instantaneous hemispheric field of view. A set of 2 sensors is sufficient to cover all directions over a wide range of energy, e.g. up to 1-2keV in the solar wind, which covers both thermal and supra-thermal particles. In addition, its high sensitivity compared to state of the art instruments opens the possibility of millisecond time scale measurements in space plasmas. With CNES support, we developed a high fidelity prototype (a quarter of the full « 3-D donut » analyzer) that includes all electronic sub-systems. The prototype weights less than a kilogram. The key building block of the instrument is an imaging detector that uses EASIC, a low-power front-end electronics that will fly on the ESA Solar Orbiter and on the NASA Parker Solar Probe missions.

  2. The Effects of Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Changes on the Substorm Auroras and Energetic Electron Injections on 24 August 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. Y.; Wang, Z. Q.

    2018-01-01

    After the passage of an interplanetary (IP) shock at 06:13 UT on 24 August 2005, the enhancement (>6 nPa) of solar wind dynamic pressure and the southward turning of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cause the earthward movement of dayside magnetopause and the drift loss of energetic particles near geosynchronous orbit. The persistent electron drift loss makes the geosynchronous satellites cannot observe the substorm electron injection phenomenon during the two substorm expansion phases (06:57-07:39 UT) on that day. Behind the IP shock, the fluctuations ( 0.5-3 nPa) of solar wind dynamic pressure not only alter the dayside auroral brightness but also cause the entire auroral oval to swing in the day-night direction. However, there is no Pi2 pulsation in the nightside auroral oval during the substorm growth phase from 06:13 to 06:57 UT. During the subsequent two substorm expansion phases, the substorm expansion activities cause the nightside aurora oval brightening from substorm onset site to higher latitudes, and meanwhile, the enhancement (decline) of solar wind dynamic pressure makes the nightside auroral oval move toward the magnetic equator (the magnetic pole). These observations demonstrate that solar wind dynamic pressure changes and substorm expansion activities can jointly control the luminosity and location of the nightside auroral oval when the internal and external disturbances occur simultaneously. During the impact of a strong IP shock, the earthward movement of dayside magnetopause probably causes the disappearance of the substorm electron injections near geosynchronous orbit.

  3. Significance of frost action and surface soil characteristics to wind erosion at Rocky Flats, Colorado. Second progress report, October 1, 1975--May 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caine, N.; Morin, P.

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes information on soil frost effects collected on Rocky Flats during the 1975-1976 winter. On a broad scale, work on soil textures at and just below the ground surface corroborates the conclusion reached earlier that the general frost susceptibility of the Rocky Flats soils is quite well keyed to topography. This is incorporated into a mapping procedure for potential soil frost activity which is applied to the northwestern part of the Rocky Flats area. On a site scale, instrumental records of weather conditions and soil responses have been maintained from October, 1975, to May, 1976, at the Lindsay Ranch study site, northwest of the Rocky Flats Plant. During that period, 33 needle ice events have been observed and recorded and are described in this report. A preliminary examination of wind data for the same period suggests that the soil in areas of natural vegetation on the site are not exposed to wind action. If, however, they were exposed, winds capable of eroding them are common.

  4. Erhversbetinget erosion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Irene; Gjørup, Hans; Nyvad, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Baggrund – I forbindelse med dental erosion er en grundig udredning af patienten vigtig, således at årsagen til erosionernes opståen findes, og der kan iværksættes adækvat forebyggende indsats. En sådan udredning er ikke mindst vigtig, når arbejdsmiljøet mistænkes. Patienttilfælde – En 30-årig...... arbejdsskade, men ikke anerkendt, da erosioner ikke er optaget på Arbejdsskadestyrelsens liste over erhvervssygdomme. En systematisk registrering af lignende tilfælde kunne imidlertid på sigt ændre retspraksis for fremtidige patienter med arbejdsbetinget erosion....

  5. Mission-profile based multi-objective optimization of power electronics converter for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh; Teodorescu, Remus; Kerekes, Tamas

    2017-01-01

    To help mitigate some of the challenges associated with the wide spread adoption of the stochastic wind power, wind turbine with full-scale power converter (Type D) is preferred. Since full power is processed by the power converter in a type D wind turbine, it is important to improve its efficiency...... and reduce the cost per kW to achieve lower cost of energy. The power produced by the wind turbine varies in a wide range and the conventional design approach of optimizing converter at a specific loading condition may be sub-optimal. To overcome this challenge, a mission-profile based multi......-objective optimization approach for designing power converter is presented. The objective is to minimize the energy loss for a given load profile as against the conventional approach of minimizing power loss at specific loading conditions. The proposed approach is illustrated by designing a grid-side power converter...

  6. ELECTRON HEAT FLUX IN THE SOLAR WIND: ARE WE OBSERVING THE COLLISIONAL LIMIT IN THE 1 AU DATA?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Università degli Studi di Firenze Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Matteini, L. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Pantellini, F. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, Université Paris-Diderot 5, place J. Janssen, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France)

    2014-07-20

    Using statistically significant data at 1 AU, it has recently been shown (Bale et al.) that in the solar wind, when the Knudsen number K {sub T} (the ratio between the electron mean free path and the electron temperature scale height) drops below about 0.3, the electron heat flux q intensity rapidly approaches the classical collisional Spitzer-Härm limit. Using a fully kinetic model including the effect of Coulomb collisions and the expansion of the solar wind with heliocentric distance, we observe that the heat flux strength does indeed approach the collisional value for Knudsen numbers smaller than about 0.3 in very good agreement with the observations. However, closer inspection of the heat flux properties, such as its variation with the heliocentric distance and its dependence on the plasma parameters, shows that for Knudsen numbers between 0.02 and 0.3 the heat flux is not conveniently described by the Spitzer-Härm formula. We conclude that even though observations at 1 AU seem to indicate that the electron heat flux intensity approaches the collisional limit when the Knudsen drops below ∼0.3, the collisional limit is not a generally valid closure for a Knudsen larger than 0.01. Moreover, the good agreement between the heat flux from our model and the heat flux from solar wind measurements in the high-Knudsen number regime seems to indicate that the heat flux at 1 AU is not constrained by electromagnetic instabilities as both wave-particle and wave-wave interactions are neglected in our calculations.

  7. Commonalities in WEPP and WEPS and efforts towards a single erosion process model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.M.; Flanagan, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    Since the late 1980's, the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has been developing process-based erosion models to predict water erosion and wind erosion. During much of that time, the development efforts of the Water Erosion Prediction Project

  8. Transient stability enhancement of wind farms using power electronics and facts controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Hossein Ali

    Nowadays, it is well-understood that the burning of fossil fuels in electric power station has a significant influence on the global climate due to greenhouse gases. In many countries, the use of cost-effective and reliable low-carbon electricity energy sources is becoming an important energy policy. Among different kinds of clean energy resources- such as solar power, hydro-power, ocean wave power and so on, wind power is the fastest-growing form of renewable energy at the present time. Moreover, adjustable speed generator wind turbines (ASGWT) has key advantages over the fixed-speed generator wind turbines (FSGWT) in terms of less mechanical stress, improved power quality, high system efficiency, and reduced acoustic noise. One important class of ASGWT is the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), which has gained a significant attention of the electric power industry due to their advantages over the other class of ASGWT, i.e. fully rated converter-based wind turbines. Because of increased integration of DFIG-based wind farms into electric power grids, it is necessary to transmit the generated power from wind farms to the existing grids via transmission networks without congestion. Series capacitive compensation of DFIG-based wind farm is an economical way to increase the power transfer capability of the transmission line connecting wind farm to the grid. For example, a study performed by ABB reveals that increasing the power transfer capability of an existing transmission line from 1300 MW to 2000 MW using series compensation is 90% less than the cost of building a new transmission line. However, a factor hindering the extensive use of series capacitive compensation is the potential risk of sub- synchronous resonance (SSR). The SSR is a condition where the wind farm exchanges energy with the electric network, to which it is connected, at one or more natural frequencies of the electric or mechanical part of the combined system, comprising the wind farm and the

  9. The Major Cause of Observed Erosion Surge on the Beaches North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surges in coastal erosion north of Dar es Salaam city have been documented from 1977 to the early 1980s and around 1997/98. Analysis of the wind data shows that the documented increase in coastal erosion coincided with increased wind speeds. Extreme winds in excess of 10-11 m s-1 were experienced during ...

  10. Erosion and deposition in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudenmaier, G.

    1985-01-01

    The flow of metal impurities from the wall and limiter to the plasma, and back towards the wall, is investigated using surface collection probes and subsequent surface analysis in order to understand impuritiy generation and impurity transport. Impurity fluxes and their scrapeoff lengths have been investigated for several years in a large number of tokamaks. The results are summarized and discussed. Erosion exceeding deposition was first observed to occur at limiterlike structures closest to the plasma edge. Recently, a new probe has been developed to measure quantitatively the erosion in ASDEX. Subsequent quantitative surface analysis is performed in situ by electron induced x-ray analysis. Erosion caused either by ions (limiter) or charge exchange neutrals (wall) can be investigated separately. The erosion at the wall is about two orders of magnitude smaller than the erosion at limiterlike structures, which is of the order of one monolayer per discharge. Simultaneous measurements of deposition and erosion have been performed to elucidate net values of deposition and erosion

  11. A closed set of conservation laws and the evolution of the electron magnetic moment in the collisionless solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, P.

    1993-01-01

    A hydromagnetic equation system for the interplanetary collisionless solar wind is used to derive a set of conservation laws for that medium. It is found that every equation of the original system, including the closure relation, is related to one conservation law. The set that has been derived does not only include the traditional laws, but also a new one for the magnetic moment of the electrons. The conservation set is then used to obtain the space constants for the solar coronal expansion. The new law yields a constant that has not been predicted by other models

  12. ELECTRON ACCELERATION IN PULSAR-WIND TERMINATION SHOCKS: AN APPLICATION TO THE CRAB NEBULA GAMMA-RAY FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, John J.; Becker, Peter A.; Dermer, Charles D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 (United States); Finke, Justin D., E-mail: jkroon@gmu.edu, E-mail: pbecker@gmu.edu, E-mail: charlesdermer@outlook.com, E-mail: justin.finke@nrl.navy.mil [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The γ -ray flares from the Crab Nebula observed by AGILE and Fermi -LAT reaching GeV energies and lasting several days challenge the standard models for particle acceleration in pulsar-wind nebulae because the radiating electrons have energies exceeding the classical radiation-reaction limit for synchrotron. Previous modeling has suggested that the synchrotron limit can be exceeded if the electrons experience electrostatic acceleration, but the resulting spectra do not agree very well with the data. As a result, there are still some important unanswered questions about the detailed particle acceleration and emission processes occurring during the flares. We revisit the problem using a new analytical approach based on an electron transport equation that includes terms describing electrostatic acceleration, stochastic wave-particle acceleration, shock acceleration, synchrotron losses, and particle escape. An exact solution is obtained for the electron distribution, which is used to compute the associated γ -ray synchrotron spectrum. We find that in our model the γ -ray flares are mainly powered by electrostatic acceleration, but the contributions from stochastic and shock acceleration play an important role in producing the observed spectral shapes. Our model can reproduce the spectra of all the Fermi -LAT and AGILE flares from the Crab Nebula, using magnetic field strengths in agreement with the multi-wavelength observational constraints. We also compute the spectrum and duration of the synchrotron afterglow created by the accelerated electrons, after they escape into the region on the downstream side of the pulsar-wind termination shock. The afterglow is expected to fade over a maximum period of about three weeks after the γ -ray flare.

  13. Automated Erosion System to Protect Highway Bridge Crossings at Abutments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    A new instrument (Photo-Electronic Erosion Pin, or PEEP) was examined in collecting field data and remotely monitoring bank erosion near bridge abutments during floods. The performance of PEEPs was evaluated through a detailed field study to determin...

  14. ULF power fluctuations in the solar-wind parameters and their relationship with the relativistic electron flux at the geosynchronous orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regi, M.

    2016-01-01

    We focused the attention on the Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations in response to the solar wind forcing and their relationship with the relativistic electron flux at geostationary orbit. We present here the results of a correlation analysis between the Pc5 power in the magnetosphere and on the ground, at low and high latitude, and the solar-wind speed and fluctuation power of the interplanetary magnetic field and solar-wind dynamic pressure through the years 2006 to 2010, also showing the relative timing between pulsations and solar-wind parameters. The Pc5 power appears significantly correlated with simultaneous solar-wind pressure fluctuations and with the solar-wind speed lagged by several hours. The relative amplitude of the two correlation peaks depends on the solar cycle phase and on the latitude. We also show a strong relationship between the Pc5 power and the > 600 keV and > 2MeV electron flux at geosynchronous orbit. Clear evidence emerges that the electron flux follows the Pc5 power by about 2 days; the time delay is a bit longer for the higher-energy electrons.

  15. Whistler mode waves and the electron heat flux in the solar wind: Cluster observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lacombe, C.; Alexandrova, O.; Matteini, L.; Santolík, Ondřej; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Mangeney, A.; De Conchy, Y.; Maksimovic, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 796, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-11 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA MŠk LH12231 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar wind * turbulence * waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 5.993, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/796/1/5/article

  16. Oceanographic Factors and Erosion of the Outer Banks During Hurricane Isabel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keen, T. R; Rowley, C; Dykes, J

    2006-01-01

    .... The computed wind, wave, current, and water level fields are used to drive a three- dimensional numerical sedimentation model that calculates nearshore sediment transport and erosion potential...

  17. Interplanetary Type III Bursts and Electron Density Fluctuations in the Solar Wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupař, Vratislav; Maksimovic, M.; Kontar, E. P.; Zaslavsky, A.; Santolík, Ondřej; Souček, Jan; Krupařová, Oksana; Eastwood, J. P.; Szabo, A.

    Roč. 857, č. 2, č. článku 82. ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-06818Y; GA ČR GA17-08772S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06065S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : scattering * Sun: radio radiation * solar wind * RADIO-BURSTS * ULYSSES OBSERVATIONS * ANGULAR SCATTERING * STATISTICAL-SURVEY * EMISSION * WAVELENGTHS * FREQUENCY * WAVES * SUN * PROPAGATION Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4357/aab60f/meta#references

  18. Cascade and Dissipation of Solar Wind Turbulence at Electron Scales: Whistlers or Kinetic Alfv\\'en Waves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Fouad; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few decades, large-scales solar wind (SW) turbulence has been studied extensively, both theoretically and observationally. Observed power spectra of the low frequency turbulence, which can be described in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) limit, are shown to obey the Kolmogorov scaling, $k"{ -5/3 }$, down the local proton gyrofrequency ($C{ci} \\sim O.l$-Hz). Turbulence at frequencies above $C{ci}$ has not been thoroughly investigated and remains far less well understood. Above $C{ ci}$ the spectrum steepens to $\\sim f"{ -2.5}$ and a debate exists as to whether the turbulence has become dominated by dispersive kinetic Alfven waves (KA W) or by whistler waves, before it is dissipated at small scales, In a case study Sahraoui et al., PRL (2009) have reported the first direct determination of the dissipation range of solar wind turbulence near the electron gyroscale using the high resolution Cluster magnetic and electric field data (up to $10"2$-Hz in the spacecraft reference frame). Above the Doppler-shifted proton scale $C{\\rho i}$ a new inertial range with a scaling $\\sim f"{ -2.3}$ has been evidenced and shown to remarkably agree with theoretical predictions of a quasi-two-dimensional cascade into KA W turbulence. Here, we use a wider sample of data sets of small scale SW turbulence under different plasma conditions, and investigate under which physical criteria the KA W (or the whistler) turbulence may be observed to carry out the cascade at small scales, These new observations/criteria are compared to the predictions on the cascade and the (kinetic) dissipation from the Vlasov theory. Implications of the results on the heating problem of the solar wind will be discussed.

  19. RECONSTRUCTING THE SOLAR WIND FROM ITS EARLY HISTORY TO CURRENT EPOCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, Vladimir S.; Usmanov, Arcadi V.

    2016-01-01

    Stellar winds from active solar-type stars can play a crucial role in removal of stellar angular momentum and erosion of planetary atmospheres. However, major wind properties except for mass-loss rates cannot be directly derived from observations. We employed a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic Alfvén wave driven solar wind model, ALF3D, to reconstruct the solar wind parameters including the mass-loss rate, terminal velocity, and wind temperature at 0.7, 2, and 4.65 Gyr. Our model treats the wind thermal electrons, protons, and pickup protons as separate fluids and incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating to properly describe proton and electron temperatures of the solar wind. To study the evolution of the solar wind, we specified three input model parameters, the plasma density, Alfvén wave amplitude, and the strength of the dipole magnetic field at the wind base for each of three solar wind evolution models that are consistent with observational constrains. Our model results show that the velocity of the paleo solar wind was twice as fast, ∼50 times denser and 2 times hotter at 1 AU in the Sun's early history at 0.7 Gyr. The theoretical calculations of mass-loss rate appear to be in agreement with the empirically derived values for stars of various ages. These results can provide realistic constraints for wind dynamic pressures on magnetospheres of (exo)planets around the young Sun and other active stars, which is crucial in realistic assessment of the Joule heating of their ionospheres and corresponding effects of atmospheric erosion

  20. A Technique for Mitigating Thermal Stress and Extending Life Cycle of Power Electronic Converters Used for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canras Batunlu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, various models have been developed to assess and improve the reliability of power electronic conversion systems (PECs with a focus on those used for wind turbines. However, only few studies have dealt with mitigating the PECs thermo-mechanical effects on their reliability taking into account variations in wind characteristics. This work critically investigates this issue and attempts to offer a mitigating technique by, first, developing realistic full scale (FS and partial scale (PS induction generator models combined with two level back-to-back PECs. Subsequently, deriving a driving algorithm, which reduces PEC’s operating temperature by controlling its switching patterns. The developed switching procedure ensures minimum temperature fluctuations by adapting the variable DC link and system’s frequency of operation. It was found for both FS and PS topologies, that the generator side converters have higher mean junction temperatures where the grid side ones have more fluctuations on their thermal profile. The FS and PS cycling temperatures were reduced by 12 °C and 5 °C, respectively. Moreover, this led to a significant improvement in stress; approximately 27 MPa stress reduction for the FS induction generator PEC.

  1. Predicción de la erosión eólica potencial con el modelo EWEQ en dos suelos loesicos: efectos de las condiciones climáticas Wind erosion prediction with the EWEQ model in two loess soils: effects of climatic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Beatriz Aimar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La erosión eólica potencial del suelo (EEP es un dato básico utilizado en varios modelos de predicción para calcular la erosión eólica de suelos agrícolas. El objetivo de este estudio fue cuantificar la EEP de un Haplustol y un Ustipsammente de la Región Semiárida Pampeana (RSP y compararla con las predicciones del modelo Ecuación de Erosión Eólica en Español (EWEQ, realizadas con diferentes factores climáticos (C. Se efectuaron mediciones de EEP a campo durante un año en ambos suelos, mantenidos sin cobertura y con mínima rugosidad. Los resultados indicaron que la EEP medida a campo fue mayor en el Ustipsammente (270 Mg ha-1 año-1 que en el Haplustol (40 Mg ha-1 año -1 , con una reducción en el espesor del horizonte de 21,3 y 3,1 mm, respectivamente. La erosión del Ustipsammente fue dos veces mayor en primavera-verano que en otoño-invierno. Este efecto no se observó en el Haplustol, debido a su menor desecamiento y mayores contenidos de humedad luego de las lluvias. La erosión del Haplustol, por desecarse más lentamente luego de una lluvia, fue más condicionada por las precipitaciones que la del Ustipsammente. Un 40% de la erosión de ambos suelos fue definida por la duración de las tormentas. Las tasas de erosión (EEP por unidad de tiempo, Qt se correlacionaron positivamente con la velocidad promedio del viento (V, ajustando a una función polinómica en ambos suelos. A la misma V, Qt fue siempre mayor en el Ustipsammente. La EEP calculada con la EWEQ, utilizando el factor C correspondiente al año de muestreo (30,3, fue la más semejante a la erosión medida a campo, aunque el modelo la subestimó en un 43% en el Haplustol y en un 18% en el Ustipsammente. La EWEQ deberá ofrecer al usuario distintos factores C para poder predecir EEP en escenarios climáticos variables.The potential wind erosion of a soil (EEP is a basic data for predicting wind erosion of agricultural soils in most wind erosion prediction models

  2. Investigation of the winds and electron concentration variability in the D region of the ionosphere by the partial-reflection radar technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiland, R.M.; Bowhill, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    The development and first observations of the partial-reflection drifts experiment at Urbana, Illinois (40 N) are described. The winds data from the drifts experiment are compared with electron concentration data obtained by the differential-absorption technique to study the possible meteorological causes of the winter anomaly in the mesosphere at midlatitudes. Winds data obtained by the meteor-radar experiment at Urbana are also compared with electron concentration data measured at Urban. A significant correlation is shown is both cases between southward winds and increasing electron concentration measured at the same location during winter. The possibility of stratospheric/mesospheric coupling is investigated by comparing satellite-measured 0.4 mbar geopotential data with mesospheric electron concentration data. No significant coupling was observed. The winds measured at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (52 N) are compared with the electron concentrations measured at Urban, yielding constant fixed relationship, but significant correlations for short segments of the winter. A significant coherence is observed at discrete frequencies during segments of the winter

  3. Erosion of Earthen Levees by Wave Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.; Reba, M. L.

    2016-02-01

    Earthen levees of aquaculture and irrigation reservoirs in the United States often experience significant erosion due to wind-generated waves. Typically constructed using local soils, unprotected levees are subjected to rapid erosion and retreat due to wind generated waves and surface runoff. Only a limited amount of published work addresses the erosion rates for unprotected levees, and producers who rely on irrigation reservoirs need an economic basis for selecting a protection method for vulnerable levees. This, in turn, means that a relationship between wave energy and erosion of cohesive soils is needed. In this study, laboratory experiments were carried out in order to quantify wave induced levee erosion and retreat. A model erodible bank was packed using a soil consisting of approximately 14% sand, 73% silt, and 13% clay in a 20.6 m long 0.7 m wide and 1.2 m deep wave tank at the USDA-ARS, National Sedimentation Laboratory in Oxford MS. The geometry of the levee face was monitored by digital camera and the waves were measured by means of 6 capacitance wave staffs. Relationships were established between levee erosion, edge and retreat rates, and incident wave energy.

  4. The effect of vegetation on wind-blown mass transport at the regional scale: A wind tunnel experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, I.F.; Visser, S.M.; Karssenberg, D.; Erpul, G.; Cornelis, W.M.; Gabriels, D.; Poortinga, A.

    2012-01-01

    Wind erosion is a global environmental problem. Re-vegetating land is a commonly used method to reduce the negative effects of wind erosion. However, there is limited knowledge on the effect of vegetation pattern on wind-blown mass transport. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect

  5. The effect of vegetation patterns on wind-blown mass transport at the regional scale: A wind tunnel experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, F.; Visser, S.; Karssenberg, D.J.; Erpul, G.; Cornelis, W.M.; Gabriels, D.; Poortinga, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Wind erosion is a global environmental problem. Re-vegetating land is a commonly used method to reduce the negative effects of wind erosion. However, there is limited knowledge on the effect of vegetation pattern on wind-blown mass transport. The objective of this study was to investigate

  6. Compensation of Reactive Power from Wind Turbines with Power Electronics Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas

    1996-01-01

    that the supply line must deliver the reactive current with ensuing losses, the strong variation also will cause varying inductive voltage losses in the supply with flicker as a consequence. With power electronic equipment it is possible to produce the reactive power on location and reduce the losses and voltage...

  7. SUPRATHERMAL ELECTRON STRAHL WIDTHS IN THE PRESENCE OF NARROW-BAND WHISTLER WAVES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajdič, P. [Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City (Mexico); Alexandrova, O.; Maksimovic, M.; Lacombe, C. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, UPMC UniversitéParis 06, Université Paris-Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Fazakerley, A. N., E-mail: primoz@geofisica.unam.mx [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-20

    We perform the first statistical study of the effects of the interaction of suprathermal electrons with narrow-band whistler mode waves in the solar wind (SW). We show that this interaction does occur and that it is associated with enhanced widths of the so-called strahl component. The latter is directed along the interplanetary magnetic field away from the Sun. We do the study by comparing the strahl pitch angle widths in the SW at 1 AU in the absence of large scale discontinuities and transient structures, such as interplanetary shocks, interplanetary coronal mass ejections, stream interaction regions, etc. during times when the whistler mode waves were present and when they were absent. This is done by using the data from two Cluster instruments: Spatio Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations experiment (STAFF) data in the frequency range between ∼0.1 and ∼200 Hz were used for determining the wave properties and Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE) data sets at 12 central energies between ∼57 eV (equivalent to ∼10 typical electron thermal energies in the SW, E{sub T}) and ∼676 eV (∼113 E{sub T}) for pitch angle measurements. Statistical analysis shows that, during the intervals with the whistler waves, the strahl component on average exhibits pitch angle widths between 2° and 12° larger than during the intervals when these waves are not present. The largest difference is obtained for the electron central energy of ∼344 eV (∼57 ET).

  8. Average profiles of the solar wind and outer radiation belt during the extreme flux enhancement of relativistic electrons at geosynchronous orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kataoka

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We report average profiles of the solar wind and outer radiation belt during the extreme flux enhancement of relativistic electrons at geosynchronous orbit (GEO. It is found that seven of top ten extreme events at GEO during solar cycle 23 are associated with the magnetosphere inflation during the storm recovery phase as caused by the large-scale solar wind structure of very low dynamic pressure (<1.0 nPa during rapid speed decrease from very high (>650 km/s to typical (400–500 km/s in a few days. For the seven events, the solar wind parameters, geomagnetic activity indices, and relativistic electron flux and geomagnetic field at GEO are superposed at the local noon period of GOES satellites to investigate the physical cause. The average profiles support the "double inflation" mechanism that the rarefaction of the solar wind and subsequent magnetosphere inflation are one of the best conditions to produce the extreme flux enhancement at GEO because of the excellent magnetic confinement of relativistic electrons by reducing the drift loss of trapped electrons at dayside magnetopause.

  9. Soil Erosion: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the last of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil erosion. Upon completion of the two day lesson, the student will be able to: (1) define conservation, (2) understand how erosion takes place, and (3) list ways of controlling wind and water erosion.…

  10. On forecasting ionospheric total electron content responses to high-speed solar wind streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in the ionosphere have become increasingly important to forecast, since more and more spaceborne and ground-based technological systems rely on ionospheric weather. Here we explore the feasibility of ionospheric forecasts with the current generation of physics-based models. In particular, we focus on total electron content (TEC predictions using the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM. Simulations are configured in a forecast mode and performed for four typical high-speed-stream events during 2007–2012. The simulated TECs are quantified through a metric, which divides the globe into a number of local regions and robustly differentiates between quiet and disturbed periods. Proposed forecast products are hourly global maps color-coded by the TEC disturbance level of each local region. To assess the forecasts, we compare the simulated TEC disturbances with global TEC maps derived from Global Positioning System (GPS satellite observations. The forecast performance is found to be merely acceptable, with a large number of regions where the observed variations are not captured by the simulations. Examples of model-data agreements and disagreements are investigated in detail, aiming to understand the model behavior and improve future forecasts. For one event, we identify two adjacent regions with similar TEC observations but significant differences in how local chemistry versus plasma transport contribute to electron density changes in the simulation. Suggestions for further analysis are described.

  11. Surface erosion assessment using 137Cs: examples from New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 137 Cs technique has provided the first quantitative, medium-term data on rates of soil redistribution by surface erosion on both cropland and rangeland in New Zealand. Use of the technique has demonstrated: high rates of soil redistribution by water erosion at two cropland sites under intensive vegetable production; a slow rate of net loss of soil by wind erosion associated with arable farming; a strong association between vegetation depletion and wind erosion on grazed rangeland. Research has also provided data on natural short-range variability of 137 Cs in uneroded soils, and a technique for independently estimating 137 Cs reference values from rainfall. The greatest research need remains the development of robust, accurate calibration procedures for converting 137 Cs measurements to rates of erosion. (author)

  12. Erosion and Errors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, H.; Heeres, Glenn; Os, van Bertil; Derickx, Willem; Schoorl, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Slope soil erosion is one of the main threats to archaeological sites. Several methods were applied to establish the erosion rates at archaeological sites. Digital elevation models (DEMs) from three different dates were used. We compared the elevations from these three models to estimate erosion. We

  13. Assessing storm erosion hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranasinghe, Ranasinghe W M R J B; Callaghan, D.; Ciavola, Paolo; Coco, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The storm erosion hazard on coasts is usually expressed as an erosion volume and/or associated episodic coastline retreat. The accurate assessment of present-day and future storm erosion volumes is a key task for coastal zone managers, planners and engineers. There are four main approaches that can

  14. Mapping erosion from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.

    2007-01-01

    Soil erosion by water is the most important land degradation problem worldwide. Spatial information on erosion is required for defining effective soil and water conservation strategies. Satellite remote sensing can provide relevant input to regional erosion assessment. This thesis comprises a review

  15. Sand transport, erosion and granular electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrison, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of granular materials by wind has a major impact on our environment through sand/soil erosion and the generation and transport of atmospheric dust aerosols. Terrestrially the transport of dust involves billions of tons of material every year, influencing the global climate and impac......The transport of granular materials by wind has a major impact on our environment through sand/soil erosion and the generation and transport of atmospheric dust aerosols. Terrestrially the transport of dust involves billions of tons of material every year, influencing the global climate...... can affect grain transport through the generation of intense electric fields and processes of electrostatic assembly. Importantly the transport of sand is characterized by saltation, which is known to be an active process for erosion and therefore a source for dust and sand formation. Using novel...... erosion simulation techniques the link between grain transport rates and erosion rates has been quantified. Furthermore this can be linked to production rates for dust and has been associated with chemical and mineral alteration through a process of mechanical activation of fractured surfaces. This work...

  16. Electronic Power Transformer Control Strategy in Wind Energy Conversion Systems for Low Voltage Ride-through Capability Enhancement of Directly Driven Wind Turbines with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (D-PMSGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of an Electronic Power Transformer (EPT incorporated with an energy storage system to smooth the wind power fluctuations and enhance the low voltage ride-through (LVRT capability of directly driven wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generators (D-PMSGs. The decoupled control schemes of the system, including the grid side converter control scheme, generator side converter control scheme and the control scheme of the energy storage system, are presented in detail. Under normal operating conditions, the energy storage system absorbs the high frequency component of the D-PMSG output power to smooth the wind power fluctuations. Under grid fault conditions, the energy storage system absorbs the redundant power, which could not be transferred to the grid by the EPT, to help the D-PMSG to ride through low voltage conditions. This coordinated control strategy is validated by simulation studies using MATLAB/Simulink. With the proposed control strategy, the output wind power quality is improved and the D-PMSG can ride through severe grid fault conditions.

  17. Optimal Allocation of Power-Electronic Interfaced Wind Turbines Using a Genetic Algorithm - Monte Carlo Hybrid Optimization Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Siano, Pierluigi; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    The increasing amount of wind power integrated to power systems presents a number of challenges to the system operation. One issue related to wind power integration concerns the location and capacities of the wind turbines (WTs) in the network. Although the location of wind turbines is mainly det...... setting of WTs. The sequential MCS takes into account the stochastic behaviour of wind power generation and load. The proposed hybrid optimization method is demonstrated on an 11 kV 69-bus distribution system......., which can enhance the power system security and improve the system steady-state performance by reducing network losses. This chapter presents a hybrid optimization method that minimizes the annual system power losses. The optimization considers a 95%-probability of fulfilling the voltage and current...

  18. Catalytic interface erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, H.; Cohen, E.G.D.

    1995-01-01

    We study interface erosion processes: catalytic erosions. We present two cases. (1) The erosion of a completely occupied lattice by one single moving particle starting from somewhere inside the lattice, considering deterministic as well as probabilistic erosion rules. In the latter case, the eroded regions appear to have interfaces with continuously tunable fractal dimensions. (2) The kinetic roughening of an initially flat surface, where ballistic or diffusion-limited particles, which remain intact themselves, erode the surface coming from the outside, using the same erosion rules as in (1). Many features resembling realistic interfaces, for example, islands and inlets, are generated. The dependence of the surface width on the system size is due to both the erosion mechanism and the way particles move before reaching the surface

  19. Erosion can't hide from laser scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstant, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Particles of topsoil blown by wind will bounce along the soil surface and finally escape a field, leaving it less able to support crops. Water will wash away valuable topsoil and nutrients. And how rough the soil surface is influences whether the soil will erode. Until now, soil scientists have had no suitable technique to measure soil roughness - or microtopography - on the small scale. ARS soil scientists Joe M. Bradford and Chi-hua Huang, of the National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory in West Lafayette, Indiana, have developed a portable scanner that can. It measures the tiny ridges left in the soil by tilling or clods of soil particles that clump together naturally. What does the scanner do? It measures soil elevation by shining a low-power laser beam onto the surface and detecting the position of the laser spot reflected from the soil with a 35-mm camera. In place of film, the scanner camera uses electronic circuitry somewhat similar to that in a video camera to transmit the spot's position to a small computer about 30,000 times a minute. The laser and camera are mounted on the frame of a motor-driven carriage. The computer controls the carriage movement. At the end of a scan, a microtopographic map is stored in the computer. Scientists can analyze it immediately and can compare it to previous maps to see whether erosion has occurred

  20. Optimal derating strategy for power electronics converter for maximum wind energy production with lifetime information of power devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernica, Ionut; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    One of the most important causes of failure in wind power systems is due to the failures of the power converter and due to one of its most critical components, the power semiconductor devices. This paper proposes a novel derating strategy for the wind turbine system based on the reliability...... performance of the converter and the total energy production throughout its entire lifetime. An advanced reliability design tool is first established and demonstrated, in which the wind power system together with the thermal cycling of the power semiconductor devices are modeled and characterized under...... a typical wind turbine system mission profile. Based on the reliability design tools, the expected lifetime of the converter for a given mission profile can be quantified under different output power levels, and an optimization algorithm can be applied to extract the starting point and the amount...

  1. Protection from erosion following wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Robichaud; William J. Elliot

    2006-01-01

    Erosion in the first year after a wildfire can be up to three orders of magnitude greater than the erosion from undisturbed forests. To mitigate potential postfire erosion, various erosion control treatments are applied on highly erodible areas with downstream resources in need of protection. Because postfire erosion rates generally decline by an order of magnitude for...

  2. Paradiaphyseal calcific tendinitis with cortical bone erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, P; Bardin, T; Laredo, J D; Ziza, J M; D'Anglejan, G; Lansaman, J; Bucki, B; Forest, M; Kuntz, D

    1994-05-01

    To determine the clinical, radiologic, and histologic features of calcific tendinitis with cortical bone erosion. The records of 6 patients with paradiaphyseal calcific tendinitis and adjacent bone cortex erosion were reviewed. Calcific tendinitis involved the linea aspera in 4 patients, the bicipital groove in 1 patient, and the deltoid insertion in another. Calcium deposits were associated with cortical bone erosions, revealed on plain radiographs in 4 patients and computed tomography scans in 2. Bone scans were performed in 2 patients and showed local hyperfixation of the isotope. In 4 patients, suspicion of a neoplasm led to a biopsy. Calcium deposits appeared to be surrounded by a foreign body reaction with numerous giant cells. Apatite crystals were identified by transmission electron microscopy and elemental analysis in 1 surgical sample. Paradiaphyseal calcific tendinitis with cortical bone erosion is an uncommon presentation of apatite deposition disease.

  3. Incidencia potencial de la erosión eólica sobre la degradación del suelo y la calidad del aire en distintas regiones de la Argentina Potential effects of wind erosion on soil degradation and air quality in different regions of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Buschiazzo

    2009-12-01

    ía relativamente más a la calidad del aire que a la del suelo. La magnitud de este proceso estaría regida, principalmente, por el área disponible para la erosión. En suelos sometidos a manejos agrícolas, frecuentemente desnudos y de bajo grado de evolución como los Ustipsammentes y Haplustoles, la erosión eólica tendría efectos intermedios, afectando tanto a la calidad del suelo como a la del aire. Finalmente, en suelos relativamente más evolucionados y sometidos a manejos agrícolas como los Hapludoles, la erosión afectaría en mayor medida a la calidad del suelo, siendo la emisión de partículas finas de relativa menor importancia.Wind erosion can impact soil and air quality. The magnitude of these effects depends on the soil type and management conditions, and is associated with the transport conditions of soil particles: saltation and rolling affect soil quality to a greater extent while suspension tends to increase the emission of fine particles to the atmosphere. The objective of this research was to determine the magnitude of both type of movements in soils of Argentina, in order to predict potential effects on soil or air quality. This study was carried out in four provinces of Argentina: Chaco (CHA, San Luis (SLU, La Pampa (LPA and Río Negro (PAT. In each case, wind erosion was measured in the 1 ha-square fields by means of BSNE samplers. Results indicated that the total amount of transported material, the so-called mass flux (FM as well as the absolute amount of eroded soil (Q were higher in sites with less developed soils of SLU (Ustipsamment and LPA (Haplustoll and lower in sites with a better developed soil of CHA (Hapludoll or with less developed soil but with permanent soil cover with natural grasses of PAT (Haplargid. Saltation and rolling were the main transport forms in SLU, LPA and CHA and suspension in PAT. Though low (10%, the plant coverage existing in this last site was enough to increase the height of the wind profile and to favor the transport

  4. Saliva and dental erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

  5. Saliva and dental erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; HANNAS, Angélicas Reis; KATO, Melissa Thiemi

    2012-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods A search was undertaken on MEDLINE website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects. PMID:23138733

  6. Using Rare Earth Elements (REE) to determine wind-driven soil dispersal from a point source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although erosion of soil by water is a predictably directional process, the erosion of soil by wind is determined by wind direction on an event-wise basis. The wind-driven dispersal patterns of chemical constituents including natural soil components and anthropogenic contaminants are not well under...

  7. Vegetation in drylands: Effects on wind flow and aeolian sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drylands are characterised by patchy vegetation, erodible surfaces and erosive aeolian processes. Empirical and modelling studies have shown that vegetation elements provide drag on the overlying airflow, thus affecting wind velocity profiles and altering erosive dynamics on desert surfaces. However...

  8. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues

  9. Relationship between Relativistic Electron Flux in the Inner Magnetosphere and ULF Pulsation on the Ground Associated with Long-term Variations of Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, K.; Nagatsuma, T.; Troshichev, O. A.; Obara, T.; Koshiishi, H.; Saita, S.; Yoshikawa, A.; Yumoto, K.

    2014-12-01

    In the present study the relativistic electron flux (0.59-1.18MeV) measured by Standard Dose Monitor (SDOM) onboard DRTS (KODAMA) satellite at the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) is analyzed to investigate the long term (from 2002 to 2014) variations of the electron flux enhancement (REF) during the passage of Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) and/or Coronal Mass Ejection (CMEs). The long term variations of the REF clearly shows the 27-days period associated with the high speed solar wind velocity caused by the CIRs, whereas it is very few that the enhancement of REF lasts for several days after passage of CMEs. The 27-days period enhancement of REF represents the quite strong peak in 2003 when the high speed stream of the solar wind were quit active. We also conducted the same analysis for the Pc5 pulsations observed on the ground. The ground magnetic variations data globally observed by National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and International Center for Space Weather Science and Education (ICSWSE) Kyushu University are used to investigate the long term variations of Pc5 power. The same signature in the REF variations is shown in the time variability of the Pc5 power on the ground. These results indicate that the solar wind condition strongly affects the acceleration process of the relativistic electron flux by the ULF wave. In particular the dependence of the REF and Pc5 variations on the sector structures and their seasonal variations strongly suggest that the relationship between Pc5 and REF variations could be controlled by the Russell-McPherron effect.

  10. Erosion in America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-23

    The US loses about five billion tons of soil a year from erosion, and scientists estimate that from 20 to 50% of world cropland suffers from excessive erosion. The effect of erosion is a loss in both land and water productivity. When combined with the problems of overpopulation, overgrazing, and deforestation, the environmental impacts are very serious. There are some signs that countries are beginning to adopt conservation tilling techniques, but even cooperative government programs in the US such as the 1983 Payment-in-Kind (PIK) program have had only partial success because of expanded production on marginal farmlands. 20 reference 5 figures.

  11. Preliminary Performance Data on General Electric Integrated Electronic Control Operating on J47 RX1-3 Turbojet Engine in NACA Altitude Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blivas, Darnold; Taylor, Burt L., III

    1950-01-01

    Performance data obtained with recording oscillographs are presented to show the transient response of the General Electric Integrated Electronic Control operating on the J47 RXl-3 turbo-Jet engine over a range of altitudes from 10,000 to 45,000 feet and at ram pressure ratios of 1.03 and 1.4. These data represent the performance of the final control configuration developed after an investigation of the engine transient behavior in the NACA altitude wind tunnel. Oscillograph traces of controlled accelerations (throttle bursts),oontrolled decelerations (throttle chops), and controlled altitude starts are presented.

  12. Superposed epoch analysis of vertical ion velocity, electron temperature, field-aligned current, and thermospheric wind in the dayside auroral region as observed by DMSP and CHAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervalishvili, G.; Lühr, H.

    2016-12-01

    This study reports on the results obtained by a superposed epoch analysis (SEA) method applied to the electron temperature, vertical ion velocity, field-aligned current (FAC), and thermospheric zonal wind velocity at high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. The SEA study is performed in a magnetic latitude versus magnetic local time (MLat-MLT) frame. The obtained results are based on observations collected during the years 2001-2005 by the CHAMP and DMSP (F13 and F15) satellites. The dependence on interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations is also investigated using data from the NASA/GSFC's OMNI database. Further, the obtained results are subdivided into three Lloyd seasons of 130 days each, which are defined as follows: local winter (1 January ± 65 days), combined equinoxes (1 April and 1 October ± 32days), and local summer (1 July ± 65 days). A period of 130 days is needed by the CHAMP satellite to pass through all local times. The time and location of the electron temperature peaks from CHAMP measurements near the cusp region are used as the reference parameter for the SEA method to investigate the relationship between the electron temperature and other ionospheric quantities. The SEA derived MLat profiles of the electron temperature show a seasonal dependence, increasing from winter to summer, as expected. But, the temperature rise (difference between the reference temperature peak and the background electron temperature) strongly decreases towards local summer. The SEA derived MLat profiles of the ion vertical velocity at DMSP altitude show the same seasonal behaviour as the electron temperature rice. There exists a clear linear relation between these two variables with a quiet large correlation coefficient value, >0.9. The SEA derived MLat profiles of both, thermospheric zonal wind velocity and FAC, show a clear IMF By orientation dependence for all local seasons. The zonal wind velocity is prominently directed towards west in the MLat-MLT frame

  13. Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Wind power now represents a major and growing source of renewable energy. Large wind turbines (with capacities of up to 6-8 MW) are widely installed in power distribution networks. Increasing numbers of onshore and offshore wind farms, acting as power plants, are connected directly to power...... transmission networks at the scale of hundreds of megawatts. As its level of grid penetration has begun to increase dramatically, wind power is starting to have a significant impact on the operation of the modern grid system. Advanced power electronics technologies are being introduced to improve...... the characteristics of the wind turbines, and make them more suitable for integration into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are some emerging challenges that still need to be addressed. This paper provides an overview and discusses some trends in the power electronics technologies used for wind power generation...

  14. [Biological soil crust nitrogenase activity and its responses to hydro-thermic factors in different erosion regions on the Loess Plateau, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jiao; Zhao, Yun-Ge; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Yang, Li-Na; Wang, Ai-Guo

    2013-07-01

    Based on field survey, the biological soil crusts at their stable development stage were collected from the water erosion region, water-wind erosion region, and wind erosion region on the Loess Plateau, aimed to study the effects of the variations of moisture and temperature on the crusts nitrogenase activity (NA). The NA of the crusts in the erosion regions decreased in the order of water erosion region (127.7 micromol x m(-2) x h(-1)) > water-wind erosion region (34.6 micromol x m(-2) x h(-1)) > wind erosion region (6.0 micromol x m(-2) x h(-1)), and the optimal temperature for the crust nitrogen fixation was 35 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 15 degrees C, respectively. At the optimal temperature and 100% -40% field water-holding capacity, the NA of the crusts from the water erosion and water-wind erosion regions had no significant difference. The NA of the crusts from the wind erosion region was more sensitive to the variation of moisture, showing a dramatic decline when the moisture decreased to 80% field water-holding capacity, and totally lost when the moisture decreased to 20% field water-holding capacity. The differences in the NA of the crusts from the three erosion regions and the responses of the NA to the variations of moisture and temperature were likely associated with the climate, environment, and the crust species composition.

  15. Measurement of erosion: Is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroosnijder, L.

    2005-01-01

    Reasons for erosion measurements are: (1) to determine the environmental impact of erosion and conservation practices, (2) scientific erosion research; (3) development and evaluation of erosion control technology; (4) development of erosion prediction technology and (5) allocation of conservation

  16. Firehose constraints of the bi-Kappa-distributed electrons: a zero-order approach for the suprathermal electrons in the solar wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lazar, M.; Shaaban, S. M.; Poedts, S.; Štverák, Štěpán

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 464, č. 1 (2017), s. 564-571 ISSN 0035-8711 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : instabilities * plasmas * methods * analytical * methods: observational * solar wind Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016 https://academic.oup.com/mnras/article-abstract/464/1/564/2236068/Firehose-constraints-of-the-bi-Kappa-distributed?redirectedFrom=fulltext

  17. Experiments for understanding soil erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion processes are usually quantified by observation and measurement of their related forms. Rill, and gullies, moulds or sediment sinks are often used to estimate the soil loss. These forms are generally related directly to different types of processes, thus are also used to identify the dominant processes on a certain type of land-use. Nevertheless, the direct observation of erosion processes is constrained by their temporal and spatial erratic occurrence. As a consequence, the process understanding is generally deduced by analogies. Another possibility is to reproduce processes in experiments in both, the lab and in the field. Laboratory experiments are implemented when we want to have full control over all parameters we think are relevant for the process in our focus. So are very useful for identification of parameters influencing processes and their intensities, but also as physical models of the processes and process interactions in our focus. Therefore, we can use them to verify our concepts, and to define relevant parameters. Field experiments generally only simulate with controlled driving forces, this is the rain or the runoff, but dealing with the uncertainty of our study object, the soil. This enables two things: 1) similar as with lab experiments, we are able to identify processes and process interactions and so, to get a deeper understanding of soil erosion; 2) experiments are suitable for providing data about singular processes in the field and thus, to provide data suitable for model parametrisation and calibration. These may be quantitative data about erodibility or soil resistance, sediment detachment or transport. The Physical Geography Group at Trier University has a long lasting experience in the application of experiments in soil erosion research in the field, and has become lead in the further development conception and of devices and procedures to investigate splash detachment and initial transport of soil particles by wind and water

  18. Does Canoeing Increase Streambank Erosion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward A. Hansen

    1975-01-01

    Describes research on the Pine River in Michigan to determine if large increases in canoeing accelerated streambank erosion. Most erosion was natural, but people sliding and camping on streambanks created some erosion. Heavy canoe traffic was not a cause of erosion.

  19. Rainfall erosivity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Klik, Andreas; Rousseva, Svetla; Tadić, Melita Perčec; Michaelides, Silas; Hrabalíková, Michaela; Olsen, Preben; Aalto, Juha; Lakatos, Mónika; Rymszewicz, Anna; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Beguería, Santiago; Alewell, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall is one the main drivers of soil erosion. The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the R-factor in the USLE model and its revised version, RUSLE. At national and continental levels, the scarce availability of data obliges soil erosion modellers to estimate this factor based on rainfall data with only low temporal resolution (daily, monthly, annual averages). The purpose of this study is to assess rainfall erosivity in Europe in the form of the RUSLE R-factor, based on the best available datasets. Data have been collected from 1541 precipitation stations in all European Union (EU) Member States and Switzerland, with temporal resolutions of 5 to 60 min. The R-factor values calculated from precipitation data of different temporal resolutions were normalised to R-factor values with temporal resolutions of 30 min using linear regression functions. Precipitation time series ranged from a minimum of 5 years to a maximum of 40 years. The average time series per precipitation station is around 17.1 years, the most datasets including the first decade of the 21st century. Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) has been used to interpolate the R-factor station values to a European rainfall erosivity map at 1 km resolution. The covariates used for the R-factor interpolation were climatic data (total precipitation, seasonal precipitation, precipitation of driest/wettest months, average temperature), elevation and latitude/longitude. The mean R-factor for the EU plus Switzerland is 722 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1), with the highest values (>1000 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1)) in the Mediterranean and alpine regions and the lowest (<500 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1)) in the Nordic countries. The erosivity density (erosivity normalised to annual precipitation amounts) was also the highest in Mediterranean regions which implies high risk for erosive events and floods

  20. Quantification Of Erosion Rates Of Agriculturally Used Soils By Artificial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinand

    2010-05-01

    0.0.1 1. Introduction to soil erosion measurement by radionuclides Soil erosion by water, wind and tillage affects both agriculture and the natural environment. Studying this phenomenon would be one of the advancements in science. Soil erosion occurs worldwide and since the last two decades it has been a main topic of discussion all over the world. The use of environmental radionuclides such as 90Sr, 137Cs to study medium term soil erosion (40 yrs) started in the early 1990's. Using these new techniques better knowledge about erosion can be gained and this knowledge can be implemented for erosion risk management. The erosion and sedimentation study by using man-made and natural radioisotopes is a key technique, which has developed over the past 30 years. Fallout 137Cs and Cosmogenic 7Be are radionuclides that have been used to provide independent measurements of soil-erosion and sediment-deposition rates and patterns [1] [2] [3] [4]. Erosion measurements using radionuclides 137Cs, 7Be Caesium-137 from atmospheric nuclear-weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s (Fig.1) is a unique tracer of erosion and sedimentation, since there are no natural sources of 137Cs. Unique events such as the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 caused regional dispersal of 137Cs that affects the total global deposition budget. This yearly pattern of fallout can be used to develop a chronology of deposition horizons in lakes, reservoirs, and floodplains. 137Cs can be easily measured by gamma spectroscopy. Using 137Cs is a fast and cheap method to study erosion-deposition processes compared to the traditional methods like silt bags. PIC Figure 1: Global 137Cs fallout (Modified from SAAS Bulletin 353, Part E, DDR, 1986) When 137Cs, 7Be reach the soil surface by wet and dry deposition, they are quickly and strongly adsorbed by ion exchange and are essentially non exchangeable in most environments. Each radionuclide is distributed differently in the soil because of differences in half-lives (30 yrs

  1. Active Anti-erosion Protection Strategy in Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Yin, Wei; Zhang, Junqiu; Niu, Shichao; Ren, Luquan

    2013-12-01

    Plants have numerous active protection strategies for adapting to complex and severe environments. These strategies provide endless inspiration for extending the service life of materials and machines. Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla), a tree that thrives in raging sandstorm regions, has adapted to blustery conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust erosion resistant characteristics. However, the relationships among its surface cracks, internal histology and biomechanics, such as cracks, rings, cells, elasticity modulus and growth stress, which account for its erosion resistance, remain unclear. This present study reveals that the directionally eccentric growth rings of tamarisk, which are attributed to reduced stress and accelerated cell division, promote the formation of surface cracks. The windward rings are more extensive than the leeward side rings. The windward surfaces are more prone to cracks, which improves erosion resistance. Our data provide insight into the active protection strategy of the tamarisk against wind-sand erosion.

  2. Erosive Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauskar, Melissa

    2017-09-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory mucocutaneous condition with a myriad of clinical manifestations. There are 3 forms of lichen planus that effect the vulva: papulosquamous, hypertrophic, and erosive. Erosive lichen planus can progress to vulvar scaring, vaginal stenosis, and squamous cell carcinoma; these long-term sequelae cause sexual distress, depression, and decreased quality of life for patients. Diagnosis is often delayed because of patient embarrassment or clinician misdiagnosis. Early recognition and treatment is essential to decreasing the morbidity of this condition. Multimodal treatment, along with a multidisciplinary approach, will improve outcomes and further clinical advances in studying this condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimates of saltation threshold and erosion rates on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, J. D.; White, B. R.; Greeley, R.; Pollack, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    The Mariner 9 photographs of the Martian surface include many which show crater-associated streaks caused by atmospheric winds. Due to the low density atmosphere of Mars, the wind speeds necessary to move surface particles and thus cause the streaks are apparently very high. The atmospheric-boundary-layer wind tunnel has been used to determine threshold speeds for particles of varying density and diameter and the results for small particles have been extrapolated to estimate somewhat lower threshold speeds on Mars than previous estimates. A series of streak modeling tests is used to derive an erosion-rate correlation function, which is in turn used to estimate erosion rates to the lee of some of the craters on Mars which exhibited time-dependent streak behavior during the mission.

  4. Model for the broadband Crab nebula spectrum with injection of a log-parabola electron distribution at the wind termination shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraschetti, F.; Pohl, M.

    2017-10-01

    We develop a model of the steady-state spectrum of the Crab nebula encompassing both the radio/soft X-ray and the GeV/multi-TeV observations. By solving the transport equation for TeV electrons injected at the wind termination shock as a log-parabola momentum distribution and evolved via energy losses, we determine analytically the resulting photon differential energy spectrum. We find an impressive agreement with the observations in the synchrotron region. The predicted synchrotron self-Compton accommodates the previously unsolved origin of the broad 200 GeV peak that matches the Fermi/LAT data beyond 1 GeV with the MAGIC data. A natural interpretation of the deviation from power-law of the photon spectrum customarily fit with empirical broken power-laws is provided. This model can be applied to the radio-to- multi-TeV spectra of a variety of astrophysical outflows, including pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants. We also show that MeV-range energetic particle distribution at interplanetary shocks typically fit with broken-power laws or Band function can be accurately reproduced by log-parabolas.

  5. Attenuation of wall-thinning rate in deep erosion by liquid droplet impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Nobuyuki; Yamagata, Takayuki; Wada, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Liquid droplet impingement erosion is studied in deep erosion. • Wall-thinning rate is attenuated with increasing erosion depth. • SEM observation shows change of macro structure in deep erosion. • Erosion model with an attenuation factor is proposed. - Abstract: This paper describes an experimental study on the wall-thinning rate in deep erosion by liquid droplet impingement (LDI) in a pipeline for application to nuclear/fossil power plant. The experiment is carried out in a spray jet apparatus, which allows the evaluation of local wall-thinning rate by the LDI erosion. The surface contour of erosion and the wall-thinning rate are measured and the observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) is carried out in this experiment. The experimental result indicates that the wall-thinning rate is highly attenuated and the macro structure on the erosion surface grows with an increase in the erosion depth, which is due to the influence of the liquid film over the erosion surface. The erosion model for predicting the wall-thinning rate in deep erosion is proposed by introducing the attenuation factor with a function of erosion depth. The introduction of attenuation factor with liquid-film effect shows a better correlation with the experimental data, and the accuracy of correlation is improved by a factor of 2.

  6. Bentonite erosion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgersson, Martin; Boergesson, Lennart; Hedstroem, Magnus; Karnland, Ola; Nilsson, Ulf (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    Low saline water may reach KBS-3 repository depth, e.g. during periods of glaciation. Under such aqueous conditions, the montmorillonite part of the bentonite buffer might transform into a sol and thereby be transported away with flowing water in fractures. The primary aim with this report is to improve the understanding of the basic principles for this possible montmorillonite particle release. The report includes experimental and theoretical work performed at Clay Technology. Natural bentonite and ion-exchanged purified montmorillonite from three different geographical origins, Wyoming (U.S.), Milos (Greece) and Kutch (India) have been studied. Experimental and/or theoretical investigations have been performed with respect to: - Free swelling ability; - Rheological properties; - Rate of bentonite loss into fractures; - Filtering; - Ion exchange; - Sol formation ability; - Ion diffusion; - Mass loss due to erosion. The performed erosion experiments show that erosion does not occur in a mixed calcium/sodium montmorillonite with at least 20% calcium in exchange positions, when the external solution contains above 4 mM charge equivalents. This result is in agreement with the presented conceptual view of sol formation and measured equilibrium properties in mixed calcium/sodium montmorillonite. The findings imply that the buffer will be stable for non-glacial conditions. However, erosion due to sol formation cannot be ruled out for glacial conditions.

  7. Dune erosion above revetments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Thiel de Vries, J.S.M.

    2012-01-01

    In a situation with a narrow dune, the dune base can be protected with a revetment to reduce dune erosion during extreme events. To quantify the effects of a revetment on storm impact, the functionality of the numerical storm impact model XBeach (Roelvink et al., 2009) is extended to account for the

  8. Soil erosion in Iran: Issues and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Journal of Geosciences, 7(5), 1941-1950. Khaledi Darvishan, A., Sadeghi, S. H., Homaee, M., Arabkhedri, M. 2013. Measuring sheet erosion using synthetic color-contrast aggregates. Hydrological Processes. Mahmoodabadi, M. Cerdà, A. 2013. WEPP calibration for improved predictions on interril erosion in semi-arid to arid enviorments. Geoderma, 204-205,75-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.04.013, Mehdizade, B., Asadi, H., Shabanpour, M., Ghadiri, H. 2013. Impact of erosion and tillage on the productivity and quality of selected semiarid soils of Iran. International Agrophysics, 27(3), 291-297. Moghadam, B. K., Jabarifar, M., Bagheri, M., Shahbazi, E. 2015. Effects of land use change on soil splash erosion in the semi-arid region of Iran. Geoderma, 241, 210-220. Nosrati, K., Ahmadi, F. 2013. Monitoring of soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks in different land use under surface water erosion in a semi-arid drainage basin of Iran. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 17(2), 225-230. Nourzadeh, M., Bahrami, H. A., Goossens, D., Fryrear, D. W. 2013. Determining soil erosion and threshold friction velocity at different soil moisture conditions using a portable wind tunnel. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 57(1), 97-109. Sadeghi, S. H. R., Seghaleh, M. B., Rangavar, A. S. 2013. Plot sizes dependency of runoff and sediment yield estimates from a small watershed. Catena, 102, 55-61. Sadeghi, S. H. R., Seghaleh, M. B., Rangavar, A. S. 2013. Plot sizes dependency of runoff and sediment yield estimates from a small watershed. Catena, 102, 55-61. Sadeghi, S. H., Najafi, S., Riyahi Bakhtiari, A., Abdi, P. 2014. Ascribing soil erosion types for sediment yield using composite fingerprinting technique. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 59(9), 1753-1762. Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi, R., Minasny, B., Sarmadian, F., Malone, B. P. 2014. Digital mapping of soil salinity in Ardakan region, central Iran. Geoderma, 213, 15-28.

  9. Categorization of erosion control matting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    Erosion control is a critical aspect of any Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) : construction project, with the extreme negative impacts of high sediment loads in natural : waterways having been well documented. A variety of erosion control ...

  10. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Data drawn from a global compilation of studies quantitatively confirm the long-articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields average 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. The general equivalence of the latter indicates that, considered globally, hillslope soil production and erosion evolve to balance geologic and climate forcing, whereas conventional plow-bas...

  11. Continual erosion of bare rocks after the Wenchuan earthquake and control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyin; Shi, Wenjing; Liu, Dandan

    2011-03-01

    The newly bared rocks created by the Wenchuan earthquake are undergoing continual intensive erosion in the form of detachment and movement of individual grains. Grain erosion is defined as the phenomenon of breaking down bare rocks under the action of insolation and temperature change, detachment of grains from the rockwalls by wind, flow down of grains on the slope under the action of gravity, and accumulation of grains at the toe of the mountain, forming a deposit fan. The Wenchuan earthquake, which occurred in Sichuan on May 12, 2008, caused thousands of avalanches and landslides and left scars on slopes and a huge area of bare rocks. Grain erosion causes flying stones, injured humans and resulted in numerous slope debris flows. The process of grain erosion and strategies to limit the erosion were studied by field investigations and field experiments. According to these field investigations and field studies, the most serious grain erosion occurs in spring and early summer when it is very dry. Rocks are broken down to grains under the action of insolation and temperature change. Then, wind blows the grains from the bare rock down slope. Experimental results showed that the amount of grains blown down by wind per area of rock surface per unit time is proportional to the fourth power of the wind speed. However, the size of the grains blown down by wind increases linearly with the wind speed. An experiment proved that grain erosion can be controlled with two moss species. Moss spores were mixed with clay suspension and splashed on bare rocks. The moss species germinated on the rock surface in one month and greened the bare rocks in two months. The moss layer protected the rocks from insolation and mitigated the effects of temperature change, thus effectively mitigated grain erosion.

  12. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented

  13. Microbiology of Wind-eroded Sediments: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a threat to the sustainability and productivity of soils that takes place at local, regional, and global scales. Current estimates of cost of wind erosion have not included the costs associated with the loss of soil biodiversity and reduced ecosystem functions. Microorganisms carrie...

  14. Wind Program Newsletter, May 2016 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program Newsletter provides wind industry stakeholders and the public with information about the Wind Program R&D efforts funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office. The newsletter comes out twice a year and is sent electronically to subscribers and distributed in hard copy to conference attendees.

  15. Effect of Short-Circuit Faults in the Back-to-Back Power Electronic Converter and Rotor Terminals on the Operational Behavior of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios G. Giaourakis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the operational behavior of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion System under power electronic converter and rotor terminals faulty conditions. More specifically, the effect of the short-circuit fault both in one IGBT of the back-to-back power electronic converter and in rotor phases on the overall system behavior has been investigated via simulation using a system of 2 MW. Finally, the consequences of these faults have been evaluated.

  16. Synergism in materials erosion due to multispecies impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.; Haasz, A.A.; Stangeby, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    Microelectronic fabrication often involves the use of relatively low-pressure/low-temperature plasma discharges for etching micron-size features in integrated circuits: here erosion is a desired effect. Fusion plasmas, by contrast, cause erosion of the fusion device inner walls, which is generally not desirable. In both cases surfaces are bombarded simultaneously by plasma species which include ions, neutral atoms, electrons and photons, which might lead to enhanced erosion due to synergistic effects. Work performed to date suggests that similar chemistry may be involved in the erosion process associated with some semiconductor and fusion related materials: SiF 4 , SiCl 4 and CH 4 , are, for example,some of the principal species evolving from Si and C surfaces, when exposed to F, Cl and H atoms respectively, causing the observed erosion. Considerable effort has been expended on studies involving synergistic effects for semiconductor fabrication. Research on synergism related to the erosion of fusion materials (C and carbon compounds) commenced comparatively recently; however, its importance has been increasingly recognized and evidence of possible synergistic erosion of graphite has recently been obtained in the PLT fusion device. Experimental and theoretical work on synergistic effects in erosion of both semiconductors and fusion materials will be critically reviewed. (author)

  17. Erosion performance studies on sansevieria cylindrica reinforced vinylester composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Deepak Joel; Arumugaprabu, V.; Uthayakumar, M.; Vigneshwaran, S.; Manikandan, V.; Bennet, C.

    2018-03-01

    The intent of the research is to study the erosion behaviour of NaOH treated and untreated sansevieria cylindrica reinforced vinyl ester composites (SCVEC). The SCVEC was fabricated by varying fiber length as 30 mm and 40 mm and the fiber concentration as 30 wt%, 40 wt% and 50 wt% respectively for both NaOH treated and untreated sansevieria cylindrica fibres. The fabricated SCVEC was subjected to erosion studies using abrasive air jet erosion test rig. Full factorial design of experiment for conducting the erosion studies was made using Taguchi technique. The erosion test process variables like impingement angle 30°, 60° and 90°, impact velocity 28, 41 and 72 m s‑1, erodent feed rate or discharge 2.5, 3.3 and 4 g min‑1 and exposure time 5, 10 and 15 min were used to study the erosion rate of the SCVEC specimen. From the Taguchi analysis the optimized erosion process parameter and fabrication process parameters were found to be as fiber length 30 mm, NaOH treated fiber, fiber content 40 wt.%, impingement angle 90°, impact velocity 41 m s‑1, erodent discharge 4 g min‑1 and exposure time 15 min. Further, the erosion mechanism on the surface of the eroded SCVEC specimen was studied using Scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  18. Seismicity, seismology and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovius, Niels; Meunier, Patrick; Burtin, Arnaud; Marc, Odin

    2013-04-01

    At the interface of geomorphology and seismology, patterns of erosion can be used to constrain seismic processes, and seismological instruments to determine geomorphic activity. For example, earthquakes trigger mass wasting in proportion to peak ground velocity or acceleration, modulated by local geologic and topographic conditions. This geomorphic response determines the mass balance and net topographic effect of earthquakes. It can also be used to obtain information about the distribution of seismic slip where instrumental observations are not available. Equally, seismometers can register the signals of geomorphic processes, revealing their location, type and magnitude. The high temporal resolution of such records can help determine the exact meteorological conditions that gave rise to erosion events, and the interactions between individual surface processes during such events. We will illustrate this synergy of disciplines with examples from active mountain belts around the world, including Taiwan, Japan, Papua New Guinea and the Alps.

  19. The Erosion of Frozen Argon by Swift Helium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Bøttiger, Jørgen; Graversen, O.

    1981-01-01

    The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore unequivo......The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore...... unequivocally associated with electronic processes generated by the bombarding particle. In the present energy region, it is found that Y scales approximately as the electronic stopping power squared, depends on the charge state of the incoming helium ions, and perhaps more important, is independent...

  20. Rainfall erosivity map for Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oduro Afriyie, K.

    1995-10-01

    Monthly rainfall data, spanning over a period of more than thirty years, were used to compute rainfall erosivity indices for various stations in Ghana, using the Fournier index, c, defined as p 2 /P, where p is the rainfall amount in the wettest month and P is the annual rainfall amount. Values of the rainfall erosivity indices ranged from 24.5 mm at Sunyani in the mid-portion of Ghana to 180.9 mm at Axim in the south western coastal portion. The indices were used to construct a rainfall erosivity map for the country. The map revealed that Ghana may be broadly divided into five major erosion risk zones. The middle sector of Ghana is generally in the low erosion risk zone; the northern sector is in the moderate to severe erosion risk zone, while the coastal sector is in the severe to extreme severe erosion risk zone. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Actinides, accelerators and erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifield L.K.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fallout isotopes can be used as artificial tracers of soil erosion and sediment accumulation. The most commonly used isotope to date has been 137Cs. Concentrations of 137Cs are, however, significantly lower in the Southern Hemisphere, and furthermore have now declined to 35% of original values due to radioactive decay. As a consequence the future utility of 137Cs is limited in Australia, with many erosion applications becoming untenable within the next 20 years, and there is a need to replace it with another tracer. Plutonium could fill this role, and has the advantages that there were six times as many atoms of Pu as of 137Cs in fallout, and any loss to decay has been negligible due to the long half-lives of the plutonium isotopes. Uranium-236 is another long-lived fallout isotope with significant potential for exploitation as a tracer of soil and sediment movement. Uranium is expected to be more mobile in soils than plutonium (or caesium, and hence the 236U/Pu ratio will vary with soil depth, and so could provide an independent measure of the amount of soil loss. In this paper we discuss accelerator based ultra-sensitive measurements of plutonium and 236U isotopes and their advantages over 137Cs as tracers of soil erosion and sediment movement.

  2. New perspectives on the soil erosion-soil quality relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The redistribution of soil has a profound impact on its quality (defined as its ability to function within its ecosystem and within adjacent ecosystems) and ultimately on its productivity for crop growth. The application of 137 Cs-redistribution techniques to the study of erosion has yielded major new insights into the soil erosion-soil quality relationship. In highly mechanized agricultural systems, tillage erosion can be the dominant cause of soil redistribution; in other agroecosystems, wind and water erosion dominate. Each causal factor results in characteristic landscape-scale patterns of redistribution. In landscapes dominated by tillage redistribution, highest losses occur in shoulder positions (those with convex downslope curvatures); in water-erosion-dominated landscapes, highest losses occur where slope gradient and length are at a maximum. Major impacts occur through the loss of organically-enriched surface material and through the incorporation of possibly yield-limiting subsoils into the rooting zone of the soil column. The potential impact of surface soil losses and concomitant subsoil incorporation on productivity may be assessed by examining the pedological nature of the affected soils and their position in the landscape. The development of sound conservation policies requires that the soil erosion-quality relationship be rigorously examined in the full range of pedogenic environments, and future applications of the 137 Cs technique hold considerable promise for providing this comprehensive global database. (author)

  3. Effect of crystallographic orientation on erosion characteristics of arc evaporation titanium nitride coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue, J.A.; Troue, H.H.

    1987-01-01

    Recent development of TiN coatings specifically for erosion protection has focused on better process control as well as crystallographic orientation. The erosion behavior of TiN coatings, which were produced by the arc evaporation process, was evaluated using 27 μm angular alumina particles at a velocity of 91 ms -1 . The eroded surfaces were examined in a scanning electron microscope, and erosion mechanisms in response to the oblique and normal impacts were characterized. The erosion characteristics of various TiN coatings are presented. The variation of surface morphology, microstructure, hardness and erosion characteristics of the coating with crystallographic orientation is also discussed. (orig.)

  4. A qualitative and quantitative investigation into the effect of fluoride formulations on enamel erosion and erosion-abrasion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, R S; Stenhagen, K S; Hove, L H; Dunne, S; Moazzez, R; Bartlett, D W; Tveit, A B

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the effect of a single application of highly concentrated SnF(2) and NaF solutions and a NaF/CaF(2) varnish on human enamel subjected to hydrochloric acid erosion and tooth brush abrasion. Forty enamel samples were prepared from human third molars and NaF (9500ppm, pH 8.0), SnF(2) (9500ppm, pH 2.6) solutions; Bifluorid10(®) varnish (42,500ppm, NaF 5%, CaF(2) 5%) and deionized water (control) was applied to the enamel. Following this three, six and nine cycles of erosion [1 cycle=erosion (0.01M HCl, pH 2.2, 2min)+artificial saliva (1h, pH 7.0)] and erosion-abrasion [1 cycle=erosion (0.01M HCl, pH 2.2, 2min)+artificial saliva (1h, pH 7.0)+abrasion (120 linear strokes in artificial saliva from Tepe medium soft brushes 200g loading)] were carried out. The fluoride treated enamel was analysed using Knoop microhardness, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). For erosion alone, there was significantly less microhardness reduction in the Bifluorid10(®) group after three and six cycles of erosion (P0.05). The EDS analysis showed that only the Bifluorid10(®) group had any detectable fluorine following erosion and erosion-abrasion (0.1wt.% and 0.2wt.% fluorine respectively). The surface fluorine was found to have been removed after erosion and erosion-abrasion for all other surface treatments. Although precipitates were observed after application of the surface treatments, following erosion-abrasion, no visible surface effects from any fluoride preparation remained. Enamel surface precipitates from application NaF, SnF(2) solutions appear to not be able to provide protection against gastric erosion and tooth brush abrasion. The NaF/CaF(2) varnish provided limited protection against erosion but the role for such varnishes in gastric erosion and tooth brush abrasion remains uncertain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring soil erosion features using a time series of airborne remote sensing data: a case study Wild Coast, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Singh, RG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available @geoscience.org.za 2. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa 3. Stellenbosch University, South Africa KEYWORDS: Soil erosion, land degradation, airborne remote sensing ABSTRACT Soil erosion is a major geohazard that may pose both... bidirectional wind direction distribution for July, February and all year round. Analysis and interpretation of the time series of aerial photographs (Figure 5) further revealed an overall increase in erosion activity including several generations of gully...

  6. Simulation of plasma erosion opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.J.; Jones, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Recent progress in the modeling of Plasma Erosion Opening Switches is reviewed, and new results from both fluid and particle simulation compared. Three-fluid simulations with the ANTHEM code for switches on the NRL GAMBLE I machine and SNL PBFA II machine have shown strong dependence of the opening dynamics on the anode structure, the threshold for electron emission, on the possible presence of anomalous resistivity, and on advection of the magnetic field with cathode emitted electrons. Simulations with the implicit particle-in-cell code ISIS confirm these observations, but manifest broader current channels---in better agreement with GAMBLE I experimental results. 7 refs., 3 figs

  7. Structures in deposits from beach recovery, after erosion by swell waves around the southwestern coast of Aruba (Netherlands Antilles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohsiek, L.H.M.; Terwindt, J.H.J.; Hulsbergen, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    Hurricane- or storm-generated swell waves may cause erosion and deposition along coasts which are situated thousands of kilometers outside the generating wind field. Marked beach erosion, caused by such swell waves, was observed along the micro-tidal west coast of Aruba. During the process of

  8. Erosion of mountain hiking trail over a seven-year period in Daisetsuzan National Park, central Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akemi Yoda; Teiji Watanabe

    2000-01-01

    Erosion of mountain hiking trails was investigated in Daisetsuzan National Park over a seven-year period. The amount and rate of erosion were different in the two typical landscape components. Cross-section diagrams revealed that trail depth became deeper in snowy vegetated areas than in wind-beaten bare ground areas. The existence and timing of runoff from snowmelt...

  9. Wind energy handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, Tony; Sharpe, David; Bossanyi, Ervin

    2011-01-01

    Named as one of Choice's Outstanding Academic Titles of 2012Every year, Choice subject editors recognise the most significant print and electronic works reviewed in Choice during the previous calendar year. Appearing annually inChoice's January issue, this prestigious list of publications reflects the best in scholarly titles and attracts extraordinary attention from the academic library community. The authoritative reference on wind energy, now fully revised and updated to include offshore wind power<

  10. A Study of Cavitation Erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromu Isaka; Masatsugu Tsutsumi; Tadashi Shiraishi; Hiroyuki Kobayashi

    2002-01-01

    The authors performed experimental study for the purpose of the following two items from a viewpoint of cavitation erosion of a cylindrical orifice in view of a problem at the letdown orifice in PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor). 1. To get the critical cavitation parameter of the cylindrical orifice to establish the design criteria for prevention of cavitation erosion, and 2. to ascertain the erosion rate in such an eventuality that the cavitation erosion occurs with the orifice made of stainless steel with precipitation hardening (17-4-Cu hardening type stainless steel), so that we confirm the appropriateness of the design criteria. Regarding the 1. item, we carried out the cavitation tests to get the critical cavitation parameters inside and downstream of the orifice. The test results showed that the cavitation parameter at inception is independent of the length or the diameter of the orifice. Moreover, the design criteria of cavitation erosion of cylindrical orifices have been established. Regarding the 2. item, we tested the erosion rate under high-pressure conditions. The cavitation erosion actually occurred in the cylindrical orifice at the tests that was strongly resemble to the erosion occurred at the plant. It will be seldom to reproduce resemble cavitation erosion in a cylindrical orifice with the hard material used at plants. We could establish the criteria for preventing the cavitation erosion from the test results. (authors)

  11. Estimation model of soil freeze-thaw erosion in Silingco watershed wetland of Northern Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Bo; Yu, Huan

    2013-01-01

    The freeze-thaw (FT) erosion is a type of soil erosion like water erosion and wind erosion. Limited by many factors, the grading evaluation of soil FT erosion quantities is not well studied. Based on the comprehensive analysis of the evaluation indices of soil FT erosion, we for the first time utilized the sensitivity of microwave remote sensing technology to soil moisture for identification of FT state. We established an estimation model suitable to evaluate the soil FT erosion quantity in Silingco watershed wetland of Northern Tibet using weighted summation method of six impact factors including the annual FT cycle days, average diurnal FT phase-changed water content, average annual precipitation, slope, aspect, and vegetation coverage. Finally, with the support of GIS, we classified soil FT erosion quantity in Silingco watershed wetland. The results showed that soil FT erosion are distributed in broad areas of Silingco watershed wetland. Different soil FT erosions with different intensities have evidently different spatial and geographical distributions.

  12. The influence of material hardness on liquid droplet impingement erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Nobuyuki; Yamagata, Takayuki; Takano, Shotaro; Saito, Kengo; Morita, Ryo; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Inada, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Liquid droplet impingement erosion is studied for various metal materials. • Average power dependency on droplet velocity is found as 7. • Power dependency on Vickers hardness is found as −4.5. • An empirical formula is constructed for erosion rates of metal materials. • Predicted erosion rate is well correlated with experiment within a factor of 1.5. - Abstract: This paper describes the experimental study on the liquid droplet impingement erosion of metal materials to understand the influence of material hardness on the erosion rate. The experiment is carried out using a water spray jet apparatus with a condition of relatively thin liquid film thickness. The metal materials tested are pure aluminum, aluminum alloy, brass, mild steel, carbon steel and stainless steel. The liquid droplets considered are 30 ± 5 μm in volume average diameter of water, which is the same order of droplet diameter in the actual pipeline in nuclear/fossil power plants. In order to understand the influence of material hardness on the liquid droplet impingement erosion, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation on the eroded surface and the measurement of erosion rate are carried out in the terminal stage of erosion. The experimental results indicate that the erosion rates are expressed by the droplet velocity, volume flux, Vickers hardness and the liquid film thickness, which are fundamentals of the liquid droplet impingement erosion. The empirical formula shows that the power index for droplet velocity dependency is found to be 7 with a scattering from 5 to 9 depending on the materials, while the power index for Vickers hardness dependency is found as −4.5

  13. A terminological matter: paragenesis, antigravitative erosion or antigravitational erosion ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasini G.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the speleological literature three terms are utilized to designate the “ascending erosion”: paragenesis (= paragénésis, coined in1968, antigravitative erosion (= erosione antigravitativa, coined in 1966 and antigravitational erosion (wrong English translation ofthe Italian term erosione antigravitativa, utilized later on. The term paragenesis should be abandoned because of the priority of theterm erosione antigravitativa - on the ground of the “law of priority” – and because of its ambiguous etimology. On the other hand,the term antigravitational erosion should be forsaken in favour of the term antigravitative erosion, given the meaning that the termsgravitation and gravity have in Physics. Therefore, to designate the phenomenon of the “ascending erosion” there would be nothingleft but the term antigravitative erosion.The antigravitative erosion process and its recognizability are illustrated.Examples of caves with evident antigravitative erosion phenomena, developed in different karstifiable rocks and in several partsof the world, are given.It is recalled that the antigravitative erosion is a phenomenon well-known since 1942 and widely proven and supported, and that it isrelatively easy – in many cases - to recognize the antigravitative origin of karstic passages.It is stressed that the antigravitative erosion is an important phenomenon, exclusive of the karstic caves and unique in nature.

  14. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...... of windhe interaction between wind and structures, where it is shown that wind loading depends strongly on this interaction...

  15. Erosion Testing of Coatings for V-22 Aircraft Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Y. Richardson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available High-velocity (183 m/sec sand erosion tests in a wind tunnel were conducted to evaluate developmental coatings from three separate companies under funding by the Navy's phase I small business innovative research program. The purpose of the coatings was to address a particular problem the V-22 tilt-rotor aircraft (Osprey was having with regard to ingestion of sand particles by a titanium impeller that was associated with the aircraft's environmental control system. The three coatings that were deposited on titanium substrates and erosion-tested included (1 SixCy/DLC multilayers deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD; (2 WC/TaC/TiC processed by electrospark deposition; and (3 polymer ceramic mixtures applied by means of an aqueous synthesis. The erosion test results are presented; they provided the basis for assessing the suitability of some of these coatings for the intended application.

  16. Materials erosion and redeposition studies at the PISCES-facility: net erosion under redeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirooka, Y.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Leung, W.K.; Campbell, G.A.

    1986-05-01

    Simultaneous erosion and redeposition of copper and 304 stainless steel under controlled and continuous plasma (D,He,Ar) bombardment has been investigated in the PISCES-facility, which generates typical edge-plasma conditions of magnetic fusion devices. The plasma bombardment conditions are: incident ion flux in the range from 10 17 to 10 18 ions/sec/cm 2 , ion bombarding energy of 100 eV, electron temperature in the range from 5 to 15 eV, plasma density in the range from 10 11 to 10 13 cm -3 , target temperature in the range from 300 to 900K, and the total ion fluence in the range from 10 20 to 10 22 ions/cm 2 . The net erosion yield under redeposition is found to be significantly smaller than the classical sputtering yield data. A first-order modeling is attempted to interpret the erosion and redeposition behavior of materials under plasma bombardment. It is pointed out both theoretically and experimentally that the mean free path for electron impact ionization of the sputtered material is the key parameter to control the overall mechanism of erosion and redeposition. Strongly modified surface morphologies of bombarded targets are observed and indicate a retrapping effect

  17. Shoulder erosions in renal osteodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonavita, J.A.; Dalinka, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    The radiographic manifestations of renal osteodystrophy may be articular as well as osseous. The latter are well recognized, i.e. subperiosteal and subchondral bony resorption. Recently attention has been directed to the occurrence of an erosive arthritis of the hands and wrists in hyperparathyroidism. The authors present six patients with humeral head erosions, all of whom were on chronic long-term hemodialysis. These intra-articular erosions occurred at the 'bare' area of the humeral head and thus represent an erosive arthritis and therefore can be distinguished from the usual sites of subchondral and subperiosteal bony resorption seen in hyperparathyroidism. (orig.) [de

  18. Multiperspective analysis of erosion tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparovek Gerd

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Erosion tolerance is the most multidisciplinary field of soil erosion research. Scientists have shown lack in ability to adequately analyze the huge list of variables that influence soil loss tolerance definitions. For these the perspectives of erosion made by farmers, environmentalists, society and politicians have to be considered simultaneously. Partial and biased definitions of erosion tolerance may explain not only the polemic nature of the currently suggested values but also, in part, the nonadoption of the desired levels of erosion control. To move towards a solution, considerable changes would have to occur on how this topic is investigated, especially among scientists, who would have to change methods and strategies and extend the perspective of research out of the boundaries of the physical processes and the frontiers of the academy. A more effective integration and communication with the society and farmers, to learn about their perspective of erosion and a multidisciplinary approach, integrating soil, social, economic and environmental sciences are essential for improved erosion tolerance definitions. In the opinion of the authors, soil erosion research is not moving in this direction and a better understanding of erosion tolerance is not to be expected in the near future.

  19. A review of the erosion of thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellman, R G; Nicholls, J R

    2007-01-01

    The application of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) to components with internal cooling in the hot gas stream of gas turbine engines has facilitated a steep increase in the turbine entry temperature and the associated increase in performance and efficiency of gas turbine engines. However, TBCs are susceptible to various life limiting issues associated with their operating environment including erosion, corrosion, oxidation, sintering and foreign object damage (FOD). This is a review paper that examines various degradation and erosion mechanisms of TBCs, especially those produced by electron beam physical vapour deposition (EB-PVD). The results from a number of laboratory tests under various impact conditions are discussed before the different erosion and FOD mechanisms are reviewed. The transitions between the various erosion mechanisms are discussed in terms of the D/d ratio (contact area diameter/column diameter), a relatively new concept that relates the impact size to the erosion mechanism. The effects of ageing, dopant additions and calcium-magnesium-alumina-silicates on the life of TBCs are examined. It is shown that while ageing increases the erosion rate of EB-PVD TBCs, ageing of plasma sprayed TBCs in fact lowers the erosion rate. Finally modelling of EB-PVD TBCs is briefly introduced. (topical review)

  20. Plasma erosion switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Goldstein, S.A.; Miller, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    The plasma erosion switch is a device capable of initially carrying high currents, and then of opening in nanoseconds to stand off high voltages. It depends upon the erosion of a plasma which initially fills the switch. The sheath between the plasma and the cathode behaves as a diode with a rapidly increasing A-K gap. Preliminary tests of the switch on the Proto I accelerator at Sandia will be described. In these tests, the switch consisted of a cylinder of highly ionized plasma four inches in diameter and one-inch thick surrounding a one-inch cathode. The switch shorted out prepulse voltages and allowed energy to be stored in the diode inductance outside the switch until the accelerator current reached 75 kA. The switch impedance then rose rapidly to approximately 100 ω in 5 nanoseconds, whereupon the accelerator current transferred to the cathode. Current rise rates of 3.10 13 A/sec were limited by cathode turn-on. Voltage rise rates of 10 15 V/sec were achieved. The elimination of prepulse and machine turn-on transients allowed A-K gaps of 2 mm to be used with 2.5 MV pulses, yielding average E fields of 12 MV/cm. Staged versions of the device are being built and should improve rise rates. The switch shows promise for use with future, higher power, lower inductance machines

  1. Erosion in extruder flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Miron; Fodor, Petru S.

    A detailed analysis of the fluid flow in Tadmor's unwound channel model of the single screw extruder is performed by combining numerical and analytical methods. Using the analytical solution for the longitudinal velocity field (in the limit of zero Reynolds number) allows us to devote all the computational resources solely for a detailed numerical solution of the transversal velocity field. This high resolution 3D model of the fluid flow in a single-screw extruder allows us to identify the position and extent of Moffatt eddies that impede mixing. We further consider the erosion of particles (e.g. carbon-black agglomerates) advected by the polymeric flow. We assume a particle to be made of primary fragments bound together. In the erosion process a primary fragment breaks out of a given particle. Particles are advected by the laminar flow and they disperse because of the shear stresses imparted by the fluid. The time evolution of the numbers of particles of different sizes is described by the Bateman coupled differential equations used to model radioactivity. Using the particle size distribution we compute an entropic fragmentation index which varies from 0 for a monodisperse system to 1 for an extreme poly-disperse system.

  2. Erosion mechanism and erosion products in carbon-based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, N.; Bakhtin, V.; Barsuk, V.; Kurkin, S.; Mironova, E.; Piazza, G.; Safronov, V. E-mail: vsafr@rico.ttk.ru; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Toporkov, D.; Vasenin, S.; Wuerz, H.; Zhitlukhin, A

    2002-12-01

    Plasma/material interaction was studied in disruption simulation experiments at the plasma gun facility MK-200. Graphite and carbon-fibre composites were exposed to pulsed energetic plasma under heat loads typically expected for disruptions in future tokamaks. Erosion rates, erosion mechanisms and the properties of the eroded carbon have been studied.

  3. Erosión en la bahía de Samborombón y cambios en la dirección de los vientos, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Erosion at the Samborombón Bay and changes in wind direction, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge O Codignotto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El corrimiento del anticiclón semipermanente del Atlántico Sur hacia el S y una intensificación de los vientos del E en el río de la Plata ha sido documentada por diversos autores. Como consecuencia de esta variabilidad climática se ha detectado un leve incremento en las alturas de las olas desde 1970 al presente en el río de la Plata y océano adyacente. El incremento más notable se observó entre las décadas del 80’ y 90’ coincidentemente con el incremento de erosión en la bahía Samborombón. La altura de ola media anual se investigó mediante simulaciones numéricas. Las mayores diferencias en alturas (0.20 m, 9% se observaron en 34° S - 48° O, aproximadamente. En la plataforma continental y en el río de la Plata el incremento fue algo menor (7%. Las medias anuales de las alturas de ola simuladas mostraron tendencias positivas significativas en Mar del Plata, la boca del río de la Plata y la costa Uruguaya. La densidad de energía de olas (media anual, espacialmente promediada también presentó una tendencia positiva significativa y una relativamente alta variabilidad interanual. Los análisis se concluye que en general la línea de costa en la bahía Samborombón ha retrocedido unos 50 m en los últimos 49 años.A slight southward shift of the South Atlantic semi-permanent high pressure system and an intensification of the eastern wind at the río de la Plata have been documented by several authors. A mild wind wave height increase has been detected at the Río de la Plata and the adjacent continental shelf, from 1970 to the present, as a consequence of the aforementioned climate variability. The most noticeable increase was observed between the 80’and 90’decades, in good agreement with a general increment of erosion at Samborombón Bay and neighboring areas. The annual mean wave height was investigated using numerical simulations. The highest differences in wind wave heights (0.20 m, 9% were observed at 34° S - 48

  4. Do erosion control and snakes mesh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Barton; Karen Kinkead

    2005-01-01

    In the battle to curb soil erosion and sedimentation, numberous techniques and products for controlling erosion and sedimentation have been developed and are being implemented. Rolled erosion control products, such as a temporary erosion control blankets and permanent turf reinforcement mats, represent one type of erosion control product that has been used extensively...

  5. Rill erosion rates in burned forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Peter R. Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Wildfires often produce large increases in runoff and erosion rates (e.g., Moody and Martin, 2009), and land managers need to predict the frequency and magnitude of postfire erosion to determine the needs for hazard response and possible erosion mitigation to reduce the impacts of increased erosion on public safety and valued resources. The Water Erosion...

  6. Rainfall erosivity: An historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainfall erosivity is the capability of rainfall to cause soil loss from hillslopes by water. Modern definitions of rainfall erosivity began with the development of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), where rainfall characteristics were statistically related to soil loss from thousands of plot...

  7. Rainfall Erosivity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    on the best available datasets. Data have been collected from 1541 precipitation stations in all European Union (EU) Member States and Switzerland, with temporal resolutions of 5 to 60 min. The R-factor values calculated from precipitation data of different temporal resolutions were normalised to R......-factor values with temporal resolutions of 30 min using linear regression functions. Precipitation time series ranged from a minimum of 5 years to a maximum of 40 years. The average time series per precipitation station is around 17.1 years, the most datasets including the first decade of the 21st century....... Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) has been used to interpolate the R-factor station values to a European rainfall erosivity map at 1 km resolution. The covariates used for the R-factor interpolation were climatic data (total precipitation, seasonal precipitation, precipitation of driest/wettest months...

  8. Control of eolic erosion in a coal Port, by means of re-vegetation of arid areas and operational procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Pilar

    1992-01-01

    To the phenomenon of haulage of floor particles for the wind is known as erosion by deflation, and one in the ways of eolic erosion existent, although many authors constitutes they refer to her as eolic erosion. The eolic erosion includes the movement processes, transport, separation and deposition, it can present in any area that presents the following conditions: 1) Soil dry and loose until certain finely divided degree, 2) flat surface with little or any vegetable cover, 3) quite extensive land 4) sufficiently strong wind to transport the earth particles. It is considered that to begin the movement of particles 0.1 mm of diameter winds they are needed to 30 cm of height of 4,4m/s (FAO, 1961). All these conditions are presented in Port Bolivar in more or smaller measure. In port Bolivar two main groups of areas have been identified in process of material movement

  9. Using REE tracers to measure sheet erosion changing to rill erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Puling; Xue Yazhou; Song Wei; Wang Mingyi; Ju Tongjun

    2004-01-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE) tracer method was used to study sheet erosion changing to rill erosion on slope land. By placing different rare earth elements of different soil depth across a slope in an indoor plot, two simulated rainfalls were applied to study the change of erosion type and the rill erosion process. The results indicate that the main erosion type is sheet erosion at the beginning of the rainfalls, and serious erosion happens after rill erosion appears. Accumulated sheet and rill erosion amounts increase with the rainfalls time. The percentage of sheet erosion amount decreases and rill erosion percentage increases with time. At the end of the rainfalls, the total rill erosion amounts are 4-5 times more than sheet erosion. In this paper, a new REE tracer method was used to quantitatively distinguish sheet and rill erosion amounts. The new REE tracer method should be useful to future studying of erosion processes on slope lands. (authors)

  10. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  11. Comparison of methods for calculating water erosion

    OpenAIRE

    SVOBODOVÁ, Pavlína

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor thesis presents a comparison of methods for calculating water erosion. The aim is to summarize available evidence concerning the problems of water erosion. There are presented some methods how to calculate average annual erosion of soils, and selected models for calculating the erosion immediately. There are also listed possible erosion control measures through which we can at least slow the effects of erosion, rather than stop completely.

  12. Generators of Modern Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, various types of wind generator configurations, including power electronic grid interfaces, drive trains, are described The performance in power systems is briefed. Then the optimization of generator system is presented. Some investigation results are presented and discussed....

  13. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  14. Gastric Mucosal Erosions - Radiologic evaluation -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup

    1985-01-01

    70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions were diagnosed by double contrast upper gastrointestinal examinations and endoscopic findings. Analyzing the radiologic findings of these 70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions, the following results were obtained. 1. Among the total 70 cases, 65 cases were typical varioliform erosions showing central depressions and surrounding mucosal elevations. Remaining 5 cases were erosions of acute phase having multiple irregular depressions without surrounding elevations. 2. The gastric antrum was involved alone or in part in all cases. Duodenal bulb was involved with gastric antrum in 4 cases. 3. The majority of the cases had multiple erosions. There were only 2 cases of single erosion. 4. In 65 cases of varioliform erosions; 1) The diameter of the surrounding elevations varied from 3 to 20 mm with the majority (47 cases) between 6 and 10 mm. 2) In general, the surrounding elevations with sharp margin on double contrast films were also clearly demonstrated on compression films but those with faint margin were not. 3) The size of the central barium collections varied from pinpoint to 10 mm with the majority under 5 mm. The shape of the central barium collections in majority of the cases were round with a few cases of linear, triangular or star-shape. 5. In 5 cases of acute phase erosions; 1) All the 5 cases were females. 2) On double contrast radiography, all the cases showed multiple irregular depressed lesions without surrounding elevations. 3) 1 case had the history of hematemesis. 4) In 1 case, there was marked radiological improvement on follow-up study of 2 months interval. 6. In 23 cases, there were coexistent diseases with gastric mucosal erosions. These were 13 cases of duodenal bulb ulcers,7 cases of benign gastric ulcers and 3 others

  15. Water droplet erosion of stainless steel steam turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirols, H. S.; Kevorkov, D.; Uihlein, A.; Medraj, M.

    2017-08-01

    Steam turbine blades are highly subjected to water droplet erosion (WDE) caused by high energy impingement of liquid water droplets. However, most of the published research on this wear phenomenon is performed on laboratory test rigs, instead of addressing WDE of actual steam turbine blades. In this work, the progression of erosion on the surface of ex-service low pressure steam turbine blades was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The erosion appearance and mechanisms are compared with laboratory test rig results that are carried out using a rotating disk rig according to ASTM G73 standard. Initial and advanced erosion stages could be observed on the steam turbine blades. Similar to the WDE rig coupons, initial pits and cracks were preceded by blade surface roughening through the formation of asperities and depressions. In addition, it was also observed that the twist angle of the turbine blade around its diagonal, is an important parameter that influences its WDE. Twist angle has an effect on: impact angle, erosion appearance, impact speed, and the affected area. Furthermore, according to the current experimental results, multi-ray rig erosion test results are considered the closest simulation to the actual ex-service blade in terms of damage appearance.

  16. Effect of erodent particles on the erosion of metal specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razzaque, M. Mahbubur, E-mail: mmrazzaque@me.buet.ac.bd; Alam, M. Khorshed; Khan, M. Ishak, E-mail: ishak.buet@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    This paper presents the experimental results of the measurement of erosion rate of carbon steel specimens in sand water slurry system in a slurry pot tester. Sylhet sand has been sieved to get three sizes of erodent particles; namely, less than 250 micron, 250 to 590 micron and 590 to 1190 micron. Experiments are done with three sand concentrations (10%, 15% and 20%). The rate of erosion of the carbon steel specimens is measured as the loss of weight per unit surface area per unit time under the dynamic action of solid particles. The eroded surfaces of the specimens are examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to visualize the impact of the slurry of various conditions. It is seen that irrespective of the particle size the rate of erosion increases with the increase of slurry concentration. This increment of erosion rate at high concentration is high for large particles. High erosion rate is observed in case of large sand particles. In case of small and fine particles erosion rate is small because of low impact energy as well as the wastage of energy to overcome the hindrance of the finer particles before striking on the specimen surface.

  17. Effect of erodent particles on the erosion of metal specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, M. Mahbubur; Alam, M. Khorshed; Khan, M. Ishak

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of the measurement of erosion rate of carbon steel specimens in sand water slurry system in a slurry pot tester. Sylhet sand has been sieved to get three sizes of erodent particles; namely, less than 250 micron, 250 to 590 micron and 590 to 1190 micron. Experiments are done with three sand concentrations (10%, 15% and 20%). The rate of erosion of the carbon steel specimens is measured as the loss of weight per unit surface area per unit time under the dynamic action of solid particles. The eroded surfaces of the specimens are examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to visualize the impact of the slurry of various conditions. It is seen that irrespective of the particle size the rate of erosion increases with the increase of slurry concentration. This increment of erosion rate at high concentration is high for large particles. High erosion rate is observed in case of large sand particles. In case of small and fine particles erosion rate is small because of low impact energy as well as the wastage of energy to overcome the hindrance of the finer particles before striking on the specimen surface.

  18. Vegetation morphologic and aerodynamic characteristics reduce aeolian erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Abbas; Dragovich, Deirdre; Dong, Zhibao

    2017-10-09

    Vegetation cover is crucial to controlling aeolian erosion but highly efficient vegetation is critical. How this efficiency is influenced by vegetation response to airflow is not clear. Here we evaluate the responses of Cosmos bipinnatus and Ligustrum lucidum Ait to a range of wind speeds in a wind tunnel. For both species, we calculate shelter effect and sand flux. We show that plant effectiveness in reducing wind speed and sediment transport is linked to their aerodynamic response to airflow which results from their morphology. We demonstrate that in low-density cover the flow-response and resistance of individuals is most critical in the optimal effectiveness of a canopy. Our wind tunnel experiment suggests that vegetation morphology and structure must be priority parameters in facilitating aeolian erosion control.

  19. Review of synergisms in materials erosion due to multispecies impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasz, A.A.; Auciello, O.; Stangeby, P.C.

    1985-05-01

    Plasma-surface interaction phenomena have become a subject of major interest because of their relevance in two important technological developments of recent decades, viz, microelectronics and thermonuclear fusion. Microelectronic fabrication often involves the use of relatively low-pressure/low-temperature plasma discharges for etching micron-size features in integrated circuits; here erosion is a desired effect. Fusion plasmas, by contrast, cause erosion of the fusion device inner walls, which is generally not desirable. In both cases surfaces are bombarded simultaneously by plasma species which include ions, neutral atoms, electrons and photons, which might lead to enhanced erosion due to synergistic effects. Work performed to date suggests that similar chemistry may be involved in the erosion process associated with some semiconductor and fusion related materials: SiF 4 , SiCl 4 and CH 4 , are, for example, some of the principal species evolving from Si and C surfaces, when exposed to F, Cl and H atoms, respectively, causing the observed erosion. Considerable effort has been expended on studies involving synergistic effects for semiconductor fabrication. Research on synergism related to the erosion of fusion materials (C and carbon compounds) commenced comparatively recently; however, its importance has been increasingly recognized, and evidence of possible synergistic erosion of graphite has recently been obtained in the PLT fusion device. In light of the the interdisciplinary nature of the subject, experimental and theoretical work on synergistic effects in erosion of both semiconductors and fusion materials will be critically reviewed here in an attempt to unify concepts related to results and mechanisms proposed to explain the observed phenomena, and to explore possible new avenues of research. 128 refs

  20. Erosion by Ice and Water in the Southern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This scene on the remote, rugged Argentine/Chilean border in the far southern Andes Mountains offers numerous, dramatic examples of both erosional processes and features of ice and water. The sharp, glaciated crest of the Cerro San Lorenzo (center) exceeds 12,000 feet and casts a long shadow southeastward. Glaciers on its western flank flow into the valley. This Electronic Still Camera photo was taken from the International Space Station, in December 2000 (late spring) when most of the previous winter's snow had melted below an altitude of 6,000 feet. Lago Pueyrredon, and the other lakes visible here, have been excavated by geologically recent episodes of glacier erosion, when glaciers extended all the way onto the lowland plains (top right). Since the last melting of the glaciers (15,000 years ago) three distinct fan deltas (semicircular features, marked with arrows) have formed where rivers flow into the lake. Counterclockwise currents in the lake-driven by strong winds from the west-have generated thin sand spits from each fan-delta. The largest spit (attached to the largest fan-delta, see right arrow) has isolated an approximately 10-kilometer long segment of the south end of the lake. The river that constructed the largest fan presently discharges turbid water to this isolated basin, giving it a lighter color than the rest of the lake. Glacial data collected over the past 50 years indicate that small ice bodies are disappearing at accelerated rates. (EOS, vol 81, no. 24, June 13, 2000) Predictions are that large fluctuations in land ice, with significant implications to society, are possible in the coming decades and centuries due to natural and anthropogenic climate change. Before glacial data can be used to address critical problems pertaining to the world's economic and environmental health, more detailed information about such glaciers is needed. Image ISS001-ESC-5113 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  1. Erosive tooth wear in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, T.S.; Lussi, A.; Jaeggi, T.; Gambon, D.L.; Lussi, A.; Ganss, C.

    2014-01-01

    Erosive tooth wear in children is a common condition. Besides the anatomical differences between deciduous and permanent teeth, additional histological differences may influence their susceptibility to dissolution. Considering laboratory studies alone, it is not clear whether deciduous teeth are

  2. Compost for steep slope erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    This study was initiated to develop guidelines for maintenance erosion control measures for steep slopes. The study focused on evaluating and monitoring KY-31 fescue germination rates using two media treatments 1) 100 percent by weight compost and 2)...

  3. Erosion-resistant composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C.B.; Tennery, V.J.; Curlee, R.M.

    A highly erosion-resistant composite material is formed of chemical vapor-deposited titanium diboride on a sintered titanium diboride-nickel substrate. This material may be suitable for use in cutting tools, coal liquefaction systems, etc.

  4. Soil Erosion and Agricultural Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    Data drawn from a global compilation of studies support the long articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields greatly exceed rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. Whereas data compiled from around the world show that soil erosion under conventional agriculture exceeds both rates of soil production and geological erosion rates by up to several orders of magnitude, similar global distributions of soil production and geological erosion rates suggest an approximate balance. Net soil erosion rates in conventionally plowed fields on the order of 1 mm/yr can erode typical hillslope soil profiles over centuries to millennia, time-scales comparable to the longevity of major civilizations. Well-documented episodes of soil loss associated with agricultural activities date back to the introduction of erosive agricultural methods in regions around the world, and stratigraphic records of accelerated anthropogenic soil erosion have been recovered from lake, fluvial, and colluvial stratigraphy, as well as truncation of soil stratigraphy (such as truncated A horizons). A broad convergence in the results from studies based on various approaches employed to study ancient soil loss and rates of downstream sedimentation implies that widespread soil loss has accompanied human agricultural intensification in examples drawn from around the world. While a broad range of factors, including climate variability and society-specific social and economic contexts — such as wars or colonial relationships — all naturally influence the longevity of human societies, the ongoing loss of topsoil inferred from studies of soil erosion rates in conventional agricultural systems has obvious long-term implications for agricultural sustainability. Consequently, modern agriculture — and therefore global society — faces a fundamental question over the upcoming centuries. Can an agricultural system

  5. Using albedo to reform wind erosion modelling, mapping and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust emission models are used to assess the impacts of dust on radiative forcing in the atmosphere, cloud formation, nutrient fertilisation and human health. We describe a need in aeolian research to adequately represent the spatial variability and particularly the area average of the key aerodynami...

  6. The Effect on Soil Erosion of Different Tillage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Kazım

    2016-04-01

    The Effects on Soil Erosion of Different Tillage Applications Kazım Gür1, Kazim Çarman2 and Wim M.Cornelis3 1Bahri Daǧdaş International Agricultural Research Instıtute, 42020 Konya, Turkey 2Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery, University of Selçuk, 42031 Konya, Turkey 3Department of Soil Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, 653 Coupure Links, 9000 Gent, Belgium Traditional soil cultivation systems, with excessive and inappropriate soil tillage, will generally lead to soil degradation and loss of soil by wind erosion. Continuous reduced tillage and no-till maintaining soil cover with plant residues called Conservation Agriculture that is considered as effective in reducing erosion. There exist a wide variety of practices using different tools that comply with reduced tillage principles. However, few studies have compared the effect of several of such tools in reducing wind erosion and related soil and surface properties. We therefore measured sediment transport rates over bare soil surfaces (but with under stubbles of wheat, Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to three tillage practices using two pulling type machines and one type of power takeoff movable machines and generated with a portable field wind tunnel. At 10 ms-1, sediment transport rates varied from 107 to 573 gm-1h-1, and from 176 to 768 gm-1h-1 at 13 ms-1. The lowest transport rates were observed for N(no-tillage) and the highest for Rr(L-type rototiller). After tillage, surface roughness, mean weighted diameter, wind erodible fraction, mechanical stability and soil water content were measured as well and varied from 5.0 to 15.9%, 6.9 to 13.8 mm, 14.3 to 29.7%, 79.5 to 93.4% and 8.6 to 15.1%, respectively, with again N is being the most successful practice. In terms of conservation soil tillage technique, it can be said that the applications compared with each other; direct sowing machine is more appropriate and cause to the less erosion.

  7. Combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of surface modified SS410 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarendra, H. J.; Pratap, M. S.; Karthik, S.; Punitha Kumara, M. S.; Rajath, H. C.; Ranjith, H.; Shubhatunga, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    Slurry erosion and combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of thermal spray coatings are studied and compared with the as-received martensitic stainless steel material. 70Ni-Cr coatings are deposited on SS 410 material through plasma thermal spray process. The synergy effect of the combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of plasma thermal spray coatings were investigated in a slurry pot tester in the presence of bluff bodies known as Cavitation Inducers. Results showed the combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of martensitic stainless steel - 410 can be improved by plasma thermal spray coating. It is observed that the plasma spray coated specimens are better erosion resistant than the as- received material, subjected to erosion test under similar conditions. As-received and the surface modified steels are mechanically characterized for its hardness, bending. Morphological studies are conducted through scanning electron microscope.

  8. Solid Particle Erosion of Date Palm Leaf Fiber Reinforced Polyvinyl Alcohol Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti R. Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid particle erosion behavior of short date palm leaf (DPL fiber reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA composite has been studied using silica sand particles (200 ± 50 μm as an erodent at different impingement angles (15–90° and impact velocities (48–109 m/s. The influence of fiber content (wt% of DPL fiber on erosion rate of PVA/DPL composite has also been investigated. The neat PVA shows maximum erosion rate at 30° impingement angle whereas PVA/DPL composites exhibit maximum erosion rate at 45° impingement angle irrespective of fiber loading showing semiductile behavior. The erosion efficiency of PVA and its composites varies from 0.735 to 16.289% for different impact velocities studied. The eroded surfaces were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM to understand the erosion mechanism.

  9. A pan-European quantitative assessment of soil loss by wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasqualle; Lugato, Emanuele; Panagos, Panos

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion by wind is a serious environmental problem often low perceived but resulting in severe soil degradation forms. On the long-term a considerable part of topsoil - rich in nutrient and organic matters - could be removed compromising the agricultural productivity and inducing an increased use of fertilizers. Field scale studies and observations proven that wind erosion is a serious problem in many European sites. The state-of-the-art suggests a scenario where wind erosion locally affects the temperate climate areas of the northern European countries, as well as the semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean region. However, observations, field measurements and modelling assessments are extremely limited and unequally distributed across Europe. It implies a lack of knowledge about where and when wind erosion occurs, limiting policy actions aimed at mitigating land degradation. To gain a better understanding about soil degradation process, the Soil Resource Assessment working group of the Joint Research Centre carried out the first pan-European assessments of wind-erodible fraction of soil (EF) (Geoderma, 232, 471-478, 2014) and land susceptibility to wind erosion (Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2318). Today's challenge is to integrate the insights archived by these pan-European assessments, local experiments and field-scale models into a new generation of regional-scale wind erosion models. A GIS version of the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) was developed with the aim to i) move a step forward into the aforementioned challenges, and ii) evaluate the soil loss potential due to wind erosion in the agricoltural land of the EU. The model scheme was designed to describe daily soil loss potential, combining spatiotemporal conditions of soil erodibility, crust factor, soil moisture content, vegetation coverage and wind erosivity at 1 km2 resolution. The average soil loss predicted by GIS-RWEQ in the EU arable land ranges from 0 to 39.9 Mg ha-1 yr

  10. Soil physical properties affecting soil erosion in tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Lujan, D.

    2004-01-01

    The total vegetated land area of the earth is about 11,500 hectare. Of this, about 12% is in South America. Of this, about 14% is degraded area. Water erosion, chemical degradation, wind erosion, and physical degradation have been reported as main types of degradation. In South America water erosion is a major process for soil degradation. Nevertheless, water erosion can be a consequence of degradation of the soil structure, especially the functional attributes of soil pores to transmit and retain water, and to facilitate root growth. Climate, soil and topographic characteristics determine runoff and erosion potential from agricultural lands. The main factors causing soil erosion can be divided into three groups: Energy factors: rainfall erosivity, runoff volume, wind strength, relief, slope angle, slope length; Protection factors: population density, plant cover, amenity value (pressure for use) and land management; and resistance factors: soil erodibility, infiltration capacity and soil management. The degree of soil erosion in a particular climatic zone, with particular soils, land use and socioeconomic conditions, will always result from a combination of the above mentioned factors. It is not easy to isolate a single factor. However, the soil physical properties that determine the soil erosion process, because the deterioration of soil physical properties is manifested through interrelated problems of surface sealing, crusting, soil compaction, poor drainage, impeded root growth, excessive runoff and accelerated erosion. When an unprotected soil surface is exposed to the direct impact of raindrops it can produce different responses: Production of smaller aggregates, dispersed particles, particles in suspension and translocation and deposition of particles. When this has occurred, the material is reorganized at the location into a surface seal. Aggregate breakdown under rainfall depends on soil strength and a certain threshold kinetic energy is needed to start

  11. Effect of soil erosion on the biodiversity of soil crust within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetative cover in the former sites reduced both wind and water erosion. However, areas below waterfalls had the highest protein due to the proximity of microorganisms to water that might have accumulated here during winter. The water facilitated accelerated metabolic activities of all microphytes. Keywords: soil crust ...

  12. Lignin distribution in waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst degraded by erosion bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nanna Bjerregaard; Schmitt, Uwe Schmitt; Koch, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    The lignin distribution in poles of waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst, which was decayed by erosion bacteria (EB) under anoxic conditions for approximately 400 years, was topochemically identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution UV-microspectrophotome......The lignin distribution in poles of waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst, which was decayed by erosion bacteria (EB) under anoxic conditions for approximately 400 years, was topochemically identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution UV...

  13. Wind energy

    CERN Document Server

    Woll, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Across the country, huge open spaces are covered in gently turning wind turbines. In Wind Energy, explore how these machines generate electricity, learn about the history of wind power, and discover the latest advances in the field. Easy-to-read text, vivid images, and helpful back matter give readers a clear look at this subject. Features include a table of contents, infographics, a glossary, additional resources, and an index. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Core Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  14. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Volume 1, Issue 3 -- October 2007 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2007-10-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 3 features an interview with Andrew Dzykewicz, Commissioner of the Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources.

  15. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Volume 1, Issue 4 -- May 2008 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2008-05-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 4 features an interview with Brian Fairbank, president and CEO of Jiminy Peak Mountain Resort.

  16. Coastal erosion problem, modelling and protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Nihal; Balas, Lale; İnan, Asu

    2015-09-01

    Göksu Delta, located in the south of Silifke County of Mersin on the coastal plain formed by Göksu River, is one of the Specially Protected Areas in Turkey. Along the coastal area of the Delta, coastline changes at significant rates are observed, concentrating especially at four regions; headland of İncekum, coast of Paradeniz Lagoon, river mouth of Göksu and coast of Altınkum. The coast of Paradeniz Lagoon is suffering significantly from erosion and the consequent coastal retreating problem. Therefore, the narrow barrier beach which separates Paradeniz Lagoon from the Mediterranean Sea is getting narrower, creating a risk of uniting with the sea, thus causing the disappearance of the Lagoon. The aim of this study was to understand the coastal transport processes along the coastal area of Göksu Delta to determine the coastal sediment transport rates, and accordingly, to propose solutions to prevent the loss of coastal lands in the Delta. To this end, field measurements of currents and sediment grain sizes were carried out, and wind climate, wave climate, circulation patterns and longshore sediment transport rates were numerically modeled by HYDROTAM-3D, which is a three dimensional hydrodynamic transport model. Finally, considering its special importance as an environmentally protected region, some coastal structures of gabions were proposed as solutions against the coastal erosion problems of the Delta. The effects of proposed structures on future coastline changes were also modeled, and the coastlines predicted for the year 2017 are presented and discussed in the paper.

  17. Use of Anthropogenic Radioisotopes to Estimate Rates of Soil Redistribution by Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion results in soil degradation and fugitive dust emissions. The temporal and spatial variability of aeolian processes makes local estimates of long-term average erosion costly and time consuming. Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and 1960s resulted in previously non...

  18. Bentonite erosion - Laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Bentonite clay is proposed as buffer material in the KBS-3 concept of storing spent nuclear fuel. Since the clay is plastic it will protect the canisters containing the spent fuel from movements in the rock. Furthermore, the clay will expand when taking up water, become very compact and hence limit the transport of solutes to and from the canister to only diffusion. The chemical stability of the bentonite barrier is of vital importance. If much material would be lost the barrier will lose its functions. As a side effect, lots of colloids will be released which may facilitate radionuclide transport in case of a breach in the canister. There are scenarios where during an ice age fresh melt water may penetrate down to repository depths with relatively high flow rates and not mix with older waters of high salinity. Under such conditions bentonite colloids will be more stable and there is a possibility that the bentonite buffer would start to disperse and bentonite colloids be carried away by the passing water. This work is a part of a larger project called Bentonite Erosion, initiated and supported by SKB. In this work several minor experiments have been performed in order to investigate the influence of for instance di-valent cations, gravity, etc. on the dispersion behaviour of bentonite and/or montmorillonite. A bigger experiment where the real situation was simulated using an artificial fracture was conducted. Two Plexiglas slabs were placed on top of each other, separated by plastic spacers. Bentonite was placed in a container in contact with a fracture. The bentonite was water saturated before deionized water was pumped through the fracture. The evolution of the bentonite profile in the fracture was followed visually. The eluate was collected in five different slots at the outlet side and analyzed for colloid concentration employing Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) and a Single Particle Counter (SPC). Some

  19. Bentonite erosion. Laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Mats (Div. of Nuclear Chemistry, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden), School of Chemical Science and Engineering)

    2009-11-15

    This report covers the laboratory studies that have been performed at Nuclear Chemistry, KTH in the project 'Bentonite Erosion'. Many of the experiments in this report were performed to support the work of the modelling group and were often relatively simple. One of the experiment series was performed to see the impact of gravity and concentration of mono- and di-valent cations. A clay suspension was prepared in a test tube. A net was placed in contact with the suspension, the test tube was filled with solutions of different concentrations and the system was left overnight to settle. The tube was then turned upside down and the behaviour was visually observed. Either the clay suspension fell through the net or stayed on top. By using this method surprisingly sharp determinations of the Critical Coagulation (Flocculation) Concentration (CCC/CFC) could be made. The CCC/CFC of Ca2+ was for sodium montmorillonite determined to be between 1 and 2 mM. An artificial fracture was manufactured in order to simulate the real case scenario. The set-up was two Plexiglas slabs separated by 1 mm thick spacers with a bentonite container at one side of the fracture. Water was pumped with a very low flow rate perpendicular to bentonite container and the water exiting the fracture was sampled and analyzed for colloid content. The bentonite used was treated in different ways. In the first experiment a relatively montmorillonite rich clay was used while in the second bentonite where only the readily soluble minerals had been removed was used. Since Plexiglas was used it was possible to visually observe the bentonite dispersing into the fracture. After the compacted bentonite (1,000 kg/m3) had been water saturated the clay had expanded some 12 mm out into the fracture. As the experiment progressed the clay expanded more out into the fracture and seemed to fractionate in two different phases with less material in the outmost phase. A dark rim which was later analyzed to contain

  20. A study of the surface deterioration due to erosion. [of gas turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakoff, W.; Balan, C.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that materials exposed to particle impacts are eroded and subjected to deterioration of their surface quality. In the case of turbomachinery, this surface deterioration can lead to a significant decrease in engine performance. Tabakoff and Balan (1981) have conducted experiments on the erosion related performance changes in two-dimensional airfoil cascades. It was found that the increase in surface roughness associated with erosion is a major factor in the performance decrease of the cascades. Attention is given to experiments which were conducted on 6061 T6 flat plate aluminum specimens. A series of experiments were carried out in an erosion wind tunnel using a collimated beam of particles. In agreement with existing theories and experiments, erosion ripple generation was observed for the angles of attack up to 60 degrees.

  1. An Assessment of the Impact of Urbanization on Soil Erosion in Inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yan Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inner Mongolia, an autonomous region of the People’s Republic of China, has experienced severe soil erosion following a period of rapid economic development and urbanization. To investigate how urbanization has influenced the extent of soil erosion in Inner Mongolia, we used urbanization and soil erosion data from 2000 through 2010 to determine the relationship between urbanization and soil erosion patterns. Two empirical equations—the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE and the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ—were used to estimate the intensity of soil erosion, and we performed backward linear regression to model how it changed with greater urbanization. There was an apparent increase in the rate of urbanization and a decrease in the area affected by soil erosion in 2010 compared to the corresponding values for 2000. The urban population stood at 11.32 million in 2010, which represented a 16.47% increase over that in 2000. The area affected by soil erosion in 2000 totaled 704,817 km2, yet it had decreased to 674,135 km2 by 2010. However, a path of modest urban development (rural–urban mitigation and reasonable industrial structuring (the development of GDP-2 may partially reduce urbanization’s ecological pressure and thus indirectly reduce the threat of soil erosion to human security. Therefore, to better control soil erosion in Inner Mongolia during the process of urbanization, the current model of economic development should be modified to improve the eco-efficiency of urbanization, while also promoting new modes of urbanization that are environmentally sustainable, cost-effective, and conserve limited resources.

  2. An Assessment of the Impact of Urbanization on Soil Erosion in Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Yan; Xiao, Yi; Rao, En-Ming; Jiang, Ling; Xiao, Yang; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun

    2018-03-19

    Inner Mongolia, an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, has experienced severe soil erosion following a period of rapid economic development and urbanization. To investigate how urbanization has influenced the extent of soil erosion in Inner Mongolia, we used urbanization and soil erosion data from 2000 through 2010 to determine the relationship between urbanization and soil erosion patterns. Two empirical equations-the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ)-were used to estimate the intensity of soil erosion, and we performed backward linear regression to model how it changed with greater urbanization. There was an apparent increase in the rate of urbanization and a decrease in the area affected by soil erosion in 2010 compared to the corresponding values for 2000. The urban population stood at 11.32 million in 2010, which represented a 16.47% increase over that in 2000. The area affected by soil erosion in 2000 totaled 704,817 km², yet it had decreased to 674,135 km² by 2010. However, a path of modest urban development (rural-urban mitigation) and reasonable industrial structuring (the development of GDP-2) may partially reduce urbanization's ecological pressure and thus indirectly reduce the threat of soil erosion to human security. Therefore, to better control soil erosion in Inner Mongolia during the process of urbanization, the current model of economic development should be modified to improve the eco-efficiency of urbanization, while also promoting new modes of urbanization that are environmentally sustainable, cost-effective, and conserve limited resources.

  3. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  4. Soil erosion in Slovene Istria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Mikoš

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available From the end of nineties of the 20th century, intense hydrologic and geomorphologic research is taking place in the Slovene Istria. As a part of this research also studies on soil erosion were undertaken in the period from 2005 to 2008. The field measurements were under taken onclosed 1m2 large erosion plots under three different land uses (on bare soils in an olive grove, on an overgrown meadow, in a forest, placed south of the Marezige village in the Rokava River basin.We show weekly measurements of surface erosion (interrill erosion for the period of 13 months (the end of March 2005 – the end of April 2006, as well as monthly and seasonal averages together with selected linear statistical correlations between soil erosion and weather parameters.From May 2005 to April 2006 the interrill erosion on bare soils in an olive grove with an inclination of 5.5° amounted to 9013 g/m2 (90 t/ha that corresponds to surface lowering rate of 8.5 mm/yr; on an overgrown meadow with an inclination of 9.4° it amounted to 168 g/m2 (1,68 t/ha that corresponds to surface lowering rate of 0.16 mm//yr; and in a forest with an inclination of 7.8° it amounted to 391 g/m2 (3,91 t/ha and in a forest with an inclination of 21.4° it amounted to 415 g/m2 (4,15 t/ha, respectively, that corresponds to surface lowering rate of 0.4 mm/yr.

  5. Effects of erosive challenge on the morphology and surface properties of luting cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenna Louise Cavalcanti GONDIM

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Few studies investigated the surface properties of luting cements after erosive challenge. Objective To evaluate the surface roughness (Ra, Vickers hardness (VHN and morphology of 4 luting cements after erosive challenge. Material and method Twenty specimens of each cement were prepared (4×2mm and divided into experimental (erosive challenge and control (artificial saliva groups (n=10: Rely X U200 (U200; Rely X ARC (ARC; Ketac Cem Easy Mix (Ketac and Zinc phosphate (ZnP. The erosive challenge was performed by four daily erosive cycles (90s in a cola drink and 2 h in artificial saliva over 7 days. Ra and VHN readings were performed before and after erosion. The percentage of hardness loss (%VHN was obtained after erosion. The surface morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. ANOVA, Tukey and Student-T tests were used (α=0.05. Result After erosion, all luting cements had increase in Ra values and U200 and ZnP groups had the highest %VHN. After saliva immersion, only U200 and ZnP groups had significant increases in Ra values and there were no significant differences among the groups in %VHN. SEM analysis showed that Ketac and ZnP groups had rough and porous surfaces, and U200 group had higher resin matrix degradation than ARC group. Conclusion Erosive challenge with a cola drink affected the surface properties of all luting cements.

  6. Cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 nickel-based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhen; Han, Jiesheng; Lu, Jinjun; Chen, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 was studied by ultrasonic apparatus. • The cavitation-induced precipitates formed in the eroded surface for Hastelloy C-276. • The selective cavitation erosion was found in Hastelloy C-276 alloy. - Abstract: The cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 alloy was investigated using an ultrasonic vibratory apparatus and compared with that of 316L stainless steel. The mean depth of erosion (MDE) and erosion rate (ER) curves vs. test time were attained for Hastelloy C-276 alloy. Morphology and microstructure evolution of the eroded surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and the predominant erosion mechanism was also discussed. The results show that the MDE is about 1/6 times lower than that of the stainless steel after 9 h of testing. The incubation period of Hastelloy C-276 alloy is about 3 times longer than that of 316L stainless steel. The cavitation-induced nanometer-scaled precipitates were found in the local zones of the eroded surface for Hastelloy C-276. The selective cavitation erosion was found in Hastelloy C-276 alloy. The formation of nanometer-scaled precipitates in the eroded surface may play a significant role in the cavitation erosion resistance of Hastelloy C-276

  7. Rainfall erosivity in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carlos A.; Vidal, Karim L.

    2011-11-01

    SummaryOne of the most widely used indicators of potential water erosion risk is the rainfall-runoff erosivity factor ( R) of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). R is traditionally determined by calculating a long-term average of the annual sum of the product of a storm's kinetic energy ( E) and its maximum 30-min intensity ( I30), known as the EI30. The original method used to calculate EI30 requires pluviograph records for at most 30-min time intervals. Such high resolution data is difficult to obtain in many parts of the world, and processing it is laborious and time-consuming. In Chile, even though there is a well-distributed rain gauge network, there is no systematic characterization of the territory in terms of rainfall erosivity. This study presents a rainfall erosivity map for most of the cultivated land in the country. R values were calculated by the prescribed method for 16 stations with continuous graphical record rain gauges in Central Chile. The stations were distributed along 800 km (north-south), and spanned a precipitation gradient of 140-2200 mm yr -1. More than 270 years of data were used, and 5400 storms were analyzed. Additionally, 241 spatially distributed R values were generated by using an empirical procedure based on annual rainfall. Point estimates generated by both methods were interpolated by using kriging to create a map of rainfall erosivity for Central Chile. The results show that the empirical procedure used in this study predicted the annual rainfall erosivity well (model efficiency = 0.88). Also, an increment in the rainfall erosivities was found as a result of the rainfall depths, a regional feature determined by elevation and increasing with latitude from north to south. R values in the study area range from 90 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 in the north up to 7375 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 in the southern area, at the foothills of the Andes Mountains. Although the map and the estimates could be improved in the future by

  8. An experimental study on cavitation erosion-corrosion performance of ANSI 1020 and ANSI 4135 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Leqin; Qiu, Ning; Hellmann, Dieter-Heinz; Zhu, Xiaowen

    2016-01-01

    Cavitation erosion is quite complex, containing corrosion-erosion interaction effect. High temperature oxidization may be aroused after bubble collapse, accompanied by hot gas contacting with the pump component surface. The analysis of the erosion pits can be an effective way to know the mechanism of cavitation erosion. In present paper, the cavitation erosion resistance of carbon steel (ANSI 1020) and alloy steel (ANSI 4135) were tested in an ultrasonic vibration apparatus. By using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope and three dimensional laser microscope, the chemical composition around erosion pits and the oxidation film structure were analyzed. By using metallographic microscope and scanning electronic microscope, the metallographic structure of specimens (e.g., carbon steel and alloy steel), the nano structured iron oxide and corresponding influence on specimen's anti-erosion performance were discussed. Based on the comparison between the different tests performed in distilled water and tap water respectively, results can be obtained that erosion rate of carbon steel and alloy steel varies with the component of water which had close correlation to the oxidation effect. Erosion rate of alloy steel 4135 was much lower in distilled water compared to tap water while the difference of carbon steel 1020 was not that large. The remarkable different responses of these two materials had close relationship with oxidation effect. The oxidation effect transferred the original structure of alloy steel surface which had high anti-erosion capability, into newly generated iron oxide structure, which was preferentially to be attacked. The pumping of slightly corrosive fluids frequently leads to erosion-corrosion damage on impellers, and corrosion can further amplify the erosion process

  9. Characterization and High-Temperature Erosion Behaviour of HVOF Thermal Spray Cermet Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2016-01-01

    High-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray, carbide-cermet-based coatings are usually employed in high-temperature erosive and erosive-corrosive environments. Extensive literature is available on high-temperature erosion performance of HVOF coatings under moderate to low particle flux and velocities for application in boiler tubes. This research work presents the characterization and high-temperature erosion behaviour of Cr3C2-25NiCr and WC-10Co-4Cr HVOF-sprayed coatings. Coatings were formulated on the substrate steel of type AISI 304, commonly used for the fabrication of pulverized coal burner nozzles (PCBN). Erosion testing was carried out in high-temperature air-jet erosion tester after simulating the conditions akin to that prevailing in PCBN in the boiler furnace. The coatings were tested for erosion behaviour at different angles and temperatures by freezing other test parameters. Brittle erosion behaviour was depicted in erosion testing, and the coatings couldn't restrain the erodent attacks to protect the substrate. High particle velocity and high particle flux were attributed to be the reasons of extensive erosive weight loss of the coatings. The surface morphology of the eroded specimens was analysed from back-scattered electron images to depict the probable mechanism of material removal. The coatings were characterized with optical microscopy, SEM-EDS analysis, XRD analysis, micro-hardness testing, porosity measurements, surface roughness testing and bond strength testing. The work was undertaken to investigate the performance of the selected coatings in highly erosive environment, so as to envisage their application in PCBNs for protection against material degradation. The coatings could only sustain in oblique impact erosion at room temperature and depleted fully under all other conditions.

  10. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains Wind Power, LLC v. Xcel Energy...

  11. ESTUDIO DEL DESGASTE EROSIVO POR CAVITACIÓN DE UN ACERO AUSTENÍTICO DE ALTO NITRÓGENO APOYADO EN EL USO DE LA DIFRACCIÓN DE ELECTRONES RETROPROYECTADOS-EBSD ASSESSMENT OF CAVITATION-EROSION WEAR OF A HIGH NITROGEN AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL FROM ELECTRON BACKSCATTERING DIFFRACTION-EBSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dairo Hernán Mesa Grajales

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Muestras de acero inoxidable con estructura austenítica y contenido aproximado de nitrógeno de 0,9% en peso en solución sólida fueron sometidas a ensayos de cavitación vibratoria en agua destilada, con el fin de estudiar la evolución del desgaste erosivo por cavitación (EC a escala del tamaño de grano (mesoescala. Las muestras fueron obtenidas por medio de nitruración gaseosa a alta temperatura (HTGN del acero inoxidable dúplex UNS S31803, las cuales fueron caracterizadas por difracción de electrones retroproyectados (EBSD, a fin de obtener información de la orientación cristalina de los granos en la superficie a ser cavitada. La técnica de microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM, fue usada para acompañar el proceso de desgaste para diferentes tiempos de ensayo. Como resultados de los ensayos de cavitación se determinó la pérdida de masa y se hizo un estudio secuencial de la apariencia superficial de las muestras para determinar los mecanismos de desgaste operantes en cada etapa. Los resultados fueron analizados a la luz de la caracterización cristalográfica previa. Para propósitos de comparación, fue usado el acero austenítico convencional UNS S30403. A partir de los resultados se observó que tanto la nucleación del daño como su evolución se dan de forma heterogénea a escala del tamaño de grano, resultado atribuido a la anisotropía en la deformación plástica. El carácter heterogéneo del daño por cavitación fue atribuido principalmente a las características de los límites de grano y a la microtextura dentro de los granos.Stainless steel samples with 100% austenitic microstructure and alloyed with 0.9 wt-% of nitrogen in solid solution were tested under vibratory cavitation experiments in distilled water to study the cavitation-erosion wear (EC at grain size level (mesoscale. Fully austenitic samples were obtained by high temperature gas nitriding (HTGN a commercially available dúplex stainless steel, UNS

  12. statistical analysis of wind speed for electrical power generation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    1, 4, 5 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA. 2DEPARTMENT OF ... Keywords: Wind speed - probability - density function – wind energy conversion system- statistical analyses. 1. ..... weather data for energy assessments of hybrid.

  13. Erosion and lateral surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Erosion can cause serious agricultural and environmental hazards. It can generate severe damage to the landscape, lead to significant loss of agricultural land and consequently to reduction in agricultural productivity, induce surface water pollution due to the transport of sediments and suspende...

  14. Elevated temperature erosive wear of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Manish

    2006-01-01

    Solid particle erosion of metals and alloys at elevated temperature is governed by the nature of the interaction between erosion and oxidation, which, in turn, is determined by the thickness, pliability, morphology, adhesion characteristics and toughness of the oxide scale. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the present state of understanding of the elevated temperature erosion behaviour of metals and alloys. First of all, the erosion testing at elevated temperature is reviewed. This is followed by discussion of the essential features of elevated temperature erosion with special emphasis on microscopic observation, giving details of the erosion-oxidation (E-O) interaction mechanisms. The E-O interaction has been elaborated in the subsequent section. The E-O interaction includes E-O maps, analysis of transition criteria from one erosion mechanism to another mechanism and quantification of enhanced oxidation kinetics during erosion. Finally, the relevant areas for future studies are indicated. (topical review)

  15. Revegetação com plantas de cobertura em solos arenizados sob erosão eólica no Rio Grande do Sul Revegetation with cover crops for soils under arenization and wind erosion in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Moreira Rovedder

    2008-02-01

    revegetation with cover crops such as Avena strigosa Schieb. and Lupinus albescens H. et Arn., was developed to reduce the soil particle movement by eolic erosion. The experiment was carried out on a Quartzipsament soil, from September to December 2001 and from January to December 2002, in a completely randomizased design and nine replications, on a degraded area and on a degraded area under cover crops. Galvanized metal boxes of 0.5 x 0.5 m, in a pyramid base shape, were buried in the center of the plots, with the upper opening at the ground level. The sand volume deposited in the boxes by the wind was measured every fortnight, and the water content determined. In 2001, the amount of transported sand was 365 Mg ha-1 from the area with cover crops and 5.053 Mg ha-1 from the degraded area, expressing a reduction of 93 % in sand transport by eolic erosion. In 2002, 775 Mg ha-1 of sand was transported from the area with cover crops, whereas 11080 Mg ha-1 was moved from the degraded area, with the same reduction of 93 % in sediment transport due to soil covering. These results indicate that the technique of revegetation with cover plants may be used to detain the sand in degraded areas.

  16. WIND TURBINES FOR WIND POWER INSTALLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barladean A.S.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of wind turbine choice for wind power stations is examined in this paper. It is shown by comparison of parameters and characteristics of wind turbines, that for existing modes and speeds of wind in territory of Republic of Moldova it is necessary to use multi-blade small speed rotation wind turbines of fan class.

  17. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  18. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  19. Modeling erosion from forest roads with WEPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. McFero Grace

    2007-01-01

    Forest roads can be major sources of soil erosion from forest watersheds. Sediments from forest roads are a concern due to their potential delivery to stream systems resulting in degradation of water quality. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) was used to predict erosion from forest road components under different management practices. WEPP estimates are...

  20. Natural and anthropogenic rates of soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regions of land that are brought into crop production from native vegetation typically undergo a period of soil erosion instability, and long term erosion rates are greater than for natural lands as long as the land continues being used for crop production. Average rates of soil erosion under natur...

  1. Soil erosion in humid regions: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Holz; Karl W.J. Williard; Pamela J. Edwards; Jon E. Schoonover

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion has significant implications for land productivity and surface water quality, as sediment is the leading water pollutant worldwide. Here, erosion processes are defined. The dominant factors influencing soil erosion in humid areas are reviewed, with an emphasis on the roles of precipitation, soil moisture, soil porosity, slope steepness and length,...

  2. [Influence factors of deposition induced by melt water erosion in Naqu region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun-yuan; Cai, Qiang-guo; Li, Zhao-xia; Sun, Li-ying

    2015-02-01

    Melt water erosion is one of the important soil erosion forms caused by the melt water from glacier and snow in high altitude cold areas of China. This paper investigated the influencing factors of deposition caused by melt water erosion in Naqu region. Alluvial fan ratio was presented as an index to characterize the degree of the deposition induced by melt water erosion. Minimum polygon was determined based on spatial overlay technology of Geographic Information System (GIS). The regression equation between the deposition index and the influencing factors was established through the stepwise regression analysis based on minimum polygon. Key influencing factors were identified according to the stepwise regression equation. The results showed that large amounts of alluvial fan were observed in Naqu region; extensive alluvial fans were centered at gentle slope areas in the central part of Naqu region with great spatial differences; alluvial fans were mainly distributed at valley exits, most of which were at large scale with vast differences in area and thickness. Wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), K value of soil erodibility, annual temperature range and the steep slope area ratio were identified as the key influencing factors on the deposition induced by melt water erosion in the studied area. Index of deposition was positively correlated with the wind speed and NDVI, and showed negative relationships with the K value of soil erodibility, the annual temperature range and steep slope area ratio.

  3. The Arctic Coastal Erosion Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Matthew Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Craig A. [Integral Consulting Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Permafrost-dominated coastlines in the Arctic are rapidly disappearing. Arctic coastal erosion rates in the United States have doubled since the middle of the twentieth century and appear to be accelerating. Positive erosion trends have been observed for highly-variable geomorphic conditions across the entire Arctic, suggesting a major (human-timescale) shift in coastal landscape evolution. Unfortunately, irreversible coastal land loss in this region poses a threat to native, industrial, scientific, and military communities. The Arctic coastline is vast, spanning more than 100,000 km across eight nations, ten percent of which is overseen by the United States. Much of area is inaccessible by all-season roads. People and infrastructure, therefore, are commonly located near the coast. The impact of the Arctic coastal erosion problem is widespread. Homes are being lost. Residents are being dispersed and their villages relocated. Shoreline fuel storage and delivery systems are at greater risk. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operate research facilities along some of the most rapidly eroding sections of coast in the world. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is struggling to fortify coastal radar sites, operated to ensure national sovereignty in the air, against the erosion problem. Rapid alterations to the Arctic coastline are facilitated by oceanographic and geomorphic perturbations associated with climate change. Sea ice extent is declining, sea level is rising, sea water temperature is increasing, and permafrost state is changing. The polar orientation of the Arctic exacerbates the magnitude and rate of the environmental forcings that facilitate coastal land area loss. The fundamental mechanics of these processes are understood; their non-linear combination poses an extreme hazard. Tools to accurately predict Arctic coastal erosion do not exist. To obtain an accurate predictive model, a coupling of the influences of

  4. Research Developments on Power System Integration of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Qiuwei, Wu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on the recent research activities and tendencies regarding grid integration of wind power in Denmark and some related European activities, including power electronics for enhancing wind power controllability, wind turbines and wind farms modeling,wind power...... variability and prediction, wind power plant ancillary services, grid connection and operation, Smart grids and demand side management under market functionality. The topics of the first group of PhD program starting 2011 under the wind energy Sino-Danish Centre for Education & Research (SDC) are also...

  5. Research Developments on Power System Integration of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on the recent research activities and tendencies regarding grid integration of wind power in Denmark and some related European activities, including power electronics for enhancing wind power controllability, wind turbines and wind farms modeling, wind power...... variability and prediction, wind power plant ancillary services, grid connection and operation, Smart grids and demand side management under market functionality. The topics of the first group of PhD program starting 2011 under the wind energy Sino-Danish Centre for Education & Research (SDC) are also...

  6. Investigation of Hall Effect Thruster Channel Wall Erosion Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-02

    Surface binding energy (J) Electron charge (1.609×10-19 C) Ion energy due to the Bohm velocity (mA) Strain component (m/m...of heavy ion sputtering of a pure h-BN crystal. The results of this simulation were compared to sputtering yield data from experiments, and to...erosion model are highly dependent on the angle at which the ion beam impinges on the surface of the material. SEM imaging of the highly eroded

  7. Uranium-Molybdenum particles produced by electro-erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanillas, Edgardo D.; Lopez, Marisol; Pasqualini, Enrique E.; Lombardo, D. J. C.

    2003-01-01

    We have produced spheroidal U-Mo particles by the electro-erosion method using pure water as dielectric. The particles were characterised by optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS-EDAX) and X-ray diffraction. Spheroidal UO 2 particles with a peculiar distribution size were obtained with two distribution centred at 10 and 70 μm. The obtained particles have central inclusions of U and Mo compounds. (author)

  8. Preventing erosion at pipeline crossings of watercourses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawatsky, L.; Arnold, G.

    1997-01-01

    Watercourses are naturally vulnerable to erosion but the risk is particularly acute after sub-soil and armour materials have been disturbed by trenching and backfilling during construction. Various types of erosion (river scour, river bed, river channel bed and river bank ) and the progressive removal of pipeline cover resulting from erosion were discussed. Methods of estimating the risk of progressive erosion, river avulsions and beaver dam scour, and methods of mitigating erosion at pipeline crossings such as deep burial, proper siting, conventional armouring, and a combination of bank toe protection, and upper bank vegetation cover, were described

  9. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the wind power. It presents the principles, the technology takes off, its applications and technology focus, the global market trends and the outlooks and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  10. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portilla S, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The wind energy or eolic energy is a consequence of solar energy, the one which is absorbed by the atmosphere and is transformed into energy of movement of large bulks of air. In this process the atmosphere acts as the filter to the solar radiation and demotes the ultraviolet beams that result fatal to life in the Earth. The ionosphere is the most external cap and this is ionized by means of absorption process of ultraviolet radiation arising to the Sun. The atmosphere also acts as a trap to the infrared radiation, it that results from the continual process of energetic degradation. In this way, the interaction between Earth - Atmospheres, is behaved as a great greenhouse, maintaining the constant temperatures, including in the dark nights. Processes as the natural convection (that occur by the thermodynamic phenomenon), equatorial calmness, trade winds and against trade winds and global distribution of the air currents are described. The other hand, techniques as the transformation of the wind into energy and its parameters also are shown

  11. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  12. The influence of rainfall on transport of beach sand by wind.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van P.M.; Stroosnijder, L.; Lima, de J.L.M.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of rainfall on the process of wind erosion of beach sands and presents results from both field and wind tunnel experiments. Although sediment transport by splash is of secondary importance on coastal dunes, splash-saltation processes can move sediments in conditions

  13. Cometary X-rays : solar wind charge exchange in cometary atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of the solar wind with the planets and the interstellar medium is of key importance for the evolution of our solar system. The interaction with Earth's atmosphere is best known for the northern light. In case of Mars, the interaction with the solar wind might have lead to the erosion

  14. Splash erosion. A bibliometric Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Raga, M. B.

    2012-04-01

    Ellison (1944) developed the splash board as a system for measuring splash erosion that was both cheap and reliable. Bollinne (1975), Morgan (1978, 1981). Mutchler (1967) described another different type of splash detectors according to whether they were passive or could register data. In the study mentioned above these authors included bottles, funnels, glasses, photography, markers. After that several devices has been made up like the splash sampler (Leguedois et al., 2005), soil tray (Van Dijk et al., 2002), splash funnel (Terry, 1989) and several rain cups (Fernandez-Raga et al., 2010; Molina and Llinares, 1996; Torri et al., 1987). Splash erosion research has materialized in the form of a number of papers published in international journals. The database of bibliographic references employed has been one of the most prestigious ones: theWeb of Science (ISI). The search was carried out on January 27th 2012. Among the 3x10^8 scholarly documents included in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) 1899 to present , the searching engine located 439 containing the word "splash erosion*", where the asterisk acts as a wildcard for any letter or group of letters. Of these, 383 were classified as articles, 87 as proceeding papers, 5 as editorial material, 2 as notes and 1 as correction. These documents have been published in 163 different journals, although four are particularly recurrent: Earth surface processes and Landforms, Catena, Soil Science Society of America Journal and Hydrological processes, with 41, 35, 35 and 26 published documents respectively. A geographic analysis of these articles has been carried out in an attempt to determine in what parts of the world research projects were making use of splash erosion. The results are that anglo-saxon countries, as USA, England and Australia dominate, particularly USA, with 130 articles. China and Japan are large communities of researches too, and some Central European countries as Belgium, France Germany

  15. Soil Erosion Threatens Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Burgess

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since humans worldwide obtain more than 99.7% of their food (calories from the land and less than 0.3% from the oceans and aquatic ecosystems, preserving cropland and maintaining soil fertility should be of the highest importance to human welfare. Soil erosion is one of the most serious threats facing world food production. Each year about 10 million ha of cropland are lost due to soil erosion, thus reducing the cropland available for world food production. The loss of cropland is a serious problem because the World Health Organization and the Food and Agricultural Organization report that two-thirds of the world population is malnourished. Overall, soil is being lost from agricultural areas 10 to 40 times faster than the rate of soil formation imperiling humanity’s food security.

  16. On inhibition of dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rölla, Gunnar; Jonski, Grazyna; Saxegaard, Erik

    2013-11-01

    To examine the erosion-inhibiting effect of different concentrations of hydrofluoric acid. Thirty-six human molars were individually treated with 10 ml of 0.1 M citric acid for 30 min (Etch 1), acid was collected and stored until analysis. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups and then individually treated with 10 ml of one of six dilutions (from 0.1-1%) of hydrofluoric acid. The teeth were then again treated with citric acid (Etch 2). The individual acid samples from Etch 1 and 2 were analyzed for calcium by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy and difference in calcium loss was calculated. The highest erosion inhibiting effect was obtained in groups with the highest concentrations of hydrofluoric acid, where the pH was lowest, below pKa of 3.17, thus the hydrofluoric acids being mainly in an undissociated state. Diluted hydrofluoric acid is present in aqueous solution of SnF2 and TiF4 (which are known to inhibit dental erosion): SnF2 + 3H2O = Sn(OH)2 + 2HF + H2O and TiF4 + 5H2O = Ti(OH)4 + 4HF + H2O. It is also known that pure, diluted hydrofluoric acid can inhibit dental erosion. Teeth treated with hydrofluoric acid are covered by a layer of CaF2-like mineral. This mineral is acid resistant at pH acid resistant mineral, initiated by tooth enamel treatment with hydrofluoric acid. Hydrofluoric acid is different in having fluoride as a conjugated base, which provides this acid with unique properties.

  17. Sports drinks and dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Warden H; Donovan, Terence E; Geissberger, Marc

    2011-04-01

    Sports drinks were originally developed to improve hydration and performance in athletes taking part in intense or endurance sporting events. These drinks contain relatively high amounts of carbohydrates (sugars), salt, and citric acid. These ingredients create the potential for dental ramifications and overall public health consequences such as obesity and diabetes. High intake of sports drinks during exercise, coupled with xerostomia from dehydration, may lead to the possibility of erosive damage to teeth.

  18. Erosive forms in rivers systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Una Alvarez, E. de; Vidal Romani, J. R.; Rodriguez Martinez-Conde, R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the geomorphological meaning of the concepts of stability/change and to study its influence on a fluvial erosion system. Different cases of fluvial potholes in Galicia (NW of the Iberian Peninsula) are considered. The work conclusions refer to the nature of the process and its morphological evolution in order to advance towards later contributions with respect of this type of systems. (Author) 14 refs.

  19. MR imaging of erosions in interphalangeal joint osteoarthritis: is all osteoarthritis erosive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grainger, A.J.; Farrant, J.M.; O'Connor, P.J.; Tan, A.L.; Emery, P.; Tanner, S.; McGonagle, D.

    2007-01-01

    Erosive osteoarthritis is usually considered as an inflammatory subset of osteoarthritis (OA). However, an inflammatory component is now recognised in all subsets of OA, so this subgroup of erosive or inflammatory OA is more difficult to conceptualise. The aim of this study was to compare routine CR and MRI to investigate erosion numbers and morphology to determine whether hand OA in general is a more erosive disease than previously recognised. Fifteen patients with clinical (OA) of the small joints of the hand underwent MRI of one of the affected proximal interphalangeal (PIP) or distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints. Conventional radiographs (CR) of the hand were also obtained. The MR images were reviewed by two observers for the presence of central and marginal erosions. The site and morphology of any erosions was recorded. CR images of the same hand joint were scored independently for central and marginal erosions by the same observers. There was 100% agreement between the observers for scoring erosions on CR. Agreement for the MRI scores was also excellent (kappa = 0.84). MRI detected 37 erosions, of which only 9 were seen on CR. The increase in sensitivity using MRI was much greater for marginal erosions (1 detected on CR, 19 on MRI) than for central erosions (8 on CR, 18 on MRI). Using MRI 80% of joints examined showed 1 or more erosions compared with 40% using CR. If only marginal erosions were considered 80% of joints were still considered erosive by MRI criteria, but only 1 showed evidence of erosion on CR. Morphologically central erosions appeared to represent areas of subchondral collapse and pressure atrophy. In contrast, marginal erosions resembled those seen in inflammatory arthritides. Erosions, and particularly marginal erosions typical of those seen in inflammatory arthritis, are a more common feature of small joint OA than conventional radiographs have previously indicated. (orig.)

  20. Coupled Wave Energy and Erosion Dynamics along a Salt Marsh Boundary, Hog Island Bay, Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M. Priestas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between lateral erosion of salt marshes and wind waves is studied in Hog Island Bay, Virginia USA, with high-resolution field measurements and aerial photographs. Marsh retreat is compared to wave climate calculated in the bay using the spectral wave-model Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN. We confirm the existence of a linear relationship between long-term salt marsh erosion and wave energy, and show that wave power can serve as a good proxy for average salt-marsh erosion rates. At each site, erosion rates are consistent across several temporal scales, ranging from months to decades, and are strongly related to wave power. On the contrary, erosion rates vary in space and weakly depend on the spatial distribution of wave energy. We ascribe this variability to spatial variations in geotechnical, biological, and morphological marsh attributes. Our detailed field measurements indicate that at a small spatial scale (tens of meters, a positive feedback between salt marsh geometry and wave action causes erosion rates to increase with boundary sinuosity. However, at the scale of the entire marsh boundary (hundreds of meters, this relationship is reversed: those sites that are more rapidly eroding have a marsh boundary which is significantly smoother than the marsh boundary of sheltered and slowly eroding marshes.

  1. Bioengineering Technology to Control River Soil Erosion using Vetiver (Vetiveria Zizaniodes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwati, M.; Pallu, S.; Selintung, M.; Lopa, R.

    2018-04-01

    Erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock or dissolved material from one location on the earth’s crust, and then transport it away to another location. Bioengineering is an attempt to maximise the use of vegetation components along riverbanks to cope with landslides and erosion of river cliffs and another riverbank damage. This study aims to analyze the bioengineering of Vetiver as a surface layer for soil erosion control using slope of 100, 200, and 300. This study is conducted with 3 variations of rain intensity (I), at 103 mm/hour, 107 mm/hour, and 130 mm/hour by using rainfall simulator tool. In addition, the USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) method is used in order to measure the rate of soil erosion. In this study, there are few USLE model parameters were used such as rainfall erosivity factor, soil erodibility factor, length-loss slope and stepness factor, cover management factor, and support practise factor. The results demonstrated that average of reduction of erosion rate using Vetiver, under 3 various rainfalls, namely rainfall intensity 103 mm/hr had reduced 84.971%, rainfall intensity 107 mm/hr had reduced 86.583 %, rainfall intensity 130 mm/hr had reduced 65.851%.

  2. Effect of carbides on erosion resistance of 23-8-N steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3.3 Erosion rate. The cumulative weight loss of 23-8-N steel observed at the end of the erosion test for 24 h in as-received and heat- treated conditions are shown in figure 2. It is seen the cumu- lative weight loss of 23-8-N steel has decreased after solution annealing. 3.4 Scanning electron metallography of fracture surface.

  3. An assessment for the erosion rate of DEMO first wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, M. Z.

    2018-01-01

    In a fusion reactor a significant fraction of plasma particles lost from the confined volume will reach the vessel wall. The recombination of these charged species, electrons and ions of hydrogen isotopes, is a source of neutral molecules and atoms, recycling back into the plasma. Here they participate, in particular, in charge-exchange (c-x) collisions with the plasma ions and, as a result, atoms of high energies with chaotically oriented velocities are generated. A significant fraction of these hot neutrals will hit the wall, leading, as well as the outflowing fuel and impurity ions, to its erosion, limiting the reactor operation time. The rate of the wall erosion in DEMO is assessed by applying a one-dimensional model which takes into account the transport of charged and neutral species across the flux surfaces in the main part of the scrape-off layer, beyond the X-point vicinity and divertor, and by considering the shift of the centers of flux surfaces, their elongation and triangularity. Atoms generated by c-x of recycling neutrals are modeled kinetically to define firmly their energy spectrum, being of particular importance for the erosion assessment. It is demonstrated the erosion rate of the DEMO wall armor of tungsten will have a pronounced ballooning character with a significant maximum of 0.3 mm per full power year at the low field side, decreasing with an increase in the anomalous perpendicular transport in the ‘far’ SOL or the plasma density at the separatrix.

  4. Mapping soil erosion susceptibility using GIS techniques within the Danube floodplain, the Calafat - Turnu Măgurele sector (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuş Oana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Danube floodplain, the Calafat - Turnu Măgurele sector, through its main features (topographic and climatic characteristics, land use and soil type and human activities, constitutes an area exposed to soil erosion. The main objective of the present research is to map soil erosion susceptibility using the GIS techniques for the computation and representation of areas, which are exposed to soil erosion correlated with the field data for the validation. Analyzing the entire model, the relatively simple methodology, the database consistence, the comparability of the results with the existent soil erosion values at national and local scale, we can say that the model was applied with success in the studied area (areas and classes of water erosion susceptibility: very low, low, moderate, high - Ciupercenii Noi, Desa, Măceşu de Jos, Grojdibodu, Orlea, very high - Rast, Negoi, Catane, Bistreţ, Goicea; areas and classes of wind erosion susceptibility: very low, low, moderate - Ciupercenii Noi, Dăbuleni, Ianca, high - Calafat, Poiana Mare, Desa, Goicea, Piscu Vechi, very high - Poiana Mare, Rast, Negoi, Bistreţ, Gighera, Orlea. The soil erosion susceptibility map can be useful for planning erosion control measures and for selecting suitable sites for runoff plot experiments.

  5. Wind uplift of radioactive dust from the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhon'ko, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Near nuclear power plants the recontamination of the atmosphere near the ground becomes dangerous, if a radioactive zone has formed at the site. Wind can easily carry toxic dust from the polluted territory of neighboring industrial enterprises. Moreover, wind erosion of the soil during the summer or transport of radioactive snow by a snowstorm during the winter can displace the boundaries of the contaminated radioactive zone. In Russia the investigation of wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground began after a radiation accident occurred at a storage facility in the Southern Urals in 1957, as a result of which a contaminated zone formed in the area. Since the direct mechanism of detachment of dust particles from the ground is not important in studying the results of the raising of radioactive dust into the atmosphere by wind, the authors do not distinguish between wind pickup and wind erosion, and the entire process wind pickup of radioactivity from the ground. After the radiation accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant a new generation of investigators began to study wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground, and the process under consideration was sometimes referred to as wind uplift. The intensity of the process of wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground is characterized by the wind pickup coefficient α, which is the coefficient of proportionality between the upward flux Q of radioactivity from the ground and the density A of radioactive contamination of the ground: α = Q/A. Physically, the coefficient α is the upward flux of the impurity from the ground with unit contamination density, i.e., the intensity of dust contamination or the fraction of radioactivity picked up by the wind from the ground per unit time. The greatest difficulty in determining α experimentally under dusty conditions is measuring correctly the upward radioactivity flux Q. The author discusses three methods for determining this quantity

  6. Wind-driven estuarine turbidity maxima in Mandovi Estuary, central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The impact of sea breeze appears nearly same as that of trade winds and cannot be underestimated in sediment resuspension and deposition. 1. ..... face waters is 0 (fluvial) or <2 at stations. 4 and 5, but varied widely up to ≤15 at sta- ..... The erosion rate varies with the sixth power of wave velocity. The powerful sea breeze ...

  7. Anthropogenic radioisotopes to estimate rates of soil redistribution by wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erosion of soil by wind and water is a degrading process that affects millions of hectares worldwide. Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons and the resulting fallout of anthropogenic radioisotopes, particularly Cesium 137, has made possible the estimation of mean soil redistribution rates. The pe...

  8. Edge scour at scour protections around offshore wind turbine foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thor Ugelvig; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    When building offshore wind turbines with mono-pile foundations, scour protection is typically placed to avoid scouring of the soil close to the mono-pile. An important aspect is that the scour protection itself causes erosion, inflicted by the local increase in the hydrodynamic field and in turn...

  9. Nutrient losses by wind and water, measurements and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.M.; Stroosnijder, L.; Chardon, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Sahelian zone of West-Africa, erosion by both wind and water causes a serious decline in fertility of the already low fertile soils. Despite the fact that the flow of nutrients has been intensively investigated by the use of nutrient balances, little attention has been paid to the

  10. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  11. Comparison of erosion and erosion control works in Macedonia, Serbia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Blinkov

    2013-12-01

    Natural conditions in the Balkan countries contribute to the appearance of various erosion forms and the intensity of the erosion processes. Over the history of these countries, people who settled this region used the available natural resources to fill their needs (tree cutting, incorrect plugging, overgrazing, which contributed to soil erosion. Organized erosion control works in the Balkans started in the beginning of the 20th century (1905 in Bulgaria. The highest intensity of erosion control works were carried out during the period 1945 – 1990. Various erosion control works were launched. Bulgaria had a large anti-erosion afforestation, almost 1 million ha. Bulgaria's ecological river restoration approach has been in use for almost 50 years. Serbia contributed significant erosion and torrent control works on hilly agricultural areas. Specific screen barrages and afforestation on extremely dry areas are characteristic in Macedonia. A common characteristic for all countries is a high decrease in erosion control works in the last 20 years.

  12. Analysis of dental erosion induced by different beverages and validity of equipment for identifying early dental erosion, in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Rafey Ahmad; Khan, Shah Salman; Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Hj; Bakri, Marina Mohd; Siddiqui, Saima

    2016-07-01

    To understand early dental erosion induced by different beverages and the equipment for its detection. The study was conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from June to September 2014, and comprised single-rooted, unpolished teeth divided into six groups. Electron micrographs and other baseline readings for further analyses were taken before and after the exposure to different beverages. The teeth were exposed to the beverages using a modified Nordini's artificial mouth model. The positioning of the teeth on the motorised stage of the equipment was standardised. Of the several beverages used, CocaCola had the lowest pH value of 2.53, while tap water had the highest pH of 5.4. Deionised distilled water, which was used as a reference, had a pH near to neutral /alkaline of 7.3. The fluoride content ranged between 9.38ppm in tea and 0.005ppm in orange juice. Teeth exposed to beverages with low pH and considerably high fluoride underwent slight remineralisation (roughness increase 8% from tea), while beverages with no fluoride content and low pH roughened the enamel surface (Coca Cola roughened upto 37%). Quantitative analyses of tooth erosion, micro-hardness, surface-roughness, and surface-height showed that all beverages exhibited positive erosive effect on the tooth enamel surface (pcoffee was more erosive among the hot beverages (29%).

  13. Stellar winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weymann, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    It is known that a steady outflow of material at comparable rates of mass loss but vastly different speeds is now known to be ubiquitous phenomenon among both the luminous hot stars and the luminous but cool red giants. The flows are probably massive enough in both cases to give rise to significant effects on stellar evolution and the mass balance between stars and the interstellar medium. The possible mechanisms for these phenomena as well as the methods of observation used are described. In particular, the mass-loss processes in stars other than the sun that also involve a steady flow of matter are considered. The evidence for their existence is described, and then the question of whether the process thought to produce the solar wind is also responsible for producing these stellar winds is explored

  14. Mapping monthly rainfall erosivity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballabio, C; Meusburger, K; Klik, A

    2017-01-01

    Rainfall erosivity as a dynamic factor of soil loss by water erosion is modelled intra-annually for the first time at European scale. The development of Rainfall Erosivity Database at European Scale (REDES) and its 2015 update with the extension to monthly component allowed to develop monthly and...... events. Consequently, spatio-temporal mapping of rainfall erosivity permits to identify the months and the areas with highest risk of soil loss where conservation measures should be applied in different seasons of the year....... and seasonal R-factor maps and assess rainfall erosivity both spatially and temporally. During winter months, significant rainfall erosivity is present only in part of the Mediterranean countries. A sudden increase of erosivity occurs in major part of European Union (except Mediterranean basin, western part...... to Eastern Europe. The maps also show a clear delineation of areas with different erosivity seasonal patterns, whose spatial outline was evidenced by cluster analysis. The monthly erosivity maps can be used to develop composite indicators that map both intra-annual variability and concentration of erosive...

  15. Validating and improving interrill erosion equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Bao; Wang, Zhan-Li; Yang, Ming-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Existing interrill erosion equations based on mini-plot experiments have largely ignored the effects of slope length and plot size on interrill erosion rate. This paper describes a series of simulated rainfall experiments which were conducted according to a randomized factorial design for five slope lengths (0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2 m) at a width of 0.4 m, five slope gradients (17%, 27%, 36%, 47%, and 58%), and five rainfall intensities (48, 62.4, 102, 149, and 170 mm h(-1)) to perform a systematic validation of existing interrill erosion equations based on mini-plots. The results indicated that the existing interrill erosion equations do not adequately describe the relationships between interrill erosion rate and its influencing factors with increasing slope length and rainfall intensity. Univariate analysis of variance showed that runoff rate, rainfall intensity, slope gradient, and slope length had significant effects on interrill erosion rate and that their interactions were significant at p = 0.01. An improved interrill erosion equation was constructed by analyzing the relationships of sediment concentration with rainfall intensity, slope length, and slope gradient. In the improved interrill erosion equation, the runoff rate and slope factor are the same as in the interrill erosion equation in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP), with the weight of rainfall intensity adjusted by an exponent of 0.22 and a slope length term added with an exponent of -0.25. Using experimental data from WEPP cropland soil field interrill erodibility experiments, it has been shown that the improved interrill erosion equation describes the relationship between interrill erosion rate and runoff rate, rainfall intensity, slope gradient, and slope length reasonably well and better than existing interrill erosion equations.

  16. Validating and Improving Interrill Erosion Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Bao; Wang, Zhan-Li; Yang, Ming-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Existing interrill erosion equations based on mini-plot experiments have largely ignored the effects of slope length and plot size on interrill erosion rate. This paper describes a series of simulated rainfall experiments which were conducted according to a randomized factorial design for five slope lengths (0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2 m) at a width of 0.4 m, five slope gradients (17%, 27%, 36%, 47%, and 58%), and five rainfall intensities (48, 62.4, 102, 149, and 170 mm h−1) to perform a systematic validation of existing interrill erosion equations based on mini-plots. The results indicated that the existing interrill erosion equations do not adequately describe the relationships between interrill erosion rate and its influencing factors with increasing slope length and rainfall intensity. Univariate analysis of variance showed that runoff rate, rainfall intensity, slope gradient, and slope length had significant effects on interrill erosion rate and that their interactions were significant at p = 0.01. An improved interrill erosion equation was constructed by analyzing the relationships of sediment concentration with rainfall intensity, slope length, and slope gradient. In the improved interrill erosion equation, the runoff rate and slope factor are the same as in the interrill erosion equation in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP), with the weight of rainfall intensity adjusted by an exponent of 0.22 and a slope length term added with an exponent of −0.25. Using experimental data from WEPP cropland soil field interrill erodibility experiments, it has been shown that the improved interrill erosion equation describes the relationship between interrill erosion rate and runoff rate, rainfall intensity, slope gradient, and slope length reasonably well and better than existing interrill erosion equations. PMID:24516624

  17. Wind conditions for wind turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-04-01

    Delegates from Europe and USA attended the meeting and discussed general aspects of wind conditions for wind turbine design. The subjects and the presented papers covered a very broad range of aspects of wind conditions and related influence on the wind turbine. (EHS)

  18. Thermo-mechanical correlations to erosion performance of short carbon fibre reinforced vinyl ester resin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Satapathy, Bhabani K.; Patnaik, Amar

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Composite with 30 wt.% of short carbon fibres exhibit highest energy dissipation. → Optimum erosion resistance conditions have been found. → A direct correlation emerged between erosive wear rate and loss-modulus inverse. → Mechanistic equivalence between erosion and dynamic loading modes is established. -- Abstract: Thermo-mechanical properties and erosion performance of short carbon fibre reinforced vinyl ester resin based isotropic polymer composites with four different fibre weight fractions have been investigated. The storage, loss and damping characteristics were analysed to assess the energy absorption/viscous recoverable energy dissipation and reinforcement efficiency of the composites as a function of fibre content in the temperature range of 0-140 o C. The composite with 30 wt.% of short carbon fibres has been observed to exhibit superior thermo-mechanical response with highest energy dissipation/damping ability accompanied with a constant storage modulus without any substantial decay till 60 o C. The erosion rates (Er) of these composites are evaluated at different impingement angles (30-90 o ), fibre loadings (20-50 wt.%), impact velocities (43-76 m/s), stand-off distances (55-85 mm) and erodent sizes (250-600 μm) following the erosion test schedule in an air jet type test rig. An optimal parameter combination is determined and subsequently validated for erosion rate minimization following Taguchi method and by conducting confirmation experiments. A correlation between the loss-modulus inverse and the erosion rate has been observed which conceptually establishes a possible mechanistic equivalence between erosion and dynamic mechanical loading modes. The morphologies of eroded surface are examined by the scanning electron microscopy to investigate the nature of wear-craters, material damage mode and other qualitative attributes responsible for promoting erosion.

  19. Sand Drift Potential by Wind in Shileh Plain of Sistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Poormand

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wind erosion is one of the most important factors in desert environments. Prevailing winds can shift sand dunes and affect their accumulation and morphology. Also, wind regime determines the direction of sand dune mobility in different ways. Therefore, the wind regime, frequency, direction and velocity are supposed to be the most important factors to form the morphology of sand dunes. Wind energy and changes in different directions (wind regime have large impacts on the morphology, maintenance and transformation of wind features. Having a global knowledge of the magnitude of aeolian processes, we can assess the powerful impact of sand dune mobility on residential areas and infrastructures. The most important factors including the frequency, magnitude and directional mobility of aeolian processes have a very important effect on the entrainment and form of sand dunes. Materials and Methods: To understand and identify the wind erosion regions, wind regime is a useful way since there is a strong correlation between wind regimes and sand dune morphology and structure. Sand rose and wind rose are assumed to be easy, fast and most accurate methods for the identification of wind erosion. Wind regimes processes have been studied by many researchers who believed that investigating wind regimes and sand dune mobility gives a measure of drift potential. Drift potential is a measure of the sand-moving capability by wind; derived from reduction of surface-wind data through a weighting equation. To predict drift potential, wind velocity and direction data from meteorological synoptic stations were used. Regarding the estimation of sand transport rate by wind, many formulas exist such as Bagnold, Kawamura, and Lattau. Also, many software applications have been suggested. However, among these formulas, Fryberger’s is the best and has been widely used since 1979. Results and Discussion: The aim of this study was to analyze wind velocities and

  20. Shoosing the appropriate size wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynette, R. [FloWind Corp., San Rafael, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Within the past several years, wind turbines rated at 400 kW and higher have been introduced into the market, and some manufacturers are developing machines rated at 750 - 1,000+ kW. This raises the question: What is the appropriate size for utility-grade wind turbines today? The answer depends upon the site where the machines will be used and the local conditions. The issues discussed in the paper are: (1) Site-Related (a) Visual, noise, erosion, television interference, interference with aviation (b) Siting efficiency (2) Logistics (a) Adequacy of roads and bridges to accept large vehicles (b) Availability and cost of cranes for erection and maintenance (c) Capability of local repair/overhauls (3) Cost Effectiveness (a) Capital costs (1) Wind Turbine (2) Infrastructure costs (b) Maintenance costs (4) Technical/Financial Risk. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Wind as a renewable energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawsey, R. A.; Ferraro, R. J.

    1988-12-01

    A description of the United States wind energy technology status, a discussion of recent milestones achieved in wind power, and a call for action in order for competitive wind systems to become practical in an international marketplace is presented in this report. An immediate opportunity to initiate a joint venture project with the government, equipment developers, equipment manufacturers, utilities, and the Electric Power Research Institute is described. The key technical areas of materials technology for reduced airfoil fatigue, airfoil design for optimum new-site performance, and power electronics for variable-speed wind turbines are highlighted.

  2. Surface decontamination by cavitation erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verry, P.; Lecoffre, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study is to show the interest of using erosion by cavitation to remove a thin layer of matter from an irradiated surface during nuclear power plant dismantling. Several cavitation devices are tested on different surfaces to erode: aluminum, stainless steel, plexiglas, paints... The process is efficient enough to measure mass loss on materials as hard as stainless steels for a pressure of only 60 bars. Qualification tests using a nozzle feed under a 300 to 600 bar pressure are envisaged

  3. DENTAL EROSION IN PRIMARY DENTITION- A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafi Shaik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The pattern of oral diseases has been influenced by ever changing human lifestyle. Tooth wear especially dental erosion has drawn increasing attention as risk factor for tooth damage or loss in recent years. It is a common condition in primary dentition compared to permanent dentition due to thinner and less mineralised enamel. However, it is more worrying, when this condition is being found in an alarming proportion among children. The presence of dental erosion in children is likely to be associated with a number of general health and dietary factors, but it is also aggravated by the relatively more rapid progression of erosion in the deciduous teeth. An understanding of the aetiologies and risk factors for erosion is important for early recognition of dental erosion to prevent serious irreversible damage to the dentition. This paper discusses the erosion in children with regard to its epidemiology, prevalence, clinical features, measurement and prevention.

  4. Physics of soil erosion at the microscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus here on the major and always topical issue of soil erosion by fluid flows, and more specifically on the determination of both a critical threshold for erosion occurrence and a kinetics that specifies the rate of eroded matter entrainment. A synthetic state-of-the-art is first proposed with a critical view on the most commonly used methods and erosion models. It is then discussed an alternative strategy, promoting the use of model materials that allow systematic parametric investigations with the purpose of first identifying more precisely the local mechanisms responsible for soil particle erosion and second ultimately quantifying both critical onsets and kinetics, possibly through existing or novel empirical erosion laws. Finally, we present and discuss several examples following this methodology, implemented either by means of experiments or numerical simulations, and coupling erosion tests in several particular hydrodynamical configurations with wisely selected mechanical tests.

  5. Varioliform erosions in the stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, W.; Schulz, D.; Munkel, G.

    1984-01-01

    One thousand five hundred and eighty-three patients who were x-rayed for dyspepsia showed varioliform erosions in 15.3%. Men had an incidence of 9.8%, almost twice as common as in women (5.5%). Mucosal polyps, usually of the hyperplastic type, occurred in 2.4%. 15% of patients with gastric ulcers and 16% of patients with duodenal ulcers had varioliform erosions. On the other hand, amongst patients with erosions, 11% had gastric ulcers and 8.3% duodenal ulcers. The definitions of erosion which have been given in the literature are partly contradictory, and are discussed. Varioliform erosions, also known as complete erosions, may be acute or chronic. They are the third most common cause of bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract. With modern radiological methods of examining the stomach, they are no longer a rare finding. (orig.) [de

  6. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  7. Impact-generated winds on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Quintana, Stephanie N.

    2017-08-01

    Bright and dark wind streaks across Mars record wind patterns related to atmospheric circulation. In some cases these streaks represent erosion of a surface veneer; in others, they indicate sand grains mobilized by strong vortices shed off of positive relief, such as crater rims. While many streaks change length or orientation over time, others not only remain unchanged but also may indicate a completely different wind direction. These permanent streaks could reflect past circulation patterns in response to conditions related to orbital forcing (e.g., Thomas and Veverka, 1979; Veverka et al., 1981). Here, however, we focus on a subset of permanent wind streaks unrelated to global circulation, rather to impact-generated winds that can extend more than 500 km away from the crater. Nighttime images from the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) reveal certain large craters (> 15 km in diameter) having sets of thermally bright streaks that radiate from certain fresh impact craters. These streaks extend from pre-existing topographic highs (crater rims, wrinkle ridges) beyond the continuous ejecta deposits to more than 6 crater radii, unrelated to secondary craters. For illustration, this contribution primarily focuses on the 20 km-diameter Santa Fe crater in Chryse Planitia. Context Camera (CTX) images reveal that these streaks correspond to zones of erosion. The thermally bright rays in nighttime images correlate with regions where coarser materials have been exposed, not always resolved even in HiRISE images. Models of the impact process indicate impact-generated vapor most likely generated intense winds that scoured the region, well before arrival of secondary craters and later ejecta run-out flows. Pre-existing relief (such as crater rims) disturbed this flow and generated intense cross-flow instabilities resulting in long parallel streaks.

  8. Reduction of surface erosion in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossing, T.D.; Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the major processes leading to surface erosion in fusion reactors are reviewed briefly, including blistering by implanted gas, sputtering by ions, atoms, and neutrons, and vaporization by local heating. Surface erosion affects the structural integrity and limits the lifetime of reactor components exposed to plasma radiation. In addition, some of the processes leading to surface erosion also cause the release of plasma contaminants. Methods proposed to reduce surface erosion have included control of surface temperature, selection of materials with a favorable microstructure, chemical and mechanical treatment of surfaces, and employment of protective surface coatings, wall liners, and divertors. The advantages and disadvantages of some of these methods are discussed

  9. Erosive lichen planus: a therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Williams; Giesen, Laura; Navajas-Galimany, Lucas; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Erosive lichen planus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus. Chronic erosions of the soles, accompanied by intense and disabling pain, are some of its most characteristic manifestations. We present the case of a woman who developed oral and plantar erosive lichen planus associated with lichen planus pigmentosus and ungueal lichen planus that were diagnosed after several years. The patient failed to respond to multiple therapies requiring longstanding medication but remained refractory. Knowledge of the treatment options for erosive lichen planus is insufficient. Further research is required to clarify their effectiveness, ideally adopting an evidence-based methodology.

  10. Erosion products in disruption simulation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronov, V.; Arkhipov, N.; Bakhtin, V.; Barsuk, V.; Kurkin, S.; Mironova, E.; Toporkov, D.; Vasenin, S.; Zhitlukhin, A. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research, Troisk, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Arkhipov, I. [Inst. of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Werle, H.; Wuerz, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Erosion of divertor materials under tokamak disruption event presents a serious problem of ITER technology. Erosion restricts the divertor lifetime and leads to production of redeposited layers of the material retaining large amount of tritium, which is a major safety issue for future fusion reactor. Since ITER disruptive heatloads are not achievable in existing tokamaks, material erosion is studied in special simulation experiments. Till now the simulation experiments have focused mainly on investigation of shielding effect and measurement of erosion rate. In the present work the properties of eroded and redeposited graphite are studied under condition typical for hard ITER disruption. (author)

  11. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  12. Prospecting for Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a…

  13. Careers in Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  14. Erosion rates of wood during natural weathering. Part II, Earlywood and latewood erosion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Mark T. Knaebe; William C. Feist

    2001-01-01

    This is the second in a series of reports on the erosion rates of wood exposed outdoors near Madison, Wisconsin. In the work reported here, the erosion rates of earlywood and latewood were determined for smooth-planed vertical-grained lumber for an exposure period of 14 years. The specimens were oriented vertically, facing south; erosion was measured annually for the...

  15. Erosion rates of wood during natural weathering. Part III, Effect of exposure angle on erosion rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Mark T. Knaebe; James W. Evans; William C. Feist

    2001-01-01

    This is the third in a series of reports on the erosion rates of wood exposed outdoors near Madison, Wisconsin. The specimens were exposed at an orientation of 90* or 45* facing south or horizontally (0*) for 10 years. Erosion was measured annually for the first 8 years and after 10 years. The erosion rates of earlywood (springwood) and latewood (summerwood) were...

  16. Graffiti for science - erosion painting reveals spatially variable erosivity of sediment-laden flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Alexander R.; Kirchner, James W.; Turowski, Jens M.

    2016-12-01

    Spatially distributed detection of bedrock erosion is a long-standing challenge. Here we show how the spatial distribution of surface erosion can be visualized and analysed by observing the erosion of paint from natural bedrock surfaces. If the paint is evenly applied, it creates a surface with relatively uniform erodibility, such that spatial variability in the erosion of the paint reflects variations in the erosivity of the flow and its entrained sediment. In a proof-of-concept study, this approach provided direct visual verification that sediment impacts were focused on upstream-facing surfaces in a natural bedrock gorge. Further, erosion painting demonstrated strong cross-stream variations in bedrock erosion, even in the relatively narrow (5 m wide) gorge that we studied. The left side of the gorge experienced high sediment throughput with abundant lateral erosion on the painted wall up to 80 cm above the bed, but the right side of the gorge only showed a narrow erosion band 15-40 cm above the bed, likely due to deposited sediment shielding the lower part of the wall. This erosion pattern therefore reveals spatial stream bed aggradation that occurs during flood events in this channel. The erosion painting method provides a simple technique for mapping sediment impact intensities and qualitatively observing spatially distributed erosion in bedrock stream reaches. It can potentially find wide application in both laboratory and field studies.

  17. Graffiti for science – erosion painting reveals spatially variable erosivity of sediment-laden flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Beer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatially distributed detection of bedrock erosion is a long-standing challenge. Here we show how the spatial distribution of surface erosion can be visualized and analysed by observing the erosion of paint from natural bedrock surfaces. If the paint is evenly applied, it creates a surface with relatively uniform erodibility, such that spatial variability in the erosion of the paint reflects variations in the erosivity of the flow and its entrained sediment. In a proof-of-concept study, this approach provided direct visual verification that sediment impacts were focused on upstream-facing surfaces in a natural bedrock gorge. Further, erosion painting demonstrated strong cross-stream variations in bedrock erosion, even in the relatively narrow (5 m wide gorge that we studied. The left side of the gorge experienced high sediment throughput with abundant lateral erosion on the painted wall up to 80 cm above the bed, but the right side of the gorge only showed a narrow erosion band 15–40 cm above the bed, likely due to deposited sediment shielding the lower part of the wall. This erosion pattern therefore reveals spatial stream bed aggradation that occurs during flood events in this channel. The erosion painting method provides a simple technique for mapping sediment impact intensities and qualitatively observing spatially distributed erosion in bedrock stream reaches. It can potentially find wide application in both laboratory and field studies.

  18. Farmers' identification of erosion indicators and related erosion damage in the Central Highlands of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, G.; Okoba, B.O.

    2006-01-01

    Most soil and water conservation planning approaches rely on empirical assessment methods and hardly consider farmers' knowledge of soil erosion processes. Farmers' knowledge of on-site erosion indicators could be useful in assessing the site-specific erosion risk before planning any conservation

  19. [Species-associated differences in foliage-root coupling soil-reinforcement and anti-erosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-quan; Liu, Jing; Nao, Min; Yao, Xi-jun; Zheng, Yong-gang; Li, You-fang; Su, Yu; Wang, Chen-jia

    2015-02-01

    This paper took four kinds of common soil and water conservation plants of the study area, Caragana microphylla, Salix psammophila, Artemisia sphaerocephala and Hippophae rhamnides at ages of 4 as the research object. Thirteen indicators, i.e., single shrub to reduce wind velocity ration, shelterbelt reducing wind velocity ration, community reducing wind velocity ration, taproot tensile strength, representative root constitutive properties, representative root elasticity modulus, lateral root branch tensile strength, accumulative surface area, root-soil interface sheer strength, interface friction coefficient, accumulative root length, root-soil composite cohesive, root-soil composite equivalent friction angle, reflecting the characteristics of windbreak and roots, were chose to evaluate the differences of foliage-root coupling soil-reinforcement and anti-erosion among four kinds of plants by analytic hierarchy process (AHP) under the condition of spring gale and summer rainstorm, respectively. The results showed the anti-erosion index of foliage-root coupling was in the sequence of S. psammophila (0.841) > C. microphylla (0.454) > A. sphaerocephala (-0.466) > H. rhamnides (-0.829) in spring gale, and C. microphylla (0.841) > S. psammophila (0. 474) > A. sphaerocephala (-0.470) > H. rhamnides (-0.844) in summer rainstorm. S. psammophila could be regarded as one of the most important windbreak and anti-erosion species, while C. microphylla could be the most valuable soil and water conservation plant for the study area.

  20. Study on Sand Erosion and Tribological Behavior of TiO₂ Films Prepared on a Glass Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Junzhong; Shi, Zhiming; Liu, Quansheng; Ji, Guojun

    2018-03-01

    TiO2 films with one, three or five layers were prepared on a glass surface using the sol-gel method. The crystal structure, the surface morphology and the thickness of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry. The tribological properties of the TiO2 films were investigated by a tribometer. TiO2 thin films were eroded by sand-air injection. The erosion behavior and mechanism of TiO2 thin films in a sandstorm were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the films were highly abraded with increased erosion speed and dose of sand. With an increase in film layers, the erosion resistance and wear resistance of the TiO2 films increased gradually. The erosion mechanism consists of the film being damaged mainly from the cutting action of micro-scratches from low angle erosion. Alternatively, for high angle erosion, the material is damaged mainly by squeeze deformation by the action of erosion. Because of the high strength and toughness of the TiO2 thin films, the wear of its coating from high angle erosion is more severe than that from low erosion angle.