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Sample records for wind erosion electronic

  1. Wind erosion processes and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion continues to threaten the sustainability of our nations' soil, air, and water resources. To effectively apply conservation systems to prevent wind driven soil loss, an understanding of the fundamental processes of wind erosion is necessary so that land managers can better recognize the ...

  2. Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. S. Wagenbrenner; M. J. Germino; B. K. Lamb; R. B. Foltz; P. R. Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are largely unstudied in the post-wildfire environment, but recent studies have shown that wind erosion can play a major role in burned landscapes. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned area (Figure 1). This paper...

  3. Wind erosion modelling in a Sahelian environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faye-Visser, S.M.; Sterk, G.; Karssenberg, D.

    2005-01-01

    In the Sahel field observations of wind-blown mass transport often show considerable spatial variation related to the spatial variation of the wind erosion controlling parameters, e.g. soil crust and vegetation cover. A model, used to predict spatial variation in wind erosion and deposition is a

  4. Determining Wind Erosion in the Great Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Elwin G. Smith; Burton C. English

    1982-01-01

    Wind erosion is defined as the movement of soil particles resulting from strong turbulent winds. The movement of soil particles can be categorized as suspension, saltation, or surface creep. Fine soil particles can be suspended in the atmosphere and carried for great distances. Particles too large to be suspended move in a jumping action along the soil surface, known as saltation. Heavier particles have a rolling movement along the surface and this type of erosion is surface creep.

  5. On the geoethical implications of wind erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Károly, Tatárvári

    2016-04-01

    Human activities exerts an ever growing impact on our environment, and this is undeniably the responsibility of mankind. In spite of this fact there is almost no process in our environment that can be described exactly with complete exactness, and the working of which is known in full extent. Wind erosion is such a process. Although water erosion is mentioned ever more often in scientific circles as a from of erosion, its effect is restrained to a certain region, although it may cause perceptibly damage of a greater extent in short time. Wind erosion, apart from the fact that it may have global impact, may play an important role in the warming of our climate according to recent studies. First of all, wind erosion may cause damage far from its origin in human health, nutrition, or in the environment in general. Today several surveys have proved, that erosion caused by wind significantly contributes to the air pollution of cities, the fine dust carried as drift by the wind may cause severe environmental damage in accumulation zones. Microbes, toxic material may attach themselves to the dust carried this way and carried on and by the wings of the wind they may cause health issues in humans animals and plants as well. In spite of these facts there are almost no measures against wind erosion employed in arable land, although our ever doughtier climate and changes would make these necessary. Reduction of organic matter content presents a great problem in a large part of cultivated land, so the risk of the production of high quality food raises questions of more and more ethical nature. Who is responsible? The fact, that the chemicals used in a growing extent by agriculture may reach many people causing considerable damage to the environment also raises serious ethical questions. More and more periods with extreme weather conditions are experienced in Hungary and Europe as the effect of climate change. Drought periods are longer and more frequent as the intensity of

  6. Modelling of environmental and climatic problems: Wind and water erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Magnitude of wind and water erosion mainly depend on wind velocity, rainfall rate, slope and soil characteristics. The main purpose of this lecture is to define the role of small, meso and large scale phenomena (local and synoptic fluctuations) on water and wind erosion. These lecture notes present some results on wind speed simulation and seasonal fluctuations of water deficit for the selected station in different erosion risque and transition regions of Turkey. (author)

  7. Wind and water erosion control on semiarid lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddoway, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial crop production on semiarid lands is difficult because insufficient water is often present to manage the system effectively. Erosion control presents the major management problem. The factors contributing to wind erosion and their interaction have been quantified into a wind erosion equation. The control of wind erosion through agronomic alteration of the various factors is discussed. The quantification and control of water erosion is also discussed with respect to the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Radioisotopes tracers have been used in conjunction with these erosion equations to measure soil losses. (author)

  8. Soil deflation analyses from wind erosion events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Lackóová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are various methods to assess soil erodibility for wind erosion. This paper focuses on aggregate analysis by a laser particle sizer ANALYSETTE 22 (FRITSCH GmbH, made to determine the size distribution of soil particles detached by wind (deflated particles. Ten soil samples, trapped along the same length of the erosion surface (150–155 m but at different wind speeds, were analysed. The soil was sampled from a flat, smooth area without vegetation cover or soil crust, not affected by the impact of windbreaks or other barriers, from a depth of maximum 2.5 cm. Prior to analysis the samples were prepared according to the relevant specifications. An experiment was also conducted using a device that enables characterisation of the vertical movement of the deflated material. The trapped samples showed no differences in particle size and the proportions of size fractions at different hourly average wind speeds. It was observed that most of particles travelling in saltation mode (size 50–500 μm – 58–70% – moved vertically up to 26 cm above the soil surface. At greater heights, particles moving in suspension mode (floating in the air; size < 100 μm accounted for up to 90% of the samples. This result suggests that the boundary between the two modes of the vertical movement of deflated soil particles lies at about 25 cm above the soil surface.

  9. [Research progress on wind erosion control with polyacrylamide (PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan Yuan; Wang, Zhan Li

    2016-03-01

    Soil wind erosion is one of the main reasons for soil degradation in the northwest region of China. Polyacrylamide (PAM), as an efficient soil amendment, has gained extensive attention in recent years since it is effective in improving the structure of surface soil due to its special physical and chemical properties. This paper introduced the physical and chemical properties of PAM, reviewed the effects of PAM on soil wind erosion amount and threshold wind velocity, as well as the effect differences of PAM in soil wind erosion control under conditions of various methods and doses. Its effect was proved by comparing with other materials in detail. Furthermore, we analyzed the mecha-nism of wind erosion control with PAM according to its influence on soil physical characteristics. Comprehensive analysis showed that, although some problems existed in wind erosion control with (PAM), PAM as a sand fixation agent, can not only enhance the capacity of the soil resis-tance to wind erosion, but also improve soil physical properties to form better soil conditions. Besides, we proposed that combination of PAM and plant growth would increase the survival rate of plants greatly, control soil wind erosion in wind-erosive areas, and improve the quality of the ecological environment construction. Thus, PAM has practically important significance and wide application prospect in controlling soil wind erosion.

  10. Development of an Integrated Water and Wind Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, D. C.; Ascough, J. C.; Wagner, L. E.; Geter, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Prediction technologies for soil erosion by the forces of wind or water have largely been developed independently from one another, especially within the United States. Much of this has been due to the initial creation of equations and models which were empirical in nature (i.e., Universal Soil Loss Equation, Wind Erosion Equation) and based upon separate water erosion or wind erosion plot and field measurements. Additionally, institutional organizations in place typically divided research efforts and funding to unique wind or water erosion research and modeling projects. However, during the past 20 years computer technologies and erosion modeling have progressed to the point where it is now possible to merge physical process-based computer simulation models into an integrated water and wind erosion prediction system. In a physically- based model, many of the processes which must be simulated for wind and water erosion computations are the same, e.g., climate, water balance, runoff, plant growth, etc. Model components which specifically deal with the wind or water detachment, transport and deposition processes are those that must differ, as well as any necessary parameterization of input variables (e.g., adjusted soil erodibilities, critical shear stresses, etc.) for those components. This presentation describes current efforts towards development of a combined wind and water erosion model, based in part upon technologies present in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) and the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) models. Initial efforts during the past two years have resulted in modular modeling components that allow for prediction of infiltration, surface runoff, and water erosion at a hillslope scale within an Object Modeling System. Additional components currently in development include wind detachment at a single field point, continuous water balance, and unified plant growth. Challenges in this project are many, and include adequate field

  11. Wind erosion control of soils using polymeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Movahedan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion of soils is one of the most important problems in environment and agriculture which could affects several fields. Agricultural lands, water reservoires, irrigation canals, drains and etc. may be affected by wind erosion and suspended particles. As a result wind erosion control needs attention in arid and semi-arid regions. In recent years, some polymeric materials have been used for improvement of structural stability, increasing aggregate stability and soil stabilization, though kind of polymer, quantity of polymer, field efficiency and durability and environmental impacts are some important parameters which should be taken into consideration. In this study, a Polyvinil Acetate-based polymer was used to treat different soils. Then polymer-added soil samples were investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel to verify the effecte of polymer on wind erosion control of the soils and the results were compared with water treated soil samples. The results of wind tunnel experiments with a maximum 26 m/s wind velocity showed that there was a significat difference between the erosion of polymer treated and water treated soil samples. Application of 25g/m2 polymer to Aeolian sands reduced the erosion of Aeolian sands samples to zero related to water treated samples. For silty and calyey soils treated by polymer, the wind erosion reduced minimum 90% in relation to water treated samples.

  12. Integrated spatial assessment of wind erosion risk in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pásztor

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion susceptibility of Hungarian soils was mapped on the national level integrating three factors of the complex phenomenon of deflation (physical soil features, wind characteristics, and land use and land cover. Results of wind tunnel experiments on erodibility of representative soil samples were used for the parametrization of a countrywide map of soil texture compiled for the upper 5 cm layer of soil, which resulted in a map representing threshold wind velocity exceedance. Average wind velocity was spatially estimated with 0.5′ resolution using the Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenised Data Basis (MISH method elaborated for the spatial interpolation of surface meteorological elements. The probability of threshold wind velocity exceedance was determined based on values predicted by the soil texture map at the grid locations. Ratio values were further interpolated to a finer 1 ha resolution using sand and silt content of the uppermost (0–5 cm layer of soil as spatial co-variables. Land cover was also taken into account, excluding areas that are not relevant to wind erosion (forests, water bodies, settlements, etc., to spatially assess the risk of wind erosion. According to the resulting map of wind erosion susceptibility, about 10 % of the total area of Hungary can be identified as susceptible to wind erosion. The map gives more detailed insight into the spatial distribution of wind-affected areas in Hungary compared to previous studies.

  13. Wind erosion potential after land application of biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    PI, H.; Sharratt, B. S.; Schillinger, W. F.; Bary, A.; Cogger, C.

    2017-12-01

    The world population is currently 7.6 billion and, along with continued population growth, comes the challenge of disposing of wastewater and sewage sludge (biosolids). Applying biosolids to agricultural land to replace synthetic fertilizers represents a relatively safe method to recycle or sustainably use biosolids. While land application of biosolids is recognized as a sustainable management practice for enhancing soil health, no studies have determined the effects of biosolids on soil wind erosion. Wind erosion potential of a silt loam was assessed using a portable wind tunnel after applying synthetic and biosolid fertilizer to conventional and conservation tillage practices during the summer fallow phase of a winter wheat-summer fallow rotation in 2015 and 2016 in east-central Washington. Little difference in soil loss was observed between biosolid and synthetic fertilizer treatments, but this result appeared to be dependent on susceptibility of the soil to erosion. Regression analysis between soil loss from fertilizer or tillage treatments indicated that soil loss was lower from biosolid versus synthetic fertilizer and conservation versus conventional tillage at high erosion rates. This suggests that biosolids may reduce wind erosion under highly erodible conditions. Meanwhile, heavy metal concentrations in the windblown sediment were similar for the biosolid and synthetic fertilizer treatments whereas metal loss in windblown sediment was 10% lower from biosolid than synthetic fertilizer. Our results indicate that land application of biosolids did not accelerate the loss of metals or nutrients from soils during high winds. KeywordsLand application of biosolids; wind erosion; wind tunnel; sustainable agriculture

  14. Mechanics of interrill erosion with wind-driven rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vector physics of wind-driven rain (WDR) differs from that of wind-free rain, and the interrill soil detachment equations in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model were not originally developed to deal with this phenomenon. This article provides an evaluation of the performance of the...

  15. Mechanics of Interrill Erosion with Wind-Driven Rain (WDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article provides an evaluation analysis for the performance of the interrill component of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model for Wind-Driven Rain (WDR) events. The interrill delivery rates (Di) were collected in the wind tunnel rainfall simulator facility of the International Cen...

  16. Building Chinese wind data for Wind Erosion Prediction System using surrogate US data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a global problem, especially in arid and semiarid regions of the world, which leads to land degradation and atmosphere pollution. The process-based Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS), developed by the USDA, is capable of simulating the windblown soil loss with changing weather and...

  17. Accelerated rain erosion of wind turbine blade coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shizhong

    . There are four chapters in the thesis. In chapter 1, a literature survey provides background information to the field. Topics discussed are the global wind energy development, possible wind turbine constructions, blade structures and materials, blade coatings, and liquid erosion mechanisms. In chapter 2......During operation, the fast-moving blades of wind turbines are exposed to continuous impacts with rain droplets, hail, insects, or solid particles. This can lead to erosion of the blades, whereby the electrical efficiency is compromised and expensive repairs may be required. One possible solution...

  18. Wind driven erosion and the effects of particulate electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrison, J. P.; Bak, E.; Finster, K.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Knak Jensen, S.; Nørnberg, P.; Rasmussen, K. R.

    2012-09-01

    Several related aspects of Aeolian activity are presently being studied in the laboratory, the most recent advances in this field will be presented. These include simulating wind driven erosion in the laboratory, quantifying erosion rates and the study of mineral change due to mechanical activation. Also advances in our understanding of the electrification of sand/dust particles is being made and how this phenomenon affects their behavior.

  19. Climate change and wind erosion by dust storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheaton, E.E.; Wittrock, V.

    1991-01-01

    Dust storms and their associated wind erosion are thought to be almost synonymous with drought. Dust storms have varying impacts including sandblasting and burying crops, wind erosion of soil, health effects and traffic accidents. A comparison of drought periods for southern Saskatchewan with dust storm frequencies for the period 1977-1988 revealed that the worst drought conditions coincided with the greatest April dust storm frequencies, with 1981 having the worst drought, and secondary spring droughts occurring in 1977, 1988, 1980 and 1982, and spring dust storm peaks occurring, in order of magnitude, in 1981, 1977, 1987, and 1982. An increase in atmospheric dust particles may lead to enhanced atmospheric subsidence and associated drought, and could be a positive feedback for drought intensity. Wind erosion potential may rise with rising temperature due to decreased vegetation cover, but the effect might be offset by rising precipitation

  20. Determination of wind erosion intensity on heavy clay soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kozlovsky Dufková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion, common problem of light-textured soils, was determined on heavy clay soils in the foothills of Bílé Karpaty Mountains, Czech Republic. Soil erodibility by wind was determined from the Map of potential erodibility of soil by wind and from the calculation of potential and real soil loss by wind. All the determinations show underestimation of soil erodibility by wind on heavy clay soils, because methods that are used for this are based above all on the assessment of clay particles content and the presumption the more clay particles soil contains, the less vulnerable to wind erosion is. The potential erodibility of soil by wind is 0,09 t . ha−1 per year. The determined value does not exceed the tolerable soil loss limit 10 t . ha−1 per year for deep soils. The real average erodibility of soil by wind has the highest value 1,47 g . m−2 on November 30th, 2008. Other soil losses that do not exceed the tolerable soil loss limit 1,4 g . m−2, were determined on March 18th and 28th, 2008. Big difficulties come with the assessment of the erodibility of heavy clay soils in the areas, where soil erosion ve­ri­fia­bly exists, but it is not assessable by objective calculating methods. Evident necessity of new know­ledge concerning the determination of wind erosion intensity follows from the results.

  1. Using albedo to reform wind erosion modelling, mapping and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Adrian; Webb, Nicholas P.

    2016-12-01

    Wind erosion and dust emission models are used to assess the impacts of dust on radiative forcing in the atmosphere, cloud formation, nutrient fertilisation and human health. The models are underpinned by a two-dimensional geometric property (lateral cover; L) used to characterise the three-dimensional aerodynamic roughness (sheltered area or wakes) of the Earth's surface and calibrate the momentum it extracts from the wind. We reveal a fundamental weakness in L and demonstrate that values are an order of magnitude too small and significant aerodynamic interactions between roughness elements and their sheltered areas have been omitted, particularly under sparse surface roughness. We describe a solution which develops published work to establish a relation between sheltered area and the proportion of shadow over a given area; the inverse of direct beam directional hemispherical reflectance (black sky albedo; BSA). We show direct relations between shadow and wind tunnel measurements and thereby provide direct calibrations of key aerodynamic properties. Estimation of the aerodynamic parameters from albedo enables wind erosion assessments over areas, across platforms from the field to airborne and readily available satellite data. Our new approach demonstrated redundancy in existing wind erosion models and thereby reduced model complexity and improved fidelity. We found that the use of albedo enabled an adequate description of aerodynamic sheltering to characterise fluid dynamics and predict sediment transport without the use of a drag partition scheme (Rt) or threshold friction velocity (u∗t). We applied the calibrations to produce global maps of aerodynamic properties which showed very similar spatial patterns to each other and confirmed the redundancy in the traditional parameters of wind erosion modelling. We evaluated temporal patterns of predicted horizontal mass flux at locations across Australia which revealed variation between land cover types that would not

  2. Wind tunnel experimental study on the effect of PAM on soil wind erosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ji-Jun; Cai, Qiang-Guo; Tang, Ze-Jun

    2008-10-01

    In recent years, high-molecular-weight anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) have been widely tested on a variety of soils, primarily in water erosion control. However, little information is available regarding the effectiveness of PAM on preventing soil loss from wind erosion. The research adopted room wind tunnel experiment, two kinds of soils were used which were from the agro-pastoral area of Inner Mongolia, the northwest of China, the clay content of soils were 22.0 and 13.7%, respectively. For these tests, all the treatments were performed under the condition of wind velocity of 14 m s(-1) and a blown angle of 8.75%, according to the actual situation of experimented area. The study results indicated that using PAM on the soil surface could enhance the capability of avoiding the wind erosion, at the same time, the effect of controlling wind soil erosion with 4 g m(-2) PAM was better than 2 g m(-2) PAM's. Economically, the 2 g m(-2) PAM used in soil surface can control wind erosion effectively in this region. The prophase PAM accumulated in soil could not improve the capability of avoiding the wind erosion, owing to the degradation of PAM in the soil and the continual tillage year after year. The texture of soil is a main factor influencing the capability of soil avoiding wind erosion. Soil with higher clay content has the higher capability of preventing soil from wind erosion than one with the opposite one under the together action of PAM and water.

  3. An index guiding temporal planting policies for wind erosion reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, C.X.; Zheng, D.W.; Stigter, C.J.; He, W.Q.; Tuo, D.B.; Zhao, P.

    2006-01-01

    Vegetation cover has spatial as well as temporal characteristics, but the latter are often neglected. Temporal cover characteristics were explored to recommend planting policies for returning arable land into land better protected from serious wind erosion during late autumn, winter, and

  4. Dryland Degradation by wind erosion and its control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, G.; Riksen, M.; Goossens, D.

    2001-01-01

    Global population growth, is expected to impose an increasing pressure on agricultural production in the world's drylands, which cover approximately 41␘f the continental area. The land resources in drylands are severely threatened by soil degradation, with wind erosion being, one of the major

  5. Crater Mound Formation by Wind Erosion on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, L. J.; Kite, E. S.; Michaels, T. I.

    2018-01-01

    Most of Mars' ancient sedimentary rocks by volume are in wind-eroded sedimentary mounds within impact craters and canyons, but the connections between mound form and wind erosion are unclear. We perform mesoscale simulations of different crater and mound morphologies to understand the formation of sedimentary mounds. As crater depth increases, slope winds produce increased erosion near the base of the crater wall, forming mounds. Peak erosion rates occur when the crater depth is ˜2 km. Mound evolution depends on the size of the host crater. In smaller craters mounds preferentially erode at the top, becoming more squat, while in larger craters mounds become steeper sided. This agrees with observations where smaller craters tend to have proportionally shorter mounds and larger craters have mounds encircled by moats. If a large-scale sedimentary layer blankets a crater, then as the layer recedes across the crater it will erode more toward the edges of the crater, resulting in a crescent-shaped moat. When a 160 km diameter mound-hosting crater is subject to a prevailing wind, the surface wind stress is stronger on the leeward side than on the windward side. This results in the center of the mound appearing to "march upwind" over time and forming a "bat-wing" shape, as is observed for Mount Sharp in Gale crater.

  6. A history of wind erosion prediction models in the United States Department of Agriculture: The Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) was officially inaugurated in 1985 by United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) scientists in response to customer requests, particularly those coming from the USDA Soil Conservation Service (SCS), for im...

  7. WIND EROSION INTENSITY DETERMINATION USING SOIL PARTICLE CATCHER DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Lackóová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To analyze wind erosion events in the real terrain conditions, we proposed to construct a prototype of soil particle catcher devices to trap soil particles. With these devices we are able to measure the intensity of wind erosion at six different heights above the soil surface in one location or at three different heights in two places. It is possible to use them for six different places at the same time as well. We performed field measurements to determine the amount of soil particles transported by the wind between 26th – 31st March 2012. Each measuring took 60 minutes. After this time the soil particle catchers were emptied and further measurements carried out. At the beginning we selected two places for measurement (soil HPJ 16 and 37 at two heights, one above the other. Then we used two measuring systems 40 m apart at two sites (D2 and D4 and the soil captured at two heights (0, 1. The maximum weight of soil particles trapped in measuring system D2 at height (0 was 1242.7 g at a wind speed of 9.6 ms-1. At measurement height (1 the maximum weight was 72.7 g trapped at the same average hourly rate, but during different measurement events. The measuring system at D4 trapped the highest amount of soil at a wind speed of 8.9 ms-1 (1141.7 g at height (0 and at a speed of 9.3 ms-1 (22.3 g at height (1. During the measurements with the two basic measuring systems D4 and D2, we measured the wind erosion intensity together with soil particle catchers D1 and D3. D3 was placed between devices D4 and D2, D1 was 20 m ahead D2. Soil particle catchers were placed on the soil surface at height position (0. We measured increasing soil erosion downwind on four locations spaced at 20 m. The results show that with there is an increasing quantity of particles collected as the erosive surface length increases, due to the so-called snowball effect. We analyzed selected trapped soil samples in order to determine the size of the soil particles and their proportion

  8. Ice-Release and Erosion Resistant Materials for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Brinn, Cameron; Cook, Alex; Pascual-Marquez, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Icing conditions may cause wind turbine generators to partially lose productivity or to be completely shut down to avoid structural damage. At present, commercially available technologies to mitigate this problem consist of expensive, energy hungry heating elements, which costs roughly 70,000 euro per medium size turbine. Conventional passive ice protection coating systems heavily rely on delicate surface structures and expensive materials to create water repellent superhydrophobic / low surface energy surfaces, which have been proven to be ineffective against ice accumulation. The lack of performance among conventional ice protection materials stems from a flaw in the approach to the problem: failure to recognize that water in its liquid form (WATER) and water in its solid form (ICE) are two different things. Something that works for WATER does not automatically work for ICE. Another reason is that many superhydrophobic materials are often reliant upon often fragile micro-structured surfaces to achieve their intended effects. This paper discusses a fundamentally different approach to the creation of a robust, low cost, durable, and multifunctional materials for ice release and erosion resistance. This National Science Foundation sponsored ice-release coating technology holds promise for protecting wind turbine blades and towers, thus potentially increasing reliability for power generation under icing conditions. Because of the vulnerability of wind turbine blades to ice buildup and erosion damages, wind farm facilities stand to reap considerable benefits.

  9. Soil erosion rates caused by wind and saltating sand stresses in a wind tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1993-02-01

    Wind erosion tests were performed in a wind tunnel in support of the development of long-term protective barriers to cap stabilized waste sites at the Hanford Site. Controlled wind and saltating sand erosive stresses were applied to physical models of barrier surface layers to simulate worst-case eolian erosive stresses. The goal of these tests was to provide information useful to the design and evaluation of the surface layer composition of an arid-region waste site barrier concept that incorporates a deep fine-soil reservoir. A surface layer composition is needed that will form an armor resistant to eolian erosion during periods of extreme dry climatic conditions, especially when such conditions result in the elimination or reduction of vegetation by water deprivation or wildfire. Because of the life span required of Hanford waste barriers, it is important that additional work follow these wind tunnel studies. A modeling effort is planned to aid the interpretation of test results with respect to the suitability of pea gravel to protect the finite-soil reservoir during long periods of climatic stress. It is additionally recommended that wind tunnel tests be continued and field data be obtained at prototype or actual barrier sites. Results wig contribute to barrier design efforts and provide confidence in the design of long-term waste site caps for and regions

  10. Particle transport patterns of short-distance soil erosion by wind-driven rain, rain and wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Miriam; Iserloh, Thomas; de Lima, João L. M. P.; Ries, Johannes B.

    2015-04-01

    Short distance erosion of soil surface material is one of the big question marks in soil erosion studies. The exact measurement of short-distance transported soil particles, prior to the occurrence of overland flow, is a challenge to soil erosion science due to the particular requirements of the experimental setup and test procedure. To approach a quantification of amount and distance of each type of transport, we applied an especially developed multiple-gutter system installed inside the Trier Portable Wind and Rainfall Simulator (PWRS). We measured the amount and travel distance of soil particles detached and transported by raindrops (splash), wind-driven rain (splash-saltation and splash-drift) and wind (saltation). The test setup included three different erosion agents (rain/ wind-driven rain/ wind), two substrates (sandy/ loamy), three surface structures (grain roughness/ rills lengthwise/ rills transversal) and three slope angles (0°/+7°/-7°). The results present detailed transport patterns of the three erosion agents under the varying soil and surface conditions up to a distance of 1.6 m. Under the applied rain intensity and wind velocity, wind-driven rain splash generates the highest erosion. The erodibility and travel distance of the two substrates depend on the erosion agent. The total erosion is slightly higher for the slope angle -7° (downslope), but for wind-driven rain splash, the inclination is not a relevant factor. The effect of surface structures (rills) changes with traveling distance. The wind driven rain splash generates a much higher amount of erosion and a further travel distance of the particles due to the combined action of wind and rain. The wind-driven rain factor appears to be much more significant than the other factors. The study highlights the effects of different erosion agents and surface parameters on short-distance particle transport and the powerful impact of wind-driven rain on soil erosion.

  11. Multi-scale wind erosion monitoring and assessment for US rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a major resource concern for rangeland managers. Although wind erosion is a naturally occurring process in many drylands, land use activities, and land management in particular, can accelerate wind-driven soil loss – impacting ecosystem dynamics and agricultural production, air quali...

  12. Wind erosion in the Sahelian zone of Niger : processes, models, and control techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the Sahelian zone of Niger, severe wind erosion occurs mainly in the first half of the rainy season (May - July), when violent winds preceding thunderstorms result in intense sediment transport. Quantification of this wind erosion is difficult due to a high degree of temporal and spatial

  13. Early-season wind erosion influenced by soil-incorporated green manure in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management strategies are sought to minimize wind erosion of irrigated agricultural soils along the Columbia River of the Inland Pacific Northwest, particularly during the early season (March-April) when high winds coincide with sowing of vegetable crops. Early-season wind erosion potential from soi...

  14. Wind erosion potential of a winter wheat–summer fallow rotation after land application of biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    While land application of biosolids is recognized as a sustainable management practice for enhancing soil health, no studies have determined the effects of biosolids on soil wind erosion. Wind erosion potential of a silt loam was assessed using a portable wind tunnel after applying synthetic and bio...

  15. Wind erosion research at an uranium mill tailings site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1977-07-01

    A uranium mill tailings pile at Grants, New Mexico, was selected for wind erosion research since the configuration provides flat area containing fine sand and made up of larger particles. The wind erosion experiment is discussed. Experimental equipment consists of meteorological instrumentation to automatically activate air samplers as a function of wind speed increments and direction, particle cascade impactors to measure airborne respirable concentrations as a function of particle size, inertial impaction devices to measure nonrespirable fluxes of airborne particles, a virtual particle cascade impactor to measure airborne concentrations of toxic trace elements, and soil depth gauges to measure changes in surface soil elevations as a function of time. Both radioactive particles as well as toxic trace element concentrations are measured. Radioactive particles are measured with both particle cascade impactors as well as high-volume air samplers. In contrast, toxic trace element airborne concentrations are measured only with a two-stage virtual particle cascade impactor. Fluxes of nonrespirable airborne particles are measured with inertial impaction devices. At particle cascade impactor sites, a rotating cyclone preseparator collects nonrespirable particles. In addition at all sites, fluxes of nonrespirable particles are measured using an open cavity inertial impaction device

  16. Spatial and temporal variations of wind erosion climatic erosivity in the farming-pastoral zone of Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Shuping; Yang, Ruixin; Yan, Yechao; Yang, Zhengwei; Wang, Dandan

    2018-03-01

    Wind erosion climatic erosivity is an important parameter to assess the possible effects of climatic conditions on wind erosion. In this paper, the wind erosion climatic factor (C-factor), which was used to quantify the wind erosion climatic erosivity, was calculated for the period 1960-2014 based on monthly meteorological data collected from 101 stations in the farming-pastoral zone of Northern China. The Mann-Kendall (M-K) test, trend analysis, and geostatistical analysis methods were used to explore the spatial and temporal characteristics of the wind erosion climatic erosivity in this region. The result suggests that the annual C-factor, with a maximum of 76.05 in 1969 and a minimum of 26.57 in 2007, has a significant decreasing trend over the past 55 years. Strong seasonality in the C-factor was found, with the highest value in spring, which accounts for a significant proportion of the annual C-factor (41.46%). However, the coefficient of variation of the seasonal C-factor reaches a maximum in winter and a minimum in spring. The mean annual C-factor varies substantially across the region. Areas with high values of the mean annual C-factor (C ≥ 100) are located in Ulanqab and Dingxi, while areas with low values (C ≤ 10) lie in Lanzhou, Linxia, Dingxi, Xining, and Chengde. Spatial analysis on the trend of the C-factor reveals that 81% of the stations show statistically significant decreases at a 90% confidence level. An examination of the concentration ratio of the C-factor shows that the wind erosion climatic erosivity is concentrated in spring, especially in April, which makes this period particularly important for implementing soil conservation measures.

  17. Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banzhaf, J.; Leihner, D.E.; Buerkert, A.; Serafini, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s -1 as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs

  18. AERO: A Decision Support Tool for Wind Erosion Assessment in Rangelands and Croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloza, M.; Webb, N.; Herrick, J.

    2015-12-01

    Wind erosion is a key driver of global land degradation, with on- and off-site impacts on agricultural production, air quality, ecosystem services and climate. Measuring rates of wind erosion and dust emission across land use and land cover types is important for quantifying the impacts and identifying and testing practical management options. This process can be assisted by the application of predictive models, which can be a powerful tool for land management agencies. The Aeolian EROsion (AERO) model, a wind erosion and dust emission model interface provides access by non-expert land managers to a sophisticated wind erosion decision-support tool. AERO incorporates land surface processes and sediment transport equations from existing wind erosion models and was designed for application with available national long-term monitoring datasets (e.g. USDI BLM Assessment, Inventory and Monitoring, USDA NRCS Natural Resources Inventory) and monitoring protocols. Ongoing AERO model calibration and validation are supported by geographically diverse data on wind erosion rates and land surface conditions collected by the new National Wind Erosion Research Network. Here we present the new AERO interface, describe parameterization of the underpinning wind erosion model, and provide a summary of the model applications across agricultural lands and rangelands in the United States.

  19. Wind erosion potential of a winter wheat-summer fallow rotation after land application of biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Huawei; Sharratt, Brenton; Schillinger, William F.; Bary, Andrew I.; Cogger, Craig G.

    2018-06-01

    Conservation tillage is a viable management strategy to control soil wind erosion, but other strategies such as land application of biosolids that enhance soil quality may also reduce wind erosion. No studies have determined the effects of biosolids on wind erosion. Wind erosion potential of a silt loam was assessed using a portable wind tunnel after applying synthetic and biosolids fertilizer to traditional (disk) and conservation (undercutter) tillage practices during the summer fallow phase of a winter wheat-summer fallow (WW-SF) rotation in 2015 and 2016 in east-central Washington. Soil loss ranged from 12 to 61% lower for undercutter than disk tillage, possibly due to retention of more biomass on the soil surface of the undercutter versus disk tillage treatment. In contrast, soil loss was similar to or lower for biosolids as compared with synthetic fertilizer treatment. Our results suggest that biosolids applications to agricultural lands will have minimal impact on wind erosion.

  20. Wind erosion in semiarid landscapes: Predictive models and remote sensing methods for the influence of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, H. Brad

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: to develop and test predictive relations for the quantitative influence of vegetation canopy structure on wind erosion of semiarid rangeland soils, and to develop remote sensing methods for measuring the canopy structural parameters that determine sheltering against wind erosion. The influence of canopy structure on wind erosion will be investigated by means of wind-tunnel and field experiments using structural variables identified by the wind-tunnel and field experiments using model roughness elements to simulate plant canopies. The canopy structural variables identified by the wind-tunnel and field experiments as important in determining vegetative sheltering against wind erosion will then be measured at a number of naturally vegetated field sites and compared with estimates of these variables derived from analysis of remotely sensed data.

  1. Wind tunnel experiments on the effects of tillage ridge features on wind erosion horizontal fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kardous

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the well-known soil factors which control wind erosion on flat, unridged surfaces, two specific processes affect the susceptibility of tillage ridged surfaces to wind erosion: ridge-induced roughness and ridge- trapping efficiency. In order to parameterize horizontal soil fluxes produced by wind over tillage ridges, eight-ridge configurations composed of sandy soil and exhibiting ridge heights to ridge spacing (RH/RS ratios ranging from 0.18 to 0.38 were experimented in a wind tunnel. These experiments are used to develop a parameterization of the horizontal fluxes over tillage ridged surfaces based only on the geometric characteristics of the ridges. Indeed, the key parameters controlling the horizontal flux, namely the friction velocity, threshold friction velocity and the adjustment coefficient, are derived through specific expressions, from ridge heights (RH and ridge spacing (RS. This parameterization was evaluated by comparing the results of the simulations to an additional experimental data set and to the data set obtained by Hagen and Armbrust (1992. In both cases, predicted and measured values are found to be in a satisfying agreement. This parameterization was used to evaluate the efficiency of ridges in reducing wind erosion. The results show that ridged surfaces, when compared to a loose, unridged soil surface, lead to an important reduction in the horizontal fluxes (exceeding 60%. Moreover, the effect of ridges in trapping particles contributes for more than 90% in the flux reduction while the ridge roughness effect is weak and decreases when the wind velocity increases.

  2. Wind tunnel experiments on the effects of tillage ridge features on wind erosion horizontal fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kardous

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the well-known soil factors which control wind erosion on flat, unridged surfaces, two specific processes affect the susceptibility of tillage ridged surfaces to wind erosion: ridge-induced roughness and ridge- trapping efficiency.

    In order to parameterize horizontal soil fluxes produced by wind over tillage ridges, eight-ridge configurations composed of sandy soil and exhibiting ridge heights to ridge spacing (RH/RS ratios ranging from 0.18 to 0.38 were experimented in a wind tunnel. These experiments are used to develop a parameterization of the horizontal fluxes over tillage ridged surfaces based only on the geometric characteristics of the ridges. Indeed, the key parameters controlling the horizontal flux, namely the friction velocity, threshold friction velocity and the adjustment coefficient, are derived through specific expressions, from ridge heights (RH and ridge spacing (RS. This parameterization was evaluated by comparing the results of the simulations to an additional experimental data set and to the data set obtained by Hagen and Armbrust (1992. In both cases, predicted and measured values are found to be in a satisfying agreement.

    This parameterization was used to evaluate the efficiency of ridges in reducing wind erosion. The results show that ridged surfaces, when compared to a loose, unridged soil surface, lead to an important reduction in the horizontal fluxes (exceeding 60%. Moreover, the effect of ridges in trapping particles contributes for more than 90% in the flux reduction while the ridge roughness effect is weak and decreases when the wind velocity increases.

  3. Wind erosion control with scattered vegetation in the Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Sahelian zone ofAfricais the region that is globally most subjected to land degradation, with wind erosion being the most important soil degradation process. By using control measures, the negative effects of wind erosion can be reduced. At present, adoption of

  4. Effect of vegetation cover and transitions on regional wind erosion in drylands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, I.F.

    2012-01-01

    Wind erosion is a critical environmental problem that threatens mainly the arid and semi-arid regions of our planet. Usually this problem is associated with desertification, poverty and other environmental and socioeconomic problems. Wind erosion causes the loss of fertile topsoil, and has a

  5. Wind Erosion Processes and Control Techniques in the Sahelian Zone of Niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, G.; Stroosnijder, L.; Raats, P.A.C.

    1999-01-01

    Wind Erosion Processes and Control Techniques in the Sahelian Zone of Niger G. Sterk, L. Stroosnijder, and P.A.C. Raats Abstract The objective of this paper is to present the main results and conclusions from three years of field research on wind erosion processes and control techniques in the

  6. Farmers' perceptions of erosion by wind and water in northern Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.M.; Leenders, J.K.; Leeuwis, M.

    2003-01-01

    Wind and water erosion are widespread phenomena throughout the Sahel, especially in the early rainy season, when high-intensity rainstorms are often preceded by severe windstorms. This paper describes the results of a survey on the farmers' perceptions of wind and water erosion processes and control

  7. Ecological site-based assessments of wind and water erosion: informing accelerated soil erosion management in rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated soil erosion occurs when anthropogenic processes modify soil, vegetation or climatic conditions causing erosion rates at a location to exceed their natural variability. Identifying where and when accelerated erosion occurs is a critical first step toward its effective management. Here we explore how erosion assessments structured in the context of ecological sites (a land classification based on soils, landscape setting and ecological potential) and their vegetation states (plant assemblages that may change due to management) can inform systems for reducing accelerated soil erosion in rangelands. We evaluated aeolian horizontal sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA, using monitoring data and rangeland-specific wind and water erosion models. Across the ecological sites, plots in shrub-encroached and shrub-dominated vegetation states were consistently susceptible to aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion. Both processes were found to be highly variable for grassland and grass-succulent states across the ecological sites at the plot scale (0.25 Ha). We identify vegetation thresholds that define cover levels below which rapid (exponential) increases in aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion occur across the ecological sites and vegetation states. Aeolian sediment flux and fluvial erosion in the study area can be effectively controlled when bare ground cover is 100 cm in length is less than ~35%. Land use and management activities that alter cover levels such that they cross thresholds, and/or drive vegetation state changes, may increase the susceptibility of areas to erosion. Land use impacts that are constrained within the range of natural variability should not result in accelerated soil erosion. Evaluating land condition against the erosion thresholds identified here will enable identification of areas susceptible to accelerated soil erosion and the development of

  8. Ecological site‐based assessments of wind and water erosion: informing accelerated soil erosion management in rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P; Herrick, Jeffrey E; Duniway, Michael C

    Accelerated soil erosion occurs when anthropogenic processes modify soil, vegetation, or climatic conditions causing erosion rates at a location to exceed their natural variability. Identifying where and when accelerated erosion occurs is a critical first step toward its effective management. Here we explored how erosion assessments structured in the context of ecological sites (a land classification based on soils, landscape setting, and ecological potential) and their vegetation states (plant assemblages that may change due to management) can inform systems for reducing accelerated soil erosion in rangelands. We evaluated aeolian horizontal sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA, using monitoring data and rangeland-specific wind and water erosion models. Across the ecological sites, plots in shrub-encroached and shrub-dominated vegetation states were consistently susceptible to aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion. Both processes were found to be highly variable for grassland and grass–succulent states across the ecological sites at the plot scale (0.25 ha). We identified vegetation thresholds that define cover levels below which rapid (exponential) increases in aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion occur across the ecological sites and vegetation states. Aeolian sediment flux and fluvial erosion in the study area could be effectively controlled when bare ground cover was 100 cm in length was less than ∼35%. Land use and management activities that alter cover levels such that they cross thresholds, and/or drive vegetation state changes, may increase the susceptibility of areas to erosion. Land use impacts that are constrained within the range of natural variability should not result in accelerated soil erosion. Evaluating land condition against the erosion thresholds identified here will enable identification of areas susceptible to accelerated soil erosion and the

  9. Response of wind erosion dynamics to climate change and human activity in Inner Mongolia, China during 1990 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Fan, Jiangwen; Cao, Wei; Harris, Warwick; Li, Yuzhe; Chi, Wenfeng; Wang, Suizi

    2018-10-15

    Soil erosion caused by wind is a serious environmental problem that results in land degradation and threatens sustainable development. Accurately evaluating wind erosion dynamics is important for reducing the hazard of wind erosion. Separating the climatic and anthropogenic causes of wind erosion can improve the understanding of its driving mechanisms. Based on meteorological, remote sensing and field observation data, we applied the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) to simulate wind erosion in Inner Mongolia, China from 1990 to 2015. We used the variable control method by input of the average climate conditions to calculate human-induced wind erosion. The difference between natural wind erosion and human-induced wind erosion was determined to assess the effect of climate change on wind erosion. The results showed that the wind erosion modulus had a remarkable decline with a slope of 52.23 t/km 2 /a from 1990 to 2015. During 26 years, the average wind erosion for Inner Mongolia amounted to 63.32 billion tons. Wind erosion showed an overall significant decline of 49.23% and the partial severer erosion hazard significantly increased by 7.11%. Of the significant regional decline, 40.72% was caused by climate changes, and 8.51% was attributed to ecological restoration programs. For the significant regional increases of wind erosion, 4.29% was attributed to climate changes and 2.82% to human activities, mainly overgrazing and land use/cover changes. During the study, the driving forces in Inner Mongolia of wind erosion dynamics differed spatially. Timely monitoring based on multi-source data and highlighting the importance of positive human activities by increasing vegetation coverage for deserts, reducing grazing pressure on grasslands, establishing forests as windbreaks and optimizing crop planting rotations of farmlands can all act to reduce and control wind erosion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A history of wind erosion prediction models in the United States Department of Agriculture prior to the Wind Erosion Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarko, John; Sporcic, Michael A.; Skidmore, Edward L.

    2013-09-01

    The Great Plains experienced an influx of settlers in the late 1850s-1900. Periodic drought was hard on both settlers and the soil and caused severe wind erosion. The period known as the Dirty Thirties, 1931-1939, produced many severe windstorms, and the resulting dusty sky over Washington, DC helped Hugh Hammond Bennett gain political support for the Soil Conservation Act of 1937 that started the USDA Soil Conservation Service (SCS). Austin W. Zingg and William S. Chepil began wind erosion studies at a USDA laboratory at Kansas State University in 1947. Neil P. Woodruff and Francis H. Siddoway published the first widely used model for wind erosion in 1965, called the Wind Erosion Equation (WEQ). The WEQ was solved using a series of charts and lookup tables. Subsequent improvements to WEQ included monthly magnitudes of the total wind, a computer version of WEQ programmed in FORTRAN, small-grain equivalents for range grasses, tillage systems, effects of residue management, crop row direction, cloddiness, monthly climate factors, and the weather. The SCS and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) produced several computer versions of WEQ with the goal of standardizing and simplifying it for field personnel including a standalone version of WEQ was developed in the late 1990s using Microsoft Excel. Although WEQ was a great advancement to the science of prediction and control of wind erosion on cropland, it had many limitations that prevented its use on many lands throughout the United States and the world. In response to these limitations, the USDA developed a process-based model know as the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS). The USDA Agricultural Research Service has taken the lead in developing science and technology for wind erosion prediction.

  11. Wind erosion on Deliblato (the largest European continental sandy terrain) studied using 210Pbex and 137Cs measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krmar, M.; Hansman, J.; Todorovic, N.; Mihailovic, A.; Vucinic-Vasic, M.; Savic, R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate the difference in wind erosion between two extreme situations: sandy soil permanently covered by grass and the nearby frequently ploughed area highly susceptible to wind erosion. The spatial pattern of soil erosion rate was investigated using 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex tracing technique. The spatial pattern of erosion rate obtained within the studied area reveal influence of topography as well as direction of prevailing winds on mobilization and transport of the soil particles. (author)

  12. A New Instrument for Testing Wind Erosion by Soil Surface Shape Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai, C.; Yuan, X.; Jiang, H.; Zhou, R.; Wang, J.; Liu, B.; Ye, Y.; Du, P.

    2010-01-01

    Wind erosion, a primary cause of soil degeneration, is a problem in arid and semiarid areas throughout the world. Many methods are available to study soil erosion, but there is no an effective method for making quantitative measurements in the field. To solve this problem, we have developed a new instrument that can measure the change in the shape of the soil surface, allowing quick quantification of wind erosion. In this paper, the construction and principle of the new instrument are described. Field experiments are carried out using the instrument, and the data are analyzed. The erosion depth is found to vary by 11% compared to the average for measurement areas ranging from 30 x 30 cm 2 to 10 x 10 cm 2 . The results show that the instrument is convenient and reliable for quantitatively measuring wind erosion in the field.

  13. Wind born(e) landscapes: the role of wind erosion in agricultural land management and nature development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Wind has played an important role in the geological development of the north-western Europe. Various aeolian deposits such as inland dunes, river dunes, cover sands, drift sands and coastal dunes, form the base of large areas in our present landscape. The role of wind erosion in today's north-west

  14. Quantifying accelerated soil erosion through ecological site-based assessments of wind and water erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work explores how organising soil erosion assessments using established groupings of similar soils (ecological sites) can inform systems for managing accelerated soil erosion. We evaluated aeolian sediment transport and fluvial erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA...

  15. Leading edge erosion of coated wind turbine blades: Review of coating life models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, H.M.; Gelinck, E.R.M.; Rentrop, A.; van der Heide, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Erosion of the leading edge of wind turbine blades by droplet impingement wear, reduces blade aerodynamic efficiency and power output. Eventually, it compromises the integrity of blade surfaces. Elastomeric coatings are currently used for erosion resistance, yet the life of such coatings cannot be

  16. An extreme wind erosion event of the fresh Eyjafjallajökull 2010 volcanic ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnalds, Olafur; Thorarinsdottir, Elin Fjola; Thorsson, Johann; Waldhauserova, Pavla Dagsson; Agustsdottir, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can generate widespread deposits of ash that are subsequently subjected to erosive forces which causes detrimental effects on ecosystems. We measured wind erosion of the freshly deposited Eyjafjallajökull ash at a field site the first summer after the 2010 eruption. Over 30 wind erosion events occurred (June-October) at wind speeds > 10 m s(-1) in each storm with gusts up to 38.7 m s(-1). Surface transport over one m wide transect (surface to 150 cm height) reached > 11,800 kg m(-1) during the most intense storm event with a rate of 1,440 kg m(-1) hr(-1) for about 6½ hrs. This storm is among the most extreme wind erosion events recorded on Earth. The Eyjafjallajökull wind erosion storms caused dust emissions extending several hundred km from the volcano affecting both air quality and ecosystems showing how wind erosion of freshly deposited ash prolongs impacts of volcanic eruptions.

  17. Estimation of wind erosion from construction of a railway in arid Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benli Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art wind erosion simulation model, the Wind Erosion Prediction System and the United States Environmental Protection Agency's AP 42 emission factors formula, were combined together to evaluate wind-blown dust emissions from various construction units from a railway construction project in the dry Gobi land in Northwest China. The influence of the climatic factors: temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, soil condition, protective measures, and construction disturbance were taken into account. Driven by daily and sub-daily climate data and using specific detailed management files, the process-based WEPS model was able to express the beginning, active, and ending phases of construction, as well as the degree of disturbance for the entire scope of a construction project. The Lanzhou-Xinjiang High-speed Railway was selected as a representative study because of the diversities of different climates, soil, and working schedule conditions that could be analyzed. Wind erosion from different working units included the building of roadbeds, bridges, plants, temporary houses, earth spoil and barrow pit areas, and vehicle transportation were calculated. The total wind erosion emissions, 7406 t, for the first construction area of section LXS-15 with a 14.877 km length was obtained for quantitative analysis. The method used is applicable for evaluating wind erosion from other complex surface disturbance projects.

  18. A history of wind erosion prediction models in the United States Department of Agriculture Prior to the Wind Erosion Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains experienced an influx of settlers in the late 1850s to 1900. Periodic drought was hard on both settlers and the soil and caused severe wind erosion. The period known as the Dirty Thirties, 1931 to 1939, produced many severe windstorms, and the resulting dusty sky over Washington, D....

  19. PM2.5 and PM10 Emission from agricultural soils by wind erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil tillage and wind erosion are a major source of particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) emission from cultivated soil. Fifteen cultivated soils collected from 5 states were tested as crushed (<2.0 mm) and uncrushed (natural aggregation) at 8, 10, and 13 m s-1 wind velocity in...

  20. Soil erosion rates from mixed soil and gravel surfaces in a wind tunnel: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1988-12-01

    Tests of wind erosion were performed in a controlled-environment wind tunnel to support the development of natural-material protective barriers for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Barrier performance standards currently being developed for internal and external barrier performance are expected to mandate a surface layer that is resistant to wind erosion. The purpose of this study was to initiate a series of tests to determine suitable soil and gravel mixtures for such a barrier and to test worst-case surface layer conditions under the influence of high wind speeds. Six mixed soil and gravel surfaces were prepared, weathered to represent natural wind-blown desert areas, and subjected to controlled wind erosion forces in a wind tunnel. The applied erosive forces, including surface shear forces, were characterized to provide a means of relating wind tunnel results with actual field conditions. Soil particle losses from the surfaces caused by suspension, saltation, and surface creep were monitored by aerosol sample probes and mass balance measurements. 23 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  1. The erosion and erosion products of tungsten and carbon based materials bombarded by high energy pulse electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiang; Zhang Fu; Xu Zengyu; Liu Yong; Yoshida, N.; Noda, N.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the erosion behaviors and erosion products of tungsten and some carbon based materials, such as graphite, C/C composite and B 4 C/Cu functionally graded material, were investigated by using a pulse electron beam to simulate the vertical displacement events (VDE) process. The authors will focus on the forms and differences of erosion products among these testing materials, and make clear to their erosion mechanisms

  2. A Review of Power Electronics for Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    The paper reviews the power electronic applications for wind energy systems. Main wind turbine systems with different generators and power electronic converters are described. The electrical topologies of wind farms with power electronic conversion are discussed. Power electronic applications...

  3. The Dust Storm Index (DSI): A method for monitoring broadscale wind erosion using meteorological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loingsigh, T.; McTainsh, G. H.; Tews, E. K.; Strong, C. L.; Leys, J. F.; Shinkfield, P.; Tapper, N. J.

    2014-03-01

    Wind erosion of soils is a natural process that has shaped the semi-arid and arid landscapes for millennia. This paper describes the Dust Storm Index (DSI); a methodology for monitoring wind erosion using Australian Bureau of Meteorology (ABM) meteorological observational data since the mid-1960s (long-term), at continental scale. While the 46 year length of the DSI record is its greatest strength from a wind erosion monitoring perspective, there are a number of technical challenges to its use because when the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) recording protocols were established the use of the data for wind erosion monitoring was never intended. Data recording and storage protocols are examined, including the effects of changes to the definition of how observers should interpret and record dust events. A method is described for selecting the 180 long-term ABM stations used in this study and the limitations of variable observation frequencies between stations are in part resolved. The rationale behind the DSI equation is explained and the examples of temporal and spatial data visualisation products presented include; a long term national wind erosion record (1965-2011), continental DSI maps, and maps of the erosion event types that are factored into the DSI equation. The DSI is tested against dust concentration data and found to provide an accurate representation of wind erosion activity. As the ABM observational records used here were collected according to WMO protocols, the DSI methodology could be used in all countries with WMO-compatible meteorological observation and recording systems.

  4. Using Cesium-137 technique to study the characteristics of different aspect of soil erosion in the Wind-water Erosion Crisscross Region on Loess Plateau of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mian; Li Zhanbin; Liu Puling; Yao Wenyi

    2005-01-01

    The most serious soil erosion on Loess Plateau exists in the Wind-water Erosion Crisscross Region. In the past 20 years, the types and intensity of soil erosion and its temporal and spatial distribution were studied, but studies on the difference of soil erosion between slope aspects and slope positions in this area have no report. However, it is very important to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the characteristics of different aspects and positions of soil loss for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in this area. The spatial pattern of net soil loss on 4 downslope transects in four aspects (east, west, south and north) on a typical Mao (round loess mound) in Liudaogou catchment in Wind-water Erosion Crisscross Region was measured in 2000 using the resident cesium-137 deficit technique. The purposes of this investigation were undertaken to determine whether or not 137 Cs measurement would give a useful indication of the extent of soil loss and their characteristics from cultivated hillsides in different slope aspect and slope position in the study area. The results showed that the difference of soil erosion in different aspect was significant and the erosion rate was in this order: north>east>south>west. Compared with other areas, the difference of erosion rate between north hillside and south hillside was on the contrary, and the possible explanations could be the effect of wind erosion. Also, the percentage of wind erosion was estimated to be at least larger than 18% of total soil loss by comparing the difference of erosion amount in south hillside and north hillside. The erosion rates on different slope positions in all aspects were also different, the highest net soil loss occurred in the lower slope position, and the upper and middle slope positions were slight. The general trend of net soil loss on sloping surface was to increase in fluctuation with increasing downslope distance

  5. Using Cesium-137 technique to study the characteristics of different aspect of soil erosion in the Wind-water Erosion Crisscross Region on Loess Plateau of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mian E-mail: hnli-mian@163.com; Li Zhanbin; Liu Puling; Yao Wenyi

    2005-01-01

    The most serious soil erosion on Loess Plateau exists in the Wind-water Erosion Crisscross Region. In the past 20 years, the types and intensity of soil erosion and its temporal and spatial distribution were studied, but studies on the difference of soil erosion between slope aspects and slope positions in this area have no report. However, it is very important to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the characteristics of different aspects and positions of soil loss for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in this area. The spatial pattern of net soil loss on 4 downslope transects in four aspects (east, west, south and north) on a typical Mao (round loess mound) in Liudaogou catchment in Wind-water Erosion Crisscross Region was measured in 2000 using the resident cesium-137 deficit technique. The purposes of this investigation were undertaken to determine whether or not {sup 137}Cs measurement would give a useful indication of the extent of soil loss and their characteristics from cultivated hillsides in different slope aspect and slope position in the study area. The results showed that the difference of soil erosion in different aspect was significant and the erosion rate was in this order: north>east>south>west. Compared with other areas, the difference of erosion rate between north hillside and south hillside was on the contrary, and the possible explanations could be the effect of wind erosion. Also, the percentage of wind erosion was estimated to be at least larger than 18% of total soil loss by comparing the difference of erosion amount in south hillside and north hillside. The erosion rates on different slope positions in all aspects were also different, the highest net soil loss occurred in the lower slope position, and the upper and middle slope positions were slight. The general trend of net soil loss on sloping surface was to increase in fluctuation with increasing downslope distance.

  6. Wind Erosion Induced Soil Degradation in Northern China: Status, Measures and Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongling Guo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is one of the most serious ecological problems in the world. In arid and semi-arid northern China, soil degradation predominantly arises from wind erosion. Trends in soil degradation caused by wind erosion in northern China frequently change with human activities and climatic change. To decrease soil loss by wind erosion and enhance local ecosystems, the Chinese government has been encouraging residents to reduce wind-induced soil degradation through a series of national policies and several ecological projects, such as the Natural Forest Protection Program, the National Action Program to Combat Desertification, the “Three Norths” Shelter Forest System, the Beijing-Tianjin Sand Source Control Engineering Project, and the Grain for Green Project. All these were implemented a number of decades ago, and have thus created many land management practices and control techniques across different landscapes. These measures include conservation tillage, windbreak networks, checkerboard barriers, the Non-Watering and Tube-Protecting Planting Technique, afforestation, grassland enclosures, etc. As a result, the aeolian degradation of land has been controlled in many regions of arid and semiarid northern China. However, the challenge of mitigating and further reversing soil degradation caused by wind erosion still remains.

  7. A Review of Power Electronics for Wind Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe CHEN

    2011-01-01

    The paper reviews the power electronic applications for wind energy systems.Main wind turbine systems with different generators and power electronic converters are described.The electrical topologies of wind farms with power electronic conversion are discussed.Power electronic applications for improving the performance of wind turbines and wind farms in power systems have been illustrated.

  8. Implications of climate change on wind erosion of agricultural lands in the Columbia plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Sharratt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change may impact soil health and productivity as a result of accelerated or decelerated rates of erosion. Previous studies suggest a greater risk of wind erosion on arid and semi-arid lands due to loss of biomass under a future warmer climate. There have been no studies conducted to assess the impact of climate change on wind erosion in the Columbia Plateau of the Pacific Northwest United States where wind erosion of agricultural lands can cause exceedance of national air quality standards. The Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS was used to assess wind erosion and PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 µm in aerodynamic diameter emissions under a future climate projected by downscaling 18 Global Climate Models (GCM for a conservative emissions pathway. Wind erosion simulations were conducted at Lacrosse and Lind, WA and Moro, OR on a winter wheat-summer fallow (WW-SF rotation and at Lind on an additional winter wheat-camelina-summer fallow (WW-Cam-SF rotation. Each rotation was subject to conservation or conventional tillage practices for a baseline (1970–1999 and mid-21st century climate (2035–2064. A significant increase in temperature and nominal increases in precipitation were projected by an ensemble of climate models for the Columbia Plateau by the mid-21st century. Soil and PM10 losses were 25–84% lower for a mid-21st century climate, due in part to greater biomass production associated with CO2 fertilization and warmer temperatures. The reduction in soil and PM10 loss is projected to be more apparent for conservation tillage practices in the future. Soil and PM10 losses were greater from a WW-Cam-SF rotation than WW-SF rotation when conservation tillage practices were employed during the fallow phase of the rotations. Despite accounting for differences in the length of each rotation, annual soil and PM10 losses remained higher for the WW-Cam-SF rotation than the WW-SF rotation. Soil and PM10 losses were more variable across

  9. Remote sensing of land use/cover changes and its effect on wind erosion potential in southern Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei, Mahrooz; Sameni, Abdolmajid; Fallah Shamsi, Seyed Rashid; Bartholomeus, Harm

    2016-01-01

    Wind erosion is a complex process influenced by different factors. Most of these factors are stable over time, but land use/cover and land management practices are changing gradually. Therefore, this research investigates the impact of changing land use/cover and land management on wind erosion

  10. Wind erosion potential influenced by tillage in an irrigated potato-sweet corn rotation in the Columbia Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a concern within the Columbia Basin of the Inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) United States due to the sandy texture of soils and small amount of residue retained on the soil surface after harvest of vegetable crops like potato. This study assessed potential wind erosion of an irrigated ...

  11. Literature review of models for estimating soil erosion and deposition from wind stresses on uranium-mill-tailings covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon-suppression cover applied to uranium-mill tailings. The mechanics of wind erosion, as well as of soil deposition, are discussed in this report. Several wind erosion models are reviewed to determine if they can be used to estimate the erosion of soil from a mill-tailings cover. One model, developed by W.S. Chepil, contains the most-important factors that describe variables that influence wind erosion. Particular features of other models are also discussed, as well as the application of Chepil's model to a particular tailings pile. For this particular tailings pile, the estimated erosion was almost one inch per year for an unprotected tailings soil surface. Wide variability in the deposition velocity and lack of adequate deposition models preclude reliable estimates of the rate at which airborne particles are deposited.

  12. Literature review of models for estimating soil erosion and deposition from wind stresses on uranium-mill-tailings covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon-suppression cover applied to uranium-mill tailings. The mechanics of wind erosion, as well as of soil deposition, are discussed in this report. Several wind erosion models are reviewed to determine if they can be used to estimate the erosion of soil from a mill-tailings cover. One model, developed by W.S. Chepil, contains the most-important factors that describe variables that influence wind erosion. Particular features of other models are also discussed, as well as the application of Chepil's model to a particular tailings pile. For this particular tailings pile, the estimated erosion was almost one inch per year for an unprotected tailings soil surface. Wide variability in the deposition velocity and lack of adequate deposition models preclude reliable estimates of the rate at which airborne particles are deposited

  13. Evaluation of chemical stabilizers and windscreens for wind erosion control of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1984-08-01

    Potential wind erosion of uranium mill tailings is a concern for the surface disposal of tailings at uranium mills. Wind-blown tailings may subsequently be redeposited on areas outside the impoundment. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating techniques for fugitive dust control at uranium mill tailings piles. Laboratory tests, including wind tunnel studies, were conducted to evaluate the relative effectiveness of 43 chemical stabilizers. Seventeen of the more promising stabilizers were applied to test plots on a uranium tailings pile at the American Nuclear Corporation-Gas Hills Project mill site in central Wyoming. The durabilities of these materials under actual site conditions were evaluated over time. In addition, field testing of commercially available windscreens was conducted. Test panels were constructed of eight different materials at the Wyoming test site to compare their durability. A second test site was established near PNL to evaluate the effectiveness of windscreens at reducing wind velocity, and thereby reduce the potential for wind erosion of mill tailings. Results of the laboratory land field tests of the chemical stabilizers and windscreens are presented, along with costs versus effectiveness of these techniques for control of wind erosion at mill tailings piles. 12 references, 4 figures, 6 tables

  14. 75 FR 75961 - Notice of Implementation of the Wind Erosion Prediction System for Soil Erodibility System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... implementation of the WEPS system does not affect the Highly Erodible Map Unit List contained in the NRCS Field Office Technical Guide as of January 1, 1990. This 1990 list will continue to be used for all erodibility... plant damage, and predict PM-10 emissions when wind speeds exceed the erosion threshold. The WEPS model...

  15. Crop production and economic loss due to wind erosion in hot arid ecosystem of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Priyabrata; Moharana, P. C.; Kumar, Mahesh; Soni, M. L.; Pandey, C. B.; Chaudhari, S. K.; Sikka, A. K.

    2017-10-01

    Wind erosion is a severe land degradation process in hot arid western India and affects the agricultural production system. It affects crop yield directly by damaging the crops through abrasion, burial, dust deposition etc. and indirectly by reducing soil fertility. In this study, an attempt was made to quantify the indirect impact of wind erosion process on crop production loss and associated economic loss in hot arid ecosystem of India. It has been observed that soil loss due to wind erosion varies from minimum 1.3 t ha-1 to maximum 83.3 t ha-1 as per the severity. Yield loss due to wind erosion was found maximum for groundnut (Arachis hypogea) (5-331 kg ha-1 yr-1), whereas minimum for moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) (1-93 kg ha-1 yr-1). For pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), which covers a major portion of arable lands in western Rajasthan, the yield loss was found 3-195 kg ha-1 yr-1. Economic loss was found higher for groundnut and clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) than rest crops, which are about

  16. Wind erosion of waste impoundments in arid climates and mitigation of dust pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blight, G E

    2008-12-01

    Wind can erode and disperse fine-grained material from an impoundment of mining, industrial or municipal waste that stands above the level of its surroundings. Such dust dispersion can be a serious nuisance as well as a health hazard to inhabitants and animals in nearby settlements. It can also degrade crops, making them less marketable, and pollute soil, surface water and ground water. Wind can seasonally erode waste impoundments in all types of climate, but the erosion intensifies and persists for more of each year as regional aridity increases. As clouds of dust are often observed billowing across the top surfaces of waste impoundments in dry windy weather, there is a common misconception that dust arises from erosion of the top surface of an impoundment, resulting in much effort and money being misspent on top treatments when in fact the sloped sides of the impoundments are the true source of blown dust. This paper offers a brief review of general waste impoundment wind erosion issues and then focuses in more detail on the mechanics of how wind erodes surfaces of waste impoundments. Recommendations are offered for mitigating the effects of wind-eroded dust.

  17. Environmental risks associated to wind erosion in a metal mining area from SE Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Fernandez, G.; Romero Diaz, A.

    2009-01-01

    Soils and mining wastes from the Mediterranean mining area placed in the Sierra Minera Mountains are highly enriched in heavy metals such as lead and zinc, but also other metals such as cadmium and arsenic. Wind erosion in this area could be considered extremely high and hazards associated to this eroded sediments seems to be high because the huge amount of metals present in this wastes. Therefore, combination of high erosion rates and high metal concentration in this mining waste, make those environmental risks can be considered high for the surrounding ecosystems, but also for public health of the nearby villages and towns. In order, to study these wind erosion processes over these mining materials, some experiments for the evaluation of the transportation of soil particles were carried out. Erosion rates in this realm is particularly important during spring months, when increased activity of the eastern winds brings intense soil dragging, with strong effects on the metals dispersion, including the massive removal of sediments. (Author) 16 refs.

  18. Environmental risks associated to wind erosion in a metal mining area from SE Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Fernandez, G.; Romero Diaz, A.

    2009-07-01

    Soils and mining wastes from the Mediterranean mining area placed in the Sierra Minera Mountains are highly enriched in heavy metals such as lead and zinc, but also other metals such as cadmium and arsenic. Wind erosion in this area could be considered extremely high and hazards associated to this eroded sediments seems to be high because the huge amount of metals present in this wastes. Therefore, combination of high erosion rates and high metal concentration in this mining waste, make those environmental risks can be considered high for the surrounding ecosystems, but also for public health of the nearby villages and towns. In order, to study these wind erosion processes over these mining materials, some experiments for the evaluation of the transportation of soil particles were carried out. Erosion rates in this realm is particularly important during spring months, when increased activity of the eastern winds brings intense soil dragging, with strong effects on the metals dispersion, including the massive removal of sediments. (Author) 16 refs.

  19. Manufacturing issues which affect coating erosion performance in wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, E.; Sánchez, F.; Domenech, L.; Olivares, A.; Young, T. M.; O'Carroll, A.; Chinesta, F.

    2017-10-01

    Erosion damage, caused by repeated rain droplet impact on the leading edges of wind turbine blades, is a major cause for cost concern. Resin Infusion (RI) is used in wind energy blades where low weight and high mechanical performance materials are demanded. The surface coating plays a crucial role in the manufacturing and performance response. The Leading Edge coating is usually moulded, painted or sprayed onto the blade surface so adequate adhesion in the layers' characterization through the thickness is required for mechanical performance and durability reasons. In the current work, an investigation has been directed into the resulting rain erosion durability of the coating was undertaken through a combination of mass loss testing measurements with manufacturing processing parameter variations. The adhesion and erosion is affected by the shock wave caused by the collapsing water droplet on impact. The stress waves are transmitted to the substrate, so microestructural discontinuities in coating layers and interfaces play a key role on its degradation. Standard industrial systems are based on a multilayer system, with a high number of interfaces that tend to accelerate erosion by delamination. Analytical and numerical models are commonly used to relate lifetime prediction and to identify suitable coating and composite substrate combinations and their potential stress reduction on the interface. In this research, the input parameters for the appropriate definition of the Cohesive Zone Modelling (CZM) of the coating-substrate interface are outlined by means of Pull off testing and Peeling testing results. It allowed one to optimize manufacturing and coating process for blades into a knowledge-based guidance for leading edge coating material development. It was achieved by investigating the erosion degradation process using both numerical and laboratory techniques (Pull off, Peeling and Rain Erosion Testing in a whirling arm rain erosion test facility).

  20. Dust emission and soil loss due to anthropogenic activities by wind erosion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katra, Itzhak; Swet, Nitzan; Tanner, Smadar

    2017-04-01

    Wind erosion is major process of soil loss and air pollution by dust emission of clays, nutrients, and microorganisms. Many soils throughout the world are currently or potentially associated with dust emissions, especially in dryland zones. The research focuses on wind erosion in semi-arid soils (Northern Negev, Israel) that are subjected to increased human activities of urban development and agriculture. A boundary-layer wind tunnel has been used to study dust emission and soil loss by simulation and quantification of high-resolution wind processes. Field experiments were conducted in various surface types of dry loess soils. The experimental plots represent soils with long-term and short term influences of land uses such as agriculture (conventional and organic practices), grazing, and natural preserves. The wind tunnel was operated under various wind velocities that are above the threshold velocity of aeolian erosion. Total soil sediment and particulate matter (PM) fluxes were calculated. Topsoil samples from the experimental plots were analysed in the laboratory for physical and chemical characteristics including aggregation, organic matter, and high-resolution particle size distribution. The results showed variations in dust emission in response to surface types and winds to provide quantitative estimates of soil loss over time. Substantial loss of particulate matter that is < 10 micrometer in diameter, including clays and nutrients, was recorded in most experimental conditions. Integrative analyses of the topsoil properties and dust experiment highlight the significant implications for soil nutrient resources and management strategies as well as for PM loading to the atmosphere and air pollution.

  1. The combined effect of wind and rain on interrill erosion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpul, G.; Gabriels, D.; Norton, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    flow-driven process begins to transport the detached soil particles. This is different from the approach of recent interrill erosion models that soil detached by the rain splash will be subsequently transported by overland flow. The results of the study showed that, when compared to the contribution of the flow-driven transport, the contribution of the rain splash transport was significant to the extent that it should not be neglected in accurately predicting water erosion from interrill areas under wind-driven rains

  2. A universal meteorological method to identify potential risk of wind erosion on heavy-textured soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Středová Hana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The climate of Central Europe, mainly winter seasons with no snow cover at lower altitudes and a spring drought as well, might cause erosion events on heavy-textured soils. The aim of this paper is to define a universal method to identify the potential risk of wind erosion on heavy-textured soils. The categorization of potential wind erosion risk due to meteorological conditions is based on: (i an evaluation of the number of freeze-thaw episodes forming bare soil surfaces during the cold period of year; and (ii, an evaluation of the number of days with wet soil surfaces during the cold period of year. In the period 2001–2012 (from November to March, episodes with temperature changes from positive to negative and vice versa (thaw-freeze and freeze-thaw cycles and the effects of wet soil surfaces in connection with aggregate disintegration, are identified. The data are spatially interpolated by GIS tools for areas in the Czech Republic with heavy-textured soils. Blending critical categories is used to locate potential risks. The level of risk is divided into six classes. Those areas identified as potentially most vulnerable are the same localities where the highest number of erosive episodes on heavy-textured soils was documented.

  3. Power Electronics in Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Teodorescu, Remus

    2006-01-01

    the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...... electronics is changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. By that wind power is also getting an added value in the power system operation....

  4. Wind-Driven Erosion and Exposure Potential at Mars 2020 Rover Candidate-Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Banks, Maria; Urso, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Aeolian processes have likely been the predominant geomorphic agent for most of Mars’ history and have the potential to produce relatively young exposure ages for geologic units. Thus, identifying local evidence for aeolian erosion is highly relevant to the selection of landing sites for future missions, such as the Mars 2020 Rover mission that aims to explore astrobiologically relevant ancient environments. Here we investigate wind-driven activity at eight Mars 2020 candidate-landing sites to constrain erosion potential at these locations. To demonstrate our methods, we found that contemporary dune-derived abrasion rates were in agreement with rover-derived exhumation rates at Gale crater and could be employed elsewhere. The Holden crater candidate site was interpreted to have low contemporary erosion rates, based on the presence of a thick sand coverage of static ripples. Active ripples at the Eberswalde and southwest Melas sites may account for local erosion and the dearth of small craters. Moderate-flux regional dunes near Mawrth Vallis were deemed unrepresentative of the candidate site, which is interpreted to currently be experiencing low levels of erosion. The Nili Fossae site displayed the most unambiguous evidence for local sand transport and erosion, likely yielding relatively young exposure ages. The downselected Jezero crater and northeast Syrtis sites had high-flux neighboring dunes and exhibited substantial evidence for sediment pathways across their ellipses. Both sites had relatively high estimated abrasion rates, which would yield young exposure ages. The downselected Columbia Hills site lacked evidence for sand movement, and contemporary local erosion rates are estimated to be relatively low. PMID:29568719

  5. Wind-Driven Erosion and Exposure Potential at Mars 2020 Rover Candidate-Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Banks, Maria; Urso, Anna

    2018-02-01

    Aeolian processes have likely been the predominant geomorphic agent for most of Mars' history and have the potential to produce relatively young exposure ages for geologic units. Thus, identifying local evidence for aeolian erosion is highly relevant to the selection of landing sites for future missions, such as the Mars 2020 Rover mission that aims to explore astrobiologically relevant ancient environments. Here we investigate wind-driven activity at eight Mars 2020 candidate-landing sites to constrain erosion potential at these locations. To demonstrate our methods, we found that contemporary dune-derived abrasion rates were in agreement with rover-derived exhumation rates at Gale crater and could be employed elsewhere. The Holden crater candidate site was interpreted to have low contemporary erosion rates, based on the presence of a thick sand coverage of static ripples. Active ripples at the Eberswalde and southwest Melas sites may account for local erosion and the dearth of small craters. Moderate-flux regional dunes near Mawrth Vallis were deemed unrepresentative of the candidate site, which is interpreted to currently be experiencing low levels of erosion. The Nili Fossae site displayed the most unambiguous evidence for local sand transport and erosion, likely yielding relatively young exposure ages. The downselected Jezero crater and northeast Syrtis sites had high-flux neighboring dunes and exhibited substantial evidence for sediment pathways across their ellipses. Both sites had relatively high estimated abrasion rates, which would yield young exposure ages. The downselected Columbia Hills site lacked evidence for sand movement, and contemporary local erosion rates are estimated to be relatively low.

  6. Climatological changing effects on wind, precipitation and erosion: Large, meso and small scale analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The Fourier transformation analysis for monthly average values of meteorological parameters has been considered, and amplitudes, phase angles have been calculated by using ground measurements in Turkey. The first order harmonics of meteorological parameters show large scale effects, while higher order harmonics show the effects of small scale fluctuations. The variations of first through sixth order harmonic amplitudes and phases provide a useful means of understanding the large and local scale effects on meteorological parameters. The phase angle can be used to determine the time of year the maximum or minimum of a given harmonic occurs. The analysis helps us to distinguish different pressure, relative humidity, temperature, precipitation and wind speed regimes and transition regions. Local and large scale phenomenon and some unusual seasonal patterns are also defined near Keban Dam and the irrigation area. Analysis of precipitation based on long term data shows that semi-annual fluctuations are predominant in the study area. Similarly, pressure variations are mostly influenced by semi-annual fluctuations. Temperature and humidity variations are mostly influenced by meso and micro scale fluctuations. Many large and meso scale climate change simulations for the 21st century are based on concentration of green house gases. A better understanding of these effects on soil erosion is necessary to determine social, economic and other impacts of erosion. The second part of this study covers the time series analysis of precipitation, rainfall erosivity and wind erosion at the Marmara Region. Rainfall and runoff erosivity factors are defined by considering the results of field measurements at 10 stations. Climatological changing effects on rainfall erosion have been determined by monitoring meteorological variables. In the previous studies, Fournier Index is defined to estimate the rainfall erosivity for the study area. The Fournier Index or in other words a climatic index

  7. Sonic anemometry and sediment traps to evaluate the effectiveness of windbreaks in preventing wind erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro López

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present work analyzes the effectiveness of windbreaks against wind erosion through the study of streamline patterns and turbulent flow by means of sonic anemometry and sediment traps. To this end, windbreaks composed of plastic meshes (7.5 m long and 0.7 m tall were used. Windbreaks are a good means to reduce wind erosion, as they produce a positive effect on the characteristics of air currents that are related to wind erosion processes. Due to their ease of installation and dismantling, plastic meshes are widely used in areas where they are not required permanently. In our study, the use of a mesh of 13 × 30 threads cm−2 and 39 % porosity resulted in an average reduction of 85 % in face velocity at a height of 0.4 m and a distance of 1 m from the windbreak. The turbulence intensity i increased behind the windbreak because the reduction of mean of air speed on the leeside caused by the flow of air through the windbreak. Fluctuation levels, however, remained stable. The mean values of turbulence kinetic energy k decreased by 65 % to 86 % at a distance of 1 m from the windbreak and at a height of 0.4 m. The windbreak reduces erosion and sediment transportation 2 m downwind (2.9 times the windbreak height. Nevertheless, sediment transportation was not reduced at a height of 1.0 m and the effect of the windbreak was not observed at a distance of 6 m downwind (8.6 m times the windbreak height.

  8. Relative contributions of wind and water erosion to total soil loss and its effect on soil properties in sloping croplands of the Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Dengfeng; Xu, Mingxiang; Gao, Guangyao

    2018-08-15

    Wind and water erosion are two dominant types of erosion that lead to soil and nutrient losses. Wind and water erosion may occur simultaneously to varying extents in semi-arid regions. The contributions of wind and water erosion to total erosion and their effects on soil quality, however, remains elusive. We used cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) inventories to estimate the total soil erosion and used the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to quantify water erosion in sloping croplands. Wind erosion was estimated from the subtraction of the two. We also used 137 Cs inventories to calculate total soil erosion and validate the relationships of the soil quality and erosion at different slope aspects and positions. The results showed that wind erosion (1460tkm -2 a -1 ) on northwest-facing slope was responsible for approximately 39.7% of the total soil loss, and water erosion (2216tkm -2 a -1 ) accounted for approximately 60.3%. The erosion rates were 58.8% higher on northwest- than on southeast-facing slopes. Northwest-facing slopes had lower soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, clay, and silt contents than southeast-facing slopes, and thus, the 137 Cs inventories were lower, and the total soil erosions were higher on the northwest-facing slopes. The variations in soil physicochemical properties were related to total soil erosion. The lowest 137 Cs inventories and nutrient contents were recorded at the upper positions on the northwest-facing slopes due to the successive occurrence of more severe wind and water erosion at the same site. The results indicated that wind and water could accelerate the spatial variability of erosion rate and soil properties and cause serious decreases in the nutrient contents in sloping fields. Our research could help researchers develop soil strategies to reduce soil erosion according to the dominant erosion type when it occurs in a hilly agricultural area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mapping wind erosion hazard in Australia using MODIS-derived ground cover, soil moisture and climate data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X; Leys, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes spatial modeling methods to identify wind erosion hazard (WEH) areas across Australia using the recently available time-series products of satellite-derived ground cover, soil moisture and wind speed. We implemented the approach and data sets in a geographic information system to produce WEH maps for Australia at 500 m ground resolution on a monthly basis for the recent thirteen year period (2000–2012). These maps reveal the significant wind erosion hazard areas and their dynamic tendencies at paddock and regional scales. Dust measurements from the DustWatch network were used to validate the model and interpret the dust source areas. The modeled hazard areas and changes were compared with results from a rule-set approach and the Computational Environmental Management System (CEMSYS) model. The study demonstrates that the time series products of ground cover, soil moisture and wind speed can be jointly used to identify landscape erodibility and to map seasonal changes of wind erosion hazard across Australia. The time series wind erosion hazard maps provide detailed and useful information to assist in better targeting areas for investments and continuous monitoring, evaluation and reporting that will lead to reduced wind erosion and improved soil condition

  10. Wind Erosion Caused by Land Use Changes Significantly Reduces Ecosystem Carbon Storage and Carbon Sequestration Potentials in Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Chi, Y. G.; Wang, J.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Wind erosion exerts a fundamental influence on the biotic and abiotic processes associated with ecosystem carbon (C) cycle. However, how wind erosion under different land use scenarios will affect ecosystem C balance and its capacity for future C sequestration are poorly quantified. Here, we established an experiment in a temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia, and simulated different intensity of land uses: control, 50% of aboveground vegetation removal (50R), 100% vegetation removal (100R) and tillage (TI). We monitored lateral and vertical carbon flux components and soil characteristics from 2013 to 2016. Our study reveals three key findings relating to the driving factors, the magnitude and consequence of wind erosion on ecosystem C balance: (1) Frequency of heavy wind exerts a fundamental control over the severity of soil erosion, and its interaction with precipitation and vegetation characteristics explained 69% variation in erosion intensity. (2) With increases in land use intensity, the lateral C flux induced by wind erosion increased rapidly, equivalent to 33%, 86%, 111% and 183% of the net ecosystem exchange of the control site under control, 50R, 100R and TI sites, respectively. (3) After three years' treatment, erosion induced decrease in fine fractions led to 31%, 43%, 85% of permanent loss of C sequestration potential in the surface 5cm soil for 50R, 100R and TI sites. Overall, our study demonstrates that lateral C flux associated with wind erosion is too large to be ignored. The loss of C-enriched fine particles not only reduces current ecosystem C content, but also results in irreversible loss of future soil C sequestration potential. The dynamic soil characteristics need be considered when projecting future ecosystem C balance in aeolian landscape. We also propose that to maintain the sustainability of grassland ecosystems, land managers should focus on implementing appropriate land use rather than rely on subsequent managements on degraded soils.

  11. Soil drying and wind erosion as affected by different types of shelterbelts planted in the desert region of western Rajasthan, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, J.P.; Rao, G.G.S.N.; Gupta, G.N.; Rao, B.V.R.

    1983-03-01

    Studies on the effects of 8-year-old shelterbelt plantations indicate a general reduction in wind velocity, wind erosion and evaporative loss of moisture from fields protected with Prosopis juliflora, Cassia siamea and Acacia tortilis. Cassia siamea shelterbelts are the most effective in checking wind erosion and delaying drying of the soil. (Refs. 13).

  12. Soil wind erosion in ecological olive trees in the Tabernas desert (southeastern Spain): a wind tunnel experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Carlos; Lozano, Francisco Javier; Gallardo, Pedro; Giménez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Wind erosion is a key component of the soil degradation processes. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of material loss from wind on soil properties for different soil types and changes in soil properties in olive groves when they are tilled. The study area is located in the north of the Tabernas Desert, in the province of Almería, southeastern Spain. It is one of the driest areas in Europe, with a semiarid thermo-Mediterranean type of climate. We used a new wind tunnel model over three different soil types (olive-cropped Calcisol, Cambisol and Luvisol) and studied micro-plot losses and deposits detected by an integrated laser scanner. We also studied the image processing possibilities for examining the particles attached to collector plates located at the end of the tunnel to determine their characteristics and whether they were applicable to the setup. Samples collected in the traps at the end of the tunnel were analyzed. We paid special attention to the influence of organic carbon, carbonate and clay contents because of their special impact on soil crusting and the wind-erodible fraction. A principal components analysis (PCA) was carried out to find any relations on generated dust properties and the intensity and behavior of those relationships. Component 1 separated data with high N and OC contents from samples high in fine silt, CO3= and available K content. Component 2 separated data with high coarse silt and clay contents from data with high fine sand content. Component 3 was an indicator of available P2O5 content. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to analyze the effect of soil type and sampling height on different properties of trapped dust. Calculations based on tunnel data showed overestimation of erosion in soil types and calculation of the fraction of soil erodible by wind done by other authors for Spanish soils. As the highest loss was found in Cambisols, mainly due to the effect on soil crusting and the wind

  13. Development and validation of a method to estimate the potential wind erosion risk in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Roger; Deumlich, Detlef; Völker, Lidia

    2017-04-01

    The introduction of the Cross Compliance (CC) regulations for soil protection resulted in the demand for the classification of the the wind erosion risk on agricultural areas in Germany nationwide. A spatial highly resolved method was needed based on uniform data sets and validation principles, which provides a fair and equivalent procedure for all affected farmers. A GIS-procedure was developed, which derives the site specific wind erosion risk from the main influencing factors: soil texture, wind velocity, wind direction and landscape structure following the German standard DIN 19706. The procedure enables different approaches in the Federal States and comparable classification results. Here, we present the approach of the Federal State of Brandenburg. In the first step a complete soil data map was composed in a grid size of 10 x 10 m. Data were taken from 1.) the Soil quality Appraisal (scale 1:10.000), 2.) the Medium-scale Soil Mapping (MMK, 1:25.000), 3.) extrapolating the MMK, 4.) new Soil quality Appraisal (new areas after coal-mining). Based on the texture and carbon content the wind erosion susceptibility was divided in 6 classes. This map was combined with data of the annual average wind velocity resulting in an increase of the risk classes for wind velocities > 5 ms-1 and a decrease for structure is regarded by allocating a height to each landscape element, corresponding to the described features in the digital "Biotope and Land Use Map". The "hill shade" procedure of ArcGIS was used to set virtual shadows behind the landscape elements for eight directions. The relative frequency of wind from each direction was used as a weighting factor and multiplied with the numerical values of the shadowed cells. Depending on the distance to the landscape element the shadowing effect was combined with the risk classes. The results show that the wind erosion risk is obviously reduced by integrating landscape structures into the risk assessment. After the renewed

  14. Experimental study on influence of vegetation coverage on runoff in wind-water erosion crisscross region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhua; Zhang, Ronggang; Sun, Juan

    2018-02-01

    Using artificial rainfall simulation method, 23 simulation experiments were carried out in water-wind erosion crisscross region in order to analyze the influence of vegetation coverage on runoff and sediment yield. The experimental plots are standard plots with a length of 20m, width of 5m and slope of 15 degrees. The simulation experiments were conducted in different vegetation coverage experimental plots based on three different rainfall intensities. According to the experimental observation data, the influence of vegetation coverage on runoff and infiltration was analyzed. Vegetation coverage has a significant impact on runoff, and the higher the vegetation coverage is, the smaller the runoff is. Under the condition of 0.6mm/min rainfall intensity, the runoff volume from the experimental plot with 18% vegetation coverage was 1.2 times of the runoff from the experimental with 30% vegetation coverage. What’s more, the difference of runoff is more obvious in higher rainfall intensity. If the rainfall intensity reaches 1.32mm/min, the runoff from the experimental plot with 11% vegetation coverage is about 2 times as large as the runoff from the experimental plot with 53%vegetation coverage. Under the condition of small rainfall intensity, the starting time of runoff in the experimental plot with higher vegetation coverage is later than that in the experimental plot with low vegetation coverage. However, under the condition of heavy rainfall intensity, there is no obvious difference in the beginning time of runoff. In addition, the higher the vegetation coverage is, the deeper the rainfall infiltration depth is.The results can provide reference for ecological construction carried out in wind erosion crisscross region with serious soil erosion.

  15. High Power Electronics - Key Technology for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2014-01-01

    reliability challenges for the future wind turbines are explained. It is concluded that the wind turbine behavior/performance can be significantly improved by introducing power electronics, and there will be higher requirements for the power electronics performances in wind power application....

  16. Application of fuzzy logic approach for wind erosion hazard mapping in Laghouat region (Algeria) using remote sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadoud, Djouher; Hassani, Mohamed; Martin Peinado, Francisco José; Guettouche, Mohamed Saïd

    2018-06-01

    Wind erosion is one of the most serious environmental problems in Algeria that threatens human activities and socio-economic development. The main goal of this study is to apply a fuzzy logic approach to wind erosion sensitivity mapping in the Laghouat region, Algeria. Six causative factors, obtained by applying fuzzy membership functions to each used parameter, are considered: soil, vegetation cover, wind factor, soil dryness, land topography and land cover sensitivity. Different fuzzy operators (AND, OR, SUM, PRODUCT, and GAMMA) are applied to generate wind-erosion hazard map. Success rate curves reveal that the fuzzy gamma (γ) operator, with γ equal to 0.9, gives the best prediction accuracy with an area under curve of 85.2%. The resulting wind-erosion sensitivity map delineates the area into different zones of five relative sensitivity classes: very high, high, moderate, low and very low. The estimated result was verified by field measurements and the high statistically significant value of a chi-square test.

  17. I Got Them Dust Bowl Blues: Wind Erosion in the Music of the Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with the role of wind erosion and blowing dust on the music of the Dust Bowl region, a portion of the southern Great Plains of the United States. A defining characteristic of the region is dust storms, and in the 1930s, severe dust storms created dramatic images that came to symbolize all of the economic, social and environmental hardships suffered by the people during the 1930s. The music of the time, by Woody Guthrie and others, suggested that the region was being destroyed, never to recover. The region was resilient, however, and in recent decades, dust has been depicted in songs either as an adversity to be endured or simply as a normal part of life in the area. It may be that blowing dust has become a defining characteristic of the region because of a somewhat warped sense of pride in living in an often-difficult environment.

  18. Drawing a representative sample from the NCSS soil database: Building blocks for the national wind erosion network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing national wind erosion models for the continental United States requires a comprehensive spatial representation of continuous soil particle size distributions (PSD) for model input. While the current coverage of soil survey is nearly complete, the most detailed particle size classes have c...

  19. Power Electronics as key technology in wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper discuss the development in wind turbines in a two-decade perspective looking at the technology based on track records. Different power electronic topologies for interfacing the wind turbine to the grid are discussed and related to the possibility for the wind turbine to act as a power...

  20. Reliability & availability of wind turbine electrical & electronic components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavner, P.; Faulstich, S.; Hahn, B.; Bussel, van G.J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent analysis of European onshore wind turbine reliability data has shown that whilst wind turbine mechanical subassemblies tend to have relatively low failure rates but long downtimes, electrical and electronic subassemblies have relatively high failure rates and short downtimes. For onshore wind

  1. Interactions Between Wind Erosion, Vegetation Structure, and Soil Stability in Groundwater Dependent Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, K. R.; Elmore, A. J.; Okin, G. S.

    2009-12-01

    Desertification is a human induced global phenomenon causing a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem productivity. Semi-arid grasslands are vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts (i.e., groundwater pumping and surface water diversion) that decrease vegetation cover and increase bare soil area leading to a greater probability of soil erosion, potentially enhancing feedback processes associated with desertification. To enhance our understanding of interactions between anthropogenic, physical, and biological factors causing desertification, this study used a combination of modeling and field observations to examine the relationship between chronic groundwater pumping and vegetation cover change and its effects on soil erosion and stability. The work was conducted in Owens Valley California, where a long history of groundwater pumping and surface water diversion has lead to documented vegetation changes. The work examined hydrological, ecological and biogeochemical factors across thirteen sites in Owens Valley. We analyzed soil stability, vegetation and gap size, soil organic carbon, and we also installed Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) catchers to calculate mass transport of aeolian sediment across sites. Mass transport calculations were used to validate a new wind erosion model that represents the effect of porous vegetation on surface windshear velocity. Results across two field seasons show that the model can be used to predict mass transport, and areas with increased groundwater pumping show a greater susceptibility to erosion. Sediment collected in BSNE catchers was positively correlated with site gap size. Additionally, areas with larger gap sizes have a greater threshold shear velocity and soil stability, yet mass transport was greater at these sites than at sites with smaller gap sizes. Although modeling is complicated by spatial variation in multiple model parameters (e.g., gap size, threshold shear velocity in gaps), our results support the hypothesis that soils

  2. Separation of dry and wet periods from regular weather station data for the analysis of wind erosion risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naeini, Mohammadali Saremi; Fister, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    importance, soil moisture content is often ignored in the analysis of wind data for wind erosion studies. The main reason most probably being the lack of soil moisture sensors in conventional climate stations. Soil moisture at a given point in time is determined by rain (e.g. rainfall amount, duration......), climate (e.g. air temperature, solar radiation, evaporation) and soil (e.g. infiltration rate, adhesion). The purpose of this study is to overcome the lack of soil moisture data for wind erosion risk assessment by developing a method to estimate the soil wetness based on easy available weather data......, such as daily precipitation, hourly/sub hourly ambient air temperature and hourly/sub hourly relative humidity. This new method was used to identify periods of wet and dry soil moisture conditions of a time series from 20 weather stations in Denmark. The length of the time series varied between 8 to 37 years...

  3. Scanning-electron-microscope study of normal-impingement erosion of ductile metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.; Salik, J.

    1980-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the erosion of annealed copper and aluminum surfaces produced by both single- and multiple-particle impacts. Macroscopic 3.2 mm diameter steel balls and microscopic, brittle erodant particles were projected by a gas gun system so as to impact at normal incidence at speeds up to 140 m/sec. During the impacts by the brittle erodant particles, at lower speeds the erosion behavior was similar to that observed for the larger steel balls. At higher velocities, particle fragmentation and the subsequent cutting by the radial wash of debris created a marked change in the erosion mechanism.

  4. Variations in erosive wear of metallic materials with temperature via the electron work function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaochen; Yu, Bin; Yan, X.G.; Li, D.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical properties of metals are intrinsically determined by their electron behavior, which is largely reflected by the electron work function (EWF or φ). Since the work function varies with temperature, the dependence of material properties on temperature could be predicted via variations in work function with temperature. Combining a hardness – φ relationship and the dependence of work function on temperature, a temperature-dependent model for predicting solid-particle erosion is proposed. Erosive wear losses of copper, nickel, and carbon steel as sample materials were measured at different temperatures. Results of the tests are consistent with the theoretical prediction. This study demonstrates a promising parameter, electron work function, for looking into fundamental aspects of wear phenomena, which would also help develop alternative methodologies for material design. - Highlights: • Metallic materials' wear resistance is influenced by temperature. • Electron work function (EWF) intrinsically determines materials' wear resistance. • An EWF-based temperature-dependent solid-particle erosion model is proposed.

  5. Future on Power Electronics for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    networks and more and more wind power stations, acting as power plants, are connected directly to the transmission networks. As the grid penetration and power level of the wind turbines increase steadily, the wind power starts to have significant impacts to the power grid system. Therefore, more advanced...... generators, power electronic systems, and control solutions have to be introduced to improve the characteristics of the wind power plant and make it more suitable to be integrated into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are also some emerging technology challenges, which need to be further clarified......Wind power is still the most promising renewable energy in the year of 2013. The wind turbine system (WTS) started with a few tens of kilowatt power in the 1980s. Now, multimegawatt wind turbines are widely installed even up to 6-8 MW. There is a widespread use of wind turbines in the distribution...

  6. Power Electronics and Controls for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use power electronics to achieve high efficiency in power generation, transmission/distribution and utilization. This paper discuss trends of the most promising renewable energy sources, wind energy, which ,integrated with power...... electronics, is changing the future electrical infrastructure and also contributes steadily to non-carbon based electricity production. The paper’s focus is on the power electronics technologies used in wind turbine systems....

  7. Contributions of solar-wind induced potential sputtering to the lunar surface erosion rate and it's exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnussirat, S. T.; Barghouty, A. F.; Edmunson, J. E.; Sabra, M. S.; Rickman, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    Sputtering of lunar regolith by solar-wind protons and heavy ions with kinetic energies of about 1 keV/amu is an important erosive process that affects the lunar surface and exosphere. It plays an important role in changing the chemical composition and thickness of the surface layer, and in introducing material into the exosphere. Kinetic sputtering is well modeled and understood, but understanding of mechanisms of potential sputtering has lagged behind. In this study we differentiate the contributions of potential sputtering from the standard (kinetic) sputtering in changing the chemical composition and erosion rate of the lunar surface. Also we study the contribution of potential sputtering in developing the lunar exosphere. Our results show that potential sputtering enhances the total characteristic sputtering erosion rate by about 44%, and reduces sputtering time scales by the same amount. Potential sputtering also introduces more material into the lunar exosphere.

  8. Retrospection of recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area of North China using Cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhifan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China) and College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China)], E-mail: chenzhf0604@163.com; Zhao Ye [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: zhaoye@bnu.edu.cn; Qiao Jiejuan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang Qing [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Protection, Beijing 100088 (China); Zhu Yuen [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China); Xu Cuihua [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Protection, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The Luanhe River Source Area belongs to typical semi-arid, agro-pastoral ecotone of North China. It is very important for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in North China to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in this area. Based on long field observations, soil samples from different depths in a representative wind-deposited soil profile in the Luanhe River Source Area were collected. Then the {sup 137}Cs activity of soil samples from different depths in the soil profile was determined using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM-100), and their soil properties, such as the soil particle fraction and so on, were analyzed. According to the detected {sup 137}Cs activity of different depths, a continuous time sequence of the wind-deposited soil profile in the study area was established. Furthermore, through assumption on a soil relative wind erosion intensity index (SWEI), recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area were retrospected . The analysis results revealed that weaker soil wind erosion occurred in the study area from the 1970s to the early 1980s and from the late 1980s to the mid to late 1990s. Conversely, intense periods of soil wind erosion occurred in the mid-1980s and from the late 1990s to 2002.

  9. Retrospection of recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area of North China using Cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhifan; Zhao Ye; Qiao Jiejuan; Zhang Qing; Zhu Yuen; Xu Cuihua

    2009-01-01

    The Luanhe River Source Area belongs to typical semi-arid, agro-pastoral ecotone of North China. It is very important for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in North China to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in this area. Based on long field observations, soil samples from different depths in a representative wind-deposited soil profile in the Luanhe River Source Area were collected. Then the 137 Cs activity of soil samples from different depths in the soil profile was determined using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM-100), and their soil properties, such as the soil particle fraction and so on, were analyzed. According to the detected 137 Cs activity of different depths, a continuous time sequence of the wind-deposited soil profile in the study area was established. Furthermore, through assumption on a soil relative wind erosion intensity index (SWEI), recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area were retrospected . The analysis results revealed that weaker soil wind erosion occurred in the study area from the 1970s to the early 1980s and from the late 1980s to the mid to late 1990s. Conversely, intense periods of soil wind erosion occurred in the mid-1980s and from the late 1990s to 2002.

  10. Power electronics converters for wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2011-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power which reached 200 GW capacity in 2010, together with the up-scaling of the single wind turbine power capability - 7 MW’s has been announced by manufacturers - has pushed the research and development of power converters towards full scale power conversion,...

  11. Power Electronics Converters for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2012-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power together with the upscaling of the single wind turbine power capability has pushed the research and development of power converters toward full-scale power conversion, lowered cost pr kW, increased power density, and also the need for higher reliability. ...

  12. Assessment of wind erosion threat for soils in cadastral area of Hajske

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchova, Z.; Stredanska, A.

    2008-01-01

    This contribution illustrates the application of methods of erosion threat assessment in lan adaptation projects. Calculations of the soil erosion index of particular soil blocks are demonstrated for the cadastral area of Hajske. Two methods for assessment of erosion threat have been applied. First the assessment based on the ecological soil-quality units (ESQU) has been performed. Next, the Pasak method for a detailed analysis of the soil erosion threat was applied. Both of the mentioned approaches are recommended for the land adaption projects. Based on the results, the soil blocks have been ranked by their soil erosion threat. (authors)

  13. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    This book presents recent studies on the power electronics used for the next generation wind turbine system. Some criteria and tools for evaluating and improving the critical performances of the wind power converters have been proposed and established. The book addresses some emerging problems...

  14. Maximum wind energy extraction strategies using power electronic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quincy Qing

    2003-10-01

    This thesis focuses on maximum wind energy extraction strategies for achieving the highest energy output of variable speed wind turbine power generation systems. Power electronic converters and controls provide the basic platform to accomplish the research of this thesis in both hardware and software aspects. In order to send wind energy to a utility grid, a variable speed wind turbine requires a power electronic converter to convert a variable voltage variable frequency source into a fixed voltage fixed frequency supply. Generic single-phase and three-phase converter topologies, converter control methods for wind power generation, as well as the developed direct drive generator, are introduced in the thesis for establishing variable-speed wind energy conversion systems. Variable speed wind power generation system modeling and simulation are essential methods both for understanding the system behavior and for developing advanced system control strategies. Wind generation system components, including wind turbine, 1-phase IGBT inverter, 3-phase IGBT inverter, synchronous generator, and rectifier, are modeled in this thesis using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results have been verified by a commercial simulation software package, PSIM, and confirmed by field test results. Since the dynamic time constants for these individual models are much different, a creative approach has also been developed in this thesis to combine these models for entire wind power generation system simulation. An advanced maximum wind energy extraction strategy relies not only on proper system hardware design, but also on sophisticated software control algorithms. Based on literature review and computer simulation on wind turbine control algorithms, an intelligent maximum wind energy extraction control algorithm is proposed in this thesis. This algorithm has a unique on-line adaptation and optimization capability, which is able to achieve maximum wind energy conversion efficiency through

  15. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    generation unit, are becoming crucial in the wind turbine system. The objective of this project is to study the power electronics technology used for the next generation wind turbines. Some emerging challenges as well as potentials like the cost of energy and reliability are going to be addressed. First...... conversion is pushed to multi-MW level with high power density requirement. It has also been revealed that thermal stress in the power semiconductors is closely related to many determining factors in the wind power application like the reliability, cost, power density, etc. therefore it is an important......The wind power generation has been steadily growing both for the total installed capacity and for the individual turbine size. Due to much more significant impacts to the power grid, the power electronics, which can change the behavior of wind turbines from an unregulated power source to an active...

  16. Evaluation of the 137Cs technique for estimating wind erosion losses for some sandy Western Australian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, R.J.; Gilkes, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The utility of the caesium-137 technique, for estimating the effects of wind erosion, was evaluated on the soils of a semi-arid agricultural area near Jerramungup, Western Australia. The past incidence of wind erosion was estimated from field observations of soil profile morphology and an existing remote sensing study. Erosion was limited to sandy surfaced soils (0-4% clay), with a highly significant difference (P 137 Cs values between eroded and non-eroded sandy soils, with mean values of 243±17 and 386±13 Bq m -2 respectively. Non-eroded soils, with larger clay contents, had a mean 137 Cs content of 421±26 Bq m -2 , however, due to considerable variation between replicate samples, this value was not significantly different from that of the non-eroded sands. Hence, although the technique discriminates between eroded and non-eroded areas, the large variation in 137 Cs values means that from 27 to 96 replicate samples are required to provide statistically valid estimates of 137 Cs loss. The occurrence of around 18% of the total 137 Cs between 10 and 20 cm depth in these soils, despite cultivation being confined to the surface 9 cm, suggests that leaching of 137 Cs occurs in the sandy soils, although there was no relationship between clay content and 137 Cs value for either eroded or non-eroded soils. In a multiple linear regression, organic carbon content and the mean grain size of the eroded soils explained 35% of the variation in 137 Cs content. This relationship suggests that both organic carbon and 137 Cs are removed by erosion, with erosion being more prevalent on soils with a finer sand fraction. Clay and silt contents do not vary with depth in the near-surface horizons of the eroded sandy soils, hence it is likely that wind erosion strips the entire surface horizon with its 137 Cs content, rather than selectively winnowing fine material. 71 refs., 6 tabs., 2 fig

  17. Conceptual survey of Generators and Power Electronics for Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.H.; Helle, L.; Blaabjerg, F.; Ritchie, E.; Munk-Nielsen, S.; Bindner, H.; Soerensen, P.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2001-12-01

    This report presents a survey on generator concepts and power electronic concepts for wind turbines. The report is aimed as a tool for decision-makers and development people with respect to wind turbine manufactures, utilities, and independent system operators as well as manufactures of generators and power electronics. The survey is focused on the electric development of wind turbines and it yields an overview on: State of the art on generators and power electronics; future concepts and technologies within generators and power electronics; market needs in the shape of requirements to the grid connection, and; consistent system solutions, plus an evaluation of these seen in the prospect of market needs. This survey on of generator and power electronic concepts was carried out in co-operation between Aalborg University and Risoe National Laboratory in the scope of the research programme Electric Design and Control. (au)

  18. Conceptual survey of generators and power electronics for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.H.; Helle, L.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a survey on generator concepts and power electronic concepts for wind turbines. The report is aimed as a tool for decision-makers and development people with respect to wind turbine manufactures, utilities, and independent systemoperators as well as manufactures of generators...... and power electronics. The survey is focused on the electric development of wind turbines and it yields an overview on: - State of the art on generators and power electronics. - future concepts andtechnologies within generators and power electronics. - market needs in the shape of requirements to the grid...... connection, and - consistent system solutions, plus an evaluation of these seen in the prospect of market needs. This survey on of generatorand power electronic concepts was carried out in co-operation between Aalborg University and Risø National Laboratory in the scope of the research programme Electric...

  19. [Estimation of the effect derived from wind erosion of soil and dust emission in Tianjin suburbs on the central district based on WEPS model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Han, Ting-Ting; Li, Tao; Ji, Ya-Qin; Bai, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Bin

    2012-07-01

    Due to the lack of a prediction model for current wind erosion in China and the slow development for such models, this study aims to predict the wind erosion of soil and the dust emission and develop a prediction model for wind erosion in Tianjin by investigating the structure, parameter systems and the relationships among the parameter systems of the prediction models for wind erosion in typical areas, using the U.S. wind erosion prediction system (WEPS) as reference. Based on the remote sensing technique and the test data, a parameter system was established for the prediction model of wind erosion and dust emission, and a model was developed that was suitable for the prediction of wind erosion and dust emission in Tianjin. Tianjin was divided into 11 080 blocks with a resolution of 1 x 1 km2, among which 7 778 dust emitting blocks were selected. The parameters of the blocks were localized, including longitude, latitude, elevation and direction, etc.. The database files of blocks were localized, including wind file, climate file, soil file and management file. The weps. run file was edited. Based on Microsoft Visualstudio 2008, secondary development was done using C + + language, and the dust fluxes of 7 778 blocks were estimated, including creep and saltation fluxes, suspension fluxes and PM10 fluxes. Based on the parameters of wind tunnel experiments in Inner Mongolia, the soil measurement data and climate data in suburbs of Tianjin, the wind erosion module, wind erosion fluxes, dust emission release modulus and dust release fluxes were calculated for the four seasons and the whole year in suburbs of Tianjin. In 2009, the total creep and saltation fluxes, suspension fluxes and PM10 fluxes in the suburbs of Tianjin were 2.54 x 10(6) t, 1.25 x 10(7) t and 9.04 x 10(5) t, respectively, among which, the parts pointing to the central district were 5.61 x 10(5) t, 2.89 x 10(6) t and 2.03 x 10(5) t, respectively.

  20. A Review of the State of the Art of Power Electronics for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Guerrero, Josep M.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    are summarized and the possible uses of power electronic converters with wind farms are shown. Finally, the possible methods of using the power electronic technology for improving wind turbine performance in power systems to meet the main grid connection requirements are discussed.......This paper reviews the power electronic applications for wind energy systems. Various wind turbine systems with different generators and power electronic converters are described, and different technical features are compared. The electrical topologies of wind farms with different wind turbines...

  1. Electron heat flux instabilities in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.; Feldman, W.C.; Forslund, D.W.; Montgomery, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    There are at least three plasma instabilities associated with the electron heat flux in the solar wind. This letter reports the study of the unstable fast magnetosonic, Alfven and whistler modes via a computer code which solves the full electromagnetic, linear, Vlasov dispersion relation. Linear theory demonstrates that both the magnetosonic and Alfven instabilities are candidates for turbulent limitation of the heat flux in the solar wind at 1 A.U

  2. On Electron-Scale Whistler Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Y.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Motschmann, U.; Giles, B.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, the dispersion relation for turbulence magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is determined directly on small scales of the order of the electron inertial length, using four-point magnetometer observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. The data are analyzed using the high-resolution adaptive wave telescope technique. Small-scale solar wind turbulence is primarily composed of highly obliquely propagating waves, with dispersion consistent with that of the whistler mode.

  3. Variations in erosive wear of metallic materials with temperature via the electron work function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaochen; Yu, Bin [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2V4 (Canada); Yan, X.G. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China); Li, D.Y., E-mail: dongyang.li@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2V4 (Canada); School of Mechanical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China)

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical properties of metals are intrinsically determined by their electron behavior, which is largely reflected by the electron work function (EWF or φ). Since the work function varies with temperature, the dependence of material properties on temperature could be predicted via variations in work function with temperature. Combining a hardness – φ relationship and the dependence of work function on temperature, a temperature-dependent model for predicting solid-particle erosion is proposed. Erosive wear losses of copper, nickel, and carbon steel as sample materials were measured at different temperatures. Results of the tests are consistent with the theoretical prediction. This study demonstrates a promising parameter, electron work function, for looking into fundamental aspects of wear phenomena, which would also help develop alternative methodologies for material design. - Highlights: • Metallic materials' wear resistance is influenced by temperature. • Electron work function (EWF) intrinsically determines materials' wear resistance. • An EWF-based temperature-dependent solid-particle erosion model is proposed.

  4. A kinetic study of solar wind electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lie-Svendsen, Oeystein; Leer, Egil

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of the distribution function for a test population of electrons in an isothermal electron-proton corona has been studied using a Fokker-Planck description. The aim is to investigate whether a suprathermal tail forms due to the energy dependence of the Coulomb cross section. We find that a Maxwellian test population, injected into this background close to the coronal base with a temperature equal to that of the background electrons, maintains its shape throughout the transition from collision-dominated to collisionless flow. No significant suprathermal tail in the electron distribution function is seen in the outer corona

  5. Kappa-Electrons Downstream of the Solar Wind Termination Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    A theoretical description of the solar wind electron distribution function downstream of the termination shock under the influence of the shock-induced injection of overshooting KeV-energetic electrons will be presented. A kinetic phasespace transport equation in the bulk frame of the heliosheath plasma flow is developed for the solar wind electrons, taking into account shock-induced electron injection, convective changes, magnetic cooling processes and whistler wave-induced energy diffusion. Assuming that the local electron distribution under the prevailing Non-LTE conditions can be represented by a local kappa function with a local kappa parameter that varies with the streamline coordinates, we determine the parameters of the resulting, initial kappa distribution for the downstream electrons. From this initial function spectral electron fluxes can be derived and can be compared with those measured by the VOYAGER-1 spacecraft in the range between 40 to 70 KeV. It can then be shown that with kappa values around kappa = 6 one can in fact fit these data very satisfactorily. In addition it is shown that for isentropic electron flows kappa-distributed electrons have to undergo simultaneous changes of both parameters, i.e. kappa and theta, of the electron kappa function. It is also shown then that under the influence of energy sinks and sources the electron flux becomes non-isentropic with electron entropies changing along the streamline.

  6. Experience with Exacin ointment for erosive dermatitis arising after X-ray and electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiko

    1995-01-01

    An ointment containing Exacin (isepamicin sulfate) was used to prevent infection in 12 female patients with erosive (acute) or chronic dermatitis caused by X-ray and electron irradiation. Underlying diseases were skin metastasis from breast cancer (n=3), advanced cervical cancer (n=3), positive margin of cervical cancer (n=2), vaginal cancer (n=2), recurrence of rectal cancer (n=one), and vulvar cancer (n=one). Exacin ointment (a daily dose of approximately 6 g) was applied in two or more divided doses to lesions in the vulva (n=9), axillary chest wall (n=one), and chest wall (n=2) for 16-65 days in the group of erosive radiodermatitis (n=10) and for 3-10 months in the group of chronic radiodermatitis (n=2). In the group of erosive radiodermatitis, 8 were evaluated as remarkably improved; in the group of chronic radiodermatitis, one was evaluated as slightly improved and one as unchanged. Exacin ointment was considered to be effective for erosive dermatitis to prevent infection. (N.K.)

  7. Electron wind in strong wave guide fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienen, F.

    1985-03-01

    The X-ray activity observed near highly powered waveguide structures is usually caused by local electric discharges originating from discontinuities such as couplers, tuners or bends. In traveling waves electrons move in the direction of the power flow. Seed electrons can multipactor in a traveling wave, the moving charge pattern is different from the multipactor in a resonant structure and is self-extinguishing. The charge density in the wave guide will modify impedance and propagation constant of the wave guide. The radiation level inside the output wave guide of the SLAC, 50 MW, S-band, klystron is estimated. Possible contributions of radiation to window failure are discussed.

  8. The National Wind Erosion Research Network: Building a standardized long-term data resource for aeolian research, modeling and land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Van Zee, Justin W; Courtright, Ericha M; Hugenholtz, Ted M; Zobeck, Ted M; Okin, Gregory S.; Barchyn, Thomas E; Billings, Benjamin J; Boyd, Robert A.; Clingan, Scott D; Cooper, Brad F; Duniway, Michael C.; Derner, Justin D.; Fox, Fred A; Havstad, Kris M.; Heilman, Philip; LaPlante, Valerie; Ludwig, Noel A; Metz, Loretta J; Nearing, Mark A; Norfleet, M Lee; Pierson, Frederick B; Sanderson, Matt A; Sharrat, Brenton S; Steiner, Jean L; Tatarko, John; Tedela, Negussie H; Todelo, David; Unnasch, Robert S; Van Pelt, R Scott; Wagner, Larry

    2016-01-01

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the United States Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the United States Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for a long-term research program to meet critical challenges in wind erosion research and management in the United States. The Network has three aims: (1) provide data to support understanding of basic aeolian processes across land use types, land cover types, and management practices, (2) support development and application of models to assess wind erosion and dust emission and their impacts on human and environmental systems, and (3) encourage collaboration among the aeolian research community and resource managers for the transfer of wind erosion technologies. The Network currently consists of thirteen intensively instrumented sites providing measurements of aeolian sediment transport rates, meteorological conditions, and soil and vegetation properties that influence wind erosion. Network sites are located across rangelands, croplands, and deserts of the western US. In support of Network activities, http://winderosionnetwork.org was developed as a portal for information about the Network, providing site descriptions, measurement protocols, and data visualization tools to facilitate collaboration with scientists and managers interested in the Network and accessing Network products. The Network provides a mechanism for engaging national and international partners in a wind erosion research program that addresses the need for improved understanding and prediction of aeolian processes across complex and diverse land use types and management practices.

  9. Effects of electrons on the solar wind proton temperature anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michno, M. J.; Lazar, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2014-01-01

    Among the kinetic microinstabilities, the firehose instability is one of the most efficient mechanisms to restrict the unlimited increase of temperature anisotropy in the direction of an ambient magnetic field as predicted by adiabatic expansion of collision-poor solar wind. Indeed, the solar wind proton temperature anisotropy detected near 1 AU shows that it is constrained by the marginal firehose condition. Of the two types of firehose instabilities, namely, parallel and oblique, the literature suggests that the solar wind data conform more closely to the marginal oblique firehose condition. In the present work, however, it is shown that the parallel firehose instability threshold is markedly influenced by the presence of anisotropic electrons, such that under some circumstances, the cumulative effects of both electron and proton anisotropies could describe the observation without considering the oblique firehose mode.

  10. Power Electronics Control of Wind Energy in Distributed Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  11. Electron energetics in the expanding solar wind via Helios observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štverák, Štěpán; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Hellinger, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 10 (2015), s. 8177-8193 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/2041; GA ČR GA15-17490S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : solar wind * electrons energetics * transport processes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015

  12. Erosion resistance of composite materials on titanium, zirconium and aluminium nitride base under the electron beam effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkhoturov, A.D.; Kuzenkova, M.A.; Slutskin, M.G.; Kravchuk, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    Erosion resistance of composites based on nitrides of titanium, zirconium and aluminium to spark and electron beam processing has been studied. The erosion resistance in spark processing is shown to depend on specific electric resistance of the alloys. TiN-AlN and ZrN-AlN alloys containing more than 70% AlN (with specific electric resistance more than 10 6 -10 7 ohm/cm) caot be processed by spark method. It is shown that erosion of the composites by an electron beam depends primarily on the rate of evaporation of the components

  13. Measurement and data analysis methods for field-scale wind erosion studies and model validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zobeck, T.M.; Sterk, G.; Funk, R.F.; Rajot, J.L.; Stout, J.E.; Scott Van Pelt, R.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate and reliable methods of measuring windblown sediment are needed to confirm, validate, and improve erosion models, assess the intensity of aeolian processes and related damage, determine the source of pollutants, and for other applications. This paper outlines important principles to

  14. Wind reduction patterns around isolated biomass for wind erosion control in a desertified area of Central Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasr Al-amin, N.K.; Stigter, C.J.; El-Tayeb Mohammed, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of sparse vegetation, feature common in arid zone, to reduce wind force (velocity) and hence protect the surface and regions downwind from drifting sand and their consequences. Respectively 4 (with heights h of 4, 3.2, 2 and 1.66 m), 2 (with h of

  15. Counterstreaming solar wind halo electron events on open field lines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, J. T.; Mccomas, D. J.; Phillips, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Counterstreaming solar wind halo electron events have been identified as a common 1 AU signature of coronal mass ejection events, and have generally been interpreted as indicative of closed magnetic field topologies, i.e., magnetic loops or flux ropes rooted at both ends in the Sun, or detached plasmoids. In this paper we examine the possibility that these events may instead occur preferentially on open field lines, and that counterstreaming results from reflection or injection behind interplanetary shocks or from mirroring from regions of compressed magnetic field farther out in the heliosphere. We conclude that neither of these suggested sources of counterstreaming electron beams is viable and that the best interpretation of observed counterstreaming electron events in the solar wind remains that of passage of closed field structures.

  16. Kinetic Theory and Fast Wind Observations of the Electron Strahl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horaites, Konstantinos; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Wilson, Lynn B., III; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Merka, Jan

    2018-02-01

    We develop a model for the strahl population in the solar wind - a narrow, low-density and high-energy electron beam centred on the magnetic field direction. Our model is based on the solution of the electron drift-kinetic equation at heliospheric distances where the plasma density, temperature and the magnetic field strength decline as power laws of the distance along a magnetic flux tube. Our solution for the strahl depends on a number of parameters that, in the absence of the analytic solution for the full electron velocity distribution function (eVDF), cannot be derived from the theory. We however demonstrate that these parameters can be efficiently found from matching our solution with observations of the eVDF made by the Wind satellite's SWE strahl detector. The model is successful at predicting the angular width (FWHM) of the strahl for the Wind data at 1 au, in particular by predicting how this width scales with particle energy and background density. We find that the strahl distribution is largely determined by the local temperature Knudsen number γ ∼ |T dT/dx|/n, which parametrizes solar wind collisionality. We compute averaged strahl distributions for typical Knudsen numbers observed in the solar wind, and fit our model to these data. The model can be matched quite closely to the eVDFs at 1 au; however, it then overestimates the strahl amplitude at larger heliocentric distances. This indicates that our model may be improved through the inclusion of additional physics, possibly through the introduction of 'anomalous diffusion' of the strahl electrons.

  17. In vitro study on dental erosion provoked by various beverages using electron probe microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willershausen, B; Schulz-Dobrick, B

    2004-09-29

    Tooth erosion is often based on chemical processes, among others the use of soft drinks or diverse beverages. The aim of this in vitro study was to analyse the erosive potential of different acidic beverages. Over a time span of 6 hours, dental slices (n=6 slices per tooth) from fully retained wisdom teeth were incubated with different beverages (coca cola, ice tea with lemon, apple juice and white wine). The controls were incubated with a 0.9% sodium chloride solution under the same conditions (37 degrees C, humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 95% air). The quantitative elementary analysis for calcium, phosphorus, oxygen and other trace elements in the dental slices in various depths ranging from 5 to 50 microm was carried out using an electron probe micro-analyser (Jeol JXA 8900RL). A beverage-induced loss of minerals, particularly of the 2 main components calcium and phosphorus, especially in the uppermost layers of the enamel down to a depth of 30 microm could be observed. In the depth of 10 microm, the following total mineral loss could be determined: white wine (16%), coca cola (14.5%), apple juice (6.5%) and ice tea with lemon (6.5%). A direct correlation between the loss of minerals and the pH value of the beverages was not observed, because of the buffering effect of the drinks. The conversion of the weight percentages from the chemical analysis of Ca and P to their atomic percentages showed that during erosion the 2 main components were not dissolved in significantly different percentages. In this study the erosive potential of the tested soft drinks and other beverages could be demonstrated. However, it must be considered that numerous modifying factors influence the enamel surface, so an extrapolation from the in vitro study to an in vivo situation can only be applied with caution.

  18. Dust records in the Pleistocene sediments of Fraser Island: palaeoclimatic reconstruction of wind erosion over the last 600 ka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longmore, M.E.; McTainsh, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Pleistocene lake sediments from a relic perched freshwater lake on Fraser Island have been found to date back to ca.600 ka using U/Th analysis of the organics. This sequence is one of the three longest terrestrial records of environmental change in Australia and the contained evidence of vegetation, fire and lake level changes (Longmore and Heijnis, 1996) and is an invaluable contribution to palaeoclimatic reconstruction. A younger sequence, dated by conventional radiocarbon analysis, has 6.5 m of continuous organic sedimentation from ca. 30 ka to the present. The last 8.5 ka has been analysed in detail, showing a mid-Holocene 'dry' period (Longmore, 1996). Continental aeolian dust from extreme wind erosional events has been measured in modern atmospheres (McTainsh, 1989; Knight et al., 1995) and deep sea cores (Hesse, 1994), but the terrestrial record of wind erosion during the Pleistocene is sparse. We will report on a pilot project to determine the presence of aeolian dust from extreme wind erosional events in the past in the sediments of Fraser Island lakes. Due to the highly weathered, well-sorted, siliceous nature of the dune sands forming the Island and the highly organic nature of the lake sediments (80-95% LOI), these are some of the few terrestrial sequences that permit separation of aeolian dust from local catchment materials. In the future, oxygen isotope and XRD analysis of the extracted dust will allow the most likely source of the entrained material to be determined and thus provide further evidence as to the wind regime during the last 600ka and 30ka respectively. The separation of dust from these terrestrial sequences is a major achievement and potentially may make a significant contribution to global palaeoclimatic models

  19. Wind erosion risk in the southwest of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, and its relationship to the productivity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silenzi, Juan C.; Echeverría, Nora E.; Vallejos, Adrián G.; Bouza, Mariana E.; De Lucia, Martín P.

    2012-01-01

    Wind erosion risk (WER) for soils of each municipality in the southwest (SW) of Buenos Aires Province (10,491,172 ha) was determined using the wind erosion equation (WEQ) model. WER results from multiplying the soil erodibility index (" I") of the soil by the climatic factor ( C). WER (Mg ha -1 year -1) of each municipality was: Bahía Blanca: 22.4, Coronel Dorrego: 18.6, Coronel Pringles: 4.5, Coronel Rosales: 48.2, Coronel Suárez: 4.5, Guaminí: 3.0, Patagones: 104.6, Puan: 12.2, Saavedra: 3.0, Tornquist: 6.8, and Villarino: 31.7. The maximum weighted average of " I" (Mg ha -1 year -1) corresponded to Coronel Rosales (87.6), Patagones (87.2), Villarino (85.7), Puan (67.9); Guaminí (59.6), Coronel Dorrego (53.1), and Bahía Blanca (39.3); the remaining municipalities ranged between 34.9 and 32.1 Mg ha -1 year -1. The highest C (%) corresponded to Patagones (120), Bahía Blanca (57), Coronel Rosales (55), Villarino (37), Coronel Dorrego (35), Tornquist (21), and Puan (18); for the remaining municipalities it was 14%. The productivity index (PI) is known to establish a numerical value of the productive capacity of lands. The relationship between WER and PI, weighted averages, in all the studied municipalities was fitted by means of a linear model, WER (Mg ha -1 year -1) = 95.23 - 2.09 * PI (%) ( R2 = 66%), and a second-order polynomial model, WER (Mg ha -1 year -1) = 139.41 - 5.86 * PI (%) + 0.07 * PI 2 (%) ( R2 = 74%). No statistically significant relationship was found between WER and PI for each municipality.

  20. Interactive effects of moss-dominated crusts and Artemisia ordosica on wind erosion and soil moisture in Mu Us sandland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongsheng; Bu, Chongfeng; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Zhang, Kankan

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs) on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1) The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2) Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3) Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion.

  1. Reliability analysis of grid connected small wind turbine power electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifujjaman, Md.; Iqbal, M.T.; Quaicoe, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Grid connection of small permanent magnet generator (PMG) based wind turbines requires a power conditioning system comprising a bridge rectifier, a dc-dc converter and a grid-tie inverter. This work presents a reliability analysis and an identification of the least reliable component of the power conditioning system of such grid connection arrangements. Reliability of the configuration is analyzed for the worst case scenario of maximum conversion losses at a particular wind speed. The analysis reveals that the reliability of the power conditioning system of such PMG based wind turbines is fairly low and it reduces to 84% of initial value within one year. The investigation is further enhanced by identifying the least reliable component within the power conditioning system and found that the inverter has the dominant effect on the system reliability, while the dc-dc converter has the least significant effect. The reliability analysis demonstrates that a permanent magnet generator based wind energy conversion system is not the best option from the point of view of power conditioning system reliability. The analysis also reveals that new research is required to determine a robust power electronics configuration for small wind turbine conversion systems.

  2. Electron temperature anisotropy constraints in the solar wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štverák, Štěpán; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Maksimovic, M.; Marsch, E.; Fazakerley, A.; Scime, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 113, A3 /2008/ (2008), A03103/1-A03103/10 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420602 Grant - others:EU(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501; CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : solar wind electrons * temperature anisotropy * radial Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.147, year: 2008

  3. Erosion of volatile elemental condensed gases by keV electron and light-ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schou, J.

    1991-11-01

    Erosion of the most volatile elemental gases by keV electron and light-ion bombardment has been studied at the experimental setup at Risoe. The present work includes frozen neon, argon, krypton, nitrogen, oxygen and three hydrogen isotopes, deuterium, hydrogen deuteride and hydrogen. The yield of these condensed gases has been measured as a function of film thickness and primary energy for almost all combinations of primary particles (1-3 keV electrons, 5-10 keV hydrogen- and helium ions) and ices. These and other existing results show that there are substantial common features for the sputtering of frozen elemental gases. Within the two groups, the solid rare gases and the solid molecular gases, the similarity is striking. The hydrogenic solids deviate in some respects from the other elements. The processes that liberate kinetic energy for the particle ejection in sputtering are characteristic of the specific gas. (au) 3 tabs., 12 ills., 159 refs

  4. Wind tunnel tests of biodegradable fugitive dust suppressants being considered to reduce soil erosion by wind at radioactive waste construction sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Dennis, G.W.; Bushaw, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed of three fugitive dust control agents derived from potato and sugar beet products. These materials are being considered for use as dust suppressants to reduce the potential for transport of radioactive materials by wind from radioactive waste construction and remediation sites. Soil and dust control agent type, solution concentrations, application quantities, aging (or drying) conditions, surface disturbance, and wind and saltating sand eolian erosive stresses were selected and controlled to simulate application and exposure of excavated soil surfaces in the field. A description of the tests, results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this report. The results of this study indicate that all three dust control agents can protect exposed soil surfaces from extreme eolian stresses. It is also clear that the interaction and performance of each agent with various soil types may differ dramatically. Thus, soils similar to that received from ML should be best protected by high concentration (∼2.5%) solutions of potato starch at low water application levels (∼1 to 2 L/m 2 ). Because the effectiveness of PS on this soil type is degraded after a moderate amount of simulated rainfall, other options or additives should be considered if surfaces are to be protected for long intervals or during periods of intermittent rainfall and hot, windy conditions. On the other hand, XDCA should be considered when excavating sandy soils. It should be noted, however, that because the Hanford soil test results are based on a small number of tests, it would be prudent to perform additional tests prior to selecting a fugitive dust control agent for use at the Hanford Site. While fermented potato waste was not the best fixative used on either soil, it did perform reasonably well on both soil types (better than XDCA on Idaho soil and better than PS on Hanford soil)

  5. Parametrization of the increase of the aeolian erosion threshold wind friction velocity due to soil moisture for arid and semi-arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fécan

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale simulation of the soil-derived dust emission in semi-arid regions needs to account for the influence of the soil moisture on the wind erosion threshold. Soil water retention consists of molecular adsorption on the soil grain surface and capillary forces between the grain. Interparticle capillary forces (characterized by the moisture tension are the main factor responsible for the increase of the wind erosion threshold observed when the soil moisture increases. When the soil moisture content is close to but smaller than the maximum amount of adsorbed water, w' (depending on the soil texture, these capillary forces are considered as not strong enough to significantly increase the erosion threshold. An expression of the moisture tension as a function of soil moisture and w' is derived from retention curves. From this expression, a parametrization of the ratio of the wet to dry erosion thresholds has been developed as a function of soil moisture and soil texture. The coefficients of this parametrization have been determined by using experimental data from the literature. An empirical relationship between w' and soil clay content has been established. The erosion threshold ratios simulated for different soil textures were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (Aerosols and particles · Hydrology (soil moisture

  6. Changes in wind erosion over a 25-year restoration chronosequence on the south edge of the Tengger Desert, China: implications for preventing desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Quanlin; Fehmi, Jeffrey S; Zhang, Dekui; Fan, Baoli; Chen, Fang

    2017-08-23

    Wind erosion is a primary cause of desertification as well as being a serious ecological problem in arid and semi-arid areas across the world. To determine mechanisms for restoring desertified lands, an unrestored shifting sand dune and three formerly shifting sand dunes (desertified lands) that had been enclosed and afforested for 5, 15, and 25 years were selected for evaluation on the south edge of the Tengger Desert, China. Based on sampling heights between 0.2 and 3 m, the critical threshold average wind speed was 6.5 m s -1 at 2 m where the sand transport rate was reduced from 285.9 kg m -2  h -1 on the unrestored dunes to 9.1 and 1.8 kg m -2  h -1 on the sites afforested and enclosed for 5 and 15 years, respectively. The percentage of wind eroded area was reduced from 99.9% on the unrestored dune to 94.5, 9.0, and 0.5% on the sites afforested and enclosed for 5, 15, and 25 years, respectively. Wind erosion was effectively reduced after 15 years. Although there were different driving factors for wind erosion mitigation on the different restoration stages, an increase in the vegetation cover, surface roughness, soil shear strength, soil clay content, organic matter, and reduction in the near-surface wind speed were the primary variables associated with the restoration chronosequence. We conclude that reducing the wind speed and developing a biological crust through vegetation restoration were the critical components for restoration of desertified land.

  7. A large source of dust missing in Particulate Matter emission inventories? Wind erosion of post-fire landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Wagenbrenner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire contributes substantial particulate matter (PM in the form of dust to the atmosphere, but the magnitude of this dust source is largely unknown. It is important to accurately quantify dust emissions because they can impact human health, degrade visibility, exacerbate dust-on-snow issues (including snowmelt timing, snow chemistry, and avalanche danger, and affect ecological and biogeochemical cycles, precipitation regimes, and the Earth’s radiation budget. We used a novel modeling approach in which local-scale winds were used to drive a high-resolution dust emission model parameterized for burned soils to provide a first estimate of post-fire PM emissions. The dust emission model was parameterized with dust flux measurements from a 2010 fire scar. Here we present a case study to demonstrate the ability of the modeling framework to capture the onset and dynamics of a post-fire dust event and then use the modeling framework to estimate PM emissions from burn scars left by wildfires in U.S. western sagebrush landscapes during 2012. Modeled emissions from 1.2 million ha of burned soil totaled 32.1 Tg (11.7–352 Tg of dust as PM10 and 12.8 Tg (4.68–141 Tg as PM2.5. Despite the relatively large uncertainties in these estimates and a number of underlying assumptions, these first estimates of annual post-fire dust emissions suggest that post-fire PM emissions could substantially increase current annual PM estimates in the U.S. National Emissions Inventory during high fire activity years. Given the potential for post-fire scars to be a large source of PM, further on-site PM flux measurements are needed to improve emission parameterizations and constrain these first estimates.

  8. Rain erosion of wind turbine blade coatings using discrete water jets: Effects of water cushioning, substrate geometry, impact distance, and coating properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shizhong; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Bernad, Pablo L.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and reliable rain erosion screening of blade coatings for wind turbines is a strong need in the coatings industry. One possibility in this direction is the use of discrete water jets, where so-called jet slugs are impacted on a coating surface. Previous investigations have mapped...... the influence of water jet slug velocity and impact frequency. In the present work, the effects on coating erosion of water cushioning, substrate curvature, and water nozzle-coating distance were explored. The investigations showed that in some cases water cushioning (the presence of a liquid film...... on the coating surface prior to impact) influences the erosion. Contrary to this, substrate curvature and the water nozzle-coating distance (

  9. [Responses of soil fauna to environment degeneration in the process of wind erosion desertification of Hulunbeir steppe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Shi-Hai; Lu, Xin-Shi; Gao, Ji-Xi

    2007-09-01

    To reveal the relationships between soil fauna and soil environmental factors in the process of steppe desertification, field survey combined with laboratory analysis was made to study the community structure, population density and biodiversity of soil fauna, and their relationships with the changes of soil organic matter, hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus and moisture contents and soil pH at different stages of desertification of Hulunbeir steppe. The soil faunal specimens collected belonged to 4 phyla, 6 classes and 12 orders. Nematoda was the only dominant group of medium- and small-sized soil fauna, occupying 94.3% of the total, while Coleoptera and Hemiptera were the dominant groups of large-sized soil fauna, with the amount of 79.7%. The group amount, population density, diversity, and evenness of soil fauna had an obvious decreasing trend with the aggravation of steppe desertification. At serious stage of desertification, soil fauna vanished completely. The population density of soil fauna in 0-20 cm soil layer had significant linear correlations with soil nutrients and moisture contents, soil pH, and litter mass, indicating that soil fauna had stronger sensibility to the changes of soil environmental factors in the process of wind erosion desertification of Hulunbeir steppe.

  10. Solar Wind Electron Scattering by Kinetic Instabilities and Whistler Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    The expansion of the solar wind away from the Sun drives electron velocity distributions away from the thermal Maxwellian form, yielding distributions near 1 AU which typically can be characterized as consisting of three anisotropic components: a more dense, relatively cool core, a relatively tenuous , relatively warm halo and a similarly tenuous, warm strahl. Each of these nonthermal components are potential sources of kinetic plasma instabilities; the enhanced waves from each instability can scatter the electrons, acting to reduce the various anisotropies and making their overall velocity distribution more nearly (but not completely) thermal. In contrast, simulations are demonstrating that the forward decay of whistler turbulence can lead to the development of a T||> T_perp electron anisotropy. This presentation will review linear theories of electron-driven kinetic instabilities (following the presentation by Daniel Verscharen at the 2015 SHINE Workshop), and will further consider the modification of electron velocity distributions as obtained from particle-in-cell simulations of such instabilities as well as from the decay of whistler turbulence.

  11. Strategies for mitigating the ionization-induced beam head erosion problem in an electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. An

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for mitigating ionization-induced beam head erosion in an electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA are explored when the plasma and the wake are both formed by the transverse electric field of the beam itself. Beam head erosion can occur in a preformed plasma because of a lack of focusing force from the wake at the rising edge (head of the beam due to the finite inertia of the electrons. When the plasma is produced by field ionization from the space charge field of the beam, the head erosion is significantly exacerbated due to the gradual recession (in the beam frame of the 100% ionization contour. Beam particles in front of the ionization front cannot be focused (guided causing them to expand as in vacuum. When they expand, the location of the ionization front recedes such that even more beam particles are completely unguided. Eventually this process terminates the wake formation prematurely, i.e., well before the beam is depleted of its energy. Ionization-induced head erosion can be mitigated by controlling the beam parameters (emittance, charge, and energy and/or the plasma conditions. In this paper we explore how the latter can be optimized so as to extend the beam propagation distance and thereby increase the energy gain. In particular we show that, by using a combination of the alkali atoms of the lowest practical ionization potential (Cs for plasma formation and a precursor laser pulse to generate a narrow plasma filament in front of the beam, the head erosion rate can be dramatically reduced. Simulation results show that in the upcoming “two-bunch PWFA experiments” on the FACET facility at SLAC national accelerator laboratory the energy gain of the trailing beam can be up to 10 times larger for the given parameters when employing these techniques. Comparison of the effect of beam head erosion in preformed and ionization produced plasmas is also presented.

  12. Oxygen isotopic ratios of quartz from wind-erosive soils of southwestern United States in relation to aerosol dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridhar, K.; Jackson, M.L.; Clayton, R.N.; Gillette, D.A.; Hawley, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The oxygen isotopic ratios (expressed as parts per thousand relative to mean ocean water, SMOW, delta/sup 18/O) of the quartz from 13 soils undergoing much wind erosion during the study period of 1972-1975 in four southwestern states and from comparison areas were determined. The delta/sup 18/O for quartz from eight Texas (TX) and Arizona (AZ) soils range from 13.0 to 15.9 /sup 0///sub 00/. The quartz of the sands and silts coarser than 20 ..mu..m from three of the soils had delta/sup 18/O values ranging from 13.1 to 15.1 /sup 0///sub 00/, characteristic of an ultimate igneous-metamorphic origin. The delta/sup 18/O values increase greatly with decreasing particle size of quartz from three soils ranging from loamy fine sand to loam to clay in texture. The delta/sup 18/O of the 1-10 ..mu..m quartz fraction (aerosol size) ranged from 19.2 to 20.2 /sup 0///sub 00/ (19.55 +- 0.28 /sup 0///sub 00/; +- sigma) for the thirteen soils most affected by dust storms. The oxygen isotopic ratios of 1-10 ..mu..m quartz from three Hawaiian soils and two sediments from Lake Waiau occurring at 3,970 m altitude on the Mauna Kea summit on the Island of Hawaii give a delta/sup 18/O mean of 18.3 +- 0.2 /sup 0///sub 00/.

  13. Precision Electron Density Measurements in the SSX MHD Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen-Lewis, Emma M.; Barbano, Luke J.; Shrock, Jaron E.; Kaur, Manjit; Schaffner, David A.; Brown, Michael R.

    2017-10-01

    We characterize fluctuations of the line averaged electron density of Taylor states produced by the magnetized coaxial plasma gun of the SSX device using a 632.8 nm HeNe laser interferometer. The analysis method uses the electron density dependence of the refractive index of the plasma to determine the electron density of the Taylor states. Typical magnetic field and density values in the SSX device approach about B ≅ 0.3 T and n = 0 . 4 ×1016 cm-3 . Analysis is improved from previous density measurement methods by developing a post-processing method to remove relative phase error between interferometer outputs and to account for approximately linear phase drift due to low-frequency mechanical vibrations of the interferometer. Precision density measurements coupled with local measurements of the magnetic field will allow us to characterize the wave composition of SSX plasma via density vs. magnetic field correlation analysis, and compare the wave composition of SSX plasma with that of the solar wind. Preliminary results indicate that density and magnetic field appear negatively correlated. Work supported by DOE ARPA-E ALPHA program.

  14. Wind Power - A Power Source Enabled by Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2004-01-01

    . The deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in bigger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be very high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change the electrical power production sources from......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. The production, distribution and the use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should be set up...... the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...

  15. Effects of Long-term Conservation Tillage on Soil Nutrients in Sloping Fields in Regions Characterized by Water and Wind Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chunjian; Cao, Xue; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Weiyu; Feng, Yongzhong; Qiao, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Conservation tillage is commonly used in regions affected by water and wind erosion. To understand the effects of conservation tillage on soil nutrients and yield, a long-term experiment was set up in a region affected by water and wind erosion on the Loess Plateau. The treatments used were traditional tillage (CK), no tillage (NT), straw mulching (SM), plastic-film mulching (PM), ridging and plastic-film mulching (RPM) and intercropping (In). Our results demonstrate that the available nutrients in soils subjected to non-traditional tillage treatments decreased during the first several years and then remained stable over the last several years of the experiment. The soil organic matter and total nitrogen content increased gradually over 6 years in all treatments except CK. The nutrient content of soils subjected to conservative tillage methods, such as NT and SM, were significantly higher than those in soils under the CK treatment. Straw mulching and film mulching effectively reduced an observed decrease in soybean yield. Over the final 6 years of the experiment, soybean yields followed the trend RPM > PM > SM > NT > CK > In. This trend has implications for controlling soil erosion and preventing non-point source pollution in sloping fields by sacrificing some food production.

  16. On the Material Characterisation of Wind Turbine Blade Coatings: The Effect of Interphase Coating–Laminate Adhesion on Rain Erosion Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cortés

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rain erosion damage, caused by repeated droplet impact on wind turbine blades, is a major cause for concern, even more so at offshore locations with larger blades and higher tip speeds. Due to the negative economic influence of blade erosion, all wind turbine Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs are actively seeking solutions. In most cases, since the surface coating plays a decisive role in the blade manufacture and overall performance, it has been identified as an area where a solution may be obtained. In this research, two main coating technologies have been considered: In-mould coatings (Gel coating applied during moulding on the entire blade surface and the post-mould coatings specifically developed for Leading Edge Protection (LEP. The coating adhesion and erosion is affected by the shock waves created by the collapsing water droplets on impact. The stress waves are reflected and transmitted to the laminate substrate, so microstructural discontinuities in coating layers and interfaces play a key role on its degradation and may accelerate erosion by delamination. Analytical and numerical models are commonly used to relate lifetime prediction and to identify suitable coating and composite substrate combinations based on their potential stress reduction on the interface. Nevertheless, in order to use them, it is necessary to measure the contact adhesion resistance of the multi-layered system interfaces. The rain erosion performance is assessed using an accelerated testing technique, whereby the test material is repeatedly impacted at high speed with water droplets in a Whirling Arm Rain Erosion Rig (WARER. The materials, specifically the coating–laminate interphase region and acoustic properties, are further characterised by several laboratory tests, including Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, pull-off testing, peeling–adhesion testing and nanoindentation testing. This body of work includes a number of case studies. The first case

  17. On the Material Characterisation of Wind Turbine Blade Coatings: The Effect of Interphase Coating–Laminate Adhesion on Rain Erosion Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Enrique; Sánchez, Fernando; Madramany, Borja

    2017-01-01

    Rain erosion damage, caused by repeated droplet impact on wind turbine blades, is a major cause for concern, even more so at offshore locations with larger blades and higher tip speeds. Due to the negative economic influence of blade erosion, all wind turbine Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are actively seeking solutions. In most cases, since the surface coating plays a decisive role in the blade manufacture and overall performance, it has been identified as an area where a solution may be obtained. In this research, two main coating technologies have been considered: In-mould coatings (Gel coating) applied during moulding on the entire blade surface and the post-mould coatings specifically developed for Leading Edge Protection (LEP). The coating adhesion and erosion is affected by the shock waves created by the collapsing water droplets on impact. The stress waves are reflected and transmitted to the laminate substrate, so microstructural discontinuities in coating layers and interfaces play a key role on its degradation and may accelerate erosion by delamination. Analytical and numerical models are commonly used to relate lifetime prediction and to identify suitable coating and composite substrate combinations based on their potential stress reduction on the interface. Nevertheless, in order to use them, it is necessary to measure the contact adhesion resistance of the multi-layered system interfaces. The rain erosion performance is assessed using an accelerated testing technique, whereby the test material is repeatedly impacted at high speed with water droplets in a Whirling Arm Rain Erosion Rig (WARER). The materials, specifically the coating–laminate interphase region and acoustic properties, are further characterised by several laboratory tests, including Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), pull-off testing, peeling–adhesion testing and nanoindentation testing. This body of work includes a number of case studies. The first case study compares

  18. On the Material Characterisation of Wind Turbine Blade Coatings: The Effect of Interphase Coating-Laminate Adhesion on Rain Erosion Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Enrique; Sánchez, Fernando; O'Carroll, Anthony; Madramany, Borja; Hardiman, Mark; Young, Trevor M

    2017-09-28

    Rain erosion damage, caused by repeated droplet impact on wind turbine blades, is a major cause for concern, even more so at offshore locations with larger blades and higher tip speeds. Due to the negative economic influence of blade erosion, all wind turbine Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are actively seeking solutions. In most cases, since the surface coating plays a decisive role in the blade manufacture and overall performance, it has been identified as an area where a solution may be obtained. In this research, two main coating technologies have been considered: In-mould coatings (Gel coating) applied during moulding on the entire blade surface and the post-mould coatings specifically developed for Leading Edge Protection (LEP). The coating adhesion and erosion is affected by the shock waves created by the collapsing water droplets on impact. The stress waves are reflected and transmitted to the laminate substrate, so microstructural discontinuities in coating layers and interfaces play a key role on its degradation and may accelerate erosion by delamination. Analytical and numerical models are commonly used to relate lifetime prediction and to identify suitable coating and composite substrate combinations based on their potential stress reduction on the interface. Nevertheless, in order to use them, it is necessary to measure the contact adhesion resistance of the multi-layered system interfaces. The rain erosion performance is assessed using an accelerated testing technique, whereby the test material is repeatedly impacted at high speed with water droplets in a Whirling Arm Rain Erosion Rig (WARER). The materials, specifically the coating-laminate interphase region and acoustic properties, are further characterised by several laboratory tests, including Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), pull-off testing, peeling-adhesion testing and nanoindentation testing. This body of work includes a number of case studies. The first case study compares two

  19. Electronically commutated serial-parallel switching for motor windings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-03-27

    A method and a circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises controlling a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected between a multiphase voltage source and the phase windings to switch the phase windings between a parallel connection and a series connection while providing commutation discharge paths for electrical current resulting from inductance in the phase windings. This provides extra torque for starting a vehicle from lower battery current.

  20. Runoff erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Evelpidou, Niki (Ed.); Cordier, Stephane (Ed.); Merino, Agustin (Ed.); Figueiredo, Tomás de (Ed.); Centeri, Csaba (Ed.)

    2013-01-01

    Table of Contents PART I – THEORY OF RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 1 - RUNOFF EROSION – THE MECHANISMS CHAPTER 2 - LARGE SCALE APPROACHES OF RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 3 - MEASURING PRESENT RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 4 - MODELLING RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 5 - RUNOFF EROSION AND HUMAN SOCIETIES: THE INFLUENCE OF LAND USE AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL EROSION PART II - CASE STUDIES CASE STUDIES – INTRODUCTION: RUNOFF EROSION IN MEDITERRANEAN AREA CASE STUDY 1: Soil Erosion Risk...

  1. High Power Density Power Electronic Converters for Large Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk

    . For these VSCs, high power density is required due to limited turbine nacelle space. Also, high reliability is required since maintenance cost of these remotely located wind turbines is quite high and these turbines operate under harsh operating conditions. In order to select a high power density and reliability......In large wind turbines (in MW and multi-MW ranges), which are extensively utilized in wind power plants, full-scale medium voltage (MV) multi-level (ML) voltage source converters (VSCs) are being more preferably employed nowadays for interfacing these wind turbines with electricity grids...... VSC solution for wind turbines, first, the VSC topology and the switch technology to be employed should be specified such that the highest possible power density and reliability are to be attained. Then, this qualitative approach should be complemented with the power density and reliability...

  2. The Coincidence Tracker: Electronic Equipment for a Time-of-Flight Wind-Speed Measurement System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Christian

    1982-01-01

    The electronic part of a laser-beam measuring system for wind velocity is described. Pulses of light scattered from aerosols are treated, first in a pair of adaptive filters, then in a tracker that calculates the wind velocity on-line while applying some knowledge about the velocity to be expected...

  3. Wind generator with electronic variable-speed drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, A.; Buchheit, N.; Jakobsen, H.

    1996-12-31

    Variable speed drives have been inserted between the network and the generator on certain recent wind power facilities. They have the following advantages: the drive allows the wind generator to operate at low speed with a significant reduction in acoustic noise, an important point if the facilities are sited near populated areas; the drive optimizes energy transfer, providing a gain of 4 to 10 %; the drive can possibly replace certain mechanical parts (the starting system and it in some cases, the reduction gear); the drive not only provides better transient management in relation to the network for less mechanical stress on the wind generator, it is also able to control reactive power. One commercial drive design sold by several manufacturers has already been installed on several wind generators with outputs of between 150 and 600 kw. In addition, such a solution is extremely well suited to mixed renewable energy systems. This design uses two inverse rectifier type converters and can therefore exchange energy in both directions. The equivalent drive with a single IGBT converter on the motor side and a diode converter on the network side is the solution most widely adopted throughout industry (with more than 50, 000 units installed in France per year). It still remains to be seen whether such a solution could be profitable in wind generator application (since the cost of the drive is quite high). This technical analysis is more destined for the converter-machine assembly specialists and is presented in this document, paying particular attention as it does to the modelling of the `wind energy - generator - drive - network` assembly, the associated drive command and control strategies and the simulations obtained during various transients. A 7.5 kW test bed has been installed in the Laboratoire d`Electronique de Puissance de Clamart, enabling tests to be carried out which emulate the operation of a wind generator.

  4. Soil Erosion. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    Soil erosion is the detachment and movement of topsoil or soil material from the upper part of the soil profile. It may occur in the form of rill, gully, sheet, or wind erosion. Agents of erosion may be water, wind, glacial ice, agricultural implements, machinery, and animals. Soil conservation measures require a thorough understanding of the…

  5. Electron energetics in the expanding solar wind via Helios observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štverák, Štěpán; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Hellinger, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 10 (2015), s. 8177-8193 ISSN 2169-9380 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar wind plasma * plasma energization * transport processes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015JA021368/abstract

  6. Erosion of wind turbine blade coatings - Design and analysis of jet-based laboratory equipment for performance evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shizhong; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Nørkjær, Sten

    2015-01-01

    of the blades in such equipment. To reduce expensive blade maintenance repairs and to avoid out-of-service periods, energy-absorbing blade coatings are required to protect rotor blades from rain erosion. In this work we describe the design, construction and evaluation of a laboratory setup for fast screening...... experimental blade coatings were investigated using the proposed experimental design. The evaluation of the coatings under conditions where impact frequency and water hammer pressure were "matched" could not be directly correlated with the results obtained with the whirling arm rig. This result may...

  7. Incorporating the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) Into a Regional Air Quality Modeling System for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, wind storms intermittently cause massive dust events that reduce visibility along roadways and jeopardize health as a result of extremely high concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter less than or equal to 10µm in diameter). An early warning dust forecast system is needed...

  8. The solar wind control of electron fluxes in geostationary orbit during magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, G.V.; Degtyarev, V.I.; Sheshukov, S.S.; Chudnenko, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of electron fluxes (with energies from 30 to 1360 keV) in geostationary orbit during magnetic storms was investigated on the basis of LANL spacecraft 1976-059 and 1977-007 data. Thirty-seven magnetic storms with distinct onsets from the time interval July 1976-December 1978 were used in the analysis. A treatment of experimental data involved the moving averaging and the overlapping epoch method. The smoothed component of electron fluxes represents mainly trapped electrons and shows their strong dependence on the solar wind velocity. The time lag between a smoothed electron flux and the solar wind velocity increases with electron energy reflecting dynamics of the inner magnetosphere filling with trapped energetic electrons originating from substorm injection regions located not far outside geostationary orbit

  9. Solar Wind 0.1-1 keV Electrons in the Corotating Interaction Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Tao, J.; Li, G.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Jian, L. K.; He, J.; Tu, C.; Tian, H.; Bale, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    Here we present a statistical study of the 0.1-1 keV suprathermal electrons in the undisturbed and compressed slow/fast solar wind, for the 71 corotating interaction regions (CIRs) with good measurements from the WIND 3DP and MFI instruments from 1995 to 1997. For each of these CIRs, we separate the strahl and halo electrons based on their different behaviors in pitch angle distributions in the undisturbed and compressed solar wind. We fit both the strahl and halo energy spectra to a kappa function with an index κ index and effective temperature Teff, and calculate the pitch-angle width at half-maximum (PAHM) of the strahl population. We also integrate the electron measurements between 0.1 and 1.0 keV to obtain the number density n and average energy Eavg for the strahl and halo populations. We find that for both the strahl and halo populations within and around these CIRs, the fitted κ index strongly correlates with Teff, similar to the quiet-time solar wind (Tao et al., ApJ, 2016). The number density of both the strahl and halo shows a strong positive correlation with the electron core temperature. The strahl number density ns is correlated with the magnitude of interplanetary magnetic field, and the strahl PAHM width is anti-correlated with the solar wind speed. These results suggest that the origin of strahl electrons from the solar corona is likely related to the electron core temperature and magnetic field strength, while the production of halo electrons in the interplanetary medium could depend on the solar wind velocity.

  10. Assessing the vegetation canopy influences on wind flow using wind ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Artificial plastic vegetations with different porosity and canopy shape were introduced as ... Wind erosion is the Aeolian process by which soil particles are detached from ..... the stabilizing role of vegetation on wind erosion. And therefore, for ...

  11. Long-term solar wind electron variations between 1971 and 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Gosling, J.T.

    1979-01-01

    Imp solar wind electron data measured between 1971 and 1978 were studied with the aim of determining long-term variations near the earth. Two separate sets of parameter variations were observed: (1) in 1976--1977 the solar wind density, the electron temperature, and the interplanetary electrostatic potential were all enhanced, and (2) the halo density and associated electron parameters were all depressed during a 1 1/2-year period centered on the last 6 months of 1976. Although interpretation of these results in terms of corresponding coronal and interplanetary variations is not unique, it may be significant that measured solar wind parameters near the minimum of solar cycle 20 agree better with the Hartle-Sturrock model of the coronal expansion than they do during other epochs

  12. Interaction of suprathermal solar wind electron fluxes with sheared whistler waves: fan instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Krafft

    Full Text Available Several in situ measurements performed in the solar wind evidenced that solar type III radio bursts were some-times associated with locally excited Langmuir waves, high-energy electron fluxes and low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves; moreover, in some cases, the simultaneous identification of energetic electron fluxes, Langmuir and whistler waves was performed. This paper shows how whistlers can be excited in the disturbed solar wind through the so-called "fan instability" by interacting with energetic electrons at the anomalous Doppler resonance. This instability process, which is driven by the anisotropy in the energetic electron velocity distribution along the ambient magnetic field, does not require any positive slope in the suprathermal electron tail and thus can account for physical situations where plateaued reduced electron velocity distributions were observed in solar wind plasmas in association with Langmuir and whistler waves. Owing to linear calculations of growth rates, we show that for disturbed solar wind conditions (that is, when suprathermal particle fluxes propagate along the ambient magnetic field, the fan instability can excite VLF waves (whistlers and lower hybrid waves with characteristics close to those observed in space experiments.

    Key words. Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities – Radio Science (waves in plasma – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (radio emissions

  13. Interaction of suprathermal solar wind electron fluxes with sheared whistler waves: fan instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Krafft

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Several in situ measurements performed in the solar wind evidenced that solar type III radio bursts were some-times associated with locally excited Langmuir waves, high-energy electron fluxes and low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves; moreover, in some cases, the simultaneous identification of energetic electron fluxes, Langmuir and whistler waves was performed. This paper shows how whistlers can be excited in the disturbed solar wind through the so-called "fan instability" by interacting with energetic electrons at the anomalous Doppler resonance. This instability process, which is driven by the anisotropy in the energetic electron velocity distribution along the ambient magnetic field, does not require any positive slope in the suprathermal electron tail and thus can account for physical situations where plateaued reduced electron velocity distributions were observed in solar wind plasmas in association with Langmuir and whistler waves. Owing to linear calculations of growth rates, we show that for disturbed solar wind conditions (that is, when suprathermal particle fluxes propagate along the ambient magnetic field, the fan instability can excite VLF waves (whistlers and lower hybrid waves with characteristics close to those observed in space experiments.Key words. Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities – Radio Science (waves in plasma – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (radio emissions

  14. Plasma Wind Tunnel Testing of Electron Transpiration Cooling Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Colorado State University ETC Electron Transpiration Cooling LHTS Local Heat Transfer Simulation LTE Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium RCC Reinforced...ceramic electric material testing in plasma environment (not performed), 4. measurements and analysis of the Electron Transpiration Cooling (Sec. 4.2). 2...VKI 1D boundary layer code for computation of enthalpy and boundary layer parameters: a) iterate on ’virtually measured ’ heat flux, b) once enthalpy

  15. Kinetic and Potential Sputtering Enhancements of Lunar Regolith Erosion: The Contribution of the Heavy Multicharged (Minority) Solar Wind Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. W.; Barghouty, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    We report preliminary results for H+, Ar+1, Ar+6 and Ar+9 ion sputtering of JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant at solar wind velocities, obtain ed at the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility using quadrupole ma ss spectrometry. The multi-charged Ar ions were used as proxies for i ntermediate mass solar wind multicharged ions. Prior to the Ar beam e xposures, the sample was exposed to high fluence H+ irradiation to si mulate H-loading due to the dominant solar wind constituent. A x80 en hancement of oxygen sputtering by Ar+ over same velocity H+ was measu red and an additional x2 increase for Ar+9 over same velocity Ar+ was demonstrated, giving clear evidence of the importance of potential s puttering by multicharged ions. This enhancement was observed to pers ist to the maximum fluences investigated (approx 10(exp 16)/sq cm). As discussed in a companion abstract by N. Barghouty, such persistent s puttering enhancement has significant implications on weathering and aging of lunar regolith. In addition, XPS measurements showed strong evidence of Fe reduction for those target areas that had been exposed to high fluence Ar+ and Ar+8 beams. Preferential oxidation of the Fe -reduced beam-exposed regions during transfer to the XPS system led t o enhanced O concentrations in those regions as well. On the basis of these very promising preliminary results, a NASA-LASER project on mo re extensive measurements was recently selected for funding. The prop osal expands the collaboration with NASA-MSFC for the simulation effort, and adds a new collaboration with NASA-GSFC for lunar mission-rele vant measurements.

  16. MIXING THE SOLAR WIND PROTON AND ELECTRON SCALES: EFFECTS OF ELECTRON TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY ON THE OBLIQUE PROTON FIREHOSE INSTABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneva, Y.; Lazar, M.; Poedts, S. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Viñas, A., E-mail: yana.maneva@wis.kuleuven.be [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    The double adiabatic expansion of the nearly collisionless solar wind plasma creates conditions for the firehose instability to develop and efficiently prevent the further increase of the plasma temperature in the direction parallel to the interplanetary magnetic field. The conditions imposed by the firehose instability have been extensively studied using idealized approaches that ignore the mutual effects of electrons and protons. Recently, more realistic approaches have been proposed that take into account the interplay between electrons and protons, unveiling new regimes of the parallel oscillatory modes. However, for oblique wave propagation the instability develops distinct branches that grow much faster and may therefore be more efficient than the parallel firehose instability in constraining the temperature anisotropy of the plasma particles. This paper reports for the first time on the effects of electron plasma properties on the oblique proton firehose (PFH) instability and provides a comprehensive vision of the entire unstable wave-vector spectrum, unifying the proton and the smaller electron scales. The plasma β and temperature anisotropy regimes considered here are specific for the solar wind and magnetospheric conditions, and enable the electrons and protons to interact via the excited electromagnetic fluctuations. For the selected parameters, simultaneous electron and PFH instabilities can be observed with a dispersion spectrum of the electron firehose (EFH) extending toward the proton scales. Growth rates of the PFH instability are markedly boosted by the anisotropic electrons, especially in the oblique direction where the EFH growth rates are orders of magnitude higher.

  17. Mixing the Solar Wind Proton and Electron Scales: Effects of Electron Temperature Anisotropy on the Oblique Proton Firehose Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva, Y.; Lazar, M.; Vinas, A.; Poedts, S.

    2016-01-01

    The double adiabatic expansion of the nearly collisionless solar wind plasma creates conditions for the firehose instability to develop and efficiently prevent the further increase of the plasma temperature in the direction parallel to the interplanetary magnetic field. The conditions imposed by the firehose instability have been extensively studied using idealized approaches that ignore the mutual effects of electrons and protons. Recently, more realistic approaches have been proposed that take into account the interplay between electrons and protons,? unveiling new regimes of the parallel oscillatory modes. However, for oblique wave propagation the instability develops distinct branches that grow much faster and may therefore be more efficient than the parallel firehose instability in constraining the temperature anisotropy of the plasma particles. This paper reports for the first time on the effects of electron plasma properties on the oblique proton firehose (PFH) instability and provides a comprehensive vision of the entire unstable wave-vector spectrum, unifying the proton and the smaller electron scales. The plasma ß and temperature anisotropy regimes considered here are specific for the solar wind and magnetospheric conditions, and enable the electrons and protons to interact via the excited electromagnetic fluctuations. For the selected parameters, simultaneous electron and PFH instabilities can be observed with a dispersion spectrum of the electron firehose (EFH) extending toward the proton scales. Growth rates of the PFH instability are markedly boosted by the anisotropic electrons, especially in the oblique direction where the EFH growth rates are orders of magnitude higher.

  18. Erosion and erosion-corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isomoto, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    It is very difficult to interpret the technical term of erosion-corrosion' which is sometimes encountered in piping systems of power plants, because of complicated mechanisms and several confusing definitions of erosion-corrosion phenomena. 'FAC (flow accelerated corrosion)' is recently introduced as wall thinning of materials in power plant systems, as a representative of 'erosion-corrosion'. FAC is, however, not necessarily well understood and compared with erosion-corrosion. This paper describes firstly the origin, definition and fundamental understandings of erosion and erosion-corrosion, in order to reconsider and reconfirm the phenomena of erosion, erosion-corrosion and FAC. Next, typical mapping of erosion, corrosion, erosion-corrosion and FAC are introduced in flow velocity and environmental corrosiveness axes. The concept of damage rate in erosion-corrosion is finally discussed, connecting dissolution rate, mass transfer of metal ions in a metal oxide film and film growth. (author)

  19. THE EFFECT OF ELECTRON THERMAL PRESSURE ON THE OBSERVED MAGNETIC HELICITY IN THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovskii, S. A.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Smith, Charles W., E-mail: sergei.markovskii@unh.edu, E-mail: bernie.vasquez@unh.edu, E-mail: charles.smith@unh.edu [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Statistical analysis of magnetic helicity spectra in the solar wind at 1 au is carried out. A large database of the solar wind intervals assembled from Wind spacecraft magnetic and plasma data is used. The effect of the electron thermal pressure on the wavenumber position of the helicity signature, i.e., the peak of the spectrum, is studied. The position shows a statistically significant dependence on both the electron and proton pressures. However, the strongest dependence is seen when the two pressures are summed. These findings confirm that the generation of the magnetic helicity is associated with an increasing compressibility of the turbulent fluctuations at smaller kinetic scales. It is argued that instrumental artifacts do not contribute to the helicity signature.

  20. A theory of local and global processes which affect solar wind electrons. 2. Experimental support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scudder, J.D.; Olbert, S.

    1979-05-01

    The microscopic characteristics of the Coulomb cross section show that there are three natural subpopulations for plasma electrons: the subthermals; the transthermals; and the extrathermals. Data from three experimental groups on three different spacecraft in the interplanetary medium over a radial range are presented to support the five interrelations projected between solar wind electron properties and changes in the interplanetary medium: (1) subthermals respond primarily to local changes (compression and rarefactions) in stream dynamics; (2) the extrathermal fraction of the ambient electron density should be anti-correlated with the asymptotic bulk speed; (3) the extrathermal 'temperature' should be anti-correlated with the local wind speed at 1 AU; (4) the heat flux carried by electrons should be anti-correlated with the local bulk speed; and (5) the extrathermal differential 'temperature' should be nearly independent of radius within 1 AU

  1. A quasilinear kinetic model for solar wind electrons and protons instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    In situ measurements confirm the anisotropic behavior in temperatures of solar wind species. These anisotropies associated with charge particles are observed to be relaxed. In collionless limit, kinetic instabilities play a significant role to reshape particles distribution. The linear analysis results are encapsulated in inverse relationship between anisotropy and plasma beta based observations fittings techniques, simulations methods, or solution of linearized Vlasov equation. Here amacroscopic quasilinear technique is adopted to confirm inverse relationship through solutions of set of self-consistent kinetic equations. Firstly, for a homogeneous and non-collisional medium, quasilinear kinetic model is employed to display asymptotic variations of core and halo electrons temperatures and saturations of wave energy densities for electromagnetic electron cyclotron (EMEC) instability sourced by, T⊥}>T{∥ . It is shown that, in (β ∥ , T⊥}/T{∥ ) phase space, the saturations stages of anisotropies associated with core and halo electrons lined up on their respective marginal stability curves. Secondly, for case of electrons firehose instability ignited by excessive parallel temperature i.e T⊥}>T{∥ , both electrons and protons are allowed to dynamically evolve in time. It is also observed that, the trajectories of protons and electrons at saturation stages in phase space of anisotropy and plasma beta correspond to proton cyclotron and firehose marginal stability curves, respectively. Next, the outstanding issue that most of observed proton data resides in nearly isotropic state in phase space is interpreted. Here, in quasilinear frame-work of inhomogeneous solar wind system, a set of self-consistent quasilinear equations is formulated to show a dynamical variations of temperatures with spatial distributions. On choice of different initial parameters, it is shown that, interplay of electron and proton instabilities provides an counter-balancing force to slow

  2. The electron temperature and anisotropy in the solar wind. Comparison of the core and halo populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pierrard, V.; Lazar, M.; Poedts, S.; Štverák, Štěpán; Maksimovic, M.; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 7 (2016), s. 2165-2179 ISSN 0038-0938 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar wind * electron velocity distributions * temperature anisotropy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11207-016-0961-7

  3. The Electron Temperature and Anisotropy in the Solar Wind. Comparison of the Core and Halo Populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pierrard, V.; Lazar, M.; Poedts, S.; Štverák, Štěpán; Maksimovic, M.; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 7 (2016), s. 2165-2179 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-17490S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : solar wind * electron velocity distributions * temperature anisotropy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2016

  4. Power Electronic Drives, Controls, and Electric Generators for Large Wind Turbines - An Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Tutelea, L.; Boldea, Ion

    2015-01-01

    and exceed a power rating of 10 MW are discussed. The role of power electronics for improving the operation of wind turbines and ensuring compliance with power grid codes is analyzed with a view at producing fully controllable generation units suitable for tight integration into the power grid and large...

  5. Power Electronics and Controls for Large Wind Turbines and Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Shipurkar, Udai; Ionel, Dan M.

    2017-01-01

    in order to reach and even exceed a power rating of 10 MW are discussed. The role of power electronics for improving the operation of WTs and ensuring compliance with power grid codes is analyzed with a view to produce fully controllable generation units suitable for a tight integration into the power grid...

  6. Erosion simulation of first wall beryllium armour after ITER transient heat loads and runaway electrons action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazylev, B., E-mail: boris.bazylev@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Igitkhanov, Yu.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Loarte, A. [ITER Organisation, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-10-01

    Beryllium is foreseen as plasma facing armour for the first wall (FW) in ITER in form of Be-clad blanket modules in macrobrush design with brush size about 8-10 cm. In ITER significant heat loads during transient events (TE) and runaway electrons impact are expected at the main chamber wall that may leads to the essential damage of the Be armour. The main mechanisms of metallic target damage remain surface melting, evaporation, and melt motion, which determine the life-time of the plasma facing components. The melt motion damages of Be macrobrush armour caused by the tangential friction force and the J x B forces are analyzed for bulk Be and different sizes of Be-brushes. The damage of the FW due to heat loads caused by runaway electrons is numerically simulated.

  7. Erosion simulation of first wall beryllium armour after ITER transient heat loads and runaway electrons action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazylev, B.; Igitkhanov, Yu.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Loarte, A.

    2011-01-01

    Beryllium is foreseen as plasma facing armour for the first wall (FW) in ITER in form of Be-clad blanket modules in macrobrush design with brush size about 8-10 cm. In ITER significant heat loads during transient events (TE) and runaway electrons impact are expected at the main chamber wall that may leads to the essential damage of the Be armour. The main mechanisms of metallic target damage remain surface melting, evaporation, and melt motion, which determine the life-time of the plasma facing components. The melt motion damages of Be macrobrush armour caused by the tangential friction force and the J x B forces are analyzed for bulk Be and different sizes of Be-brushes. The damage of the FW due to heat loads caused by runaway electrons is numerically simulated.

  8. Electron heat flux dropouts in the solar wind: Evidence for interplanetary magnetic field reconnection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Gosling, J.T.; Phillips, J.L.; Bame, S.J.; Luhmann, J.G.; Smith, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Electron heat flux dropout events have been observed in the solar wind using the ISEE 3 plasma electron data set. These events manifest themselves as dropouts of the solar wind halo electrons which are normally found streaming outward along the local magnetic field. These dropouts leave nearly isotropic distributions of solar wind halo electrons, and consequently, the heat flux in these events is reduced to near the observational noise level. We have examined ISEE 3 data from shortly after launch (August 16, 1978) through the end of 1978 and identified 25 such events ranging in duration from 20 min to over 11 hours. Comparison with the ISEE 3 magnetometer data indicates that these intervals nearly always occur in conjunction with large rotations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Statistical analyses of the plasma and magnetic field data for the 25 dropout intervals indicate that heat flux dropouts generally occur in association with high plasma densities low plasma velocities, low ion and electron temperatures, and low magnetic field magnitudes. A second set of 25 intervals chosen specifically to lie at large field rotations, but at times at which not heat flux dropouts were observed, do not show these characteristic plalsma variations. This suggests that the dropout intervals comprise a unique set of events. Since the hot halo electrons normally found streaming outward from the Sun along the interplanetary magnetic field (the solar wind electron heat flux) are a result of direct magnetic connection to the hot solar corona, heat flux dropout intervals may indicate that the spacecraft is sampling plasma regimes which are magnetically disconnected from the Sun and instead are connected to the outer heliosphere at both ends

  9. Identifying the Areas Benefitting from the Prevention of Wind Erosion by the Key Ecological Function Area for the Protection of Desertification in Hunshandake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on the spatial flow of ecosystem services can help to identify the spatial relationships between service-providing areas (SPAs and service-benefitting areas (SBAs. In this study, we used the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model to stimulate the flow paths of the wind erosion prevented by ecosystems in Hunshandake, China. By interpolating these paths, the SBAs were identified, and their benefits in terms of land cover, population, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP were determined. The results indicated that the flow paths mostly extended to the eastern part of the study area, and the estimated cover of the SBAs was 39.21% of the total area of China. The grid cells through which many (≥10% of the trajectories passed were mainly located in the western part of north-eastern China and the eastern part of northern China. The benefitting population accounted for 74.51% of the total population of China, and the GDP was 67.11% of the total in 2010. Based on this research, we described a quantitative relationship between the SPAs and the SBAs and identified the actual beneficiaries. This work may provide scientific knowledge that can be used by decision makers to develop management strategies, such as ecological compensation to mitigate damage from sandstorms in the study area.

  10. Power electronics and control for wind power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    energy at the end-user should be set up. Deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be increased in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that it has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save...... the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging...

  11. Wind power - a power source now enabled by power electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin

    2007-01-01

    energy at the end-user should be set up. Deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be increased in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that it has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save...... the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging...

  12. Plasma erosion opening switch in the double-pulse operation mode of a high-current electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isakov, I.F.; Lopatin, V.S.; Remnev, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the results of investigations of the operation of a fast current opening switch, with a 10/sup 13/-10/sup 16/ plasma density produced either by dielectric surface flashover or by explosive emission of graphite. A series of two pulses was applied to two diodes in parallel. The first pulse produced plasma in the first diode which closed that diode gap by the arrival time of the second pulse. The first, shorted, diode then acted as an erosion switch for the second pulse. A factor of 2.5-3 power multiplication was obtained under optimum conditions. The opening-switch resistance during the magnetic insulation phase, neglecting the electron losses between the switch and the generating diode, exceeded 100 Ω. The duration of the rapid opening phase was less than 5 ns under optimum conditions. This method of plasma production does not require external plasma sources, and permits a wide variation of plasma density, which in turn allows high inductor currents and stored energies

  13. Special Tests for the Power Electronic Converters of Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Lars; Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    -level medium-voltage source converter topologies, of the 3L-ANPC-VSC and 3L-HB-VSC type, are considered in the paper. Both converters employ press-pack IGBT-diode pairs and interface a 6 MW wind turbine to a medium voltage grid. The power loss and thermal model data applicable for both grid and generator......Power electronic converters for wind turbines are characterized by high specific power density and high reliability. Special tests for such converters are performed in order to determine the power loss and thermal models, which are dependent of the load profile and converter structure. Two multi......-side VSCs is used to estimate the switch junction temperatures through the simulation of wind turbine grid interface operation. A discussion of the power density and reliability of the grid-side VSCs with respect to press-pack switches, gate driver, and cooling plate is included. A test set-up for a single...

  14. Powering embedded electronics for wind turbine monitoring using multi-source energy harvesting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, S. R.; Taylor, S. G.; Raby, E. Y.; Farinholt, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    With a global interest in the development of clean, renewable energy, wind energy has seen steady growth over the past several years. Advances in wind turbine technology bring larger, more complex turbines and wind farms. An important issue in the development of these complex systems is the ability to monitor the state of each turbine in an effort to improve the efficiency and power generation. Wireless sensor nodes can be used to interrogate the current state and health of wind turbine structures; however, a drawback of most current wireless sensor technology is their reliance on batteries for power. Energy harvesting solutions present the ability to create autonomous power sources for small, low-power electronics through the scavenging of ambient energy; however, most conventional energy harvesting systems employ a single mode of energy conversion, and thus are highly susceptible to variations in the ambient energy. In this work, a multi-source energy harvesting system is developed to power embedded electronics for wind turbine applications in which energy can be scavenged simultaneously from several ambient energy sources. Field testing is performed on a full-size, residential scale wind turbine where both vibration and solar energy harvesting systems are utilized to power wireless sensing systems. Two wireless sensors are investigated, including the wireless impedance device (WID) sensor node, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and an ultra-low power RF system-on-chip board that is the basis for an embedded wireless accelerometer node currently under development at LANL. Results indicate the ability of the multi-source harvester to successfully power both sensors.

  15. Theory of local and global processes which affect solar wind electrons. 2. Experimental support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scudder, J.D.; Olbert, S.

    1979-01-01

    We have extended the theoretical considerations of Scudder and Olbert (1979) (hereafter called paper 1) to show from the microscopic characteristics of the Coulomb cross section that there are three natural subpopulations for plasma electrons: the subthermals with local kinetic energy E 7kT/sub c/. We present experimental support from three experimental groups on three different spacecraft over a radial range in the interplanetary medium for the five interrelations projected in paper 1 between solar wind electron properties and changes in the interplanetary medium: (1) subthermals respond primarily to local changes (compressions and rarefactions) in stream dynamics: (2) the extrathermal fraction of the ambient electron density should be anticorrelated with the asymptotic bulk speed; (3) the extrathermal 'temperature' should be anticorrelated with the local wind speed at 1 AU; (4) the heat flux carried by electrons should be anticorrelated with the local bulk speed; and (5) the extrathermal differential 'temperature' should be nearly independent of radius within 1 Au. From first principles and the spatial inhomogeneity of the plasma we show that the velocity dependence of Coulomb collisions in the solar wind plasmaproduces a bifurcation in the solar wind electron distribution function at a transition energy E*. This energy is theoretically shown to scale with the local thermal temperature as E*(r) approx. =GAMMAkT/sub c/(r). This scaling is observationally supported over the radial range from 0.45 to 0.9 AU and at 1 AU. The extrathermals, defined on the basis of Coulomb collisions, are synonymous with the subpopulation previously labeled in the literature as the 'halo' or 'hot' component

  16. Power electronic solutions for interfacing offshore wind turbine generators to medium voltage DC collection grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michael T.

    Here in the early 21st century humanity is continuing to seek improved quality of life for citizens throughout the world. This global advancement is providing more people than ever with access to state-of-the-art services in areas such as transportation, entertainment, computing, communication, and so on. Providing these services to an ever-growing population while considering the constraints levied by continuing climate change will require new frontiers of clean energy to be developed. At the time of this writing, offshore wind has been proven as both a politically and economically agreeable source of clean, sustainable energy by northern European nations with many wind farms deployed in the North, Baltic, and Irish Seas. Modern offshore wind farms are equipped with an electrical system within the farm itself to aggregate the energy from all turbines in the farm before it is transmitted to shore. This collection grid is traditionally a 3-phase medium voltage alternating current (MVAC) system. Due to reactive power and other practical constraints, it is preferable to use a medium voltage direct current (MVDC) collection grid when siting farms >150 km from shore. To date, no offshore wind farm features an MVDC collection grid. However, MVDC collection grids are expected to be deployed with future offshore wind farms as they are sited further out to sea. In this work it is assumed that many future offshore wind farms may utilize an MVDC collection grid to aggregate electrical energy generated by individual wind turbines. As such, this work presents both per-phase and per-pole power electronic converter systems suitable for interfacing individual wind turbines to such an MVDC collection grid. Both interfaces are shown to provide high input power factor at the wind turbine while providing DC output current to the MVDC grid. Common mode voltage stress and circulating currents are investigated, and mitigation strategies are provided for both interfaces. A power sharing

  17. Solar wind ∼0.1-1.5 keV electrons at quiet times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Jiawei; Wang, Linghua, E-mail: wanglhwang@gmail.com; Zong, Qiugang; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi [School of Earth and Space Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Gang [Department of Physics and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States); Salem, Chadi S.; Bale, Stuart D. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F. [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Kiel (Germany)

    2016-03-25

    We present a statistical survey of the energy spectrum of solar wind suprathermal (∼0.1-1.5 keV) electrons measured by the WIND 3-D Plasma & Energetic Particle (3DP) instrument at 1 AU during quiet times at the minimum and maximum of solar cycles 23 and 24. Firstly, we separate strahl (beaming) electrons and halo (isotropic) electrons based on their features in pitch angle distributions. Secondly, we fit the observed energy spectrum of both the strahl and halo electrons at ∼0.1-1.5 keV to a Kappa distribution function with an index κ, effective temperature T{sub eff} and density n{sub 0}. We also integrate the the measurements over ∼0.1-1.5 keV to obtain the average electron energy E{sub avg} of the strahl and halo. We find a strong positive correlation between κ and T{sub eff} for both the strahl and halo, possibly reflecting the nature of the generation of these suprathermal electrons. Among the 245 selected samples, ∼68% have the halo κ smaller than the strahl κ, while ∼50% have the halo E{sub h} larger than the strahl E{sub s}.

  18. Langmuir wave-packet generation from an electron beam propagating in the inhomogeneous solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaslavsky, A.; Maksimovic, M.; Volokitin, A. S.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Bale, S. D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent in-situ observations by the TDS instrument equipping the STEREO spacecraft revealed that large amplitude spatially localized Langmuir waves are frequent in the solar wind, and correlated with the presence of suprathermal electron beams during type III events or close to the electron foreshock. We briefly present the new theoretical model used to perform the study of these localized electrostatic waves, and show first results of simulations of the destabilization of Langmuir waves by a beam propagating in the inhomogeneous solar wind. The main results are that the destabilized waves are mainly focalized near the minima of the density profiles, and that the nonlinear interaction of the waves with the resonant particles enhances this focalization compared to a situation in which the only propagation effects are taken into account.

  19. Measuring Dust Emission from the Mojave Desert (USA) by Daily Remote-Camera Observations and Wind-Erosion Measurements: Bearing on "Unseen" Sources and Global Dust Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R. L.; Urban, F.; Goldstein, H. L.; Fulton, R.

    2017-12-01

    A large gap in understanding the effects of atmospheric dust at all spatial scales is uncertainty about how much and whence dust is emitted annually. Digital recording of dust emission at high spatial and temporal resolution would, together with periodic flux measurements, support improved estimates of local-scale dust flux where infrastructure could support remote internet enabled cameras. Such recording would also elucidate wind-erosion dynamics when combined with meteorological data. Remote camera recording of dust-emitting settings on and around Soda Lake (Mojave Desert) was conducted every 15 minutes during daylight between 10 Nov. 2010 and 31 Dec. 2016 and images uploaded to a web server. Examination of 135,000 images revealed frequent dust events, termed "dust days" when plumes obscured mountains beyond source areas. Such days averaged 68 (sd=10) per year (2011 through 2016). We examined satellite retrievals (MODIS, GOES) for dust events during six cloudless days of highest and longest duration dust emission but none were observed. From Apr. 2000 through May 2013, aeolian sediments collected at three sites were sampled and weighed. Estimates of the emitted mass of silt- and clay-size fractions were made on the basis of measured horizontal mass flux, particle sizes of sediment in collectors, and roughly determined areas of dust generation. Over this period, nearly 4 Tg yr-1 of dust (as particulate matter flood in the basin in late Dec. 2010 that deposited flood sediment across the lake basin. Increased emission was likely related to the availability of fresh, unanchored flood sediment. Within the Mojave and Great Basin deserts of North America, many settings akin to those at Soda Lake similarly emit dust that is rarely detected in satellite retrievals. These findings strongly imply that local and regional dust emissions from western North America are far underestimated and that, by extension to relatively small dust-source areas across all drylands, global

  20. Interplanetary Type III Bursts and Electron Density Fluctuations in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, V.; Maksimovic, M.; Kontar, E. P.; Zaslavsky, A.; Santolik, O.; Soucek, J.; Kruparova, O.; Eastwood, J. P.; Szabo, A.

    2018-04-01

    Type III bursts are generated by fast electron beams originated from magnetic reconnection sites of solar flares. As propagation of radio waves in the interplanetary medium is strongly affected by random electron density fluctuations, type III bursts provide us with a unique diagnostic tool for solar wind remote plasma measurements. Here, we performed a statistical survey of 152 simple and isolated type III bursts observed by the twin-spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory mission. We investigated their time–frequency profiles in order to retrieve decay times as a function of frequency. Next, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to study the role of scattering due to random electron density fluctuations on time–frequency profiles of radio emissions generated in the interplanetary medium. For simplification, we assumed the presence of isotropic electron density fluctuations described by a power law with the Kolmogorov spectral index. Decay times obtained from observations and simulations were compared. We found that the characteristic exponential decay profile of type III bursts can be explained by the scattering of the fundamental component between the source and the observer despite restrictive assumptions included in the Monte Carlo simulation algorithm. Our results suggest that relative electron density fluctuations /{n}{{e}} in the solar wind are 0.06–0.07 over wide range of heliospheric distances.

  1. The effects of acid erosion and remineralization on enamel and three different dental materials: FT-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Soares, Ana Lúcia Silva; De Oliveira, Rodrigo; Nahórny, Sidnei

    2016-07-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to test the hypothesis that the beverage consumption or mouthwash utilization would change the chemistry of dental materials and enamel inorganic content. Bovine enamel samples (n = 36) each received two cavity preparations (n = 72), each pair filled with one of three dental materials (R: nanofilled composite resin, GIC: glass-ionomer cement, RMGIC: resin-modified GIC). Furthermore, they were treated with three different solutions (S: artificial saliva, E: erosion/Pepsi Twist or EM: erosion + mouthwash/Colgate Plax). Reduction of carbonate content of enamel was greater in RE than RS (P erosion. Material degradation was greater after E and EM than S. GIC and RMGIC materials had a positive effect against acid erosion in the adjacent enamel after remineralization with mouthwash. The beverage and mouthwash utilization would change R and GIC chemical properties. A professional should periodically monitor the glass-ionomer and resin restorations, as they degrade over time under erosive challenges and mouthwash utilization. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:646-656, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Shaping the solar wind electron temperature anisotropy by the interplay of core and suprathermal populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban Hamd, S. M.; Lazar, M.; Poedts, S.; Pierrard, V.; Štverák

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of an advanced parametrization of the temperature anisotropy of electrons in the slow solar wind and the electromagnetic instabilities resulting from the interplay of their thermal core and suprathermal halo populations. A large set of observational data (from the Ulysses, Helios and Cluster missions) is used to parametrize these components and establish their correlations. Comparative analysis demonstrates for the first time a particular implication of the suprathermal electrons which are less dense but hotter than thermal electrons. The instabilities are significantly stimulated by the interplay of the core and halo populations, leading to lower thresholds which shape the observed limits of the temperature anisotropy for both the core and halo populations. This double agreement strongly suggests that the selfgenerated instabilities play the major role in constraining the electron anisotropy.

  3. A simple method to downscale daily wind statistics to hourly wind data

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Zhongling

    2013-01-01

    Wind is the principal driver in the wind erosion models. The hourly wind speed data were generally required for precisely wind erosion modeling. In this study, a simple method to generate hourly wind speed data from daily wind statistics (daily average and maximum wind speeds together or daily average wind speed only) was established. A typical windy location with 3285 days (9 years) measured hourly wind speed data were used to validate the downscaling method. The results showed that the over...

  4. On the upstream boundary of electron foreshocks in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardo, G.; Veltri, P.

    1995-01-01

    The upstream boundary of electron foreshocks is defined as the path of the fastest electrons reflected by collisionless shocks and moving along the magnetic field in the solar wind. Considerable levels of magnetic fluctuations are found in these regions of the solar wind, and their effect is to create both a broadening and a fine structure of the electron foreshock boundary. The magnetic structure is studied by means of a 3-D numerical simulation of a turbulent magnetic field. Enhanced, anomalous diffusion is found, (Delta x(exp 2)) varies as s(sup alpha), where alpha is greater than 1 for typical values of the parameters (here, Delta x(exp 2) is the mean square width of the tangent magnetic surface and s is the field line length). This corresponds to a Levy flight regime for the magnetic field line random walk, and allows very efficient electron propagation perpendicular to the magnetic field. Implications on the observations of planetary foreshocks and of the termination shock foreshock are considered.

  5. Variability of the Magnetic Field Power Spectrum in the Solar Wind at Electron Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Owen Wyn; Alexandrova, O.; Kajdič, P.; Turc, L.; Perrone, D.; Escoubet, C. P.; Walsh, A.

    2017-12-01

    At electron scales, the power spectrum of solar-wind magnetic fluctuations can be highly variable and the dissipation mechanisms of the magnetic energy into the various particle species is under debate. In this paper, we investigate data from the Cluster mission’s STAFF Search Coil magnetometer when the level of turbulence is sufficiently high that the morphology of the power spectrum at electron scales can be investigated. The Cluster spacecraft sample a disturbed interval of plasma where two streams of solar wind interact. Meanwhile, several discontinuities (coherent structures) are seen in the large-scale magnetic field, while at small scales several intermittent bursts of wave activity (whistler waves) are present. Several different morphologies of the power spectrum can be identified: (1) two power laws separated by a break, (2) an exponential cutoff near the Taylor shifted electron scales, and (3) strong spectral knees at the Taylor shifted electron scales. These different morphologies are investigated by using wavelet coherence, showing that, in this interval, a clear break and strong spectral knees are features that are associated with sporadic quasi parallel propagating whistler waves, even for short times. On the other hand, when no signatures of whistler waves at ∼ 0.1{--}0.2{f}{ce} are present, a clear break is difficult to find and the spectrum is often more characteristic of a power law with an exponential cutoff.

  6. Statistics of counter-streaming solar wind suprathermal electrons at solar minimum: STEREO observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lavraud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that solar wind suprathermal electrons can display a number of features in terms of their anisotropy. Of importance is the occurrence of counter-streaming electron patterns, i.e., with "beams" both parallel and anti-parallel to the local magnetic field, which is believed to shed light on the heliospheric magnetic field topology. In the present study, we use STEREO data to obtain the statistical properties of counter-streaming suprathermal electrons (CSEs in the vicinity of corotating interaction regions (CIRs during the period March–December 2007. Because this period corresponds to a minimum of solar activity, the results are unrelated to the sampling of large-scale coronal mass ejections, which can lead to CSE owing to their closed magnetic field topology. The present study statistically confirms that CSEs are primarily the result of suprathermal electron leakage from the compressed CIR into the upstream regions with the combined occurrence of halo depletion at 90° pitch angle. The occurrence rate of CSE is found to be about 15–20% on average during the period analyzed (depending on the criteria used, but superposed epoch analysis demonstrates that CSEs are preferentially observed both before and after the passage of the stream interface (with peak occurrence rate >35% in the trailing high speed stream, as well as both inside and outside CIRs. The results quantitatively show that CSEs are common in the solar wind during solar minimum, but yet they suggest that such distributions would be much more common if pitch angle scattering were absent. We further argue that (1 the formation of shocks contributes to the occurrence of enhanced counter-streaming sunward-directed fluxes, but does not appear to be a necessary condition, and (2 that the presence of small-scale transients with closed-field topologies likely also contributes to the occurrence of counter-streaming patterns, but only in the slow solar wind prior to

  7. Final Report DE-EE0005380: Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Hao [The University of Texas at Austin; Hamilton, Mark F. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Bhalla, Rajan [Science Applications International Corporation; Brown, Walter E. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Hay, Todd A. [The University of Texas at Austin Applied Research Laboratories; Whitelonis, Nicholas J. [The University of Texas at Austin; Yang, Shang-Te [The University of Texas at Austin; Naqvi, Aale R. [The University of Texas at Austin

    2013-09-30

    Offshore wind energy is a valuable resource that can provide a significant boost to the US renewable energy portfolio. A current constraint to the development of offshore wind farms is the potential for interference to be caused by large wind farms on existing electronic and acoustical equipment such as radar and sonar systems for surveillance, navigation and communications. The US Department of Energy funded this study as an objective assessment of possible interference to various types of equipment operating in the marine environment where offshore wind farms could be installed. The objective of this project was to conduct a baseline evaluation of electromagnetic and acoustical challenges to sea surface, subsurface and airborne electronic systems presented by offshore wind farms. To accomplish this goal, the following tasks were carried out: (1) survey electronic systems that can potentially be impacted by large offshore wind farms, and identify impact assessment studies and research and development activities both within and outside the US, (2) engage key stakeholders to identify their possible concerns and operating requirements, (3) conduct first-principle modeling on the interactions of electromagnetic signals with, and the radiation of underwater acoustic signals from, offshore wind farms to evaluate the effect of such interactions on electronic systems, and (4) provide impact assessments, recommend mitigation methods, prioritize future research directions, and disseminate project findings. This report provides a detailed description of the methodologies used to carry out the study, key findings of the study, and a list of recommendations derived based the findings.

  8. On the Relationship Between High Speed Solar Wind Streams and Radiation Belt Electron Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua

    2011-01-01

    Both past and recent research results indicate that solar wind speed has a close connection to radiation belt electron fluxes [e.g., Paulikas and Blake, 1979; Reeves et aI., 2011]: a higher solar wind speed is often associated with a higher level of radiation electron fluxes. But the relationship can be very complex [Reeves et aI., 2011]. The study presented here provides further corroboration of this viewpoint by emphasizing the importance of a global perspective and time history. We find that all the events during years 2010 and 2011 where the >0.8 MeV integral electron flux exceeds 10(exp 5) particles/sq cm/sr/s (pfu) at GEO orbit are associated with the high speed streams (HSS) following the onset of the Stream Interaction Region (SIR), with most of them belonging to the long-lasting Corotating Interaction Region (CIR). Our preliminary results indicate that during HSS events, a maximum speed of 700 km/s and above is a sufficient but not necessary condition for the > 0.8 MeV electron flux to reach 10(exp 5) pfu. But in the exception cases of HSS events where the electron flux level exceeds the 10(exp 5) pfu value but the maximum solar wind speed is less than 700 km/s, a prior impact can be noted either from a CME or a transient SIR within 3-4 days before the arrival of the HSS - stressing the importance of time history. Through superposed epoch analysis and studies providing comparisons with the CME events and the HSS events where the flux level fails to reach the 10(exp 5) pfu, we will present the quantitative assessment of behaviors and relationships of various quantities, such as the time it takes to reach the flux threshold value from the stream interface and its dependence on different physical parameters (e.g., duration of the HSS event, its maximum or average of the solar wind speed, IMF Bz, Kp). The ultimate goal is to apply what is derived to space weather forecasting.

  9. Erosive gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, S.H.; Conrad, C.; Kjoergaad, J.

    1982-01-01

    Erosive gastritis is a well-defined radiologic and endoscopic entity. It is one of the common causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, yet it is seldom diagnosed and often confused with a number of other diseases. This communication re-emphasizes the characteristic endoscopic and radiologic features of erosive gastritis and its differential diagnosis. Two representative cases are reported. (orig.)

  10. Erosive gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, S.H.; Conrad, C.; Kjoergaad, J.

    1982-08-01

    Erosive gastritis is a well-defined radiologic and endoscopic entity. It is one of the common causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, yet it is seldom diagnosed and often confused with a number of other diseases. This communication re-emphasizes the characteristic endoscopic and radiologic features of erosive gastritis and its differential diagnosis. Two representative cases are reported.

  11. Characterization of a Power Electronic Grid Simulator for Wind Turbine Generator Compliance Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob Bærholm; Gevorgian, V.; Wallen, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the commissioning results and testing capabilities of a multi-megawatt power electronic grid simulator situated in National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) new testing facility. The commissioning is done using a commercial type 4 multi-megawatt sized wind turbine...... generator (WTG) installed in NREL’s new 5 MW dynamometer and a kilowatt sized type 1 WTG connected to the existing 2.5 MW dynamometer at NREL. The paper demonstrates the outstanding testing capability of the grid simulator and its application in the grid code compliance evaluation of WTGs including balanced...

  12. Geosynchronous Relativistic Electron Events Associated with High-Speed Solar Wind Streams in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungeun Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent enhancements of relativistic electron events at geosynchronous orbit (GREEs were observed in 2006. These GREE enhancements were associated with high-speed solar wind streams coming from the same coronal hole. For the first six months of 2006, the occurrence of GREEs has 27 day periodicity and the GREEs were enhanced with various flux levels. Several factors have been studied to be related to GREEs: (1 High speed stream, (2 Pc5 ULF wave activity, (3 Southward IMF Bz, (4 substorm occurrence, (5 Whistler mode chorus wave, and (6 Dynamic pressure. In this paper, we have examined the effectiveness about those parameters in selected periods.

  13. Spacecraft radio scattering observations of the power spectrum of electron density fluctuations in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, R.; Armstrong, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Solar wind electron density power spectra in the solar equatorial region are inferred from observations of phase scintillations and spectral broadening made with the Viking, Helios, and Pioneer spacecraft. The heliocentric distance range covered is 2--215 R/sub S/, and for some observations close to the sun the spectra extend to fluctuation frequencies as high as 100 Hz. For heliocentric distances > or approx. =20 R/sub S/ the equivalent spacecraft-measured one-dimensional density spectrym V/sub n/e is well modeled by a single power law (f/sup -alpha/) in the frequency range 10 -4 -5 x 10 -2 Hz. The mean spectral index α is 1.65, very close to the Kolmogorov value of 5/3. Under the assumption of constant solar wind speed, V/sub n/e varies as R/sup -3.45/, where R is heliocentric distance. Within 20 R/sub S/, V/sub n/e can still be modeled by a single power law over the frequency range 10 -3 -10 1 Hz, but the spectral index becomes smaller, αapprox.1.1. The flattening of the density spectrum with 20 R/sub S/ is presumably associated with energy deposition in the near-sun region and acceleration of the solar wind

  14. Suprathermal electron loss cone distributions in the solar wind: Ulysses observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J. L.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.; Hammond, C. M.; Forsyth, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    We present observations by the Ulysses solar wind plasma experiment of a new class of suprathermal electron signatures. At low solar latitudes and heliocentric distances beyond 3.37 AU Ulysses encountered seven intervals, ranging in duration from 1 hour to 22 hours, in which the suprathermal distributions included an antisunward field-aligned beam and a return population with a flux dropout typically spanning ±60 deg. from the sunward field-aligned direction. All events occurred between the forward and reverse shocks or waves bounding corotating interaction regions (CIRs). The observations support a scenario in which the sunward-moving electrons result from reflection of the prevailing antisunward field-aligned beam at magnetic field compressions downstream from the spacecraft, with wide loss cones caused by the relatively weak mirror ratio. This hypothesis requires that the field magnitude within the CIRs actually increased locally with increasing field-aligned distance from the Sun

  15. ON QUIET-TIME SOLAR WIND ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS IN DYNAMICAL EQUILIBRIUM WITH LANGMUIR TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer, S.; Yoon, P. H.

    2013-01-01

    A recent series of papers put forth a self-consistent theory of an asymptotically steady-state electron distribution function and Langmuir turbulence intensity. The theory was developed in terms of the κ distribution which features Maxwellian low-energy electrons and a non-Maxwellian energetic power-law tail component. The present paper discusses a generalized κ distribution that features a Davydov-Druyvesteyn type of core component and an energetic power-law tail component. The physical motivation for such a generalization is so that the model may reflect the influence of low-energy electrons interacting with low-frequency kinetic Alfvénic turbulence as well as with high-frequency Langmuir turbulence. It is shown that such a solution and the accompanying Langmuir wave spectrum rigorously satisfy the balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced emission processes in both the particle and wave kinetic equations, and approximately satisfy the similar balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced scattering processes, which are nonlinear. In spite of the low velocity modification of the electron distribution function, it is shown that the resulting asymptotic velocity power-law index α, where f e ∼ v –α is close to the average index observed during the quiet-time solar wind condition, i.e., α ∼ O(6.5) whereas α average ∼ 6.69, according to observation

  16. Empirical model for the electron density peak height disturbance in response to solar wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, E.; Altadill, D.

    2009-04-01

    Geomagnetic storms disturb the quiet behaviour of the ionosphere, its electron density and the electron density peak height, hmF2. Many works have been done to predict the variations of the electron density but few efforts have been dedicated to predict the variations the hmF2 under disturbed helio-geomagnetic conditions. We present the results of the analyses of the F2 layer peak height disturbances occurred during intense geomagnetic storms for one solar cycle. The results systematically show a significant peak height increase about 2 hours after the beginning of the main phase of the geomagnetic storm, independently of both the local time position of the station at the onset of the storm and the intensity of the storm. An additional uplift is observed in the post sunset sector. The duration of the uplift and the height increase are dependent of the intensity of the geomagnetic storm, the season and the local time position of the station at the onset of the storm. An empirical model has been developed to predict the electron density peak height disturbances in response to solar wind conditions and local time which can be used for nowcasting and forecasting the hmF2 disturbances for the middle latitude ionosphere. This being an important output for EURIPOS project operational purposes.

  17. Estimation Model of Soil Freeze-Thaw Erosion in Silingco Watershed Wetland of Northern Tibet

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Bo; Yu, Huan

    2013-01-01

    The freeze-thaw (FT) erosion is a type of soil erosion like water erosion and wind erosion. Limited by many factors, the grading evaluation of soil FT erosion quantities is not well studied. Based on the comprehensive analysis of the evaluation indices of soil FT erosion, we for the first time utilized the sensitivity of microwave remote sensing technology to soil moisture for identification of FT state. We established an estimation model suitable to evaluate the soil FT erosion quantity in S...

  18. Compressor Impeller Erosion Resistant Surface Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riley, Michael

    2000-01-01

    ...). Coatings based on tungsten carbide tantalum carbide. titanium carbide all with a cobalt matrix were evaluated for high velocity particle erosion in conventional wear test studies as well as wind tunnel testing...

  19. Defining Data Access Pathways for Atmosphere to Electrons Wind Energy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macduff, M.; Sivaraman, C.

    2016-12-01

    Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e), is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Program research initiative designed to optimize the performance of wind power plants by lowering the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The Data Archive and Portal (DAP), managed by PNNL and hosted on Amazon Web Services, is a key capability of the A2e initiative. The DAP is used to collect, store, catalog, preserve and disseminate results from the experimental and computational studies representing a diverse user community requiring both open and proprietary data archival solutions(http://a2e.pnnl.gov). To enable consumer access to the data in DAP it is being built on a set of API's that are publically accessible. This includes persistent references for key meta-data objects as well as authenticated access to the data itself. The goal is to make the DAP catalog visible through a variety of data access paths bringing the data and metadata closer to the consumer. By providing persistent metadata records we hope to be able to build services that capture consumer utility and make referencing datasets easier.

  20. Solar wind electron densities from Viking dual-frequency radio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhleman, D.O.; Anderson, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Simultaneous phase coherent, two-frequency measurements of the time delay between the Earth station and the Viking spacecraft have been analyzed in terms of the electron density profiles from 4 solar radii (R/sub sun/) to 200 R/sub sun/. The measurements were made during a period of solar activity minimum (1976--1977) and show a strong solar latitude effect. The data were analyzed with both a model independent, direct numerical inversion technique and with model fitting, yielding essentially the same results. It is shown that the solar wind density can be represented by two power laws near the solar equator proportional to r/sup -2.7/ and r/sup -2.04/. However, the more rapidly falling term quickly disappears at moderate latitudes (approx.20 0 ), leaving only the inverse-square behavior

  1. Gyrokinetic Simulations of Solar Wind Turbulence from Ion to Electron Scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howes, G. G.; TenBarge, J. M.; Dorland, W.; Numata, R.; Quataert, E.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Tatsuno, T.

    2011-01-01

    A three-dimensional, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation of plasma turbulence resolving scales from the ion to electron gyroradius with a realistic mass ratio is presented, where all damping is provided by resolved physical mechanisms. The resulting energy spectra are quantitatively consistent with a magnetic power spectrum scaling of k -2.8 as observed in in situ spacecraft measurements of the 'dissipation range' of solar wind turbulence. Despite the strongly nonlinear nature of the turbulence, the linear kinetic Alfven wave mode quantitatively describes the polarization of the turbulent fluctuations. The collisional ion heating is measured at subion-Larmor radius scales, which provides evidence of the ion entropy cascade in an electromagnetic turbulence simulation.

  2. Novel Power Electronics Systems for Wind Energy Applications: Final Report; Period of Performance: August 24, 1999 -- November 30, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.; Angkititrakul, S.; Al-Naseem, O.; Lujan, G.

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this work was to develop new approaches to the power electronics of variable-speed wind power systems, with the goal of improving the associated cost of energy. Of particular importance is the converter efficiency at low-wind operating points. Developing converter approaches that maintain high efficiency at partial power, without sacrificing performance at maximum power, is desirable, as is demonstrating an approach that can use emerging power component technologies to attain these performance goals with low projected capital costs. In this report, we show that multilevel conversion is an approach that can meet these performance requirements. In the wind power application, multilevel conversion proves superior to conventional converter technologies because it is callable to high power and higher voltage levels, it extends the range of high converter efficiency to lower wind speeds, and it allows superior low-voltage fast-switching semiconductor devices to be used in high-voltage high-power applications.

  3. Quiet-time Suprathermal (~0.1-1.5 keV) Electrons in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jiawei; Wang, Linghua; Zong, Qiugang; Li, Gang; Salem, Chadi S.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Bale, Stuart D.

    2016-03-01

    We present a statistical survey of the energy spectrum of solar wind suprathermal (˜0.1-1.5 keV) electrons measured by the WIND 3DP instrument at 1 AU during quiet times at the minimum and maximum of solar cycles 23 and 24. After separating (beaming) strahl electrons from (isotropic) halo electrons according to their different behaviors in the angular distribution, we fit the observed energy spectrum of both strahl and halo electrons at ˜0.1-1.5 keV to a Kappa distribution function with an index κ and effective temperature Teff. We also calculate the number density n and average energy Eavg of strahl and halo electrons by integrating the electron measurements between ˜0.1 and 1.5 keV. We find a strong positive correlation between κ and Teff for both strahl and halo electrons, and a strong positive correlation between the strahl n and halo n, likely reflecting the nature of the generation of these suprathermal electrons. In both solar cycles, κ is larger at solar minimum than at solar maximum for both strahl and halo electrons. The halo κ is generally smaller than the strahl κ (except during the solar minimum of cycle 23). The strahl n is larger at solar maximum, but the halo n shows no difference between solar minimum and maximum. Both the strahl n and halo n have no clear association with the solar wind core population, but the density ratio between the strahl and halo roughly anti-correlates (correlates) with the solar wind density (velocity).

  4. Evaluation of the RWEQ and SWEEP in simulating soil and PM10 loss from a portable wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion threatens sustainable agriculture and environmental quality in the Columbia Plateau region of the US Pacific Northwest. Wind erosion models such as Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) and the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) have been developed as tools for identifying practices t...

  5. Impact of neutrino flavor oscillations on the neutrino-driven wind nucleosynthesis of an electron-capture supernova

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pllumbi, E.; Tamborra, I.; Wanajo, S.; Janka, H.-T.; Hüdepohl, L.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations, especially to light sterile states, can affect nucleosynthesis yields because of their possible feedback effect on the electron fraction (Ye). For the first time, we perform nucleosynthesis calculations for neutrino-driven wind trajectories from the neutrino-cooling phase of

  6. Radial evolution of nonthermal electron populations in the low-latitude solar wind: Helios, Cluster, and Ulysses Observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štverák, Štěpán; Maksimovic, M.; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Marsch, E.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Scime, E. E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 114, - (2009), A05104/1-A05104/15 ISSN 0148-0227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : solar wind * radial evolution * non- thermal electron properties Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.082, year: 2009

  7. Analysis of trends between solar wind velocity and energetic electron fluxes at geostationary orbit using the reverse arrangement test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Homayon; Boynton, Richard J.; Walker, Simon N.

    2013-02-01

    A correlation between solar wind velocity (VSW) and energetic electron fluxes (EEF) at the geosynchronous orbit was first identified more than 30 years ago. However, recent studies have shown that the relation between VSW and EEF is considerably more complex than was previously suggested. The application of process identification technique to the evolution of electron fluxes in the range 1.8 - 3.5 MeV has also revealed peculiarities in the relation between VSW and EEF at the geosynchronous orbit. It has been revealed that for a constant solar wind density, EEF increase with VSW until a saturation velocity is reached. Beyond the saturation velocity, an increase in VSW is statistically not accompanied with EEF enhancement. The present study is devoted to the investigation of saturation velocity and its dependency upon solar wind density using the reverse arrangement test. In general, the results indicate that saturation velocity increases as solar wind density decreases. This implies that solar wind density plays an important role in defining the relationship between VSW and EEF at the geosynchronous orbit.

  8. QUIET-TIME SUPRATHERMAL (∼0.1–1.5 keV) ELECTRONS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Jiawei; Wang, Linghua; Zong, Qiugang; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi [School of Earth and Space Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Gang [Department of Physics and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States); Salem, Chadi S.; Bale, Stuart D. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F., E-mail: wanglhwang@gmail.com [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Kiel, Leibnizstrasse 11, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-03-20

    We present a statistical survey of the energy spectrum of solar wind suprathermal (∼0.1–1.5 keV) electrons measured by the WIND 3DP instrument at 1 AU during quiet times at the minimum and maximum of solar cycles 23 and 24. After separating (beaming) strahl electrons from (isotropic) halo electrons according to their different behaviors in the angular distribution, we fit the observed energy spectrum of both strahl and halo electrons at ∼0.1–1.5 keV to a Kappa distribution function with an index κ and effective temperature T{sub eff}. We also calculate the number density n and average energy E{sub avg} of strahl and halo electrons by integrating the electron measurements between ∼0.1 and 1.5 keV. We find a strong positive correlation between κ and T{sub eff} for both strahl and halo electrons, and a strong positive correlation between the strahl n and halo n, likely reflecting the nature of the generation of these suprathermal electrons. In both solar cycles, κ is larger at solar minimum than at solar maximum for both strahl and halo electrons. The halo κ is generally smaller than the strahl κ (except during the solar minimum of cycle 23). The strahl n is larger at solar maximum, but the halo n shows no difference between solar minimum and maximum. Both the strahl n and halo n have no clear association with the solar wind core population, but the density ratio between the strahl and halo roughly anti-correlates (correlates) with the solar wind density (velocity)

  9. Erhversbetinget erosion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Irene; Gjørup, Hans; Nyvad, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Baggrund – I forbindelse med dental erosion er en grundig udredning af patienten vigtig, således at årsagen til erosionernes opståen findes, og der kan iværksættes adækvat forebyggende indsats. En sådan udredning er ikke mindst vigtig, når arbejdsmiljøet mistænkes. Patienttilfælde – En 30-årig...... arbejdsskade, men ikke anerkendt, da erosioner ikke er optaget på Arbejdsskadestyrelsens liste over erhvervssygdomme. En systematisk registrering af lignende tilfælde kunne imidlertid på sigt ændre retspraksis for fremtidige patienter med arbejdsbetinget erosion....... patient, der arbejder som pladesmed, blev henvist til Landsdels- og Videnscenter, Århus Sygehus, med henblik på udredning af patientens kraftige slid. Patienten udviste ikke-alderssvarende tandslid af emalje og dentin svarende til erosion forårsaget af syredampe i arbejdsmiljøet, muligvis forstærket af...

  10. Optimal Allocation of Power-Electronic Interfaced Wind Turbines Using a Genetic Algorithm - Monte Carlo Hybrid Optimization Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Siano, Pierluigi; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    determined by the wind resource and geographic conditions, the location of wind turbines in a power system network may significantly affect the distribution of power flow, power losses, etc. Furthermore, modern WTs with power-electronic interface have the capability of controlling reactive power output...... limit requirements. The method combines the Genetic Algorithm (GA), gradient-based constrained nonlinear optimization algorithm and sequential Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The GA searches for the optimal locations and capacities of WTs. The gradient-based optimization finds the optimal power factor...... setting of WTs. The sequential MCS takes into account the stochastic behaviour of wind power generation and load. The proposed hybrid optimization method is demonstrated on an 11 kV 69-bus distribution system....

  11. Power Electronic Systems for Switched Reluctance Generator based Wind Farms and DC Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo

    enable various renewable energy sources, such as Photovoltaic (PV) and wind, to produce dc power directly. In addition, battery-based energy storage systems inherently operate with dc power. Hence, dc network (dc-grid) systems which connect these dc sources and storages directly using dc networks...... are gaining much attention again. The dc network system has a great potential to outdo the traditional ac systems in many technical challenges and could be highly profitable especially for offshore wind farm applications, where the size and weight of the components are crucial to the entire system costs......Wind power technology, as the most competitive renewable energy technology, is quickly developing. The wind turbine size is growing and the grid penetration of wind power is increasing rapidly. Recently, the developments on wind power technology pay more attentions on efficiency and reliability...

  12. Effects of non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution functions and nonspherical geometry on minor ions in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgi, A.

    1987-01-01

    A previous model has shown that in order to account for the charge state distribution in the low-speed solar wind, a high coronal temperature is necessary and that this temperature peak goes together with a peak of nx/np in the corona. In the present paper, one of the assumptions made previously, i.e., that coronal electrons are Maxwellian, is relaxed, and a much cooler model is presented, which could account for the same oxygen charge states in the solar wind due to the inclusion of non-Maxwellian electrons. Also, due to a different choice of the coronal magnetic field geometry, this model would show no enhancement of the coronal nx/np. Results of the two models are then compared, and observational tests to distinguish between the two scenarios are proposed: comparison of directly measured coronal Te to charge state measurements in the solar wind, determination of the coronal nx/np measurement of ion speeds in the acceleration region of the solar wind, and measurement of the frozen-in silicon charge state distribution.

  13. Control Mechanisms of the Electron Heat Flux in the Solar Wind: Observations in Comparison to Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stverak, S.; Hellinger, P.; Landi, S.; Travnicek, P. M.; Maksimovic, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent understanding of the heat transport and dissipation in the expanding solar wind propose number of complex control mechanisms down to the electron kinetic scales. We investigate the evolution of electron heat flux properties and constraints along the expansion using in situ observations from Helios spacecraft in comparison to numerical kinetic simulations. In particular we focus on the roles of Coulomb collisions and wave-particle interactions in shaping the electron velocity distribution functions and thus controlling the heat transported by the electron heat flux. We show the general evolution of the electron heat flux to be driven namely by the Coulomb collisions. Locally we demonstrate the wave-particle interactions related to the kinetic plasma instabilities to be providing effective constraints in case of extreme heat flux levels.

  14. Performance tests of a power-electronics converter for multi-megawatt wind turbines using a grid emulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averous, Nurhan Rizqy; Berthold, Anica; Monti, Antonello; De Doncker, Rik W.; Schneider, Alexander; Schwimmbeck, Franz

    2016-01-01

    A vast increase of wind turbines (WT) contribution in the modern electrical grids have led to the development of grid connection requirements. In contrast to the conventional test method, testing power-electronics converters for WT using a grid emulator at Center for Wind Power Drives (CWD) RWTH Aachen University offers more flexibility for conducting test scenarios. Further analysis on the performance of the device under test (DUT) is however required when testing with grid emulator since the characteristic of the grid emulator might influence the performance of the DUT. This paper focuses on the performance analysis of the DUT when tested using grid emulator. Beside the issue regarding the current harmonics, the performance during Fault Ride-Through (FRT) is discussed in detail. A power hardware in the loop setup is an attractive solution to conduct a comprehensive study on the interaction between the power-electronics converters and the electrical grids. (paper)

  15. Performance tests of a power-electronics converter for multi-megawatt wind turbines using a grid emulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizqy Averous, Nurhan; Berthold, Anica; Schneider, Alexander; Schwimmbeck, Franz; Monti, Antonello; De Doncker, Rik W.

    2016-09-01

    A vast increase of wind turbines (WT) contribution in the modern electrical grids have led to the development of grid connection requirements. In contrast to the conventional test method, testing power-electronics converters for WT using a grid emulator at Center for Wind Power Drives (CWD) RWTH Aachen University offers more flexibility for conducting test scenarios. Further analysis on the performance of the device under test (DUT) is however required when testing with grid emulator since the characteristic of the grid emulator might influence the performance of the DUT. This paper focuses on the performance analysis of the DUT when tested using grid emulator. Beside the issue regarding the current harmonics, the performance during Fault Ride-Through (FRT) is discussed in detail. A power hardware in the loop setup is an attractive solution to conduct a comprehensive study on the interaction between the power-electronics converters and the electrical grids.

  16. Understanding Power Electronics and Electrical Machines in Multidisciplinary Wind Energy Conversion System Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, M. J.; Barrero, F.; Pozo-Ruz, A.; Guzman, F.; Fernandez, J.; Guzman, H.

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy conversion systems (WECS) nowadays offer an extremely wide range of topologies, including various different types of electrical generators and power converters. Wind energy is also an application of great interest to students and with a huge potential for engineering employment. Making WECS the main center of interest when teaching…

  17. The Major Cause of Observed Erosion Surge on the Beaches North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surges in coastal erosion north of Dar es Salaam city have been documented from 1977 to the early 1980s and around 1997/98. Analysis of the wind data shows that the documented increase in coastal erosion coincided with increased wind speeds. Extreme winds in excess of 10-11 m s-1 were experienced during ...

  18. The « 3-D donut » electrostatic analyzer for millisecond timescale electron measurements in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthomier, M.; Techer, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding electron acceleration mechanisms in planetary magnetospheres or energy dissipation at electron scale in the solar wind requires fast measurement of electron distribution functions on a millisecond time scale. Still, since the beginning of space age, the instantaneous field of view of plasma spectrometers is limited to a few degrees around their viewing plane. In Earth's magnetosphere, the NASA MMS spacecraft use 8 state-of-the-art sensor heads to reach a time resolution of 30 milliseconds. This costly strategy in terms of mass and power consumption can hardly be extended to the next generation of constellation missions that would use a large number of small-satellites. In the solar wind, using the same sensor heads, the ESA THOR mission is expected to reach the 5ms timescale in the thermal energy range, up to 100eV. We present the « 3-D donut » electrostatic analyzer concept that can change the game for future space missions because of its instantaneous hemispheric field of view. A set of 2 sensors is sufficient to cover all directions over a wide range of energy, e.g. up to 1-2keV in the solar wind, which covers both thermal and supra-thermal particles. In addition, its high sensitivity compared to state of the art instruments opens the possibility of millisecond time scale measurements in space plasmas. With CNES support, we developed a high fidelity prototype (a quarter of the full « 3-D donut » analyzer) that includes all electronic sub-systems. The prototype weights less than a kilogram. The key building block of the instrument is an imaging detector that uses EASIC, a low-power front-end electronics that will fly on the ESA Solar Orbiter and on the NASA Parker Solar Probe missions.

  19. The Effects of Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Changes on the Substorm Auroras and Energetic Electron Injections on 24 August 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. Y.; Wang, Z. Q.

    2018-01-01

    After the passage of an interplanetary (IP) shock at 06:13 UT on 24 August 2005, the enhancement (>6 nPa) of solar wind dynamic pressure and the southward turning of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cause the earthward movement of dayside magnetopause and the drift loss of energetic particles near geosynchronous orbit. The persistent electron drift loss makes the geosynchronous satellites cannot observe the substorm electron injection phenomenon during the two substorm expansion phases (06:57-07:39 UT) on that day. Behind the IP shock, the fluctuations ( 0.5-3 nPa) of solar wind dynamic pressure not only alter the dayside auroral brightness but also cause the entire auroral oval to swing in the day-night direction. However, there is no Pi2 pulsation in the nightside auroral oval during the substorm growth phase from 06:13 to 06:57 UT. During the subsequent two substorm expansion phases, the substorm expansion activities cause the nightside aurora oval brightening from substorm onset site to higher latitudes, and meanwhile, the enhancement (decline) of solar wind dynamic pressure makes the nightside auroral oval move toward the magnetic equator (the magnetic pole). These observations demonstrate that solar wind dynamic pressure changes and substorm expansion activities can jointly control the luminosity and location of the nightside auroral oval when the internal and external disturbances occur simultaneously. During the impact of a strong IP shock, the earthward movement of dayside magnetopause probably causes the disappearance of the substorm electron injections near geosynchronous orbit.

  20. Reliability Assessment of Solder Joints in Power Electronic Modules by Crack Damage Model for Wind Turbine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Sørensen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine reliability is an important issue for wind energy cost minimization, especially by reduction of operation and maintenance costs for critical components and by increasing wind turbine availability. To develop an optimal operation and maintenance plan for critical components, it is necessary to understand the physics of their failure and be able to develop reliability prediction models. Such a model is proposed in this paper for an IGBT power electronic module. IGBTs are critical components in wind turbine converter systems. These are multilayered devices where layers are soldered to each other and they operate at a thermal-power cycling environment. Temperature loadings affect the reliability of soldered joints by developing cracks and fatigue processes that eventually result in failure. Based on Miner’s rule a linear damage model that incorporates a crack development and propagation processes is discussed. A statistical analysis is performed for appropriate model parameter selection. Based on the proposed model, a layout for component life prediction with crack movement is described in details.

  1. Harmonics in Offshore Wind Power Plants Employing Power Electronic Devices in the Transmission System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob Bærholm

    Introduction The trend in power generation is to partly replace conventional power plants with renewable energy sources. Offshore wind power has been selected to take up a significant proportion of the renewable energy production. The grid codes have been updated to accommodate the rising share...... of wind power. The onshore as well as offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) therefore have to meet the same stringent requirement as the conventional power plants. This can be accommodated by employment of flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices, such as the static compensator...... gives rise to a number of challenges to the wind power industry with regard to construction, installation as well as transmission of the generated energy. The STATCOM and the voltage-sourced converter high-voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) are attractive solutions for grid connection of remotely located...

  2. The Gale Crater Mound in a Regional Geologic Setting: Comparison Study of Wind Erosion in Gale Crater and Within a 1000 KM Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapremont. A.; Allen, C.; Runyon, C.

    2014-01-01

    Gale is a Late Noachian/Early Hesperian impact crater located on the dichotomy boundary separating the southern highlands and the northern lowlands of Mars. NASA's Curiosity Rover is currently exploring Gale, searching for evidence of habitability early in Mars history. With an approximate diameter of 155 km, and a approx. 5 km central mound informally titled Mt. Sharp, Gale represents a region of geologic interest due to the abundance of knowledge that can be derived, through its sedimentary deposits, pertaining to the environmental evolution of Mars. This study was undertaken to compare wind erosional features in Gale Crater and within sediments in a 1000 km radial area. The ultimate objective of this comparison was to determine if or how Gale relates to the surrounding region.

  3. Fractal dimension determined through optical and scanning electron microscopy on FeCrAl alloy after polishing, erosion, and oxidizing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman-Castaneda, J.I.; Garcia-Borquez, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Arizabalo-Salas, R.D. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    Optical and scanning electron microscopy (OM and SEM) are techniques that are normally used for 2D-analysis of surface features. By fractal dimension analysis of the gray-scale OM and SEM images, it is possible to get quantitative topographical measurements. In this work, three different surface topographies (polished, eroded, and oxidized) were analyzed on FeCrAl alloy by OM and SEM. Clear surface topographical changes can be qualitatively observed. In order to quantify such changes, two steps were followed: (i) a gray-scale digitalization from each image was used to reproduce topographical features on the analyzed surface, and (ii) from this information, the fractal dimension (D) was determined using fractal3e software. The fractal dimension determined in this form follows coherently the topographical changes produced on the FeCrAl alloy after polishing, erosion, and oxidizing processes. The variations of fractal dimension values against the temperature of the oxidizing processes reflect well the oxide growth changes. Moreover, a minimum D-value is registered at 750 C, which corresponds to the {delta}-{theta} alumina phase transition temperature as determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA) on the same alloy. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Three procedures for estimating erosion from construction areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, S.R.; Ruff, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Erosion from many mining and construction sites can lead to serious environmental pollution problems. Therefore, erosion management plans must be developed in order that the engineer may implement measures to control or eliminate excessive soil losses. To properly implement a management program, it is necessary to estimate potential soil losses from the time the project begins to beyond project completion. Three methodologies are presented which project the estimated soil losses due to sheet or rill erosion of water and are applicable to mining and construction areas. Furthermore, the three methods described are intended as indicators of the state-of-the-art in water erosion prediction. The procedures herein do not account for gully erosion, snowmelt erosion, wind erosion, freeze-thaw erosion or extensive flooding

  5. Transient stability enhancement of wind farms using power electronics and facts controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Hossein Ali

    Nowadays, it is well-understood that the burning of fossil fuels in electric power station has a significant influence on the global climate due to greenhouse gases. In many countries, the use of cost-effective and reliable low-carbon electricity energy sources is becoming an important energy policy. Among different kinds of clean energy resources- such as solar power, hydro-power, ocean wave power and so on, wind power is the fastest-growing form of renewable energy at the present time. Moreover, adjustable speed generator wind turbines (ASGWT) has key advantages over the fixed-speed generator wind turbines (FSGWT) in terms of less mechanical stress, improved power quality, high system efficiency, and reduced acoustic noise. One important class of ASGWT is the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), which has gained a significant attention of the electric power industry due to their advantages over the other class of ASGWT, i.e. fully rated converter-based wind turbines. Because of increased integration of DFIG-based wind farms into electric power grids, it is necessary to transmit the generated power from wind farms to the existing grids via transmission networks without congestion. Series capacitive compensation of DFIG-based wind farm is an economical way to increase the power transfer capability of the transmission line connecting wind farm to the grid. For example, a study performed by ABB reveals that increasing the power transfer capability of an existing transmission line from 1300 MW to 2000 MW using series compensation is 90% less than the cost of building a new transmission line. However, a factor hindering the extensive use of series capacitive compensation is the potential risk of sub- synchronous resonance (SSR). The SSR is a condition where the wind farm exchanges energy with the electric network, to which it is connected, at one or more natural frequencies of the electric or mechanical part of the combined system, comprising the wind farm and the

  6. A closed set of conservation laws and the evolution of the electron magnetic moment in the collisionless solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, P.

    1993-01-01

    A hydromagnetic equation system for the interplanetary collisionless solar wind is used to derive a set of conservation laws for that medium. It is found that every equation of the original system, including the closure relation, is related to one conservation law. The set that has been derived does not only include the traditional laws, but also a new one for the magnetic moment of the electrons. The conservation set is then used to obtain the space constants for the solar coronal expansion. The new law yields a constant that has not been predicted by other models

  7. ELECTRON ACCELERATION IN PULSAR-WIND TERMINATION SHOCKS: AN APPLICATION TO THE CRAB NEBULA GAMMA-RAY FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, John J.; Becker, Peter A.; Dermer, Charles D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 (United States); Finke, Justin D., E-mail: jkroon@gmu.edu, E-mail: pbecker@gmu.edu, E-mail: charlesdermer@outlook.com, E-mail: justin.finke@nrl.navy.mil [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The γ -ray flares from the Crab Nebula observed by AGILE and Fermi -LAT reaching GeV energies and lasting several days challenge the standard models for particle acceleration in pulsar-wind nebulae because the radiating electrons have energies exceeding the classical radiation-reaction limit for synchrotron. Previous modeling has suggested that the synchrotron limit can be exceeded if the electrons experience electrostatic acceleration, but the resulting spectra do not agree very well with the data. As a result, there are still some important unanswered questions about the detailed particle acceleration and emission processes occurring during the flares. We revisit the problem using a new analytical approach based on an electron transport equation that includes terms describing electrostatic acceleration, stochastic wave-particle acceleration, shock acceleration, synchrotron losses, and particle escape. An exact solution is obtained for the electron distribution, which is used to compute the associated γ -ray synchrotron spectrum. We find that in our model the γ -ray flares are mainly powered by electrostatic acceleration, but the contributions from stochastic and shock acceleration play an important role in producing the observed spectral shapes. Our model can reproduce the spectra of all the Fermi -LAT and AGILE flares from the Crab Nebula, using magnetic field strengths in agreement with the multi-wavelength observational constraints. We also compute the spectrum and duration of the synchrotron afterglow created by the accelerated electrons, after they escape into the region on the downstream side of the pulsar-wind termination shock. The afterglow is expected to fade over a maximum period of about three weeks after the γ -ray flare.

  8. Compensation of Reactive Power from Wind Turbines with Power Electronics Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas

    1996-01-01

    Wind turbines with induction generators consume reactive power. Apart from the no load consumption, which is nearing constant and is being compensated for using capacitors, the consumption of reactive power varies almost proportional with the power production, which can vary immensely. Except tha...

  9. Impact of Neutrino Flavor Oscillations on the Neutrino-driven Wind Nucleosynthesis of an Electron-capture Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pllumbi, Else; Tamborra, Irene; Wanajo, Shinya; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Hüdepohl, Lorenz

    2015-08-01

    Neutrino oscillations, especially to light sterile states, can affect nucleosynthesis yields because of their possible feedback effect on the electron fraction (Ye). For the first time, we perform nucleosynthesis calculations for neutrino-driven wind trajectories from the neutrino-cooling phase of an 8.8 {M}⊙ electron-capture supernova (SN), whose hydrodynamic evolution was computed in spherical symmetry with sophisticated neutrino transport and whose Ye evolution was post-processed by including neutrino oscillations between both active and active-sterile flavors. We also take into account the α-effect as well as weak magnetism and recoil corrections in the neutrino absorption and emission processes. We observe effects on the Ye evolution that depend in a subtle way on the relative radial positions of the sterile Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances, on collective flavor transformations, and on the formation of α particles. For the adopted SN progenitor, we find that neutrino oscillations, also to a sterile state with eV mass, do not significantly affect the element formation and in particular cannot make the post-explosion wind outflow neutron-rich enough to activate a strong r-process. Our conclusions become even more robust when, in order to mimic equation-of-state-dependent corrections due to nucleon potential effects in the dense-medium neutrino opacities, six cases with reduced Ye in the wind are considered. In these cases, despite the conversion of active neutrinos to sterile neutrinos, Ye increases or is not significantly lowered compared to the values obtained without oscillations and active flavor transformations. This is a consequence of a complicated interplay between sterile-neutrino production, neutrino-neutrino interactions, and α-effect.

  10. Erosion of Earthen Levees by Wave Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.; Reba, M. L.

    2016-02-01

    Earthen levees of aquaculture and irrigation reservoirs in the United States often experience significant erosion due to wind-generated waves. Typically constructed using local soils, unprotected levees are subjected to rapid erosion and retreat due to wind generated waves and surface runoff. Only a limited amount of published work addresses the erosion rates for unprotected levees, and producers who rely on irrigation reservoirs need an economic basis for selecting a protection method for vulnerable levees. This, in turn, means that a relationship between wave energy and erosion of cohesive soils is needed. In this study, laboratory experiments were carried out in order to quantify wave induced levee erosion and retreat. A model erodible bank was packed using a soil consisting of approximately 14% sand, 73% silt, and 13% clay in a 20.6 m long 0.7 m wide and 1.2 m deep wave tank at the USDA-ARS, National Sedimentation Laboratory in Oxford MS. The geometry of the levee face was monitored by digital camera and the waves were measured by means of 6 capacitance wave staffs. Relationships were established between levee erosion, edge and retreat rates, and incident wave energy.

  11. A Distributed Lag Autoregressive Model of Geostationary Relativistic Electron Fluxes: Comparing the Influences of Waves, Seed and Source Electrons, and Solar Wind Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Laura; Engebretson, Mark; Clilverd, Mark; Rodger, Craig; Lessard, Marc; Gjerloev, Jesper; Reeves, Geoffrey

    2018-05-01

    Relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit depends on enhancement and loss processes driven by ultralow frequency (ULF) Pc5, chorus, and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, seed electron flux, magnetosphere compression, the "Dst effect," and substorms, while solar wind inputs such as velocity, number density, and interplanetary magnetic field Bz drive these factors and thus correlate with flux. Distributed lag regression models show the time delay of highest influence of these factors on log10 high-energy electron flux (0.7-7.8 MeV, Los Alamos National Laboratory satellites). Multiple regression with an autoregressive term (flux persistence) allows direct comparison of the magnitude of each effect while controlling other correlated parameters. Flux enhancements due to ULF Pc5 and chorus waves are of equal importance. The direct effect of substorms on high-energy electron flux is strong, possibly due to injection of high-energy electrons by the substorms themselves. Loss due to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves is less influential. Southward Bz shows only moderate influence when correlated processes are accounted for. Adding covariate compression effects (pressure and interplanetary magnetic field magnitude) allows wave-driven enhancements to be more clearly seen. Seed electrons (270 keV) are most influential at lower relativistic energies, showing that such a population must be available for acceleration. However, they are not accelerated directly to the highest energies. Source electrons (31.7 keV) show no direct influence when other factors are controlled. Their action appears to be indirect via the chorus waves they generate. Determination of specific effects of each parameter when studied in combination will be more helpful in furthering modeling work than studying them individually.

  12. Predicción de la erosión eólica potencial con el modelo EWEQ en dos suelos loesicos: efectos de las condiciones climáticas Wind erosion prediction with the EWEQ model in two loess soils: effects of climatic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Beatriz Aimar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La erosión eólica potencial del suelo (EEP es un dato básico utilizado en varios modelos de predicción para calcular la erosión eólica de suelos agrícolas. El objetivo de este estudio fue cuantificar la EEP de un Haplustol y un Ustipsammente de la Región Semiárida Pampeana (RSP y compararla con las predicciones del modelo Ecuación de Erosión Eólica en Español (EWEQ, realizadas con diferentes factores climáticos (C. Se efectuaron mediciones de EEP a campo durante un año en ambos suelos, mantenidos sin cobertura y con mínima rugosidad. Los resultados indicaron que la EEP medida a campo fue mayor en el Ustipsammente (270 Mg ha-1 año-1 que en el Haplustol (40 Mg ha-1 año -1 , con una reducción en el espesor del horizonte de 21,3 y 3,1 mm, respectivamente. La erosión del Ustipsammente fue dos veces mayor en primavera-verano que en otoño-invierno. Este efecto no se observó en el Haplustol, debido a su menor desecamiento y mayores contenidos de humedad luego de las lluvias. La erosión del Haplustol, por desecarse más lentamente luego de una lluvia, fue más condicionada por las precipitaciones que la del Ustipsammente. Un 40% de la erosión de ambos suelos fue definida por la duración de las tormentas. Las tasas de erosión (EEP por unidad de tiempo, Qt se correlacionaron positivamente con la velocidad promedio del viento (V, ajustando a una función polinómica en ambos suelos. A la misma V, Qt fue siempre mayor en el Ustipsammente. La EEP calculada con la EWEQ, utilizando el factor C correspondiente al año de muestreo (30,3, fue la más semejante a la erosión medida a campo, aunque el modelo la subestimó en un 43% en el Haplustol y en un 18% en el Ustipsammente. La EWEQ deberá ofrecer al usuario distintos factores C para poder predecir EEP en escenarios climáticos variables.The potential wind erosion of a soil (EEP is a basic data for predicting wind erosion of agricultural soils in most wind erosion prediction models

  13. Whistler mode waves and the electron heat flux in the solar wind: Cluster observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lacombe, C.; Alexandrova, O.; Matteini, L.; Santolík, Ondřej; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Mangeney, A.; De Conchy, Y.; Maksimovic, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 796, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-11 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA MŠk LH12231 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar wind * turbulence * waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 5.993, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/796/1/5/article

  14. Power electronic supply system with the wind turbine dedicated for average power receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerski, Tomasz; Skrzypek, Adam

    2018-05-01

    This article presents the original project of the AC-DC-AC converter dedicated to low power wind turbines. Such a set can be a good solution for powering isolated objects that do not have access to the power grid, for example isolated houses, mountain lodges or forester's lodges, where they can replace expensive diesel engine generators. An additional source of energy in the form of a mini-wind farm is also a good alternative to yachts, marinas and tent sites, which are characterized by relatively low power consumption. This article presents a designed low power wind converter that is dedicated to these applications. The main design idea of the authors was to create a device that converts the very wide range input voltage directly to a stable 230VAC output voltage without the battery buffer. Authors focused on maximum safety of using and service. The converter contains the thermal protection, short-circuit protection and overvoltage protection. The components have been selected in such a way as to ensure that the device functions as efficiently as possible.

  15. Changes in the High-Latitude Topside Ionospheric Vertical Electron-Density Profiles in Response to Solar-Wind Perturbations During Large Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert F.; Fainberg, Joseph; Osherovich, Vladimir; Truhlik, Vladimir; Wang, Yongli; Arbacher, Becca

    2011-01-01

    The latest results from an investigation to establish links between solar-wind and topside-ionospheric parameters will be presented including a case where high-latitude topside electron-density Ne(h) profiles indicated dramatic rapid changes in the scale height during the main phase of a large magnetic storm (Dst wind data obtained from the NASA OMNIWeb database indicated that the magnetic storm was due to a magnetic cloud. This event is one of several large magnetic storms being investigated during the interval from 1965 to 1984 when both solar-wind and digital topside ionograms, from either Alouette-2, ISIS-1, or ISIS-2, are potentially available.

  16. First measurements of electron vorticity in the foreshock and solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgiolo, C.; Goldstein, M.L.; Vinas, A.F.; Fazakerley, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the methodology used to set up and compute spatial derivatives of the electron moments using data acquired by the Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE) from the four Cluster spacecraft. The results are used to investigate electron vorticity in the foreshock. We find that much of the measured vorticity, under nominal conditions, appears to be caused by changes in the flow direction of the return (either reflected or leakage from the magnetosheath) and strahl electron populations as they couple to changes in the magnetic field orientation. This in turn results in deflections in the total bulk velocity producing the measured vorticity. (orig.)

  17. First measurements of electron vorticity in the foreshock and solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgiolo, C. [Bitterroot Basic Research, Hamilton, MT (United States); Goldstein, M.L.; Vinas, A.F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Geospace Science Lab.; Fazakerley, A.N. [University College London (United Kingdom). Mullard Space Science Lab.

    2010-07-01

    We describe the methodology used to set up and compute spatial derivatives of the electron moments using data acquired by the Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE) from the four Cluster spacecraft. The results are used to investigate electron vorticity in the foreshock. We find that much of the measured vorticity, under nominal conditions, appears to be caused by changes in the flow direction of the return (either reflected or leakage from the magnetosheath) and strahl electron populations as they couple to changes in the magnetic field orientation. This in turn results in deflections in the total bulk velocity producing the measured vorticity. (orig.)

  18. First measurements of electron vorticity in the foreshock and solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gurgiolo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the methodology used to set up and compute spatial derivatives of the electron moments using data acquired by the Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE from the four Cluster spacecraft. The results are used to investigate electron vorticity in the foreshock. We find that much of the measured vorticity, under nominal conditions, appears to be caused by changes in the flow direction of the return (either reflected or leakage from the magnetosheath and strahl electron populations as they couple to changes in the magnetic field orientation. This in turn results in deflections in the total bulk velocity producing the measured vorticity.

  19. RECONSTRUCTING THE SOLAR WIND FROM ITS EARLY HISTORY TO CURRENT EPOCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, Vladimir S.; Usmanov, Arcadi V., E-mail: vladimir.airapetian@nasa.gov, E-mail: avusmanov@gmail.com [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Stellar winds from active solar-type stars can play a crucial role in removal of stellar angular momentum and erosion of planetary atmospheres. However, major wind properties except for mass-loss rates cannot be directly derived from observations. We employed a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic Alfvén wave driven solar wind model, ALF3D, to reconstruct the solar wind parameters including the mass-loss rate, terminal velocity, and wind temperature at 0.7, 2, and 4.65 Gyr. Our model treats the wind thermal electrons, protons, and pickup protons as separate fluids and incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating to properly describe proton and electron temperatures of the solar wind. To study the evolution of the solar wind, we specified three input model parameters, the plasma density, Alfvén wave amplitude, and the strength of the dipole magnetic field at the wind base for each of three solar wind evolution models that are consistent with observational constrains. Our model results show that the velocity of the paleo solar wind was twice as fast, ∼50 times denser and 2 times hotter at 1 AU in the Sun's early history at 0.7 Gyr. The theoretical calculations of mass-loss rate appear to be in agreement with the empirically derived values for stars of various ages. These results can provide realistic constraints for wind dynamic pressures on magnetospheres of (exo)planets around the young Sun and other active stars, which is crucial in realistic assessment of the Joule heating of their ionospheres and corresponding effects of atmospheric erosion.

  20. RECONSTRUCTING THE SOLAR WIND FROM ITS EARLY HISTORY TO CURRENT EPOCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, Vladimir S.; Usmanov, Arcadi V.

    2016-01-01

    Stellar winds from active solar-type stars can play a crucial role in removal of stellar angular momentum and erosion of planetary atmospheres. However, major wind properties except for mass-loss rates cannot be directly derived from observations. We employed a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic Alfvén wave driven solar wind model, ALF3D, to reconstruct the solar wind parameters including the mass-loss rate, terminal velocity, and wind temperature at 0.7, 2, and 4.65 Gyr. Our model treats the wind thermal electrons, protons, and pickup protons as separate fluids and incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating to properly describe proton and electron temperatures of the solar wind. To study the evolution of the solar wind, we specified three input model parameters, the plasma density, Alfvén wave amplitude, and the strength of the dipole magnetic field at the wind base for each of three solar wind evolution models that are consistent with observational constrains. Our model results show that the velocity of the paleo solar wind was twice as fast, ∼50 times denser and 2 times hotter at 1 AU in the Sun's early history at 0.7 Gyr. The theoretical calculations of mass-loss rate appear to be in agreement with the empirically derived values for stars of various ages. These results can provide realistic constraints for wind dynamic pressures on magnetospheres of (exo)planets around the young Sun and other active stars, which is crucial in realistic assessment of the Joule heating of their ionospheres and corresponding effects of atmospheric erosion

  1. Rainfall Erosivity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall is one the main drivers of soil erosion. The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the Rfactor in the USLE model and its revised version, RUSLE. At national...... and continental levels, the scarce availability of data obliges soil erosion modellers to estimate this factor based on rainfall data with only low temporal resolution (daily, monthly, annual averages). The purpose of this study is to assess rainfall erosivity in Europe in the form of the RUSLE R-factor, based...

  2. Soil Erosion: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the last of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil erosion. Upon completion of the two day lesson, the student will be able to: (1) define conservation, (2) understand how erosion takes place, and (3) list ways of controlling wind and water erosion.…

  3. A Technique for Mitigating Thermal Stress and Extending Life Cycle of Power Electronic Converters Used for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canras Batunlu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, various models have been developed to assess and improve the reliability of power electronic conversion systems (PECs with a focus on those used for wind turbines. However, only few studies have dealt with mitigating the PECs thermo-mechanical effects on their reliability taking into account variations in wind characteristics. This work critically investigates this issue and attempts to offer a mitigating technique by, first, developing realistic full scale (FS and partial scale (PS induction generator models combined with two level back-to-back PECs. Subsequently, deriving a driving algorithm, which reduces PEC’s operating temperature by controlling its switching patterns. The developed switching procedure ensures minimum temperature fluctuations by adapting the variable DC link and system’s frequency of operation. It was found for both FS and PS topologies, that the generator side converters have higher mean junction temperatures where the grid side ones have more fluctuations on their thermal profile. The FS and PS cycling temperatures were reduced by 12 °C and 5 °C, respectively. Moreover, this led to a significant improvement in stress; approximately 27 MPa stress reduction for the FS induction generator PEC.

  4. Preliminary Performance Data on Westinghouse Electronic Power Regulator Operating on J34-WE-32 Turbojet Engine in Altitude Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, James R.; Blivas, Darnold; Pack, George J.

    1950-01-01

    The behavior of the Westinghouse electronic power regulator operating on a J34-WE-32 turbojet engine was investigated in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel at the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Department of the Navy. The object of the program was to determine the, steady-state stability and transient characteristics of the engine under control at various altitudes and ram pressure ratios, without afterburning. Recordings of the response of the following parameters to step changes in power lever position throughout the available operating range of the engine were obtained; ram pressure ratio, compressor-discharge pressure, exhaust-nozzle area, engine speed, turbine-outlet temperature, fuel-valve position, jet thrust, air flow, turbine-discharge pressure, fuel flow, throttle position, and boost-pump pressure. Representative preliminary data showing the actual time response of these variables are presented. These data are presented in the form of reproductions of oscillographic traces.

  5. Investigation of the winds and electron concentration variability in the D region of the ionosphere by the partial-reflection radar technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiland, R.M.; Bowhill, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    The development and first observations of the partial-reflection drifts experiment at Urbana, Illinois (40 N) are described. The winds data from the drifts experiment are compared with electron concentration data obtained by the differential-absorption technique to study the possible meteorological causes of the winter anomaly in the mesosphere at midlatitudes. Winds data obtained by the meteor-radar experiment at Urbana are also compared with electron concentration data measured at Urban. A significant correlation is shown is both cases between southward winds and increasing electron concentration measured at the same location during winter. The possibility of stratospheric/mesospheric coupling is investigated by comparing satellite-measured 0.4 mbar geopotential data with mesospheric electron concentration data. No significant coupling was observed. The winds measured at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (52 N) are compared with the electron concentrations measured at Urban, yielding constant fixed relationship, but significant correlations for short segments of the winter. A significant coherence is observed at discrete frequencies during segments of the winter

  6. Mapping erosion from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.

    2007-01-01

    Soil erosion by water is the most important land degradation problem worldwide. Spatial information on erosion is required for defining effective soil and water conservation strategies. Satellite remote sensing can provide relevant input to regional erosion assessment. This thesis comprises a review

  7. Erosion-corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghili, B.

    1999-05-01

    A literature study on erosion-corrosion of pipings in the nuclear industry was performed. Occurred incidents are reviewed, and the mechanism driving the erosion-corrosion is described. Factors that influence the effect in negative or positive direction are treated, as well as programs for control and inspection. Finally, examples of failures from databases on erosion-corrosion are given in an attachment

  8. Assessing storm erosion hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranasinghe, Ranasinghe W M R J B; Callaghan, D.; Ciavola, Paolo; Coco, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The storm erosion hazard on coasts is usually expressed as an erosion volume and/or associated episodic coastline retreat. The accurate assessment of present-day and future storm erosion volumes is a key task for coastal zone managers, planners and engineers. There are four main approaches that can

  9. Interplanetary Type III Bursts and Electron Density Fluctuations in the Solar Wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupař, Vratislav; Maksimovic, M.; Kontar, E. P.; Zaslavsky, A.; Santolík, Ondřej; Souček, Jan; Krupařová, Oksana; Eastwood, J. P.; Szabo, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 857, č. 2 (2018), č. článku 82. ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-06818Y; GA ČR GA17-08772S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06065S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : scattering * Sun: radio radiation * solar wind * radio-burst Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics ) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4357/aab60f/meta#references

  10. Design, construction and calibration of a portable boundary layer wind tunnel for field use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind tunnels have been used for several decades to study wind erosion processes. Portable wind tunnels offer the advantage of testing natural surfaces in the field, but they must be carefully designed to insure that a logarithmic boundary layer is formed and that wind erosion processes may develop ...

  11. On the upstream boundary of electron foreshocks in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbardo, G.; Veltri, P.

    1996-01-01

    The backstreaming of electrons from planetary and interplanetary shocks creates foreshocks of fast particles propagating along the magnetic field. The effect of low frequency magnetic fluctuations is to create both a broadening and a fine structure of the foreshock upstream boundary. This is studied by means of a newly developed 3-D numerical simulation of turbulent magnetic fields. Applications to the Earth and to the termination shock electron foreshocks are done, and some implications on the observations of the spreading and of the bursty structure of the foreshocks are discussed

  12. Wind energy analysis system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ing. (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) One of the most important steps to be taken before a site is to be selected for the extraction of wind energy is the analysis of the energy within the wind on that particular site. No wind energy analysis system exists for the measurement and analysis of wind power. This dissertation documents the design and development of a Wind Energy Analysis System (WEAS). Using a micro-controller based design in conjunction with sensors, WEAS measure, calcu...

  13. SUPRATHERMAL ELECTRON STRAHL WIDTHS IN THE PRESENCE OF NARROW-BAND WHISTLER WAVES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajdič, P. [Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City (Mexico); Alexandrova, O.; Maksimovic, M.; Lacombe, C. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, UPMC UniversitéParis 06, Université Paris-Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Fazakerley, A. N., E-mail: primoz@geofisica.unam.mx [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-20

    We perform the first statistical study of the effects of the interaction of suprathermal electrons with narrow-band whistler mode waves in the solar wind (SW). We show that this interaction does occur and that it is associated with enhanced widths of the so-called strahl component. The latter is directed along the interplanetary magnetic field away from the Sun. We do the study by comparing the strahl pitch angle widths in the SW at 1 AU in the absence of large scale discontinuities and transient structures, such as interplanetary shocks, interplanetary coronal mass ejections, stream interaction regions, etc. during times when the whistler mode waves were present and when they were absent. This is done by using the data from two Cluster instruments: Spatio Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations experiment (STAFF) data in the frequency range between ∼0.1 and ∼200 Hz were used for determining the wave properties and Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE) data sets at 12 central energies between ∼57 eV (equivalent to ∼10 typical electron thermal energies in the SW, E{sub T}) and ∼676 eV (∼113 E{sub T}) for pitch angle measurements. Statistical analysis shows that, during the intervals with the whistler waves, the strahl component on average exhibits pitch angle widths between 2° and 12° larger than during the intervals when these waves are not present. The largest difference is obtained for the electron central energy of ∼344 eV (∼57 ET).

  14. SUPRATHERMAL ELECTRON STRAHL WIDTHS IN THE PRESENCE OF NARROW-BAND WHISTLER WAVES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajdič, P.; Alexandrova, O.; Maksimovic, M.; Lacombe, C.; Fazakerley, A. N.

    2016-01-01

    We perform the first statistical study of the effects of the interaction of suprathermal electrons with narrow-band whistler mode waves in the solar wind (SW). We show that this interaction does occur and that it is associated with enhanced widths of the so-called strahl component. The latter is directed along the interplanetary magnetic field away from the Sun. We do the study by comparing the strahl pitch angle widths in the SW at 1 AU in the absence of large scale discontinuities and transient structures, such as interplanetary shocks, interplanetary coronal mass ejections, stream interaction regions, etc. during times when the whistler mode waves were present and when they were absent. This is done by using the data from two Cluster instruments: Spatio Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations experiment (STAFF) data in the frequency range between ∼0.1 and ∼200 Hz were used for determining the wave properties and Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE) data sets at 12 central energies between ∼57 eV (equivalent to ∼10 typical electron thermal energies in the SW, E T ) and ∼676 eV (∼113 E T ) for pitch angle measurements. Statistical analysis shows that, during the intervals with the whistler waves, the strahl component on average exhibits pitch angle widths between 2° and 12° larger than during the intervals when these waves are not present. The largest difference is obtained for the electron central energy of ∼344 eV (∼57 ET).

  15. Managing dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Donald A; Jayanetti, Jay; Chu, Raymond; Staninec, Michal

    2012-01-01

    The clinical signs of dental erosion are initially subtle, yet often progress because the patient remains asymptomatic, unaware and uninformed. Erosion typically works synergistically with abrasion and attrition to cause loss of tooth structure, making diagnosis and management complex. The purpose of this article is to outline clinical examples of patients with dental erosion that highlight the strategy of early identification, patient education and conservative restorative management. Dental erosion is defined as the pathologic chronic loss of dental hard tissues as a result of the chemical influence of exogenous or endogenous acids without bacterial involvement. Like caries or periodontal disease, erosion has a multifactorial etiology and requires a thorough history and examination for diagnosis. It also requires patient understanding and compliance for improved outcomes. Erosion can affect the loss of tooth structure in isolation of other cofactors, but most often works in synergy with abrasion and attrition in the loss of tooth structure (Table 1). Although erosion is thought to be an underlying etiology of dentin sensitivity, erosion and loss of tooth structure often occurs with few symptoms. The purpose of this article is threefold: first, to outline existing barriers that may limit early management of dental erosion. Second, to review the clinical assessment required to establish a diagnosis of erosion. And third, to outline clinical examples that review options to restore lost tooth structure. The authors have included illustrations they hope will be used to improve patient understanding and motivation in the early management of dental erosion.

  16. Average profiles of the solar wind and outer radiation belt during the extreme flux enhancement of relativistic electrons at geosynchronous orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kataoka

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We report average profiles of the solar wind and outer radiation belt during the extreme flux enhancement of relativistic electrons at geosynchronous orbit (GEO. It is found that seven of top ten extreme events at GEO during solar cycle 23 are associated with the magnetosphere inflation during the storm recovery phase as caused by the large-scale solar wind structure of very low dynamic pressure (<1.0 nPa during rapid speed decrease from very high (>650 km/s to typical (400–500 km/s in a few days. For the seven events, the solar wind parameters, geomagnetic activity indices, and relativistic electron flux and geomagnetic field at GEO are superposed at the local noon period of GOES satellites to investigate the physical cause. The average profiles support the "double inflation" mechanism that the rarefaction of the solar wind and subsequent magnetosphere inflation are one of the best conditions to produce the extreme flux enhancement at GEO because of the excellent magnetic confinement of relativistic electrons by reducing the drift loss of trapped electrons at dayside magnetopause.

  17. On forecasting ionospheric total electron content responses to high-speed solar wind streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in the ionosphere have become increasingly important to forecast, since more and more spaceborne and ground-based technological systems rely on ionospheric weather. Here we explore the feasibility of ionospheric forecasts with the current generation of physics-based models. In particular, we focus on total electron content (TEC predictions using the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM. Simulations are configured in a forecast mode and performed for four typical high-speed-stream events during 2007–2012. The simulated TECs are quantified through a metric, which divides the globe into a number of local regions and robustly differentiates between quiet and disturbed periods. Proposed forecast products are hourly global maps color-coded by the TEC disturbance level of each local region. To assess the forecasts, we compare the simulated TEC disturbances with global TEC maps derived from Global Positioning System (GPS satellite observations. The forecast performance is found to be merely acceptable, with a large number of regions where the observed variations are not captured by the simulations. Examples of model-data agreements and disagreements are investigated in detail, aiming to understand the model behavior and improve future forecasts. For one event, we identify two adjacent regions with similar TEC observations but significant differences in how local chemistry versus plasma transport contribute to electron density changes in the simulation. Suggestions for further analysis are described.

  18. Sand transport, erosion and granular electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrison, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    is expanding our current understanding and outline the areas of advancement needed in the future. Presentation is made of current models for wind driven detachment/entrainment and the transport rates of sand and dust, including the effects of contact induced grain electrification. This ubiquitous phenomenon...... can affect grain transport through the generation of intense electric fields and processes of electrostatic assembly. Importantly the transport of sand is characterized by saltation, which is known to be an active process for erosion and therefore a source for dust and sand formation. Using novel...... erosion simulation techniques the link between grain transport rates and erosion rates has been quantified. Furthermore this can be linked to production rates for dust and has been associated with chemical and mineral alteration through a process of mechanical activation of fractured surfaces. This work...

  19. Hybrid Composite Material and Solid Particle Erosion Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellaganesh, D.; Khan, M. Adam; Ashif, A. Mohamed; Ragul Selvan, T.; Nachiappan, S.; Winowlin Jappes, J. T.

    2018-04-01

    Composite is one of the predominant material for most challenging engineering components. Most of the components are in the place of automobile structure, aircraft structures, and wind turbine blade and so on. At the same all the components are indulged to mechanical loading. Recent research on composite material are machinability, wear, tear and corrosion studies. One of the major issue on recent research was solid particle air jet erosion. In this paper hybrid composite material with and without filler. The fibre are in the combination of hemp – kevlar (60:40 wt.%) as reinforcement using epoxy as a matrix. The natural material palm and coconut shell are used as filler materials in the form of crushed powder. The process parameter involved are air jet velocity, volume of erodent and angle of impingement. Experiment performed are in eight different combinations followed from 2k (k = 3) factorial design. From the investigation surface morphology was studied using electron microscope. Mass change with respect to time are used to calculate wear rate and the influence of the process parameters. While solid particle erosion the hard particle impregnates in soft matrix material. Influence of filler material has reduced the wear and compared to plain natural composite material.

  20. Erosion can't hide from laser scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstant, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Particles of topsoil blown by wind will bounce along the soil surface and finally escape a field, leaving it less able to support crops. Water will wash away valuable topsoil and nutrients. And how rough the soil surface is influences whether the soil will erode. Until now, soil scientists have had no suitable technique to measure soil roughness - or microtopography - on the small scale. ARS soil scientists Joe M. Bradford and Chi-hua Huang, of the National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory in West Lafayette, Indiana, have developed a portable scanner that can. It measures the tiny ridges left in the soil by tilling or clods of soil particles that clump together naturally. What does the scanner do? It measures soil elevation by shining a low-power laser beam onto the surface and detecting the position of the laser spot reflected from the soil with a 35-mm camera. In place of film, the scanner camera uses electronic circuitry somewhat similar to that in a video camera to transmit the spot's position to a small computer about 30,000 times a minute. The laser and camera are mounted on the frame of a motor-driven carriage. The computer controls the carriage movement. At the end of a scan, a microtopographic map is stored in the computer. Scientists can analyze it immediately and can compare it to previous maps to see whether erosion has occurred

  1. Protection from erosion following wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Robichaud; William J. Elliot

    2006-01-01

    Erosion in the first year after a wildfire can be up to three orders of magnitude greater than the erosion from undisturbed forests. To mitigate potential postfire erosion, various erosion control treatments are applied on highly erodible areas with downstream resources in need of protection. Because postfire erosion rates generally decline by an order of magnitude for...

  2. Reliability Assessment of Solder Joints in Power Electronic Modules by Crack Damage Model for Wind Turbine Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Wind turbine reliability is an important issue for wind energy cost minimization, especially by reduction of operation and maintenance costs for critical components and by increasing wind turbine availability. To develop an optimal operation and maintenance plan for critical components, it is nec......Wind turbine reliability is an important issue for wind energy cost minimization, especially by reduction of operation and maintenance costs for critical components and by increasing wind turbine availability. To develop an optimal operation and maintenance plan for critical components...... to each other and they operate at a thermal-power cycling environment. Temperature loadings affect the reliability of soldered joints by developing cracks and fatigue processes that eventually result in failure. Based on Miner’s rule a linear damage model that incorporates a crack development...

  3. Electronic Power Transformer Control Strategy in Wind Energy Conversion Systems for Low Voltage Ride-through Capability Enhancement of Directly Driven Wind Turbines with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (D-PMSGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of an Electronic Power Transformer (EPT incorporated with an energy storage system to smooth the wind power fluctuations and enhance the low voltage ride-through (LVRT capability of directly driven wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generators (D-PMSGs. The decoupled control schemes of the system, including the grid side converter control scheme, generator side converter control scheme and the control scheme of the energy storage system, are presented in detail. Under normal operating conditions, the energy storage system absorbs the high frequency component of the D-PMSG output power to smooth the wind power fluctuations. Under grid fault conditions, the energy storage system absorbs the redundant power, which could not be transferred to the grid by the EPT, to help the D-PMSG to ride through low voltage conditions. This coordinated control strategy is validated by simulation studies using MATLAB/Simulink. With the proposed control strategy, the output wind power quality is improved and the D-PMSG can ride through severe grid fault conditions.

  4. Paradiaphyseal calcific tendinitis with cortical bone erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, P; Bardin, T; Laredo, J D; Ziza, J M; D'Anglejan, G; Lansaman, J; Bucki, B; Forest, M; Kuntz, D

    1994-05-01

    To determine the clinical, radiologic, and histologic features of calcific tendinitis with cortical bone erosion. The records of 6 patients with paradiaphyseal calcific tendinitis and adjacent bone cortex erosion were reviewed. Calcific tendinitis involved the linea aspera in 4 patients, the bicipital groove in 1 patient, and the deltoid insertion in another. Calcium deposits were associated with cortical bone erosions, revealed on plain radiographs in 4 patients and computed tomography scans in 2. Bone scans were performed in 2 patients and showed local hyperfixation of the isotope. In 4 patients, suspicion of a neoplasm led to a biopsy. Calcium deposits appeared to be surrounded by a foreign body reaction with numerous giant cells. Apatite crystals were identified by transmission electron microscopy and elemental analysis in 1 surgical sample. Paradiaphyseal calcific tendinitis with cortical bone erosion is an uncommon presentation of apatite deposition disease.

  5. Saliva and dental erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

  6. Scales and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to develop scale explicit understanding of erosion to overcome existing conceptual and methodological flaws in our modelling methods currently applied to understand the process of erosion, transport and deposition at the catchment scale. These models need to be based on a sound under...

  7. Saliva and dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Hannas, Angélicas Reis; Kato, Melissa Thiemi

    2012-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

  8. Solid particle erosion of polymers and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, K.; Almajid, A. A.

    2014-05-01

    After a general introduction to the subject of solid particle erosion of polymers and composites, the presentation focusses more specifically on the behavior of unidirectional carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites under such loadings, using different impact conditions and erodents. The data were analyzed on the basis of a newly defined specific erosive wear rate, allowing a better comparison of erosion data achieved under various testing conditions. Characteristic wear mechanisms of the CF/PEEK composites consisted of fiber fracture, matrix cutting and plastic matrix deformation, the relative contribution of which depended on the impingement angles and the CF orientation. The highest wear rates were measured for impingement angles between 45 and 60°. Using abrasion resistant neat polymer films (in this case PEEK or thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) ones) on the surface of a harder substrate (e.g. a CF/PEEK composite plate) resulted in much lower specific erosive wear rates. The use of such polymeric films can be considered as a possible method to protect composite surfaces from damage caused by minor impacts and erosion. In fact, they are nowadays already successfully applied as protections for wind energy rotor blades.

  9. Incidencia potencial de la erosión eólica sobre la degradación del suelo y la calidad del aire en distintas regiones de la Argentina Potential effects of wind erosion on soil degradation and air quality in different regions of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Buschiazzo

    2009-12-01

    ía relativamente más a la calidad del aire que a la del suelo. La magnitud de este proceso estaría regida, principalmente, por el área disponible para la erosión. En suelos sometidos a manejos agrícolas, frecuentemente desnudos y de bajo grado de evolución como los Ustipsammentes y Haplustoles, la erosión eólica tendría efectos intermedios, afectando tanto a la calidad del suelo como a la del aire. Finalmente, en suelos relativamente más evolucionados y sometidos a manejos agrícolas como los Hapludoles, la erosión afectaría en mayor medida a la calidad del suelo, siendo la emisión de partículas finas de relativa menor importancia.Wind erosion can impact soil and air quality. The magnitude of these effects depends on the soil type and management conditions, and is associated with the transport conditions of soil particles: saltation and rolling affect soil quality to a greater extent while suspension tends to increase the emission of fine particles to the atmosphere. The objective of this research was to determine the magnitude of both type of movements in soils of Argentina, in order to predict potential effects on soil or air quality. This study was carried out in four provinces of Argentina: Chaco (CHA, San Luis (SLU, La Pampa (LPA and Río Negro (PAT. In each case, wind erosion was measured in the 1 ha-square fields by means of BSNE samplers. Results indicated that the total amount of transported material, the so-called mass flux (FM as well as the absolute amount of eroded soil (Q were higher in sites with less developed soils of SLU (Ustipsamment and LPA (Haplustoll and lower in sites with a better developed soil of CHA (Hapludoll or with less developed soil but with permanent soil cover with natural grasses of PAT (Haplargid. Saltation and rolling were the main transport forms in SLU, LPA and CHA and suspension in PAT. Though low (10%, the plant coverage existing in this last site was enough to increase the height of the wind profile and to favor the transport

  10. Wind tunnel simulation of Martian sand storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.

    1980-01-01

    The physics and geological relationships of particles driven by the wind under near Martian conditions were examined in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel. Emphasis was placed on aeolian activity as a planetary process. Threshold speeds, rates of erosion, trajectories of windblown particles, and flow fields over various landforms were among the factors considered. Results of experiments on particles thresholds, rates of erosion, and the effects of electrostatics on particles in the aeolian environment are presented.

  11. Control of Eolian soil erosion from waste site surface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1994-11-01

    Physical models were tested in a wind tunnel to determine optimum surface-ravel admixtures for protecting silt-loam soil from erosion by, wind and saltating, sand stresses. The tests were performed to support the development of a natural-material surface barrier for and waste sites. Plans call for a 2-m deep silt-loam soil reservoir to retain infiltrating water from rainfall and snowmelt. The objective of the study was to develop a gravel admixture that would produce an erosion-resistant surface layer during, periods of extended dry climatic stress. Thus, tests were performed using simulated surfaces representing dry, unvegetated conditions present just after construction, after a wildfire, or during an extended drought. Surfaces were prepared using silt-loam soil mixed with various grades of sand and Travel. Wind-induced surface shear stresses were controlled over the test surfaces, as were saltating, sand mass flow rates and intensities. Tests were performed at wind speeds that approximated and exceeded local 100-year peak gust intensities. Surface armors produced by pea gravel admixtures were shown to provide the best protection from wind and saltating sand stresses. Compared with unprotected silt-loam surfaces, armored surfaces reduced erosion rates by more than 96%. Based in part on wind tunnel results, a pea gravel admixture of 15% will be added to the top 1 in of soil in a prototype barrier under construction in 1994. Field tests are planned at the prototype site to provide data for comparison with wind tunnel results

  12. Vegetation in drylands: Effects on wind flow and aeolian sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drylands are characterised by patchy vegetation, erodible surfaces and erosive aeolian processes. Empirical and modelling studies have shown that vegetation elements provide drag on the overlying airflow, thus affecting wind velocity profiles and altering erosive dynamics on desert surfaces. However...

  13. Analyses of experimental observations of electron temperatures in the near wake of a model in a laboratory-simulated solar wind plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intriligator, D.S.; Steele, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have been performed that show the effect on the electron temperature of inserting a spherical conducting model, larger than the Debye length, into a free-streaming high-energy (1 kv) unmagnetized hydrogen plasma. These experiments are the first electron temperature experiments conducted at energies and compositions directly relevant to solar wind and astrophysical plasma phenomena. The incident plasma parameters were held constant. A large number of axial profiles of the electron temperature ratios T/sub e//sub in// T/sub e//sub out/ behind the model downstream in the model wake are presented. A rigorous statistical approach is used in the analysis of the electron temperature ratio data in both our experimental laboratory data and in our reanalysis of the published data of others. The following new results ae obtained: (1) In energetic plasma flow there is no overall temperature enhancement in the near wake since the best fit to the T/sub e//sub i/n/ T/sub e//sub out/ data is a horizontal straight line having a mean value of 1.05; (2) No statistically significant electron temperature enhancement peaks or depressions exist in the near-wake region behind a model at zero potential in a high-energy plasma even at distances less than or equal to Ma, where M is the acoustic Mach number and a is the model radius. This implies a ''filling in'' of electrons in the wake region which may be due to the higher mobility of these energetic electrons. This mechanism may permit the solar wind electrons to significantly contribute to the maintenance of the nightside ionosphere at Venus

  14. Measurement of erosion: Is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroosnijder, L.

    2005-01-01

    Reasons for erosion measurements are: (1) to determine the environmental impact of erosion and conservation practices, (2) scientific erosion research; (3) development and evaluation of erosion control technology; (4) development of erosion prediction technology and (5) allocation of conservation

  15. Numerical modelling of concentrated leak erosion during Hole Erosion Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Mercier, F.; Bonelli, S.; Golay, F.; Anselmet, F.; Philippe, P.; Borghi, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the numerical modelling of concentrated leak erosion of a cohesive soil by a turbulent flow in axisymmetrical geometry, with application to the Hole Erosion Test (HET). The numerical model is based on adaptive remeshing of the water/soil interface to ensure accurate description of the mechanical phenomena occurring near the soil/water interface. The erosion law governing the interface motion is based on two erosion parameters: the critical shear stress and the erosion co...

  16. Comparison of Inconel 625 and Inconel 600 in resistance to cavitation erosion and jet impingement erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, H.X. [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zheng, Y.G., E-mail: ygzheng@imr.ac.c [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Qin, C.P. [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Liquid droplet erosion (LDE), which often occurs in bellows made of nickel-based alloys, threatens the security operation of the nuclear power plant. As the candidate materials of the bellows, Inconel 600 and Inconel 625 were both tested for resistance to cavitation erosion (CE) and jet impingement erosion (JIE) through vibratory cavitation equipment and a jet apparatus for erosion-corrosion. Cumulative mass loss vs. exposure time was used to evaluate the erosion rate of the two alloys. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies before and after the erosion tests were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the inclusions were analyzed by an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and the surface roughness was also measured by surface roughness tester to illustrate the evolution of erosion process. The results show that the cumulative mass loss of CE of Inconel 625 is about 1/6 that of Inconel 600 and the CE incubation period of the Inconel 625 is 4 times as long as that of the Inconel 600. The micro-morphology evolution of CE process illustrates that the twinning and hardness of the Inconel 625 plays a significant role in CE. In addition, the cumulative mass loss of JIE of Inconel 625 is about 2/3 that of Inconel 600 at impacting angle of 90{sup o}, and almost equal to that of the Inconel 600 at impacting angle of 30{sup o}. Overall, the resistance to CE and JIE of Inconel 625 is much superior to that of Inconel 600.

  17. Comparison of Inconel 625 and Inconel 600 in resistance to cavitation erosion and jet impingement erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, H.X.; Zheng, Y.G.; Qin, C.P.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid droplet erosion (LDE), which often occurs in bellows made of nickel-based alloys, threatens the security operation of the nuclear power plant. As the candidate materials of the bellows, Inconel 600 and Inconel 625 were both tested for resistance to cavitation erosion (CE) and jet impingement erosion (JIE) through vibratory cavitation equipment and a jet apparatus for erosion-corrosion. Cumulative mass loss vs. exposure time was used to evaluate the erosion rate of the two alloys. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies before and after the erosion tests were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the inclusions were analyzed by an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and the surface roughness was also measured by surface roughness tester to illustrate the evolution of erosion process. The results show that the cumulative mass loss of CE of Inconel 625 is about 1/6 that of Inconel 600 and the CE incubation period of the Inconel 625 is 4 times as long as that of the Inconel 600. The micro-morphology evolution of CE process illustrates that the twinning and hardness of the Inconel 625 plays a significant role in CE. In addition, the cumulative mass loss of JIE of Inconel 625 is about 2/3 that of Inconel 600 at impacting angle of 90 o , and almost equal to that of the Inconel 600 at impacting angle of 30 o . Overall, the resistance to CE and JIE of Inconel 625 is much superior to that of Inconel 600.

  18. [Biological soil crust nitrogenase activity and its responses to hydro-thermic factors in different erosion regions on the Loess Plateau, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jiao; Zhao, Yun-Ge; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Yang, Li-Na; Wang, Ai-Guo

    2013-07-01

    Based on field survey, the biological soil crusts at their stable development stage were collected from the water erosion region, water-wind erosion region, and wind erosion region on the Loess Plateau, aimed to study the effects of the variations of moisture and temperature on the crusts nitrogenase activity (NA). The NA of the crusts in the erosion regions decreased in the order of water erosion region (127.7 micromol x m(-2) x h(-1)) > water-wind erosion region (34.6 micromol x m(-2) x h(-1)) > wind erosion region (6.0 micromol x m(-2) x h(-1)), and the optimal temperature for the crust nitrogen fixation was 35 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 15 degrees C, respectively. At the optimal temperature and 100% -40% field water-holding capacity, the NA of the crusts from the water erosion and water-wind erosion regions had no significant difference. The NA of the crusts from the wind erosion region was more sensitive to the variation of moisture, showing a dramatic decline when the moisture decreased to 80% field water-holding capacity, and totally lost when the moisture decreased to 20% field water-holding capacity. The differences in the NA of the crusts from the three erosion regions and the responses of the NA to the variations of moisture and temperature were likely associated with the climate, environment, and the crust species composition.

  19. Evaluation of compost blankets for erosion control from disturbed lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Rabin; Kalita, Prasanta K; Yatsu, Shotaro; Howard, Heidi R; Svendsen, Niels G

    2011-03-01

    Soil erosion due to water and wind results in the loss of valuable top soil and causes land degradation and environmental quality problems. Site specific best management practices (BMP) are needed to curb erosion and sediment control and in turn, increase productivity of lands and sustain environmental quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of three different types of biodegradable erosion control blankets- fine compost, mulch, and 50-50 mixture of compost and mulch, for soil erosion control under field and laboratory-scale experiments. Quantitative analysis was conducted by comparing the sediment load in the runoff collected from sloped and tilled plots in the field and in the laboratory with the erosion control blankets. The field plots had an average slope of 3.5% and experiments were conducted under natural rainfall conditions, while the laboratory experiments were conducted at 4, 8 and 16% slopes under simulated rainfall conditions. Results obtained from the field experiments indicated that the 50-50 mixture of compost and mulch provides the best erosion control measures as compared to using either the compost or the mulch blanket alone. Laboratory results under simulated rains indicated that both mulch cover and the 50-50 mixture of mulch and compost cover provided better erosion control measures compared to using the compost alone. Although these results indicate that the 50-50 mixtures and the mulch in laboratory experiments are the best measures among the three erosion control blankets, all three types of blankets provide very effective erosion control measures from bare-soil surface. Results of this study can be used in controlling erosion and sediment from disturbed lands with compost mulch application. Testing different mixture ratios and types of mulch and composts, and their efficiencies in retaining various soil nutrients may provide more quantitative data for developing erosion control plans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier

  20. Rainfall erosivity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Klik, Andreas; Rousseva, Svetla; Tadić, Melita Perčec; Michaelides, Silas; Hrabalíková, Michaela; Olsen, Preben; Aalto, Juha; Lakatos, Mónika; Rymszewicz, Anna; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Beguería, Santiago; Alewell, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall is one the main drivers of soil erosion. The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the R-factor in the USLE model and its revised version, RUSLE. At national and continental levels, the scarce availability of data obliges soil erosion modellers to estimate this factor based on rainfall data with only low temporal resolution (daily, monthly, annual averages). The purpose of this study is to assess rainfall erosivity in Europe in the form of the RUSLE R-factor, based on the best available datasets. Data have been collected from 1541 precipitation stations in all European Union (EU) Member States and Switzerland, with temporal resolutions of 5 to 60 min. The R-factor values calculated from precipitation data of different temporal resolutions were normalised to R-factor values with temporal resolutions of 30 min using linear regression functions. Precipitation time series ranged from a minimum of 5 years to a maximum of 40 years. The average time series per precipitation station is around 17.1 years, the most datasets including the first decade of the 21st century. Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) has been used to interpolate the R-factor station values to a European rainfall erosivity map at 1 km resolution. The covariates used for the R-factor interpolation were climatic data (total precipitation, seasonal precipitation, precipitation of driest/wettest months, average temperature), elevation and latitude/longitude. The mean R-factor for the EU plus Switzerland is 722 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1), with the highest values (>1000 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1)) in the Mediterranean and alpine regions and the lowest (<500 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1)) in the Nordic countries. The erosivity density (erosivity normalised to annual precipitation amounts) was also the highest in Mediterranean regions which implies high risk for erosive events and floods

  1. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues

  2. Coastal Erosion Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, V.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal erosion is bad because the ecosystem there will be washed away and the animals could drown or be displaced and have to adapt to a new ecosystem that they are not prepared for. I'm interested in this problem because if there aren't beaches when I grow up I won't be able to do the things I would really like to do. I would like to be a marine biologist. Secondly, I don't want to see beach houses washed away. I would like to see people live in harmony with their environment. So, to study ways in which to preserve beaches I will make and use models that test different erosion controls. Two different ideas for erosion control I tested are using seaweed or a rock berm. I think the rock berm will work better than the model of seaweed because the seaweed is under water and the waves can carry the sand over the seaweed, and the rock berm will work better because the rocks will help break the waves up before they reach the shore and the waves can not carry the sand over the rocks that are above the water. To investigate this I got a container to use to model the Gulf of Mexico coastline. I performed several test runs using sand and water in the container to mimic the beach and waves from the Gulf of Mexico hitting the shoreline. I did three trials for the control (no erosion control), seaweed and a rock berm. Rock berms are a border of a raised area of rock. The model for seaweed that I used was plastic shopping bags cut into strips and glued to the bottom of my container to mimic seaweed. My results were that the control had the most erosion which ranged from 2.75 - 3 inches over 3 trials. The seaweed was a little better than the control but was very variable and ranged from 1.5 - 3 inches over 3 trials. The rock berm worked the best out of all at controlling erosion with erosion ranging from 1.5 - 2 inches. My hypothesis was correct because the rock berm did best to control erosion compared to the control which had no erosion control and the model with seaweed.

  3. Quantification Of Erosion Rates Of Agriculturally Used Soils By Artificial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinand

    2010-05-01

    0.0.1 1. Introduction to soil erosion measurement by radionuclides Soil erosion by water, wind and tillage affects both agriculture and the natural environment. Studying this phenomenon would be one of the advancements in science. Soil erosion occurs worldwide and since the last two decades it has been a main topic of discussion all over the world. The use of environmental radionuclides such as 90Sr, 137Cs to study medium term soil erosion (40 yrs) started in the early 1990's. Using these new techniques better knowledge about erosion can be gained and this knowledge can be implemented for erosion risk management. The erosion and sedimentation study by using man-made and natural radioisotopes is a key technique, which has developed over the past 30 years. Fallout 137Cs and Cosmogenic 7Be are radionuclides that have been used to provide independent measurements of soil-erosion and sediment-deposition rates and patterns [1] [2] [3] [4]. Erosion measurements using radionuclides 137Cs, 7Be Caesium-137 from atmospheric nuclear-weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s (Fig.1) is a unique tracer of erosion and sedimentation, since there are no natural sources of 137Cs. Unique events such as the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 caused regional dispersal of 137Cs that affects the total global deposition budget. This yearly pattern of fallout can be used to develop a chronology of deposition horizons in lakes, reservoirs, and floodplains. 137Cs can be easily measured by gamma spectroscopy. Using 137Cs is a fast and cheap method to study erosion-deposition processes compared to the traditional methods like silt bags. PIC Figure 1: Global 137Cs fallout (Modified from SAAS Bulletin 353, Part E, DDR, 1986) When 137Cs, 7Be reach the soil surface by wet and dry deposition, they are quickly and strongly adsorbed by ion exchange and are essentially non exchangeable in most environments. Each radionuclide is distributed differently in the soil because of differences in half-lives (30 yrs

  4. Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2017-01-01

    transmission networks at the scale of hundreds of megawatts. As its level of grid penetration has begun to increase dramatically, wind power is starting to have a significant impact on the operation of the modern grid system. Advanced power electronics technologies are being introduced to improve......Wind power now represents a major and growing source of renewable energy. Large wind turbines (with capacities of up to 6-8 MW) are widely installed in power distribution networks. Increasing numbers of onshore and offshore wind farms, acting as power plants, are connected directly to power...... the characteristics of the wind turbines, and make them more suitable for integration into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are some emerging challenges that still need to be addressed. This paper provides an overview and discusses some trends in the power electronics technologies used for wind power generation...

  5. Active Anti-erosion Protection Strategy in Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Yin, Wei; Zhang, Junqiu; Niu, Shichao; Ren, Luquan

    2013-12-01

    Plants have numerous active protection strategies for adapting to complex and severe environments. These strategies provide endless inspiration for extending the service life of materials and machines. Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla), a tree that thrives in raging sandstorm regions, has adapted to blustery conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust erosion resistant characteristics. However, the relationships among its surface cracks, internal histology and biomechanics, such as cracks, rings, cells, elasticity modulus and growth stress, which account for its erosion resistance, remain unclear. This present study reveals that the directionally eccentric growth rings of tamarisk, which are attributed to reduced stress and accelerated cell division, promote the formation of surface cracks. The windward rings are more extensive than the leeward side rings. The windward surfaces are more prone to cracks, which improves erosion resistance. Our data provide insight into the active protection strategy of the tamarisk against wind-sand erosion.

  6. Erosive Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauskar, Melissa

    2017-09-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory mucocutaneous condition with a myriad of clinical manifestations. There are 3 forms of lichen planus that effect the vulva: papulosquamous, hypertrophic, and erosive. Erosive lichen planus can progress to vulvar scaring, vaginal stenosis, and squamous cell carcinoma; these long-term sequelae cause sexual distress, depression, and decreased quality of life for patients. Diagnosis is often delayed because of patient embarrassment or clinician misdiagnosis. Early recognition and treatment is essential to decreasing the morbidity of this condition. Multimodal treatment, along with a multidisciplinary approach, will improve outcomes and further clinical advances in studying this condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mesh erosion after abdominal sacrocolpopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, N; Walsh, P M; Roat, T W; Karram, M M

    1998-12-01

    To report our experience with erosion of permanent suture or mesh material after abdominal sacrocolpopexy. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who underwent sacrocolpopexy by the same surgeon over 8 years. Demographic data, operative notes, hospital records, and office charts were reviewed after sacrocolpopexy. Patients with erosion of either suture or mesh were treated initially with conservative therapy followed by surgical intervention as required. Fifty-seven patients underwent sacrocolpopexy using synthetic mesh during the study period. The mean (range) postoperative follow-up was 19.9 (1.3-50) months. Seven patients (12%) had erosions after abdominal sacrocolpopexy with two suture erosions and five mesh erosions. Patients with suture erosion were asymptomatic compared with patients with mesh erosion, who presented with vaginal bleeding or discharge. The mean (+/-standard deviation) time to erosion was 14.0+/-7.7 (range 4-24) months. Both patients with suture erosion were treated conservatively with estrogen cream. All five patients with mesh erosion required transvaginal removal of the mesh. Mesh erosion can follow abdominal sacrocolpopexy over a long time, and usually presents as vaginal bleeding or discharge. Although patients with suture erosion can be managed successfully with conservative treatment, patients with mesh erosion require surgical intervention. Transvaginal removal of the mesh with vaginal advancement appears to be an effective treatment in patients failing conservative management.

  8. Firehose constraints of the bi-Kappa-distributed electrons: a zero-order approach for the suprathermal electrons in the solar wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lazar, M.; Shaaban, S. M.; Poedts, S.; Štverák, Štěpán

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 464, č. 1 (2017), s. 564-571 ISSN 0035-8711 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : instabilities * plasmas * methods * analytical * methods: observational * solar wind Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016 https://academic.oup.com/mnras/article-abstract/464/1/564/2236068/Firehose-constraints-of-the-bi-Kappa-distributed?redirectedFrom=fulltext

  9. Erosion of dust aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seizinger, A.; Krijt, S.; Kley, W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a deeper insight into how much different aggregate types are affected by erosion. Especially, it is important to study the influence of the velocity of the impacting projectiles. We also want to provide models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks with simple

  10. Hydrology and soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard J. Lane; Mary R. Kidwell

    2003-01-01

    We review research on surface water hydrology and soil erosion at the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER). Almost all of the research was associated with eight small experimental watersheds established from 1974 to 1975 and operated until the present. Analysis of climatic features of the SRER supports extending research findings from the SRER to broad areas of the...

  11. Bentonite erosion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgersson, Martin; Boergesson, Lennart; Hedstroem, Magnus; Karnland, Ola; Nilsson, Ulf (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    Low saline water may reach KBS-3 repository depth, e.g. during periods of glaciation. Under such aqueous conditions, the montmorillonite part of the bentonite buffer might transform into a sol and thereby be transported away with flowing water in fractures. The primary aim with this report is to improve the understanding of the basic principles for this possible montmorillonite particle release. The report includes experimental and theoretical work performed at Clay Technology. Natural bentonite and ion-exchanged purified montmorillonite from three different geographical origins, Wyoming (U.S.), Milos (Greece) and Kutch (India) have been studied. Experimental and/or theoretical investigations have been performed with respect to: - Free swelling ability; - Rheological properties; - Rate of bentonite loss into fractures; - Filtering; - Ion exchange; - Sol formation ability; - Ion diffusion; - Mass loss due to erosion. The performed erosion experiments show that erosion does not occur in a mixed calcium/sodium montmorillonite with at least 20% calcium in exchange positions, when the external solution contains above 4 mM charge equivalents. This result is in agreement with the presented conceptual view of sol formation and measured equilibrium properties in mixed calcium/sodium montmorillonite. The findings imply that the buffer will be stable for non-glacial conditions. However, erosion due to sol formation cannot be ruled out for glacial conditions.

  12. Erosion scenarios for Wellenberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemenz, W.

    1993-09-01

    The proposed Wellenberg site for a radioactive waste repository is located between Altzellen in the Engelberger valley and the Oberrickenbach valley, in a thick Valanginian marl series. The marl is generally overlaid with unconsolidated rocks but reaches to the surface in some places. In contrast to the situation in the Oberbauenstock region this marl complex is not protected by an overlying erosion resistant series and exhibits a marked relief. The question therefore arises with respect to the Wellenberg site, to what extent will the marl (i.e. the repository host rock formation) be removed by erosion processes during the 100,000 years interval under consideration and what overburden will remain at the end of this period. This report presents the results of an investigation of the longterm behaviour of the proposed site in respect of those processes of erosion and deposition which can lead to changes in the terrain surface and its location relative to the repository. A wide range of possible scenarios encompassing different developments of climatic conditions during the 100,000 year period of interest, was investigated. In addition to the continuation of the present climate and the occurrence of a new ice age on the scale of the Wuerm glaciation the consequences of altered climatic conditions on erosion removal of the repository overburden were considered. Within the 100,000 year period of interest none of the scenarios considered leads to the exposure of the repository. (author) figs., tabs, refs

  13. Dune erosion above revetments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Thiel de Vries, J.S.M.

    2012-01-01

    In a situation with a narrow dune, the dune base can be protected with a revetment to reduce dune erosion during extreme events. To quantify the effects of a revetment on storm impact, the functionality of the numerical storm impact model XBeach (Roelvink et al., 2009) is extended to account for the

  14. Bentonite erosion. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, Martin; Boergesson, Lennart; Hedstroem, Magnus; Karnland, Ola; Nilsson, Ulf

    2009-12-01

    Low saline water may reach KBS-3 repository depth, e.g. during periods of glaciation. Under such aqueous conditions, the montmorillonite part of the bentonite buffer might transform into a sol and thereby be transported away with flowing water in fractures. The primary aim with this report is to improve the understanding of the basic principles for this possible montmorillonite particle release. The report includes experimental and theoretical work performed at Clay Technology. Natural bentonite and ion-exchanged purified montmorillonite from three different geographical origins, Wyoming (U.S.), Milos (Greece) and Kutch (India) have been studied. Experimental and/or theoretical investigations have been performed with respect to: - Free swelling ability; - Rheological properties; - Rate of bentonite loss into fractures; - Filtering; - Ion exchange; - Sol formation ability; - Ion diffusion; - Mass loss due to erosion. The performed erosion experiments show that erosion does not occur in a mixed calcium/sodium montmorillonite with at least 20% calcium in exchange positions, when the external solution contains above 4 mM charge equivalents. This result is in agreement with the presented conceptual view of sol formation and measured equilibrium properties in mixed calcium/sodium montmorillonite. The findings imply that the buffer will be stable for non-glacial conditions. However, erosion due to sol formation cannot be ruled out for glacial conditions.

  15. Categorization of erosion control matting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    Erosion control is a critical aspect of any Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) : construction project, with the extreme negative impacts of high sediment loads in natural : waterways having been well documented. A variety of erosion control ...

  16. Soil erosion in Iran: Issues and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Journal of Geosciences, 7(5), 1941-1950. Khaledi Darvishan, A., Sadeghi, S. H., Homaee, M., Arabkhedri, M. 2013. Measuring sheet erosion using synthetic color-contrast aggregates. Hydrological Processes. Mahmoodabadi, M. Cerdà, A. 2013. WEPP calibration for improved predictions on interril erosion in semi-arid to arid enviorments. Geoderma, 204-205,75-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.04.013, Mehdizade, B., Asadi, H., Shabanpour, M., Ghadiri, H. 2013. Impact of erosion and tillage on the productivity and quality of selected semiarid soils of Iran. International Agrophysics, 27(3), 291-297. Moghadam, B. K., Jabarifar, M., Bagheri, M., Shahbazi, E. 2015. Effects of land use change on soil splash erosion in the semi-arid region of Iran. Geoderma, 241, 210-220. Nosrati, K., Ahmadi, F. 2013. Monitoring of soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks in different land use under surface water erosion in a semi-arid drainage basin of Iran. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 17(2), 225-230. Nourzadeh, M., Bahrami, H. A., Goossens, D., Fryrear, D. W. 2013. Determining soil erosion and threshold friction velocity at different soil moisture conditions using a portable wind tunnel. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 57(1), 97-109. Sadeghi, S. H. R., Seghaleh, M. B., Rangavar, A. S. 2013. Plot sizes dependency of runoff and sediment yield estimates from a small watershed. Catena, 102, 55-61. Sadeghi, S. H. R., Seghaleh, M. B., Rangavar, A. S. 2013. Plot sizes dependency of runoff and sediment yield estimates from a small watershed. Catena, 102, 55-61. Sadeghi, S. H., Najafi, S., Riyahi Bakhtiari, A., Abdi, P. 2014. Ascribing soil erosion types for sediment yield using composite fingerprinting technique. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 59(9), 1753-1762. Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi, R., Minasny, B., Sarmadian, F., Malone, B. P. 2014. Digital mapping of soil salinity in Ardakan region, central Iran. Geoderma, 213, 15-28.

  17. Wind: new wind markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.

    2005-01-01

    The June 2005 edition of 'Wind Force 12' suggests that wind could generate 12% of global electricity requirements by 2020. But what moves a potential market into an emerging one? Geographical factors include a good wind resource, plenty of open space and the ability to get the generated electricity to end-users. A country's political framework is equally important, with fixed price systems, renewable quota systems and political will all playing a part. Some potential wind markets around the world are thought to have the conditions necessary to become key players in the wind industry. The emerging markets in countries such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan and the Philippines are highlighted as examples

  18. Wind Turbine Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    , and with or without gearboxes, using the latest in power electronics, aerodynamics, and mechanical drive train designs [4]. The main differences between all wind turbine concepts developed over the years, concern their electrical design and control. Today, the wind turbines on the market mix and match a variety......, the design of wind turbines has changed from being convention driven to being optimized driven within the operating regime and market environment. Wind turbine designs have progressed from fixed speed, passive controlled and with drive trains with gearboxes, to become variable speed, active controlled......,6] and to implement modern control system strategies....

  19. Rainfall erosivity map for Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oduro Afriyie, K.

    1995-10-01

    Monthly rainfall data, spanning over a period of more than thirty years, were used to compute rainfall erosivity indices for various stations in Ghana, using the Fournier index, c, defined as p 2 /P, where p is the rainfall amount in the wettest month and P is the annual rainfall amount. Values of the rainfall erosivity indices ranged from 24.5 mm at Sunyani in the mid-portion of Ghana to 180.9 mm at Axim in the south western coastal portion. The indices were used to construct a rainfall erosivity map for the country. The map revealed that Ghana may be broadly divided into five major erosion risk zones. The middle sector of Ghana is generally in the low erosion risk zone; the northern sector is in the moderate to severe erosion risk zone, while the coastal sector is in the severe to extreme severe erosion risk zone. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. The Erosion of Frozen Argon by Swift Helium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Bøttiger, Jørgen; Graversen, O.

    1981-01-01

    The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore unequivo......The temperature, energy, and thickness dependence of the erosion rates of frozen argon films when irradiated with 0.1–3 MeV helium ions have been measured. The erosion yields Y are much too high to be explained by the concentional collisional cascade-sputtering theory and are furthermore...... unequivocally associated with electronic processes generated by the bombarding particle. In the present energy region, it is found that Y scales approximately as the electronic stopping power squared, depends on the charge state of the incoming helium ions, and perhaps more important, is independent...

  1. The Monitoring Erosion of Agricultural Land and spatial database of erosion events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapicka, Jiri; Zizala, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    In 2011 originated in The Czech Republic The Monitoring Erosion of Agricultural Land as joint project of State Land Office (SLO) and Research Institute for Soil and Water Conservation (RISWC). The aim of the project is collecting and record keeping information about erosion events on agricultural land and their evaluation. The main idea is a creation of a spatial database that will be source of data and information for evaluation and modeling erosion process, for proposal of preventive measures and measures to reduce negative impacts of erosion events. A subject of monitoring is the manifestations of water erosion, wind erosion and slope deformation in which cause damaged agriculture land. A website, available on http://me.vumop.cz, is used as a tool for keeping and browsing information about monitored events. SLO employees carry out record keeping. RISWC is specialist institute in the Monitoring Erosion of Agricultural Land that performs keeping the spatial database, running the website, managing the record keeping of events, analysis the cause of origins events and statistical evaluations of keeping events and proposed measures. Records are inserted into the database using the user interface of the website which has map server as a component. Website is based on database technology PostgreSQL with superstructure PostGIS and MapServer UMN. Each record is in the database spatial localized by a drawing and it contains description information about character of event (data, situation description etc.) then there are recorded information about land cover and about grown crops. A part of database is photodocumentation which is taken in field reconnaissance which is performed within two days after notify of event. Another part of database are information about precipitations from accessible precipitation gauges. Website allows to do simple spatial analysis as are area calculation, slope calculation, percentage representation of GAEC etc.. Database structure was designed

  2. Microbiology of Wind-eroded Sediments: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a threat to the sustainability and productivity of soils that takes place at local, regional, and global scales. Current estimates of cost of wind erosion have not included the costs associated with the loss of soil biodiversity and reduced ecosystem functions. Microorganisms carrie...

  3. New perspectives on the soil erosion-soil quality relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The redistribution of soil has a profound impact on its quality (defined as its ability to function within its ecosystem and within adjacent ecosystems) and ultimately on its productivity for crop growth. The application of 137 Cs-redistribution techniques to the study of erosion has yielded major new insights into the soil erosion-soil quality relationship. In highly mechanized agricultural systems, tillage erosion can be the dominant cause of soil redistribution; in other agroecosystems, wind and water erosion dominate. Each causal factor results in characteristic landscape-scale patterns of redistribution. In landscapes dominated by tillage redistribution, highest losses occur in shoulder positions (those with convex downslope curvatures); in water-erosion-dominated landscapes, highest losses occur where slope gradient and length are at a maximum. Major impacts occur through the loss of organically-enriched surface material and through the incorporation of possibly yield-limiting subsoils into the rooting zone of the soil column. The potential impact of surface soil losses and concomitant subsoil incorporation on productivity may be assessed by examining the pedological nature of the affected soils and their position in the landscape. The development of sound conservation policies requires that the soil erosion-quality relationship be rigorously examined in the full range of pedogenic environments, and future applications of the 137 Cs technique hold considerable promise for providing this comprehensive global database. (author)

  4. Role of grounded ship 'MV River Princess' in triggering erosion: A case study from Candolim Sinquerim Coast, Goa.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Babu, M.T.; Sudhesh, K.; Mascarenhas, A.; Vethamony, P.

    are conducive for sand bar formation on the lee side. The intensity of winds and higher significant wave height (Hs) during SW monsoon further deteriorates the shore front which has already become fragile due to severe erosion along beach front...

  5. Erosion-corrosion synergistics in the low erosion regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corey, R.G.; Sethi, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    Many engineering alloys display good high temperature corrosion resistance. However, when they are used in corrosive environments where they are subjected to erosion also, the corrosion resistance has been adversely affected. The phenomenon known as erosion-corrosion is complex and requires detailed investigation of how the erosion and corrosion kinetics interact and compete. At the Kentucky Center for Energy Research Laboratory, an erosion-corrosion tester was used to perform erosion-oxidation tests on 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel at 500-600 0 C using alumina abrasive at low velocities. The erosion-oxidation rate data and morphology of exposed surfaces are consistent with oxide chipping and fracturing being the mode of material loss

  6. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented

  7. A terminological matter: paragenesis, antigravitative erosion or antigravitational erosion ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasini G.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the speleological literature three terms are utilized to designate the “ascending erosion”: paragenesis (= paragénésis, coined in1968, antigravitative erosion (= erosione antigravitativa, coined in 1966 and antigravitational erosion (wrong English translation ofthe Italian term erosione antigravitativa, utilized later on. The term paragenesis should be abandoned because of the priority of theterm erosione antigravitativa - on the ground of the “law of priority” – and because of its ambiguous etimology. On the other hand,the term antigravitational erosion should be forsaken in favour of the term antigravitative erosion, given the meaning that the termsgravitation and gravity have in Physics. Therefore, to designate the phenomenon of the “ascending erosion” there would be nothingleft but the term antigravitative erosion.The antigravitative erosion process and its recognizability are illustrated.Examples of caves with evident antigravitative erosion phenomena, developed in different karstifiable rocks and in several partsof the world, are given.It is recalled that the antigravitative erosion is a phenomenon well-known since 1942 and widely proven and supported, and that it isrelatively easy – in many cases - to recognize the antigravitative origin of karstic passages.It is stressed that the antigravitative erosion is an important phenomenon, exclusive of the karstic caves and unique in nature.

  8. Simulation of plasma erosion opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.J.; Jones, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Recent progress in the modeling of Plasma Erosion Opening Switches is reviewed, and new results from both fluid and particle simulation compared. Three-fluid simulations with the ANTHEM code for switches on the NRL GAMBLE I machine and SNL PBFA II machine have shown strong dependence of the opening dynamics on the anode structure, the threshold for electron emission, on the possible presence of anomalous resistivity, and on advection of the magnetic field with cathode emitted electrons. Simulations with the implicit particle-in-cell code ISIS confirm these observations, but manifest broader current channels---in better agreement with GAMBLE I experimental results. 7 refs., 3 figs

  9. Thermal erosion of a permafrost coastline: Improving process-based models using time-lapse photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobus, C.; Anderson, R.; Overeem, I.; Matell, N.; Clow, G.; Urban, F.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal erosion rates locally exceeding 30 m y-1 have been documented along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coastline, and a number of studies suggest that these erosion rates have accelerated as a result of climate change. However, a lack of direct observational evidence has limited our progress in quantifying the specific processes that connect climate change to coastal erosion rates in the Arctic. In particular, while longer ice-free periods are likely to lead to both warmer surface waters and longer fetch, the relative roles of thermal and mechanical (wave) erosion in driving coastal retreat have not been comprehensively quantified. We focus on a permafrost coastline in the northern National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A), where coastal erosion rates have averaged 10-15 m y-1 over two years of direct monitoring. We take advantage of these extraordinary rates of coastal erosion to observe and quantify coastal erosion directly via time-lapse photography in combination with meteorological observations. Our observations indicate that the erosion of these bluffs is largely thermally driven, but that surface winds play a crucial role in exposing the frozen bluffs to the radiatively warmed seawater that drives melting of interstitial ice. To first order, erosion in this setting can be modeled using formulations developed to describe iceberg deterioration in the open ocean. These simple models provide a conceptual framework for evaluating how climate-induced changes in thermal and wave energy might influence future erosion rates in this setting.

  10. Estimation model of soil freeze-thaw erosion in Silingco watershed wetland of Northern Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Bo; Yu, Huan

    2013-01-01

    The freeze-thaw (FT) erosion is a type of soil erosion like water erosion and wind erosion. Limited by many factors, the grading evaluation of soil FT erosion quantities is not well studied. Based on the comprehensive analysis of the evaluation indices of soil FT erosion, we for the first time utilized the sensitivity of microwave remote sensing technology to soil moisture for identification of FT state. We established an estimation model suitable to evaluate the soil FT erosion quantity in Silingco watershed wetland of Northern Tibet using weighted summation method of six impact factors including the annual FT cycle days, average diurnal FT phase-changed water content, average annual precipitation, slope, aspect, and vegetation coverage. Finally, with the support of GIS, we classified soil FT erosion quantity in Silingco watershed wetland. The results showed that soil FT erosion are distributed in broad areas of Silingco watershed wetland. Different soil FT erosions with different intensities have evidently different spatial and geographical distributions.

  11. The influence of material hardness on liquid droplet impingement erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Nobuyuki; Yamagata, Takayuki; Takano, Shotaro; Saito, Kengo; Morita, Ryo; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Inada, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Liquid droplet impingement erosion is studied for various metal materials. • Average power dependency on droplet velocity is found as 7. • Power dependency on Vickers hardness is found as −4.5. • An empirical formula is constructed for erosion rates of metal materials. • Predicted erosion rate is well correlated with experiment within a factor of 1.5. - Abstract: This paper describes the experimental study on the liquid droplet impingement erosion of metal materials to understand the influence of material hardness on the erosion rate. The experiment is carried out using a water spray jet apparatus with a condition of relatively thin liquid film thickness. The metal materials tested are pure aluminum, aluminum alloy, brass, mild steel, carbon steel and stainless steel. The liquid droplets considered are 30 ± 5 μm in volume average diameter of water, which is the same order of droplet diameter in the actual pipeline in nuclear/fossil power plants. In order to understand the influence of material hardness on the liquid droplet impingement erosion, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation on the eroded surface and the measurement of erosion rate are carried out in the terminal stage of erosion. The experimental results indicate that the erosion rates are expressed by the droplet velocity, volume flux, Vickers hardness and the liquid film thickness, which are fundamentals of the liquid droplet impingement erosion. The empirical formula shows that the power index for droplet velocity dependency is found to be 7 with a scattering from 5 to 9 depending on the materials, while the power index for Vickers hardness dependency is found as −4.5

  12. The influence of material hardness on liquid droplet impingement erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Nobuyuki, E-mail: fujisawa@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp [Visualization Research Center, Niigata University, 8050, Ikarashi 2-Nocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Yamagata, Takayuki, E-mail: yamagata@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp [Visualization Research Center, Niigata University, 8050, Ikarashi 2-Nocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Takano, Shotaro; Saito, Kengo [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 8050, Ikarashi 2-Nocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Morita, Ryo; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Inada, Fumio [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1, Iwatokita, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Liquid droplet impingement erosion is studied for various metal materials. • Average power dependency on droplet velocity is found as 7. • Power dependency on Vickers hardness is found as −4.5. • An empirical formula is constructed for erosion rates of metal materials. • Predicted erosion rate is well correlated with experiment within a factor of 1.5. - Abstract: This paper describes the experimental study on the liquid droplet impingement erosion of metal materials to understand the influence of material hardness on the erosion rate. The experiment is carried out using a water spray jet apparatus with a condition of relatively thin liquid film thickness. The metal materials tested are pure aluminum, aluminum alloy, brass, mild steel, carbon steel and stainless steel. The liquid droplets considered are 30 ± 5 μm in volume average diameter of water, which is the same order of droplet diameter in the actual pipeline in nuclear/fossil power plants. In order to understand the influence of material hardness on the liquid droplet impingement erosion, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation on the eroded surface and the measurement of erosion rate are carried out in the terminal stage of erosion. The experimental results indicate that the erosion rates are expressed by the droplet velocity, volume flux, Vickers hardness and the liquid film thickness, which are fundamentals of the liquid droplet impingement erosion. The empirical formula shows that the power index for droplet velocity dependency is found to be 7 with a scattering from 5 to 9 depending on the materials, while the power index for Vickers hardness dependency is found as −4.5.

  13. Wind Program Newsletter, May 2016 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program Newsletter provides wind industry stakeholders and the public with information about the Wind Program R&D efforts funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office. The newsletter comes out twice a year and is sent electronically to subscribers and distributed in hard copy to conference attendees.

  14. Erosion Testing of Coatings for V-22 Aircraft Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Y. Richardson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available High-velocity (183 m/sec sand erosion tests in a wind tunnel were conducted to evaluate developmental coatings from three separate companies under funding by the Navy's phase I small business innovative research program. The purpose of the coatings was to address a particular problem the V-22 tilt-rotor aircraft (Osprey was having with regard to ingestion of sand particles by a titanium impeller that was associated with the aircraft's environmental control system. The three coatings that were deposited on titanium substrates and erosion-tested included (1 SixCy/DLC multilayers deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD; (2 WC/TaC/TiC processed by electrospark deposition; and (3 polymer ceramic mixtures applied by means of an aqueous synthesis. The erosion test results are presented; they provided the basis for assessing the suitability of some of these coatings for the intended application.

  15. Wind-eroded silicate as a source of hydrogen peroxide on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Ebbe Norskov; Merrison, Jonathan P.; Jensen, Svend Knak

    -sists of silicates [4] that due to wind erosion has a very fine grained texture. Based on the composition of the surface material and investigations showing that crushing of silicates can give rise to reactive oxygen species [5], we hypothesized that wind erosion of silicates can explain the reactivity of Martian...... soil. Wind-erosion of silicate could thus be one of several causes of the soil’s reactivity. As our experiments show, the globally distributed wind eroded silicate dust can lead to the production of hydrogen peroxide which might explain the reactivity of the Martian soil. The reactivity of eroded...

  16. Erosion in extruder flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Miron; Fodor, Petru S.

    A detailed analysis of the fluid flow in Tadmor's unwound channel model of the single screw extruder is performed by combining numerical and analytical methods. Using the analytical solution for the longitudinal velocity field (in the limit of zero Reynolds number) allows us to devote all the computational resources solely for a detailed numerical solution of the transversal velocity field. This high resolution 3D model of the fluid flow in a single-screw extruder allows us to identify the position and extent of Moffatt eddies that impede mixing. We further consider the erosion of particles (e.g. carbon-black agglomerates) advected by the polymeric flow. We assume a particle to be made of primary fragments bound together. In the erosion process a primary fragment breaks out of a given particle. Particles are advected by the laminar flow and they disperse because of the shear stresses imparted by the fluid. The time evolution of the numbers of particles of different sizes is described by the Bateman coupled differential equations used to model radioactivity. Using the particle size distribution we compute an entropic fragmentation index which varies from 0 for a monodisperse system to 1 for an extreme poly-disperse system.

  17. Effect of Short-Circuit Faults in the Back-to-Back Power Electronic Converter and Rotor Terminals on the Operational Behavior of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios G. Giaourakis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the operational behavior of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion System under power electronic converter and rotor terminals faulty conditions. More specifically, the effect of the short-circuit fault both in one IGBT of the back-to-back power electronic converter and in rotor phases on the overall system behavior has been investigated via simulation using a system of 2 MW. Finally, the consequences of these faults have been evaluated.

  18. Characteristics of the Taylor microscale in the solar wind/foreshock. Magnetic field and electron velocity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgiolo, C. [Bitterroot Basic Research, Hamilton, MT (United States); Goldstein, M.L.; Vinas, A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Heliospheric Physics Lab.; Matthaeus, W.H. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Bartol Research Foundation; Fazakerley, A.N. [University College London, Dorking (United Kingdom). Mullard Space Science Lab.

    2013-07-01

    The Taylor microscale is one of the fundamental turbulence scales. Not easily estimated in the interplanetary medium employing single spacecraft data, it has generally been studied through two point correlations. In this paper we present an alternative, albeit mathematically equivalent, method for estimating the Taylor microscale ({lambda}{sub T}). We make two independent determinations employing multi-spacecraft data sets from the Cluster mission, one using magnetic field data and a second using electron velocity data. Our results using the magnetic field data set yields a scale length of 1538{+-}550 km, slightly less than, but within the same range as, values found in previous magnetic-field-based studies. During time periods where both magnetic field and electron velocity data can be used, the two values can be compared. Relative comparisons show {lambda}{sub T} computed from the velocity is often significantly smaller than that from the magnetic field data. Due to a lack of events where both measurements are available, the absolute {lambda}{sub T} based on the electron fluid velocity is not able to be determined.

  19. Characteristics of the Taylor microscale in the solar wind/foreshock: magnetic field and electron velocity measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gurgiolo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Taylor microscale is one of the fundamental turbulence scales. Not easily estimated in the interplanetary medium employing single spacecraft data, it has generally been studied through two point correlations. In this paper we present an alternative, albeit mathematically equivalent, method for estimating the Taylor microscale (λT. We make two independent determinations employing multi-spacecraft data sets from the Cluster mission, one using magnetic field data and a second using electron velocity data. Our results using the magnetic field data set yields a scale length of 1538 ± 550 km, slightly less than, but within the same range as, values found in previous magnetic-field-based studies. During time periods where both magnetic field and electron velocity data can be used, the two values can be compared. Relative comparisons show λT computed from the velocity is often significantly smaller than that from the magnetic field data. Due to a lack of events where both measurements are available, the absolute λT based on the electron fluid velocity is not able to be determined.

  20. Characteristics of the Taylor microscale in the solar wind/foreshock. Magnetic field and electron velocity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgiolo, C.; Goldstein, M.L.; Vinas, A.; Matthaeus, W.H.; Fazakerley, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    The Taylor microscale is one of the fundamental turbulence scales. Not easily estimated in the interplanetary medium employing single spacecraft data, it has generally been studied through two point correlations. In this paper we present an alternative, albeit mathematically equivalent, method for estimating the Taylor microscale (λ T ). We make two independent determinations employing multi-spacecraft data sets from the Cluster mission, one using magnetic field data and a second using electron velocity data. Our results using the magnetic field data set yields a scale length of 1538±550 km, slightly less than, but within the same range as, values found in previous magnetic-field-based studies. During time periods where both magnetic field and electron velocity data can be used, the two values can be compared. Relative comparisons show λ T computed from the velocity is often significantly smaller than that from the magnetic field data. Due to a lack of events where both measurements are available, the absolute λ T based on the electron fluid velocity is not able to be determined.

  1. Rill erosion rates in burned forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Peter R. Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Wildfires often produce large increases in runoff and erosion rates (e.g., Moody and Martin, 2009), and land managers need to predict the frequency and magnitude of postfire erosion to determine the needs for hazard response and possible erosion mitigation to reduce the impacts of increased erosion on public safety and valued resources. The Water Erosion...

  2. Wind energy handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, Tony; Sharpe, David; Bossanyi, Ervin

    2011-01-01

    Named as one of Choice's Outstanding Academic Titles of 2012Every year, Choice subject editors recognise the most significant print and electronic works reviewed in Choice during the previous calendar year. Appearing annually inChoice's January issue, this prestigious list of publications reflects the best in scholarly titles and attracts extraordinary attention from the academic library community. The authoritative reference on wind energy, now fully revised and updated to include offshore wind power<

  3. The erosive potential of lollipops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Gambon, D.L.; Paap, A.; Bulthuis, M.S.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine the erosive potential of several commercially available lollipops and the protective effect of saliva. Methods: The erosive potential of lollipops was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. Subsequently, 10 healthy volunteers tested different types of

  4. Agriculture’s Soil Conservation Programs Miss Full Potential in the Fight against Soil Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-28

    Soil Loss Equation ( USLE ) and Wind Erosion Equation can be used with a reasonable degree of accuracy. It is the intention of ASCS to expand VC/SL to...HD-R37 495 AGRICULTURE’S SOIL CONSERVATION PROGRAMS MISS FULL i/i POTENTIAL IN THE FIGHT.(U) GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC RESOURCES...GENERAL Report To The Congress OF THE UNITED STATES Agriculture’s Soil Conservation Programs Miss Full Potential In The Fight Against Soil Erosion

  5. Erosion--corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, B.

    1978-01-01

    The deterioration of materials by corrosion or erosion by itself presents a formidable problem and for this reason investigators have studied these two phenomena independently. In fact, there are very few systematic studies on E-C and the majority of references mention it only in passing. In most real systems, however, the two destructive processes take place simultaneously, hence the purpose of this review is to present the various interactions between the chemical and mechanical agents leading to accelerated degradation of the material. The papers cited in the review are those that lead to a better understanding of the process involved in the accelerated rate of material loss under E-C conditions

  6. Using REE tracers to measure sheet erosion changing to rill erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Puling; Xue Yazhou; Song Wei; Wang Mingyi; Ju Tongjun

    2004-01-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE) tracer method was used to study sheet erosion changing to rill erosion on slope land. By placing different rare earth elements of different soil depth across a slope in an indoor plot, two simulated rainfalls were applied to study the change of erosion type and the rill erosion process. The results indicate that the main erosion type is sheet erosion at the beginning of the rainfalls, and serious erosion happens after rill erosion appears. Accumulated sheet and rill erosion amounts increase with the rainfalls time. The percentage of sheet erosion amount decreases and rill erosion percentage increases with time. At the end of the rainfalls, the total rill erosion amounts are 4-5 times more than sheet erosion. In this paper, a new REE tracer method was used to quantitatively distinguish sheet and rill erosion amounts. The new REE tracer method should be useful to future studying of erosion processes on slope lands. (authors)

  7. Modeling soil erosion in a watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Lanuza, R.

    1999-01-01

    Most erosion models have been developed based on a plot scale and have limited application to a watershed due to the differences in aerial scale. In order to address this limitation, a GIS-assisted methodology for modeling soil erosion was developed using PCRaster to predict the rate of soil erosion at watershed level; identify the location of erosion prone areas; and analyze the impact of landuse changes on soil erosion. The general methodology of desktop modeling or soil erosion at watershe...

  8. Control of eolic erosion in a coal Port, by means of re-vegetation of arid areas and operational procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Pilar

    1992-01-01

    To the phenomenon of haulage of floor particles for the wind is known as erosion by deflation, and one in the ways of eolic erosion existent, although many authors constitutes they refer to her as eolic erosion. The eolic erosion includes the movement processes, transport, separation and deposition, it can present in any area that presents the following conditions: 1) Soil dry and loose until certain finely divided degree, 2) flat surface with little or any vegetable cover, 3) quite extensive land 4) sufficiently strong wind to transport the earth particles. It is considered that to begin the movement of particles 0.1 mm of diameter winds they are needed to 30 cm of height of 4,4m/s (FAO, 1961). All these conditions are presented in Port Bolivar in more or smaller measure. In port Bolivar two main groups of areas have been identified in process of material movement

  9. Gastric Mucosal Erosions - Radiologic evaluation -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup

    1985-01-01

    70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions were diagnosed by double contrast upper gastrointestinal examinations and endoscopic findings. Analyzing the radiologic findings of these 70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions, the following results were obtained. 1. Among the total 70 cases, 65 cases were typical varioliform erosions showing central depressions and surrounding mucosal elevations. Remaining 5 cases were erosions of acute phase having multiple irregular depressions without surrounding elevations. 2. The gastric antrum was involved alone or in part in all cases. Duodenal bulb was involved with gastric antrum in 4 cases. 3. The majority of the cases had multiple erosions. There were only 2 cases of single erosion. 4. In 65 cases of varioliform erosions; 1) The diameter of the surrounding elevations varied from 3 to 20 mm with the majority (47 cases) between 6 and 10 mm. 2) In general, the surrounding elevations with sharp margin on double contrast films were also clearly demonstrated on compression films but those with faint margin were not. 3) The size of the central barium collections varied from pinpoint to 10 mm with the majority under 5 mm. The shape of the central barium collections in majority of the cases were round with a few cases of linear, triangular or star-shape. 5. In 5 cases of acute phase erosions; 1) All the 5 cases were females. 2) On double contrast radiography, all the cases showed multiple irregular depressed lesions without surrounding elevations. 3) 1 case had the history of hematemesis. 4) In 1 case, there was marked radiological improvement on follow-up study of 2 months interval. 6. In 23 cases, there were coexistent diseases with gastric mucosal erosions. These were 13 cases of duodenal bulb ulcers,7 cases of benign gastric ulcers and 3 others

  10. Buffer erosion in dilute groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, T.; Kanerva, N.; Martikainen, J.; Sane, P.; Olin, M.; Seppaelae, A.; Koskinen, K.

    2013-08-01

    One scenario of interest for repository safety assessment involves the loss of bentonite buffer material in contact with dilute groundwater flowing through a transmissive fracture interface. In order to examine the extrusion/erosion behavior of bentonite buffer material under such circumstances, a series of experiments were performed in a flow-through, 1 mm aperture, artificial fracture system. These experiments covered a range of solution chemistry (salt concentration and composition), material composition (sodium montmorillonite and admixtures with calcium montmorillonite), and flow velocity conditions. No erosion was observed for sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions from 0.5 g/L to 10 g/L NaCl. No erosion was observed for 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against 0.5 g/L NaCl. Erosion was observed for both sodium montmorillonite and 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions ≤ 0.25 g/L NaCl. The calculated erosion rates for the tests with the highest levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under the most dilute conditions (ionic strength (IS) < ∼1 mM), were well-correlated to flow velocity, whereas the calculated erosion rates for the tests with lower levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under somewhat less dilute conditions (∼1 mM < IS < ∼4 mM), were not similarly correlated indicating that material and solution composition can significantly affect erosion rates. In every experiment, both erosive and non-erosive, emplaced buffer material extruded into the fracture and was observed to be impermeable to water flowing in the fracture effectively forming an extended diffusive barrier around the intersecting fracture/buffer interface. Additionally, a model which was developed previously to predict the rate of erosion of bentonite buffer material in low ionic strength water in rock fracture environments was applied to three different cases: sodium montmorillonite expansion in a vertical tube, a

  11. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Wind is not only free, it is inexhaustible. Wind energy has come a very long way since the prototypes of just 20 years ago. today's wind turbines are state-of-the-art technology - modular and quick to install anywhere where there is sufficient wind potential to provide secure, centralised or distributed generation. It is a global phenomenon, the world's fastest growing energy sector, a clean and effective modern technology that completely avoids pollution and thus reducing the 'green house' effect. (Original)

  12. Laboratory simulation of erosion by space plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristoferson, L.; Fredga, K.

    1976-04-01

    A laboratory experiment has been made where a plasma stream collides with targets made of different materials of cosmic interest. The experiment can be viewed as a process simulation of the solar wind particle interaction with solid surfaces in space, e.g. cometary dust. Special interest is given to sputtering of OH and Na. It is shown that the erosion of solid particles in interplanetary space at large heliocentric distances is most likely dominated by sputtering and by sublimation near the sun. The heliocentric distance of the limit between the two regions is determined mainly by the material properties of the eroded surface, e.g. heat of sublimation and sputtering yield, a typical distance being 0,5 a.u. It is concluded that the observations of Na in comets at large solar distances, in some cases also near the sun, is most likely to be explained by solar wind sputtering. OH emission in space could be of importance also from 'dry', water-free, matter by means of molecule sputtering. The observed OH production rates in comets are however too large to be explained in this way and are certainly the results of sublimation and dissociation of H 2 O from an icy nucleus. (Auth.)

  13. Erosive tooth wear in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, T.S.; Lussi, A.; Jaeggi, T.; Gambon, D.L.; Lussi, A.; Ganss, C.

    2014-01-01

    Erosive tooth wear in children is a common condition. Besides the anatomical differences between deciduous and permanent teeth, additional histological differences may influence their susceptibility to dissolution. Considering laboratory studies alone, it is not clear whether deciduous teeth are

  14. Erosion-resistant composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C.B.; Tennery, V.J.; Curlee, R.M.

    A highly erosion-resistant composite material is formed of chemical vapor-deposited titanium diboride on a sintered titanium diboride-nickel substrate. This material may be suitable for use in cutting tools, coal liquefaction systems, etc.

  15. Vegetation morphologic and aerodynamic characteristics reduce aeolian erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Abbas; Dragovich, Deirdre; Dong, Zhibao

    2017-10-09

    Vegetation cover is crucial to controlling aeolian erosion but highly efficient vegetation is critical. How this efficiency is influenced by vegetation response to airflow is not clear. Here we evaluate the responses of Cosmos bipinnatus and Ligustrum lucidum Ait to a range of wind speeds in a wind tunnel. For both species, we calculate shelter effect and sand flux. We show that plant effectiveness in reducing wind speed and sediment transport is linked to their aerodynamic response to airflow which results from their morphology. We demonstrate that in low-density cover the flow-response and resistance of individuals is most critical in the optimal effectiveness of a canopy. Our wind tunnel experiment suggests that vegetation morphology and structure must be priority parameters in facilitating aeolian erosion control.

  16. Soil Erosion and Agricultural Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    Data drawn from a global compilation of studies support the long articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields greatly exceed rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. Whereas data compiled from around the world show that soil erosion under conventional agriculture exceeds both rates of soil production and geological erosion rates by up to several orders of magnitude, similar global distributions of soil production and geological erosion rates suggest an approximate balance. Net soil erosion rates in conventionally plowed fields on the order of 1 mm/yr can erode typical hillslope soil profiles over centuries to millennia, time-scales comparable to the longevity of major civilizations. Well-documented episodes of soil loss associated with agricultural activities date back to the introduction of erosive agricultural methods in regions around the world, and stratigraphic records of accelerated anthropogenic soil erosion have been recovered from lake, fluvial, and colluvial stratigraphy, as well as truncation of soil stratigraphy (such as truncated A horizons). A broad convergence in the results from studies based on various approaches employed to study ancient soil loss and rates of downstream sedimentation implies that widespread soil loss has accompanied human agricultural intensification in examples drawn from around the world. While a broad range of factors, including climate variability and society-specific social and economic contexts — such as wars or colonial relationships — all naturally influence the longevity of human societies, the ongoing loss of topsoil inferred from studies of soil erosion rates in conventional agricultural systems has obvious long-term implications for agricultural sustainability. Consequently, modern agriculture — and therefore global society — faces a fundamental question over the upcoming centuries. Can an agricultural system

  17. Erosion properties of unipolar arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekalin, Eh.K.

    1982-01-01

    Processes modelling the formation of unipolar arcs on the elements of the first wall in limiters of the vacuum chamber and on active elements of tokamak divertor, are experimentally investigated. Erosion, processes that take place at two types of non-stationary cathode spots are considered. Experimental data prove the possibility of reducing erosion intensity by coating the surface of electrodes by oxide films, reduction of the temperature of electrode and discharge current

  18. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...

  19. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  20. Solid Particle Erosion of Date Palm Leaf Fiber Reinforced Polyvinyl Alcohol Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti R. Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid particle erosion behavior of short date palm leaf (DPL fiber reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA composite has been studied using silica sand particles (200 ± 50 μm as an erodent at different impingement angles (15–90° and impact velocities (48–109 m/s. The influence of fiber content (wt% of DPL fiber on erosion rate of PVA/DPL composite has also been investigated. The neat PVA shows maximum erosion rate at 30° impingement angle whereas PVA/DPL composites exhibit maximum erosion rate at 45° impingement angle irrespective of fiber loading showing semiductile behavior. The erosion efficiency of PVA and its composites varies from 0.735 to 16.289% for different impact velocities studied. The eroded surfaces were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM to understand the erosion mechanism.

  1. Combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of surface modified SS410 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarendra, H. J.; Pratap, M. S.; Karthik, S.; Punitha Kumara, M. S.; Rajath, H. C.; Ranjith, H.; Shubhatunga, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    Slurry erosion and combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of thermal spray coatings are studied and compared with the as-received martensitic stainless steel material. 70Ni-Cr coatings are deposited on SS 410 material through plasma thermal spray process. The synergy effect of the combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of plasma thermal spray coatings were investigated in a slurry pot tester in the presence of bluff bodies known as Cavitation Inducers. Results showed the combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of martensitic stainless steel - 410 can be improved by plasma thermal spray coating. It is observed that the plasma spray coated specimens are better erosion resistant than the as- received material, subjected to erosion test under similar conditions. As-received and the surface modified steels are mechanically characterized for its hardness, bending. Morphological studies are conducted through scanning electron microscope.

  2. Chemical erosion of carbon doped with different fine-grain carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balden, M.; Garcia-Rosales, C.; Behrisch, R.; Roth, J.; Paz, P.; Etxeberria, J.

    2001-01-01

    Several carbide-doped (SiC, TiC, V 8 C 7 , WC, ZrC) graphites have been produced. The erosion of these materials at low-energy (eV) hydrogen ion bombardment has been investigated using the weight-loss method, mass spectroscopy, ion beam analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The erosion yields of the WC- and V 8 C 7 -doped graphites are reduced by a factor of 2 for 30 eV D at 300 K compared to pure graphite. This observed reduction is partly attributed to surface enrichment of carbide due to preferential C erosion. The other part is assigned to changes in the chemical erosion process (Y surf ) as well as at elevated temperatures in the thermal activated process (Y therm ). The reduction of both erosion processes is determined for all dopants to be more than 25% of the erosion yield of the undoped graphite

  3. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  4. Generators of Modern Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, various types of wind generator configurations, including power electronic grid interfaces, drive trains, are described The performance in power systems is briefed. Then the optimization of generator system is presented. Some investigation results are presented and discussed....

  5. Soil physical properties affecting soil erosion in tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Lujan, D.

    2004-01-01

    The total vegetated land area of the earth is about 11,500 hectare. Of this, about 12% is in South America. Of this, about 14% is degraded area. Water erosion, chemical degradation, wind erosion, and physical degradation have been reported as main types of degradation. In South America water erosion is a major process for soil degradation. Nevertheless, water erosion can be a consequence of degradation of the soil structure, especially the functional attributes of soil pores to transmit and retain water, and to facilitate root growth. Climate, soil and topographic characteristics determine runoff and erosion potential from agricultural lands. The main factors causing soil erosion can be divided into three groups: Energy factors: rainfall erosivity, runoff volume, wind strength, relief, slope angle, slope length; Protection factors: population density, plant cover, amenity value (pressure for use) and land management; and resistance factors: soil erodibility, infiltration capacity and soil management. The degree of soil erosion in a particular climatic zone, with particular soils, land use and socioeconomic conditions, will always result from a combination of the above mentioned factors. It is not easy to isolate a single factor. However, the soil physical properties that determine the soil erosion process, because the deterioration of soil physical properties is manifested through interrelated problems of surface sealing, crusting, soil compaction, poor drainage, impeded root growth, excessive runoff and accelerated erosion. When an unprotected soil surface is exposed to the direct impact of raindrops it can produce different responses: Production of smaller aggregates, dispersed particles, particles in suspension and translocation and deposition of particles. When this has occurred, the material is reorganized at the location into a surface seal. Aggregate breakdown under rainfall depends on soil strength and a certain threshold kinetic energy is needed to start

  6. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  7. Auto consolidated cohesive sediments erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternat, F.

    2007-02-01

    Pollutants and suspended matters of a river can accumulate into the sedimentary column. Once deposited, they are submitted to self-weight consolidation processes, ageing and burying, leading to an increase of their erosion resistance. Pollutant fluxes can be related to sedimentary fluxes, determined by threshold laws. In this work, an erosion threshold model is suggested by introducing a cohesion force into the usual force balance. A model of cohesion is developed on the basis of interactions between argillaceous cohesive particles (clays), particularly the Van der Waals force, whose parameterization is ensured by means of granulometry and porosity. Artificial erosion experiments were performed in a recirculating erosion flume with natural cored sediments where critical shear stress measurements were performed. Other analyses provided granulometry and porosity. The results obtained constitute a good database for the literature. The model is then applied to the experimental conditions and gives good agreement with measurements. An example of the accounting for self-weight consolidation processes is finally suggested, before finishing on a Mohr like diagram dedicated to soft cohesive sediment erosion. (author)

  8. The Monsoon Erosion Pump and the Indian Monsoon since Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, L.

    2017-12-01

    Lack of consensus on the Neogene establishment and evolution of the Indian Monsoon is remarkable after half a century of research. Conflicting interpretations point toward the possibility of periodic decoupling between monsoon winds and monsoon precipitation. Here I introduce the concept of a monsoon erosion pump based on terrestrial and oceanic records reconstructed from recent NGHP and IODP drilling and spanning the last 34 million years in the Bay of Bengal, Arabian and Andaman Seas. From millennial to orbital to tectonic timescales, these records suggest that vegetation land cover interacts and modulates the regime of erosion and weathering under perennial but variable monsoonal rain conditions. Under this new proposed paradigm the Indian monsoon exhibits two distinct flavours during the Neogene that can be largely explained by its heartbeat, or astronomical forcing, mediated by the global glacial state and interacting with the paleogeography of South Asia.

  9. A pan-European quantitative assessment of soil loss by wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasqualle; Lugato, Emanuele; Panagos, Panos

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion by wind is a serious environmental problem often low perceived but resulting in severe soil degradation forms. On the long-term a considerable part of topsoil - rich in nutrient and organic matters - could be removed compromising the agricultural productivity and inducing an increased use of fertilizers. Field scale studies and observations proven that wind erosion is a serious problem in many European sites. The state-of-the-art suggests a scenario where wind erosion locally affects the temperate climate areas of the northern European countries, as well as the semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean region. However, observations, field measurements and modelling assessments are extremely limited and unequally distributed across Europe. It implies a lack of knowledge about where and when wind erosion occurs, limiting policy actions aimed at mitigating land degradation. To gain a better understanding about soil degradation process, the Soil Resource Assessment working group of the Joint Research Centre carried out the first pan-European assessments of wind-erodible fraction of soil (EF) (Geoderma, 232, 471-478, 2014) and land susceptibility to wind erosion (Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2318). Today's challenge is to integrate the insights archived by these pan-European assessments, local experiments and field-scale models into a new generation of regional-scale wind erosion models. A GIS version of the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) was developed with the aim to i) move a step forward into the aforementioned challenges, and ii) evaluate the soil loss potential due to wind erosion in the agricoltural land of the EU. The model scheme was designed to describe daily soil loss potential, combining spatiotemporal conditions of soil erodibility, crust factor, soil moisture content, vegetation coverage and wind erosivity at 1 km2 resolution. The average soil loss predicted by GIS-RWEQ in the EU arable land ranges from 0 to 39.9 Mg ha-1 yr

  10. Wind turbine aerodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Wind Energy Group

    2010-07-01

    The need for clean, renewable electricity in remote communities of Canada and the world was discussed in this presentation. The University of Waterloo Wind Energy Laboratory (WEL) performs research in a large scale indoor environment on wind turbines, blade aerodynamics, and aeroacoustics. A key area of research involves developing turbines for remote off-grid communities where climatic conditions are challenging. This presentation outlined research that is underway on wind energy and off-grid renewable energy systems. Many communities in Canada and remote communities in the rest of the world are not connected to the grid and are dependent on other means to supply electrical energy to their community. Remote communities in northern Canada have no road access and diesel is the dominant source of electrical energy for these communities. All of the community supply of diesel comes from brief winter road access or by air. The presentation discussed existing diesel systems and the solution of developing local renewable energy sources such as wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal, and solar power. Research goals, wind energy activities, experimental equipment, and the results were also presented. Research projects have been developed in wind energy; hydrogen generation/storage/utilization; power electronics/microgrid; and community engagement. figs.

  11. Lignin distribution in waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst degraded by erosion bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nanna Bjerregaard; Schmitt, Uwe Schmitt; Koch, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    The lignin distribution in poles of waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst, which was decayed by erosion bacteria (EB) under anoxic conditions for approximately 400 years, was topochemically identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution UV-microspectrophotome......The lignin distribution in poles of waterlogged archaeological Picea abies (L.) Karst, which was decayed by erosion bacteria (EB) under anoxic conditions for approximately 400 years, was topochemically identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution UV...

  12. Coastal erosion problem, modelling and protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Nihal; Balas, Lale; İnan, Asu

    2015-09-01

    Göksu Delta, located in the south of Silifke County of Mersin on the coastal plain formed by Göksu River, is one of the Specially Protected Areas in Turkey. Along the coastal area of the Delta, coastline changes at significant rates are observed, concentrating especially at four regions; headland of İncekum, coast of Paradeniz Lagoon, river mouth of Göksu and coast of Altınkum. The coast of Paradeniz Lagoon is suffering significantly from erosion and the consequent coastal retreating problem. Therefore, the narrow barrier beach which separates Paradeniz Lagoon from the Mediterranean Sea is getting narrower, creating a risk of uniting with the sea, thus causing the disappearance of the Lagoon. The aim of this study was to understand the coastal transport processes along the coastal area of Göksu Delta to determine the coastal sediment transport rates, and accordingly, to propose solutions to prevent the loss of coastal lands in the Delta. To this end, field measurements of currents and sediment grain sizes were carried out, and wind climate, wave climate, circulation patterns and longshore sediment transport rates were numerically modeled by HYDROTAM-3D, which is a three dimensional hydrodynamic transport model. Finally, considering its special importance as an environmentally protected region, some coastal structures of gabions were proposed as solutions against the coastal erosion problems of the Delta. The effects of proposed structures on future coastline changes were also modeled, and the coastlines predicted for the year 2017 are presented and discussed in the paper.

  13. Bentonite erosion. Laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Mats (Div. of Nuclear Chemistry, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden), School of Chemical Science and Engineering)

    2009-11-15

    This report covers the laboratory studies that have been performed at Nuclear Chemistry, KTH in the project 'Bentonite Erosion'. Many of the experiments in this report were performed to support the work of the modelling group and were often relatively simple. One of the experiment series was performed to see the impact of gravity and concentration of mono- and di-valent cations. A clay suspension was prepared in a test tube. A net was placed in contact with the suspension, the test tube was filled with solutions of different concentrations and the system was left overnight to settle. The tube was then turned upside down and the behaviour was visually observed. Either the clay suspension fell through the net or stayed on top. By using this method surprisingly sharp determinations of the Critical Coagulation (Flocculation) Concentration (CCC/CFC) could be made. The CCC/CFC of Ca2+ was for sodium montmorillonite determined to be between 1 and 2 mM. An artificial fracture was manufactured in order to simulate the real case scenario. The set-up was two Plexiglas slabs separated by 1 mm thick spacers with a bentonite container at one side of the fracture. Water was pumped with a very low flow rate perpendicular to bentonite container and the water exiting the fracture was sampled and analyzed for colloid content. The bentonite used was treated in different ways. In the first experiment a relatively montmorillonite rich clay was used while in the second bentonite where only the readily soluble minerals had been removed was used. Since Plexiglas was used it was possible to visually observe the bentonite dispersing into the fracture. After the compacted bentonite (1,000 kg/m3) had been water saturated the clay had expanded some 12 mm out into the fracture. As the experiment progressed the clay expanded more out into the fracture and seemed to fractionate in two different phases with less material in the outmost phase. A dark rim which was later analyzed to contain

  14. Bentonite erosion - Laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Bentonite clay is proposed as buffer material in the KBS-3 concept of storing spent nuclear fuel. Since the clay is plastic it will protect the canisters containing the spent fuel from movements in the rock. Furthermore, the clay will expand when taking up water, become very compact and hence limit the transport of solutes to and from the canister to only diffusion. The chemical stability of the bentonite barrier is of vital importance. If much material would be lost the barrier will lose its functions. As a side effect, lots of colloids will be released which may facilitate radionuclide transport in case of a breach in the canister. There are scenarios where during an ice age fresh melt water may penetrate down to repository depths with relatively high flow rates and not mix with older waters of high salinity. Under such conditions bentonite colloids will be more stable and there is a possibility that the bentonite buffer would start to disperse and bentonite colloids be carried away by the passing water. This work is a part of a larger project called Bentonite Erosion, initiated and supported by SKB. In this work several minor experiments have been performed in order to investigate the influence of for instance di-valent cations, gravity, etc. on the dispersion behaviour of bentonite and/or montmorillonite. A bigger experiment where the real situation was simulated using an artificial fracture was conducted. Two Plexiglas slabs were placed on top of each other, separated by plastic spacers. Bentonite was placed in a container in contact with a fracture. The bentonite was water saturated before deionized water was pumped through the fracture. The evolution of the bentonite profile in the fracture was followed visually. The eluate was collected in five different slots at the outlet side and analyzed for colloid concentration employing Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) and a Single Particle Counter (SPC). Some

  15. Erosion and redeposition at the vessel walls in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naujoks, D.; Behrisch, R.

    1995-01-01

    The plasma induced erosion and redeposition at the vessel walls in today's fusion devices have been investigated both with the computer simulation code ERO, and in experiments. Well prepared carbon probes with implanted and evaporated markers in the surface layers have been exposed in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of several tokamaks such as JET, TEXTOR and ASDEX-Upgrade. The main plasma parameters (electron density and temperature, impurity concentration in the SOL) are simultaneously determined. After exposure to single plasma discharges, erosion and redeposition of the marker material were measured by surface layer analysis with MeV ion beam techniques. The experimental results were compared with the results from the ERO code. The measured erosion/redeposition could be described with ERO, which takes into account the impurity concentration in the SOL, the dynamical change of the surface composition (causing a modification of the sputtering yield during the exposure) and ExB drift effects. ((orig.))

  16. Soil erosion in Slovene Istria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Mikoš

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available From the end of nineties of the 20th century, intense hydrologic and geomorphologic research is taking place in the Slovene Istria. As a part of this research also studies on soil erosion were undertaken in the period from 2005 to 2008. The field measurements were under taken onclosed 1m2 large erosion plots under three different land uses (on bare soils in an olive grove, on an overgrown meadow, in a forest, placed south of the Marezige village in the Rokava River basin.We show weekly measurements of surface erosion (interrill erosion for the period of 13 months (the end of March 2005 – the end of April 2006, as well as monthly and seasonal averages together with selected linear statistical correlations between soil erosion and weather parameters.From May 2005 to April 2006 the interrill erosion on bare soils in an olive grove with an inclination of 5.5° amounted to 9013 g/m2 (90 t/ha that corresponds to surface lowering rate of 8.5 mm/yr; on an overgrown meadow with an inclination of 9.4° it amounted to 168 g/m2 (1,68 t/ha that corresponds to surface lowering rate of 0.16 mm//yr; and in a forest with an inclination of 7.8° it amounted to 391 g/m2 (3,91 t/ha and in a forest with an inclination of 21.4° it amounted to 415 g/m2 (4,15 t/ha, respectively, that corresponds to surface lowering rate of 0.4 mm/yr.

  17. An Assessment of the Impact of Urbanization on Soil Erosion in Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Yan; Xiao, Yi; Rao, En-Ming; Jiang, Ling; Xiao, Yang; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun

    2018-03-19

    Inner Mongolia, an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, has experienced severe soil erosion following a period of rapid economic development and urbanization. To investigate how urbanization has influenced the extent of soil erosion in Inner Mongolia, we used urbanization and soil erosion data from 2000 through 2010 to determine the relationship between urbanization and soil erosion patterns. Two empirical equations-the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ)-were used to estimate the intensity of soil erosion, and we performed backward linear regression to model how it changed with greater urbanization. There was an apparent increase in the rate of urbanization and a decrease in the area affected by soil erosion in 2010 compared to the corresponding values for 2000. The urban population stood at 11.32 million in 2010, which represented a 16.47% increase over that in 2000. The area affected by soil erosion in 2000 totaled 704,817 km², yet it had decreased to 674,135 km² by 2010. However, a path of modest urban development (rural-urban mitigation) and reasonable industrial structuring (the development of GDP-2) may partially reduce urbanization's ecological pressure and thus indirectly reduce the threat of soil erosion to human security. Therefore, to better control soil erosion in Inner Mongolia during the process of urbanization, the current model of economic development should be modified to improve the eco-efficiency of urbanization, while also promoting new modes of urbanization that are environmentally sustainable, cost-effective, and conserve limited resources.

  18. An Assessment of the Impact of Urbanization on Soil Erosion in Inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yan Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inner Mongolia, an autonomous region of the People’s Republic of China, has experienced severe soil erosion following a period of rapid economic development and urbanization. To investigate how urbanization has influenced the extent of soil erosion in Inner Mongolia, we used urbanization and soil erosion data from 2000 through 2010 to determine the relationship between urbanization and soil erosion patterns. Two empirical equations—the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE and the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ—were used to estimate the intensity of soil erosion, and we performed backward linear regression to model how it changed with greater urbanization. There was an apparent increase in the rate of urbanization and a decrease in the area affected by soil erosion in 2010 compared to the corresponding values for 2000. The urban population stood at 11.32 million in 2010, which represented a 16.47% increase over that in 2000. The area affected by soil erosion in 2000 totaled 704,817 km2, yet it had decreased to 674,135 km2 by 2010. However, a path of modest urban development (rural–urban mitigation and reasonable industrial structuring (the development of GDP-2 may partially reduce urbanization’s ecological pressure and thus indirectly reduce the threat of soil erosion to human security. Therefore, to better control soil erosion in Inner Mongolia during the process of urbanization, the current model of economic development should be modified to improve the eco-efficiency of urbanization, while also promoting new modes of urbanization that are environmentally sustainable, cost-effective, and conserve limited resources.

  19. EFFECTS OF SLOPE SHAPES ON SOIL EROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin ŞENSOY, Şahin PALTA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the most important erosive forces. A great number of factors also play a role in erosion process and slope characteristic is also one of them. The steepness and length of the slope are important factors for runoff and soil erosion. Another slope factor that has an effect on erosion is the shape of the slope. Generally, different erosion and runoff characteristics exist in different slopes which can be classified as uniform, concave, convex and complex shape. In this study, the effects of slope shape on erosion are stated and emphasized by taking similar researches into consideration.

  20. Divertor tungsten tiles erosion in the region of the castellated gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wanpeng, E-mail: wangdez@dlut.edu.cn; Sang, Chaofeng; Sun, Zhenyue; Wang, Dezhen

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of the tungsten tiles erosion by different impurities in the divertor gap region is done by using a 2d3v Particle-In-Cell code. • High-Z impurity causes the largest erosion rate on W tile. • The peak physical sputtering erosion rate locates at the plasma-facing corners. - Abstract: Erosion of tungsten (W) is a very important issue for the future fusion device. The castellated divertor makes it more complicated due to complex geometry of the gap between the tiles. In this work, the plasma behaviors and resulting W tile erosion in the divertor tile gap region are studied by using a two dimension-in-space and three dimension-in-velocity (2d3 v) Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. Deuterium ions (D{sup +}) and electrons are traced self-consistently in the simulation to provide the plasma background. Since there are lots of impurities, which may make a great impact on the tile erosion, in the divertor region to radiate the power, the erosion of W tile by different species are thus considered. The contributions of deuterium and impurities: Li, C, Ne, and Ar, to the W erosion, are studied under EAST conditions to show a straightforward insight. It is observed that the physical sputtering of W tile by impurities is much higher than that by the D ions, and the peak erosion region locates at the plasma-facing corners.

  1. Wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented.

  2. Cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 nickel-based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Han, Jiesheng; Lu, Jinjun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Jianmin, E-mail: chenjm@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 was studied by ultrasonic apparatus. • The cavitation-induced precipitates formed in the eroded surface for Hastelloy C-276. • The selective cavitation erosion was found in Hastelloy C-276 alloy. - Abstract: The cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 alloy was investigated using an ultrasonic vibratory apparatus and compared with that of 316L stainless steel. The mean depth of erosion (MDE) and erosion rate (ER) curves vs. test time were attained for Hastelloy C-276 alloy. Morphology and microstructure evolution of the eroded surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and the predominant erosion mechanism was also discussed. The results show that the MDE is about 1/6 times lower than that of the stainless steel after 9 h of testing. The incubation period of Hastelloy C-276 alloy is about 3 times longer than that of 316L stainless steel. The cavitation-induced nanometer-scaled precipitates were found in the local zones of the eroded surface for Hastelloy C-276. The selective cavitation erosion was found in Hastelloy C-276 alloy. The formation of nanometer-scaled precipitates in the eroded surface may play a significant role in the cavitation erosion resistance of Hastelloy C-276.

  3. Cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 nickel-based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhen; Han, Jiesheng; Lu, Jinjun; Chen, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 was studied by ultrasonic apparatus. • The cavitation-induced precipitates formed in the eroded surface for Hastelloy C-276. • The selective cavitation erosion was found in Hastelloy C-276 alloy. - Abstract: The cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 alloy was investigated using an ultrasonic vibratory apparatus and compared with that of 316L stainless steel. The mean depth of erosion (MDE) and erosion rate (ER) curves vs. test time were attained for Hastelloy C-276 alloy. Morphology and microstructure evolution of the eroded surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and the predominant erosion mechanism was also discussed. The results show that the MDE is about 1/6 times lower than that of the stainless steel after 9 h of testing. The incubation period of Hastelloy C-276 alloy is about 3 times longer than that of 316L stainless steel. The cavitation-induced nanometer-scaled precipitates were found in the local zones of the eroded surface for Hastelloy C-276. The selective cavitation erosion was found in Hastelloy C-276 alloy. The formation of nanometer-scaled precipitates in the eroded surface may play a significant role in the cavitation erosion resistance of Hastelloy C-276

  4. Elevated temperature erosive wear of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Manish

    2006-01-01

    Solid particle erosion of metals and alloys at elevated temperature is governed by the nature of the interaction between erosion and oxidation, which, in turn, is determined by the thickness, pliability, morphology, adhesion characteristics and toughness of the oxide scale. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the present state of understanding of the elevated temperature erosion behaviour of metals and alloys. First of all, the erosion testing at elevated temperature is reviewed. This is followed by discussion of the essential features of elevated temperature erosion with special emphasis on microscopic observation, giving details of the erosion-oxidation (E-O) interaction mechanisms. The E-O interaction has been elaborated in the subsequent section. The E-O interaction includes E-O maps, analysis of transition criteria from one erosion mechanism to another mechanism and quantification of enhanced oxidation kinetics during erosion. Finally, the relevant areas for future studies are indicated. (topical review)

  5. Understanding Soil Erosion in Irrigated Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    O' Schwankl, Lawrence J

    2006-01-01

    A soil's physical and chemical properties determine whether it is vulnerable to erosion, which can reduce soil quality and cause other problems besides. Learn the basics of identifying what type of erosion is affecting your land and what's causing it.

  6. The impacts of grazing land management on the wind erodibility of the Mulga Lands of western Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    An estimated 100 Mt of dust is eroded by wind from the Australian land surface each year. Wind erosion may be widespread across the arid and semi-arid rangelands, with impacts on soil nutrients, carbon and ecosystem services, human health, and climate. The susceptibility of landscapes to wind erosio...

  7. Grid Integration of Offshore Wind | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Much can be learned from the existing land-based integration research for handling the variability and uncertainty of the wind resource Arklow Bank offshore wind park consists of seven GE Wind 3.6-MW wind turbines. Integration and

  8. Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beurskens, H.J.M. [SET Analysis, Kievitlaan 26, 1742 AD Schagen (Netherlands); Brand, A.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Over the years, wind energy has become a major source of renewable energy worldwide. The present chapter addresses the wind resource, which is available for exploitation for large-scale electricity production, and its specific physical properties. Furthermore, the technical options available to convert the energy of the air flow into mechanical energy and electricity are described. Specific problems of large-scale integration of wind energy into the grid as well as the present and future market developments are described in this chapter. Finally, environmental aspects are discussed briefly.

  9. Erosion of the first wall of Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, M.I.; Ionova, E.S.; Martynenko, Yu.V.

    1980-01-01

    An estimate of the rate of erosion of the wall due to sputtering and blistering requires knowledge of the fluxes and energies of the particles which go from the plasma to the wall, of the sputtering coefficients S, and of the erosion coefficients S* for blistering. The overall erosion coefficient is equal to the sum of the sputtering coefficient and the erosion coefficient for blistering. Here the T-20 Tokamak is examined as an example of a large-scale Tokamak. 18 refs

  10. HNEI wind-hydrogen program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, D.; Holst, B.; Yu, C.; Huang, N.; Wei, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on wind powered hydrogen production which is promising for Hawaii because Hawaii's wind energy potential exceeds the state's current electrical energy requirements by more than twenty-fold. Wind energy costs are now approaching $0.06 to $0.08/kWh, and the U.S. Department of Energy has set a goal of $0.04/kWh. These conditions make wind power a good source for electrolytic production of hydrogen. HNEI's wind-hydrogen program, at the HNEI-Kahua Wind Energy Storage Test facility on the island of Hawaii, is developing energy storage and power electronic systems for intermittent wind and solar devices to provide firm power to the utility or to a stand-alone hybrid system. In mid 1990, the first wind-hydrogen production/storage/ generation system is scheduled for installation. HNEI's wind- hydrogen program will provide research, development, demonstration, and education on the great potential and benefits of hydrogen

  11. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Volume 1, Issue 4 -- May 2008 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2008-05-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 4 features an interview with Brian Fairbank, president and CEO of Jiminy Peak Mountain Resort.

  12. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Volume 1, Issue 3 -- October 2007 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2007-10-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 3 features an interview with Andrew Dzykewicz, Commissioner of the Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources.

  13. Natural and anthropogenic rates of soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regions of land that are brought into crop production from native vegetation typically undergo a period of soil erosion instability, and long term erosion rates are greater than for natural lands as long as the land continues being used for crop production. Average rates of soil erosion under natur...

  14. Soil erosion in humid regions: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Holz; Karl W.J. Williard; Pamela J. Edwards; Jon E. Schoonover

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion has significant implications for land productivity and surface water quality, as sediment is the leading water pollutant worldwide. Here, erosion processes are defined. The dominant factors influencing soil erosion in humid areas are reviewed, with an emphasis on the roles of precipitation, soil moisture, soil porosity, slope steepness and length,...

  15. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  16. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    At the end of 2008,the European wind power capacity had risen to 65,247 MW which is a 15,1% increase on 2007. The financial crisis does not appear to have any real consequences of the wind power sector's activity in 2008. At the end of 2008 the European Union accommodated 53,9% of the world's wind power capacity. The top ten countries in terms of installed wind capacities are: 1) Usa with 25,388 MW, 2) Germany with 23,903 MW, 3) Spain with 16,740 MW, 4) China with 12,200 MW, 5) India with 9,645 MW, 6) Italy with 3,736 MW, 7) France with 3,542 MW, 8) U.K. with 3,406 MW, 9) Denmark with 3,166 MW and 10) Portugal with 2,862 MW. (A.C.)

  17. Modeling the fluid/soil interface erosion in the Hole Erosion Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissi B.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a complex phenomenon which yields at its final stage to insidious fluid leakages under the hydraulic infrastructures known as piping and which are the main cause of their rupture. The Hole Erosion Test is commonly used to quantify the rate of piping erosion. In this work, The Hole Erosion Test is modelled by using Fluent software package. The aim is to predict the erosion rate of soil during the hole erosion test. The renormalization group theory – based k–ε turbulence model equations are used. This modelling makes it possible describing the effect of the clay concentration in flowing water on erosion. Unlike the usual one dimensional models, the proposed modelling shows that erosion is not uniform erosion along the hole length. In particular, the concentration of clay is found to increase noticeably the erosion rate.

  18. Wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This publication describes some of the technical, economic, safety and institutional considerations involved in the selection, installation and evaluation of a wind generation system. This information is presented, where possible, in practical, non-technical terms. The first four sections provide background information, theory, and general knowledge, while the remaining six sections are of a more specific nature to assist the prospective owner of a wind generator in his calculations and selections. Meteorological information is provided relating to the wind regime in Nova Scotia. The section on cost analysis discusses some of the factors and considerations which must be examined in order to provide a logical comparison between the alternatives of electricity produced from other sources. The final two sections are brief summaries of the regulations and hazards pertaining to the use of wind generators. The cost of wind-generated electricity is high compared to present Nova Scotia Power Corporation rates, even on Sable Island, Nova Scotia's highest wind area. However, it may be observed that Sable Island is one of the areas of Nova Scotia which is not presently supplied through the power grid and, particularly if there was a significant increase in the price of diesel oil, wind-generated electricity may well be the most economical alternative in that area. Generally speaking, however, where a consumer can purchase electricity at the normal domestic rate, wind generators are not economical, and they will not become economical unless there is a great reduction in their cost, an great increase in electricity rates, or both. Includes glossary. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. The Arctic Coastal Erosion Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Matthew Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Craig A. [Integral Consulting Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Permafrost-dominated coastlines in the Arctic are rapidly disappearing. Arctic coastal erosion rates in the United States have doubled since the middle of the twentieth century and appear to be accelerating. Positive erosion trends have been observed for highly-variable geomorphic conditions across the entire Arctic, suggesting a major (human-timescale) shift in coastal landscape evolution. Unfortunately, irreversible coastal land loss in this region poses a threat to native, industrial, scientific, and military communities. The Arctic coastline is vast, spanning more than 100,000 km across eight nations, ten percent of which is overseen by the United States. Much of area is inaccessible by all-season roads. People and infrastructure, therefore, are commonly located near the coast. The impact of the Arctic coastal erosion problem is widespread. Homes are being lost. Residents are being dispersed and their villages relocated. Shoreline fuel storage and delivery systems are at greater risk. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operate research facilities along some of the most rapidly eroding sections of coast in the world. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is struggling to fortify coastal radar sites, operated to ensure national sovereignty in the air, against the erosion problem. Rapid alterations to the Arctic coastline are facilitated by oceanographic and geomorphic perturbations associated with climate change. Sea ice extent is declining, sea level is rising, sea water temperature is increasing, and permafrost state is changing. The polar orientation of the Arctic exacerbates the magnitude and rate of the environmental forcings that facilitate coastal land area loss. The fundamental mechanics of these processes are understood; their non-linear combination poses an extreme hazard. Tools to accurately predict Arctic coastal erosion do not exist. To obtain an accurate predictive model, a coupling of the influences of

  20. Preventing erosion at pipeline crossings of watercourses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawatsky, L.; Arnold, G.

    1997-01-01

    Watercourses are naturally vulnerable to erosion but the risk is particularly acute after sub-soil and armour materials have been disturbed by trenching and backfilling during construction. Various types of erosion (river scour, river bed, river channel bed and river bank ) and the progressive removal of pipeline cover resulting from erosion were discussed. Methods of estimating the risk of progressive erosion, river avulsions and beaver dam scour, and methods of mitigating erosion at pipeline crossings such as deep burial, proper siting, conventional armouring, and a combination of bank toe protection, and upper bank vegetation cover, were described

  1. Nourishment of perched sand dunes and the issue of erosion control in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, William M.

    1990-09-01

    Although limited in coverage, perched sand dunes situated on high coastal bluffs are considered the most prized of Great Lakes dunes. Grand Sable Dunes on Lake Superior and Sleeping Bear Dunes on Lake Michigan are featured attractions of national lakeshores under National Park Service management. The source of sand for perched dunes is the high bluff along their lakeward edge. As onshore wind crosses the bluff, flow is accelerated upslope, resulting in greatly elevated levels of wind stress over the slope brow. On barren, sandy bluffs, wind erosion is concentrated in the brow zone, and for the Grand Sable Bluff, it averaged 1 m3/yr per linear meter along the highest sections for the period 1973 1983. This mechanism accounts for about 6,500 m3 of sand nourishment to the dunefield annually and clearly has been the predominant mechanism for the long-term development of the dunefield. However, wind erosion and dune nourishment are possible only where the bluff is denuded of plant cover by mass movements and related processes induced by wave erosion. In the Great Lakes, wave erosion and bluff retreat vary with lake levels; the nourishment of perched dunes is favored by high levels. Lake levels have been relatively high for the past 50 years, and shore erosion has become a major environmental issue leading property owners and politicians to support lake-level regulation. Trimming high water levels could reduce geomorphic activity on high bluffs and affect dune nourishment rates. Locally, nourishment also may be influenced by sediment accumulation associated with harbor protection facilities and by planting programs aimed at stabilizing dunes.

  2. Soil Erosion Threatens Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Burgess

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since humans worldwide obtain more than 99.7% of their food (calories from the land and less than 0.3% from the oceans and aquatic ecosystems, preserving cropland and maintaining soil fertility should be of the highest importance to human welfare. Soil erosion is one of the most serious threats facing world food production. Each year about 10 million ha of cropland are lost due to soil erosion, thus reducing the cropland available for world food production. The loss of cropland is a serious problem because the World Health Organization and the Food and Agricultural Organization report that two-thirds of the world population is malnourished. Overall, soil is being lost from agricultural areas 10 to 40 times faster than the rate of soil formation imperiling humanity’s food security.

  3. On inhibition of dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rölla, Gunnar; Jonski, Grazyna; Saxegaard, Erik

    2013-11-01

    To examine the erosion-inhibiting effect of different concentrations of hydrofluoric acid. Thirty-six human molars were individually treated with 10 ml of 0.1 M citric acid for 30 min (Etch 1), acid was collected and stored until analysis. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups and then individually treated with 10 ml of one of six dilutions (from 0.1-1%) of hydrofluoric acid. The teeth were then again treated with citric acid (Etch 2). The individual acid samples from Etch 1 and 2 were analyzed for calcium by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy and difference in calcium loss was calculated. The highest erosion inhibiting effect was obtained in groups with the highest concentrations of hydrofluoric acid, where the pH was lowest, below pKa of 3.17, thus the hydrofluoric acids being mainly in an undissociated state. Diluted hydrofluoric acid is present in aqueous solution of SnF2 and TiF4 (which are known to inhibit dental erosion): SnF2 + 3H2O = Sn(OH)2 + 2HF + H2O and TiF4 + 5H2O = Ti(OH)4 + 4HF + H2O. It is also known that pure, diluted hydrofluoric acid can inhibit dental erosion. Teeth treated with hydrofluoric acid are covered by a layer of CaF2-like mineral. This mineral is acid resistant at pH acid resistant mineral, initiated by tooth enamel treatment with hydrofluoric acid. Hydrofluoric acid is different in having fluoride as a conjugated base, which provides this acid with unique properties.

  4. Erosive forms in rivers systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Una Alvarez, E. de; Vidal Romani, J. R.; Rodriguez Martinez-Conde, R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the geomorphological meaning of the concepts of stability/change and to study its influence on a fluvial erosion system. Different cases of fluvial potholes in Galicia (NW of the Iberian Peninsula) are considered. The work conclusions refer to the nature of the process and its morphological evolution in order to advance towards later contributions with respect of this type of systems. (Author) 14 refs.

  5. Uranium-Molybdenum particles produced by electro-erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanillas, Edgardo D.; Lopez, Marisol; Pasqualini, Enrique E.; Lombardo, D. J. C.

    2003-01-01

    We have produced spheroidal U-Mo particles by the electro-erosion method using pure water as dielectric. The particles were characterised by optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS-EDAX) and X-ray diffraction. Spheroidal UO 2 particles with a peculiar distribution size were obtained with two distribution centred at 10 and 70 μm. The obtained particles have central inclusions of U and Mo compounds. (author)

  6. Production of uranium-molybdenum particles by spark-erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanillas, E.D.; Lopez, M.; Pasqualini, E.E.; Cirilo Lombardo, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    With the spark-erosion method we have produced spheroidal particles of an uranium-molybdenum alloy using pure water as dielectric. The particles were characterized by optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Mostly spherical particles of UO 2 with a distinctive size distribution with peaks centered at 70 and 10 μm were obtained. The particles have central inclusions of U and Mo compounds

  7. Production of uranium-molybdenum particles by spark-erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabanillas, E.D. E-mail: cabanill@cnea.gov.ar; Lopez, M.; Pasqualini, E.E.; Cirilo Lombardo, D.J

    2004-01-01

    With the spark-erosion method we have produced spheroidal particles of an uranium-molybdenum alloy using pure water as dielectric. The particles were characterized by optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Mostly spherical particles of UO{sub 2} with a distinctive size distribution with peaks centered at 70 and 10 {mu}m were obtained. The particles have central inclusions of U and Mo compounds.

  8. Wind Penetration with different wind turbine technologies in a weak grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Fuentefria, Ariel; Castro Fernandez, Miguel A.; Martínez García, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The insertion of wind energy into electric network may provoke stability problems due to stochastic character of wind. The variation in the wind causes voltage variation in the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). In a weakest system that variation is high. Another important factor is wind turbine technology. The use of grid-connected fixed speed wind generator introduces a great consumption of reactive power that can be compensated using different devices as capacitors bank or static var compensator (SVC or STATCOM). In the other hand the variable speed wind turbine have an electronic converter to control the reactive consumption to maintain the PCC voltage more stable. In this paper a comparison between the different types of wind turbines technology is show. It's analyzing the impact in wind power limit for different wind turbine technologies in a weak system. (author)

  9. Erosion corrosion in wet steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavast, J.

    1988-03-01

    The effect of different remedies against erosion corrosion in wet steam has been studied in Barsebaeck 1. Accessible steam systems were inspected in 1984, 1985 and 1986. The effect of hydrogen peroxide injection of the transport of corrosion products in the condensate and feed water systems has also been followed through chemical analyses. The most important results of the project are: - Low alloy chromium steels with a chromium content of 1-2% have shown excellent resistance to erosion corrosion in wet steam. - A thermally sprayed coating has shown good resistance to erosion corrosion in wet steam. In a few areas with restricted accessibility minor attacks have been found. A thermally sprayed aluminium oxide coating has given poor results. - Large areas in the moisture separator/reheater and in steam extraction no. 3 have been passivated by injection of 20 ppb hydrogen peroxide to the high pressure steam. In other inspected systems no significant effect was found. Measurements of the wall thickness in steam extraction no. 3 showed a reduced rate of attack. - The injection of 20 ppb hydrogen peroxide has not resulted in any significant reduction of the iron level result is contrary to that of earlier tests. An increase to 40 ppb resulted in a slight decrease of the iron level. - None of the feared disadvantages with hydrogen peroxide injection has been observed. The chromium and cobalt levels did not increase during the injection. Neither did the lifetime of the precoat condensate filters decrease. (author)

  10. Laboratory development of wind turbine simulator using variable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1*Department of Electronics Engineering, Prof. ... In this paper variable speed induction motor drive using scalar control is interfaced in wind energy conversion ... the wind turbine simulator is used as a necessary tool in research laboratories.

  11. Process-based coastal erosion modeling for Drew Point (North Slope, Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravens, Thomas M.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Jinlin; Arp, Christopher D.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2012-01-01

    A predictive, coastal erosion/shoreline change model has been developed for a small coastal segment near Drew Point, Beaufort Sea, Alaska. This coastal setting has experienced a dramatic increase in erosion since the early 2000’s. The bluffs at this site are 3-4 m tall and consist of ice-wedge bounded blocks of fine-grained sediments cemented by ice-rich permafrost and capped with a thin organic layer. The bluffs are typically fronted by a narrow (∼ 5  m wide) beach or none at all. During a storm surge, the sea contacts the base of the bluff and a niche is formed through thermal and mechanical erosion. The niche grows both vertically and laterally and eventually undermines the bluff, leading to block failure or collapse. The fallen block is then eroded both thermally and mechanically by waves and currents, which must occur before a new niche forming episode may begin. The erosion model explicitly accounts for and integrates a number of these processes including: (1) storm surge generation resulting from wind and atmospheric forcing, (2) erosional niche growth resulting from wave-induced turbulent heat transfer and sediment transport (using the Kobayashi niche erosion model), and (3) thermal and mechanical erosion of the fallen block. The model was calibrated with historic shoreline change data for one time period (1979-2002), and validated with a later time period (2002-2007).

  12. Coupled Wave Energy and Erosion Dynamics along a Salt Marsh Boundary, Hog Island Bay, Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M. Priestas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between lateral erosion of salt marshes and wind waves is studied in Hog Island Bay, Virginia USA, with high-resolution field measurements and aerial photographs. Marsh retreat is compared to wave climate calculated in the bay using the spectral wave-model Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN. We confirm the existence of a linear relationship between long-term salt marsh erosion and wave energy, and show that wave power can serve as a good proxy for average salt-marsh erosion rates. At each site, erosion rates are consistent across several temporal scales, ranging from months to decades, and are strongly related to wave power. On the contrary, erosion rates vary in space and weakly depend on the spatial distribution of wave energy. We ascribe this variability to spatial variations in geotechnical, biological, and morphological marsh attributes. Our detailed field measurements indicate that at a small spatial scale (tens of meters, a positive feedback between salt marsh geometry and wave action causes erosion rates to increase with boundary sinuosity. However, at the scale of the entire marsh boundary (hundreds of meters, this relationship is reversed: those sites that are more rapidly eroding have a marsh boundary which is significantly smoother than the marsh boundary of sheltered and slowly eroding marshes.

  13. Bioengineering Technology to Control River Soil Erosion using Vetiver (Vetiveria Zizaniodes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwati, M.; Pallu, S.; Selintung, M.; Lopa, R.

    2018-04-01

    Erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock or dissolved material from one location on the earth’s crust, and then transport it away to another location. Bioengineering is an attempt to maximise the use of vegetation components along riverbanks to cope with landslides and erosion of river cliffs and another riverbank damage. This study aims to analyze the bioengineering of Vetiver as a surface layer for soil erosion control using slope of 100, 200, and 300. This study is conducted with 3 variations of rain intensity (I), at 103 mm/hour, 107 mm/hour, and 130 mm/hour by using rainfall simulator tool. In addition, the USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) method is used in order to measure the rate of soil erosion. In this study, there are few USLE model parameters were used such as rainfall erosivity factor, soil erodibility factor, length-loss slope and stepness factor, cover management factor, and support practise factor. The results demonstrated that average of reduction of erosion rate using Vetiver, under 3 various rainfalls, namely rainfall intensity 103 mm/hr had reduced 84.971%, rainfall intensity 107 mm/hr had reduced 86.583 %, rainfall intensity 130 mm/hr had reduced 65.851%.

  14. An assessment for the erosion rate of DEMO first wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, M. Z.

    2018-01-01

    In a fusion reactor a significant fraction of plasma particles lost from the confined volume will reach the vessel wall. The recombination of these charged species, electrons and ions of hydrogen isotopes, is a source of neutral molecules and atoms, recycling back into the plasma. Here they participate, in particular, in charge-exchange (c-x) collisions with the plasma ions and, as a result, atoms of high energies with chaotically oriented velocities are generated. A significant fraction of these hot neutrals will hit the wall, leading, as well as the outflowing fuel and impurity ions, to its erosion, limiting the reactor operation time. The rate of the wall erosion in DEMO is assessed by applying a one-dimensional model which takes into account the transport of charged and neutral species across the flux surfaces in the main part of the scrape-off layer, beyond the X-point vicinity and divertor, and by considering the shift of the centers of flux surfaces, their elongation and triangularity. Atoms generated by c-x of recycling neutrals are modeled kinetically to define firmly their energy spectrum, being of particular importance for the erosion assessment. It is demonstrated the erosion rate of the DEMO wall armor of tungsten will have a pronounced ballooning character with a significant maximum of 0.3 mm per full power year at the low field side, decreasing with an increase in the anomalous perpendicular transport in the ‘far’ SOL or the plasma density at the separatrix.

  15. Comparison of erosion and erosion control works in Macedonia, Serbia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Blinkov

    2013-12-01

    Natural conditions in the Balkan countries contribute to the appearance of various erosion forms and the intensity of the erosion processes. Over the history of these countries, people who settled this region used the available natural resources to fill their needs (tree cutting, incorrect plugging, overgrazing, which contributed to soil erosion. Organized erosion control works in the Balkans started in the beginning of the 20th century (1905 in Bulgaria. The highest intensity of erosion control works were carried out during the period 1945 – 1990. Various erosion control works were launched. Bulgaria had a large anti-erosion afforestation, almost 1 million ha. Bulgaria's ecological river restoration approach has been in use for almost 50 years. Serbia contributed significant erosion and torrent control works on hilly agricultural areas. Specific screen barrages and afforestation on extremely dry areas are characteristic in Macedonia. A common characteristic for all countries is a high decrease in erosion control works in the last 20 years.

  16. Beam-plasma interaction in randomly inhomogeneous plasmas and statistical properties of small-amplitude Langmuir waves in the solar wind and electron foreshock

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Lobzin, V. V.; Musatenko, K.; Souček, Jan; Pickett, J. S.; Cairns, I. H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 112, A10 (2007), A10109/1-A10109/12 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA301120601; GA AV ČR IAA300420602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : plasma waves * kinetic waves and instabilities * foreshock * solar wind Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2007

  17. Wind Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  18. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  19. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-55-005, QF07-56-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains...

  20. Cometary X-rays : solar wind charge exchange in cometary atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of the solar wind with the planets and the interstellar medium is of key importance for the evolution of our solar system. The interaction with Earth's atmosphere is best known for the northern light. In case of Mars, the interaction with the solar wind might have lead to the erosion

  1. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  2. Research Developments on Power System Integration of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    variability and prediction, wind power plant ancillary services, grid connection and operation, Smart grids and demand side management under market functionality. The topics of the first group of PhD program starting 2011 under the wind energy Sino-Danish Centre for Education & Research (SDC) are also......This paper presents an overview on the recent research activities and tendencies regarding grid integration of wind power in Denmark and some related European activities, including power electronics for enhancing wind power controllability, wind turbines and wind farms modeling, wind power...

  3. The comparison of various approach to evaluation erosion risks and design control erosion measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapicka, Jiri

    2015-04-01

    In the present is in the Czech Republic one methodology how to compute and compare erosion risks. This methodology contain also method to design erosion control measures. The base of this methodology is Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and their result long-term average annual rate of erosion (G). This methodology is used for landscape planners. Data and statistics from database of erosion events in the Czech Republic shows that many troubles and damages are from local episodes of erosion events. An extent of these events and theirs impact are conditional to local precipitation events, current plant phase and soil conditions. These erosion events can do troubles and damages on agriculture land, municipally property and hydro components and even in a location is from point of view long-term average annual rate of erosion in good conditions. Other way how to compute and compare erosion risks is episodes approach. In this paper is presented the compare of various approach to compute erosion risks. The comparison was computed to locality from database of erosion events on agricultural land in the Czech Republic where have been records two erosion events. The study area is a simple agriculture land without any barriers that can have high influence to water flow and soil sediment transport. The computation of erosion risks (for all methodology) was based on laboratory analysis of soil samples which was sampled on study area. Results of the methodology USLE, MUSLE and results from mathematical model Erosion 3D have been compared. Variances of the results in space distribution of the places with highest soil erosion where compared and discussed. Other part presents variances of design control erosion measures where their design was done on based different methodology. The results shows variance of computed erosion risks which was done by different methodology. These variances can start discussion about different approach how compute and evaluate erosion risks in areas

  4. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portilla S, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The wind energy or eolic energy is a consequence of solar energy, the one which is absorbed by the atmosphere and is transformed into energy of movement of large bulks of air. In this process the atmosphere acts as the filter to the solar radiation and demotes the ultraviolet beams that result fatal to life in the Earth. The ionosphere is the most external cap and this is ionized by means of absorption process of ultraviolet radiation arising to the Sun. The atmosphere also acts as a trap to the infrared radiation, it that results from the continual process of energetic degradation. In this way, the interaction between Earth - Atmospheres, is behaved as a great greenhouse, maintaining the constant temperatures, including in the dark nights. Processes as the natural convection (that occur by the thermodynamic phenomenon), equatorial calmness, trade winds and against trade winds and global distribution of the air currents are described. The other hand, techniques as the transformation of the wind into energy and its parameters also are shown

  5. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the wind power. It presents the principles, the technology takes off, its applications and technology focus, the global market trends and the outlooks and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  6. Cavitation erosion - scale effect and model investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, F.; Rutschmann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The experimental works presented in here contribute to the clarification of erosive effects of hydrodynamic cavitation. Comprehensive cavitation erosion test series were conducted for transient cloud cavitation in the shear layer of prismatic bodies. The erosion pattern and erosion rates were determined with a mineral based volume loss technique and with a metal based pit count system competitively. The results clarified the underlying scale effects and revealed a strong non-linear material dependency, which indicated significantly different damage processes for both material types. Furthermore, the size and dynamics of the cavitation clouds have been assessed by optical detection. The fluctuations of the cloud sizes showed a maximum value for those cavitation numbers related to maximum erosive aggressiveness. The finding suggests the suitability of a model approach which relates the erosion process to cavitation cloud dynamics. An enhanced experimental setup is projected to further clarify these issues.

  7. Mapping monthly rainfall erosivity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballabio, C; Meusburger, K; Klik, A

    2017-01-01

    to Eastern Europe. The maps also show a clear delineation of areas with different erosivity seasonal patterns, whose spatial outline was evidenced by cluster analysis. The monthly erosivity maps can be used to develop composite indicators that map both intra-annual variability and concentration of erosive...... and seasonal R-factor maps and assess rainfall erosivity both spatially and temporally. During winter months, significant rainfall erosivity is present only in part of the Mediterranean countries. A sudden increase of erosivity occurs in major part of European Union (except Mediterranean basin, western part...... selected among various statistical models to perform the spatial interpolation due to its excellent performance, ability to model non-linearity and interpretability. The monthly prediction is an order more difficult than the annual one as it is limited by the number of covariates and, for consistency...

  8. Erosion and sedimentation caused by watercourse regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, T.E.; Godtland, K.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the observations made by SINTEF NHL in 1993 - 1994 on the development of erosion in three regulated lakes in Norway: Devdesjavri, Store Maalvatn and Gjevilvatnet. Surveys, profile levelling, water sample analyses, aerial photography etc were all used. Erosion was dramatic in all three magazines the first year of regulation and then slowed down. It has since remained relatively stable. However, there is a risk of further strong erosion connected with flooding tributaries, notably at low water such as usually occurs in spring. This is true in particular of the main river discharging into Devdesjavri, which is subject to landslides, wave and river erosion. In addition, ground water erosion may occur if the magazine is drained too fast. The report is lavishly illustrated with colour pictures of the effects of erosion. 21 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs

  9. Varioliform erosions in the stomach and duodenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, W.; Schulz, D.; Munkel, G.

    1984-04-01

    One thousand five hundred and eighty-three patients who were x-rayed for dyspepsia showed varioliform erosions in 15.3%. Men had an incidence of 9.8%, almost twice as common as in women (5.5%). Mucosal polyps, usually of the hyperplastic type, occurred in 2.4%. 15% of patients with gastric ulcers and 16% of patients with duodenal ulcers had varioliform erosions. On the other hand, amongst patients with erosions, 11% had gastric ulcers and 8.3% duodenal ulcers. The definitions of erosion which have been given in the literature are partly contradictory, and are discussed. Varioliform erosions, also known as complete erosions, may be acute or chronic. They are the third most common cause of bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract. With modern radiological methods of examining the stomach, they are no longer a rare finding. 5 figs.

  10. Varioliform erosions in the stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, W.; Schulz, D.; Munkel, G.

    1984-01-01

    One thousand five hundred and eighty-three patients who were x-rayed for dyspepsia showed varioliform erosions in 15.3%. Men had an incidence of 9.8%, almost twice as common as in women (5.5%). Mucosal polyps, usually of the hyperplastic type, occurred in 2.4%. 15% of patients with gastric ulcers and 16% of patients with duodenal ulcers had varioliform erosions. On the other hand, amongst patients with erosions, 11% had gastric ulcers and 8.3% duodenal ulcers. The definitions of erosion which have been given in the literature are partly contradictory, and are discussed. Varioliform erosions, also known as complete erosions, may be acute or chronic. They are the third most common cause of bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract. With modern radiological methods of examining the stomach, they are no longer a rare finding. (orig.) [de

  11. Assessment and management of dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Lussi, Adrian

    2010-07-01

    Studies have shown a growing trend toward increasing prevalence of dental erosion, associated with the declining prevalence of caries disease in industrialized countries. Erosion is an irreversible chemical process that results in tooth substance loss and leaves teeth susceptible to damage as a result of wear over the course of an individual's lifetime. Therefore, early diagnosis and adequate prevention are essential to minimize the risk of tooth erosion. Clinical appearance is the most important sign to be used to diagnose erosion. The Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) is a simple method to fulfill this task. The determination of a variety of risk and protective factors (patient-dependent and nutrition-dependent factors) as well as their interplay are necessary to initiate preventive measures tailored to the individual. When tooth loss caused by erosive wear reaches a certain level, oral rehabilitation becomes necessary. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. DENTAL EROSION IN PRIMARY DENTITION- A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafi Shaik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The pattern of oral diseases has been influenced by ever changing human lifestyle. Tooth wear especially dental erosion has drawn increasing attention as risk factor for tooth damage or loss in recent years. It is a common condition in primary dentition compared to permanent dentition due to thinner and less mineralised enamel. However, it is more worrying, when this condition is being found in an alarming proportion among children. The presence of dental erosion in children is likely to be associated with a number of general health and dietary factors, but it is also aggravated by the relatively more rapid progression of erosion in the deciduous teeth. An understanding of the aetiologies and risk factors for erosion is important for early recognition of dental erosion to prevent serious irreversible damage to the dentition. This paper discusses the erosion in children with regard to its epidemiology, prevalence, clinical features, measurement and prevention.

  13. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  14. Wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  15. Nutrient losses by wind and water, measurements and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.M.; Stroosnijder, L.; Chardon, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Sahelian zone of West-Africa, erosion by both wind and water causes a serious decline in fertility of the already low fertile soils. Despite the fact that the flow of nutrients has been intensively investigated by the use of nutrient balances, little attention has been paid to the

  16. Observation of atomic oxygen O(1S) green-line emission in the summer polar upper mesosphere associated with high-energy (≥30 keV) electron precipitation during high-speed solar wind streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sook; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Solheim, Brian; Lee, Regina; Lee, Jaejin

    2017-01-01

    The auroral green-line emission at 557.7 nm wavelength as arising from the atomic oxygen O(1S → 1D) transition typically peaks at an altitude of 100 km specifically in the nightside oval, induced by auroral electrons within an energy range of 100 eV-30 keV. Intense aurora is known as being suppressed by sunlight in summer daytime but usually occurs in low electrical background conductivity. However, in the present study in summer (July) sunlit condition, enhancements of O(1S) emission rates observed by using the Wind Imaging Interferometer/UARS were frequently observed at low altitudes below 90 km, where ice particles are created initially as subvisible and detected as polar mesosphere summer echoes, emerging to be an optical phenomenon of polar mesospheric clouds. The intense O(1S) emission occurring in summer exceeds those occurring in the daytime in other seasons both in occurrence and in intensity, frequently accompanied by occurrences of supersonic neutral velocity (300-1500 m s-1). In the mesosphere, ion motion is controlled by electric field and the momentum is transferred to neutrals. The intense O(1S) emission is well associated with high-energy electron precipitation as observed during an event of high-speed solar wind streams. Meanwhile, since the minimum occurrences of O(1S) emission and supersonic velocity are maintained even in the low precipitation flux, the mechanism responsible is not only related to high-energy electron precipitation but also presumably to the local conditions, including the composition of meteoric-charged ice particles and charge separation expected in extremely low temperatures (<150 K).

  17. PROBLEMS OF SOIL PROTECTION FROM EROSION

    OpenAIRE

    M. Voloshuk; Natalia Kiriak

    2007-01-01

    In this article the problems of soil protection from erosion in Moldova are considered. The history (evolution) of erosive processes is generalized, the first items of information on presence washed off soils are marked. Purposeful study of soil erosion, development of measures of struggle with it were begun in Moldova at the end of 40 years. In connection with transition to new economic methods of conducting economy (farmers, rent, privatization of land) before pedologist, the experts of des...

  18. Wind uplift of radioactive dust from the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhon'ko, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Near nuclear power plants the recontamination of the atmosphere near the ground becomes dangerous, if a radioactive zone has formed at the site. Wind can easily carry toxic dust from the polluted territory of neighboring industrial enterprises. Moreover, wind erosion of the soil during the summer or transport of radioactive snow by a snowstorm during the winter can displace the boundaries of the contaminated radioactive zone. In Russia the investigation of wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground began after a radiation accident occurred at a storage facility in the Southern Urals in 1957, as a result of which a contaminated zone formed in the area. Since the direct mechanism of detachment of dust particles from the ground is not important in studying the results of the raising of radioactive dust into the atmosphere by wind, the authors do not distinguish between wind pickup and wind erosion, and the entire process wind pickup of radioactivity from the ground. After the radiation accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant a new generation of investigators began to study wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground, and the process under consideration was sometimes referred to as wind uplift. The intensity of the process of wind pickup of radioactive dust from the ground is characterized by the wind pickup coefficient α, which is the coefficient of proportionality between the upward flux Q of radioactivity from the ground and the density A of radioactive contamination of the ground: α = Q/A. Physically, the coefficient α is the upward flux of the impurity from the ground with unit contamination density, i.e., the intensity of dust contamination or the fraction of radioactivity picked up by the wind from the ground per unit time. The greatest difficulty in determining α experimentally under dusty conditions is measuring correctly the upward radioactivity flux Q. The author discusses three methods for determining this quantity

  19. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  20. Erosion products in disruption simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.; Arkhipov, N.; Bakhtin, V.; Barsuk, V.; Kurkin, S.; Mironova, E.; Toporkov, D.; Vasenin, S.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Arkhipov, I.; Werle, H.; Wuerz, H.

    1998-01-01

    Erosion of divertor materials under tokamak disruption event presents a serious problem of ITER technology. Erosion restricts the divertor lifetime and leads to production of redeposited layers of the material retaining large amount of tritium, which is a major safety issue for future fusion reactor. Since ITER disruptive heat loads are not achievable in existing tokamaks, material erosion is studied in special simulation experiments. Till now the simulation experiments have focused mainly on investigation of shielding effect and measurement of erosion rate. In the present work the properties of eroded and redeposited graphite are studied under condition typical for hard ITER disruption. (author)

  1. Reduction of surface erosion in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossing, T.D.; Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the major processes leading to surface erosion in fusion reactors are reviewed briefly, including blistering by implanted gas, sputtering by ions, atoms, and neutrons, and vaporization by local heating. Surface erosion affects the structural integrity and limits the lifetime of reactor components exposed to plasma radiation. In addition, some of the processes leading to surface erosion also cause the release of plasma contaminants. Methods proposed to reduce surface erosion have included control of surface temperature, selection of materials with a favorable microstructure, chemical and mechanical treatment of surfaces, and employment of protective surface coatings, wall liners, and divertors. The advantages and disadvantages of some of these methods are discussed

  2. Erosive lichen planus: a therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Williams; Giesen, Laura; Navajas-Galimany, Lucas; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Erosive lichen planus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus. Chronic erosions of the soles, accompanied by intense and disabling pain, are some of its most characteristic manifestations. We present the case of a woman who developed oral and plantar erosive lichen planus associated with lichen planus pigmentosus and ungueal lichen planus that were diagnosed after several years. The patient failed to respond to multiple therapies requiring longstanding medication but remained refractory. Knowledge of the treatment options for erosive lichen planus is insufficient. Further research is required to clarify their effectiveness, ideally adopting an evidence-based methodology.

  3. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB's.

  4. LiDAR-based 2D Localization and Mapping System using Elliptical Distance Correction Models for UAV Wind Turbine Blade Inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Ivan Adriyanov; Madsen, Claus B.

    2017-01-01

    The wind energy sector faces a constant need for annual inspections of wind turbine blades for damage, erosion and cracks. These inspections are an important part of the wind turbine life cycle and can be very costly and hazardous to specialists. This has led to the use of automated drone inspect...

  5. The influence of rill density on soil erosion against USLE-soil erosion methode

    OpenAIRE

    Rizalihadi, A.M.; Faimah, B.E.; Nazia, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Land and water is one of the major natural resource which has an important role for human life. Exploitation of land in catchment areas that not correspond to its carrying capacity will cause damage. One of the effect is increassing the soil erosion. Continuous erosion will also lead to increased sediment transport in rivers that disrupt the ship navigation on estuary due sediment accumulation. At present, soil erosion is estimated using USLE method, which is only limited to the erosion in th...

  6. Analysis of dental erosion induced by different beverages and validity of equipment for identifying early dental erosion, in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Rafey Ahmad; Khan, Shah Salman; Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Hj; Bakri, Marina Mohd; Siddiqui, Saima

    2016-07-01

    To understand early dental erosion induced by different beverages and the equipment for its detection. The study was conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from June to September 2014, and comprised single-rooted, unpolished teeth divided into six groups. Electron micrographs and other baseline readings for further analyses were taken before and after the exposure to different beverages. The teeth were exposed to the beverages using a modified Nordini's artificial mouth model. The positioning of the teeth on the motorised stage of the equipment was standardised. Of the several beverages used, CocaCola had the lowest pH value of 2.53, while tap water had the highest pH of 5.4. Deionised distilled water, which was used as a reference, had a pH near to neutral /alkaline of 7.3. The fluoride content ranged between 9.38ppm in tea and 0.005ppm in orange juice. Teeth exposed to beverages with low pH and considerably high fluoride underwent slight remineralisation (roughness increase 8% from tea), while beverages with no fluoride content and low pH roughened the enamel surface (Coca Cola roughened upto 37%). Quantitative analyses of tooth erosion, micro-hardness, surface-roughness, and surface-height showed that all beverages exhibited positive erosive effect on the tooth enamel surface (pCocaCola was found to be the most erosive agent among both hot and cold beverages (37%), while coffee was more erosive among the hot beverages (29%).

  7. Improvement in cavitation erosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel by friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajian, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollah-zadeh, A., E-mail: zadeh@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei-Nejad, S.S.; Assadi, H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadavi, S.M.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MA University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chung, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Engineering Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shokouhimehr, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Commercial AISI 316L plates with the initial grain size of 14.8 μm were friction stir processed (FSP) with different processing parameters, resulting in two fine-grained microstructures with the grain sizes of 4.6 and 1.7 μm. The cavitation erosion behavior, before and after FSP, was evaluated in terms of incubation time, cumulative mass loss and mean depth of erosion. A separate cavitation erosion test was performed on the transverse cross section of a FSP sample to reveal the effect of grain structure. It was observed that FSP samples, depending on their grain size, are at least 3–6 times more resistant than the base material against cavitation erosion. The improvement in cavitation erosion resistance is attributed to smaller grain structure, lower fraction of twin boundaries, and favorable crystallographic orientation of grains in FSP samples. The finer the grain size, the more cavitation erosion resistance was achieved. Moreover, the microstructures of eroded surfaces were studied using a scanning electron microscope equipped with EBSD, and an atomic force microscope. The mechanisms controlling the cavitation erosion damage in friction stir processed AISI 316L are also discussed.

  8. Protective effects of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste on enamel erosion: SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Marco; Beltrami, Riccardo; Rattalino, Davide; Mirando, Maria; Chiesa, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the protective effects of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste against an erosive challenge produced by a soft drink (Coca-Cola) using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Forty specimens were assigned to 4 groups of 10 specimens each (group 1: no erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, group 2: erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, group 3: erosive challenge, fluoride toothpaste treatment, group 4: erosive challenge, zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste treatment). The surface of each specimen was imaged by SEM. A visual rating system was used to evaluate the condition of the enamel surface; results were analyzed by nonparametric statistical methods. Statistically significant differences were found between the samples untreated and those immersed in Coca-Cola (group 1, 2); the highest grade of damage was found in group 2, while the lowest grade was recorded in the samples of group 4. Comparing the groups, the two analyzed toothpaste tended to protect in different extend. In this study treatment of erosively challenged enamel with Zn-Hap toothpaste showed a clear protective effect. This was greater than the effect observed for a normal fluoride toothpaste and confirmed the potential benefit the Zn-HAP technology can provide in protecting enamel from erosive acid challenges.

  9. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  10. Simulation of plasma erosion opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.J.; Jones, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The plasma erosion opening switch (PEOS) has been studied with the ANTHEM and ISIS implicit simulation codes. The switch consists of plasma fill injected into a transmission line. The plasma initially shorts out the circuit, but eventually it is removed by self-electrical forces, allowing for the delivery of energy to a load. ANTHEM models the plasma by multiple fluids with electron inertia retained, or by the particle-in-cell (PIC) technique. ISIS is an optimized PIC code. Both codes determine electric and magnetic fields by the implicit moment method. This allows for the study of long time full-switch behavior with simulational zone sizes and time steps that are large compared to a Debye length and plasma period, respectively. Thus, the authors have modeled switch behavior at densities ranging from 5 x 10 11 to 5 x 10 14 electrons/cm -3 over drive pulses ranging from 5 to 250 ns. Here, the magnetic field rose linearly from zero to 0.8 or 3.0 Tesla. Switch gaps spanned from 1.0 to 8.0 cm, and inner radii ranged from 0.5 to 20.0 cm. Opening dynamics is shown to depend sensitively on the assumed electron emission thresholds at the cathode, and on the effective conductivity of the anode. The particle simulations predict broader current channels than the multi-fluid calculations - reasons for this are discussed. The effect of numerical diffusion in implicit simulations is examined. The response to realistic load impedances (10 Ohms for Sandia National Laboratory's PBFA II accelerator) of the opening characteristics is described. Advantages from plasma fill near the load are investigated. The action of preset initial magnetic fields aligned with the power flow, and of trigger magnetic fields for controlled removal of the plasma is discussed

  11. Farmers' identification of erosion indicators and related erosion damage in the Central Highlands of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, G.; Okoba, B.O.

    2006-01-01

    Most soil and water conservation planning approaches rely on empirical assessment methods and hardly consider farmers' knowledge of soil erosion processes. Farmers' knowledge of on-site erosion indicators could be useful in assessing the site-specific erosion risk before planning any conservation

  12. Monthly Rainfall Erosivity Assessment for Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simon; Meusburger, Katrin; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Water erosion is crucially controlled by rainfall erosivity, which is quantified out of the kinetic energy of raindrop impact and associated surface runoff. Rainfall erosivity is often expressed as the R-factor in soil erosion risk models like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). Just like precipitation, the rainfall erosivity of Switzerland has a characteristic seasonal dynamic throughout the year. This inter-annual variability is to be assessed by a monthly and seasonal modelling approach. We used a network of 86 precipitation gauging stations with a 10-minute temporal resolution to calculate long-term average monthly R-factors. Stepwise regression and Monte Carlo Cross Validation (MCCV) was used to select spatial covariates to explain the spatial pattern of R-factor for each month across Switzerland. The regionalized monthly R-factor is mapped by its individual regression equation and the ordinary kriging interpolation of its residuals (Regression-Kriging). As covariates, a variety of precipitation indicator data has been included like snow height, a combination of hourly gauging measurements and radar observations (CombiPrecip), mean monthly alpine precipitation (EURO4M-APGD) and monthly precipitation sums (Rhires). Topographic parameters were also significant explanatory variables for single months. The comparison of all 12 monthly rainfall erosivity maps showed seasonality with highest rainfall erosivity in summer (June, July, and August) and lowest rainfall erosivity in winter months. Besides the inter-annual temporal regime, a seasonal spatial variability was detectable. Spatial maps of monthly rainfall erosivity are presented for the first time for Switzerland. The assessment of the spatial and temporal dynamic behaviour of the R-factor is valuable for the identification of more susceptible seasons and regions as well as for the application of selective erosion control measures. A combination with monthly vegetation

  13. Stellar winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weymann, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    It is known that a steady outflow of material at comparable rates of mass loss but vastly different speeds is now known to be ubiquitous phenomenon among both the luminous hot stars and the luminous but cool red giants. The flows are probably massive enough in both cases to give rise to significant effects on stellar evolution and the mass balance between stars and the interstellar medium. The possible mechanisms for these phenomena as well as the methods of observation used are described. In particular, the mass-loss processes in stars other than the sun that also involve a steady flow of matter are considered. The evidence for their existence is described, and then the question of whether the process thought to produce the solar wind is also responsible for producing these stellar winds is explored

  14. Erosion problems in Alexandroupolis coastline, North-Eastern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xeidakis, G. S.; Delimani, P.; Skias, S.

    2007-12-01

    This paper deals with the coastal erosion processes and the related problems around the city of Alexandroupolis, NE Aegean Sea, N. Greece. The area is very fast developing, as the city is an important port and a summer resort center in SE Balkans, and will become soon a transportation and energy center, as well. The coastline under study exhibits an east west orientation and has a length of more than 50 km. The spatial distribution and the characteristics of the changes in the shoreline were studied by comparing old and new air photographs and topographic maps, as well as through repeated series of field observations and local measurements regarding the erosion process. From these studies it was concluded that the greater stretch of the western part of the coast, under consideration, is of moderate to high relief, with a considerable participation of coastal cliffs. It consists of conglomerates of varying granulometry and consistency and is under moderate to severe erosion process. The erosion phenomena in the western part of the coast may be attributed, primarily, to strong S, SW winds, blowing in the area and to trapping of sediments by Alexandroupolis’ port breakwaters; the port stops or/and diverts the sediments to the open sea; and to the east to west longshore sea current, prevailing in the area. The eastern stretch of the coast is a plain area, formed by sandy silty sediments; being a part of the river Evros’ Delta, it is under deposition and accretes seawards. The majority of the coasts under consideration are classified as coasts of high wave energy potential. Hard structures, as shore protection measures, have been constructed in some places, but they were proved, in rather short time-period, ineffective and suffered extensive failures. Thus, it is argued that for a long-term cost-effective tackling of the various erosion problems on any stretch, priority must be given to soft engineering measures; although, certain hard measures, carefully selected

  15. Warm and hot electron distribution in the inner magnetosphere and the plasmasheet region related to the magnetospheric indices and the solar wind parameters: a statistical study form the NOAA POES TED and MEPED data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscher, Daniel; Rochel Grimald, Sandrine

    2013-04-01

    Using DMSP satellites, low altitude measurements has demonstrated to give a good picture of the plasmasheet population. The NOAA POES satellites are a constellation of five spacecraft orbiting in a polar orbit between 800 and 850 km and covering a wide L-shell range. They provide fourteen years of data without interruption which allow to make statistical study of the inner magnetosphere and the plasmasheet population. Moreover, since 2002, three of the NOAA POES satellites are located at different local times allowing to deduce the plasmasheet properties, even for huge magnetic activity. This paper present a statistical study of the warm and hot electron density over an energy range [0.16 ; 300] keV and between 1 and 12 Re. We present here maps in Mac Ilwain L paramater / MLT and we use the magnetic indices and solar wind parameter to classify our observations. The results show a clear motion of the plasmapause when Kp increase, which is in agreement with previous results, but it also show changes of the plasmapause shape and strong density variations in the night side sector. Moreover, a clear link between the solar wind parameters, in particular Bz, and the density distribution has been established. Unexpected distributions have been observed in the dayside and will be discussed here.

  16. Shoosing the appropriate size wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynette, R. [FloWind Corp., San Rafael, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Within the past several years, wind turbines rated at 400 kW and higher have been introduced into the market, and some manufacturers are developing machines rated at 750 - 1,000+ kW. This raises the question: What is the appropriate size for utility-grade wind turbines today? The answer depends upon the site where the machines will be used and the local conditions. The issues discussed in the paper are: (1) Site-Related (a) Visual, noise, erosion, television interference, interference with aviation (b) Siting efficiency (2) Logistics (a) Adequacy of roads and bridges to accept large vehicles (b) Availability and cost of cranes for erection and maintenance (c) Capability of local repair/overhauls (3) Cost Effectiveness (a) Capital costs (1) Wind Turbine (2) Infrastructure costs (b) Maintenance costs (4) Technical/Financial Risk. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. [Species-associated differences in foliage-root coupling soil-reinforcement and anti-erosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-quan; Liu, Jing; Nao, Min; Yao, Xi-jun; Zheng, Yong-gang; Li, You-fang; Su, Yu; Wang, Chen-jia

    2015-02-01

    This paper took four kinds of common soil and water conservation plants of the study area, Caragana microphylla, Salix psammophila, Artemisia sphaerocephala and Hippophae rhamnides at ages of 4 as the research object. Thirteen indicators, i.e., single shrub to reduce wind velocity ration, shelterbelt reducing wind velocity ration, community reducing wind velocity ration, taproot tensile strength, representative root constitutive properties, representative root elasticity modulus, lateral root branch tensile strength, accumulative surface area, root-soil interface sheer strength, interface friction coefficient, accumulative root length, root-soil composite cohesive, root-soil composite equivalent friction angle, reflecting the characteristics of windbreak and roots, were chose to evaluate the differences of foliage-root coupling soil-reinforcement and anti-erosion among four kinds of plants by analytic hierarchy process (AHP) under the condition of spring gale and summer rainstorm, respectively. The results showed the anti-erosion index of foliage-root coupling was in the sequence of S. psammophila (0.841) > C. microphylla (0.454) > A. sphaerocephala (-0.466) > H. rhamnides (-0.829) in spring gale, and C. microphylla (0.841) > S. psammophila (0. 474) > A. sphaerocephala (-0.470) > H. rhamnides (-0.844) in summer rainstorm. S. psammophila could be regarded as one of the most important windbreak and anti-erosion species, while C. microphylla could be the most valuable soil and water conservation plant for the study area.

  18. Wind conditions for wind turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-04-01

    Delegates from Europe and USA attended the meeting and discussed general aspects of wind conditions for wind turbine design. The subjects and the presented papers covered a very broad range of aspects of wind conditions and related influence on the wind turbine. (EHS)

  19. Influence of Ultrasound Treatment on Cavitation Erosion Resistance of AlSi7 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Pola

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound treatment of liquid aluminum alloys is known to improve mechanical properties of castings. Aluminum foundry alloys are frequently used for production of parts that undergo severe cavitation erosion phenomena during service. In this paper, the effect of the ultrasound treatment on cavitation erosion resistance of AlSi7 alloy was assessed and compared to that of conventionally cast samples. Cavitation erosion tests were performed according to ASTM G32 standard on as-cast and heat treated castings. The response of the alloy in each condition was investigated by measuring the mass loss as a function of cavitation time and by analyzing the damaged surfaces by means of optical and scanning electron microscope. It was pointed out that the ultrasound treatment increases the cavitation erosion resistance of the alloy, as a consequence of the higher chemical and microstructural homogeneity, the finer grains and primary particles and the refined structure of the eutectic induced by the treatment itself.

  20. Influence of Ultrasound Treatment on Cavitation Erosion Resistance of AlSi7 Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pola, Annalisa; Montesano, Lorenzo; Tocci, Marialaura; La Vecchia, Giovina Marina

    2017-03-03

    Ultrasound treatment of liquid aluminum alloys is known to improve mechanical properties of castings. Aluminum foundry alloys are frequently used for production of parts that undergo severe cavitation erosion phenomena during service. In this paper, the effect of the ultrasound treatment on cavitation erosion resistance of AlSi7 alloy was assessed and compared to that of conventionally cast samples. Cavitation erosion tests were performed according to ASTM G32 standard on as-cast and heat treated castings. The response of the alloy in each condition was investigated by measuring the mass loss as a function of cavitation time and by analyzing the damaged surfaces by means of optical and scanning electron microscope. It was pointed out that the ultrasound treatment increases the cavitation erosion resistance of the alloy, as a consequence of the higher chemical and microstructural homogeneity, the finer grains and primary particles and the refined structure of the eutectic induced by the treatment itself.

  1. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  2. Interrill soil erosion processes on steep slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    To date interrill erosion processes and regimes are not fully understood. The objectives are to 1) identify the erosion regimes and limiting processes between detachment and transport on steep slopes, 2) characterize the interactive effects between rainfall intensity and flow depth on sediment trans...

  3. Soil erosion dynamics response to landscape pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, W.; Skidmore, A.K.; Hao, F.; Wang, T.

    2010-01-01

    Simulating soil erosion variation with a temporal land use database reveals long-term fluctuations in landscape patterns, as well as priority needs for soil erosion conservation. The application of a multi-year land use database in support of a Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) led to an accurate

  4. Reduction of soil erosion on forest roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward R. Burroughs; John G. King

    1989-01-01

    Presents the expected reduction in surface erosion from selected treatments applied to forest road traveledways, cutslopes, fillslopes, and ditches. Estimated erosion reduction is expressed as functions of ground cover, slope gradient, and soil properties whenever possible. A procedure is provided to select rock riprap size for protection of the road ditch.

  5. Forest road erosion control using multiobjective optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Thompson; John Sessions; Kevin Boston; Arne Skaugset; David Tomberlin

    2010-01-01

    Forest roads are associated with accelerated erosion and can be a major source of sediment delivery to streams, which can degrade aquatic habitat. Controlling road-related erosion therefore remains an important issue for forest stewardship. Managers are faced with the task to develop efficient road management strategies to achieve conflicting environmental and economic...

  6. Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2006-08-08

    This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

  7. Tools for Ephemeral Gully Erosion Process Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techniques to quantify ephemeral gully erosion have been identified by USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as one of gaps in current erosion assessment tools. One reason that may have contributed to this technology gap is the difficulty to quantify changes in channel geometry to asses...

  8. Developing empirical relationship between interrill erosion, rainfall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to develop an empirical relationship for interrill erosion based on rainfall intensity, slope steepness and soil types, an interrill erosion experiment was conducted using laboratory rainfall simulator on three soil types (Vertisols, Cambisols and Leptosols) for the highlands of North Shewa Zone of Oromia Region.

  9. Rethinking erosion on Java: a reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de J.; Wiersum, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    In a recent article (Diemont et al., 1991) about erosion on Java, it has been postulated that low inputs, not surface erosion, is the main cause of low productivity of upland food crops on this island. In this article it is argued that this hypothesis is too simple. An analysis of empirical field

  10. The erosive potential of candy sprays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gambon, D.L.; Brand, H.S.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the erosive potential of seven different commercially available candy sprays in vitro and in vivo. Material and methods The erosive potential was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. The salivary pH and flow rate were measured in healthy

  11. Dental erosion: prevalence, incidence, and distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.H.J.; Amaechi, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    Dental erosion is one of the most common dental diseases and it is a growing problem. Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated the prevalence of dental erosion. For these studies different cross sections of the population are investigated. Large differences were found between countries,

  12. Backward erosion piping : Initiation and progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Beek, V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Backward erosion piping is an internal erosion mechanism during which shallow pipes are formed in the direction opposite to the flow underneath water-retaining structures as a result of the gradual removal of sandy material by the action of water. It is an important failure mechanism in both dikes

  13. Tooth erosion and eating disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Hermont

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are associated with the highest rates of morbidity and mortality of any mental disorders among adolescents. The failure to recognize their early signs can compromise a patient's recovery and long-term prognosis. Tooth erosion has been reported as an oral manifestation that might help in the early detection of eating disorders. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence regarding the following clinical question: Do eating disorders increase the risk of tooth erosion? METHODS: An electronic search addressing eating disorders and tooth erosion was conducted in eight databases. Two independent reviewers selected studies, abstracted information and assessed its quality. Data were abstracted for meta-analysis comparing tooth erosion in control patients (without eating disorders vs. patients with eating disorders; and patients with eating disorder risk behavior vs. patients without such risk behavior. Combined odds ratios (ORs and a 95% confidence interval (CI were obtained. RESULTS: Twenty-three papers were included in the qualitative synthesis and assessed by a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Fourteen papers were included in the meta-analysis. Patients with eating disorders had more risk of tooth erosion (OR = 12.4, 95%CI = 4.1-37.5. Patients with eating disorders who self-induced vomiting had more risk of tooth erosion than those patients who did not self-induce vomiting (OR = 19.6, 95%CI = 5.6-68.8. Patients with risk behavior of eating disorder had more risk of tooth erosion than patients without such risk behavior (Summary OR = 11.6, 95%CI = 3.2-41.7. CONCLUSION: The scientific evidence suggests a causal relationship between tooth erosion and eating disorders and purging practices. Nevertheless, there is a lack of scientific evidence to fulfill the basic criteria of causation between the risk behavior for eating disorders and tooth erosion.

  14. Effect of flow velocity on erosion-corrosion behaviour of QSn6 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weijiu; Zhou, Yongtao; Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Zhijun; Zheng, Ziqing

    2018-05-01

    The erosion-corrosion behaviour of QSn6 alloy used as propellers in marine environment was evaluated by erosion-corrosion experiments with/without cathodic protection, electrochemical tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The analysis was focused on the effect of flow velocity. The dynamic polarization curves showed that the corrosion rate of the QSn6 alloy increased as the flow velocity increased, due to the protective surface film removal at higher velocities. The lowest corrosion current densities of 1.26 × 10‑4 A cm‑2 was obtained at the flow velocity of 7 m s‑1. Because of the higher particle kinetic energies at higher flow velocity, the mass loss rate of the QSn6 alloy increased as the flow velocity increased. The mass loss rate with cathodic protection was lower than that without cathodic protection under the same conditions. Also, the lowest mass loss rate of 0.7 g m‑2 · h‑1 was acquired at the flow velocity of 7 m s‑1 with cathodic protection. However, the increase rate of corrosion rate and mass loss were decreased with increasing the flow velocity. Through observation the SEM morphologies of the worn surfaces, the main wear mechanism was ploughing with/without cathodic protection. The removal rates of the QSn6 alloy increased as the flow velocity increased in both pure erosion and erosion-corrosion, whereas the erosion and corrosion intensified each other. At the flow velocity of 7 m s‑1, the synergy rate (ΔW) exceeded by 5 times the erosion rate (Wwear). Through establishment and observation the erosion-corrosion mechanism map, the erosion-corrosion was the dominant regime in the study due to the contribution of erosion on the mass loss rate exceeded the corrosion contribution. The QSn6 alloy with cathodic protection is feasible as propellers, there are higher security at lower flow velocity, such as the flow velocity of 7 m s‑1 in the paper.

  15. Regionalization of monthly rainfall erosivity patternsin Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simon; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos; Meusburger, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    One major controlling factor of water erosion is rainfall erosivity, which is quantified as the product of total storm energy and a maximum 30 min intensity (I30). Rainfall erosivity is often expressed as R-factor in soil erosion risk models like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). As rainfall erosivity is closely correlated with rainfall amount and intensity, the rainfall erosivity of Switzerland can be expected to have a regional characteristic and seasonal dynamic throughout the year. This intra-annual variability was mapped by a monthly modeling approach to assess simultaneously spatial and monthly patterns of rainfall erosivity. So far only national seasonal means and regional annual means exist for Switzerland. We used a network of 87 precipitation gauging stations with a 10 min temporal resolution to calculate long-term monthly mean R-factors. Stepwise generalized linear regression (GLM) and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) were used to select spatial covariates which explain the spatial and temporal patterns of the R-factor for each month across Switzerland. The monthly R-factor is mapped by summarizing the predicted R-factor of the regression equation and the corresponding residues of the regression, which are interpolated by ordinary kriging (regression-kriging). As spatial covariates, a variety of precipitation indicator data has been included such as snow depths, a combination product of hourly precipitation measurements and radar observations (CombiPrecip), daily Alpine precipitation (EURO4M-APGD), and monthly precipitation sums (RhiresM). Topographic parameters (elevation, slope) were also significant explanatory variables for single months. The comparison of the 12 monthly rainfall erosivity maps showed a distinct seasonality with the highest rainfall erosivity in summer (June, July, and August) influenced by intense rainfall events. Winter months have the lowest rainfall erosivity. A proportion of 62 % of

  16. The June 2016 Australian East Coast Low: Importance of Wave Direction for Coastal Erosion Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Mortlock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In June 2016, an unusual East Coast Low storm affected some 2000 km of the eastern seaboard of Australia bringing heavy rain, strong winds and powerful wave conditions. While wave heights offshore of Sydney were not exceptional, nearshore wave conditions were such that beaches experienced some of the worst erosion in 40 years. Hydrodynamic modelling of wave and current behaviour as well as contemporaneous sand transport shows the east to north-east storm wave direction to be the major determinant of erosion magnitude. This arises because of reduced energy attenuation across the continental shelf and the focussing of wave energy on coastal sections not equilibrated with such wave exposure under the prevailing south-easterly wave climate. Narrabeen–Collaroy, a well-known erosion hot spot on Sydney’s Northern Beaches, is shown to be particularly vulnerable to storms from this direction because the destructive erosion potential is amplified by the influence of the local embayment geometry. We demonstrate the magnified erosion response that occurs when there is bi-directionality between an extreme wave event and preceding modal conditions and the importance of considering wave direction in extreme value analyses.

  17. Erosion testing of hard materials and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-04-29

    Erosion is the process by which unconstrained particles, usually hard, impact a surface, creating damage that leads to material removal and component failure. These particles are usually very small and entrained in fluid of some type, typically air. The damage that occurs as a result of erosion depends on the size of the particles, their physical characteristics, the velocity of the particle/fluid stream, and their angle of impact on the surface of interest. This talk will discuss the basics of jet erosion testing of hard materials, composites and coatings. The standard test methods will be discussed as well as alternative approaches to determining the erosion rate of materials. The damage that occurs will be characterized in genera1 terms, and examples will be presented for the erosion behavior of hard materials and coatings (both thick and thin).

  18. Modelling rainfall erosion resulting from climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnell, Peter

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that soil erosion leads to agricultural productivity decline and contributes to water quality decline. The current widely used models for determining soil erosion for management purposes in agriculture focus on long term (~20 years) average annual soil loss and are not well suited to determining variations that occur over short timespans and as a result of climate change. Soil loss resulting from rainfall erosion is directly dependent on the product of runoff and sediment concentration both of which are likely to be influenced by climate change. This presentation demonstrates the capacity of models like the USLE, USLE-M and WEPP to predict variations in runoff and erosion associated with rainfall events eroding bare fallow plots in the USA with a view to modelling rainfall erosion in areas subject to climate change.

  19. Erosion Pressure on the Danish Coasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Sørensen, Per; Kroon, Aart

    Coastlines around the world are receding due to coastal erosion.With rising sea levels and a potential climatic deterioration due to climate change, erosion rates are likely to increase at many locations in the future.Together with the current preference of people to settle near or directly...... by the ocean, coastal erosion issues become increasingly more important to the human values at risk. Along many Danish coastlines, hard structures already act as coastal protection in the form of groins, breakwaters, revetments etc. These eroding coasts however still lack sand and where the public, in general......, neglects the need for sand replenishment i.e. in the form of repeated sand nourishments. Here we present a conceptual model and method for dividing coastal erosion into acute and chronic erosion pressure, respectively. We focus on the model use for management and climate change adaptation purposes...

  20. Dietary assessment and counseling for dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Teresa A

    2018-02-01

    Dental erosion occurs after exposure to intrinsic or extrinsic acids. Exposure to intrinsic gastrointestinal acids is associated with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, rumination syndrome, or gastroesophageal reflux. Extrinsic dietary acids from foods or beverages also can cause erosion, particularly when exposure is prolonged by holding or swishing behaviors. Clinicians should screen patients exhibiting dental erosion for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, rumination syndrome, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Clinicians should screen patients without a medical explanation for their erosion for exposure to acidic foods and beverages, particularly for habits that prolong exposure. Identification of intrinsic and extrinsic acid exposures and recommendations to minimize exposures are important to prevent erosion and maintain oral health. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Medication-related dental erosion: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Manuel S; Vivekananda Pai, A R; Yadav, Amit

    2015-10-01

    Dental erosion has become a major problem that affects the long-term health of the dentition. Among the various potential causes for erosive tooth wear, the different drugs prescribed for patients may be overlooked. Several therapeutic medications can directly or indirectly be associated with dental erosion. It is the responsibility of oral health providers to make both patients and colleagues aware of drugs that may contribute to this condition. Therefore, the purpose of this discussion is to provide an overview of the various therapeutic medications that can be related to tooth erosion. The authors also include precautionary measures-summarized as The 9 Rs-to avoid or at least reduce medication-induced erosion.

  2. Soil erosion processes on sloping land using REE tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Zhenzhou; Liu Puling; Yang Mingyi; Lian Zhenlong; Ju Tongjun; Yao Wenyi; Li Mian

    2007-01-01

    Sheet erosion is the main performance in the slope soil erosion process at the primary stage of natural rainfall. For three times of rainfall during experiment, the ratios of sheet erosion to total erosion account for 71%, 48% and 49% respectively, which showed that the sloping erosion was still at the primary stage from sheet erosion to rill erosion. With the rainfall going, the rill erosion amount increase. It showed that soil erosion was changing from sheet erosion to rill erosion. The sources of sediment from different sections of the plot were analyzed, and the results indicated that whatever the sheet erosion changed, the ratio erosion of upper part of surface soil was always lower than 10%. Sheet erosion came mainly from the lower section of surface soil. With the ratios to the amount of total rill erosion changes, the rill erosion amount of each section regularly changes too. The general conclusion is that when the rainfall ends, relative erosion of different slope element to the foot of slope is: 1 meter away accounts for 16%, 2-4 meters away is 6% and 5-9 meters away is 3%. The ratio of rill erosion amount of these three slope element is 5:2:1, which shows the rill erosion amount are mainly from the slope element of 4 meters from the foot of slope. (authors)

  3. Erosion resistance comparison of alternative surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Česánek, Z.; Schubert, J.; Houdková, Š.

    2017-05-01

    Erosion is a process characterized by the particle separation and the damage of component functional surfaces. Thermal spraying technology HP/HVOF (High Pressure / High Velocity Oxygen Fuel) is commonly used for protection of component surfaces against erosive wear. Alloy as well as cermet based coatings meet the requirements for high erosion resistance. Wear resistance is in many cases the determining property of required component functioning. The application suitability of coating materials is particularly influenced by different hardness. This paper therefore presents an erosion resistance comparison of alloy and cermet based coatings. The coatings were applied on steel substrates and were subjected to the erosive test using the device for evaluation of material erosion resistance working on the principle of centrifugal erodent flow. Abrasive sand Al2O3 with grain size 212-250 μm was selected as an erosive material. For this purpose, the specimens were prepared by thermal spraying technology HP/HVOF using commercially available powders Stellite 6, NiCrBSi, Cr3C2-25%NiCr, Cr3C2-25%CoNiCrAlY, Hastelloy C-276 and experimental coating TiMoCN-29% Ni. Erosion resistance of evaluated coatings was compared with erosive resistance of 1.4923 high alloyed steel without nitridation and in nitrided state and further with surface treatment using technology PVD. According to the evaluation, the resulting erosive resistance depends not only on the selected erodent and surface protection, but also on the erodent impact angle.

  4. Dynamic Analysis of Soil Erosion in Songhua River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujuan; Li, Xiuhai; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Jiang; Liang, Xin; Li, Dan; Ni, Chundi; Liu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, based on RS and GIS technology and Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), the soil erosion dynamic changes during the two periods of 1990 and 2010 in Bin County was analyzed by using the Landsat TM data of the two periods, so as to reveal the soil erosion spatial distribution pattern and spatial and temporal dynamic evolution rule in the region. The results showed that: the overall patterns of soil erosion were basically the same in both periods, mainly featuring slight erosion and mild erosion, with the area proportions of 80.68% and 74.71% respectively. The slight and extremely intensive erosion changing rates showed a narrowing trend; mild, moderate and intensive erosion was increasing, with a trend of increased soil erosion; mild and intensive erosion were developing towards moderate erosion and moderate and extremely intensive erosion were progressing towards intensive erosion.

  5. Erodibility of waste (Loess) soils from construction sites under water and wind erosional forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Smadar; Katra, Itzhak; Argaman, Eli; Ben-Hur, Meni

    2018-03-01

    Excess soils from construction sites (waste soils) become a problem when exposed to soil erosion by water or wind. Understanding waste soil erodibility can contribute to its proper reuse for various surface applications. The general objective of the study was to provide a better understanding of the effects of soil properties on erodibility of waste soils excavated from various depths in a semiarid region under rainfall and wind erosive forces. Soil samples excavated from the topsoil (0-0.3m) and subsoil layers (0.3-0.9 and >1m depths) were subjected to simulated rainfall and wind. Under rainfall erosive forces, the subsoils were more erodible than the topsoil, in contrast to the results obtained under wind erosive forces. Exchangeable sodium percentage was the main factor controlling soil erodibility (K i ) under rainfall, and a significant logarithmic regression line was found between these two parameters. In addition, a significant, linear regression was found between K i and slaking values for the studied soil samples, suggesting that the former can be predicted from the latter. Soil erodibility under wind erosion force was controlled mainly by the dry aggregate characteristics (mean weight diameter and aggregate density): their higher values in the subsoil layers resulted in lower soil erodibility compared to the topsoil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mapping monthly rainfall erosivity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Spinoni, Jonathan; Meusburger, Katrin; Michaelides, Silas; Beguería, Santiago; Klik, Andreas; Petan, Sašo; Janeček, Miloslav; Olsen, Preben; Aalto, Juha; Lakatos, Mónika; Rymszewicz, Anna; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Tadić, Melita Perčec; Diodato, Nazzareno; Kostalova, Julia; Rousseva, Svetla; Banasik, Kazimierz; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos

    2017-02-01

    Rainfall erosivity as a dynamic factor of soil loss by water erosion is modelled intra-annually for the first time at European scale. The development of Rainfall Erosivity Database at European Scale (REDES) and its 2015 update with the extension to monthly component allowed to develop monthly and seasonal R-factor maps and assess rainfall erosivity both spatially and temporally. During winter months, significant rainfall erosivity is present only in part of the Mediterranean countries. A sudden increase of erosivity occurs in major part of European Union (except Mediterranean basin, western part of Britain and Ireland) in May and the highest values are registered during summer months. Starting from September, R-factor has a decreasing trend. The mean rainfall erosivity in summer is almost 4 times higher (315MJmmha -1 h -1 ) compared to winter (87MJmmha -1 h -1 ). The Cubist model has been selected among various statistical models to perform the spatial interpolation due to its excellent performance, ability to model non-linearity and interpretability. The monthly prediction is an order more difficult than the annual one as it is limited by the number of covariates and, for consistency, the sum of all months has to be close to annual erosivity. The performance of the Cubist models proved to be generally high, resulting in R 2 values between 0.40 and 0.64 in cross-validation. The obtained months show an increasing trend of erosivity occurring from winter to summer starting from western to Eastern Europe. The maps also show a clear delineation of areas with different erosivity seasonal patterns, whose spatial outline was evidenced by cluster analysis. The monthly erosivity maps can be used to develop composite indicators that map both intra-annual variability and concentration of erosive events. Consequently, spatio-temporal mapping of rainfall erosivity permits to identify the months and the areas with highest risk of soil loss where conservation measures should be

  7. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  8. Erosion products of ITER divertor materials under plasma disruption simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, M.I.; Gureev, V.M.; Kolbasov, B.N.; Korshunov, S.N.; Martynenko, Yu.V. E-mail: martyn@nfi.kiae.ru; Stolyarova, V.G.; Strunnikov, V.M.; Vasiliev, V.I

    2003-09-01

    Candidate ITER divertor armor materials: carbon-fiber-composite and four tungsten grades/alloys as well as mixed re-deposited W+Be and W+C layers were exposed in electrodynamic plasma accelerator MKT which provided a pulsed deuterium plasma flux simulating plasma disruptions with maximum ion energy of 1-2 keV, an energy density of 300 kJ/m{sup 2} per shot and a pulse duration of {approx}60 {mu}s. The number of pulses was from 2 to 10. The resultant erosion products were collected on a basalt filter and Si-collectors and studied in terms of morphology and size distribution using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal erosion products usually occurred in the form of spherical droplets, sometimes flakes. Their size distribution depended on the positioning of the collector. Simultaneously irradiated W, CFC and mixed W+Be targets appeared to have undergone a greater erosion than the same targets irradiated individually. Particles sized from 0.01 to 30 {mu}m were found on collectors and on a molten W-surface. A model of droplet emission and behavior in shielding plasma is provided.

  9. Wind models for zeta Orionis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    Several models for the winds of O stars have been proposed to explain the unexpected presence of high ionization potential ions such as N +4 and O +5 . Lamers and Snow (1978) proposed that the winds of stars showing N V and O VI lines have elevated temperatures near 4 +- 2 x 10 5 K while cooler stars with anomalous Si IV lines have Tsub(e) approximately 7+-3 x 10 4 K. Alternately, Cassinelli and Olson (1978, CO) and Olson (1978) have explained the presence of these ions by showing that a thin corona at the base of a cool wind (Tsub(e) < approximately Tsub(eff)) can produce these ions by the Auger photoionization process where a single X-ray photon causes the ejection of two electrons. A third possibility is that the winds are at only slightly elevated temperatures (40 000 to 60 000K) and photoionization in an optically thick wind produces the unexpected ions. The present analysis tests the ability of these three wind models to fit the observations of zeta Orionis A 09.7 Ib. (Auth.)

  10. Wind Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind Energy Basics Wind Energy Basics We have been harnessing the wind's energy for hundreds of grinding grain. Today, the windmill's modern equivalent-a wind turbine can use the wind's energy to most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they can take advantage of the faster and

  11. Prospecting for Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a…

  12. Careers in Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  13. Effects of laser shock processing on electrochemical corrosion resistance of ANSI 304 stainless steel weldments after cavitation erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.K.; Lu, J.Z.; Dai, F.Z.; Feng, A.X.; Luo, K.Y.; Zhong, J.S.; Wang, Q.W.; Luo, M.; Qi, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Weldments were done with laser shock processing impacts after cavitation erosion. ► Laser shock processing enhanced the erosion and corrosion resistance of weldments. ► Tensile residual stress and surface roughness decreased by laser shock processing. ► Microstructure was observed to explain the improvement by laser shock processing. ► Obvious passivation areas occurred with laser shock processing impacts. - Abstract: Effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on electrochemical corrosion resistance of weldments after cavitation erosion were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology, scanning electron microscope (SEM), roughness tester and optical microscope (OM). Some main factors to influence erosion and corrosion of weldments, residual stresses, surface roughness, grain refinements and slip, were discussed in detail. Results show that LSP impacts can induce compressive residual stresses, decrease surface roughness, refine grains and generate the slip. Thus, the erosion and corrosion resistance with LSP impacts is improved.

  14. Lithosphere erosion atop mantle plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrusta, R.; Arcay, D.; Tommasi, A.

    2012-12-01

    Mantle plumes are traditionally proposed to play an important role in lithosphere erosion. Seismic images beneath Hawaii and Cape Verde show a lithosphere-asthenosphere-boundary (LAB) up to 50 km shallower than the surroundings. However, numerical models show that unless the plate is stationary the thermo-mechanical erosion of the lithosphere does not exceed 30 km. We use 2D petrological-thermo-mechanical numerical models based on a finite-difference method on a staggered grid and marker in cell method to study the role of partial melting on the plume-lithosphere interaction. A homogeneous peridotite composition with a Newtonian temperature- and pressure-dependent viscosity is used to simulate both the plate and the convective mantle. A constant velocity, ranging from 5 to 12.5 cm/yr, is imposed at the top of the plate. Plumes are created by imposing a thermal anomaly of 150 to 350 K on a 50 km wide domain at the base of the model (700 km depth); the plate right above the thermal anomaly is 40 Myr old. Partial melting is modeled using batch-melting solidus and liquidus in anhydrous conditions. We model the progressive depletion of peridotite and its effect on partial melting by assuming that the melting degree only strictly increases through time. Melt is accumulated until a porosity threshold is reached and the melt in excess is then extracted. The rheology of the partially molten peridotite is determined using viscous constitutive relationship based on a contiguity model, which enables to take into account the effects of grain-scale melt distribution. Above a threshold of 1%, melt is instantaneously extracted. The density varies as a function of partial melting degree and extraction. Besides, we analyze the kinematics of the plume as it impacts a moving plate, the dynamics of time-dependent small-scale convection (SSC) instabilities developing in the low-viscosity layer formed by spreading of hot plume material at the lithosphere base, and the resulting thermal

  15. X-ray diagnosis of erosive gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taskov, A.; Krastin, A.

    1993-01-01

    A series of 602 patients are studied according to a standard protocol including double contrast examination, taking films with dosed compression and complete filling (accordingly 3+3+1 radiographs). A barium suspension at concentration 200.0 BaSO 4 in 100 ml water is used as a positive contrast medium, and effervescent powder or pills - as a negative contrast. Erosive gastritis is diagnosed in 48 patients (7.9%) of which 38 present complete erosions (79.2%), 6 (12.6%) - incomplete, and 4 (8.3%) - mixed erosions. In 35 cases (72.9%) erosions are differentiated in double-contrast films, while in 21 (43.8%) - in those with compression. The advantage of the double contrast technique consists in visualization of erosions of the body of the stomach and discovering of incomplete erosions. In 483 patients a comparative assessment is done of the X-ray and endoscopic findings. There are recorded 5 false-positive and 25 false-negative radiological results. The sensitivity of the X-ray study in terms of erosive gastritis amounts to 59.7%. 15 refs., 4 figs. (orig.)

  16. Erosion and stability of a mine soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.H.; Stadler, A.T.; Low, C.

    1996-01-01

    Mine soils developed from mine spoils commonly have a wide range of particle size. The slopes of old spoil piles usually are marked by gullies due to years of uncontrolled erosion. These characteristics raise questions about applicability of available theories and models for estimating runoff and erosion. An investigation was made to determine whether available erosion models can work for mine soils and can account for gully erosion. The investigation at an abandoned surface mine consisted of measurement of soil and sediment properties, measurement of runoff and erosion, observations of armor by rock fragments on gully floor, and calculations with available theories of sediment transport and slope stability. The results at this site suggest that (1) predictions with the ANSWERS model have about the same accuracy as those made for agricultural lands; (2) armor provided by rock fragments are temporary as they are periodically removed by debris flows; (3) detachment by rainfall impact is the primary cause of erosion on short steep slopes; and (4) a simplified method can be used for estimating erosion on such slopes

  17. Soft drinks and in vitro dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Brent L; Hagen Ii, Ted W; Mayhew, Susan L; Crumpton, Brooks; Sanders, Tyler; Horne, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine to what extent the in vitro exposure of healthy teeth to various commonly consumed carbonated soft drinks may precipitate dental erosion. Forty-two healthy, extracted, previously unerupted human molars were weighed prior to, during, and after suspension in various sugared and diet or zero-calorie carbonated beverages for 20 days; the specimens were stored at room temperature while being stirred at 275 rpm. The percentage decrease in tooth weight from before to after exposure represented the weight loss due to enamel erosion; values in the experimental groups varied from 3.22% to 44.52% after 20 days' exposure. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and post hoc Scheffe testing at a level of α = 0.05. Nonsugared drinks (diet and zero-calorie) as a whole were more erosive than sugared beverages. A significant positive correlation was found between the amount of titratable acid and percentage of tooth erosion, while a significant negative correlation was revealed between the beverage pH and percentage of tooth erosion. No significant correlations were found between calcium or phosphate ion concentrations and the amount of erosion. It appears that enamel erosion is dependent on not only the beverage flow rate, pH, and amount of titratable acid, but also whether the soft drink is of the diet or zero-calorie variety, which reflects the type of artificial sweetener present.

  18. Estimating surface soil erosion losses and mapping erosion risk for Yusufeli micro-catchment (Artvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tüfekçioğlu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sheet erosion, one of the most important types of water erosion, takes place on the top soil as tiny soil layer movement that affects lake and stream ecosystem. This type of erosion is very important because the productive soil layer on the top soil can be lost in a very short period of time. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of surface (sheet and rill soil erosion, and to identify areas under high erosion risk within the study area at Yusufeli province in Artvin by using RUSLE erosion methodology. As a result of the study it was found that the average annual potential soil loss by surface erosion was 3.6 ton ha-1yr-1. Additionally, the maps produced and conclusions reached by the study revealed that the areas of high erosion risk were identified spatially and measures to control erosion on some of these high risk areas can be possible with appropriate erosion control techniques.

  19. Erosion by rain in the western Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploey, J. de

    1967-01-01

    Vast expanses of the western part of central and southern Africa are covered with uniform, sandy formations of the Kalahari type. The topography of these areas and their present morphological characteristics are mainly the result of erosion by rain. Information on the hydrology of the surface waters in these areas is fairly limited and is insufficient to permit any conclusions regarding the way in which erosion by rain takes place. To obtain a better understanding of these phenomena, the author devised a series of experiments based on the use of 46 Sc-labelled radioactive sand. These experiments began at the beginning of the 1964/65 rainy season and are continuing. The experimental plot corresponds to convex and rectilinear portions of a hillside with a slope varying between 0 and 12 degrees. The vegetation consists of grassy savannah of substeppe appearance and secondary forests. Series of labelled samples were placed successively on the surface of the experimental plot and the erosive effect of rain was determined by measuring the residual concentrations after rainfall. Some samples were placed below a shield so as to eliminate the effects of splash and reveal the part played by runoff. Radiographic films were used to study the dispersion of labelled particles in the surrounding area. This radiographic method made it possible to determine the scale of erosion by splash for different rainfall conditions. The erosion diagrams obtained from these experiments show the correlations that exist between the intensity and duration of the rainfall and the erosion of the soil. Examination of the erosion diagrams and the shielded samples and analysis of the radiographs showed that erosion by rain on Kalahari ground covered with substeppe savannah is caused mainly by splash erosion and by dispersed, intermittent runoff. Sheet wash plays no part if the slope is less than 12 degrees. (author) [fr

  20. Remineralizing effect of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste on enamel erosion caused by soft drinks: Ultrastructural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Marco; Mirando, Maria; Rattalino, Davide; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the protective effects of a zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste on repairing enamel erosion produced by a soft drink (Coca-Cola) compared to toothpastes with and without fluoride using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fifty specimens were assigned to 5 groups of 10 specimens each. (Group 1: no erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, group 2: erosive challenge, no toothpaste treatment, 3: erosive challenge, toothpaste without fluoride, group 4: erosive challenge, fluoride toothpaste treatment, group 5: erosive challenge, zinc-hydroxyapatite toothpaste treatment). Repeated erosive challenges were provided by immersing bovine enamel specimens (10 per group) in a soft drink for 2 min (6mL, room temperature) at 0, 8, 24 and 32 h. After each erosive challenge, the toothpastes were applied neat onto the surface of specimens for 3 min without brushing and removed with distilled water. Between treatments the specimens were kept in artificial saliva. The surface of each specimen was imaged by SEM. Statistically significant differences were found between the samples used as control and those immersed in Coca-Cola (group 1 and 2): indeed among all groups the highest grade of damage was found in group 2. Instead the lowest grade was recorded in the samples of group 5 (Zinc hydroxyapatite toothpaste). The results of this study confirmed the potential benefit the Zn-HAP technology could provide in protecting enamel from erosive acid challenges. The treatment of erosively challenged enamel with Zn-Hap toothpaste showed a clear protective effect. Key words: Dental erosion, enamel, SEM, toothpaste.