WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind energy turbines

  1. Performance characteristics of aerodynamically optimum turbines for wind energy generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, C.; Worobel, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a brief discussion of the aerodynamic methodology for wind energy generator turbines, an approach to the design of aerodynamically optimum wind turbines covering a broad range of design parameters, some insight on the effect on performance of nonoptimum blade shapes which may represent lower fabrication costs, the annual wind turbine energy for a family of optimum wind turbines, and areas of needed research. On the basis of the investigation, it is concluded that optimum wind turbines show high performance over a wide range of design velocity ratios; that structural requirements impose constraints on blade geometry; that variable pitch wind turbines provide excellent power regulation and that annual energy output is insensitive to design rpm and solidity of optimum wind turbines.

  2. Wind turbines in your environment? Wind turbines and energy context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    Renewable energy sources allow to anticipate the depletion of fossil energy reserves and to limit the use of fissile resources. Moreover, their use avoids the emission of enormous amounts of pollutants and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This document presents the French energy context (national resources, electricity production and uses); the international political commitments (Kyoto protocol); the position of nuclear power in France and the development of renewable energy sources; and the evolution of the share of wind power with respect to other energy sources in France, in Europe and in the rest of the world. (J.S.)

  3. Estimation of cost and value of energy from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, J.O.; Fransden, S.

    1995-01-01

    The International Energy Agency expert group on recommended practices for wind turbine testing and evaluation is finalizing a second edition of the E stimation of cost of energy from wind energy conversion systems . This paper summarizes those recommendations. Further, the value of wind energy in terms of the associated savings is discussed, and a case study is undertaken to illustrate wind energy cost/benefit analyses. The paper concludes that while the recommended practices on cost estimation may be useful in connection with wind energy feasibility studies there is still a need for further international agreement upon guidelines on how to assess wind energy benefits. (author)

  4. Profitability Analysis of Residential Wind Turbines with Battery Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Ying; Erdem, Ergin; Shi, Jing

    Residential wind turbines are often accompanied by an energy storage system for the off-the-grid users, instead of the on-the-grid users, to reduce the risk of black-out. In this paper, we argue that residential wind turbines with battery energy storage could actually be beneficial to the on-the-grid users as well in terms of monetary gain from differential pricing for buying electricity from the grid and the ability to sell electricity back to the grid. We develop a mixed-integer linear programming model to maximize the profit of a residential wind turbine system while meeting the daily household electricity consumption. A case study is designed to investigate the effects of differential pricing schemes and sell-back schemes on the economic output of a 2-kW wind turbine with lithium battery storage. Overall, based on the current settings in California, a residential wind turbine with battery storage carries more economical benefits than the wind turbine alone.

  5. Characteristics for wind energy and wind turbines by considering vertical wind shear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉巧; 赵荣珍

    2015-01-01

    The probability distributions of wind speeds and the availability of wind turbines were investigated by considering the vertical wind shear. Based on the wind speed data at the standard height observed at a wind farm, the power-law process was used to simulate the wind speeds at a hub height of 60 m. The Weibull and Rayleigh distributions were chosen to express the wind speeds at two different heights. The parameters in the model were estimated via the least square (LS) method and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method, respectively. An adjusted MLE approach was also presented for parameter estimation. The main indices of wind energy characteristics were calculated based on observational wind speed data. A case study based on the data of Hexi area, Gansu Province of China was given. The results show that MLE method generally outperforms LS method for parameter estimation, and Weibull distribution is more appropriate to describe the wind speed at the hub height.

  6. U.S. Department of Energy Wind Turbine Development Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliore, P.G.; Calvert, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of wind-turbine development activities in the Unites States and relates those activities to market conditions and projections. Several factors are responsible for a surge in wind energy development in the United States, including a federal production tax credit, ''green power'' marketing, and improving cost and reliability. More development is likely, as approximately 363 GW of new capacity will be needed by 2020 to meet growing demand and replace retiring units. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is helping two companies develop next-generation turbines intended to generate electricity for $0.025/kWh or less. We expect to achieve this objective through a combination of improved engineering methods and configuration advancements. This should ensure that wind power will compete effectively against advanced combined-cycle plants having projected generating costs of $0.031/kWh in 2005. To address the market for small and intermediate-size wind turbines, DOE is assisting five companies in their attempts to develop new turbines having low capital cost and high reliability. Additional information regarding U.S. wind energy programs is available on the internet site www.nrel.gov/wind/. E-mail addresses for the turbine manufacturers are found in the Acknowledgements

  7. Site specific optimization of wind turbines energy cost: Iterative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei Mirghaed, Mohammad; Roshandel, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization model of wind turbine parameters plus rectangular farm layout is developed. • Results show that levelized cost for single turbine fluctuates between 46.6 and 54.5 $/MW h. • Modeling results for two specific farms reported optimal sizing and farm layout. • Results show that levelized cost of the wind farms fluctuates between 45.8 and 67.2 $/MW h. - Abstract: The present study was aimed at developing a model to optimize the sizing parameters and farm layout of wind turbines according to the wind resource and economic aspects. The proposed model, including aerodynamic, economic and optimization sub-models, is used to achieve minimum levelized cost of electricity. The blade element momentum theory is utilized for aerodynamic modeling of pitch-regulated horizontal axis wind turbines. Also, a comprehensive cost model including capital costs of all turbine components is considered. An iterative approach is used to develop the optimization model. The modeling results are presented for three potential regions in Iran: Khaf, Ahar and Manjil. The optimum configurations and sizing for a single turbine with minimum levelized cost of electricity are presented. The optimal cost of energy for one turbine is calculated about 46.7, 54.5 and 46.6 dollars per MW h in the studied sites, respectively. In addition, optimal size of turbines, annual electricity production, capital cost, and wind farm layout for two different rectangular and square shaped farms in the proposed areas have been recognized. According to the results, optimal system configuration corresponds to minimum levelized cost of electricity about 45.8 to 67.2 dollars per MW h in the studied wind farms

  8. Bioinspired turbine blades offer new perspectives for wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognet, V.; Courrech du Pont, S.; Dobrev, I.; Massouh, F.; Thiria, B.

    2017-02-01

    Wind energy is becoming a significant alternative solution for future energy production. Modern turbines now benefit from engineering expertise, and a large variety of different models exists, depending on the context and needs. However, classical wind turbines are designed to operate within a narrow zone centred around their optimal working point. This limitation prevents the use of sites with variable wind to harvest energy, involving significant energetic and economic losses. Here, we present a new type of bioinspired wind turbine using elastic blades, which passively deform through the air loading and centrifugal effects. This work is inspired from recent studies on insect flight and plant reconfiguration, which show the ability of elastic wings or leaves to adapt to the wind conditions and thereby to optimize performance. We show that in the context of energy production, the reconfiguration of the elastic blades significantly extends the range of operating regimes using only passive, non-consuming mechanisms. The versatility of the new turbine model leads to a large increase of the converted energy rate, up to 35%. The fluid/elasticity mechanisms involved for the reconfiguration capability of the new blades are analysed in detail, using experimental observations and modelling.

  9. Analysis of Wind Energy Potential and Vibrations Caused by Wind Turbine on Its Basement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Z.; Hanslian, David; Stolárik, M.; Pinka, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2014), s. 151-159 ISSN 1335-1788 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : wind turbine * wind energy potential * wind map * wind map * experimental measurement * vibration velocity Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.329, year: 2014 http://actamont.tuke.sk/pdf/2014/n3/6kalab.pdf

  10. An assessment on seasonal analysis of wind energy characteristics and wind turbine characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpinar, E. Kavak; Akpinar, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents seasonal variations of the wind characteristics and wind turbine characteristics in the regions around Elazig, namely Maden, Agin and Keban. Mean wind speed data in measured hourly time series format is statistically analyzed for the six year period 1998-2003. The probability density distributions are derived from the time series data and their distributional parameters are identified. Two probability density functions are fitted to the measured probability distributions on a seasonal basis. The wind energy characteristics of all the regions is studied based on the Weibull and Rayleigh distributions. Energy calculations and capacity factors for the wind turbine characteristics were determined for wind machines of different sizes between 300 and 2300 kW. It was found that Maden is the best region, among the regions analyzed, for wind characteristics and wind turbine characteristics

  11. Vertical-axial component wind turbine with a high coefficient using for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yersin, Ch. Sh.; Manatbev, R.K.; Yersina, A. K.; Tulepbergenov, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    The report presents the results of research and development on of promising wind units carousel type with a high ratio utilization of wind energy. This devices use a well-known invention – the wind turbine Darrieus. The rotation of the turbine is due to the action of ascensional power to aerodynamic well-streamlined symmetrical about the chord wing profiles of NASA, which are working wind turbine blades. The shaft rotation can be connected with the working blades of one of two ways: using the “swings” or the way “troposkino”. Darrieus turbine has a ratio utilization of wind energy xmax=045. Despite the fact that this is a good indicator of the efficiency of the turbine working, the proposed option allows us to significantly increase the value of this coefficient. The bases methodology of this research is a method of technical and technological research and development design of prospective wind energy construction (WES). Key words: wind turbine, the blade, coefficient utilization of wind energy

  12. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunying Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends to introduce the basic concept and principle of superconductivity, and compare form traditional wind turbine to obtain superiority, then to summary three proposed machine concept.While superconductivity have difficulty  in modern technology and we also have proposed some challenges in achieving superconducting wind turbine finally.

  13. Maximum Energy Yield Oriented Turbine Control in PMSG based Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi

    2017-01-01

    : In the modern power systems, with the fast integration of the wind power into the grid, it turns to develop large-scale offshore wind farms equipped with the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbine. In large-scale offshore wind farms, the wind turbine operating reliability...... and the wake effect in the wind farm became important issues. The pitch angle and tip speed ratio are the two degrees of freedom for the PMSG wind turbine active power control, which are also the determining factors of the wind turbine lifetime. As the energy production of the wind turbine is the product...... of its active power and lifetime, the energy production can be maximised by optimising its pitch angle and tip speed ratio. In this study, the energy production of a 2 MW PMSG wind turbine is maximised by optimising its pitch angle and tip speed ratio. Moreover, taking into account the wake effect...

  14. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues

  15. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  16. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1–5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists...... is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics...

  17. Power Oscillation Damping Controller for Wind Power Plant Utilizing Wind Turbine Inertia as Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygård; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2011-01-01

    For a wind power plant (WPP) the upper limit for active power output is bounded by the instantaneous wind conditions and therefore a WPP must curtail its power output when system services with active power are delivered. Here, a power oscillation damping controller (POD) for WPPs is presented...... that utilizes the stored kinetic energy in the wind turbine (WT) mechanical system as energy storage from which damping power can be exchanged. This eliminates the need for curtailed active power production. Results are presented using modal analysis and induced torque coefficients (ITC) to depict the torques...... induced on the synchronous generators from the POD. These are supplemented with nonlinear time domain simulations with and without an auxiliary POD for the WPP. The work is based on a nonlinear, dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power wind turbine....

  18. Canadian Wind Energy Association small wind conference proceedings : small wind policy developments (turbines of 300 kW or less)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The small wind session at the Canadian Wind Energy Association's (CanWEA) annual conference addressed policies affecting small wind, such as net metering, advanced renewable tariffs and interconnections. It also addressed CanWEA's efforts in promoting small wind turbines, particularly in remote northern communities, small businesses and within the residential sector. Small wind systems are typically installed in remote communities to offset utility supplied electricity at the retail price level. In certain circumstances, small wind and hybrid systems can produce electricity at less than half the cost of traditional electricity sources, which in remote communities is typically diesel generators. Small wind turbines require different materials and technologies than large wind turbines. They also involve different local installation requirements, different by-laws, tax treatment and environmental assessments. Small wind turbines are typically installed for a range of factors, including energy independence, energy price stability and to lower environmental impacts of traditional power generation. The small wind session at the conference featured 14 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  19. The impact of wind energy turbine piles on ocean dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grashorn, Sebastian; Stanev, Emil V.

    2016-04-01

    The small- and meso-scale ocean response to wind parks has not been investigated in the southern North Sea until now with the help of high-resolution numerical modelling. Obstacles such as e.g. wind turbine piles may influence the ocean current system and produce turbulent kinetic energy which could affect sediment dynamics in the surrounding area. Two setups of the unstructured-grid model SCHISM (Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model) have been developed for an idealized channel including a surface piercing cylindrical obstacle representing the pile and a more realistic test case including four exemplary piles. Experiments using a constant flow around the obstacles and a rotating M2 tidal wave are carried out. The resulting current and turbulence patterns are investigated to estimate the influence of the obstacles on the surrounding ocean dynamics. We demonstrate that using an unstructured ocean model provides the opportunity to embed a high-resolution representation of a wind park turbine pile system into a coarser North Sea setup, which is needed in order to perform a seamless investigation of the resulting geophysical processes.

  20. Wind turbine blades for harnessing energy from Malaysian low speed wind - manufacturing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abas Abd Wahab; Azmin Shakrine

    2000-01-01

    Blades for wind turbine to harness energy in the Malaysia low speed winds have been designed. During wind tunnel testing, wind turbine model using this type of blades has cut in speed of 1.5 m/s and turned at 450 rpm at 4 m/s wind. The blades, due to their critical dimensions of 1.2 m length, 5 cm thickness, tapered and 15 degree twist, were difficult to produce especially in large number. Several production methods have been studied but for economical mass production, fibreglass blades using CNC cutting mould were chosen. The blade and mould designs and the manufacturing processes are briefly outlined in this paper. (Author)

  1. Analysis of the energy production of Danish wind turbines 1981-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godtfredsen, F.

    1995-10-01

    A study of 1981-1992 energy production from Danish wind turbines has been carried out. The study is based on production data from the greater part of Danish wind turbines, as reported by the turbine owners and published in the magazine Naturlig Energi. The study shows a significant rise in the average energy production from 55 kW turbines erected in the early eighties to modern 150-500 kW turbines erected in 1992. The average yearly energy production of new turbines raised from rather more than 400 MWh per square meter swept rotor area in 1981 to 750-900 MWh in 1992. The main reasons for this increase are the development of larger wind turbines (with larger generator capacity, rotor area and hub height), more efficient turbines. (au) 18 tabs., 14 ills., 8 refs

  2. Wind turbines, is it just wind?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2012-01-01

    The author first outlines that wind energy is not only random, but almost absent in extreme situations when it would be needed (for example and notably, very cold weather without wind). He suggests the association of a gas turbine to each wind turbine, so that the gas turbine will replace non operating wind turbines. He notices that wind turbines are not proximity energy as they were said to be, and that profitability in fact requires tens of grouped giant wind turbines. He also outlines the high cost of construction of grids for the connection of these wind turbines. Thus, he states that wind energy is far from being profitable in the present conditions of electricity tariffs in France

  3. High-efficiency wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N.

    1980-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine incorporates several unique features to extract more energy from wind increasing efficiency 20% over conventional propeller driven units. System also features devices that utilize solar energy or chimney effluents during periods of no wind.

  4. A static analysis method to determine the availability of kinetic energy from wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rawn, B.G.; Gibescu, M.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces definitions and an analysis method for estimating how much kinetic energy can be made available for inertial response from a wind turbine over a year, and how much energy capture must be sacrificed to do so. The analysis is based on the static characteristics of wind turbines,

  5. Computational Modelling of Materials for Wind Turbine Blades: Selected DTU Wind Energy Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2017-11-08

    Computational and analytical studies of degradation of wind turbine blade materials at the macro-, micro-, and nanoscale carried out by the modelling team of the Section Composites and Materials Mechanics, Department of Wind Energy, DTU, are reviewed. Examples of the analysis of the microstructural effects on the strength and fatigue life of composites are shown. Computational studies of degradation mechanisms of wind blade composites under tensile and compressive loading are presented. The effect of hybrid and nanoengineered structures on the performance of the composite was studied in computational experiments as well.

  6. Dynamic Model of a Wind Turbine for the Electric Energy Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Rubio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel dynamic model is introduced for the modeling of the wind turbine behavior. The objective of the wind turbine is the electric energy generation. The analytic model has the characteristic that considers a rotatory tower. Experiments show the validity of the proposed method.

  7. Improved cost of energy comparison of permanent magnet generators for large offshore wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, K.; McDonald, A.; Polinder, H.; Corr, E.; Carroll, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates geared and direct-drive permanent magnet generators for a typical offshore wind turbine, providing a detailed comparison of various wind turbine drivetrain configurations in order to minimise the Cost of Energy. The permanent magnet generator topologies considered include a

  8. Coordinated Control of Wind Turbine and Energy Storage System for Reducing Wind Power Fluctuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kim, Chunghun [Hanyang University; Chung, Chung Choo [Hanyang University

    2017-11-13

    This paper proposes a coordinated control of wind turbine and energy storage system (ESS). Because wind power (WP) is highly dependent on variable wind speed and could induce a severe stability problem to power system especially when the WP has high penetration level. To solve this problem, many power generation corporations or grid operators recently use the ESS. It has very quick response and good performance for reducing the impact of WP fluctuation but has high cost for its installation. Therefore, it is very important to design the control algorithm considering both ESS capacity and grid reliability. Thus, we propose the control algorithm to mitigate the WP fluctuation by using the coordinated control between wind turbine and ESS considering ESS state of charge (SoC) and the WP fluctuation. From deloaded control according to WP fluctuation and ESS SoC management, we can expect the ESS lifespan expansion and improved grid reliability. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated in MATLAB/Simulink considering power system including both wind turbine generator and conventional generators which react to system frequency deviation.

  9. European wind turbine catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The THERMIE European Community programme is designed to promote the greater use of European technology and this catalogue contributes to the fulfillment of this aim by dissemination of information on 50 wind turbines from 30 manufacturers. These turbines are produced in Europe and are commercially available. The manufacturers presented produce and sell grid-connected turbines which have been officially approved in countries where this approval is acquired, however some of the wind turbines included in the catalogue have not been regarded as fully commercially available at the time of going to print. The entries, which are illustrated by colour photographs, give company profiles, concept descriptions, measured power curves, prices, and information on design and dimension, safety systems, stage of development, special characteristics, annual energy production, and noise pollution. Lists are given of wind turbine manufacturers and agents and of consultants and developers in the wind energy sector. Exchange rates used in the conversion of the prices of wind turbines are also given. Information can be found on the OPET network (organizations recognised by the European Commission as an Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technologies (OPET)). An article describes the development of the wind power industry during the last 10-15 years and another article on certification aims to give an overview of the most well-known and acknowledged type approvals currently issued in Europe. (AB)

  10. Wind turbines application for energy savings in Gas transportation system

    OpenAIRE

    Mingaleeva, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The Thesis shows the perspectives of involving renewable energy resources into the energy balance of Russia, namely the use of wind energy for the purpose of energy supply for the objects of the Russian Gas transportation system. The methodology of the wind energy technical potential calculation is designed and the wind energy technical potential assessment for onshore and offshore zones of Russia is presented. The analysis of Russian Gas transportation system in terms of energy consumption i...

  11. Operation of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system under conditions of stochastic change of wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the issues of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system (WT-FESS) operation under real conditions. Stochastic changes of wind energy in time cause significant fluctuations of the system output power and as a result have a negative impact on the quality of the generated electrical energy. In the author's opinion it is possible to reduce the aforementioned effects by using an energy storage of an appropriate type and capacity. It was assumed that based on the technical parameters of a wind turbine-energy storage system and its geographical location one can determine the boundary capacity of the storage, which helps prevent power cuts to the grid at the assumed probability. Flywheel energy storage was selected due to its characteristics and technical parameters. The storage capacity was determined based on an empirical relationship using the results of the proposed statistical and energetic analysis of the measured wind velocity courses. A detailed algorithm of the WT-FESS with the power grid system was developed, eliminating short-term breaks in the turbine operation and periods when the wind turbine power was below the assumed level.

  12. Alcoa wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of Alcoa's wind energy program is given with emphasis on the the development of a low cost, reliable Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine System. The design layouts and drawings for fabrication are now complete, while fabrication and installation to utilize the design are expected to begin shortly.

  13. National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In the early development of wind turbine generators (WTG) in the United States, wind farms were primarily located in California where lightning activity is the lowest in the United States. As such, lightning protection for wind turbines was not considered to be a major issue for designers or wind farm operators. However, wind turbine installations are expanding into the Midwest, Southwest and other regions of the United States where lightning activity is significantly more intense and lightning damage to wind turbines is more common. There is a growing need, therefore, to better understand lightning activity on wind farms and to improve wind turbine lightning protection systems. In support of the U.S. Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE/EPRI) Utility Wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has recently begun to take steps to determine the extent of damage due to lightning and the effectiveness of various lightning protection techniques for wind power plants. Working through the TVP program, NREL will also perform outreach and education to (1) help manufacturers to provide equipment that is adequately designed to survive lightning, (2) make sure that operators are aware of effective safety procedures, and (3) help site designers and wind farm developers take the risk of lightning into account as effectively as possible.

  14. A comparison of the heat and mechanical energy of a heat-pump wind turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aybek, A.; Arslan, S.; Yildiz, E.; Atik, K. [University of Kahramanmaras (Turkey). Dept. of Agricultural Machinery

    2000-07-01

    While a variety of applications of wind energy have been studied in Turkey, no significant efforts have been made to utilize heat pumps for heat generation. The use of heat pumps in wind energy systems is worth considering because of the high efficiency of heat production. In this study, a directly coupled wind turbine-heat pump system was designed, constructed, and tested. Measurements determined the mechanical energy of the rotors of the wind turbine and the heat energy generated by the heat pump driven by the rotor shaft. Based on the comparisons between the power generated by the heat pump and the power of the Savonius rotors, it was found that the heat energy gained by the heat pump was four times greater than the mechanical energy obtained from the turbine. It was suggested that heat pumps could be efficiently used in wind energy systems. (Author)

  15. Aero-Hydro-Elastic Simulation Platform for Wave Energy Systems and floating Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose

    This report present results from the PSO project 2008-1-10092 entitled Aero-Hydro-Elastic Simulation Platform for Wave Energy Systems and floating Wind Turbines that deals with measurements, modelling and simulations of the world’s first combined wave and wind energy platform. The floating energy...

  16. Reliability and Maintenance for Offshore Wind Turbines and Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines are in some countries contributing significantly the production of electricity and wave energy devices have the potential to be developed in a similarway. For both offshore wind turbines and wave energy devices reliability is a key issue since costs to operation and maintenance may...... be significant contributors to the Levelized Cost Of Energy and OM costs are highly dependent on the reliability of the components implying that it is important to focus on increasing the reliability as much as is economically reasonable. This paper describes basic aspects for reliability analysis of wind...... turbines and wave energy devices with special focus on structural components. The reliability assessment needs include the effects of the control system and possible faults due to failure of electrical/mechanical components and e.g. loss of grid connection. The target reliability level for wind turbine...

  17. ASSESSMENT OF A WIND TURBINE INTELLIGENT CONTROLLER FOR ENHANCED ENERGY PRODUCTION AND POLLUTION REDUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed the enhanced energy production which is possible when variable-speed wind turbines are electronically controlled by an intelligent controller for efficiency optimization and performance improvement. The control system consists of three fuzzy- logic controllers...

  18. Wind Turbines Support Techniques during Frequency Drops — Energy Utilization Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman B. Attya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The supportive role of wind turbines during frequency drops is still not clear enough, although there are many proposed algorithms. Most of the offered techniques make the wind turbine deviates from optimum power generation operation to special operation modes, to guarantee the availability of reasonable power support, when the system suffers frequency deviations. This paper summarizes the most dominant support algorithms and derives wind turbine power curves for each one. It also conducts a comparison from the point of view of wasted energy, with respect to optimum power generation. The authors insure the advantage of a frequency support algorithm, they previously presented, as it achieved lower amounts of wasted energy. This analysis is performed in two locations that are promising candidates for hosting wind farms in Egypt. Additionally, two different types of wind turbines from two different manufacturers are integrated. Matlab and Simulink are the implemented simulation environments.

  19. Wind turbine tower for storing hydrogen and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingersh, Lee Jay [Westminster, CO

    2008-12-30

    A wind turbine tower assembly for storing compressed gas such as hydrogen. The tower assembly includes a wind turbine having a rotor, a generator driven by the rotor, and a nacelle housing the generator. The tower assembly includes a foundation and a tubular tower with one end mounted to the foundation and another end attached to the nacelle. The tower includes an in-tower storage configured for storing a pressurized gas and defined at least in part by inner surfaces of the tower wall. In one embodiment, the tower wall is steel and has a circular cross section. The in-tower storage may be defined by first and second end caps welded to the inner surface of the tower wall or by an end cap near the top of the tower and by a sealing element attached to the tower wall adjacent the foundation, with the sealing element abutting the foundation.

  20. Wind turbine operated sailboat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.

    1990-07-31

    A wind powered boat is disclosed which incorporates a vertical axis rotary turbine. A shaft portion extends downwardly from the turbine to a water pump, with the boat being provided with a forwardly opening inlet and a rearwardly opening outlet from the water pump. When rotating, the turbine operates the pump by the shaft to draw in water through the inlet, thereby creating a low pressure area in front of the boat, and to force the water out through the outlet for propelling the boat. In a preferred embodiment, the boat has a catamaran construction or is a large ocean going vessel with enough width to provide a buffer to either side of the turbine, and the turbine is the Darrieus rotor type. The pump is a standard centrifugal type of pump. A self adjusting braking device for the turbine is also disclosed, which prevents over-rotation and is also capable of storing heat energy generated during braking. 4 figs.

  1. Reliability Assessment and Energy Loss Evaluation for Modern Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao

    . The cost of energy in wind turbine system is then addressed in Chapter 5, where different wind classes and operation modes of the reactive power injection are taken into account. Finally, the internal and external challenges for power converters in the DFIG systems to ride through balanced grid faults......With a steady increase of the wind power penetration, the demands to the wind power technology are becoming the same as those to the conventional energy sources. In order to fulfill the requirements, power electronics technology is the key for the modern wind turbine systems – both the Doubly...... to explore the reliability and cost of energy in the modern wind turbine systems. Moreover, advanced control strategies have been proposed and developed for an efficient and reliable operation during the normal condition as well as under grid faults. The documented thesis starts with the descriptions...

  2. Wind Turbine Acoustic Day 2018

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper; Søndergaard, Bo; Hünerbein, Sabine Von

    The bi-annual event entitled Wind Turbine Acoustic Day dealing with wind turbine noise issues organized by DTU Wind Energy took place on May, 17th 2018 as its third edition. The abstracts and slides for the presentations are reported....

  3. Evaluation of small wind turbines in distributed arrangement as sustainable wind energy option for Barbados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Justin D.K.; Amaratunga, Gehan A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The island of Barbados is 99% dependent on fossil fuel imports to satisfy its energy needs, which is unsustainable. This study proposes a 10 MW distributed wind energy scheme using micro wind turbines (WT) of horizontal (HAWT) and vertical axis (VAWT) configurations. These units are rated less than 500 W, and the scheme is hereafter referred to as mWT10. mWT10 is compared to the proposed 10 MW medium WT farm by the Barbados Light and Power Company (BL and P). The economic bottom line is the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The results highlight the BL and P proposal as the best economic option at BDS$0.19 per kWh, while that of both mWT10 configurations exceeds the conventional cost of BDS$0.25 by two to nine times. This is attributed to significantly higher relative installation and operational costs. However, the financial gap between mWT10 LCOE and the retail price of electricity is much smaller due to a large fuel surcharge passed on to each customer. Annual additional benefits of using wind energy include: greenhouse gas emissions savings of 6-23 kt of carbon dioxide; and anavoided fuel costs of BDS$1.5-5.3 million. The distributed mWT10 using HAWTs competes directly with the BL and P farm, however, it provides these benefits without the visual or ecological impacts of the larger machines. Conversely, VAWTs have features that favour a visually discrete and widely repeatable scheme but suffer relatively high costs. Therefore, this study illustrates the great potential of small wind turbines to be competitive with conventional wind farms, thus challenging the small wind industry to meet its potential by producing reliable and robust machines at lower cost

  4. Investigation of wind turbine effects on Evapotranspiration using surface energy balance model based on satellite-derived data

    Science.gov (United States)

    hassanpour Adeh, E.; Higgins, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Wind turbines have been introduced as an energy source that does not require a large expenditure of water. However, recent simulation results indicate that wind turbines increase evaporation rates from the nearby land. In this research the effect of wind energy on irrigated agriculture is determined using a Surface Energy Balance Algorithm (SEBAL) on Landsat data spanning a 30 year interval. The analysis allows the characterization of evapotranspiration (ET) before and after wind turbine installations. The time history of ET from Landsat data will be presented for several major wind farms across the US. These data will be used to determine the impact on water demand due to presence of wind turbines.

  5. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented

  6. Small Wind Turbine Installation Compatibility Demonstration Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    wind turbine (HAWT) and one 2.9-kW vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT), we planned to measure radar, acoustic and seismic, turbulence, bird and...non-issue for small turbines . The majority of studies of bat and bird interactions with wind turbines are for large turbines (BPA 2002; Whittam...et al. 2010). The majority of studies of bat and bird interactions with wind energy facil- ities are for utility-scale turbines (> 1 MW) with

  7. Transmission of wave energy through an offshore wind turbine farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Johnson, Martin; Sørensen, Ole Rene

    2013-01-01

    condition at infinity. From airborne and Satellite SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) a model has been derived for the change of the water surface friction C) inside and on the lee side of the offshore wind farm. The effects have been implemented in a spectral wind wave model,MIKE21 SW, and a parametric study......The transmission of wave energy passing an offshore wind farm is studied. Three effects that can change the wave field are analysed, which is the A) energy dissipation due to drag resistance, B) wave reflection/diffraction from structures, and C) the effect of a modified wind field inside...... and on the lee side of the wind farm. The drag dissipation, A), is quantified by a quadratic resistance law. The effect of B) is parameterised based on 1st order potential theory. A method to find the amount of reflected and transmitted wave energy is developed based on the panel method WAMIT™ and a radiation...

  8. Aero-hydro-elastic simulation platform for wave energy systems and floating wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallesoee, B.S.

    2011-01-15

    This report present results from the PSO project 2008-1-10092 entitled Aero-Hydro-Elastic Simulation Platform for Wave Energy Systems and floating Wind Turbines that deals with measurements, modelling and simulations of the world's first combined wave and wind energy platform. The floating energy conversion platform, Poseidon, is owned and operated by Floating Power Plant A/S. The platform has been operating for two test periods; one period where it was operating as a wave energy conversion platform only and one period where the three turbines was mounted and the platform operated as a combined wind and wave energy platform. The PSO project has equipped the platform with comprehensive measurements equipment for measuring platform motion, wave and wind conditions and turbine loads. Data from the first test period has been used for determine if the turbine could be mounted on the platform. Preliminary analysis of data from the second test period indicates that the platform is suitable as wind turbine foundation and that the turbines reduce the platform motion. (Author)

  9. Reliability assessment of Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines can be considered as structures that are in between civil engineering structures and machines since they consist of structural components and many electrical and machine components together with a control system. Further, a wind turbine is not a one-of-a-kind structure...... but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...

  10. UWB Wind Turbine Blade Deflection Sensing for Wind Energy Cost Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Franek, Ondrej; Eggers, Patrick C F; Olesen, Kim; Byskov, Claus; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2015-08-12

    A new application of utilizing ultra-wideband (UWB) technology to sense wind turbine blade deflections is introduced in this paper for wind energy cost reduction. The lower UWB band of 3.1-5.3 GHz is applied. On each blade, there will be one UWB blade deflection sensing system, which consists of two UWB antennas at the blade root and one UWB antenna at the blade tip. The detailed topology and challenges of this deflection sensing system are addressed. Due to the complexity of the problem, this paper will first realize the on-blade UWB radio link in the simplest case, where the tip antenna is situated outside (and on the surface of) a blade tip. To investigate this case, full-blade time-domain measurements are designed and conducted under different deflections. The detailed measurement setups and results are provided. If the root and tip antenna locations are properly selected, the first pulse is always of sufficient quality for accurate estimations under different deflections. The measured results reveal that the blade tip-root distance and blade deflection can be accurately estimated in the complicated and lossy wireless channels around a wind turbine blade. Some future research topics on this application are listed finally.

  11. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    changing the operation of the wind turbine to a more efficient working point.; When the rotational speed of the rotor reaches a minimum value, the wind turbine enters a recovery period to re-accelerate the rotor to the nominal rotational speed while further contributing to the stability of the electrical......A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller...... is arranged to control the wind turbine as follows: after an indicating event has been detected, the wind turbine enters an overproduction period in which the electrical output power is increased, wherein the additional electrical output power is taken from kinetic energy stored in the rotor and without...

  12. Scope of wind energy in Bangladesh and simulation analysis of three different horizontal axis wind turbine blade shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md. Arif-Ul Islam; Das, Swapnil; Dey, Saikat

    2017-12-01

    : Economic growth and energy demand are intertwined. Therefore, one of the most important concerns of the government and in the world is the need for energy security. Currently, the world relies on coal, crude oil and natural gas for energy generati on. However, the energy crisis together with climate change and depletion of oil have become major concerns to all countries. Therefore, alternative energy resources such as wind energy attracted interest from both public and private sectors to invest in energy generation from this source extensively. Both Vertical and Horizontal axis wind turbine can be used for this purpose. But, Horizontal axis is the most promising between them due to its efficiency and low expense. Bangladesh being a tropical country does have a lot of wind flow at different seasons of the year. However, there are some windy locations in which wind energy projects could be feasible. In this project a detailed review of the current st ate-of-art for wind turbine blade design is presented including theoretical maximum efficiency, Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) blade design, simulation power and COP values for different blade material. By studying previously collected data on the wind resources available in B angladesh at present and by analyzing this data, this paper will discuss the scope of wind energy in Bangladesh.

  13. A Novel Dual-Rotor Turbine for Increased Wind Energy Capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, A; Selvaraj, S; Sharma, A

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal axis wind turbines suffer from aerodynamic inefficiencies in the blade root region (near the hub) due to several non-aerodynamic constraints. Aerodynamic interactions between turbines in a wind farm also lead to significant loss of wind farm efficiency. A new dual-rotor wind turbine (DRWT) concept is proposed that aims at mitigating these two losses. A DRWT is designed that uses an existing turbine rotor for the main rotor, while the secondary rotor is designed using a high lift-to-drag ratio airfoil. Reynolds Averaged Navier- Stokes computational fluid dynamics simulations are used to optimize the design. Large eddy simulations confirm the increase energy capture potential of the DRWT. Wake comparisons however do not show enhanced entrainment of axial momentum

  14. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  15. Wind turbine aerodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Wind Energy Group

    2010-07-01

    The need for clean, renewable electricity in remote communities of Canada and the world was discussed in this presentation. The University of Waterloo Wind Energy Laboratory (WEL) performs research in a large scale indoor environment on wind turbines, blade aerodynamics, and aeroacoustics. A key area of research involves developing turbines for remote off-grid communities where climatic conditions are challenging. This presentation outlined research that is underway on wind energy and off-grid renewable energy systems. Many communities in Canada and remote communities in the rest of the world are not connected to the grid and are dependent on other means to supply electrical energy to their community. Remote communities in northern Canada have no road access and diesel is the dominant source of electrical energy for these communities. All of the community supply of diesel comes from brief winter road access or by air. The presentation discussed existing diesel systems and the solution of developing local renewable energy sources such as wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal, and solar power. Research goals, wind energy activities, experimental equipment, and the results were also presented. Research projects have been developed in wind energy; hydrogen generation/storage/utilization; power electronics/microgrid; and community engagement. figs.

  16. Study on the application of energy storage system in offshore wind turbine with hydraulic transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yajun; Mu, Anle; Ma, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydraulic offshore wind turbine is capable of outputting near constant power. • Open loop hydraulic transmission uses seawater as the working fluid. • Linear control strategy distributes total flow according to demand and supply. • Constant pressure hydraulic accumulator stores/releases the surplus energy. • Simulations show the dynamic performance of the hybrid system. - Abstract: A novel offshore wind turbine comprising fluid power transmission and energy storage system is proposed. In this wind turbine, the conventional mechanical transmission is replaced by an open-loop hydraulic system, in which seawater is sucked through a variable displacement pump in nacelle connected directly with the rotor and utilized to drive a Pelton turbine installed on the floating platform. Aiming to smooth and stabilize the output power, an energy storage system with the capability of flexible charging and discharging is applied. The related mathematical model is developed, which contains some sub-models that are categorized as the wind turbine rotor, hydraulic pump, transmission pipeline, proportional valve, accumulator and hydraulic turbine. A linear control strategy is adopted to distribute the flow out of the proportional valve through comparing the demand power with captured wind energy by hydraulic pump. Ultimately, two time domain simulations demonstrate the operation of the hybrid system when the hydraulic accumulator is utilized and show how this system can be used for load leveling and stabilizing the output power.

  17. Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    Wind turbines play a major role in the transformation from a fossil fuel based energy production to a more sustainable production of energy. Total-cost-of-ownership is an important parameter when investors decide in which energy technology they should place their capital. Modern wind turbines...... the need for maintenance of the wind turbine. Either way, better total-cost-of-ownership for wind turbine operators can be achieved by improved control of the wind turbines. Wind turbine control can be improved in two ways, by improving the model on which the controller bases its design or by improving...

  18. Powering embedded electronics for wind turbine monitoring using multi-source energy harvesting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, S. R.; Taylor, S. G.; Raby, E. Y.; Farinholt, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    With a global interest in the development of clean, renewable energy, wind energy has seen steady growth over the past several years. Advances in wind turbine technology bring larger, more complex turbines and wind farms. An important issue in the development of these complex systems is the ability to monitor the state of each turbine in an effort to improve the efficiency and power generation. Wireless sensor nodes can be used to interrogate the current state and health of wind turbine structures; however, a drawback of most current wireless sensor technology is their reliance on batteries for power. Energy harvesting solutions present the ability to create autonomous power sources for small, low-power electronics through the scavenging of ambient energy; however, most conventional energy harvesting systems employ a single mode of energy conversion, and thus are highly susceptible to variations in the ambient energy. In this work, a multi-source energy harvesting system is developed to power embedded electronics for wind turbine applications in which energy can be scavenged simultaneously from several ambient energy sources. Field testing is performed on a full-size, residential scale wind turbine where both vibration and solar energy harvesting systems are utilized to power wireless sensing systems. Two wireless sensors are investigated, including the wireless impedance device (WID) sensor node, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and an ultra-low power RF system-on-chip board that is the basis for an embedded wireless accelerometer node currently under development at LANL. Results indicate the ability of the multi-source harvester to successfully power both sensors.

  19. Smart Wind Turbine: Analysis and Autonomous Flap

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhammer, L.O.

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines convert kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. Unfortunately, this process is everything but constant, as the wind source shows large fluctuations with high and low frequencies. This turbulence, together with the wind shear and yawed inflow, excites the turbine structure, thereby driving the loads and the design of turbines in general and blades in particular. In response to this, several control mechanisms have been applied to wind turbines since the generation of s...

  20. Modeling energy production of solar thermal systems and wind turbines for installation at corn ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke, Elizabeth

    Nearly every aspect of human existence relies on energy in some way. Most of this energy is currently derived from fossil fuel resources. Increasing energy demands coupled with environmental and national security concerns have facilitated the move towards renewable energy sources. Biofuels like corn ethanol are one of the ways the U.S. has significantly reduced petroleum consumption. However, the large energy requirement of corn ethanol limits the net benefit of the fuel. Using renewable energy sources to produce ethanol can greatly improve its economic and environmental benefits. The main purpose of this study was to model the useful energy received from a solar thermal array and a wind turbine at various locations to determine the feasibility of applying these technologies at ethanol plants around the country. The model calculates thermal energy received from a solar collector array and electricity generated by a wind turbine utilizing various input data to characterize the equipment. Project cost and energy rate inputs are used to evaluate the profitability of the solar array or wind turbine. The current state of the wind and solar markets were examined to give an accurate representation of the economics of each industry. Eighteen ethanol plant locations were evaluated for the viability of a solar thermal array and/or wind turbine. All ethanol plant locations have long payback periods for solar thermal arrays, but high natural gas prices significantly reduce this timeframe. Government incentives will be necessary for the economic feasibility of solar thermal arrays. Wind turbines can be very profitable for ethanol plants in the Midwest due to large wind resources. The profitability of wind power is sensitive to regional energy prices. However, government incentives for wind power do not significantly change the economic feasibility of a wind turbine. This model can be used by current or future ethanol facilities to investigate or begin the planning process for a

  1. Design guidelines for H-Darrieus wind turbines: Optimization of the annual energy yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchini, Alessandro; Ferrara, Giovanni; Ferrari, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposal for a new design criterion for H-Darrieus turbines based on the energy-yield maximization. • 21,600 design cases analyzed to identify the best solutions for each installation site (i.e. average wind speed). • Critical analysis of the best design choices in terms of turbine shape, dimensions, airfoils and constraints. • Notable energy increase provided by the new design approach. • Each site requires a specific turbine concept to optimize the energy yield. - Abstract: H-Darrieus wind turbines are gaining popularity in the wind energy market, particularly as they are thought to represent a suitable solution even in unconventional installation areas. To promote the diffusion of this technology, industrial manufacturers are continuously proposing new and appealing exterior solutions, coupled with tempting rated-power offers. The actual operating conditions of a rotor over a year can be, however, very different from the nominal one and strictly dependent on the features of the installation site. Based on these considerations, a turbine optimization oriented to maximize the annual energy yield, instead of the maximum power, is thought to represent a more interesting solution. With this goal in mind, 21,600 test cases of H-Darrieus rotors were compared on the basis of their energy-yield capabilities for different annual wind distributions in terms of average speed. The wind distributions were combined with the predicted performance maps of the rotors obtained with a specifically developed numerical code based on a Blade Element Momentum (BEM) approach. The influence on turbine performance of the cut-in speed was accounted for, as well as the limitations due to structural loads (i.e. maximum rotational speed and maximum wind velocity). The analysis, carried out in terms of dimensionless parameters, highlighted the aerodynamic configurations able to ensure the largest annual energy yield for each wind distribution and set of aerodynamic

  2. Energy and exergy efficiency comparison of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, K.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G.F. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, an energy and exergy analysis is performed on four different wind power systems, including both horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines. Significant variability in turbine designs and operating parameters are encompassed through the selection of systems. In particular, two airfoils (NACA 63(2)-215 and FX 63-137) commonly used in horizontal axis wind turbines are compared with two vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). A Savonius design and Zephyr VAWT benefit from operational attributes in wind conditions that are unsuitable for airfoil type designs. This paper analyzes each system with respect to both the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The aerodynamic performance of each system is numerically analyzed by computational fluid dynamics software, FLUENT. A difference in first and second law efficiencies of between 50 and 53% is predicted for the airfoil systems, whereas 44-55% differences are predicted for the VAWT systems. Key design variables are analyzed and the predicted results are discussed. The exergetic efficiency of each wind turbine is studied for different geometries, design parameters and operating conditions. It is shown that the second law provides unique insight beyond a first law analysis, thereby providing a useful design tool for wind power development. (author)

  3. Study of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine for Energy Harvester in A Fishing Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, E. M.; Banjarnahor, D. A.; Hanifan, M.

    2017-07-01

    The wind speed in the southern beach of West Java Indonesia is quite promising for wind energy harvesting. A field survey reported that the wind speed reached 10 m/s, while the average recorded in a year is about 4.7 m/s. In this study, two vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) were compared to be used in that area through calculation as well as experiments. The experiments measured that the turbines can produce about 7.82W and 2.33W of electricity respectively. These experiments are compared with theoretical calculation to obtain the performance of both turbines used. The coefficient of performance (cp) experimentally is 0.09 for Turbine 1 (hybrid Savonius-Darrieus rotor) and 0.14 for Turbine 2 (Savonius rotor). While, rotor’s mechanical performance Cpr, obtained theoritically through calculation, is 0.36 for Turbine 1 and 0.12 for Turbine 2. These results are analysed from mechanical and electrical view.

  4. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...... response of the wind turbine structure. Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element...... Momentum method is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behavior of a turbine. The new material includes a description of the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modeled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Further...

  5. Design of a compressed air energy storage system for hydrostatic wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar E. Ali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Integration of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES system with a wind turbine is critical in optimally harvesting wind energy given the fluctuating nature of power demands. Here we consider the design of a CAES for a wind turbine with hydrostatic powertrain. The design parameters of the CAES are determined based on simulation of the integrated system model for a combination of these parameter values, namely the compression ratios of the air compressors and the expanders and the air tank size. The results of the simulations were used to choose the best design parameters, which would produce the best stable performance through increased energy output of the integrated CAES and wind turbine based on the intermittent wind profile. Simulation results for a 600 kW rated power wind turbine with integrated CAES indicate that increasing the tank size and compression ratio will improve the overall power quality through increased energy output up to a limit beyond which the power quality exhibits only marginal improvement.

  6. Modeling and Operational Testing of an Isolated Variable Speed PMSG Wind Turbine with Battery Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAROTE, L.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling and operational testing of an isolated permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG, driven by a small wind turbine with a battery energy storage system during wind speed and load variations. The whole system is initially modeled, including the PMSG, the boost converter and the storage system. The required power for the connected loads can be effectively delivered and supplied by the proposed wind turbine and energy storage systems, subject to an appropriate control method. Energy storage devices are required for power balance and power quality in stand alone wind energy systems. The main purpose is to supply 230 V / 50 Hz domestic appliances through a single-phase inverter. The experimental waveforms, compared to the simulation results, show a good prediction of the electrical variable parameters. Furthermore, it can be seen that the results validate the stability of the supply.

  7. Eco-energy and urbanisation: messages from birds about wind turbine proliferation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, A. D. (Aarhus Univ., Roende (Denmark), National Environmental Research Inst., Dept of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity)

    2011-07-01

    By 2010, 51% of humans live in cities, rising to 70% by 2050. Energy consumption increases exponentially with the proportion of the populace living in conurbations. Fossil fuels supply 85% of global human energy, yet many acknowledge the need to switch to renewable sources, especially given recent concerns over nuclear power safety. Finland will consume 14% more electrical energy by 2035, plus another 14% were the country to switch to electric cars. Such increased demand could be met by 2730 x 2.3 MW wind turbines (covering 1050 km2 of sea). Wind turbines may cause displacement from bird feeding areas, barriers to movement, modifications to habitats and collision mortality. Effective implementation of Strategic Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Assessment should guide sensitive positioning of wind farm development to avoid conflicts with avian populations. Experiences from existing developments, combined with modelling approaches, must ensure attempts generate renewable energy from wind do not impact unacceptably upon local nature. (orig.)

  8. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Wind is not only free, it is inexhaustible. Wind energy has come a very long way since the prototypes of just 20 years ago. today's wind turbines are state-of-the-art technology - modular and quick to install anywhere where there is sufficient wind potential to provide secure, centralised or distributed generation. It is a global phenomenon, the world's fastest growing energy sector, a clean and effective modern technology that completely avoids pollution and thus reducing the 'green house' effect. (Original)

  9. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...... is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behaviour of a turbine. The book describes the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modelled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Furthermore, it examines how to calculate...

  10. Feedback control of a Darrieus wind turbine and optimization of the produced energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, T.; Henry, B.; Devos, F.; de Saint Louvent, B.; Gosselin, J.

    1984-03-01

    A microprocessor-driven control system, applied to the feedback control of a Darrieus wind turbine is presented. The use of a dc machine as a generator to recover the energy and as a motor to start the engine, allows simplified power electronics. The architecture of the control unit is built to ensure four different functions: starting, optimization of the recoverable energy, regulation of the speed, and braking. An experimental study of the system in a wind tunnel allowed optimization of the coefficients of the proportional and integral (pi) control algorithm. The electrical energy recovery was found to be much more efficient using the feedback system than without the control unit. This system allows a better characterization of the wind turbine and a regulation adapted to the wind statistics observed in one given geographical location.

  11. Durability and damage tolerance of advanced wind energy turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, A F; Gustavsson, A I

    1986-01-01

    This paper contains a critical review of the state of the art fatigue design and analysis of advanced wind energy conversion systems (WECS). Special emphasis is placed on the work in progress and carried out within the past few years in Sweden. However, the treatment is general in character and aims to identify areas where more work is needed in order to ensure a safe fatigue life assessment of WECS.

  12. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  13. Modeling of dynamic conditions of operation of wind turbines (WT and choice of environmentally efficient and energy economic technology of wind power energy transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespalov Vadim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy usage is one of the promising areas among renewable energy sources. The article considers a methodical approach to the modeling and selection of environmentally efficient and energy-efficient wind turbines at the design stage, taking into account the characteristics of the natural-territorial complex and the specific anthropogenic load on the territory of the WT location.

  14. Feasibility study of a hybrid wind turbine system – Integration with compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hao; Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hybrid wind turbine system is proposed and feasibility study if conducted. • A complete mathematical model is developed and implemented in a software environment. • Multi-mode control strategy is investigated to ensure the system work smoothly and efficiently. • A prototype for implementing the proposed mechanism is built and tested as proof of the concept. • The proposed system is proved to be technically feasible with energy efficiency around 50%. - Abstract: Wind has been recognized as one of major realistic clean energy sources for power generation to meet the continuously increased energy demand and to achieve the carbon emission reduction targets. However, the utilisation of wind energy encounters an inevitable challenge resulting from the nature of wind intermittency. To address this, the paper presents the recent research work at Warwick on the feasibility study of a new hybrid system by integrating a wind turbine with compressed air energy storage. A mechanical transmission mechanism is designed and implemented for power integration within the hybrid system. A scroll expander is adopted to serve as an “air-machinery energy converter”, which can transmit additional driving power generalized from the stored compressed air to the turbine shaft for smoothing the wind power fluctuation. A mathematical model for the complete hybrid process is developed and the control strategy is investigated for corresponding cooperative operations. A prototype test rig for implementing the proposed mechanism is built for proof of the concept. From the simulated and experimental studies, the energy conversion efficiency analysis is conducted while the system experiences different operation conditions and modes. It is proved that the proposed hybrid wind turbine system is feasible technically

  15. Wind Turbine Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    , and with or without gearboxes, using the latest in power electronics, aerodynamics, and mechanical drive train designs [4]. The main differences between all wind turbine concepts developed over the years, concern their electrical design and control. Today, the wind turbines on the market mix and match a variety......, the design of wind turbines has changed from being convention driven to being optimized driven within the operating regime and market environment. Wind turbine designs have progressed from fixed speed, passive controlled and with drive trains with gearboxes, to become variable speed, active controlled......,6] and to implement modern control system strategies....

  16. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad

    A HTS machine could be a way to address some of the technical barriers offshore wind energy is about to face. Due to the superior power density of HTS machines, this technology could become a milestone on which many, including the wind industry, will rely in the future. The work presented...... in this thesis is a part of a larger endeavor, the Superwind project that focused on identifying the potentials that HTS machines could offer to the wind industry and addressing some of the challenges in the process. In order to identify these challenges, I have design and constructed a HTS machine experimental...... setup which is made to serve as precursor, leading towards an optimized HTS machine concept proposed for wind turbines. In part, the work presented in this thesis will focus on the description of the experimental setup and reasoning behind the choices made during the design. The setup comprises from...

  17. Megawatt wind turbines gaining momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, K.; Madsen, B.T.

    1996-01-01

    Through the short history of the modern wind turbine, electric utilities have made it amply clear that they have held a preference for large scale wind turbines over smaller ones, which is why wind turbine builders through the years have made numerous attempts develop such machines - machines that would meet the technical, aesthetic and economic demands that a customer would require. Considerable effort was put into developing such wind turbines in the early 1980s. There was the U.S. Department of Energy's MOD 1-5 program, which ranged up to 3.2 MW, Denmark's Nibe A and B, 630 kW turbine and the 2 MW Tjaereborg machine, Sweden's Naesudden, 3 MW, and Germany's Growian, 3 MW. Most of these were dismal failures, though some did show the potential of MW technology. (au)

  18. Wind turbine supply in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodin, H.

    2007-01-01

    This study reported on wind turbine supplies to the Canadian market. The report was written to address concerns for Canada's supply outlook in the near future due to the booming wind energy market. Turbine shortages have arisen as a result of continued growth in both European and North American markets. Long lead-times on turbine orders are now increasing the pressure to lock in turbine supply during the initial phases of the development process. Future growth of the wind energy industry will be impacted if turbine supply difficulties continue to contribute to uncertainties in the development process. The report provided an overview of the North American and global wind energy markets, as well as a summary of telephone interviews conducted with turbine suppliers. The implications for the future of turbine supply to the Canadian market were also analyzed. It was concluded that policy-makers should focus on supporting the expansion of manufacturing facilities for small wind turbines and control infrastructure in Canada 7 refs., 3 figs

  19. Incorporation of Finite Element Analysis into Annual Energy Loss Estimation for Permanent Magnet Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Matthew Lee; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    Several methods of estimating the annual energy losses for wind turbine generators are investigated in this paper. Utilizing a high amount of transient simulations with motion is first demonstrated. Usage of a space-time transformation for prediction of iron losses is also explored. The methods, ...

  20. Smart Wind Turbine : Analysis and Autonomous Flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhammer, L.O.

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines convert kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. Unfortunately, this process is everything but constant, as the wind source shows large fluctuations with high and low frequencies. This turbulence, together with the wind shear and yawed inflow, excites the turbine structure,

  1. Reliability Assessment Of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models...... for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation. But since the function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects...... of these components are discussed and it is described how there reliability influences the reliability of the structural components. Two illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling, reliability assessment and calibration of partial safety factors for structural wind turbine components exposed...

  2. Dynamic modeling and simulation of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafari Seadat, M.H.; Kheradmand Keysami, M.; Lari, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    Using wind energy for generating electricity in wind turbines is a good way for using renewable energies. It can also help to protect the environment. The main objective of this paper is dynamic modeling by energy method and simulation of a wind turbine aided by computer. In this paper, the equations of motion are extracted for simulating the system of wind turbine and then the behavior of the system become obvious by solving the equations. The turbine is considered with three blade rotor in wind direction, induced generator that is connected to the network and constant revolution for simulation of wind turbine. Every part of the wind turbine should be simulated for simulation of wind turbine. The main parts are blades, gearbox, shafts and generator

  3. The aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Troldborg, Niels

    2013-01-01

    In the paper we present state-of-the-art of research in wind turbine aerodynamics. We start be giving a brief historical review and a survey over aerodynamic research in wind energy. Next, we focus on some recent research results obtained by our wind energy group at Department of Mechanical...... Engineering at DTU. In particular, we show some new results on the classical problem of the ideal rotor and present a series of new results from an on-going research project dealing with the modelling and simulation of turbulent flow structures in the wake behind wind turbines....

  4. Wind turbine power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-11-01

    The Countryside Council for Wales (CCW's) policy on wind turbine power stations needs to be read in the context of CCW's document Energy:Policy and perspectives for the Welsh countryside. This identifies four levels of action aimed at reducing emission of gases which contribute towards the risk of global warming and gases which cause acid deposition. These are: the need for investment in energy efficiency; the need for investment in conventional power generation in order to meet the highest environmental standards; the need for investment in renewable energy; and the need to use land use transportation policies and decisions to ensure energy efficiency and energy conservation. CCW views wind turbine power stations, along with other renewable energy systems, within this framework. CCW's policy is to welcome the exploitation of renewable energy sources as an element in a complete and environmentally sensitive energy policy, subject to the Environmental Assessment of individual schemes and monitoring of the long-term impact of the various technologies involved. (Author)

  5. Design and Experimental Analysis of an Exhaust Air Energy Recovery Wind Turbine Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fazlizan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT was positioned at the discharge outlet of a cooling tower electricity generator. To avoid a negative impact on the performance of the cooling tower and to optimize the turbine performance, the determination of the VAWT position in the discharge wind stream was conducted by experiment. The preferable VAWT position is where the higher wind velocity matches the positive torque area of the turbine rotation. With the proper matching among the VAWT configurations (blade number, airfoil type, operating tip-speed-ratio, etc. and exhaust air profile, the turbine system was not only able to recover the wasted kinetic energy, it also reduced the fan motor power consumption by 4.5% and increased the cooling tower intake air flow-rate by 11%. The VAWT had a free running rotational speed of 479 rpm, power coefficient of 10.6%, and tip-speed-ratio of 1.88. The double multiple stream tube theory was used to explain the VAWT behavior in the non-uniform wind stream. For the actual size of a cooling tower with a 2.4 m outlet diameter and powered by a 7.5 kW fan motor, it was estimated that a system with two VAWTs (side-by-side can generate 1 kW of power which is equivalent to 13% of energy recovery.

  6. Noise from wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegeant, Olivier [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Sciences

    2002-02-01

    A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expected in the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines on a large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact, notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed wind turbines offer a promising solution for applications in densely populated areas like the European countries, as this design would enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect due to ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where wind turbines are sited, the ambient noise originates from the action of wind on the vegetation and about the listener's ear (pseudo-noise). It shows a wind speed dependence similar to that of the noise from a variable speed wind turbine and can therefore mask the latter for a wide range of conditions. However, a problem inherent to the design of these machines is their proclivity to pure tone generation, because of the enhanced difficulty of avoiding structural resonances in the mechanical parts. Pure tones are deemed highly annoying and are severely regulated by most noise policies. In relation to this problem, the vibration transmission of structure-borne sound to the tower of the turbine is investigated, in particular when the tower is stiffened at its upper end. Furthermore, since noise annoyance due to wind turbine is mostly a masking issue, the wind-related sources of ambient noise are studied and their masking potentials assessed. With this aim, prediction models for wind-induced vegetation noise and pseudo-noise have been developed. Finally, closely related to the effect of masking, is the difficulty, regularly encountered by local authorities and wind farm developers, to measure noise immission from wind turbines. A new measurement technique has thus been developed in the course of this work. Through improving the signal-to-noise ratio between wind turbine noise and ambient noise, the new technique yields more accurate measurement results.

  7. Maximizing Energy Capture of Fixed-Pitch Variable-Speed Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, K.; Migliore, P.

    2000-08-01

    Field tests of a variable-speed, stall-regulated wind turbine were conducted at a US Department of Energy Laboratory. A variable-speed generating system, comprising a doubly-fed generator and series-resonant power converter, was installed on a 275-kW, downwind, two-blade wind turbine. Gearbox, generator, and converter efficiency were measured in the laboratory so that rotor aerodynamic efficiency could be determined from field measurement of generator power. The turbine was operated at several discrete rotational speeds to develop power curves for use in formulating variable-speed control strategies. Test results for fixed-speed and variable-speed operation are presented along with discussion and comparison of the variable-speed control methodologies. Where possible, comparisons between fixed-speed and variable-speed operation are shown.

  8. Computational Modelling of Materials for Wind Turbine Blades: Selected DTUWind Energy Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Computational and analytical studies of degradation of wind turbine blade materials at the macro-, micro-, and nanoscale carried out by the modelling team of the Section Composites and Materials Mechanics, Department of Wind Energy, DTU, are reviewed. Examples of the analysis of the microstructural...... effects on the strength and fatigue life of composites are shown. Computational studies of degradation mechanisms of wind blade composites under tensile and compressive loading are presented. The effect of hybrid and nanoengineered structures on the performance of the composite was studied...

  9. Use of Bayesian networks classifiers for long-term mean wind turbine energy output estimation at a potential wind energy conversion site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carta, Jose A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus de Tafira s/n, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Velazquez, Sergio [Department of Electronics and Automatics Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus de Tafira s/n, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Matias, J.M. [Department of Statistics, University of Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende, 36200 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Due to the interannual variability of wind speed a feasibility analysis for the installation of a Wind Energy Conversion System at a particular site requires estimation of the long-term mean wind turbine energy output. A method is proposed in this paper which, based on probabilistic Bayesian networks (BNs), enables estimation of the long-term mean wind speed histogram for a site where few measurements of the wind resource are available. For this purpose, the proposed method allows the use of multiple reference stations with a long history of wind speed and wind direction measurements. That is to say, the model that is proposed in this paper is able to involve and make use of regional information about the wind resource. With the estimated long-term wind speed histogram and the power curve of a wind turbine it is possible to use the method of bins to determine the long-term mean energy output for that wind turbine. The intelligent system employed, the knowledgebase of which is a joint probability function of all the model variables, uses efficient calculation techniques for conditional probabilities to perform the reasoning. This enables automatic model learning and inference to be performed efficiently based on the available evidence. The proposed model is applied in this paper to wind speeds and wind directions recorded at four weather stations located in the Canary Islands (Spain). Ten years of mean hourly wind speed and direction data are available for these stations. One of the conclusions reached is that the BN with three reference stations gave fewer errors between the real and estimated long-term mean wind turbine energy output than when using two measure-correlate-predict algorithms which were evaluated and which use a linear regression between the candidate station and one reference station. (author)

  10. Use of Bayesian networks classifiers for long-term mean wind turbine energy output estimation at a potential wind energy conversion site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta, Jose A.; Velazquez, Sergio; Matias, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the interannual variability of wind speed a feasibility analysis for the installation of a Wind Energy Conversion System at a particular site requires estimation of the long-term mean wind turbine energy output. A method is proposed in this paper which, based on probabilistic Bayesian networks (BNs), enables estimation of the long-term mean wind speed histogram for a site where few measurements of the wind resource are available. For this purpose, the proposed method allows the use of multiple reference stations with a long history of wind speed and wind direction measurements. That is to say, the model that is proposed in this paper is able to involve and make use of regional information about the wind resource. With the estimated long-term wind speed histogram and the power curve of a wind turbine it is possible to use the method of bins to determine the long-term mean energy output for that wind turbine. The intelligent system employed, the knowledgebase of which is a joint probability function of all the model variables, uses efficient calculation techniques for conditional probabilities to perform the reasoning. This enables automatic model learning and inference to be performed efficiently based on the available evidence. The proposed model is applied in this paper to wind speeds and wind directions recorded at four weather stations located in the Canary Islands (Spain). Ten years of mean hourly wind speed and direction data are available for these stations. One of the conclusions reached is that the BN with three reference stations gave fewer errors between the real and estimated long-term mean wind turbine energy output than when using two measure-correlate-predict algorithms which were evaluated and which use a linear regression between the candidate station and one reference station.

  11. Constructing a Plastic Bottle Wind Turbine as a Practical Aid for Learning about Using Wind Energy to Generate Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    A simple horizontal axis wind turbine can be easily constructed using a 1.5 l PET plastic bottle, a compact disc and a small dynamo. The turbine operates effectively at low wind speeds and has a rotational speed of 500 rpm at a wind speed of about 14 km h[superscript -1]. The wind turbine can be used to demonstrate the relationship between open…

  12. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Larsen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Denmark has 3200 wind turbines with an installed maximum capacity of 418MW. The most important Danish research projects into wind turbine noise and the main results are listed. These date from 1983. Two comprehensive studies are currently in progress. The first is an analytical and empirical investigation of aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors and has so far dealt mainly with tip noise. The measurement method, using a hard board mounted microphone on the ground near the turbine, is described. Four different tip designs have been tested. Some examples of reference sound power level spectra for three of the designs are presented. During the past two years a computerbased data acquisition system has been used for real-time determination of sound power levels. The second study, which has just commenced, is on annoyance from wind turbine noise. It will include noise measurements, masking calculations and a social survey on the perceived nuisance. (UK)

  13. New guidelines for wind turbine gearboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States); Errichello, R. [GEARTECH, Townsend, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The American Gear Manufacturers Association in cooperation with the American Wind Energy Association will soon be publishing AGMA/AWEA 921-A97 {open_quotes}Recommended Practices for Design and Specification of Gearboxes for Wind Turbine Generator Systems.{close_quotes} Much has been learned about the unique operation and loading of gearboxes in wind turbine applications since the burgeoning of the modern wind turbine industry in the early 1980`s. AGMA/AWEA 921-A97 documents this experience in a manner that provides valuable information to assist gear manufacturers and wind turbine designers, operators, and manufacturers in developing reliable wind turbine gearboxes. The document provides information on procurement specification development, wind turbine architecture, environmental considerations, and gearbox load determination, as well as the design, manufacturing, quality assurance, lubrication, operation and maintenance of wind turbine gearboxes. This paper presents the salient parts of the practices recommended in AGMA/AWEA 921-A97.

  14. A Combined Energy Management Algorithm for Wind Turbine/Battery Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altin, Necmi; Eyimaya, Süleyman Emre

    2018-03-01

    From an energy management standpoint, natural phenomena such as solar irradiation and wind speed are uncontrolled variables, so the correlation between the energy generated by renewable energy sources and energy demand cannot always be predicted. For this reason, energy storage systems are used to provide more efficient renewable energy systems. In these systems, energy management systems are used to control the energy storage system and establish a balance between the generated power and the power demand. In addition, especially in wind turbines, rapidly varying wind speeds cause wind power fluctuations, which threaten the power system stability, especially at high power levels. Energy storage systems are also used to mitigate the power fluctuations and sustain the power system's stability. In these systems, another controller which controls the energy storage system power to mitigate power fluctuations is required. These two controllers are different from each other. In this study, a combined energy management algorithm is proposed which can perform both as an energy control system and a power fluctuation mitigation system. The proposed controller is tested with wind energy conversion system modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results show that the proposed controller acts as an energy management system while, at the same time, mitigating power fluctuations.

  15. Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik

    Cost reductions for offshore wind turbines are a substantial requirement in order to make offshore wind energy more competitive compared to other energy supply methods. During the 20 – 25 years of wind turbines useful life, Operation & Maintenance costs are typically estimated to be a quarter...... and uncertainties are quantified. Further, estimation of annual failure probability for structural components taking into account possible faults in electrical or mechanical systems is considered. For a representative structural failure mode, a probabilistic model is developed that incorporates grid loss failures...

  16. Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik

    Cost reductions for offshore wind turbines are a substantial requirement in order to make offshore wind energy more competitive compared to other energy supply methods. During the 20 – 25 years of wind turbines useful life, Operation & Maintenance costs are typically estimated to be a quarter...... for Operation & Maintenance planning. Concentrating efforts on development of such models, this research is focused on reliability modeling of Wind Turbine critical subsystems (especially the power converter system). For reliability assessment of these components, structural reliability methods are applied...... to one third of the total cost of energy. Reduction of Operation & Maintenance costs will result in significant cost savings and result in cheaper electricity production. Operation & Maintenance processes mainly involve actions related to replacements or repair. Identifying the right times when...

  17. Dynamics of a Flywheel Energy Storage System Supporting a Wind Turbine Generator in a Microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair S, Gayathri; Senroy, Nilanjan

    2016-02-01

    Integration of an induction machine based flywheel energy storage system with a wind energy conversion system is implemented in this paper. The nonlinear and linearized models of the flywheel are studied, compared and a reduced order model of the same simulated to analyze the influence of the flywheel inertia and control in system response during a wind power change. A quantification of the relation between the inertia of the flywheel and the controller gain is obtained which allows the system to be considered as a reduced order model that is more controllable in nature. A microgrid setup comprising of the flywheel energy storage system, a two mass model of a DFIG based wind turbine generator and a reduced order model of a diesel generator is utilized to analyse the microgrid dynamics accurately in the event of frequency variations arising due to wind power change. The response of the microgrid with and without the flywheel is studied.

  18. Environmental Regulations, Market Structure and Technological Progress in Renewable Energy Technology — A Panel Data Study on Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Rübbelke; Pia Weiss

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of environmental regulations on the patent activities for wind turbines between 1980 and 2008. We explicitly control for energy market liberalisation and take a potential interaction between liberalisation and policy instruments into account. We find a strong and highly significant effect of environmental tax revenues, which we regard as a proxy for the extent to which energy prices changed in favour of renewable energies, as well as foreign demand for wind turbines on inn...

  19. Wind turbines and infrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided the results of a study conducted to assess the impacts of wind farm-induced infrasound on nearby residences and human populations. Infrasound occurs at frequencies below those considered as detectable by human hearing. Infrasonic levels caused by wind turbines are often similar to ambient levels of 85 dBG or lower that are caused by wind in the natural environment. This study examined the levels at which infrasound poses a threat to human health or can be considered as an annoyance. The study examined levels of infrasound caused by various types of wind turbines, and evaluated acoustic phenomena and characteristics associated with wind turbines. Results of the study suggested that infrasound near modern wind turbines is typically not perceptible to humans through either auditory or non-auditory mechanisms. However, wind turbines often create an audible broadband noise whose amplitude can be modulated at low frequencies. A review of both Canadian and international studies concluded that infrasound generated by wind turbines should not significantly impact nearby residences or human populations. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  20. Energy and environmental intolerance: electromagnetic hypersensitivity, wind turbine syndrome. What is the reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet-Belfais, Monique; Lambrozo, Jacques; Souques, Martine; Piotrowski, Aleksandra; Tossa, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The current debate about means of power generation, in the framework of the energy transition, must necessarily consider questions about different forms of idiopathic environmental intolerance, notably hypersensitivity attributed to electromagnetic fields and the wind turbine syndrome, which incriminates the low frequency- and infra-sound waves emitted by industrial wind turbines. This article attempts to take stock of current knowledge about each of these conditions, highlighting their differences and similarities. Although the offending sources are different, the symptoms, variable and not specific to any particular disease, are very similar. Nor has any consensual clinical definition of these conditions or their diagnostic criteria been established. Despite the lack of objective diagnostic criteria, many studies have investigated the existence of a potential causal link between the symptoms and the environmental factors implicated, attempting to highlight a possible plausible underlying mechanism, either biological or psychological. Although there is no doubt about the reality or the potential severity of the symptoms of electromagnetic hypersensitivity, no causal link with electromagnetic fields has been demonstrated to date, and no biological mechanism appears plausible. For the wind turbine syndrome, no direct health effect on the ear or other organs due to the noise emission of wind turbines, including low frequency and infra-sound waves, has been demonstrated. The frequently mentioned discomfort has most often been linked to a negative perception of wind turbines. Psychological mechanisms have been explored for both syndromes, including a potential nocebo effect. Studies are also beginning to investigate the weight of the collective and sociological aspects that might favor the emergence of these forms of intolerance. Finally, in terms of medical care, the article considers the relation of these emerging environmental sensitivities to functional disorders

  1. Maximum Energy Yield Oriented Turbine Control in PMSG based Wind Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    : In the modern power systems, with the fast integration of the wind power into the grid, it turns to develop large-scale offshore wind farms equipped with the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbine. In large-scale offshore wind farms, the wind turbine operating reliability and the wake effect in the wind farm became important issues. The pitch angle and tip speed ratio are the two degrees of freedom for the PMSG wind turbine active power control, which are also the determ...

  2. Comparative study of energy conversion system dedicated to a small wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirecki, A.

    2005-01-01

    This study presents a comparison of architectures and strategies of energy management dedicated to VAWT turbines such as Savonius. A Maximum Power Point Tracking must be implemented in order to optimize the energetic behavior. A torque or a speed control, or an indirect control of the DC bus current is possible. In the fact that the wind turbine characteristic is unknown, an operational research based on fuzzy logic is proposed. Aiming to minimize the cost of the static conversion structure, simple structures (diode bridge inverter, associated with DC-DC chopper) are analyzed and compared with a system based on a PWM Voltage Source Inverter. A test bench has been realized in the meantime as a system simulation. Comparisons of the provided energy are made for different wind speeds allowing to evaluate the performance of each structure and of the control strategies. (author)

  3. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Jakobsen, J.

    1992-11-01

    Based on a previous project concerning the calculation of the amount of noise emanating from wind turbine arrays, this one examines the subject further by investigating whether there could be significant differences in the amount of noise made by individual wind turbines in an array, and whether the noise is transmitted in varying directions - so that when it is carried in the same direction as the wind blows it would appear to be louder. The aim was also to determine whether the previously used method of calculation lacked precision. It was found that differences in noise niveaux related to individual wind turbines were insignificant and that noise was not so loud when it was not borne in the direction of the wind. It was necessary to change the method of calculation as reckoning should include the influence of the terrain, wind velocity and distance. The measuring and calculation methods are exemplified and the resulting measurements are presented in detail. (AB)

  4. A Comparative Computational Fluid Dynamics Study on an Innovative Exhaust Air Energy Recovery Wind Turbine Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedsaeed Tabatabaeikia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recovering energy from exhaust air systems of building cooling towers is an innovative idea. A specific wind turbine generator was designed in order to achieve this goal. This device consists of two Giromill vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT combined with four guide vanes and two diffuser plates. It was clear from previous literatures that no comprehensive flow behavior study had been carried out on this innovative device. Therefore, the working principle of this design was simulated using the Analysis System (ANSYS Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD package and the results were compared to experimental ones. It was perceived from the results that by introducing the diffusers and then the guide vanes, the overall power output of the wind turbine was improved by approximately 5% and 34%, respectively, compared to using VAWT alone. In the case of the diffusers, the optimum angle was found to be 7°, while for guide vanes A and B, it was 70° and 60° respectively. These results were in good agreement with experimental results obtained in the previous experimental study. Overall, it can be concluded that exhaust air recovery turbines are a promising form of green technology.

  5. Wind Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind Energy Basics Wind Energy Basics We have been harnessing the wind's energy for hundreds of grinding grain. Today, the windmill's modern equivalent-a wind turbine can use the wind's energy to most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they can take advantage of the faster and

  6. Monitoring of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jonathan R.; Adams, Douglas E.; Paquette, Josh

    2017-07-25

    Method and apparatus for determining the deflection or curvature of a rotating blade, such as a wind turbine blade or a helicopter blade. Also, methods and apparatus for establishing an inertial reference system on a rotating blade.

  7. Frequency Activated Fast Power Reserve for Wind Power Plant Delivered from Stored Kinetic Energy in the Wind Turbine Inertia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Thuring, P.; Kumar, S

    2011-01-01

    is proposed that delivers a short-term power reserve from the kinetic energy in the wind turbine (WT) inertia, while considering the inherent characteristics of a wind power plant. The aim is to contribute with a fast power reserve to stabilize the frequency drop during large and sudden production deficits......With increased penetration of converter interfaced generation, synchronous generators may start to be displaced to keep the overall power balance. As a consequence the resulting inertia in the system may decrease and make the power system more exposed to frequency excursions. Here, a control...

  8. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  9. Vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  10. Wind energy conversion. Volume II. Aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.H.; Dugundji, J.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Gohard, J.; Chung, S.; Humes, T.

    1978-09-01

    The basic aerodynamic theory of the wind turbine is presented, starting with the simple momentum theory based on uniform inflow and an infinite number of blades. The basic vortex theory is then developed. Following these basics, the more complete momentum theory, including swirl, non-uniform inflow, the effect of a finite number of blades, and empirical correction for the vortex ring condition is presented. The more complete vortex theory is presented which includes unsteady aerodynamic effects but based on a semi-rigid wake. Methods of applying this theory for performance estimation are discussed as well as for the purpose of computing time varying airloads due to windshear and tower interference.

  11. Free wake analysis of wind turbine aerodynamics. Wind energy conversion. ASRL-TR-184-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohard, J.C.

    1978-09-01

    The underlying theory is presented for determining blade and rotor/tower vibration and dynamic stability characteristics as well as the basic dynamic (as opposed to aerodynamic) operating loads. Starting with a simple concept of equivalent hinged rotors, the equations of motion for the blade including pitch, flap and lag motions are developed. The nonlinear equations are derived first and linearized about a finite displacement of the blade out of the plane of rotation. This is important since wind turbines tend to operate at relatively high coning angles. The effect of distributed flexibility, as opposed to the equivalent hinge concept, is then discussed.

  12. Wind turbines and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rideout, K.; Copes, R.; Bos, C.

    2010-01-01

    This document summarized the potential health hazards associated with wind turbines, such as noise and low frequency sound, vibration and infrasound; electromagnetic fields (EMF); shadow flicker; and ice throw and structural failure. Various symptoms can be attributed to wind turbines, including dizziness, sleep disruption, and headaches. A review of available research regarding potential health affects to residents living in close proximity to wind turbines showed that the sound level associated with wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to damage hearing, but may lead to annoyance and sleep disturbance. Research has shown that wind turbines are not a significant source of EMF exposure, and although shadows caused by the blades may be annoying, they are not likely to cause epileptic seizures at normal operational speeds. The risk of injury from ice throw can be minimized with setbacks of 200 to 400 m. Examples of Canadian wind turbine setback guidelines and regulations were also offered. It was concluded that setbacks and operational guidelines can be utilized in combination to address safety hazards, sound levels, land use issues, and impacts on people. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. Cumulative effects of wind turbines. A guide to assessing the cumulative effects of wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This guidance provides advice on how to assess the cumulative effects of wind energy developments in an area and is aimed at developers, planners, and stakeholders interested in the development of wind energy in the UK. The principles of cumulative assessment, wind energy development in the UK, cumulative assessment of wind energy development, and best practice conclusions are discussed. The identification and assessment of the cumulative effects is examined in terms of global environmental sustainability, local environmental quality and socio-economic activity. Supplementary guidance for assessing the principle cumulative effects on the landscape, on birds, and on the visual effect is provided. The consensus building approach behind the preparation of this guidance is outlined in the annexes of the report.

  14. Wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented.

  15. Effects of geometric non-linearity on energy release rates in a realistic wind turbine blade cross section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, Martin Alexander; Bitsche, Robert; Belloni, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Most wind turbine rotor blades comprise several adhesively connected sub-components typically made from glass fibre reinforced polymer composite materials. It is a well-known fact that wind turbine blades are prone to fail in their adhesive joints. However, owing to the complexity...... of their structural behaviour, little is known about the root causes of adhesive joint failure. This paper investigates the effects of geometrical non-linearity on energy release rates (ERRs) of transversely oriented cracks present in the adhesive joints of a wind turbine rotor blade. Utilising a computationally...

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of energy conversion and transfer in hybrid system consisting of wind turbine and advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Ke; Li, Xuemei; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    A simulation model consisting of wind speed, wind turbine and AA-CAES (advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage) system is developed in this paper, and thermodynamic analysis on energy conversion and transfer in hybrid system is carried out. The impacts of stable wind speed and unstable wind speed on the hybrid system are analyzed and compared from the viewpoint of energy conversion and system efficiency. Besides, energy conversion relationship between wind turbine and AA-CAES system is investigated on the basis of process analysis. The results show that there are several different forms of energy in hybrid system, which have distinct conversion relationship. As to wind turbine, power coefficient determines wind energy utilization efficiency, and in AA-CAES system, it is compressor efficiency that mainly affects energy conversion efficiencies of other components. The strength and fluctuation of wind speed have a direct impact on energy conversion efficiencies of components of hybrid system, and within proper wind speed scope, the maximum of system efficiency could be expected. - Highlights: • A hybrid system consisting of wind, wind turbine and AA-CAES system is established. • Energy conversion in hybrid system with stable and unstable wind speed is analyzed. • Maximum efficiency of hybrid system can be reached within proper wind speed scope. • Thermal energy change in hybrid system is more sensitive to wind speed change. • Compressor efficiency can affect other efficiencies in AA-CAES system

  17. Reliability of Wind Speed Data from Satellite Altimeter to Support Wind Turbine Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uti, M. N.; Din, A. H. M.; Omar, A. H.

    2017-10-01

    Satellite altimeter has proven itself to be one of the important tool to provide good quality information in oceanographic study. Nowadays, most countries in the world have begun in implementation the wind energy as one of their renewable energy for electric power generation. Many wind speed studies conducted in Malaysia using conventional method and scientific technique such as anemometer and volunteer observing ships (VOS) in order to obtain the wind speed data to support the development of renewable energy. However, there are some limitations regarding to this conventional method such as less coverage for both spatial and temporal and less continuity in data sharing by VOS members. Thus, the aim of this research is to determine the reliability of wind speed data by using multi-mission satellite altimeter to support wind energy potential in Malaysia seas. Therefore, the wind speed data are derived from nine types of satellite altimeter starting from year 1993 until 2016. Then, to validate the reliability of wind speed data from satellite altimeter, a comparison of wind speed data form ground-truth buoy that located at Sabah and Sarawak is conducted. The validation is carried out in terms of the correlation, the root mean square error (RMSE) calculation and satellite track analysis. As a result, both techniques showing a good correlation with value positive 0.7976 and 0.6148 for point located at Sabah and Sarawak Sea, respectively. It can be concluded that a step towards the reliability of wind speed data by using multi-mission satellite altimeter can be achieved to support renewable energy.

  18. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein [Western New England Univ., Springfield, MA (United States); Madden, Frank [FloDesign Wind Turbine Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the research and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually beneficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT's mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.

  19. Computational and experimental optimization of the exhaust air energy recovery wind turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabaeikia, Seyedsaeed; Ghazali, Nik Nazri Bin Nik; Chong, Wen Tong; Shahizare, Behzad; Izadyar, Nima; Esmaeilzadeh, Alireza; Fazlizan, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Studying the viability of harvesting wasted energy by exhaust air recovery generator. • Optimizing the design using response surface methodology. • Validation of optimization and computation result by performing experimental tests. • Investigation of flow behaviour using computational fluid dynamic simulations. • Performing the technical and economic study of the exhaust air recovery generator. - Abstract: This paper studies the optimization of an innovative exhaust air recovery wind turbine generator through computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The optimization strategy aims to optimize the overall system energy generation and simultaneously guarantee that it does not violate the cooling tower performance in terms of decreasing airflow intake and increasing fan motor power consumption. The wind turbine rotor position, modifying diffuser plates, and introducing separator plates to the design are considered as the variable factors for the optimization. The generated power coefficient is selected as optimization objective. Unlike most of previous optimizations in field of wind turbines, in this study, response surface methodology (RSM) as a method of analytical procedures optimization has been utilised by using multivariate statistic techniques. A comprehensive study on CFD parameters including the mesh resolution, the turbulence model and transient time step values is presented. The system is simulated using SST K-ω turbulence model and then both computational and optimization results are validated by experimental data obtained in laboratory. Results show that the optimization strategy can improve the wind turbine generated power by 48.6% compared to baseline design. Meanwhile, it is able to enhance the fan intake airflow rate and decrease fan motor power consumption. The obtained optimization equations are also validated by both CFD and experimental results and a negligible deviation in range of 6–8.5% is observed.

  20. Floating wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  1. Aeroservoelasticity of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand......, and furthermore linear and therefore suitable for control design. The development of the primary aeroelastic blade model is divided into four steps: 1) Nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) of structural blade motion are derived together with equations of pitch action and rotor speed; the individual...... to a 2D blade section model, and it can be used instead of this in many applications, giving a transparent connection to a real wind turbine blade. In this work the aeroelastic blade model is used to analyze interaction between pitch action, blade motion and wind speed variations. Furthermore the model...

  2. Wind Turbine Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

  3. Wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Whether or not wind turbines pose a risk to human health is a matter of heated debate. Personal reactions to other environmental exposures occurring in the same settings as wind turbines may be responsible of the reported symptoms. However, these have not been accounted for in previous studies. We...... investigated whether there is an association between residential proximity to wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms, after controlling for personal reactions to other environmental co-exposures. We assessed wind turbine exposures in 454 residences as the distance to the closest wind turbine (Dw) and number...... of wind turbines

  4. Wind turbine control and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Ningsu; Acho, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the latest technical developments and trends involving wind turbine control and monitoring, fault diagnosis, and wind power systems, 'Wind Turbine Control and Monitoring' presents an accessible and straightforward introduction to wind turbines, but also includes an in-depth analysis incorporating illustrations, tables and examples on how to use wind turbine modeling and simulation software.   Featuring analysis from leading experts and researchers in the field, the book provides new understanding, methodologies and algorithms of control and monitoring, comput

  5. Icing losses on wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, T.; Fotsing, I.; Pearson, S. [Garrad Hassan Canada Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the energy losses that can occur as a result of icing on wind turbines. Airfoil deterioration can occur in the presence of rime and glaze ice. Anemometers are also impacted by ice, and shut-downs can occur as a result of icing events. Availability deficits that occur during the winter months can lead to annual energy losses of 0.5 percent. The impact of icing events on total wind power energy production in Quebec is estimated at between 1.3 percent to 2.7 percent. Ice loss estimates are considered during the pre-construction phases of wind power projects. However, ice loss prediction methods are often inaccurate. Studies have demonstrated that preconstruction masts show a reasonable correlation with wind turbine icing, and that icing losses are site-specific. tabs., figs.

  6. Renewable Energy and Negative Externalities: The Effect of Wind Turbines on House Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dröes, M.I.; Koster, H.R.A.

    2016-01-01

    In many countries, wind turbines are constructed as part of a strategy to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In this paper, we measure the external effect of wind turbines on the transaction prices of nearby houses. A unique Dutch house price dataset covering the period 1985–2011 is used, as well as

  7. Renewable energy and negative externalities: the effect of wind turbines on house prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dröes, M.I.; Koster, H.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, wind turbines are constructed as part of a strategy to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In this paper, we measure the external effect of wind turbines on the transaction prices of nearby houses. A unique house price dataset covering the period 1985-2011 is used, including the

  8. Market experiences with small wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Deijl, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the marketing experiences of Lagerwey Windturbines with the exploitation of small wind turbines. Attention is paid to the market mechanisms which effect the sale and implementation of small wind turbines: payback of surplus power, provincial and regional subsidies, grid connection costs, energy prices, and flexible solutions for grid connections. Also problems with municipalities with regard to regulations or construction licenses are discussed. Some recommendations are given to stimulate the market for small wind turbines. 1 fig., 1 ref

  9. Wind turbine noise diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richarz, W.; Richarz, H.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation proposed a self-consistent model for broad-band noise emitted from modern wind turbines. The simple source model was consistent with the physics of sound generation and considered the unique features of wind turbines. Although the acoustics of wind turbines are similar to those of conventional propellers, the dimensions of wind turbines pose unique challenges in diagnosing noise emission. The general features of the sound field were deduced. Source motion and source directivity appear to be responsible for amplitude variations. The amplitude modulation is likely to make wind-turbine noise more audible, and may be partly responsible for annoyance that has been reported in the literature. Acoustic array data suggests that broad-band noise is emitted predominantly during the downward sweep of each rotor blade. Source motion and source directivity account for the observed pattern. Rotor-tower interaction effects are of lesser importance. Predicted amplitude modulation ranges from 1 dB to 6dB. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Discord amongst the wind turbine buyers with regard to Dutch wind turbine manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janse, F.

    1992-01-01

    In the Netherlands two medium-large manufacturers of wind turbines exist: NedWind (Hollandia Kloos) and Windmaster Nederland (Begemann Groep). Also Lagerwey, which constructs wind turbines for the private market (farmers, cooperatives), is important for the Dutch market and successfull in Germany. There is a tendency amongst the Dutch energy utilities, which cooperate in the foundation WindPlan, to buy wind turbines from foreign manufacturers. Some energy utilities want to take advantage of the most attractive offers, while others want to cooperate in building up a Dutch wind turbine industry. 5 ills

  11. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    , the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10......We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However...

  12. Built Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Forsyth, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sinclair, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The market currently encourages BWT deployment before the technology is ready for full-scale commercialization. To address this issue, industry stakeholders convened a Rooftop and Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the National Wind Technology Center, located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. This report summarizes the workshop.

  13. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collision with turbines at wind energy facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace P Erickson

    Full Text Available Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 116 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW] for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows], and domestic cats have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top

  14. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collision with turbines at wind energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Wallace P; Wolfe, Melissa M; Bay, Kimberly J; Johnson, Douglas H; Gehring, Joelle L

    2014-01-01

    Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 116 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species).

  15. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collisions with turbines at wind energy facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Wolfe, Melissa M.; Bay, Kimberly J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Gehring, Joelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 39 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species).

  16. Offshore Wind Turbine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten; Hansen, Erik Asp; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    Current offshore wind turbine design methods have matured to a 1st generation state, manifested in the draft of a possible standard, IEC 61400-3 (2005). It is now time to investigate the possibilities of improving existing methods. To do so in an efficient manner a clear identification of the most...... important uncertainty drivers specific for offshore wind turbine design loads is required. Describing the initial efforts in a Danish research project, the paper points to focal points for research and development. These are mainly: soil-structure interaction, improved modelling of wave loads from deep...

  17. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Martin O L

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis W

  18. Damping Wind and Wave Loads on a Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Bak, Thomas; Knudsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind speeds at sea. To enable deployment of wind turbines in deep-water locations, structures are being explored, where wind turbines are placed on a floating platform. This combined structure presents a new control problem, due......, and we show the influence that both wind speed, wave frequencies and misalignment between wind and waves have on the system dynamics. A new control model is derived that extends standard turbine models to include the hydrodynamics, additional platform degrees of freedom, the platform mooring system...

  19. Wind conditions for wind turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-04-01

    Delegates from Europe and USA attended the meeting and discussed general aspects of wind conditions for wind turbine design. The subjects and the presented papers covered a very broad range of aspects of wind conditions and related influence on the wind turbine. (EHS)

  20. US Department of Energy wind turbine candidate site program: the regulatory process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, M.R.; York, K.R.

    1982-06-01

    Sites selected in 1979 as tentative sites for installation of a demonstration MOD-2 turbine are emphasized. Selection as a candidate site in this program meant that the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the site as eligible for a DOE-purchased and installed meteorological tower. The regulatory procedures involved in the siting and installation of these meteorological towers at the majority of the candidate sites are examined. An attempt is also made, in a preliminary fashion, to identify the legal and regulatory procedures that would be required to put up a turbine at each of these candidate sites. The information provided on each of these sites comes primarily from utility representatives, supplemented by conversations with state and local officials. The major findings are summarized on the following: federal requirements, state requirements, local requirements, land ownership, wind rights, and public attitudes.

  1. Energy Storage Opportunities and Capabilities in a Type 3 Wind Turbine Generator: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Hoke, Andy

    2016-09-01

    Wind power plants and other renewable power plants with power electronic interfaces are capable of delivering frequency response (both governor and/or inertial response) to the grid by a control action; thus, the reduction of available online inertia as conventional power plants are retired can be compensated by designing renewable power plant controls to include frequency response. The source of energy to be delivered as inertial response is determined by the type of generation and control strategy chosen. The cost of energy storage is expected to drop over time, and global research activities on energy storage are very active, funded both by the private industry and governments. Different industry sectors (e.g., transportation, energy) are the major drivers of the recent storage research and development. This work investigates the opportunities and capabilities of deploying energy storage in renewable power plants. In particular, we focus on wind power plants with doubly-fed induction generators, or Type 3 wind turbine generator (WTGs). We find that the total output power of a system with Type 3 WTGs with energy storage can deliver a power boost during inertial response that is up to 45% higher than one without energy storage without affecting the torque limit, thus enabling an effective delivery of ancillary services to the grid.

  2. Urban wind turbines. Guidelines for small wind turbines in the built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cace, J.; Ter Horst, E.; Syngellakis, K.; Niel, M.; Clement, P.; Heppener, R.; Peirano, E.

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the WINEUR project (Wind Energy Integration in the Urban Environment) is to determine the deployability of small wind turbines in built environments while identifying the current significant constraints and possible solutions. The purpose of this document is to Inform the stakeholders about the state of the development of small wind turbines for the built environment; Provide practical guidelines to actors dealing with installation of small wind turbines in urban areas; and Provide recommendations for future products and for market development

  3. Upscaling wind turbines: theoretical and practical aspects and their impact on the cost of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieros, G.; Chaviaropoulos, P.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    Wind turbines with a rated power of 5 to 6 MW are now being designed and installed, mostly for offshore operation. Within the EU supported UpWind research project, the barriers for a further increase of size, up to 20 MW, are considered. These wind turbines are expected to have a rotor diameter up......‐efficient way. Finally, a theoretical framework for optimal design of large wind turbines is developed. This is based on a life cycle cost approach, with the introduction of generic models for the costs, as functions of the design parameters and using basic upscaling laws adjusted for technology improvement...... to 250 m and a hub height of more than 150 m. Initially, the theoretical implications of upscaling to such sizes on the weight and loads of the wind turbines are examined, where it is shown that unfavourable increases in weight and load will have to be addressed. Following that, empirical models...

  4. Tornado type wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  5. Wind resource estimation and siting of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, N.G.; Landberg, L.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of the natural wind is necessary for the design, planning and operational aspect of wind energy systems. Here, we shall only be concerned with those meteorological aspects of wind energy planning that are termed wind resource estimation. The estimation...... of the wind resource ranges from the overall estimation of the mean energy content of the wind over a large area - called regional assessment - to the prediction of the average yearly energy production of a specific wind turbine at a specific location - called siting. A regional assessment will most often...... lead to a so-called wind atlas. A precise prediction of the wind speed at a given site is essential because for aerodynamic reasons the power output of a wind turbine is proportional to the third power of the wind speed, hence even small errors in prediction of wind speed may result in large deviations...

  6. Wind turbine spoiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, W.N.

    An aerodynamic spoiler system for a vertical axis wind turbine includes spoilers on the blades initially stored near the rotor axis to minimize drag. A solenoid latch adjacent the central support tower releases the spoilers and centrifugal force causes the spoilers to move up the turbine blades away from the rotor axis, thereby producing a braking effect and actual slowing of the associated wind turbine, if desired. The spoiler system can also be used as an infinitely variable power control by regulated movement of the spoilers on the blades over the range between the undeployed and fully deployed positions. This is done by the use of a suitable powered reel and cable located at the rotor tower to move the spoilers.

  7. Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade that may be produced by an advanced manufacturing process for producing a blade with high quality structural components. Particularly, the structural components, which are preferably manufactured from fibre reinforced...

  8. Wind turbine state estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic inflow is an effect which is normally not included in the models used for wind turbine control design. Therefore, potential improvement from including this effect exists. The objective in this project is to improve the methods previously developed for this and especially to verify the res...

  9. Acoustic Noise Test Report for the U.S. Department of Energy 1.5-Megawatt Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roadman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Huskey, Arlinda [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-01

    A series of tests were conducted to characterize the baseline properties and performance of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1.5-megawatt wind turbine (DOE 1.5) to enable research model development and quantify the effects of future turbine research modifications. The DOE 1.5 is built on the platform of GE's 1.5-MW SLE commercial wind turbine model. It was installed in a nonstandard configuration at the NWTC with the objective of supporting DOE Wind Program research initiatives such as A2e. Therefore, the test results may not represent the performance capabilities of other GE 1.5-MW SLE turbines. The acoustic noise test documented in this report is one of a series of tests carried out to establish a performance baseline for the DOE 1.5 in the NWTC inflow environment.

  10. Meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report, which focuses on the meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines (turbines with a rated output exceeding 100 kW), has four main goals. The first is to outline the elements of a siting strategy that will identify the most favorable wind energy sites in a region and that will provide sufficient wind data to make responsible economic evaluations of the site wind resource possible. The second is to critique and summarize siting techniques that were studied in the Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program. The third goal is to educate utility technical personnel, engineering consultants, and meteorological consultants (who may have not yet undertaken wind energy consulting) on meteorological phenomena relevant to wind turbine siting in order to enhance dialogues between these groups. The fourth goal is to minimize the chances of failure of early siting programs due to insufficient understanding of wind behavior.

  11. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind energy is gaining critical ground in the area of renewable energy, with wind energy being predicted to provide up to 8% of the world’s consumption of electricity by 2021. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials reviews the design and functionality of wind turbine rotor blades...... as well as the requirements and challenges for composite materials used in both current and future designs of wind turbine blades. Part one outlines the challenges and developments in wind turbine blade design, including aerodynamic and aeroelastic design features, fatigue loads on wind turbine blades......, and characteristics of wind turbine blade airfoils. Part two discusses the fatigue behavior of composite wind turbine blades, including the micromechanical modelling and fatigue life prediction of wind turbine blade composite materials, and the effects of resin and reinforcement variations on the fatigue resistance...

  12. Operation and control of large wind turbines and wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Thomsen, Kenneth (and others)

    2005-09-01

    This report is the final report of a Danish research project 'Operation and control of large wind turbines and wind farms'. The objective of the project has been to analyse and assess operational strategies and possibilities for control of different types of wind turbines and different wind farm concepts. The potentials of optimising the lifetime/energy production ratio by means of using revised operational strategies for the individual wind turbines are investigated. Different strategies have been simulated, where the power production is decreased to an optimum when taking loads and actual price of produced electricity into account. Dynamic models and control strategies for the wind farms have also been developed, with the aim to optimise the operation of the wind farms considering participation in power system control of power (frequency) and reactive power (voltage), maximise power production, keep good power quality and limit mechanical loads and life time consumption. The project developed models for 3 different concepts for wind farms. Two of the concepts use active stall controlled wind turbines, one with AC connection and one with modern HVDC/VSC connection of the wind farm. The third concept is based on pitch controlled wind turbines using doubly fed induction generators. The models were applied to simulate the behaviour of the wind farm control when they were connected to a strong grid, and some initial simulations were performed to study the behaviour of the wind farms when it was isolated from the main grid on a local grid. Also the possibility to use the available information from the wind turbine controllers to predict the wind speed has been investigated. The main idea has been to predict the wind speed at a wind turbine using up-wind measurements of the wind speed in another wind turbine. (au)

  13. I support renewable energy but : significant planning issues for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pausner, J [County of Grey, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation examined the wind power project of Blue Highlands, located in Eastern Grey County, Ontario. The project, for which no approval has yet been obtained, involves 67 turbines (120-130 MW). The staff of the Niagara Escarpment Commission (NEC) has made the following recommendations concerning wind energy development projects: (1) the Niagara Escarpment Plan should not be the focus of large-scale industrial type wind power development, (2) wind power developments should be allowed only in certain portions of the Plan area, (3) permission may be granted for household or farm generators throughout the Plan, on a case-by-case basis, (4) the NEC should review proposals adjacent to Plan boundaries which may have a visual impact, and (5) conduct further reviews after major parks are constructed elsewhere. The author identified important planning issues such as environmental impacts, visual impacts, and noise. Policy implementation through zoning is dependent on defining terms and establishing requirements for setbacks, signage, accessory structures and facilities, height maximums, decommissioning provisions, and site planning. The author discussed data collection and dissemination, as well as mapping. The presentation concluded with proposals for policy development, where the author argued that everyone should play their part. Areas with high potential should be examined and development constrained in order to ensure the protection of existing incompatible uses. The public must be involved in locally based projects. Wind theft issue must be addressed. figs.

  14. Wind turbines fundamentals, technologies, application, economics

    CERN Document Server

    Hau, Erich

    2013-01-01

    "Wind Turbines" addresses all those professionally involved in research, development, manufacture and operation of wind turbines. It provides a cross-disciplinary overview of modern wind turbine technology and an orientation in the associated technical, economic and environmental fields.  In its revised third edition, special emphasis has been given to the latest trends in wind turbine technology and design, such as gearless drive train concepts, as well as on new fields of application, in particular the offshore utilisation of wind energy. The author has gained experience over decades designing wind energy converters with a major industrial manufacturer and, more recently, in technical consulting and in the planning of large wind park installations, with special attention to economics.

  15. Power Performance Test Report for the U.S. Department of Energy 1.5-Megawatt Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Ismael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hur, Jerry [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thao, Syhoune [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Curtis, Amy [Windward Engineering, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2015-08-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) acquired and installed a 1.5-megawatt (MW) wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This turbine (hereafter referred to as the DOE 1.5) is envisioned to become an integral part of the research initiatives for the DOE Wind Program, such as Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e). A2e is a multiyear DOE research initiative targeting significant reductions in the cost of wind energy through an improved understanding of the complex physics governing wind flow into and through wind farms. For more information, visit http://energy.gov/eere/wind/atmosphere-electrons. To validate new and existing high-fidelity simulations, A2e must deploy several experimental measurement campaigns across different scales. Proposed experiments include wind tunnel tests, scaled field tests, and large field measurement campaigns at operating wind plants. Data of interest includes long-term atmospheric data sets, wind plant inflow, intra-wind plant flows (e.g., wakes), and rotor loads measurements. It is expected that new, high-fidelity instrumentation will be required to successfully collect data at the resolutions required to validate the high-fidelity simulations.

  16. Power Quality Test Report for the U.S. Department of Energy 1.5-Megawatt Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Ismael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hur, Jerry [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thao, Syhoune [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) acquired and installed a 1.5-megawatt (MW) wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This turbine (hereafter referred to as the DOE 1.5) is envisioned to become an integral part of the research initiatives for the DOE Wind Program, such as Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e). A2e is a multiyear DOE research initiative targeting significant reductions in the cost of wind energy through an improved understanding of the complex physics governing wind flow into and through wind farms. For more information, visit http://energy.gov/eere/wind/atmosphere-electrons. To validate new and existing high-fidelity simulations, A2e must deploy several experimental measurement campaigns across different scales. Proposed experiments include wind tunnel tests, scaled field tests, and large field measurement campaigns at operating wind plants. Data of interest includes long-term atmospheric data sets, wind plant inflow, intra-wind plant flows (e.g., wakes), and rotor loads measurements. It is expected that new, high-fidelity instrumentation will be required to successfully collect data at the resolutions required to validate the high-fidelity simulations.

  17. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  18. Arctic wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, E.; Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Tammelin, B.

    1998-01-01

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  19. Probabilistic Modeling of Wind Turbine Drivetrain Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafsanjani, Hesam Mirzaei

    Wind energy is one of several energy sources in the world and a rapidly growing industry in the energy sector. When placed in offshore or onshore locations, wind turbines are exposed to wave excitations, highly dynamic wind loads and/or the wakes from other wind turbines. Therefore, most components...... in a wind turbine experience highly dynamic and time-varying loads. These components may fail due to wear or fatigue, and this can lead to unplanned shutdown repairs that are very costly. The design by deterministic methods using safety factors is generally unable to account for the many uncertainties. Thus......, a reliability assessment should be based on probabilistic methods where stochastic modeling of failures is performed. This thesis focuses on probabilistic models and the stochastic modeling of the fatigue life of the wind turbine drivetrain. Hence, two approaches are considered for stochastic modeling...

  20. Wind Turbine Control: Robust Model Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood

    . Wind turbines are the most common wind energy conversion systems and are hoped to be able to compete economically with fossil fuel power plants in near future. However this demands better technology to reduce the price of electricity production. Control can play an essential part in this context....... This is because, on the one hand, control methods can decrease the cost of energy by keeping the turbine close to its maximum efficiency. On the other hand, they can reduce structural fatigue and therefore increase the lifetime of the wind turbine. The power produced by a wind turbine is proportional...... to the square of its rotor radius, therefore it seems reasonable to increase the size of the wind turbine in order to capture more power. However as the size increases, the mass of the blades increases by cube of the rotor size. This means in order to keep structural feasibility and mass of the whole structure...

  1. Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In order to minimise the total expected life-cycle costs of a wind turbine it is important to estimate the reliability level for all components in the wind turbine. This paper deals with reliability analysis for the tower and blades of onshore wind turbines placed in a wind farm. The limit states...... consideres are in the ultimate limit state (ULS) extreme conditions in the standstill position and extreme conditions during operating. For wind turbines, where the magnitude of the loads is influenced by the control system, the ultimate limit state can occur in both cases. In the fatigue limit state (FLS......) the reliability level for a wind turbine placed in a wind farm is considered, and wake effects from neighbouring wind turbines is taken into account. An illustrative example with calculation of the reliability for mudline bending of the tower is considered. In the example the design is determined according...

  2. Careers in Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  3. Baseload wind energy: modeling the competition between gas turbines and compressed air energy storage for supplemental generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Succar, Samir; Denkenberger, David C.; Williams, Robert H.; Socolow, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    The economic viability of producing baseload wind energy was explored using a cost-optimization model to simulate two competing systems: wind energy supplemented by simple- and combined cycle natural gas turbines ('wind+gas'), and wind energy supplemented by compressed air energy storage ('wind+CAES'). Pure combined cycle natural gas turbines ('gas') were used as a proxy for conventional baseload generation. Long-distance electric transmission was integral to the analysis. Given the future uncertainty in both natural gas price and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions price, we introduced an effective fuel price, p NGeff , being the sum of the real natural gas price and the GHG price. Under the assumption of p NGeff =$5/GJ (lower heating value), 650 W/m 2 wind resource, 750 km transmission line, and a fixed 90% capacity factor, wind+CAES was the most expensive system at cents 6.0/kWh, and did not break even with the next most expensive wind+gas system until p NGeff =$9.0/GJ. However, under real market conditions, the system with the least dispatch cost (short-run marginal cost) is dispatched first, attaining the highest capacity factor and diminishing the capacity factors of competitors, raising their total cost. We estimate that the wind+CAES system, with a greenhouse gas (GHG) emission rate that is one-fourth of that for natural gas combined cycle plants and about one-tenth of that for pulverized coal plants, has the lowest dispatch cost of the alternatives considered (lower even than for coal power plants) above a GHG emissions price of $35/tC equiv. , with good prospects for realizing a higher capacity factor and a lower total cost of energy than all the competing technologies over a wide range of effective fuel costs. This ability to compete in economic dispatch greatly boosts the market penetration potential of wind energy and suggests a substantial growth opportunity for natural gas in providing baseload power via wind+CAES, even at high natural gas prices

  4. Steady-state analysis of a conceptual offshore wind turbine driven electricity and thermocline energy extraction plant

    OpenAIRE

    Buhagiar, Daniel; Sant, Tonio

    2014-01-01

    A system for using offshore wind energy to generate electricity and simultaneously extract thermal energy is proposed. This concept is based on an offshore wind turbine driven hydraulic pump supplying deep seawater under high pressure to a land based plant consisting of a hydroelectric power generation unit and heat exchanger. A steady-state system model is developed using empirical formulae. The mathematical model comprises the fundamental system sub-models that are categoris...

  5. Great expectations: large wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, E.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on wind turbine product development, and traces the background to wind turbines from the first generation 1.5 MW machines in 1995-6, plans for the second generation 3-5 MW class turbines to meet the expected boom in offshore wind projects, to the anticipated installation of a 4.5 MW turbine, and offshore wind projects planned for 2000-2002. The switch by the market leader Vestas to variable speed operation in 2000, the new product development and marketing strategy taken by the German Pro + Pro consultancy in their design of a 1.5 MW variable speed pitch control concept, the possible limiting of the size of turbines due to logistical difficulties, opportunities offered by air ships for large turbines, and the commissioning of offshore wind farms are discussed. Details of some 2-5 MW offshore wind turbine design specifications are tabulated

  6. Wind Turbine With Concentric Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhonen, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Wind Turbine device is relatively compact and efficient. Converging inner and outer ducts increase pressure difference across blades of wind turbine. Turbine shaft drives alternator housed inside exit cone. Suitable for installation on such existing structures as water towers, barns, houses, and commercial buildings.

  7. OUT Success Stories: Advanced Airfoils for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.; Green, B.

    2000-08-01

    New airfoils have substantially increased the aerodynamic efficiency of wind turbines. It is clear that these new airfoils substantially increased energy output from wind turbines. Virtually all new blades built in this country today use these advanced airfoil designs.

  8. OUT Success Stories: Advanced Airfoils for Wind Turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.; Green, B.

    2000-01-01

    New airfoils have substantially increased the aerodynamic efficiency of wind turbines. It is clear that these new airfoils substantially increased energy output from wind turbines. Virtually all new blades built in this country today use these advanced airfoil designs

  9. Aeroservoelasticity of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skovmose Kallesoee, B.

    2007-12-14

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand and address. The main contribution of this thesis is the development of an aeroelastic blade model which on the one hand includes the important effects of steady state blade deformation, gravity and pitch action, and on the other it is transparent, suitable for analytical analysis and parameter studies, and furthermore linear and therefore suitable for control design. The development of the primary aeroelastic blade model is divided into four steps: 1) Nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) of structural blade motion are derived together with equations of pitch action and rotor speed; the individual terms in these equations are discussed and given physical interpretations; 2) Steady state blade deformation and induced velocities are computed by combining the PDEs with a steady state aerodynamic model; 3) Aeroelastic modes of motion are computed by combining the linearized PDEs with a linear unsteady aerodynamic model; this model is used to analyze how blade deformation effects the modes of motion; and 4) the linear aeroelastic blade model is derived by a modal expansion of the linearized PDEs combined with a linear unsteady aerodynamic model. The aeroelastic blade model has many similarities to a 2D blade section model, and it can be used instead of this in many applications, giving a transparent connection to a real wind turbine blade. In this work the aeroelastic blade model is used to analyze interaction between pitch action, blade motion and wind speed variations. Furthermore the model is used to develop a state estimator for estimating the wind speed and wind shear, and to suggest a load reducing controller. The state estimator estimates the wind shear very

  10. Floating Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt

    The concept of harnessing the power of the wind dates all the way back to the first ships traversing the seas. Later, windmills enabled the use of wind power for industrial purposes. Since then, technology has allowed the production of clean renewable energy through the use of wind turbines....... These turbines have traditionally been placed on land, but several factors have urged a move to offshore locations. Now the boundaries are being pushed into deeper and deeper waters, where the idea of floating offshore wind turbines has emerged. In less than a decade, these have gone from scattered small...

  11. Wind turbines - generating noise or electricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Wind turbine technology has made great strides in the past few years. Annual energy output is up by two orders of magnitude and nacelle weight and noise has been halved. Computational fluid dynamics has paid a part in advancing knowledge of air flow and turbulence around wind generators. Current research is focused on how to increase turbine size and improve efficiency. A problem is that while larger wind turbines will produce cheaper electricity, the noise problem will mean that the number of acceptable sites will decrease. The biggest wind generators will need about 800 m clearance from the nearest house. (UK)

  12. Small Wind Turbine Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, F.; Cruz Cruz, I.

    1999-01-01

    The result of the study carried out under the scope of the ATYCA project Test Plant of Wind Systems for Isolated Applications, about the state of art of the small wind turbine technology (wind turbines with swept area smaller than 40 m 2 ) is presented. The study analyzes the collected information on 60 models of wind turbines from 23 manufacturers in the worldwide market. Data from Chinese manufacturers, that have a large participation in the total number of small wind turbines in operation, are not included, due to the unavailability of the technical information. (Author) 15 refs

  13. Offshore wind turbines reliability, availability and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Tavner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The first book to specifically focus on offshore wind turbine technology and which addresses practically wind turbine reliability and availability. The book draws on the author's experience of power generation reliability and availability and the condition monitoring of that plant to describe the problems facing the developers of offshore wind farms and the solutions available to them to raise availability, reduce cost of energy and improve through life cost.

  14. Airfoils for wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangler, James L.; Somers, Dan M.

    1996-01-01

    Airfoils for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length.

  15. Design Load Basis for Offshore Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Wang, Shaofeng

    2016-01-01

    DTU Wind Energy is not designing and manufacturing wind turbines and does therefore not need a Design Load Basis (DLB) that is accepted by a certification body. However, to assess the load consequences of innovative features and devices added to existing offshore turbine concepts or new offshore...... turbine concept developed in our research, it is useful to have a full DLB that follows the current design standard and is representative of a general DLB used by the industry. It will set a standard for the offshore wind turbine design load evaluations performed at DTU Wind Energy, which is aligned...... with the challenges faced by the industry and therefore ensures that our research continues to have a strong foundation in this interaction. Furthermore, the use of a full DLB that follows the current standard can improve and increase the feedback from the research at DTU Wind Energy to the international...

  16. Composite wind turbine towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzois, D. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed experiments conducted to optimized the advanced composite materials such as fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) used to fabricate wind turbine towers. FRP materials are used in tubular steel, lattice, guyed, and reinforced concrete towers. The towers and turbine blades are transported in segments and assembled on-site, sometimes in offshore or remote locations.The FRP composites are used to build towers with a high strength-to-weight ratio as well as to provide resistance to chemical attacks and corrosion. Use of the materials has resulted in towers that do not require heavy installation equipment. Experimental programs were conducted to verify the structural behaviour of the tower structure's individual-scaled cells as well as to evaluate the performance of multi-cell assemblies. Joint assembly designs were optimized, and a filament winding machine was used to conduct the experimental study and to test individual cells. Failure mode analyses were conducted to determine local buckling and shear rupture. Tension, compression, and shear properties of the FRP materials were tested experimentally, and data from the test were then used to develop finite element models of the composite towers as well as to obtain load deflection curves and tip oscillation data. A case study of a 750 kW wind turbine in Churchill, Manitoba was used to test the design. tabs., figs.

  17. Energy output estimation for a small wind turbine positioned on a rooftop in the urban environment with and without a duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, C.

    2011-05-15

    Nowadays, wind turbines in general, but also urban wind turbines attained acceptance to a certain extend. Conceptual designs and some examples in reality exist, where small-scale wind turbines have been implemented close to buildings or even integrated in the building structure. This work is aiming to estimate how much energy a wind turbine could produce in the built environment, depending on its integration and configuration. On the basis of measurements taken on the rooftop of H.C. Orsted Institut in Copenhagen, which is located in an urban area, a comparison of fictive free standing turbines with ducted turbines of the same type was carried out. First, a prevailing wind energy direction was detected with rough mean velocity and frequency calculations. Next, a duct was aligned with the direction, where the highest energy potential was found. Further calculations were conducted with more detailed wind velocity distributions, depending on the wind direction sectors. The duct's wind velocity amplification capability was set to 14%, while a total opening angle of 30. was assumed to be accessible from both sides. With the simplifying assumptions and the uncertainties at the location of measurement, the free standing turbines had an energy potential of 300kWh/m2/a for the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and for the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) 180kWh/m2/a. For the ducted turbines an energy output of 180kWh/m2/a was found for the HAWT configuration, while the VAWT configuration reached an output of 110kWh/m2/a. The available wind had an energy potential of 730kWh/m2/a. Evaluating these results it seems a free standing turbine is preferable, when only considering the power output, whereas the ducted version comprises properties, which are important considering the requirements needed in the inhabited area such as safety and noise issues. (Author)

  18. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    . In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant......This document is created as part of the EaseWind project. The goal of this project is to develop and investigate new control features for primary response provided by wind power plants. New control features as inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping are of interest to EaseWind...... project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level...

  19. Frequency Based Fault Detection in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain lower cost of energy for wind turbines fault detection and accommodation is important. Expensive condition monitoring systems are often used to monitor the condition of rotating and vibrating system parts. One example is the gearbox in a wind turbine. This system is operated...... in parallel to the control system, using different computers and additional often expensive sensors. In this paper a simple filter based algorithm is proposed to detect changes in a resonance frequency in a system, exemplified with faults resulting in changes in the resonance frequency in the wind turbine...... gearbox. Only the generator speed measurement which is available in even simple wind turbine control systems is used as input. Consequently this proposed scheme does not need additional sensors and computers for monitoring the condition of the wind gearbox. The scheme is evaluated on a wide-spread wind...

  20. Introduction to wind turbine aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffarczyk, Alois Peter

    2014-01-01

    Wind-Turbine Aerodynamics is a self-contained textbook which shows how to come from the basics of fluid mechanics to modern wind turbine blade design. It presents a fundamentals of fluid dynamics and inflow conditions, and gives a extensive introduction into theories describing the aerodynamics of wind turbines. After introducing experiments the book applies the knowledge to explore the impact on blade design.The book is an introduction for professionals and students of very varying levels.

  1. Mobile measurement system for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kildemoes Moeller, T.

    1997-06-01

    The aim of this project `Udviklingsafproevning af smaa moellevinger` has been to develop a mobile measurement system for wind turbines. The following report describes the measurement system. The project has been financed by the Danish Ministry of Energy. (au)

  2. Role of Surface Energy Exchange for Simulating Wind Turbine Inflow: A Case Study in the Southern Great Plains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Wharton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model is used to investigate choice of land surface model (LSM on the near surface wind profile, including heights reached by multi-megawatt (MW wind turbines. Simulations of wind profiles and surface energy fluxes were made using five LSMs of varying degrees of sophistication in dealing with soil–plant–atmosphere feedbacks for the Department of Energy (DOE Southern Great Plains (SGP Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM Central Facility in Oklahoma, USA. Surface flux and wind profile measurements were available for validation. WRF was run for three, two-week periods covering varying canopy and meteorological conditions. The LSMs predicted a wide range of energy flux and wind shear magnitudes even during the cool autumn period when we expected less variability. Simulations of energy fluxes varied in accuracy by model sophistication, whereby LSMs with very simple or no soil–plant–atmosphere feedbacks were the least accurate; however, the most complex models did not consistently produce more accurate results. Errors in wind shear were also sensitive to LSM choice and were partially related to energy flux accuracy. The variability of LSM performance was relatively high suggesting that LSM representation of energy fluxes in WRF remains a large source of model uncertainty for simulating wind turbine inflow conditions.

  3. Small Wind Turbine Applications: Current Practice in Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Jim

    1999-01-01

    Numerous small wind turbines are being used by homeowners in Colorado. Some of these installations are quite recent while others date back to the federal tax-credit era of the early 1980s. Through visits with small wind turbine owners in Colorado, I have developed case studies of six small wind energy applications focusing on the wind turbine technology, wind turbine siting, the power systems and electric loads, regulatory issues, and motivations about wind energy. These case studies offer a glimpse into the current state-of-the-art of small-scale wind energy and provide some insight into issues affecting development of a wider market

  4. Controls of Hydraulic Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hydraulic wind turbine generator system was proposed based on analysis the current wind turbines technologies. The construction and principles were introduced. The mathematical model was verified using MATLAB and AMsim. A displacement closed loop of swash plate of motor and a speed closed loop of generator were setup, a PID control is introduced to maintain a constant speed and fixed frequency at wind turbine generator. Simulation and experiment demonstrated that the system can connect grid to generate electric and enhance reliability. The control system demonstrates a high performance speed regulation and effectiveness. The results are great significant to design a new type hydraulic wind turbine system.

  5. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  6. CFD analysis for H-rotor Darrieus turbine as a low speed wind energy converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertical axis wind turbines like the Darrieus turbine appear to be promising for the conditions of low wind speed, but suffer from a low efficiency compared to horizontal axis turbines. A fully detailed numerical analysis is introduced in this work to improve the global performance of this wind turbine. A comparison between ANSYS Workbench and Gambit meshing tools for the numerical modeling is performed to summarize a final numerical sequence for the Darrieus rotor performance. Then, this model sequence is applied for different blade airfoils to obtain the best performance. Unsteady simulations performed for different speed ratios and based on URANS turbulent calculations using sliding mesh approach. Results show that the accuracy of ANSYS Workbench meshing is improved by using SST K-omega model but it is not recommended for other turbulence models. Moreover, this CFD procedure is used in this paper to assess the turbine performance with different airfoil shapes (25 airfoils. The results introduced new shapes for this turbine with higher efficiency than the regular airfoils by 10%. In addition, blade pitch angle has been studied and the results indicated that the zero pitch angle gives best performance.

  7. European wind turbine standards 2 (EWTS-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierik, J T.G.; Dekker, J W.M.; Braam, H [and others

    1999-03-01

    A summary is given of the main results of the European Wind Turbine Standards II project. EWTS-II was completed in 1998 and included investigations on: 1) wind farms-wind field and turbine loading; 2) complex terrain and fatigue loading; 3) extreme wind conditions; 4) quantification of failure probabilities; 5) integration of blade tests in design; 6) power performance in complex terrain; 7) site evaluation. In addition to these scientific evaluations, the EWTS-II participants established an organization of qualified measuring institute in the field of wind energy, the MEASNET organization. MEASNET unified measurement procedures of the participating institutes and guarantees qualified measurements and mutual acceptance among its members. (LN)

  8. Probabilistic Design of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard

    During the last decades, wind turbines have been continuously developed with the aim of maximizing the life cycle benefits (production of electricity) minus the costs of planning, materials, installation, operation & maintenance as well as possible failure. In order to continue this development...... turbines and the central topics considered are statistical load extrapolation of extreme loads during operation and reliability assessment of wind turbine blades. Wind turbines differ from most civil engineering structures by having a control system which highly influences the loading. In the literature......, methods for estimating the extreme load-effects on a wind turbine during operation, where the control system is active, have been proposed. But these methods and thereby the estimated loads are often subjected to a significant uncertainty which influences the reliability of the wind turbine...

  9. Urban Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Christina

    important for the implementation of wind energy conversion systems are the macro and micro wind climate, the siting within a micro wind climate and the choice of a wind turbine model most appropriate for the selected site. In the frame of this work, all these important elements are analyzed and a row......New trends e.g. in architecture and urban planning are to reduce energy needs. Several technologies are employed to achieve this, and one of the technologies, not new as such, is wind energy. Wind turbines are installed in cities, both by companies and private persons on both old and new buildings....... However, an overview of the energy content of the wind in cities and how consequently turbines shall be designed for such wind climates is lacking. The objective of the present work is to deliver an objective and fundamental overview of the social, practical and physical conditions relevant...

  10. Design optimization of offshore wind farms with multiple types of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Most studies on offshore wind farm design assume a uniform wind farm, which consists of an identical type of wind turbines. In order to further reduce the cost of energy, we investigate the design of non-uniform offshore wind farms, i.e., wind farms with multiple types of wind turbines and hub-he...

  11. Structural Reliability Aspects in Design of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    Reliability assessment, optimal design and optimal operation and maintenance of wind turbines are an area of significant interest for the fast growing wind turbine industry for sustainable production of energy. Offshore wind turbines in wind farms give special problems due to wake effects inside...... the farm. Reliability analysis and optimization of wind turbines require that the special conditions for wind turbine operation are taken into account. Control of the blades implies load reductions for large wind speeds and parking for high wind speeds. In this paper basic structural failure modes for wind...... turbines are described. Further, aspects are presented related to reliability-based optimization of wind turbines, assessment of optimal reliability level and operation and maintenance....

  12. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  13. Stochastic energy procurement of large electricity consumer considering photovoltaic, wind-turbine, micro-turbines, energy storage system in the presence of demand response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojavan, Sayyad; Aalami, Habib allah

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic energy procurement cost function in presence of DRP is proposed. • The load, price and output power of PV and wind uncertainties are modeled. • Four case studies are used to assess the effects of ESS and DRP on SEPP. • Case 4 is considered the effects of ESS and DRP simultaneously. • The expected energy procurement cost of case 4 is lower than cases 1, 2 and 3. - Abstract: This paper proposes a stochastic energy procurement problem (SEPP) for large electricity consumer (LEC) with multiple energy procurement sources (EPSs) considering the effects of demand response program (DRP) and energy storage system (ESS). The EPSs contain power market (PM), bilateral contracts (BCs), micro-turbines (MTs), and renewable energy sources (RESs). Moreover, the RESs include photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind-turbines (WT). The ESS and DRP are incorporated in the SEPP by the LEC’s decision-maker to reduce the expected energy procurement cost (EEPC). Meanwhile, the uncertainty models of market price, load and RES output power are considered in the SEPP formulation. The error of forecasting of market price, load, temperature and radiation of PV systems are modeled using the normal distribution for generating the related scenarios. Also, the weibull distribution is used to generate variable wind speed scenarios for WT output power uncertainty modeling. Furthermore, the fast forward selection based on Kantorovich distance approach is used for the scenarios reduction. Finally, the influences of ESS and DRP on EEPC are investigated, and four case studies are used to illustrate the capability of the proposed SEPP. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed stochastic program

  14. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamsen, A B; Seiler, E; Zirngibl, T; Andersen, N H; Mijatovic, N; Traeholt, C; Pedersen, N F; Oestergaard, J; Noergaard, P B

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10 MW is suggested to secure the accumulation of reliability experience. Finally, the quantities of high temperature superconducting tape needed for a 10 kW and an extreme high field 10 MW generator are found to be 7.5 km and 1500 km, respectively. A more realistic estimate is 200-300 km of tape per 10 MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train.

  15. Wind power production: from the characterisation of the wind resource to wind turbine technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beslin, Guy; Multon, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables, this article first describes the various factors and means related to the assessment of wind resource in the World, in Europe, and the factors which characterize a local wind resource. In this last respect, the authors indicate how local topography is taken into account to calculate wind speed, how time variations are taken into account (at the yearly, seasonal or daily level), the different methods used to model a local wind resource, how to assess the power recoverable by a wind turbine with horizontal axis (notion of Betz limit). In the second part, the authors present the different wind turbines, their benefits and drawbacks: vertical axis, horizontal axis (examples of a Danish-type wind turbine, of wind turbines designed for extreme conditions). Then, they address the technology of big wind turbines: evolution of technology and of commercial offer, aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine and benefit of a varying speed (technological solutions, importance of the electric generator). They describe how to choose a wind turbine, how product lines are organised, how the power curve and energy capacity are determined. The issue of integration of wind energy into the power system is then addressed. The next part addressed the economy of wind energy production (annualized production cost, order of magnitude of wind electric power production cost). Future trends are discussed and offshore wind energy production is briefly addressed

  16. Wind turbine airfoil catalogue

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe; Fuglsang, P.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solverEllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel method code XFOIL. Secondly, we are interested in validating the code EllipSys2D and finding out for which airfoils it does not perform well compared to the experiments, as well as why, when it does so...

  17. Heat generation by a wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corten, G.P. [ECN Wind, Petten (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    It will be shown that an actuator disk operating in wind turbine mode extracts more energy from the fluid than can be transferred into useful energy. At the Lanchester-Betz limit the decrease of the kinetic energy in the wind is converted by 2 /3 into useful power and by 1 /3 into heat. Behind the wind turbine the outer flow and the flow that has passed the actuator disk will mix. In this process momentum is conserved but part of the kinetic energy will dissipate in heat via viscous shear. 7 refs.

  18. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J. (University of California, Davis, CA)

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  19. Flow separation on wind turbines blades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, G.P.

    2001-01-01

    In the year 2000, 15GW of wind power was installed throughout the world, producing 100PJ of energy annually. This contributes to the total electricity demand by only 0.2%. Both the installed power and the generated energy are increasing by 30% per year world-wide. If the airflow over wind turbine

  20. Fault feature extraction of planet gear in wind turbine gearbox based on spectral kurtosis and time wavelet energy spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yun; Wang, Tianyang; Li, Zheng; Chu, Fulei

    2017-09-01

    Planetary transmission plays a vital role in wind turbine drivetrains, and its fault diagnosis has been an important and challenging issue. Owing to the complicated and coupled vibration source, time-variant vibration transfer path, and heavy background noise masking effect, the vibration signal of planet gear in wind turbine gearboxes exhibits several unique characteristics: Complex frequency components, low signal-to-noise ratio, and weak fault feature. In this sense, the periodic impulsive components induced by a localized defect are hard to extract, and the fault detection of planet gear in wind turbines remains to be a challenging research work. Aiming to extract the fault feature of planet gear effectively, we propose a novel feature extraction method based on spectral kurtosis and time wavelet energy spectrum (SK-TWES) in the paper. Firstly, the spectral kurtosis (SK) and kurtogram of raw vibration signals are computed and exploited to select the optimal filtering parameter for the subsequent band-pass filtering. Then, the band-pass filtering is applied to extrude periodic transient impulses using the optimal frequency band in which the corresponding SK value is maximal. Finally, the time wavelet energy spectrum analysis is performed on the filtered signal, selecting Morlet wavelet as the mother wavelet which possesses a high similarity to the impulsive components. The experimental signals collected from the wind turbine gearbox test rig demonstrate that the proposed method is effective at the feature extraction and fault diagnosis for the planet gear with a localized defect.

  1. Marketing strategy for retailing small-scale wind energy turbines in Indian markets

    OpenAIRE

    Harjula, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The study analyzes the small-scale wind energy markets in Mumbai, focusing on questions: How feasible is the wind energy for SME businesses in Mumbai, and what are the main challenges and opportunities of small-scale wind energy in Mumbai? The study is a qualitative case study, in which, the data has been collected through observing the markets by visiting wind energy sites and companies, interviewing and meeting potential customers and other stakeholders in the market. Theoretical frame...

  2. Maximum Power Tracking by VSAS approach for Wind Turbine, Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer Kouider Msirdi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a review of the most efficient algorithms designed to track the maximum power point (MPP for catching the maximum wind power by a variable speed wind turbine (VSWT. We then design a new maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm using the Variable Structure Automatic Systems approach (VSAS. The proposed approachleads efficient algorithms as shown in this paper by the analysis and simulations.

  3. Tenth ASME wind energy symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, D.E.; Veers, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the Fourteenth Annual Energy-Sources Technology Conference and Exhibition. Included are the following papers: Wind Power Farm Site Selection, Turbulence characterization for wind energy development, Effects of insect configuration on wind turbine airfoils, Power fluctuations from horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines, Power regulation by active yaw control for a teetered wind rotor, and economic aspects of wind energy

  4. Investigation of Wind Turbine Rotor Concepts for Offshore Wind Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceyhan, Özlem; Grasso, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Current plans in offshore wind energy developments call for further reduction of cost of energy. In order to contribute to this goal, several wind turbine rotor concepts have been investigated. Assuming the future offshore wind turbines will operate only in the offshore wind farms, the rotor concepts are not only evaluated for their stand-alone performances and their potential in reducing the loads, but also for their performance in an offshore wind farm. In order to do that, the 10MW reference wind turbine designed in Innwind.EU project is chosen as baseline. Several rotor parameters have been modified and their influences are investigated for offshore wind turbine design purposes. This investigation is carried out as a conceptual parametrical study. All concepts are evaluated numerically with BOT (Blade optimisation tool) software in wind turbine level and with Farmflow software in wind farm level for two wind farm layouts. At the end, all these concepts are compared with each other in terms of their advantages and disadvantages

  5. Energy Output Estimation for a Small Wind Turbine Positioned on a Rooftop in the Urban Environment with and without a Duct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Christina

    , the free standing turbines had an energy potential of 300kWh/m2/a for the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and for the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) 180kWh/m2/a. For the ducted turbines an energy output of 180kWh/m2/a was found for the HAWT configuration, while the VAWT configuration reached......Nowadays, wind turbines in general, but also urban wind turbines attained acceptance to a certain extend. Conceptual designs and some examples in reality exist, where small-scale wind turbines have been implemented close to buildings or even integrated in the building structure. This work is aiming...... to estimate how much energy a wind turbine could produce in the built environment, depending on its integration and configuration. On the basis of measurements taken on the rooftop of H.C. Ørsted Institut in Copenhagen, which is located in an urban area, a comparison of fictive free standing turbines...

  6. Optimization of wind turbine rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, Tor Anders

    1999-07-01

    The Constrained Steepest Descent method has been applied to the optimization of wind turbine rotors through the development of a numerical model. The model consists of an optimization kernel, an aerodynamic model, a structural dynamic model of a rotating beam, and a cost model for the wind turbine. The cost of energy is minimized directly by varying the blade design, the rotational speed and the resulting design of the drive-train and tower. The aerodynamic model is a combination of a fast engineering model based on strip-theory and two and three-dimensional Euler solvers. The two-dimensional Euler solver is used for generation of pre-stall airfoil data. Comparisons with experimental data verify that the engineering model effectively approximates non-stalled flow, except at the blade tip. The three-dimensional Euler solver is in good agreement with the experimental data at the tip, and is therefore a useful supplement for corrections of the tip-loss model, and evaluation of an optimized design. The structural dynamic model evaluates stresses and deformations for the blade. It is based on constitutive relations for a slender beam that are solved with the equations of motions using a finite-difference method. The cost model evaluates the design change of the wind turbine and the resulting costs that occur when a change in blade design modifies the blade mass and the overall forces. The cost model is based on engineering design rules for the drive-train and tower. The model was applied using a Danish 600 kW wind turbine as a reference. Two rotors were optimized using traditional NACA airfoils and a new low-lift airfoil family developed specifically for wind turbine purposes. The cost of energy decreased four percent for the NACA rotor, and seven percent for the low-lift rotor. Optimizations with a high number of degrees of freedom show that a designer has considerable flexibility in choosing some primary parameters such as rated power and rotor diameter, if the rest

  7. Extrapolating Satellite Winds to Turbine Operating Heights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean wind retrievals from satellite sensors are typically performed for the standard level of 10 m. This restricts their full exploitation for wind energy planning, which requires wind information at much higher levels where wind turbines operate. A new method is presented for the vertical...... extrapolation of satellitebased wind maps. Winds near the sea surface are obtained from satellite data and used together with an adaptation of the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory to estimate the wind speed at higher levels. The thermal stratification of the atmosphere is taken into account through a long...

  8. Dynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines. Wind energy conversion. ASRL-TR-184-9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.; Dugundji, J.; Chopra, I.; Sheu, D.; Wendell, J.

    1978-09-01

    The underlying theory is presented for determining blade and rotor/tower vibration and dynamic stability characteristics. The dynamic analysis of horizontal axis turbines may be divided into two convenient areas, namely, (a) the investigation of the aeroelastic and response of a single blade on a rigid tower, and (b) the investigation of the mechanical stability and vibrations of the rotor system on a flexible tower. With a reasonable understanding of the behavior in these two areas, the completely coupled blade-tower aeroelastic system can be better understood, and dynamic problems can be better assessed.

  9. Wind Turbine Contingency Control Through Generator De-Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan; Goebel, Kai; Balas, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbines with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. The contingency control involves de-rating the generator operating point to achieve reduced loads on the wind turbine. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  10. The system design and performance test of hybrid vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyantoro, Bambang Arip; Suphandani, Vivien

    2017-04-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine is a tool that is being developed to generate energy from wind. One cause is still little use of wind energy is the design of wind turbines that are less precise. Therefore in this study will be developed the system design of hybrid vertical axis wind turbine and tested performance with experimental methods. The design of hybrid turbine based on a straight bladed Darrieus turbine along with a double step Savonius turbine. The method used to design wind turbines is by studying literature, analyzing the critical parts of a wind turbine and the structure of the optimal design. Wind turbine prototype of the optimal design characteristic tests in the wind tunnel experimentally by varying the speed of the wind. From the experimental results show that the greater the wind speed, the greater the wind turbine rotation and torque is raised. The hybrid vertical axis wind turbine has much better self-starting and better conversion efficiency.

  11. Dynamic vibrations in wind energy systems: Application to vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Imen Bel; El Hami, Abdelkhalak; Walha, Lassâad; Zghal, Bacem; Haddar, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    Dynamic analysis of Darrieus turbine bevel spur gear subjected to transient aerodynamic loads is carried out in the present study. The aerodynamic torque is obtained by solving the two dimensional unsteady incompressible Navies Stocks equation with the k-ω shear stress transport turbulence model. The results are presented for several values of tip speed ratio. The two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics model is validated with experimental results. The optimum tip speed ratio is achieved, giving the best overall performance. In this study, we developed a lamped mass dynamic model with 14 degrees of freedom. This model is excited by external and internal issues sources. The main factors of these excitations are the periodic fluctuations of the gear meshes' stiffness and the unsteady aerodynamic torque oscillations. The vibration responses are obtained in time and frequency domains. The originality of our work is the correlation between the complexity of the aerodynamic phenomenon and the non-stationary dynamics vibration of the mechanical gearing system. The effect of the rotational speed on the dynamic behavior of the Darrieus turbine is also discussed. The present study shows that the variation of rotor rotational speed directly affects the torque production. However, there is a small change in the dynamic vibration of the studied gearing system.

  12. Frequency participation by using virtual inertia in wind turbines including energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Huang, Yu; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    With the increase of wind generation penetration, power fluctuations and weak inertia may attempt to the power system frequency stability. In this paper, in order to solve this problem, a hierarchical control strategy is proposed for permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based wind turbine...... (WT) and battery unit (BU). A central controller forecasts wind speed and determines system operation states to be sent to the local controllers. These local controllers include MPPT, virtual inertia, and pitch control for the WT; and power control loops for the BU. The proposed approach achieve...

  13. Overview and Design of self-acting pitch control mechanism for vertical axis wind turbine using multi body simulation approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Awareness about wind energy is constantly growing in the world. Especially a demand for small scale wind turbine is increasing and various products are available in market. There are mainly two types of wind turbines, horizontal axis wind turbine and vertical axis wind turbines. Horizontal axis...... wind turbines are suitable for high wind speed whereas vertical axis wind turbines operate relatively low wind speed area. Vertical axis wind turbines are cost effective and simple in construction as compared to the horizontal axis wind turbine. However, vertical axis wind turbines have inherent...

  14. On the Turbulent Mixing in Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Wakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lignarolo, L.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The wake flow of a horizontal axis wind turbine is characterised by lower wind speed and higher turbulence than the free-stream conditions. When clustered in large wind farms, wind turbines regularly operate inside the wake of one or more upstream machines. This is a major cause of energy production

  15. Sandia SWiFT Wind Turbine Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jonathan; LeBlanc, Bruce Philip; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Bryant, Joshua; Johnson, Wesley D.; Paquette, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility, operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Water Power Program, is a wind energy research site with multiple wind turbines scaled for the experimental study of wake dynamics, advanced rotor development, turbine control, and advanced sensing for production-scale wind farms. The SWiFT site currently includes three variable-speed, pitch-regulated, three-bladed wind turbines. The six volumes of this manual provide a detailed description of the SWiFT wind turbines, including their operation and user interfaces, electrical and mechanical systems, assembly and commissioning procedures, and safety systems. Further dissemination only as authorized to U.S. Government agencies and their contractors; other requests shall be approved by the originating facility or higher DOE programmatic authority. 111 UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED RELEASE Sandia SWiFT Wind Turbine Manual (SAND2016-0746 ) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Site Supervisor Dave Mitchell (6121) Date Note: Document revision logs are found after the title page of each volume of this manual. iv

  16. Topology Comparison of Superconducting Generators for 10-MW Direct-Drive Wind Turbines: Cost of Energy Based

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at finding feasible electromagnetic designs of superconducting synchronous generators (SCSGs) for a 10-MW direct-drive wind turbine. Since a lower levelized cost of energy (LCoE) increases the feasibility of SCSGs in this application, 12 generator topologies are compared regarding...... their LCoE in a simplified form of levelized equipment cost of energy (LCoE$_{\\text{eq}}$). MgB$_2$ wires are employed in the field winding. Based on the current unit cost and critical current density capability of the MgB $_2$ wire at 20 K, the topologies with more iron have a much lower LCo...

  17. The influence of turbulence and vertical wind profile in wind turbine power curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honrubia, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E. [Castilla-La Mancha Univ., Albacete (Spain). Renewable Energy Research Inst.; Vigueras-Rodriguez, A. [Albacete Science and Technolgy Park, Albacete (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    To identify the influence of turbulence and vertical wind profile in wind turbine performance, wind speed measurements at different heights have been performed. Measurements have been developed using a cup anemometer and a LIDAR equipment, specifically a pulsed wave one. The wind profile has been recorded to study the effect of the atmospheric conditions over the energy generated by a wind turbine located close to the LIDAR system. The changes in the power production of the wind turbine are relevant. (orig.)

  18. Replacement of Old Wind Turbines Assessed from Energy, Environmental and Economic Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydh, Carl Johan (e-mail: carl.johan.rydh@hik.se); Jonsson, Maria; Lindahl, Pia

    2004-06-01

    Different operating conditions and alternatives for treatment and replacement of old 225 kW wind turbines (WTs) were evaluated from a life cycle perspective from cradle to grave. Indicators were calculated for primary fossil energy requirements (MJ{sub pf}/kWh{sub el}), CO{sub 2} emission (CO{sub 2}/kWh{sub el}) and economy (Euro/kWh{sub el}). Extending the service life ten years by renovation results in 32% lower primary energy requirements than if the WT is recycled after 20 years at the end of the technical service life. The primary fossil energy requirement for electricity production is 2.5 - 4.6 times higher for fossil based electricity production than for WTs. The energy payback time was calculated to 3.9 months for 225 kW WTs and to 2.7 months for 2 MW WTs. This means that after 3.9 months electricity production, the WT starts to generate net electricity. The CO{sub 2} emission for WTs was calculated to 7.2-11 g CO{sub 2}/kWh, which is 4.6 lower than the average Swedish electricity mix and 122 times lower than for a coal condensing plant. The highest CO{sub 2} emission for electricity generation from WTs was found in the phase of materials production (60-64% of the total emission) followed by production of WTs (32%). The phases of transportation/disassembly and renovation/maintenance have relatively low influence, contributing 2-3% and 2-6%. The monetary costs for electricity production were calculated to be in the range 0.029-0.054 Euro/kWh (excluding VAT and subsidies). The lowest cost was found for 2 MW WTs and the highest cost for renovation of 225 kW WTs. The relative importance of different parameters influence on energy requirements and CO{sub 2} emissions were found to be as follows: (1) service life, wind conditions/conversion efficiency and material requirement, (2) recycling rate and, (3) transportation distance. To utilise areas suitable for wind turbines efficiently, it is important to use the most efficient technologies with highest possible

  19. Chapter 10 - Control of Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Song, Yipeng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Wind power is a main pillar of renewable energy supply, as it generates clean and climate-friendly electricity. Among the mainstream wind turbine systems, the configurations of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) are dominating and impor...

  20. Chapter 10: Control of Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Song, Yipeng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Wind power is a main pillar of renewable energy supply, as it generates clean and climate-friendly electricity. Among the mainstream wind turbine systems, the configurations of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) are dominating and impor...

  1. Potential health impact of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    In response to public health concerns about wind turbines, a study was conducted to review the scientific evidence on the potential health effects of wind turbines. Several research questions were examined, including scientific evidence on the potential health impacts of wind turbines; the relationship between wind turbine noise and health; the relationship between low frequency sound, infrasound and health; assessment of exposure to wind turbines; wind turbine health and safety hazards and Ontario wind turbine setbacks; community consultation prior to wind farm construction and data gaps and research needs. The study showed that although some people living near wind turbines reported symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, and sleep disturbance, the scientific evidence available to date does not demonstrate a direct causal link between wind turbine noise and adverse health effects. The sound level from wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to cause hearing impairment or other direct health effects, although some people may find it annoying. 41 refs., 1 appendix.

  2. Control design for two-bladed wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Solingen, E.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades wind energy has evolved into a mature source of sustainable energy such that onshore wind turbines have become cost competitive with other fossil-based energy sources. Onshore wind energy, however, faces social resistance and a lack of available locations. Offshore wind energy,

  3. Lightning protection for wind turbines in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has become increasingly important in the total electrical energy supply mix in Vietnam over the last few years. Small, kW turbines were installed in isolated areas a decade ago, while wind farms of several MW to few hundred MW are now being connected directly to national grid, with many additional projects in planning or under construction to fulfill an objective of 6% of the total installed capacity by 2030 (approximately 6200 MW of wind energy component. The increase in wind farm generation results in increased damage from lightning. In this paper, the annual frequency of lightning strikes to wind turbines in Vietnam is calculated using electrogeometric model. Reported lightning incidents to three major wind farms in Vietnam are summarized. Possible causes of failure are discussed, and an EMTP simulation for each incident was performed accordingly. The simulations suggest the failure mechanisms as well the potential of improved grounding to reduce lightning induced damage in future windfarms.

  4. Wind turbine airfoil catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solverEllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel...... method code XFOIL. Secondly, we are interested in validating the code EllipSys2D and finding out for which airfoils it does not perform well compared to the experiments, as well as why, when it does so. Theairfoils are classified according to the agreement between the numerical results and experimental...... data. A study correlating the available data and this classification is performed. It is found that transition modelling is to a large extent responsible forthe poor quality of the computational results for most of the considered airfoils. The transition model mechanism that leads...

  5. Offshore wind energy developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  6. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization....

  7. Aerodynamics of wind turbines emerging topics

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines with topics ranging from Fundamental to Application of horizontal axis wind turbines, this book presents advanced topics including: Basic Theory for Wind turbine Blade Aerodynamics, Computational Methods, and Special Structural Reinforcement Technique for Wind Turbine Blades.

  8. Analysis of counter-rotating wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zakkam, Vinod Arun Kumar; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the performance of a wind turbine with two counter-rotating (CRWT) rotors. The characteristics of the two counter-rotating rotors are on a 3-bladed Nordtank 500 kW rotor. The analysis has been carried out by using an Actuator Line technique implemented in the Navier......-Stokes code EllipSys3D. The analysis shows that the Annual Energy Production can be increased to about 43.5 %, as compared to a wind turbine with a single rotor. In order to determine the optimal settings of the CRWT turbine, parameters such as distance between two rotors and rotational speed have been...

  9. Analisa Bentuk Profile Dan Jumlah Blade Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Terhadap Putaran Rotor Untuk Menghasilkan Energi Listrik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Saiful Huda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Turbin angin adalah suatu alat untuk mengkonversi energi angin menjadi energi mekanik yang kemudian dikonversi lagi menjadi energi listrik. Putaran pada poros turbin angin dihubungkan pada generator untuk menghasilkan energi listrik. Berdasarkan penelitian yang dilakukan sebelumnya, banyak jenis turbin angin yang ditemukan untuk meningkatkan effisiensi dan torsi yang dihasilkan salah satu contohnya adalah vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT. VAWT merupakan turbin angin dengan sumbu vertical atau tegak lurus terhadap tanah. Tujuan dari tugas akhir ini adalah mengetahui seberapa besar pengaruh peningkatan panjang chord, jumlah blade, sudut pitch dari blade terhadap torsi dan effisiensi yang dihasilkan oleh VAWT dengan pendekatan CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic. Analisa yang dilakukan untuk melihat efek peningkatan panjang chord, jumlah blade dan sudt pitch dari blade. Setelah analisa berakhir kita membandingkan hasil analisa dalam grafik. Hasil dari analisa tersebut adalah torsi terbesar terdapat pada variasi panjang chord 1.5 m dengan sudut pitch 10o dan jumlah blade 4 buah dengan nilai 134.9452198   Nm.

  10. Innovative multi rotor wind turbine designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, S.A.; Sapali, S.N. [College of Engineering. Mechanical Engineering Dept, Pune (India)

    2012-07-01

    Among the renewable energy sources, today wind energy is the most recognized and cost effective. Developers and researchers in this sector are optimistic and continuously working innovatively to improve the technology. The wind power obtained is proportional to the swept area of wind turbine. The swept area is increased by using a single rotor of large diameter or multi rotors in array. The rotor size is growing continuously with mature technology. Multi rotor technology has a long history and the multi rotor concept persists in a variety of modern innovative systems but the concept has fallen out of consideration in mainstream design from the perception that is complex and unnecessary as very large single rotor units are now technically feasible. This work addresses the evaluation of different multi rotor wind turbine systems. These innovative wind turbines are evaluated on the basis of feasibility, technological advantages, security of expected power performance, cost, reliability, impact of innovative system, comparison with existing wind turbine design. The findings of this work will provide guidelines for the practical and economical ways for further research on the multi rotor wind turbines. (Author)

  11. Wind energy for the future. Scoping document for the wind turbine farm Favorius; Windenergie voor de toekomst. Startnotitie Windpark Favorius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Molen-Balk, J.A.M.; Beerlage, B.F.M.; Van de Putte, B.H.M.

    2005-05-15

    ARCADIS pans to build a wind turbine farm (named Favorius) in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Dutch Continental Shelf. In the licensing procedure also an environmental impact report must be drafted. [Dutch] ARCADIS wil, als initiatiefnemer, een vergunning aanvragen op grond van de Wet beheer rijkswaterstaatwerken (Wbr) voor de ontwikkeling van het windturbinepark Favorius in de Exclusieve Economische Zone (EEZ) op het Nederlands Continentaal Plat. Ten behoeve van de vergunningverlening wordt de procedure van de milieueffectrapportage (m.e.r.) doorlopen.

  12. Wind energy for the future. Scoping document for the wind turbine farm Okeanos; Windenergie voor de toekomst. Startnotitie Windpark Okeanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Molen-Balk, J.A.M.; Beerlage, B.F.M.; Van de Putte, B.H.M.

    2005-05-15

    ARCADIS pans to build a wind turbine farm (named Thetys) in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Dutch Continental Shelf. In the licensing procedure also an environmental impact report must be drafted. [Dutch] ARCADIS wil, als initiatiefnemer, een vergunning aanvragen op grond van de Wet beheer rijkswaterstaatwerken (Wbr) voor de ontwikkeling van het windturbinepark Okeanos in de Exclusieve Economische Zone (EEZ) op het Nederlands Continentaal Plat. Ten behoeve van de vergunningverlening wordt de procedure van de milieueffectrapportage (m.e.r.) doorlopen.

  13. Wind energy for the future. Scoping document for the wind turbine farm Thetys; Windenergie voor de toekomst. Startnotitie Windpark Thetys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Molen-Balk, J.A.M.; Beerlage, B.F.M.; Van de Putte, B.H.M.

    2005-05-15

    ARCADIS pans to build a wind turbine farm (named Thetys) in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Dutch Continental Shelf. In the licensing procedure also an environmental impact report must be drafted. [Dutch] ARCADIS wil, als initiatiefnemer, een vergunning aanvragen op grond van de Wet beheer rijkswaterstaatwerken (Wbr) voor de ontwikkeling van het windturbinepark Thetys in de Exclusieve Economische Zone (EEZ) op het Nederlands Continentaal Plat. Ten behoeve van de vergunningverlening wordt de procedure van de milieueffectrapportage (m.e.r.) doorlopen.

  14. Wind energy information guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  15. Site-optimization of wind turbine generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.J. de; Thillerup, J. [Nordtank Energy Group, Richmond, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Danish Company Nordtank is one of the pioneers within the wind turbine industry. Since 1981 Nordtank has installed worldwide more than 2500 wind turbine generators with a total name plate capacity that is exceeding 450 MW. The opening up of new and widely divergent markets has demanded an extremely flexible approach towards wind turbine construction. The Nordtank product range has expanded considerable in recent years, with the main objective to develop wind energy conversion machines that can run profitable in any given case. This paper will describe site optimization of Nordtank wind turbines. Nordtank has developed a flexible design concept for its WTGs in the 500/750 kW range, in order to offer the optimal WTG solution for any given site and wind regime. Through this flexible design, the 500/750 turbine line can adjust the rotor diameter, tower height and many other components to optimally fit the turbine to each specific project. This design philosophy will be illustrated with some case histories of recently completed projects.

  16. Wind Turbine Test. Wind Matic WM 17S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    The report describes standard measurements performed on a Wind-Matic WM 17S, 75 kW wind turbine. The measurements carried out and reported here comprises the power output, system efficiency, energy production, transmission efficiency, rotor power, rotor efficiency, air-brakes efficiency, structural...

  17. Wind Turbine Test Wind Matic WM 15S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    The report describes standard measurements performed on a Wind-Matic WM 15S, 55 kW wind turbine. The measurements carried out and reported here comprises the power output, system efficiency, energy production, transmission efficiency, rotor power, rotor efficiency, air-brakes efficiency, dynamical...

  18. Noise immission from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The project has dealt with practical ways to reduce the influence of background noise caused by wind acting on the measuring microphones. The uncertainty of measured noise emission (source strength) has been investigated. The main activity was a Round Robin Test involving measurements by five laboratories at the same wind turbine. Each laboratory brought its own instrumentation and performed the measurements and analyses according to their interpretation. The tonality of wind turbine noise is an essential component of the noise impact on the environment. In the present project the uncertainty in the newest existing methods for assessing tonality was investigated. The project included noise propagation measurements in different weather conditions around wind turbines situated in different types of terrain. The results were used to validate a noise propagation model developed in the project. Finally, the project also included a study with listeners evaluating recordings of wind turbine noise. The results are intended as guidance for wind turbine manufacturers in identifying the aspects of wind turbine noise most important to annoyance. (author)

  19. Design and operating experience on the US Department of Energy experimental Mod-0 100-kW wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, J. C.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1978-01-01

    The experimental wind turbine was designed and fabricated to assess technology requirements and engineering problems of large wind turbines. The machine has demonstrated successful operation in all of its design modes and served as a prototype developmental test bed for the Mod-0A operational wind turbines which are currently used on utility networks. The mechanical and control system are described as they evolved in operational tests and some of the experience with various systems in the downwind rotor configurations are elaborated.

  20. Lidar-Enhanced Wind Turbine Control: Past, Present, and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholbrock, Andrew; Fleming, Paul; Schlipf, David; Wright, Alan; Johnson, Kathryn; Wang, Na

    2016-08-01

    The main challenges in harvesting energy from the wind arise from the unknown incoming turbulent wind field. Balancing the competing interests of reduction in structural loads and increasing energy production is the goal of a wind turbine controller to reduce the cost of producing wind energy. Conventional wind turbines use feedback methods to optimize these goals, reacting to wind disturbances after they have already impacted the wind turbine. Lidar sensors offer a means to provide additional inputs to a wind turbine controller, enabling new techniques to improve control methods, allowing a controller to actuate a wind turbine in anticipation of an incoming wind disturbance. This paper will look at the development of lidar-enhanced controls and how they have been used for various turbine load reductions with pitch actuation, as well as increased energy production with improved yaw control. Ongoing work will also be discussed to show that combining pitch and torque control using feedforward nonlinear model predictive control can lead to both reduced loads and increased energy production. Future work is also proposed on extending individual wind turbine controls to the wind plant level and determining how lidars can be used for control methods to further lower the cost of wind energy by minimizing wake impacts in a wind farm.

  1. Probabilistic Design of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Toft, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic design of wind turbines requires definition of the structural elements to be included in the probabilistic basis: e.g., blades, tower, foundation; identification of important failure modes; careful stochastic modeling of the uncertain parameters; recommendations for target reliability....... It is described how uncertainties in wind turbine design related to computational models, statistical data from test specimens, results from a few full-scale tests and from prototype wind turbines can be accounted for using the Maximum Likelihood Method and a Bayesian approach. Assessment of the optimal...... reliability level by cost-benefit optimization is illustrated by an offshore wind turbine example. Uncertainty modeling is illustrated by an example where physical, statistical and model uncertainties are estimated....

  2. RELIABILITY OF MACHINE ELEMENTS IN WIND TURBINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi GRUENDER

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide electrical energy production generated by wind turbines grows at a rate of 30 percent. This doubles the total production every three years. At the same time the power of individual stations goes up by 20 percent annually. Whereas today the towers, rotors and drive trains have to handle 5 MW, in about six to eight years they might produce up to fifteen MW. As a consequence, enormous pressure is put on the wind turbine manufacturers, the component suppliers and the operators. And because prototype and field testing is limited by its expense, the design of new turbines demands thorough analysis and simulation. Looking at the critical components of a wind turbine this paper describes advanced design tools which help to anticipate failures, but also assists in optimizing reliability and service life. Development of the software tools has been supported by research activities in many universities.

  3. Reliability of wind turbine subassemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinato, F.; Tavner, P.J.; Bussel, van G.J.W.; Koutoulakos, E.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the reliability of more than 6000 modern onshore wind turbines and their subassemblies in Denmark and Germany over 11 years and particularly changes in reliability of generators, gearboxes and converters in a subset of 650 turbines in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. We first start

  4. Public engagement with information on renewable energy developments: The case of single, semi-urban wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, J M; Theobald, K S

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores perceptions of public engagement with information on renewable energy developments. It draws on a case study of proposals by a major supermarket chain to construct single wind turbines in two semi-urban locations in the UK, analysing data from interviews with key actors in the planning process and focus groups with local residents. The paper concludes that key actors often had high expectations of how local people should engage with information, and sometimes implied that members of the public who were incapable of filtering or processing information in an organised or targeted fashion had no productive role to play in the planning process. It shows how the specific nature of the proposals (single wind turbines in semi-urban locations proposed by a commercial private sector developer) shaped local residents' information needs and concerns in a way that challenged key actors' expectations of how the public should engage with information.

  5. Modern Control Design for Flexible Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A. D.

    2004-07-01

    Control can improve energy capture and reduce dynamic loads in wind turbines. In the 1970s and 1980s, wind turbines used classical control designs to regulate power and speed. The methods used, however, were not always successful. Modern turbines are larger, mounted on taller towers, and more dynamically active than their predecessors. Control systems to regulate turbine power and maintain stable, closed-loop behavior in the presence of turbulent wind inflow will be critical for these designs. This report applies modern state-space control design methods to a two-bladed teetering hub upwind machine at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), which is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. The design objective is to regulate turbine speed and enhance damping in several low-damped flexible modes of the turbine. Starting with simple control algorithms based on linear models, complexity is added incrementally until the desired performance is firmly established.

  6. CFD analysis of a Darrieus wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, M. L.; Cojocaru, M. G.; Pricop, M. V.; Pepelea, D.; Dumitrache, A.; Crunteanu, D. E.

    2017-07-01

    The Darrieus wind turbine has some advantages over the horizontal-axis wind turbine. Firstly, its tip speed ratio is lower than that of the horizontal-axis wind turbine and, therefore, its noise is smaller, privileging their placement near populated areas. Secondly, the Darrieus wind turbine does needs no orientation mechanism with respect to wind direction in contrast to the horizontal-axis wind turbine. However, the efficiency of the Darrieus wind turbine is lower than that of the horizontal-axis wind turbine since its aerodynamics is much more complex. With the advances in computational fluids and computers, it is possible to simulate the Darrieus wind turbine more accurately to understand better its aerodynamics. For these reasons, the present papers deals with the computational aerodynamics of a Darrieus wind turbine applying the state of the art of CFD methods (anisotropic turbulence models, transition from laminar to turbulent, scale adaptive simulation) to better understand its unsteady behavior.

  7. Lightning protection of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, T; Brask, M H [DEFU (Denmark); Jensen, F V; Raben, N [SEAS (Denmark); Saxov, J [Nordjyllandsvaerket (Denmark); Nielsen, L [Vestkraft (Denmark); Soerensen, P E [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Lightning damage to wind turbines is a serious problem for Danish power companies, who have experienced some cases with very costly lightning damage and a large number of cases with minor damage. The most costly cases include one catastrophic damage to an entire wind turbine, and several cases of destruction of blades, main bearings, generators and control systems. Over the years there have been several hundreds of cases with minor damage - typically damage and interruptions of the control and communication systems, or the power systems. The Danish power companies anticipate that the lightning threat will be even bigger for the large off-shore wind turbine installations that are currently being planned in Denmark. Furthermore, it is known from the off-shore wind turbines at Vindeby in Denmark that the costs of inspection and particularly repair work must be expected to be much higher off-shore as compared to wind turbines on land. These considerations was the background for a two year project concerned with investigation of lighting damages and with the formulation of a DEFU Recommendation for lightning protection of wind turbines, which was published in January 1999. The project was funded by the Danish power companies Elsam, Eltra, Elkraft and by DEFU. (au)

  8. Power Curve of the AWEC-60 wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia, F.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental wind turbine AWEC-60 was developed to evaluate the possibilities of the Large Wind turbines, from the technical and economical point of view. The project was developed by a spanish-german group, integrated by Union Fenosa, Asinel, M.A.N. Neue Technologie and the Instituto de Energias Renovables from CIEMAT, starting the operation during the year 1990. In this paper, the obtention of the wind turbine power curve is presented, which has been obtained in agreement with the Recommended Practices for Wind Turbine Testing and Evaluation from the Executive Committee for the Research and Development on Wind Energy, of the International Energy Agency (AIE). Using the functioning data of the wind turbine correspondig to the first quarter of the year 1991, the power curves have been obtained, and the results have been compared with the curves measured in other similar Large wind turbines. (Author) 7 refs

  9. Design of a novel and efficient lantern wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. D.; Wong, L. K.; Anyi, M.; Yunos, Y. S.; Rahman, M. R. A.; Mohta, M. Z.

    2017-04-01

    Wind turbine generates renewable energy when the forces acted on the turbine blades cause the rotation of the generator to produce clean electricity. This paper proposed a novel lantern wind turbine design compared to a conventional design model. Comparison is done based on simulation on coarse and fine meshing with all the results converged. Results showed that the pressure difference on the surface of novel design lantern wind turbine is much higher compared to the conventional wind turbine. Prototype is already manufactured and experimental result would be discussed in a separate future publication

  10. Wind turbine remote control using Android devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rat, C. L.; Panoiu, M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the remote control of a wind turbine system over the internet using an Android device, namely a tablet or a smartphone. The wind turbine workstation contains a LabVIEW program which monitors the entire wind turbine energy conversion system (WECS). The Android device connects to the LabVIEW application, working as a remote interface to the wind turbine. The communication between the devices needs to be secured because it takes place over the internet. Hence, the data are encrypted before being sent through the network. The scope was the design of remote control software capable of visualizing real-time wind turbine data through a secure connection. Since the WECS is fully automated and no full-time human operator exists, unattended access to the turbine workstation is needed. Therefore the device must not require any confirmation or permission from the computer operator in order to control it. Another condition is that Android application does not have any root requirements.

  11. Some challenges of wind modelling for modern wind turbines: The Weibull distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, Ekatarina; Floors, Rogier

    2012-01-01

    Wind power assessments, as well as forecast of wind energy production, are key issues in wind energy and grid related studies. However the hub height of today’s wind turbines is well above the surface layer. Wind profiles studies based on mast data show that the wind profile above the surface layer...

  12. Integrating Structural Health Management with Contingency Control for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Goebel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  13. Blade-Pitch Control for Wind Turbine Load Reductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lio, Alan Wai Hou

    Large wind turbines are subjected to the harmful loads that arise from the spatially uneven and temporally unsteady oncoming wind. Such loads are the known sources of fatigue damage that reduce the turbine operational lifetime, ultimately increasing the cost of wind energy to the end-users. In re...

  14. The benefits of geographical dispersion of offshore wind turbines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assen van, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Summary Wind energy is one of the possible solutions to minimise the greenhouse gas emissions of our electricity production. Therefore, the Dutch government aims to install 6000 MW of wind turbines on the Dutch North Sea. The power output of wind turbine

  15. Wind turbine blade waste in 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu; Barlow, Claire Y

    2017-04-01

    Wind energy has developed rapidly over the last two decades to become one of the most promising and economically viable sources of renewable energy. Although wind energy is claimed to provide clean renewable energy without any emissions during operation, but it is only one side of the coin. The blades, one of the most important components in the wind turbines, made with composite, are currently regarded as unrecyclable. With the first wave of early commercial wind turbine installations now approaching their end of life, the problem of blade disposal is just beginning to emerge as a significant factor for the future. This paper is aimed at discovering the magnitude of the wind turbine blade waste problem, looking not only at disposal but at all stages of a blade's lifecycle. The first stage of the research, the subject of this paper, is to accurately estimate present and future wind turbine blade waste inventory using the most recent and most accurate data available. The result will provide a solid reference point to help the industry and policy makers to understand the size of potential environmental problem and to help to manage it better. This study starts by estimating the annual blade material usage with wind energy installed capacity and average blade weight. The effect of other waste contributing factors in the full lifecycle of wind turbine blades is then included, using industrial data from the manufacturing, testing and in-service stages. The research indicates that there will be 43 million tonnes of blade waste worldwide by 2050 with China possessing 40% of the waste, Europe 25%, the United States 16% and the rest of the world 19%. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wind turbine airfoil catalogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Soerensen, N.; Johansen, J.; Fuglsang, P.

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel method code XFOIL. Secondly, we are interested in validating the code EllipSys2D and finding out for which air-foils it does not perform well compared to the experiments, as well as why, when it does so. The airfoils are classified according to the agreement between the numerical results and experimental data. A study correlating the available data and this classification is performed. It is found that transition modelling is to a large extent responsible for the poor quality of the computational results for most of the considered airfoils. The transition model mechanism that leads to these discrepancies is identified. Some advices are given for elaborating future airfoil design processes that would involve the numerical code EllipSys2D in particular, and transition modelling in general. (au)

  17. Wind lens technology and its application to wind and water turbine and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Ohya Yuji; Karasudani Takashi; Nagai Tomoyuki; Watanabe Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Wind lens is a new type of wind power system consisting of a simple brimmed ring structure that surrounds the rotor causing greater wind to pass through the turbine. As a consequence, the turbine's efficiency of capturing energy from the wind gets dramatically increased. A Wind lens turbine can generate 2–5 times the power of an existing wind turbine given at the same rotor diameter and incoming wind speed. This fluid dynamical effect is also effective in the water. We have developed 1–3 kW W...

  18. Field test report of the Department of Energy's 100-kW vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellums, R. O.

    1985-02-01

    Three second generation Darrieus type vertical axis wind turbines of approximately 120 kW capacity per unit were installed in 1980-1981. Through March 1984, over 9000 hours of operation had been accumulated, including 6600 hours of operation on the unit installed in Bushland, Texas. The turbines were heavily instrumented and have yielded a large amount of test data. Test results of this program, including aerodynamic, structural, drive train, and economic data are presented. Among the most favorable results were an aerodynamic peak performance coefficient of 0.41; fundamental structural integrity requiring few repairs and no major component replacements as of March 1984; and an average prototype fabrication cost of approximately $970 per peak kilowatt of output. A review of potential design improvements is presented.

  19. Final Report - Certifying the Performance of Small Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, Larry [Small Wind Certification Council, Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    2015-08-28

    The Small Wind Certification Council (SWCC) created a successful accredited certification program for small and medium wind turbines using the funding from this grant. SWCC certifies small turbines (200 square meters of swept area or less) to the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) Small Wind Turbine Performance and Safety Standard (AWEA Standard 9.1 – 2009). SWCC also certifies medium wind turbines to the International Electrical Commission (IEC) Power Performance Standard (IEC 61400-12-1) and Acoustic Performance Standard (IEC 61400-11).

  20. Sensitivity of Key Parameters in Aerodynamic Wind Turbine Rotor Design on Power and Energy Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Christian

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the influence of different key parameters in aerodynamic wind turbine rotor design on the power efficiency, C p , and energy production has been investigated. The work was divided into an analysis of 2D airfoils/blade sections and of entire rotors. In the analysis of the 2D airfoils it was seen that there was a maximum of the local C p for airfoils with finite maximum C l /C d values. The local speed ratio should be between 2.4 and 3.8 for airfoils with maximum c l /c d between 50 and 200, respectively, to obtain maximum local C p . Also, the investigation showed that Re had a significant impact on CP and especially for Re p for rotors was made with three blades and showed that with the assumption of constant maximum c l /c d along the entire blade, the design tip speed ratio changed from X=6 to X=12 for c l /cd=50 and c l /c d =200, respectively, with corresponding values of maximum c p of 0.46 and 0.525. An analysis of existing rotors re-designed with new airfoils but maintaining the absolute thickness distribution to maintain the stiffness showed that big rotors are more aerodynamic efficient than small rotors caused by higher Re. It also showed that the design tip speed ratio was very dependent on the rotor size and on the assumptions of the airfoil flow being fully turbulent (contaminated airfoil) or free transitional (clean airfoil). The investigations showed that rotors with diameter D=1.75m, should be designed for X around 5.5, whereas rotors with diameter D=126m, should be designed for Xbetween 6.5 and 8.5, depending on the airfoil performance

  1. Impact of wind turbines on birdlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, J.H.B.; Berkhuizen, J.C.; De Graaff, R.J.; Postma, A.D.; Hendriks, J.H.W.

    1993-05-01

    An overview of wind energy programmes is presented, as well as an analysis of recent studies on the title subject and data on the attitude of nature conservation organisations both from the USA and Europe. The studies were analyzed for legitimacy of assumptions and validity of the conclusions. Most of the wind energy programs and all European studies deal with bird kills and disturbance in coastal areas. The number of victims per turbine per year in this type of area appears to be acceptable. The disturbing effect of wind turbines on breeding birds appears to be negligible. The disturbance of resting and migrating birds by wind turbines however is reasonably clear. As a result of international concern several sites have been designated where siting of wind turbines is prohibited. Well known examples are wetlands of international importance (Ramsar-convention) and European Community Special Protection Areas. Major concern among conservationists is the location of many valuable and vulnerable environmental resources outside the protected areas. Negative attitudes towards wind energy projects are not particularly due to avian considerations, but rather to a general objective to protect landscapes and habitats, undisturbed by human infrastructures and disturbance. It is concluded that all new locations for wind energy projects should be weighed on the disturbance aspect. Reference data for such a weigh are available for coastal areas, although the impact on local migration between feeding grounds and high water refugee areas needs further research. Future research is also needed for application of wind energy both on off-shore locations, grasslands and farmlands. Wind energy developers and conservationists should have a close contact in order to establish consensus on how to deal with remaining uncertainties. 7 figs., 9 tabs., 5 appendices, 37 refs

  2. Impact of wind turbines on birdlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, J H.B.; Berkhuizen, J C; De Graaff, R J; Postma, A D [Consultants on Energy and Environment CEA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hendriks, J H.W. [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands)

    1993-05-01

    An overview of wind energy programmes is presented, as well as an analysis of recent studies on the title subject and data on the attitude of nature conservation organisations both from the USA and Europe. The studies were analyzed for legitimacy of assumptions and validity of the conclusions. Most of the wind energy programs and all European studies deal with bird kills and disturbance in coastal areas. The number of victims per turbine per year in this type of area appears to be acceptable. The disturbing effect of wind turbines on breeding birds appears to be negligible. The disturbance of resting and migrating birds by wind turbines however is reasonably clear. As a result of international concern several sites have been designated where siting of wind turbines is prohibited. Well known examples are wetlands of international importance (Ramsar-convention) and European Community Special Protection Areas. Major concern among conservationists is the location of many valuable and vulnerable environmental resources outside the protected areas. Negative attitudes towards wind energy projects are not particularly due to avian considerations, but rather to a general objective to protect landscapes and habitats, undisturbed by human infrastructures and disturbance. It is concluded that all new locations for wind energy projects should be weighed on the disturbance aspect. Reference data for such a weigh are available for coastal areas, although the impact on local migration between feeding grounds and high water refugee areas needs further research. Future research is also needed for application of wind energy both on off-shore locations, grasslands and farmlands. Wind energy developers and conservationists should have a close contact in order to establish consensus on how to deal with remaining uncertainties. 7 figs., 9 tabs., 5 appendices, 37 refs.

  3. A review of damage detection methods for wind turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dongsheng; Song, Gangbing; Ren, Liang; Li, Hongnan; Ho, Siu-Chun M

    2015-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources and many countries are predicted to increase wind energy portion of their whole national energy supply to about twenty percent in the next decade. One potential obstacle in the use of wind turbines to harvest wind energy is the maintenance of the wind turbine blades. The blades are a crucial and costly part of a wind turbine and over their service life can suffer from factors such as material degradation and fatigue, which can limit their effectiveness and safety. Thus, the ability to detect damage in wind turbine blades is of great significance for planning maintenance and continued operation of the wind turbine. This paper presents a review of recent research and development in the field of damage detection for wind turbine blades. Specifically, this paper reviews frequently employed sensors including fiber optic and piezoelectric sensors, and four promising damage detection methods, namely, transmittance function, wave propagation, impedance and vibration based methods. As a note towards the future development trend for wind turbine sensing systems, the necessity for wireless sensing and energy harvesting is briefly presented. Finally, existing problems and promising research efforts for online damage detection of turbine blades are discussed. (topical review)

  4. Noise from offshore wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard, B.; Plovsing, B.

    2005-07-01

    Noise assessment of wind turbines through calculations is based on sound power levels measured according to e.g. IEC 61400-11. With larger wind turbines and distances some of the calculation models give erroneous results. Noise propagation over water is different from propagation over land. For that reason it is important be able to make valid noise assessments for offshore wind farms. A suggestion for an offshore measurement method is described and a survey of models for noise propagation offshore has been made. (au)

  5. Extreme Response for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The characteristic load on wind turbines during operation are among others dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and type and settings of the control system. The characteristic load during operation is normally estimated by statistical extrapolation of a limited number...... of simulated 10min time series of the response according to the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1. However, this method assumes that the individual 10min time series and the extracted peaks from the time series are independent. In the present paper is this assumption investigated based on field measurements...

  6. Wind turbine reliability :understanding and minimizing wind turbine operation and maintenance costs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walford, Christopher A. (Global Energy Concepts. Kirkland, WA)

    2006-03-01

    Wind turbine system reliability is a critical factor in the success of a wind energy project. Poor reliability directly affects both the project's revenue stream through increased operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and reduced availability to generate power due to turbine downtime. Indirectly, the acceptance of wind-generated power by the financial and developer communities as a viable enterprise is influenced by the risk associated with the capital equipment reliability; increased risk, or at least the perception of increased risk, is generally accompanied by increased financing fees or interest rates. This paper outlines the issues relevant to wind turbine reliability for wind turbine power generation projects. The first sections describe the current state of the industry, identify the cost elements associated with wind farm O&M and availability and discuss the causes of uncertainty in estimating wind turbine component reliability. The latter sections discuss the means for reducing O&M costs and propose O&M related research and development efforts that could be pursued by the wind energy research community to reduce cost of energy.

  7. Applications of wind turbines in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, P; Rangi, R S; Templin, R J

    1977-01-01

    There are differing views as to the role of wind energy in the overall requirements. While some people tend to ignore it there are others who think that wind could be a major source of energy. In this paper an effort has been made to determine the wind power potential and also the amount that is economically usable. From the existing wind data a map showing the distribution of wind power density has been prepared. This map shows that the maritime provinces and the west coast of Hudson Bay have high wind power potential. These figures show that the wind power potential is of the same order as the installed electrical generating capacity in Canada (58 x 10/sup 6/kW in 1974). However, in order to determine how much of this power is usable the economics of adding wind energy to an existing system must be considered. A computer program has been developed at NRC to analyze the coupling of wind turbines with mixed power systems. Using this program and making certain assumptions about the cost of WECS and fuel the maximum amount of usable wind energy has been calculated. It is shown that if an installed capacity of 420 megawatts of wind power was added to the existing diesel capacity it would result in a savings of 60,000,000 gallons of fuel oil per year. On the other hand it is shown that if the existing installed hydro electric capacity of 37,000 megawatts (1976) was increased to 60,000 megawatts without increasing the average water flow rate, an installed capacity of 60,000 megawatts of wind power could be added to the system. This would result in an average of 14,000 megawatts from the wind. Using projected manufacturing costs for vertical axis wind turbines, the average cost of wind energy could be in the range of 1.4 cents/kwh to 3.6 cents/kwh.

  8. Wind energy in the United States and materials required for the land-based wind turbine industry from 2010 through 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The generation of electricity in the United States from wind-powered turbines is increasing. An understanding of the sources and abundance of raw materials required by the wind turbine industry and the many uses for these materials is necessary to assess the effect of this industry's growth on future demand for selected raw materials relative to the historical demand for these materials. The U.S. Geological Survey developed estimates of future requirements for raw (and some recycled) materials based on the assumption that wind energy will supply 20 percent of the electricity consumed in the United States by 2030. Economic, environmental, political, and technological considerations and trends reported for 2009 were used as a baseline. Estimates for the quantity of materials in typical "current generation" and "next generation" wind turbines were developed. In addition, estimates for the annual and total material requirements were developed based on the growth necessary for wind energy when converted in a wind powerplant to generate 20 percent of the U.S. supply of electricity by 2030. The results of the study suggest that achieving the market goal of 20 percent by 2030 would require an average annual consumption of about 6.8 million metric tons of concrete, 1.5 million metric tons of steel, 310,000 metric tons of cast iron, 40,000 metric tons of copper, and 380 metric tons of the rare-earth element neodymium. With the exception of neodymium, these material requirements represent less than 3 percent of the U.S. apparent consumption for 2008. Recycled material could supply about 3 percent of the total steel required for wind turbine production from 2010 through 2030, 4 percent of the aluminum required, and 3 percent of the copper required. The data suggest that, with the possible exception of rare-earth elements, there should not be a shortage of the principal materials required for electricity generation from wind energy. There may, however, be selective

  9. Recommendations on Model Fidelity for Wind Turbine Gearbox Simulations; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; Lacava, W.; Austin, J.; Nejad, A.; Halse, C.; Bastard, L.; Helsen, J.

    2015-02-01

    This work investigates the minimum level of fidelity required to accurately simulate wind turbine gearboxes using state-of-the-art design tools. Excessive model fidelity including drivetrain complexity, gearbox complexity, excitation sources, and imperfections, significantly increases computational time, but may not provide a commensurate increase in the value of the results. Essential designparameters are evaluated, including the planetary load-sharing factor, gear tooth load distribution, and sun orbit motion. Based on the sensitivity study results, recommendations for the minimum model fidelities are provided.

  10. Nonlinear Dynamics of Wind Turbine Wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther

    , large wind turbines become increasingly flexible and dynamically sensitive. This project focuses on the structural analysis of highly flexible wind turbine wings, and the aerodynamic loading of wind turbine wings under large changes in flow field due to elastic deformations and changing wind conditions....

  11. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.; van Dam, J.

    2010-11-01

    This test was conducted on the ARE 442 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Acoustic noise testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including duration, safety and function, power performance, and power quality tests. The acoustic noise test was conducted to the IEC 61400-11 Edition 2.1.

  12. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...... a three parameter Weibull distribution to the measured on-shore and off-shore data for wind speed variations. Specific recommendations on off-shore design turbulence intensities are lacking in the presentIEC-code. Based on the present analysis of the off-shore wind climate on two shallow water sites...

  13. Wind tunnel tests of a free yawing downwind wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David Robert; Larsen, Torben J.; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2014-01-01

    . The discussed test cases show that the turbine is stable while operating in free yawing conditions. Further, the effect of the tower shadow passage on the blade flapwise strain measurement is evaluated. Finally, data from the experiment is compared with preliminary simulations using DTU Wind Energy......This research paper presents preliminary results on a behavioural study of a free yawing downwind wind turbine. A series of wind tunnel tests was performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off...... the shelf three bladed hub, nacelle and generator on which relatively flexible blades are mounted. The tower support structure has free yawing capabilities provided at the base. A short overview on the technical details of the experiment is given as well as a brief summary of the design process...

  14. A spatially explicit assessment of the wind energy potential in response to an increased distance between wind turbines and settlements in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masurowski, Frank; Drechsler, Martin; Frank, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Setting a minimum distance between wind turbines and settlements is an important policy to mitigate the conflict between renewable energy production and the well-being of residents. We present a novel approach to assess the impact of varying minimum distances on the wind energy potential of a region, state or country. We show that this impact can be predicted from the spatial structure of the settlements. Applying this approach to Germany, we identify those regions where the energy potential very sensitively reacts to a change in the minimum distance. In relative terms the reduction of the energy potential is maximal in the north-west and the south-east of Germany. In absolute terms it is maximal in the north. This information helps deciding in which regions the minimum distance may be increased without large losses in the energy potential. - Highlights: • Distance between wind turbines and settlements is an important policy criterion. • We predict the impact of varying the distance on the regional energy potential. • The impact can be explained from the settlement structure. • The impact varies by region and German Federal state.

  15. Wind energy: A renewable energy option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Wind turbine generator research programs administered by the Energy Research and Development Administration are examined. The design and operation of turbine demonstration models are described. Wind assessments were made to determine the feasibility of using wind generated power for various parts of the country.

  16. Optimum Operational Parameters for Yawed Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Peters

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of systematical optimum operational parameters for wind turbines under various wind directions is derived by using combined momentum-energy and blade-element-energy concepts. The derivations are solved numerically by fixing some parameters at practical values. Then, the interactions between the produced power and the influential factors of it are generated in the figures. It is shown that the maximum power produced is strongly affected by the wind direction, the tip speed, the pitch angle of the rotor, and the drag coefficient, which are specifically indicated by figures. It also turns out that the maximum power can take place at two different optimum tip speeds in some cases. The equations derived herein can also be used in the modeling of tethered wind turbines which can keep aloft and deliver energy.

  17. Laboratory development of wind turbine simulator using variable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1*Department of Electronics Engineering, Prof. ... In this paper variable speed induction motor drive using scalar control is interfaced in wind energy conversion ... the wind turbine simulator is used as a necessary tool in research laboratories.

  18. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Southwest Windpower H40 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.; Link, H.; Meadors, M.; Bianchi, J.

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this test was to evaluate the safety and function characteristics of the Whisper H40 wind turbine. The general requirements of wind turbine safety and function tests are defined in the IEC standard WT01. The testing was conducted in accordance with the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) Quality Assurance System, including the NWTC Certification Team Certification Quality Manual and the NWTC Certification Team General Quality Manual for the Testing of Wind Turbines, as well as subordinate documents. This safety and function test was performed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Field Verification Program for small wind turbines.

  19. Turbine Control Strategies for Wind Farm Power Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Göçmen Bozkurt, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there has been increasing interest in green energies, of which wind energy is the most important one. In order to improve the competitiveness of the wind power plants, there are ongoing researches to decrease cost per energy unit and increase the efficiency of wind turbines...... and wind farms. One way of achieving these goals is to optimize the power generated by a wind farm. One optimization method is to choose appropriate operating points for the individual wind turbines in the farm. We have made three models of a wind farm based on three difference control strategies...... the generated power by changing the power reference of the individual wind turbines. We use the optimization setup to compare power production of the wind farm models. This paper shows that for the most frequent wind velocities (below and around the rated values), the generated powers of the wind farms...

  20. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, T.; Dunbabin, P.; Antoniou, I.; Frandsen, S.; Klug, H.; Albers, A.; Lee, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard for wind turbine power performance testing. The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project it describes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support of fundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle anemometry, multi-variate regression analysis and density normalisation. (au)

  1. Active control: Wind turbine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, Henrik

    1999-07-01

    This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project `Active Control of Wind Turbines`. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to design controllers. This report describes the model developed for controller design and analysis. Emphasis has been put on establishment of simple models describing the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine in adequate details for controller design. This has been done with extensive use of measurements as the basis for selection of model complexity and model validation as well as parameter estimation. The model includes a simple model of the structure of the turbine including tower and flapwise blade bending, a detailed model of the gear box and induction generator, a linearized aerodynamic model including modelling of induction lag and actuator and sensor models. The models are all formulated as linear differential equations. The models are validated through comparisons with measurements performed on a Vestas WD 34 400 kW wind turbine. It is shown from a control point of view simple linear models can be used to describe the dynamic behavior of a pitch controlled wind turbine. The model and the measurements corresponds well in the relevant frequency range. The developed model is therefore applicable for controller design. (au) EFP-91. 18 ills., 22 refs.

  2. Wind turbines and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  3. Wind turbines and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren eKnopper

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation (electromagnetic fields (EMF, shadow flicker, audible noise, low frequency noise, infrasound. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low frequency noise and infrasound, EMF and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low frequency noise and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A. Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  4. Wind Turbines and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D.; Ollson, Christopher A.; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Berger, Robert G.; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health. PMID:24995266

  5. Control strategy of wind turbine based on permanent magnet synchronous generator and energy storage for stand-alone systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Liu, Dong; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates a variable speed wind turbine based on permanent magnet synchronous generator and a full-scale power converter in a stand-alone system. An energy storage system(ESS) including battery and fuel cell-electrolyzer combination is connected to the DC link of the full-scale power...... converter through the power electronics interface. Wind is the primary power source of the system, the battery and FC-electrolyzer combination is used as a backup and a long-term storage system to provide or absorb power in the stand-alone system, respectively. In this paper, a control strategy is proposed...... for the operation of this variable speed wind turbine in a stand-alone system, where the generator-side converter and the ESS operate together to meet the demand of the loads. This control strategy is competent for supporting the variation of the loads or wind speed and limiting the DC-link voltage of the full...

  6. Design and analysis of a semi-submersible vertical axis wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Siddique, Muhammad Abu Zafar

    2017-01-01

    Wind energy are deployed by two types of wind turbines. They are Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) and Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT), classified according to their axis of rotation. In recent years, offshore wind energy playing a vital role in the wind turbine industry due to high intensity of air, less turbulent and comparatively clean and easily employed in large area which is difficult to manage for onshore or near-shore. The advantages of HAWTs are now facing different challenge in ...

  7. Estimating bat and bird mortality occurring at wind energy turbines from covariates and carcass searches using mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Brinkmann, Robert; Niermann, Ivo; Behr, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Environmental impacts of wind energy facilities increasingly cause concern, a central issue being bats and birds killed by rotor blades. Two approaches have been employed to assess collision rates: carcass searches and surveys of animals prone to collisions. Carcass searches can provide an estimate for the actual number of animals being killed but they offer little information on the relation between collision rates and, for example, weather parameters due to the time of death not being precisely known. In contrast, a density index of animals exposed to collision is sufficient to analyse the parameters influencing the collision rate. However, quantification of the collision rate from animal density indices (e.g. acoustic bat activity or bird migration traffic rates) remains difficult. We combine carcass search data with animal density indices in a mixture model to investigate collision rates. In a simulation study we show that the collision rates estimated by our model were at least as precise as conventional estimates based solely on carcass search data. Furthermore, if certain conditions are met, the model can be used to predict the collision rate from density indices alone, without data from carcass searches. This can reduce the time and effort required to estimate collision rates. We applied the model to bat carcass search data obtained at 30 wind turbines in 15 wind facilities in Germany. We used acoustic bat activity and wind speed as predictors for the collision rate. The model estimates correlated well with conventional estimators. Our model can be used to predict the average collision rate. It enables an analysis of the effect of parameters such as rotor diameter or turbine type on the collision rate. The model can also be used in turbine-specific curtailment algorithms that predict the collision rate and reduce this rate with a minimal loss of energy production.

  8. Estimating bat and bird mortality occurring at wind energy turbines from covariates and carcass searches using mixture models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fränzi Korner-Nievergelt

    Full Text Available Environmental impacts of wind energy facilities increasingly cause concern, a central issue being bats and birds killed by rotor blades. Two approaches have been employed to assess collision rates: carcass searches and surveys of animals prone to collisions. Carcass searches can provide an estimate for the actual number of animals being killed but they offer little information on the relation between collision rates and, for example, weather parameters due to the time of death not being precisely known. In contrast, a density index of animals exposed to collision is sufficient to analyse the parameters influencing the collision rate. However, quantification of the collision rate from animal density indices (e.g. acoustic bat activity or bird migration traffic rates remains difficult. We combine carcass search data with animal density indices in a mixture model to investigate collision rates. In a simulation study we show that the collision rates estimated by our model were at least as precise as conventional estimates based solely on carcass search data. Furthermore, if certain conditions are met, the model can be used to predict the collision rate from density indices alone, without data from carcass searches. This can reduce the time and effort required to estimate collision rates. We applied the model to bat carcass search data obtained at 30 wind turbines in 15 wind facilities in Germany. We used acoustic bat activity and wind speed as predictors for the collision rate. The model estimates correlated well with conventional estimators. Our model can be used to predict the average collision rate. It enables an analysis of the effect of parameters such as rotor diameter or turbine type on the collision rate. The model can also be used in turbine-specific curtailment algorithms that predict the collision rate and reduce this rate with a minimal loss of energy production.

  9. Impact of wind turbines on birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausager, I.; Nohr, H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is a review of the present knowledge on impacts of wind turbines on birds, requested by the Danish Ministry of the Environment and Energy. The main conclusions of the review are, that in nearly all the studies so far the numbers of birds recorded colliding with wind turbines have been limited. Some studies indicate that stationary (breeding) birds inside the wind turbine area in the short run habituate to wind turbines, especially the noise and visual impacts, and that the risk for collision becomes low. However, some of the few more long term studies indicate that a negative impact may occur in later generations of breeding birds. In some studies a disturbance effect on bird species, which temporarily stay inside a wind turbine area in order to forage or rest, is observed. The degree of impact is species-specific. An effect is typically recorded inside a zone of up to 250-800 m, with geese and waders as the most sensitive groups of birds. (author)

  10. Flow interaction of diffuser augmented wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göltenbott, U.; Ohya, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Jamieson, P.

    2016-09-01

    Up-scaling of wind turbines has been a major trend in order to reduce the cost of energy generation from the wind. Recent studies however show that for a given technology, the cost always rises with upscaling, notably due to the increased mass of the system. To reach capacities beyond 10 MW, multi-rotor systems (MRS) have promising advantages. On the other hand, diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs) can significantly increase the performance of the rotor. Up to now, diffuser augmentation has only been applied to single small wind turbines. In the present research, DAWTs are used in a multi-rotor system. In wind tunnel experiments, the aerodynamics of two and three DAWTs, spaced in close vicinity in the same plane normal to a uniform flow, have been analysed. Power increases of up to 5% and 9% for the two and three rotor configurations are respectively achieved in comparison to a stand-alone turbine. The physical dynamics of the flows are analysed on the basis of the results obtained with a stand-alone turbine.

  11. Economic feasibility of developing wind turbines in Aligoodarz, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Kasra; Mostafaeipour, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Three hourly long term measured wind speed data from 2005 to 2009 for city of Aligoodarz in Iran was analyzed. • Wind power density and wind energy density of the region were estimated using Weibull distribution. • Performance of six different wind turbine models were analyzed. • Economic evaluation was performed and installing of E-3120 (50 kW) model turbine was suggested. - Abstract: This study evaluates the economic feasibility of electricity generation using wind turbines in city of Aligoodarz situated in the west part of Iran. For this purpose, the wind energy potential and its characteristics were assessed in terms of diurnal, monthly and annual analysis using five years measured wind speed data from 2005 to 2009 at 10 m height. The analysis results specified a nearly stable wind pattern in different hours and months of the year which demonstrated more suitability of the region for wind energy harnessing to meet the electricity demand in all time intervals throughout the year. According to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) wind power classification, the wind resource in Aligoodarz falls in class 3 and the location was recognized as a moderate location for wind energy development. The economic feasibility of six different wind turbines with rated powers ranging from 20 to 150 kW was evaluated. Among all turbines examined, the E-3120 wind turbine was introduced as the most attractive option for installation

  12. Siting guidelines for utility application of wind turbines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennell, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    Utility-oriented guidelines are described for identifying viable sites for wind turbines. Topics and procedures are also discussed that are important in carrying out a wind turbine siting program. These topics include: a description of the Department of Energy wind resource atlases; procedures for predicting wind turbine performance at potential sites; methods for analyzing wind turbine economics; procedures for estimating installation and maintenance costs; methods for anlayzing the distribution of wind resources over an area; and instrumentation for documenting wind behavior at potential sites. The procedure described is applicable to small and large utilities. Although the procedure was developed as a site-selection tool, it can also be used by a utility who wishes to estimate the potential for wind turbine penetration into its future generation mix.

  13. SERI Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  14. Wake losses optimization of offshore wind farms with moveable floating wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Rodrigues; R. Teixeira Pinto (Rodrigo); M. Soleimanzadeh (Maryam); P.A.N. Bosman (Peter); P. Bauer (Pavol)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the future, floating wind turbines could be used to harvest energy in deep offshore areas where higher wind mean speeds are observed. Currently, several floating turbine concepts are being designed and tested in small scale projects; in particular, one concept allows the turbine to

  15. Wind energy statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holttinen, H.; Tammelin, B.; Hyvoenen, R.

    1997-01-01

    The recording, analyzing and publishing of statistics of wind energy production has been reorganized in cooperation of VTT Energy, Finnish Meteorological (FMI Energy) and Finnish Wind Energy Association (STY) and supported by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM). VTT Energy has developed a database that contains both monthly data and information on the wind turbines, sites and operators involved. The monthly production figures together with component failure statistics are collected from the operators by VTT Energy, who produces the final wind energy statistics to be published in Tuulensilmae and reported to energy statistics in Finland and abroad (Statistics Finland, Eurostat, IEA). To be able to verify the annual and monthly wind energy potential with average wind energy climate a production index in adopted. The index gives the expected wind energy production at various areas in Finland calculated using real wind speed observations, air density and a power curve for a typical 500 kW-wind turbine. FMI Energy has produced the average figures for four weather stations using the data from 1985-1996, and produces the monthly figures. (orig.)

  16. On a method for simulation-based wind turbine blade design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are an important means for the production of renewable energy. Wind conditions vary from one site to another and the design of a horizontal axis wind turbine depends on these local wind conditions. One of the important aspects of the design of a wind turbine concerns the aerodynamic

  17. Dynamic Properties of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads

    ages structurally over its service life. Well-covered in the field of earthquake engineering, the dynamic response of civil engineering structures is highly dependent on the impedance of the soil–foundation system. For offshore wind turbine applications, however, the hysteretical and geometrical......, there is a general consensus that offshore wind-generated electricity is still too expensive to be competitive with conventional energy sources. As a consequence, the overall weight of the turbine and foundation is kept to a minimum resulting in a flexible and dynamically active structural system—even at low...

  18. CFD for wind and tidal offshore turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Montlaur, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    The book encompasses novel CFD techniques to compute offshore wind and tidal applications. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are regarded as the main design tool to explore the new engineering challenges presented by offshore wind and tidal turbines for energy generation. The difficulty and costs of undertaking experimental tests in offshore environments have increased the interest in the field of CFD which is used to design appropriate turbines and blades, understand fluid flow physical phenomena associated with offshore environments, predict power production or characterise offshore environments, amongst other topics.

  19. WindPACT Reference Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rinker, Jennifer [Former National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) employee

    2018-04-02

    To fully understand how loads and turbine cost scale with turbine size, it is necessary to have identical turbine models that have been scaled to different rated powers. The report presents the WindPACT baseline models, which are a series of four baseline models that were designed to facilitate investigations into the scalings of loads and turbine cost with size. The models have four different rated powers (750 kW, 1.5 MW, 3.0 MW, and 5.0 MW), and each model was designed to its specified rated power using the same design methodology. The models were originally implemented in FAST_AD, the predecessor to NREL's open-source wind turbine simulator FAST, but have yet to be implemented in FAST. This report contains the specifications for all four WindPACT baseline models - including structural, aerodynamic, and control specifications - along with the inherent assumptions and equations that were used to calculate the model parameters. It is hoped that these baseline models will serve as extremely useful resources for investigations into the scalings of costs, loads, or optimization routines.

  20. Built-Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Forsyth, T.; Sinclair, K.; Oteri, F.

    2012-11-01

    Although only a small contributor to total electricity production needs, built-environment wind turbines (BWTs) nonetheless have the potential to influence the public's consideration of renewable energy, and wind energy in particular. Higher population concentrations in urban environments offer greater opportunities for project visibility and an opportunity to acquaint large numbers of people to the advantages of wind projects on a larger scale. However, turbine failures will be equally visible and could have a negative effect on public perception of wind technology. This roadmap provides a framework for achieving the vision set forth by the attendees of the Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The BWT roadmap outlines the stakeholder actions that could be taken to overcome the barriers identified. The actions are categorized as near-term (0 - 3 years), medium-term (4 - 7 years), and both near- and medium-term (requiring immediate to medium-term effort). To accomplish these actions, a strategic approach was developed that identifies two focus areas: understanding the built-environment wind resource and developing testing and design standards. The authors summarize the expertise and resources required in these areas.

  1. Wake losses optimization of offshore wind farms with moveable floating wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, S.F.; Teixeira Pinto, R.; Soleimanzadeh, M.; Bosman, Peter A.N.; Bauer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a layout optimization framework for wind farms with moveable turbines. • Using moveable wind turbines in optimized layouts maximizes energy production. • Turbine and wind farm designers should cooperate to optimize offshore wind projects. - Abstract: In the future, floating wind turbines could be used to harvest energy in deep offshore areas where higher wind mean speeds are observed. Currently, several floating turbine concepts are being designed and tested in small scale projects; in particular, one concept allows the turbine to move after installation. This article presents a novel layout optimization framework for wind farms composed of moveable floating turbines. The proposed framework uses an evolutionary optimization strategy in a nested configuration which simultaneously optimizes the anchoring locations and the wind turbine position within the mooring lines for each individual wind direction. The results show that maximum energy production is obtained when moveable wind turbines are deployed in an optimized layout. In conclusion, the framework represents a new design optimization tool for future offshore wind farms composed of moveable floating turbines

  2. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  3. Database on wind characteristics - Analyses of wind turbine design loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.; Hansen, K.S.

    2004-06-01

    The main objective of IEA R and D Wind Annex XVII - Database on Wind Characteristics - has been to provide wind energy planners, designers and researchers, as well as the international wind engineering community in general, with a source of actual wind field data (time series and resource data) observed in a wide range of different wind climates and terrain types. Connected to an extension of the initial Annex period, the scope for the continuation was widened to include also support to the international wind turbine standardisation efforts.. The project partners are Sweden, Norway, U.S.A., The Netherlands and Denmark, with Denmark as the Operating Agent. The reporting of the continuation of Annex XVII falls in two separate parts. Part one accounts in details for the available data in the established database bank, and part two describes various data analyses performed with the overall purpose of improving the design load cases with relevance for to wind turbine structures. The present report constitutes the second part of the Annex XVII reporting. Both fatigue and extreme load aspects are dealt with, however, with the main emphasis on the latter. The work has been supported by The Ministry of Environment and Energy, Danish Energy Agency, The Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (NOVEM), The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE), The Swedish National Energy Administration (STEM) and The Government of the United States of America. (au)

  4. Wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.D.; McNerney, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the impacts on the utility network including frequency stability, voltage stability, and power quality are discussed. The assessment of wind power station economics and the key economic factors that determine the economic viability of a wind power plant are presented

  5. Active control: Wind turbine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project 'Active Control of Wind Turbines'. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to designcontrollers. This report describes the model...... validation as well as parameter estimation. The model includes a simple model of the structure of the turbine including tower and flapwise blade bending,a detailed model of the gear box and induction generator, a linearized aerodynamic model including modelling of induction lag and actuator and sensor models...

  6. Performance of spanish wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, C.

    1995-01-01

    In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1994, going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author)

  7. Materials for Wind Turbine Blades: An Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Branner, Kim; Petersen, Helga Nørgaard

    2017-01-01

    A short overview of composite materials for wind turbine applications is presented here. Requirements toward the wind turbine materials, loads, as well as available materials are reviewed. Apart from the traditional composites for wind turbine blades (glass fibers/epoxy matrix composites), natural...... composites, hybrid and nanoengineered composites are discussed. Manufacturing technologies for wind turbine composites, as well their testing and modelling approaches are reviewed....

  8. Materials for Wind Turbine Blades: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Branner, Kim; Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Beauson, Justine; McGugan, Malcolm; Sørensen, Bent F

    2017-11-09

    A short overview of composite materials for wind turbine applications is presented here. Requirements toward the wind turbine materials, loads, as well as available materials are reviewed. Apart from the traditional composites for wind turbine blades (glass fibers/epoxy matrix composites), natural composites, hybrid and nanoengineered composites are discussed. Manufacturing technologies for wind turbine composites, as well their testing and modelling approaches are reviewed.

  9. Design and development of nautilus whorl-wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Pramod; Kumar, G. B. Veeresh; Harsha, P. Sai Sri; Kumar, K. A. Udaya

    2017-07-01

    Our life is directly related to energy and its consumption, and the issues of energy research are extremely important and highly sensitive. Scientists and researchers attempt to accelerate solutions for wind energy generation, design parameters under the influence of novel policies adopted for energy management and the concerns for global warming and climate change. The objective of this study is to design a small wind turbine that is optimized for the constraints that come with residential use. The study is aimed at designing a wind turbine for tapping the low speed wind in urban locations. The design process includes the selection of the wind turbine type and the determination of the blade airfoil, finding the maximum drag model and manufacturing of the turbine economically. In this study, the Nautilus turbine is modeled, simulated and the characteristic curves are plotted. The cutting in wind speed for the turbine is around 1m/s. The turbine rotates in a range of 20 rpm to 500 rpm at wind speeds 1m/s to 10m/s On a below average day at noon where the wind speed are usually low the turbine recorded an rpm of 120 (average value) at 4m/s wind speeds. This study focuses on a computational fluid dynamics analysis of compressible radially outward flow.

  10. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Dunbabin, P.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard forwind turbine power performance testing....... The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project itdescribes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised...... standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support offundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle...

  11. A wind turbine hybrid simulation framework considering aeroelastic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Su, Weihua

    2015-04-01

    In performing an effective structural analysis for wind turbine, the simulation of turbine aerodynamic loads is of great importance. The interaction between the wake flow and the blades may impact turbine blades loading condition, energy yield and operational behavior. Direct experimental measurement of wind flow field and wind profiles around wind turbines is very helpful to support the wind turbine design. However, with the growth of the size of wind turbines for higher energy output, it is not convenient to obtain all the desired data in wind-tunnel and field tests. In this paper, firstly the modeling of dynamic responses of large-span wind turbine blades will consider nonlinear aeroelastic effects. A strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation will be used for the basic structural dynamic modeling, which will be coupled with unsteady aerodynamic equations and rigid-body rotations of the rotor. Full wind turbines can be modeled by using the multi-connected beams. Then, a hybrid simulation experimental framework is proposed to potentially address this issue. The aerodynamic-dominant components, such as the turbine blades and rotor, are simulated as numerical components using the nonlinear aeroelastic model; while the turbine tower, where the collapse of failure may occur under high level of wind load, is simulated separately as the physical component. With the proposed framework, dynamic behavior of NREL's 5MW wind turbine blades will be studied and correlated with available numerical data. The current work will be the basis of the authors' further studies on flow control and hazard mitigation on wind turbine blades and towers.

  12. Hywind floating wind turbine project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crome, Tim

    2010-07-01

    The Hywind floating wind turbine concept was developed by StatoilHydro. Technip was awarded the contract for engineering, fabrication and installation of a demonstration unit in May 2008 and the completed wind turbine was installed mid June 2009 at the west coast of Norway on 220 m water depth. The demonstration unit will generate 2,3 MW and is equipped with instrumentation for monitoring mooring forces, strains and motions. The fabrication of the SPAR type steel substructure was performed at Technip Offshore Finland facilities in Pori and was towed horizontally from Finland to Norway, where it was upended to a vertical position by water filling. The completed floating wind turbine was towed vertically to the final location west of Karmoey and connected to the pre-installed three legged anchor system using an Anchor Handling Tug type vessel. The wind turbine test period is scheduled to start in September 2009. Statoil will monitor the performance of the system for two years before decision will be taken for further development. The paper will present the main challenges and lessons learned through design, fabrication and installation of this first of its kind structure. Main emphasis will be on the special challenges experienced for this floating, catenary moored, slender unit which is highly exposed for wind induced forces in addition to current and waves in hostile North Sea environments. (Author)

  13. Operation Design of Wind Turbines in Strong Wind Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Montes, Melissa Barroso; Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    2012-01-01

    and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The variable speed design is more suitable for wind turbines to run at very high wind speeds which can help the turbine braking system to stop the turbine at the new "cut-out" wind speed. Reference power, rotational speed and pitch angle have been designed...... optimally. In order to reduce the possible increased loading, fatigue due to the wind gusts, control strategies have been considered for both constant sped and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The control study shows that the designed controllers can reduce the standard deviations efficiently......In order to reduce the impact on the electrical grid from the shutdown of MW wind turbines at wind speeds higher than the cut-out wind speed of 25 m/s, we propose in this paper to run the turbines at high wind speeds up to 40 m/s. Two different operation designs are made for both constant speed...

  14. A novel floating offshore wind turbine concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vita, Luca; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2009-01-01

    This paper will present a novel concept of a floating offshore wind turbine. The new concept is intended for vertical-axis wind turbine technology. The main purpose is to increase simplicity and to reduce total costs of an installed offshore wind farm. The concept is intended for deep water...... and large size turbines....

  15. Wind turbine with lightning protection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a wind turbine comprising a lightning protection system comprising a waveguide interconnecting a communication device and a signal-carrying structure. In other aspects, the present invention relates to the use of a waveguide in a lightning protection system...... of a wind turbine, a power splitter and its use in a lightning protection system of a wind turbine....

  16. Leasing wind turbines (and its alternatives)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, Jonathan H.

    1999-01-01

    The financing of wind farms has historically consisted of a mixture of traditional debt and equity, with debt generally being provided by high street or specialist banks, through inter-company loans, or from International Funding Agencies (IFA's) via National Funding Agencies in developing countries. The use of more innovative financing methods has to date been limited. One possible methods of attracting finance for wind farms is the leasing of wind turbines, and this paper sets out the reasons leasing is particularly appropriate for renewable energy (RE) projects (in particular wind farms), the effect leasing may have on returns available to investors, and some of the obstacles that have to be overcome by the RE and wind industry to increase the utilisation of leasing. This paper concludes by discussing the possibility of using a pan-European leasing company as means of providing overseas aid to developing countries, thereby facilitating the implementation of wind energy in these important regions. (Author)

  17. Fatigue-Damage Estimation and Control for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barradas Berglind, Jose de Jesus

    How can fatigue-damage for control of wind turbines be represented? Fatigue-damage is indeed a crucial factor in structures such as wind turbines that are exposed to turbulent and rapidly changing wind flow conditions. This is relevant both in their design stage and during the control......, the inclusion of fatigue-damage within feedback control loops is of special interest. Four strategies in total are proposed in this work: three for the wind turbine level and one for the wind farm level. On one hand, the three strategies in the turbine level are based on hysteresis operators and strive......-damage estimation in wind turbine components, to the mixed objective operation of wind energy conversion systems, and to the synthesis of control strategies that include hysteresis operators....

  18. Wind Turbine Tribology Seminar - A Recap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errichello, R.; Sheng, S.; Keller, J.; Greco, A.

    2012-02-01

    Tribology is the science and engineering of interacting surfaces in relative motion. It includes the study and application of the principles of friction, lubrication, and wear. It is an important phenomenon that not only impacts the design and operation of wind turbine gearboxes, but also their subsequent maintenance requirements and overall reliability. With the major growth and increasing dependency on renewable energy, mechanical reliability is an extremely important issue. The Wind Turbine Tribology Seminar was convened to explore the state-of-the-art in wind turbine tribology and lubricant technologies, raise industry awareness of a very complex topic, present the science behind each technology, and identify possible R&D areas. To understand the background of work that had already been accomplished, and to consolidate some level of collective understanding of tribology by acknowledged experts, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hosted a wind turbine tribology seminar. It was held at the Renaissance Boulder Flatiron Hotel in Broomfield, Colorado on November 15-17, 2011. This report is a summary of the content and conclusions. The presentations given at the meeting can be downloaded. Interested readers who were not at the meeting may wish to consult the detailed publications listed in the bibliography section, obtain the cited articles in the public domain, or contact the authors directly.

  19. Wind energy potential in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtrakov, Stanko Vl.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, wind characteristic and wind energy potential in Bulgaria were analyzed using the wind speed data. The wind energy potential at different sites in Bulgaria has been investigated by compiling data from different sources and analyzing it using a software tool. The wind speed distribution curves were obtained by using the Weibull and Rayleigh probability density functions. The results relating to wind energy potential are given in terms of the monthly average wind speed, wind speed probability density function (PDF), wind speed cumulative density function (CDF), and wind speed duration curve. A technical and economic assessment has been made of electricity generation from three wind turbines having capacity of (60, 200, and 500 kW). The yearly energy output capacity factor and the electrical energy cost of kWh produced by the three different turbines were calculated

  20. Power curve of the AWEC-60 wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia, F.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental wind turbine AWEC-60 was developed to evaluate the possibilities of the Large Wind turbines, from the technical and economical point of view. The project was developed by a spanish-german group, integrated by Union Fenosa, Asinel, M.A.N. Neue Technologie and the Instituto de Energias Renovables from CIEMAT, starting the operation during the year 1990. In this paper, the obtention of the wind turbine's power curve is presented, which has been obtained in agreement with the 'Recommended Practices for Wind Turbine Testing and Evaluation' from the Executive Committee for the Research and Development on Wind Energy, of the International Energy Agency (AIE). Using the functioning data of the wind turbine corresponding to the first quarter of the year 1991, the power curves have been obtained, and the results have been compared with the curves measured in other similar large windturbines. (author)

  1. The Department of Energy (DOE) research program in structural analysis of vertical-axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, W. N.

    The Darrieus-type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) presents a variety of unusual structural problems to designers. The level of understanding of these structural problems governs, to a large degree, the success or failure of today's rotor designs. A survey is presented of the technology available for rotor structural design with emphasis on the DOE research program now underway. Itemizations are included of the major structural issues unique to the VAWT along with discussion of available analysis techniques for each problem area. It is concluded that tools are available to at least approximately address the most important problems. However, experimental data for confirmation is rather limited in terms of volume and the range of rotor configurations tested.

  2. Airfoil characteristics for wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, C.; Fuglsang, P.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Shen, W.Z.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    1999-01-01

    Airfoil characteristics for use in the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method calculating the forces on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) are derived by use of systematic methods. The investigation and derivation of the airfoil characteristics are basedon four different methods: 1) Inverse momentum theory, 2) Actuator disc theory, 3) Numerical optimisation and 4) Quasi-3D CFD computations. The two former methods are based on 3D CFD computations and wind tunnel measurements on a 41-m full-scal...

  3. Reduction of Environmental Impact Effect of Disposing Wind Turbine Blades

    OpenAIRE

    Rahnama, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Wind power industry is expected to be one of the fastest growing renewable energy sources inthe world. The growth specially focuses on growing industries and markets, because ofeconomical condition for wind power development besides political decisions.According to growth of wind turbine industries, wind turbine blades are growing fast in both sizeand number. The problem that now arises is how to deal with the blades at the end of their lifecycle. This Master Thesis describes existing methods...

  4. Wind energy: Science or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisouw de Zilwa, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The energy policy of the Dutch government is aimed at the use of different energy sources (diversification). Therefore the Dutch government supports the implementation of wind turbines and stimulates product improvement and research by means of the TWIN-program (a program to support the application of wind energy in the Netherlands). The purpose of the program is to commercialize efficient wind turbines. Without subsidies it is not yet possible to exploit wind turbines in an efficient way. Around the year 2000 a capacity of 1000 MW must be realized. 1 fig., 1 ill., 5 tabs., 1 ref

  5. Design optimization and analysis of vertical axis wind turbine blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarral, A.; Ali, M.; Sahir, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy is clean and renwable source of energy and is also the world's fastest growing energy resource. Keeping in view power shortages and growing cost of energy, the low cost wind energy has become a primary solution. It is imperative that economies and individuals begin to conserve energy and focus on the production of energy from renewable sources. Present study describes a wind turbine blade designed with enhanced aerodynamic properties. Vertical axis turbine is chosen because of its easy installment, less noisy and having environmental friendly characteristics. Vertical axis wind turbines are thought to be ideal for installations where wind conditions are not consistent. The presented turbine blade is best suitable for roadsides where the rated speed due to vehicles is most /sup -1/ often 8 ms .To get an optimal shape design symmetrical profile NACA0025 has been considered which is then analyzed for stability and aerodynamic characteristics at optimal conditions using analysis tools ANSYS and CFD tools. (author)

  6. Identification of wind energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the next decades wind energy is expected to secure a firm share of the total energy production capacity in many countries. To increase competitiveness of wind power with other power sources it is essential to lower the cost of wind energy. Given the design of a turbine, this objective can be

  7. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    . The same wind turbine converter control strategy is evaluated in two different wind farms. It is emphasised that the grid-side converter controller should be characterised by sufficient harmonic/noise rejection and adjusted depending on wind farms to which it is connected. Various stability indices......This study presents wind turbine converter stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken into consideration...... in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  8. Modeling, simulating and validating wind turbine behavior during grid disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coster, E.J.; Ishchenko, A.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the liberalized energy market Distributed Generation, DG, is increasing. At this moment, most of the power produced by DG, is generated by CHP-plants and variable speed wind turbines. Integration of wind turbines have impact on several aspects of power systems such as power system stability,

  9. Optical monitoring and operational modal analysis of large wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özbek, M.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of the dynamic properties and the corresponding structural response of wind turbines is essential for optimizing the energy produced, ensuring safe and reliable operation and increasing the life-time of the system. As the sizes of modern wind turbines increase, their dynamic behaviors

  10. Rotor and wind turbine formalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The main conventions used in this book for the study of rotors are introduced in this chapter. The main assumptions and notations are provided. The formalism specific to wind turbines is presented. The forces, moments, velocities and dimensionless coefficients used in the study of rotors...

  11. Comparative study of Danish and foreign wind turbine economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godtfredsen, F.

    1993-02-01

    This comparative study indicates that Denmark still is the leading nation in wind turbine technology in regard to economics as well as energy output and nacelle weight per swept rotor area. For roughness class 1, the levellized socioeconomic costs of wind power from Danish wind turbines is DKK 0.396 - 0.536 per kWh compared with production costs of DKK 0.525 for the most economic of the foreign wind turbines investigated. Furthermore it is pointed out, that there seems to be no correlation between generator capacity or swept rotor area and costs of windpower for the wind turbines investigated. Nevertheless there are arguments for the statement that large scale wind turbines will be relatively more economic in the future. Danish wind turbine manufacturers only produce tree-bladed, stall- or pitch regulated wind turbines with constant rotational speed. In Holland, Germany and UK two-bladed wind turbines and turbines with variable speed has been introduced. Still the new concepts are less economic, but not without future interest. (au)

  12. Duration Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2013-06-01

    This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small wind turbines. Five turbines were tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as a part of round one of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality. Test results will provide manufacturers with reports that can be used to fulfill part of the requirements for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment included a grid-connected Ventera Energy Corporation VT10 wind turbine mounted on an 18.3-m (60-ft) self-supporting lattice tower manufactured by Rohn.

  13. Operating wind turbines in strong wind conditions by using feedforward-feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Ju; Sheng, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing penetration of wind energy into power systems, it becomes critical to reduce the impact of wind energy on the stability and reliability of the overall power system. In precedent works, Shen and his co-workers developed a re-designed operation schema to run wind turbines in strong wind conditions based on optimization method and standard PI feedback control, which can prevent the typical shutdowns of wind turbines when reaching the cut-out wind speed. In this paper, a new control strategy combing the standard PI feedback control with feedforward controls using the optimization results is investigated for the operation of variable-speed pitch-regulated wind turbines in strong wind conditions. It is shown that the developed control strategy is capable of smoothening the power output of wind turbine and avoiding its sudden showdown at high wind speeds without worsening the loads on rotor and blades

  14. Comparative study of energy conversion system dedicated to a small wind turbine; Etude comparative de chaines de conversion d'energie dediees a une eolienne de petite puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirecki, A

    2005-07-01

    This study presents a comparison of architectures and strategies of energy management dedicated to VAWT turbines such as Savonius. A Maximum Power Point Tracking must be implemented in order to optimize the energetic behavior. A torque or a speed control, or an indirect control of the DC bus current is possible. In the fact that the wind turbine characteristic is unknown, an operational research based on fuzzy logic is proposed. Aiming to minimize the cost of the static conversion structure, simple structures (diode bridge inverter, associated with DC-DC chopper) are analyzed and compared with a system based on a PWM Voltage Source Inverter. A test bench has been realized in the meantime as a system simulation. Comparisons of the provided energy are made for different wind speeds allowing to evaluate the performance of each structure and of the control strategies. (author)

  15. Transient LES of an offshore wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vollmer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the cost of energy of offshore wind farms has a high uncertainty, which is partly due to the lacking accuracy of information on wind conditions and wake losses inside of the farm. Wake models that aim to reduce the uncertainty by modeling the wake interaction of turbines for various wind conditions need to be validated with measurement data before they can be considered as a reliable estimator. In this paper a methodology that enables a direct comparison of modeled with measured flow data is evaluated. To create the simulation data, a model chain including a mesoscale model, a large-eddy-simulation (LES model and a wind turbine model is used. Different setups are compared to assess the capability of the method to reproduce the wind conditions at the hub height of current offshore wind turbines. The 2-day-long simulation of the ambient wind conditions and the wake simulation generally show good agreements with data from a met mast and lidar measurements, respectively. Wind fluctuations due to boundary layer turbulence and synoptic-scale motions are resolved with a lower representation of mesoscale fluctuations. Advanced metrics to describe the wake shape and development are derived from simulations and measurements but a quantitative comparison proves to be difficult due to the scarcity and the low sampling rate of the available measurement data. Due to the implementation of changing synoptic wind conditions in the LES, the methodology could also be beneficial for case studies of wind farm performance or wind farm control.

  16. Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2017-01-01

    transmission networks at the scale of hundreds of megawatts. As its level of grid penetration has begun to increase dramatically, wind power is starting to have a significant impact on the operation of the modern grid system. Advanced power electronics technologies are being introduced to improve......Wind power now represents a major and growing source of renewable energy. Large wind turbines (with capacities of up to 6-8 MW) are widely installed in power distribution networks. Increasing numbers of onshore and offshore wind farms, acting as power plants, are connected directly to power...... the characteristics of the wind turbines, and make them more suitable for integration into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are some emerging challenges that still need to be addressed. This paper provides an overview and discusses some trends in the power electronics technologies used for wind power generation...

  17. EDITORIAL: Wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Jakob; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Morthorst, Poul-Erik

    2008-01-01

    Wind energy is rapidly growing. In 2006 the installed generating capacity in the world increased by 25%, a growth rate which has more or less been sustained during the last decade. And there is no reason to believe that this growth will slow significantly in the coming years. For example, the United Kingdom's goal for installed wind turbines by 2020 is 33 GW up from 2 GW in 2006, an average annual growth rate of 22% over that period. More than half of all turbines are installed in Europe, but United States, India and lately China are also rapidly growing markets. The cradle of modern wind energy was set by innovative blacksmiths in rural Denmark. Now the wind provides more than 20% of the electrical power in Denmark, the industry has professionalized and has close ties with public research at universities. This focus issue is concerned with research in wind energy. The main purposes of research in wind energy are to: decrease the cost of power generated by the wind; increase the reliability and predictability of the energy source; investigate and reduce the adverse environmental impact of massive deployment of wind turbines; build research based educations for wind energy engineers. This focus issue contains contributions from several fields of research. Decreased costs cover a very wide range of activities from aerodynamics of the wind turbine blades, optimal site selection for the turbines, optimization of the electrical grid and power market for a fluctuating source, more efficient electrical generators and gears, and new materials and production techniques for turbine manufacturing. The United Kingdom recently started the construction of the London Array, a 1 GW off-shore wind farm east of London consisting of several hundred turbines. To design such a farm optimally it is necessary to understand the chaotic and very turbulent flow downwind from a turbine, which decreases the power production and increases the mechanical loads on other nearby turbines. Also

  18. Design of Wind Turbine Vibration Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubin Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure safety of wind turbine operation and to reduce the occurrence of faults as well as to improve the reliability of wind turbine operation, a vibration monitoring for wind turbine is developed. In this paper, it analyses the enlargement of all the parts of the structure and the working mechanism, the research method of wind turbine operation vibration is introduced, with the focus being the use of the sensor principle. Finally the hardware design and software of this system is introduced and the main function of this system is described, which realizes condition monitoring of the work state of wind turbines.

  19. Design and operating experience on the U.S. Department of Energy Experimental Mod-O 100 kW Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, J. C.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1978-01-01

    The Mod-O 100 kW Experimental Wind Turbine was designed and fabricated by NASA, as part of the Federal Wind Energy Program, to assess technology requirements and engineering problems of large wind turbines. The machine became operational in October 1975 and has demonstrated successful operation in all of its design modes. During the course of its operations the machine has generated a wealth of experimental data and has served as a prototype developmental test bed for the Mod-OA operational wind turbines which are currently used on utility networks. This paper describes the mechanical and control systems as they evolved in operational tests and describes some of the experience with various systems in the downwind rotor configuration.

  20. Sound wave contours around wind turbine arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beek, A.; Van Blokland, G.J.

    1993-02-01

    Noise pollution is an important factor in selecting suitable sites for wind turbines in order to realize 1000 MW of wind power as planned by the Dutch government for the year 2000. Therefore an accurate assessment of wind turbine noise is important. The amount of noise pollution from a wind turbine depends on the wind conditions. An existing standard method to assess wind turbine noise is supplemented and adjusted. In the first part of the investigation the method was developed and applied for a solitary sound source. In the second part attention is paid to the use of the method for wind turbine arrays. It appears that the adjusted method results in a shift of the contours of the permitted noise level. In general the contours are 15-25% closer to the wind farm, which means that the minimal permitted distance between houses and wind turbine arrays can be reduced. 14 figs., 1 tab., 4 appendices, 7 refs

  1. Future on Power Electronics for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    networks and more and more wind power stations, acting as power plants, are connected directly to the transmission networks. As the grid penetration and power level of the wind turbines increase steadily, the wind power starts to have significant impacts to the power grid system. Therefore, more advanced...... generators, power electronic systems, and control solutions have to be introduced to improve the characteristics of the wind power plant and make it more suitable to be integrated into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are also some emerging technology challenges, which need to be further clarified......Wind power is still the most promising renewable energy in the year of 2013. The wind turbine system (WTS) started with a few tens of kilowatt power in the 1980s. Now, multimegawatt wind turbines are widely installed even up to 6-8 MW. There is a widespread use of wind turbines in the distribution...

  2. Landscape impact assessment for wind turbine development in Dyfed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, C.; White, S.; Thomas, B.; Osment, F.

    1994-01-01

    The study aims to identify those areas in Dyfed where, in terms of landscape impact, local authorities might seek to exclude or encourage wind turbine development, provide guidelines which will assist local authorities in judging the impact of wind turbine developments on the landscape and provide a basis and framework for the preparation of planning policy guidelines for acceptable wind turbine and wind farm developments in Dyfed. The study context reviews current Government energy and planning policies for the encouragement of wind turbine developments. Dyfed County Council's relevant Structure Plan policies are also considered, as are the new draft policies relating directly to wind energy released by other authorities. The sizes and status of planning applications are summarised and the landscape implications and precedent set by the test case at Mynydd-y-Cemais is discussed. Public perception of wind power is reviewed in the context of research in Europe and the USA. (author)

  3. Integrated installation for offshore wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Way, J.; Bowerman, H.

    2003-07-01

    A project to investigate the feasibility of integrating the offshore installation of foundation, turbine and tower for offshore wind turbines into one operation is described. Three separate objectives are listed. They are: (1) Telescopic tower study - reversible process incorporating lift and lock mechanisms; (2) Transportation study - technical and economic feasibility of transporting and installing a wind turbine unit via a standard barge with minimal conversion and (3) Self-burial system study - to demonstrate the feasibility of self burial of a slab foundation via controlled jetting beneath the slab. The background to the study and the proposed concepts are discussed. The work carried out to date and the costs are reported together with the findings. Recommendations for future work are listed. The work was carried out by Corus UK Ltd and is managed by Future Energy Solutions for the DTI.

  4. Hybrid anisotropic materials for wind power turbine blades

    CERN Document Server

    Golfman, Yosif

    2012-01-01

    Based on rapid technological developments in wind power, governments and energy corporations are aggressively investing in this natural resource. Illustrating some of the crucial new breakthroughs in structural design and application of wind energy generation machinery, Hybrid Anisotropic Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades explores new automated, repeatable production techniques that expand the use of robotics and process controls. These practices are intended to ensure cheaper fabrication of less-defective anisotropic material composites used to manufacture power turbine blades. This boo

  5. Small wind turbines - Technical sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    This publication first proposes an overview of the technical context of small wind turbines (from less than 1 kW to 36 kW). It discusses issues related to mast height, indicates the various technologies in terms of machine geometry (vertical or horizontal axis), of mast and foundations, of mechanism of orientation with respect to the wind. It also outlines that power curves are not always reliable due to a lack of maturity of techniques and technologies. Other issues are discussed: wind characteristics, and the assessment of the national potential source. The next parts address the regulatory and economic context, environmental impacts (limited impact on landscape, noise), propose an overview of actors and market (supply and demand of small wind turbines in the USA and in France, actors involved in the chain value in France), and give some recommendations for the development of small wind turbines in France. The last part proposes a technical focus on self-consumption by professional in rural areas (production and consumption in farms)

  6. Lidar configurations for wind turbine control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Mann, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Lidar sensors have proved to be very beneficial in the wind energy industry. They can be used for yaw correction, feed-forward pitch control and load verification. However, the current lidars are expensive. One way to reduce the price is to use lidars with few measurement points. Finding the best...... by the lidar is compared against the effective wind speed on a wind turbine rotor both theoretically and through simulations. The study provides some results to choose the best configuration of the lidar with few measurement points....

  7. Wind Turbine Power Curves Incorporating Turbulence Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse

    2014-01-01

    . The model and method are parsimonious in the sense that only a single function (the zero-turbulence power curve) and a single auxiliary parameter (the equivalent turbulence factor) are needed to predict the mean power at any desired turbulence intensity. The method requires only ten minute statistics......The performance of a wind turbine in terms of power production (the power curve) is important to the wind energy industry. The current IEC-61400-12-1 standard for power curve evaluation recognizes only the mean wind speed at hub height and the air density as relevant to the power production...

  8. Feasibility of generating electricity for clinics using wind turbines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available is small wind turbines used in residential settings that are installed using net metering to supply energy directly to the home. Excess energy is sold back to the supplying utility. Farm, business and small industrial wind applications are used..., businesses are not eligible for net metering applications thus the commercial loads must use most of the power from the turbine. “Small-scale” community wind is a system using wind turbines to power grid-connected loads such as schools, public lighting...

  9. Wind lens technology and its application to wind and water turbine and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohya Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind lens is a new type of wind power system consisting of a simple brimmed ring structure that surrounds the rotor causing greater wind to pass through the turbine. As a consequence, the turbine's efficiency of capturing energy from the wind gets dramatically increased. A Wind lens turbine can generate 2–5 times the power of an existing wind turbine given at the same rotor diameter and incoming wind speed. This fluid dynamical effect is also effective in the water. We have developed 1–3 kW Wind lens turbines and a 100 kW Wind lens turbine. In addition to the enhanced output power, Wind lens turbine is quiet. The technology is now used in an offshore experiment with a hexagonal float 18 meters in diameter set off the coast of Hakata Bay in Fukuoka City. Moreover, we are now pursuing larger size Wind lens turbines through multi-rotor design consisting of multiple Wind lens turbines in a same vertical plane to embody larger total power output.

  10. Can road traffic mask sound from wind turbines? Response to wind turbine sound at different levels of road traffic sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Eja; Berg, Frits van den; Bakker, Roel; Bouma, Jelte

    2010-01-01

    Wind turbines are favoured in the switch-over to renewable energy. Suitable sites for further developments could be difficult to find as the sound emitted from the rotor blades calls for a sufficient distance to residents to avoid negative effects. The aim of this study was to explore if road traffic sound could mask wind turbine sound or, in contrast, increases annoyance due to wind turbine noise. Annoyance of road traffic and wind turbine noise was measured in the WINDFARMperception survey in the Netherlands in 2007 (n=725) and related to calculated levels of sound. The presence of road traffic sound did not in general decrease annoyance with wind turbine noise, except when levels of wind turbine sound were moderate (35-40 dB(A) Lden) and road traffic sound level exceeded that level with at least 20 dB(A). Annoyance with both noises was intercorrelated but this correlation was probably due to the influence of individual factors. Furthermore, visibility and attitude towards wind turbines were significantly related to noise annoyance of modern wind turbines. The results can be used for the selection of suitable sites, possibly favouring already noise exposed areas if wind turbine sound levels are sufficiently low.

  11. Condition analysis and operating lifetime extension concepts for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeniewski, Thomas [GMA-Engineering GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). Business Unit Wind Energy

    2014-11-01

    In Germany the basis for the expansion of wind energy was already laid at the beginning of the 1990s. Hence, the first wind turbines already started to reach the end of their permitted lifetime. At that time as today the different wind turbine types were engineered for an operational lifetime of 20 years. As reliable wind turbines types were already available in the 1990s, it is technically and commercially reasonable to consider the extension of their operational lifetime. Of particular interest is the lifetime extension of wind turbine types installed in the beginning of the 2000s. During that period many wind turbine types were launched which absolutely correspond to state-of-the-art technology.

  12. Analysis of turbine-grid interaction of grid-connected wind turbine using HHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A.; Wu, W.; Miao, J.; Xie, D.

    2018-05-01

    This paper processes the output power of the grid-connected wind turbine with the denoising and extracting method based on Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) to discuss the turbine-grid interaction. At first, the detailed Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and the Hilbert Transform (HT) are introduced. Then, on the premise of decomposing the output power of the grid-connected wind turbine into a series of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs), energy ratio and power volatility are calculated to detect the unessential components. Meanwhile, combined with vibration function of turbine-grid interaction, data fitting of instantaneous amplitude and phase of each IMF is implemented to extract characteristic parameters of different interactions. Finally, utilizing measured data of actual parallel-operated wind turbines in China, this work accurately obtains the characteristic parameters of turbine-grid interaction of grid-connected wind turbine.

  13. Phase Angle Calculation Dynamics of Type 4 Wind Turbines in RMS Simulations during Severe Voltage Dips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Göksu, Ömer; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2016-01-01

    In order to conduct power system simulations with high shares of wind energy, standard wind turbine models, which are aimed to be generic rms models for a wide range of wind turbine types, have been developed. As a common practice of rms simulations, the power electronic interface of wind turbine...

  14. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in New Mexico, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fancher, Tammy S.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne-Marie; Turner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The New Mexico wind-turbine data series provides geospatial data for all wind turbines established within the State as of August 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, and county. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, year the facility went online, and development status of wind facility. Turbine locations were derived from 1-meter August 2009 true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program; the photographs have a positional accuracy of about + or - 5 meters. The location of turbines under construction during August 2009 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas currently (2011) in development by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Energy Atlas will synthesize data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and will include additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools will be included in the Energy Atlas. The format of the Energy Atlas will facilitate the integration of information about energy with key terrestrial and aquatic resources for evaluating resource values and minimizing risks from energy development.

  15. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fancher, Tammy S.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne-Marie; Turner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The Colorado wind-turbine data series provides geospatial data for all wind turbines established within the State as of August 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, and county. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, year the facility went online, and development status of wind facility. Turbine locations were derived from August 2009 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program; the photographs have a positional accuracy of about + or - 5 meters. The location of turbines under construction during August 2009 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas currently (2011) in development by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Energy Atlas will synthesize data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and will include additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools will be included in the Energy Atlas. The format of the Energy Atlas will facilitate the integration of information about energy with key terrestrial and aquatic resources for evaluating resource values and minimizing risks from energy development.

  16. Reliability-based design and planning of inspection and monitoring of offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez, Sergio Marquez

    When the wind is blowing fiercely, wind turbines must resist. Wind turbines have to withstand the rough environmental conditions in the most reliable manner and start to produce renewable energy when the wind becomes friendly again. Never give up ‘wind turbine’ face the winds and be proud of cont...... of probability and statistics for application in structural reliability-based risk inspections....

  17. Dynamic response of wind turbine towers in warm permafrost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Still; ZhaoHui Joey Yang; Simon Evans; FuJun Niu

    2014-01-01

    Wind is a great source of renewable energy in western Alaska. Consistent winds blow across the barren tundra underlain by warm permafrost in the winter season, when the energy demand is the highest. Foundation engineering in warm permafrost has always been a challenge in wind energy development. Degrading warm permafrost poses engineering issues to design, construction, and operation of wind turbines. This paper describes the foundation design of a wind turbine built in western Alaska. It presents a sys-tem for response monitoring and load assessment, and data collected from September 2013 to March 2014. The dynamic proper-ties are assessed based on the monitoring data, and seasonal changes in the dynamic properties of the turbine tower-foundation system and likely resonance between the spinning blades and the tower structure are discussed. These analyses of a wind turbine in warm permafrost are valuable for designing or retrofitting of foundations in warm permafrost.

  18. Spatial mapping and attribution of Wyoming wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael S.; Fancher, Tammy S.

    2010-01-01

    This Wyoming wind-turbine data set represents locations of wind turbines found within Wyoming as of August 1, 2009. Each wind turbine is assigned to a wind farm. For each turbine, this report contains information about the following: potential megawatt output, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, land ownership, county, wind farm power capacity, the number of units currently associated with its wind farm, the wind turbine manufacturer and model, the wind farm developer, the owner of the wind farm, the current purchaser of power from the wind farm, the year the wind farm went online, and the status of its operation. Some attributes are estimates based on information that was obtained through the American Wind Energy Association and miscellaneous online reports. The locations are derived from August 2009 true-color aerial photographs made by the National Agriculture Imagery Program; the photographs have a positional accuracy of approximately ?5 meters. The location of wind turbines under construction during the development of this data set will likely be less accurate than the location of turbines already completed. The original purpose for developing the data presented here was to evaluate the effect of wind energy development on seasonal habitat used by greater sage-grouse. Additionally, these data will provide a planning tool for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative Science Team and for other wildlife- and habitat-related projects underway at the U.S. Geological Survey's Fort Collins Science Center. Specifically, these data will be used to quantify disturbance of the landscape related to wind energy as well as quantifying indirect disturbances to flora and fauna. This data set was developed for the 2010 project 'Seasonal predictive habitat models for greater sage-grouse in Wyoming.' This project's spatially explicit seasonal distribution models of sage-grouse in Wyoming will provide resource managers with tools for conservation planning. These

  19. The sound power measurement and certification of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, A.; Henderson, R.

    1992-01-01

    It is anticipated that there will be a substantial growth in the exploitation of renewable energy from the wind over the next few years. A major factor in this expected growth is the environmental acceptance or otherwise of wind turbines and in particular their acoustic characteristics. It is generally accepted within the turbine community that reliable methods of measuring and quantifying a turbine's acoustic signature are essential if this exploitation is to be realised. This paper will seek to review current practice both in the UK and further afield and will describe the development of a practical and reliable test method, which will aid the wind turbine Manufacturer, Developer and Planner. (author)

  20. Structural Flexibility of Large Direct Drive Generators for Wind Turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, G.

    2013-01-01

    The trend in wind energy is towards large offshore wind farms. This trend has led to the demand for high reliability and large single unit wind turbines. Different energy conversion topologies such as multiple stage geared generators, single stage geared generators and gearless (direct drive)

  1. Potential of neuro-fuzzy methodology to estimate noise level of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Vlastimir; Petković, Dalibor; Por, Lip Yee; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Zamani, Mazdak; Ćojbašić, Žarko; Motamedi, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbines noise effect became large problem because of increasing of wind farms numbers since renewable energy becomes the most influential energy sources. However, wind turbine noise generation and propagation is not understandable in all aspects. Mechanical noise of wind turbines can be ignored since aerodynamic noise of wind turbine blades is the main source of the noise generation. Numerical simulations of the noise effects of the wind turbine can be very challenging task. Therefore in this article soft computing method is used to evaluate noise level of wind turbines. The main goal of the study is to estimate wind turbine noise in regard of wind speed at different heights and for different sound frequency. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used to estimate the wind turbine noise levels.

  2. Wind Turbine Power Curve Design for Optimal Power Generation in Wind Farms Considering Wake Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern wind farms, maximum power point tracking (MPPT is widely implemented. Using the MPPT method, each individual wind turbine is controlled by its pitch angle and tip speed ratio to generate the maximum active power. In a wind farm, the upstream wind turbine may cause power loss to its downstream wind turbines due to the wake effect. According to the wake model, downstream power loss is also determined by the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of the upstream wind turbine. By optimizing the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of each wind turbine, the total active power of the wind farm can be increased. In this paper, the optimal pitch angle and tip speed ratio are selected for each wind turbine by the exhausted search. Considering the estimation error of the wake model, a solution to implement the optimized pitch angle and tip speed ratio is proposed, which is to generate the optimal control curves for each individual wind turbine off-line. In typical wind farms with regular layout, based on the detailed analysis of the influence of pitch angle and tip speed ratio on the total active power of the wind farm by the exhausted search, the optimization is simplified with the reduced computation complexity. By using the optimized control curves, the annual energy production (AEP is increased by 1.03% compared to using the MPPT method in a case-study of a typical eighty-turbine wind farm.

  3. Wake characteristics of wind turbines in utility-scale wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Foti, Daniel; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of turbine wakes is affected by turbine operating conditions, ambient atmospheric turbulent flows, and wakes from upwind turbines. Investigations of the wake from a single turbine have been extensively carried out in the literature. Studies on the wake dynamics in utility-scale wind farms are relatively limited. In this work, we employ large-eddy simulation with an actuator surface or actuator line model for turbine blades to investigate the wake dynamics in utility-scale wind farms. Simulations of three wind farms, i.e., the Horns Rev wind farm in Denmark, Pleasant Valley wind farm in Minnesota, and the Vantage wind farm in Washington are carried out. The computed power shows a good agreement with measurements. Analysis of the wake dynamics in the three wind farms is underway and will be presented in the conference. This work was support by Xcel Energy (RD4-13). The computational resources were provided by National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  4. Full scale testing for investigation of wind turbine seismic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, I.; Veletzos, M.; Elgamal, A. [California Univ., San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Structural Engineering

    2008-07-01

    In 2007, much of the growth in wind energy development was concentrated in North America and Asia, two regions which periodically experience strong earthquakes that may impact the final turbine design. As such, rational prediction of seismic hazards must be considered in order to maintain and enhance the ability of wind power to compete economically with other energy sources. In response to this challenge, researchers at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) have experimentally investigated wind turbines to gain an understanding of expected earthquake forces. This paper described the experimental setup for a full scale shake table test of a 65 kW wind turbine. The turbine was excited perpendicular to the axis of the rotor with a seismic base shaking record scaled to various levels. The data was analyzed using simple but effective procedures to provide insight into the observed structural damping of the wind turbine. The experimental investigation showed that full scale seismic testing of wind turbines is possible and can provide valuable insight into dynamic behaviour of wind turbines. The results can be used to develop a more accurate picture of how wind turbines are impacted by earthquakes. The data regarding the low observed super-structure damping provides a basis for calibration and further development of verified design procedures. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Wind energy, status and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wijk, A.

    1994-01-01

    Wind energy is diffuse but was widely used before the industrial revolution. The first oil crisis triggered renewed interest in wind energy technology in remote areas. Winds develop when solar radiation reaches the earth's highly varied surface unevenly, creating temperature density and pressure differences. The earth's atmosphere has to circulate to transport heat from the tropics towards the poles. On a global scale, these atmospheric currents work as an immense energy transfer medium. Three main applications can be distinguished: wind pumps, off-grid applications and grid-connected applications. The total generating costs for wind turbine systems are determined by total investments costs, the life time, the operating and maintenance costs, the wind regime (the wind energy potential is proportional to v 3 where v is the wind speed), the efficiency and availability of the wind turbine. The main gains are achieved as a result of improved reliability. The optimum size of a wind turbine depends on the wind speed, the wind turbine costs, the construction costs, the environmental impact and the social costs. The value of wind energy depends on the application that is made of the energy generated and on the costs of alternatives, it can be calculated by the avoided costs of damage to flora, fauna and mankind due to acid rain deposition, enhancement of the greenhouse effect. The environmental aspects are bird hindrance, noise, telecommunication interference and safety. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  6. Market for wind turbines in italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Wind power utilization in Italy has not been very popular until the privatization of the ENEL and introduction of subsidies for private electricity producers. The greatest interest is concentrated around large wind turbines. Therefore the Danish manufacturers with know-how within large wind turbines can establish themselves on the Italian market. Cooperation with one of the four local wind turbine manufacturers is advisable. (EG)

  7. Method and apparatus for wind turbine braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Corneliu [Laguna Hills, CA; Teichmann, Ralph [Nishkayuna, NY; Avagliano, Aaron [Houston, TX; Kammer, Leonardo Cesar [Niskayuna, NY; Pierce, Kirk Gee [Simpsonville, SC; Pesetsky, David Samuel [Greenville, SC; Gauchel, Peter [Muenster, DE

    2009-02-10

    A method for braking a wind turbine including at least one rotor blade coupled to a rotor. The method includes selectively controlling an angle of pitch of the at least one rotor blade with respect to a wind direction based on a design parameter of a component of the wind turbine to facilitate reducing a force induced into the wind turbine component as a result of braking.

  8. Wind energy - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangi, R.; Oprisan, M.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of wind technology developments in Canada and around the world was reviewed. Information regarding the level of wind turbine deployment was presented. It was shown that significant effort has been made on the national and international level to increase the capacity of this clean, non-polluting form of energy. Wind energy has become competitive with conventional sources of electricity due to lower cost, higher efficiency and improved reliability of generating equipment. The advantages and disadvantages of wind electricity generating systems and the economics and atmospheric emissions of the systems were described. At present, there is about 23 MW of wind energy generating capacity installed in Canada, but the potential is very large. It was suggested that wind energy could supply as much as 60 per cent of Canada's electricity needs if only one per cent of the land with 'good winds' were covered by wind turbines. Recently, the Canadian government has provided an accelerated capital cost allowance for certain types of renewable energies under the Income Tax Act, and the flow-through share financing legislation to include intangible expenses in certain renewable energy projects has been extended. Besides the support provided to the private sector through tax advantages, the Government also supports renewable energy development by purchasing 'green' energy for its own buildings across the country, and by funding a research and development program to identify and promote application of wind energy technologies, improve its cost effectiveness, and support Canadian wind energy industries with technology development to enhance their competitiveness at home and abroad. Details of the Wind Energy Program, operated by Natural Resources Canada, are described. 3 tabs., 5 figs

  9. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  10. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad

    cryostat design, where a concept with 20 W of heat transfer is achieved. Following the setup description, the focus turns to the electromagnetic design of the HTS machine. Particularly, an approach to increase the performance of HTS coils and the influence of the armature reaction to the HTS field winding...... magnetic characteristic with respect to the critical current. I have showed that the potential for the reduction of HTS conductor can be significant, if the coils are placed strategically, whereby the coils wound with BSCCO performed 40% better depending on the placement in the field winding. The 2G coils...... were less sensitive to the placement which made them particularly useful for high magnetic field regions in the eld winding. The second design approach proposed and tested was to use multiple current supplies which allowed each coil to operate close to its critical current. I have demonstrated...

  11. Cost optimization of wind turbines for large-scale offshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuglsang, P.; Thomsen, K.

    1998-02-01

    This report contains a preliminary investigation of site specific design of off-shore wind turbines for a large off-shore wind farm project at Roedsand that is currently being proposed by ELKRAFT/SEAS. The results were found using a design tool for wind turbines that involve numerical optimization and aeroelastic calculations of response. The wind climate was modeled in detail and a cost function was used to estimate costs from manufacture and installation. Cost of energy is higher for off-shore installations. A comparison of an off-shore wind farm site with a typical stand alone on-shore site showed an increase of the annual production of 28% due to the difference in wind climate. Extreme loads and blade fatigue loads were nearly identical, however,fatigue loads on other main components increased significantly. Optimizations were carried out to find the optimum overall off-shore wind turbine design. A wind turbine for the off-shore wind farm should be different compared with a stand-alone on-shore wind turbine. The overall design changed were increased swept area and rated power combined with reduced rotor speed and tower height. Cost was reduced by 12% for the final 5D/14D off-shore wind turbine from 0.306 DKr/kWh to 0.270 DKr/kWh. These figures include capital costs from manufacture and installation but not on-going costs from maintenance. These results make off-shore wind farms more competitive and comparable to the reference on-shore stand-alone wind turbine. A corresponding reduction of cost of energy could not be found for the stand alone on-shore wind turbine. Furthermore the fatigue loads on wind turbines in on-shore wind farms will increase and cost of energy will increase in favor of off-shore wind farms. (au) EFP-95; EU-JOULE-3; 21 tabs., 7 ills., 8 refs

  12. A Two-Bladed Concept Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong

    2012-01-01

    This article shows the potential for reducing extreme loads with an innovative design of wind turbine, a partial pitch two-bladed concept turbine. The most extreme conditions to test a turbine are considered to be stand-still combined with a grid failure in which the wind comes from all directions...

  13. Ducted wind turbine optimization : A numerical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dighe, V.V.; De Oliveira Andrade, G.L.; van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The practice of ducting wind turbines has shown a beneficial effect on the overall performance, when compared to an open turbine of the same rotor diameter1. However, an optimization study specifically for ducted wind turbines (DWT’s) is missing or incomplete. This work focuses on a numerical

  14. Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beurskens, H.J.M. [SET Analysis, Kievitlaan 26, 1742 AD Schagen (Netherlands); Brand, A.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Over the years, wind energy has become a major source of renewable energy worldwide. The present chapter addresses the wind resource, which is available for exploitation for large-scale electricity production, and its specific physical properties. Furthermore, the technical options available to convert the energy of the air flow into mechanical energy and electricity are described. Specific problems of large-scale integration of wind energy into the grid as well as the present and future market developments are described in this chapter. Finally, environmental aspects are discussed briefly.

  15. O?shore ?oating wind turbine and its dynamic problems?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renchuan ZHU; Guoping MIAO; Ju FAN; Hua LIU

    2016-01-01

    Green energy sources and ocean wind power are plentiful in deep sea. More and more o?shore wind power plants are constructed in the deep water over hundred meters below the surface. While o?shore ?oating wind turbine system is working, wind turbine, ?oating foundation, and mooring system a?ect each other with wind, waves, and currents acting on them. Various o?shore ?oating wind turbine systems and the encoun-tered environmental loads are brie?y reviewed and discussed. It is di?cult and crucial to comprehensively analyze the aerodynamic-hydrodynamic-service system-structure un-der the coupling e?ect of o?shore ?oating wind turbine system. The environmental ?ow ?eld, structure scale, and rational applications of theories and approaches should be well considered in advance.

  16. Wind Climate Parameters for Wind Turbine Fatigue Load Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Site-specific assessment of wind turbine design requires verification that the individual wind turbine components can survive the site-specific wind climate. The wind turbine design standard, IEC 61400-1 (third edition), describes how this should be done using a simplified, equivalent wind climate...... climate required by the current design standard by comparing damage equivalent fatigue loads estimated based on wind climate parameters for each 10 min time-series with fatigue loads estimated based on the equivalent wind climate parameters. Wind measurements from Boulder, CO, in the United States...

  17. Wind turbine pitch optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Juelsgaard, Morten; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    for maximizing power production while simultaneously minimizing fatigue loads. In this paper, we show how this problem can be approximately solved using convex optimization. When there is full knowledge of the wind field, numerical simulations show that force and torque RMS variation can be reduced by over 96...

  18. RBI Optimization of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, José G. Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    methods for oil & gas installations, a framework for optimal inspection and maintenance planning of offshore wind turbines is presented. Special aspects for offshore wind turbines considered are the fatigue loading characteristics where usually the wind loading are dominating the wave loading, wake......Wind turbines for electricity production have increased significantly the last years both in production capability and size. This development is expected to continue also in the coming years. Offshore wind turbines with an electricity production of 5-10 MW are planned. Typically, the wind turbine...... support structure is a steel structure consisting of a tower and a monopile, tripod or jacket type foundation. This paper considers aspects of inspection and maintenance planning of fatigue prone details in jacket and tripod type of wind turbine support structures. Based on risk-based inspection planning...

  19. On the Fatigue Analysis of Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, Herbert J.

    1999-06-01

    Modern wind turbines are fatigue critical machines that are typically used to produce electrical power from the wind. Operational experiences with these large rotating machines indicated that their components (primarily blades and blade joints) were failing at unexpectedly high rates, which led the wind turbine community to develop fatigue analysis capabilities for wind turbines. Our ability to analyze the fatigue behavior of wind turbine components has matured to the point that the prediction of service lifetime is becoming an essential part of the design process. In this review paper, I summarize the technology and describe the ''best practices'' for the fatigue analysis of a wind turbine component. The paper focuses on U.S. technology, but cites European references that provide important insights into the fatigue analysis of wind turbines.

  20. Meteorological Controls on Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Pryor, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    , modeling, and predicting this complex and interdependent system is therefore critical to understanding and modeling wind farm power losses due to wakes, and to optimizing wind farm layout. This paper quantifies the impact of these variables on the power loss due to wakes using data from the large offshore......The primary control on the magnitude of the power losses induced by wind turbine wakes in large wind farms is the hub-height wind speed via its link to the turbine thrust coefficient. Hence, at low to moderate wind speeds (between cut-in and rated turbine wind speeds) when the thrust coefficient...

  1. CSA guide to Canadian wind turbine codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian wind energy sector has become one of the fastest-growing wind energy markets in the world. Growth of the industry has been supported by various government agencies. However, many projects have experienced cost over-runs or cancellations as a result of unclear regulatory requirements, and wind energy developers are currently subject to a variety of approval processes involving several different authorities. This Canadian Standards Association (CSA) guide provided general information on codes and standards related to the design, approval, installation, operation, and maintenance of wind turbines in Canada. CSA codes and standards were developed by considering 5 new standards adopted by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee on Wind Turbines. The standards described in this document related to acoustic noise measurement techniques; power performance measurements of electricity-producing wind turbines; lightning protection for wind turbine generator systems; design requirements for turbines; and design requirements for small wind turbines. The guide addressed specific subject areas related to the development of wind energy projects that involve formal or regulatory approval processes. Subject areas included issues related to safety, environmental design considerations, site selection, and mechanical systems. Information on associated standards and codes was also included

  2. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.

    2011-11-01

    This report details the acoustic noise test conducted on the Gaia-Wind 11-kW wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine is a two- bladed, downwind wind turbine with a rated power of 11 kW. The test turbine was tested in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission standard, IEC 61400-11 Ed 2.1 2006-11 Wind Turbine Generator Systems -- Part 11 Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques.

  3. The VGOT Darrieus wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponta, F.L.; Otero, A.D.; Lago, L. [University of Buenos Aires (Argentina). College of Engineering

    2004-07-01

    We present the actual state of development of a non-conventional new vertical-axis wind turbine. The concepts introduced here involve the constructive aspects of variable-geometry oval-trajectory (VGOT) Darrieus wind turbines. The key feature of a VGOT machine is that each blade slides over rails mounted on a wagon instead of rotating around a central vertical axis. Each wagon contains its own electrical generation system coupled to the power-wheels and the electricity is collected by a classical third rail system. The VGOT concept allows increasing the area swept by the blades, and hence the power output of the installation, without the structural problems and the low rotational speed associated with a classical Darrieus rotor of large diameter. We also propose some engineering solutions for the VGOT design and present a brief economic analysis of the feasibility of the project. (author)

  4. Airfoil characteristics for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, C.; Fuglsang, P.; Sørensen, Niels N.

    1999-01-01

    Airfoil characteristics for use in the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method calculating the forces on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) are derived by use of systematic methods. The investigation and derivation of the airfoil characteristics are basedon four different methods: 1) Inverse momentum...... theory, 2) Actuator disc theory, 3) Numerical optimisation and 4) Quasi-3D CFD computations. The two former methods are based on 3D CFD computations and wind tunnel measurements on a 41-m full-scale rotorwith LM 19.1 blades. The derived airfoil characteristics show that the lift coefficient in stall...... to a commonly used set of airfoil characteristics. The numerical optimisation is based on both the 3D CFDcomputations and measurements on a 41-m rotor with LM 19.1 and LM 19.0 blades, respectively. The method requires power and loads from a turbine and is promising since a set of lift and drag curves is derived...

  5. Wind turbine technology principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Adaramola, Muyiwa

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionPart I: AerodynamicsWind Turbine Blade Design; Peter J. Schubel and Richard J. CrossleyA Shrouded Wind Turbine Generating High Output Power with Wind-Lens Technology; Yuji Ohya and Takashi KarasudaniEcomoulding of Composite Wind Turbine Blades Using Green Manufacturing RTM Process; Brahim AttafAerodynamic Shape Optimization of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Using Differential Evolution; Travis J. Carrigan, Brian H. Dennis, Zhen X. Han, and Bo P. WangPart II: Generators and Gear Systems

  6. Load Extrapolation During Operation for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In the recent years load extrapolation for wind turbines has been widely considered in the wind turbine industry. Loads on wind turbines during operations are normally dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. All these parameters...... must be taken into account when characteristic load effects during operation are determined. In the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1 a method for load extrapolation using the peak over threshold method is recommended. In this paper this method is considered and some of the assumptions are examined...

  7. Some aspects on wind turbines monitoring. General considerations and loads on horizontal wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuerva, A.

    1996-12-01

    The concept Monitoring applied to the Wind Energy technology is similar to the definition used in other branches of Science or Engineering, this is knowing values of variables which have to do with a mechanic system, in our case a wind turbine. These mentioned parameters may have different relationships to our wind turbine; some of them come from the environment the machine is operating in, others, are a measure of how properly the machine is working, and finally, the rest are an assessment of the ``system`s health`` during its ``life``. In this chapter we will answer questions such as: What do we need to measure? Why is Monitoring mandatory (from the different points of view of people involved in this world)? How can we measure a wind turbine depending on our objectives (Technic, tools, guidance, recommendations, etc)? And finally What can we expect in the near future?. The author wants the reader to keep the idea in mind that Monitoring means the richest and most accurate knowledge on wind turbine`s operation (Its environment, performances of health). This is the first step that allows us to optimize the operation mode of the machine and improve it (design, manufacturing, even the used modeling tools). When there is so much money involved, this fact becomes a must. (Author)

  8. Optimization design of blade shapes for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jin; Wang, Xudong; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2010-01-01

    For the optimization design of wind turbines, the new normal and tangential induced factors of wind turbines are given considering the tip loss of the normal and tangential forces based on the blade element momentum theory and traditional aerodynamic model. The cost model of the wind turbines...... and the optimization design model are developed. In the optimization model, the objective is the minimum cost of energy and the design variables are the chord length, twist angle and the relative thickness. Finally, the optimization is carried out for a 2 MW blade by using this optimization design model....... The performance of blades is validated through the comparison and analysis of the results. The reduced cost shows that the optimization model is good enough for the design of wind turbines. The results give a proof for the design and research on the blades of large scale wind turbines and also establish...

  9. Analysis of power curves of Danish and foreign wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, H.

    1995-12-01

    This report describes an analysis of power curves for a number of wind turbines, 30 Danish and 17 foreign - European - wind turbines. The investigation is limited to wind turbines of 150 kW capacity and greater, and to wind turbines for which a power curve is available. The power curves are transformed into a common, uniform presentation in order to facilitate the succeeding treatment, which primarily is the calculation of the production of electrical energy yielded per year. From the known data of the wind turbine, equipped generator power and rotor area and the area swept by the blades, the specific electrical production is calculated in three terms: yield per square meter of rotor area, yield per kW generator power and yield per square meter and per kilowatt generator power. Based on these findings a number of comparisons are established, such as comparisons of conceptual designs and technical- economical evaluations. (au)

  10. Adaptive Controller for Drive System PMSG in Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanambal; G.Balaji; M.Abinaya

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes adaptive Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) wind turbine and direct power control for grid side inverter for transformer less integration of wind energy. PMSG wind turbine with two back to back voltage source converters are considered more efficient, used to make real and reactive power control. The optimal control strategy has introduced for integrated control of PMSG Maximum Power Extraction, DC li...

  11. Adaptive Torque Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K. E.

    2004-08-01

    The primary focus of this work is a new adaptive controller that is designed to resemble the standard non-adaptive controller used by the wind industry for variable speed wind turbines below rated power. This adaptive controller uses a simple, highly intuitive gain adaptation law designed to seek out the optimal gain for maximizing the turbine's energy capture. It is designed to work even in real, time-varying winds.

  12. Wind tunnel tests of a free yawing downwind wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David Robert; Larsen, Torben J.; van Wingerden, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    During February and April 2012 a series of wind tunnel tests were performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility (OJF) with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off the shelf three bladed hub, nacelle and generator on which relatively flexible ...... in free yawing conditions. Further, the effect of the tower shadow passage on the blade flapwise strain measurement is evaluated. Finally, data from the experiment is compared with preliminary simulations using DTU Wind Energy's aeroelastic simulation program HAWC2....... blades are mounted. The tower support structure has free yawing capabilities provided at the tower base. A short overview on the technical details of the experiment is provided as well as a brief summary of the design process. The discussed test cases show that the turbine is stable while operating...

  13. Design, numerical modelling and analysis of a spar floater supporting the DTU 10MW wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Wenfei

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, wind energy is one of the most promising, sustainable and clean energy solutions for the future. The wind industry in Europe experiences a very fast development these years, moving from onshore to offshore in shallow water and then in deep water. A floating wind turbine is an offshore wind turbine mounted on a floating structure that allows the turbine to generate electricity in water depths where bottom-fixed towers are not accessible. However, the offshore wind energy still has...

  14. Risk-based Inspection Planning Optimisation of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, José Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Wind industry is substantially propelled and the future scenarios designate offshore locations as important sites for energy production. With this development, offshore wind farms represent a feasible option to accomplish the needed energy, bringing with it technical and economical challenges......, but considering the lower reliability level for wind turbines. This framework is addressing fatigue prone details in welded steel joints typically located in the wind turbine substructure. The increase of turbulence in-wind farms (IWF) due to wake effects is taken into account using a code-based turbulence model...

  15. Hybrid Optimization for Wind Turbine Thick Airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    One important element in aerodynamic design of wind turbines is the use of specially tailored airfoils to increase the ratio of energy capture and reduce cost of energy. This work is focused on the design of thick airfoils for wind turbines by using numerical optimization. A hybrid scheme is proposed in which genetic and gradient based algorithms are combined together to improve the accuracy and the reliability of the design. Firstly, the requirements and the constraints for this class of airfoils are described; then, the hybrid approach is presented. The final part of this work is dedicated to illustrate a numerical example regarding the design of a new thick airfoil. The results are discussed and compared to existing airfoils.

  16. Wind Penetration with different wind turbine technologies in a weak grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Fuentefria, Ariel; Castro Fernandez, Miguel A.; Martínez García, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The insertion of wind energy into electric network may provoke stability problems due to stochastic character of wind. The variation in the wind causes voltage variation in the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). In a weakest system that variation is high. Another important factor is wind turbine technology. The use of grid-connected fixed speed wind generator introduces a great consumption of reactive power that can be compensated using different devices as capacitors bank or static var compensator (SVC or STATCOM). In the other hand the variable speed wind turbine have an electronic converter to control the reactive consumption to maintain the PCC voltage more stable. In this paper a comparison between the different types of wind turbines technology is show. It's analyzing the impact in wind power limit for different wind turbine technologies in a weak system. (author)

  17. Renewable Energy Essentials: Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Subjects for further research, specific to wind energy technology, include more refined resource assessment; materials with higher strength to mass ratios; advanced grid integration and power quality and control technologies; standardisation and certification; development of low-wind regime turbines; improved forecasting; increased fatigue resistance of major components such as gearboxes; better models for aerodynamics and aeroelasticity; generators based on superconductor technology; deep-offshore foundations; and high-altitude 'kite' concepts.

  18. WTG Energy Systems' MP1-200 200 kilowatt wind turbine generator. [a fixed pitch rotor configuration driving a synchronous generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, A. P., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design criteria of the MP1-200 wind turbine are given along with a brief description of the wind turbine generator. Performance and operational experience and cost factors are included. Recommendations for additional research are listed.

  19. Aerodynamic Aspects of Wind Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the most important aerodynamic research topics in the field of wind energy. Wind turbine aerodynamics concerns the modeling and prediction of aerodynamic forces, such as performance predictions of wind farms, and the design of specific parts of wind turbines, such as rotor...

  20. Wind energy technology developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2014-01-01

    turbine blades and towers are very large series-produced components, which costs and quality are strongly dependent on the manufacturing methods. The industrial wind energy sector is well developed in Denmark, and the competitive advantage of the Danish sector and the potential for job creation...

  1. Minimum Thrust Load Control for Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Bak, Thomas; Knudsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    — Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind at sea. Shallow water sites are profitable for deployment of monopile wind turbines at water depths of up to 30 meters. Beyond 30 meters, the wind is even stronger and less turbulent. At these depths, floating wind turbines be...... and power stability when using the new control strategy.......— Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind at sea. Shallow water sites are profitable for deployment of monopile wind turbines at water depths of up to 30 meters. Beyond 30 meters, the wind is even stronger and less turbulent. At these depths, floating wind turbines...... presents a new minimum thrust control strategy capable of stabilizing a floating wind turbine. The new control strategy explores the freedom of variable generator speed above rated wind speed. A comparison to the traditional constant speed strategy, shows improvements in structural fore-aft oscillations...

  2. Spatial mapping and attribution of Wyoming wind turbines, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael S.; Fancher, Tammy S.

    2014-01-01

    These data represent locations of wind turbines found within Wyoming as of August 2012. We assigned each wind turbine to a wind farm and, in these data, provide information about each turbine’s potential megawatt output, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, the status of the land ownership where the turbine exists, the county each turbine is located in, wind farm power capacity, the number of units currently associated with each wind farm, the wind turbine manufacturer and model, the wind farm developer, the owner of the wind farm, the current purchaser of power from the wind farm, the year the wind farm went online, and the status of its operation. Some of the attributes are estimates based on the information we found via the American Wind Energy Association and other on-line reports. The locations are derived from National Agriculture Imagery Program (2009 and 2012) true color aerial photographs and have a positional accuracy of approximately +/-5 meters. These data will provide a planning tool for wildlife- and habitat-related projects underway at the U.S. Geological Survey’s Fort Collins Science Center and other government and non-government organizations. Specifically, we will use these data to support quantifying disturbances of the landscape as related to wind energy as well as to quantify indirect disturbances to flora and fauna. This data set represents an update to a previous version by O’Donnell and Fancher (2010).

  3. Optimized Fuzzy-Cuckoo Controller for Active Power Control of Battery Energy Storage System, Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell and Wind Turbine in an Isolated Micro-Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Einan; Hossein Torkaman; Mahdi Pourgholi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new control strategy for isolated micro-grids including wind turbines (WT), fuel cells (FC), photo-voltaic (PV) and battery energy storage systems (BESS). FC have been used in parallel with BESSs in order to increase their lifetime and efficiency. The changes in some parameters such as wind speed, sunlight, and consumption, lead to improper performance of droop. To overcome this challenge, a new intelligent method using a combination of fuzzy controller and cuckoo optimi...

  4. Safety and Function Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. Three turbines where selected for testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of round two of the Small Wind Turbine Independent Testing project. Safety and Function testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include power performance, duration, noise, and power quality. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

  5. Duration Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. Three turbines where selected for testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of round two of the Small Wind Turbine Independent Testing project. Duration testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

  6. Annoyance rating of wind turbine noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iredale, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple criterion for noise limitation of wind turbines: 'The La A50 from a Wind Farm should not exceeding the L A50 of the wind generated background plus 5dB at any place of potential complaint'. This criterion is then examined and developed in the light of experience to date with turbine noise complaint and procedures. (author)

  7. Study on wind turbine for Yamagata wind energy institute. Comparison of the actual and estimate values for electric power; Yamagata furyoku hatsudensho no fusha ni tsuite. Hatsudenryo yosoku to jissekichi no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, H [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Kojima, T [Yamagata Wind Energy Institute, Yamagata (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For two 400kW wind turbines erected in Jan. 1996 of Yamagata Wind Energy Institute, their estimated power output was compared with actual output for 7 months. AMeDAS data in 1985-94 were totaled every month to use as basic data. The altitude and surface roughness model necessary for WAsP analysis recommended by NEDO`s wind condition close inspection manual were prepared using 1/25,000 maps and aerial photographs. The obstacle model for estimating wind conditions at height of the wind turbine was prepared using the data obtained by field survey. Mean wind velocity and latent energy were determined by statistical analysis of wind velocity occurrence relative frequencies and Weibull distribution parameters. The power output of 717,700kWh was obtained for 7 months, which is equivalent to 88.5% of the estimated output of 810,730kWh for the same period. It was clarified from obtained characteristic wind conditions at the site that the wind power generation is promising at the site not only in winter but also in summer. Although the test period was too short, this method was effective as analytical method of output estimation in the planning stage of wind turbines. 3 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE FOR WIND TURBINE FOUNDATIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERNDT,M.L.

    2004-06-01

    The use of wind power to generate electricity continues to grow, especially given commitments by various countries throughout the world to ensure that a significant percentage of energy comes from renewable sources. In order to meet such objectives, increasingly larger turbines with higher capacity are being developed. The engineering aspects of larger turbine development tend to focus on design and materials for blades and towers. However, foundations are also a critical component of large wind turbines and represent a significant cost of wind energy projects. Ongoing wind research at BNL is examining two areas: (a) structural response analysis of wind turbine-tower-foundation systems and (b) materials engineering of foundations. This work is investigating the dynamic interactions in wind turbine systems, which in turn assists the wind industry in achieving improved reliability and more cost efficient foundation designs. The results reported herein cover initial studies of concrete mix designs for large wind turbine foundations and how these may be tailored to reduce cost and incorporate sustainability and life cycle concepts. The approach taken was to investigate material substitutions so that the environmental, energy and CO{sub 2}-impact of concrete could be reduced. The use of high volumes of ''waste'' materials in concrete was examined. These materials included fly ash, blast furnace slag and recycled concrete aggregate. In addition, the use of steel fiber reinforcement as a means to improve mechanical properties and potentially reduce the amount of bar reinforcement in concrete foundations was studied. Four basic mixes were considered. These were: (1) conventional mix with no material substitutions, (2) 50% replacement of cement with fly ash, (3) 50% replacement of cement with blast furnace slag and (4) 25% replacement of cement with fly ash and 25% replacement with blast furnace slag. Variations on these mixes included the addition of 1

  9. Aeroelastic analysis of an offshore wind turbine: Design and Fatigue Performance of Large Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Blades

    OpenAIRE

    Fossum, Peter Kalsaas

    2012-01-01

    Aeroelastic design and fatigue analysis of large utility-scale wind turbine blades are performed. The applied fatigue model is based on established methods and is incorporated in an iterative numerical design tool for realistic wind turbine blades. All aerodynamic and structural design properties are available in literature. The software tool FAST is used for advanced aero-servo-elastic load calculations and stress-histories are calculated with elementary beam theory.According to wind energy ...

  10. Optimal Structural Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Tarp-Johansen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    The main failure modes of modern large wind turbines are fatigue failure of wings, hub, shaft and main tower, local buckling of main tower, and failure of the foundation. This paper considers reliability-based optimal design of wind turbines. Compared to onshore wind turbines and building...... structures, humans spent little time in the vicinity of offshore wind turbines and the probability of human injury during storm conditions is small. Further environmental pollution will also in general be small in case of failure. One could therefore argue that the reliability level of offshore wind turbines...... can be lower than for onshore wind turbines and other civil engineering structures and can be assessed by reliability-based cost-optimization. Specifically this paper considers the main tower and foundation. Both fatigue and ultimate strength failure modes are included. Different formulations...

  11. Wind Turbine Optimization with WISDEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ryan N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Veers, Paul S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University

    2018-01-03

    This presentation for the Fourth Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop explains the NREL wind energy systems engineering initiative-developed analysis platform and research capability to capture important system interactions to achieve a better understanding of how to improve system-level performance and achieve system-level cost reductions. Topics include Wind-Plant Integrated System Design and Engineering Model (WISDEM) and multidisciplinary design analysis and optimization.

  12. Evolution of wind towards wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing of the atmospheric variables with the use of LiDAR is a relatively new technology field for wind resource assessment in wind energy. The validation of LiDAR measurements and comparisons is of high importance for further applications of the data.

  13. Aeroelastic instability problems for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the aeroelostic instabilities that have occurred and may still occur for modem commercial wind turbines: stall-induced vibrations for stall-turbines, and classical flutter for pitch-regulated turbines. A review of previous works is combined with derivations of analytical...... stiffness and chordwise position of the center of gravity along the blades are the main parameters for flutter. These instability characteristics are exemplified by aeroelastic stability analyses of different wind turbines. The review of each aeroelastic instability ends with a list of current research...... issues that represent unsolved aeroelostic instability problems for wind turbines. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  14. Small Wind Research Turbine: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Meadors, M.

    2005-10-01

    The Small Wind Research Turbine (SWRT) project was initiated to provide reliable test data for model validation of furling wind turbines and to help understand small wind turbine loads. This report will familiarize the user with the scope of the SWRT test and support the use of these data. In addition to describing all the testing details and results, the report presents an analysis of the test data and compares the SWRT test data to simulation results from the FAST aeroelastic simulation model.

  15. Database on wind characteristics - Analyses of wind turbine design loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    the design load cases with relevance for to wind turbine structures. The present report constitutes thesecond part of the Annex XVII reporting. Both fatigue and extreme load aspects are dealt with, however, with the main emphasis on the latter. The work has been supported by The Ministry of Environment...... and Energy, Danish Energy Agency, The NetherlandsAgency for Energy and the Environment (NOVEM), The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE), The Swedish National Energy Administration (STEM) and The Government of the United States of America....

  16. Aeroelastic Optimization of MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Zahle, Frederik

    This report contains the results from the Energy Development and Demonstration Project “Aeroelastic Optimization of MW wind turbine” (AeroOpt). The project has had the following five Work Packages: 1. Geometric non-linear, anisotropic beamelement forHAWC2 2. Closed-loop eigenvalue analysis...... of controlled wind turbines 3. Resonant wave excitation of lateral tower bending modes 4. Development of next generation aerodynamic design tools 5. Advanced design and verification of airfoils The purposes of these Work Packages are briefly described in the Preface and a summary of the results are given...

  17. Modelling and Measuring Flow and Wind Turbine Wakes in Large Wind Farms Offshore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs

    2009-01-01

    power losses due to wakes and loads. The research presented is part of the EC-funded UpWind project, which aims to radically improve wind turbine and wind farm models in order to continue to improve the costs of wind energy. Reducing wake losses, or even reduce uncertainties in predicting power losses...

  18. IEA Wind Task 37: Systems Modeling Framework and Ontology for Wind Turbines and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zahle, Frederik [Technical University of Denmark; Merz, Karl [SINTEF Energy Research; McWilliam, Mike [Technical University of Denmark; Bortolotti, Pietro [Technical University Munich

    2017-08-14

    This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the development of a system modeling framework and ontology for wind turbines and plants as part of the larger IEA Wind Task 37 on wind energy systems engineering. The goals of the effort are to create a set of guidelines for a common conceptual architecture for wind turbines and plants so that practitioners can more easily share descriptions of wind turbines and plants across multiple parties and reduce the effort for translating descriptions between models; integrate different models together and collaborate on model development; and translate models among different levels of fidelity in the system.

  19. A Review of the State of the Art of Power Electronics for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Guerrero, Josep M.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    are summarized and the possible uses of power electronic converters with wind farms are shown. Finally, the possible methods of using the power electronic technology for improving wind turbine performance in power systems to meet the main grid connection requirements are discussed.......This paper reviews the power electronic applications for wind energy systems. Various wind turbine systems with different generators and power electronic converters are described, and different technical features are compared. The electrical topologies of wind farms with different wind turbines...

  20. Design of airborne wind turbine and computational fluid dynamics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbreen, Faiqa

    Wind energy is a promising alternative to the depleting non-renewable sources. The height of the wind turbines becomes a constraint to their efficiency. Airborne wind turbine can reach much higher altitudes and produce higher power due to high wind velocity and energy density. The focus of this thesis is to design a shrouded airborne wind turbine, capable to generate 70 kW to propel a leisure boat with a capacity of 8-10 passengers. The idea of designing an airborne turbine is to take the advantage of higher velocities in the atmosphere. The Solidworks model has been analyzed numerically using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software StarCCM+. The Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Simulation (URANS) with K-epsilon turbulence model has been selected, to study the physical properties of the flow, with emphasis on the performance of the turbine and the increase in air velocity at the throat. The analysis has been done using two ambient velocities of 12 m/s and 6 m/s. At 12 m/s inlet velocity, the velocity of air at the turbine has been recorded as 16 m/s. The power generated by the turbine is 61 kW. At inlet velocity of 6 m/s, the velocity of air at turbine increased to 10 m/s. The power generated by turbine is 25 kW.

  1. Advanced Load Alleviation for Wind Turbines using Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps: Sensoring and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bjørn

    The purpose of wind turbines and their predecessors the windmill, is to convert the energy in the wind to usable energy forms. Whereas windmills of the past focused on the conversion of wind power to torque for grinding, pumping and winching, modern wind turbines convert the wind energy...... into electric power. They do so through incorporation of generators, which convert mechanical torque into electricity. Wind turbines are designed to keep the overall cost per produced Kilo Watt hour as low as possible. One way of improving the performance and lifetime of the wind turbine is through active flow...

  2. Advanced Wind Turbine Program Next Generation Turbine Development Project: June 17, 1997--April 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GE Wind Energy, LLC

    2006-05-01

    This document reports the technical results of the Next Generation Turbine Development Project conducted by GE Wind Energy LLC. This project is jointly funded by GE and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory.The goal of this project is for DOE to assist the U.S. wind industry in exploring new concepts and applications of cutting-edge technology in pursuit of the specific objective of developing a wind turbine that can generate electricity at a levelized cost of energy of $0.025/kWh at sites with an average wind speed of 15 mph (at 10 m height).

  3. Grid support capabilities of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalke, Gabriele; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Wind power has gained a significant penetration level in several power systems all over the world. Due to this reason modern wind turbines are requested to contribute to power system support. Power system operators have thus introduced grid codes, which specify a set of requirements for wind...... turbines, such as fault ride-through and reactive power supply during voltage sags. To date different wind turbine concepts exist on the market comprising different control features in order to provide ancillary services to the power system. In the first place the present chapter emphasizes the most...... important issues related to wind power grid integration. Then different wind turbine concepts are characterized and their grid support capabilities are analysed and compared. Simulation cases are presented in which the respective wind turbine concepts are subjected to a voltage dip specified in a grid code....

  4. A Comparative Assessment of Wind Turbine Innovation and Diffusion Policies. Historical Case Studies of Energy Technology Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neij, Lena; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2012-01-01

    Wind turbines have become a mainstream technology, a first choice for many when investing in new electricity generation facilities. This comparative case study addresses how governmental policy has been formulated to support the wind turbine innovation and diffusion process. Three innovation stages...... and corresponding innovation strategies are identified. The first stage is the early movers of the 1970s and early 1980s, including pioneer countries such as Denmark, the United States, Germany, and the Netherlands. The second stage is the booming markets of the 1990s, guided by the successful Danish innovation...

  5. Wind speed reductions by large-scale wind turbine deployments lower turbine efficiencies and set low wind power potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lee; Kleidon, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Wind turbines generate electricity by removing kinetic energy from the atmosphere. Large numbers of wind turbines are likely to reduce wind speeds, which lowers estimates of electricity generation from what would be presumed from unaffected conditions. Here, we test how well wind power potentials that account for this effect can be estimated without explicitly simulating atmospheric dynamics. We first use simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) that explicitly simulates the effects of wind turbines to derive wind power limits (GCM estimate), and compare them to a simple approach derived from the climatological conditions without turbines [vertical kinetic energy (VKE) estimate]. On land, we find strong agreement between the VKE and GCM estimates with respect to electricity generation rates (0.32 and 0.37 We m-2) and wind speed reductions by 42 and 44%. Over ocean, the GCM estimate is about twice the VKE estimate (0.59 and 0.29 We m-2) and yet with comparable wind speed reductions (50 and 42%). We then show that this bias can be corrected by modifying the downward momentum flux to the surface. Thus, large-scale limits to wind power can be derived from climatological conditions without explicitly simulating atmospheric dynamics. Consistent with the GCM simulations, the approach estimates that only comparatively few land areas are suitable to generate more than 1 We m-2 of electricity and that larger deployment scales are likely to reduce the expected electricity generation rate of each turbine. We conclude that these atmospheric effects are relevant for planning the future expansion of wind power.

  6. Wind turbines in your environment? Wind turbines and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    The wind energy industry has demonstrated its maturity and technical reliability. Because it will play an increasing role on the power generation market, the question of the cost and profitability of the wind energy has become of prime importance. Two main traps must be avoided: the first should be to deny the present and future economical interest of wind energy because of its supplementary cost with respect to conventional power generation techniques. The second trap should be to underestimate the economical progresses that wind energy must carry on to ensure its large scale development. Therefore, some advantageous pricing and regulatory conditions are necessary to allow the development of this emerging energy source. This document presents: the cost of a wind power project (initial investment, financial incentives); the profitability of a project (cost of a kWh of wind power origin, retail price, warranty of power supply capacity, indirect environmental costs, value of decentralized production); economical interest of wind power (energy efficiency, employment, financial advantages for the local economy); and who are the investors. (J.S.)

  7. Capturing the journey of wind from the wind turbines (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbine design, control strategies often assume Taylor’s frozen turbulence where the fluctuating part of the wind is assumed to be constant. In practise, the wind turbine faces higher turbulence in case of gusts and lower turbulence in some cases. With Lidar technology, the frozen turbulence

  8. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  9. Matching of wind turbine type and system scale to wind conditions; Chiten no fukyo ni taisuru furyoku turbine no keitai to sytem taikaku no seigosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, T. [Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Y. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Ota, E. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Hashizume, T.

    2000-09-25

    The matching of the wind turbine type and system scale of the stand-alone wind turbine generator system to wind conditions is investigated using our dynamic simulation model. This paper examines three types of wind turbines: the Darrieus-Savonius hybrid wind turbine, the Darrieus turbine proper and the up-wind Propeller turbine. These systems are mainly operated at a constant tip speed ratio, which refers to a maximum power coefficient. As a computed result of the net extracting energy under fluctuations of wind speed and direction, the Darrieus turbine proper has little conformability to wind fluctuations because of its output characteristics. As for other wind turbines, large-scale systems do not always have advantages over small-scale systems as the effect of the dynamic characteristics. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the net extracting power of the Propeller turbine under wind direction fluctuations is much reduced when compared with that of the hybrid wind turbine. Thus, it is concluded that the appropriate wind turbine type and system scale exist for each wind condition. (author)

  10. Aeroelastic optimization of MW wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartvig Hansen, M.; Zahle, F.

    2011-12-15

    This report contains the results from the Energy Development and Demonstration Project ''Aeroelastic Optimization of MW wind turbine'' (AeroOpt). The project has had the following five Work Packages: 1. Geometric non-linear, anisotropic beam element for HAWC2. 2. Closed-loop eigenvalue analysis of controlled wind turbines. 3. Resonant wave excitation of lateral tower bending modes. 4. Development of next generation aerodynamic design tools. 5. Advanced design and verification of airfoils. The purposes of these Work Packages are briefly described in the Preface and a summary of the results are given in Section 2. Thereafter, the results from each Work Package are described in eight subsequent chapters. (Author)

  11. InfraSound from wind turbines : observations from Castle River wind farm. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edworthy, J.; Hepburn, H.

    2005-01-01

    Although infrasound has been discussed as a concern by groups opposed to wind farm facilities, there is very little information available about infrasound and wind turbines. This paper presented details of a project conducted by VisionQuest, the largest wind power producer in Canada. Three sensor types were used: precision sound analyzer, seismic geophones, and calibrated microphones to take measurements in low, medium and high winds. The project also measured infrasound when the wind farm was not operating. Acquisition geometry was presented, as well as details of apparent attenuations of wind noise. It was noted that high wind noise was a dominant factor and that there was little difference when the wind farm was not operational. It was suggested that turbines have no impact with high wind, since wind noise is not attenuated with distance. It was noted that increased geophone amplitudes indicate high wind coupled motion which is attenuated when the turbines are on. Results indicate that all frequencies showed attenuation with distance. Evidence showed that low frequency sound pressure levels were often lower when the turbines were switched on. Where turbines contributed to sound pressure levels, the magnitude of the contribution was below levels of concern to human health. Ambient sound pressure levels were much higher than contributions from wind turbines. It was concluded that wind itself generates infrasound. Wind turbines generate low levels of infrasound, detectable very close to facilities at low to medium wind speeds. Wind turbines may reduce ambient infrasound levels at high wind speeds by converting the energy from the wind into electricity. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Genetic Algorithms in Wind Turbine Airfoil Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Bizzarrini, N.; Coiro, D.P. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Napoli ' Federico II' , Napoli (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    One key element in the aerodynamic design of wind turbines is the use of specially tailored airfoils to increase the ratio of energy capture to the loading and thereby to reduce cost of energy. This work is focused on the design of a wind turbine airfoil by using numerical optimization. Firstly, the optimization approach is presented; a genetic algorithm is used, coupled with RFOIL solver and a composite Bezier geometrical parameterization. A particularly sensitive point is the choice and implementation of constraints; in order to formalize in the most complete and effective way the design requirements, the effects of activating specific constraints are discussed. A numerical example regarding the design of a high efficiency airfoil for the outer part of a blade by using genetic algorithms is illustrated and the results are compared with existing wind turbine airfoils. Finally a new hybrid design strategy is illustrated and discussed, in which the genetic algorithms are used at the beginning of the design process to explore a wide domain. Then, the gradient based algorithms are used in order to improve the first stage optimum.

  13. Dissipation of Turbulence in the Wake of a Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Bariteau, L.

    2015-02-01

    The wake of a wind turbine is characterized by increased turbulence and decreased wind speed. Turbines are generally deployed in large groups in wind farms, and so the behaviour of an individual wake as it merges with other wakes and propagates downwind is critical in assessing wind-farm power production. This evolution depends on the rate of turbulence dissipation in the wind-turbine wake, which has not been previously quantified in field-scale measurements. In situ measurements of winds and turbulence dissipation from the wake region of a multi-MW turbine were collected using a tethered lifting system (TLS) carrying a payload of high-rate turbulence probes. Ambient flow measurements were provided from sonic anemometers on a meteorological tower located near the turbine. Good agreement between the tower measurements and the TLS measurements was established for a case without a wind-turbine wake. When an operating wind turbine is located between the tower and the TLS so that the wake propagates to the TLS, the TLS measures dissipation rates one to two orders of magnitude higher in the wake than outside of the wake. These data, collected between two and three rotor diameters downwind of the turbine, document the significant enhancement of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate within the wind-turbine wake. These wake measurements suggest that it may be useful to pursue modelling approaches that account for enhanced dissipation. Comparisons of wake and non-wake dissipation rates to mean wind speed, wind-speed variance, and turbulence intensity are presented to facilitate the inclusion of these measurements in wake modelling schemes.

  14. Noise annoyance from wind turbines a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Eja

    2003-08-01

    This study summarises present knowledge on noise perception and annoyances from wind turbines in areas were people live or spend recreation time. There are two main types of noise from a wind turbine: mechanical noise and aerodynamic noise. The aerodynamic noise emits from the rotor blades passing the air. It has a swishing character with a modulation that makes it noticeable from the background noise. This part of the wind turbine noise was found to be the most annoying. Field studies performed among people living in the vicinity of wind turbines showed that there was a correlation between sound pressure level and noise annoyance, but annoyance was also influenced by visual factors such as the attitude to wind turbines' impact on the landscape. Noise annoyance was found at lower sound pressure levels than in studies of annoyance from traffic noise. There is no scientific evidence that noise at levels created by wind turbines could cause health problems other than annoyance. No studies on noise from wind turbines in wilderness areas have been found, but the reaction to other noise sources such as aircraft have been studied. In recreational areas, the expectation of quietness is high among visitors, but wind turbines are, in contrary to aircraft, stationary and could be avoided by recreationists. The visual impact of wind turbines might though be the dominant source of annoyance. Regulations on noise from wind turbines are based on different principles. Some states, e.g. Denmark, have a special legislation concerning wind turbines, while others, like Sweden, have used recommendations originally developed for a different noise source. The noise level could either be absolute, as in Germany, or related to the background noise level as in France. This background noise level could be standardised, measured or related to wind speed

  15. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn; Nelson, Vaughn

    2009-01-01

    Due to the mounting demand for energy and increasing population of the world, switching from nonrenewable fossil fuels to other energy sources is not an option-it is a necessity. Focusing on a cost-effective option for the generation of electricity, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment covers all facets of wind energy and wind turbines. The book begins by outlining the history of wind energy, before providing reasons to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy. After examining the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, and turbulence, it discusses the measur

  16. Aerodynamic Optimization of a Wind Turbine Blade Designed for Egypt's Saharan Environment Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Yassin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to optimize the aerodynamic parameters (airfoil chord lengths and twist angles smoothed using Bezier curves of the NREL 5MW wind turbine and a wind turbine designed for site-specific wind conditions to increase the wind turbine's annual energy production (AEP under this site conditions. This optimization process is carried out using a Genetic Algorithm (GA developed in MATLAB and coupled with NREL's FAST Modularization Framework. The results shows that after optimizing the NREL 5MW wind turbine design, the AEP was improved by 5.9% of the baseline design AEP while a site-specific designed wind turbine using Schmitz equations shows 1.2% improvement in AEP. These results shows that optimization of wind turbine blade aerodynamic parameters for site-specific wind conditions leads to improvement in AEP and hence decreasing cost of energy generated by wind turbines.

  17. Characterization of wind velocities in the wake of a full scale wind turbine using three ground-based synchronized WindScanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazicioglu, Hasan; Angelou, Nikolas; Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh

    2016-01-01

    The wind energy community is in need of detailed full-field measurements in the wake of wind turbines. Here, three dimensional(3D) wind vector field measurements obtained in the near-wake region behind a full-scale test turbine are presented. Specifically, the wake of a NEG Nordtank turbine...

  18. Environmental impact of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative...... ways. For example, some farms are safe havens for porpoises while other farms show fewer harbor porpoises even after ten years. Atmospheric computer experiments are carried out to investigate the possible impact and resource of future massive installations of wind turbines. The following questions...... are treated. What is the global capacity for energy production by the wind? Will the added turbulence and reduced wind speeds generated by massive wind farms cool or heat the surface? Can wind farms affect precipitation? It is also shown through life-cycle analysis how wind energy can reduce the atmospheric...

  19. Some aspects on wind turbines monitoring. General considerations and loads on horizontal wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuerva, A.

    1996-01-01

    The concept Monitoring applied to the Wind Energy technology is similar to the definition used in other branches of Science or Engineering, this is knowing values of variables which have to do with a mechanic system, in our case a wind turbine. These mentioned parameters may have different relationships to our wind turbine; some of them come from the environment the machine is operating in, others, are a measure of how properly the machine is working, and finally, the rest are an assessment of the systems health during its life. In this chapter we will answer questions such as: What do we need to measure? Why is Monitoring mandatory (from the different points of view of people involved in this world)? How can we measure a wind turbine depending on our objectives (Technic, tools, guidance, recommendations, etc.)? And finally What can we expect in the near future? The author wants the reader to keep the idea in mind that Monitoring means the richest and most accurate knowledge on wind turbine's operation (Its environment, performances or health). This is the first step that allows us to optimize the operation mode of the machine and improve it (design, manufacturing, even the used modeling tools). When there is so much money involved, this fact becomes a must. (Author)

  20. Wind turbine optimal control during storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrović, V; Bottasso, C L

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a control algorithm that enables wind turbine operation in high winds. With this objective, an online optimization procedure is formulated that, based on the wind turbine state, estimates those extremal wind speed variations that would produce maximal allowable wind turbine loads. Optimization results are compared to the actual wind speed and, if there is a danger of excessive loading, the wind turbine power reference is adjusted to ensure that loads stay within allowed limits. This way, the machine can operate safely even above the cut-out wind speed, thereby realizing a soft envelope-protecting cut-out. The proposed control strategy is tested and verified using a high-fidelity aeroservoelastic simulation model

  1. Wind energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesto, E.

    1992-02-01

    Interest in wind energy as a supplementary source for the production of electricity has recently gained renewed momentum due to widespread concern about environmental impacts from the large scale use of fossil fuels and nuclear energy. In addition, political unrest in the Middle East has drawn attention to the importance of national energy self-sufficiency. European government administrations, however, have not yet fully appreciated the real worth of the 'clean energy' afforded by wind energy. In this regard, the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) is acting as a strong voice to inform the public and energy planners by stimulating international wind energy R ampersand D cooperation, and organizing conferences to explain the advantages of wind energy. In October 1991, EWEA published a strategy document giving a picture of the real possibilities offered by wind energy within the geographical, social, and European economic context. This paper provides an overview of the more significant features to emerge from this document which represents a useful guideline for wind power plant technical/economic feasibility studies in that it contains brief notes on resource availability, land requirements, visual and acoustic impacts, turbine sizing, performance, interconnection to utility grids, maintenance and operating costs, safety, as well as, on marketing aspects

  2. Illustration of Modern Wind Turbine Ancillary Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaris, Ioannis D.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2010-01-01

    Increasing levels of wind power penetration in modern power systems has set intensively high standards with respect to wind turbine technology during the last years. Security issues have become rather critical and operation of wind farms as conventional power plants is becoming a necessity as wind...... turbines replace conventional units on the production side. This article includes a review of the basic control issues regarding the capability of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind turbine configuration to fulfill the basic technical requirements set by the system operators and contribute...

  3. Structured Linear Parameter Varying Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Sloth, Christoffer; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    High performance and reliability are required for wind turbines to be competitive within the energy market. To capture their nonlinear behavior, wind turbines are often modeled using parameter-varying models. In this chapter, a framework for modelling and controller design of wind turbines is pre...... in the controller synthesis are solved by an iterative LMI-based algorithm. The resulting controllers can also be easily implemented in practice due to low data storage and simple math operations. The performance of the LPV controllers is assessed by nonlinear simulations results....

  4. Analysis and design of a vertical axis wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Goyena Iriso, Joseba

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to design a new vertical axis wind turbine, specifically one Giromill wind turbine. The project development requires performing a previous study of the vertical axis wind turbines currently development. This study has to be performed before starting to design the wind turbine. Other very important aim is the development of a new vertical axis wind turbine. The after analyses that will result in the final design of the wind turbine will b...

  5. Operating wind turbines in strong wind conditions by using feedforward-feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing penetration of wind energy into power systems, it becomes critical to reduce the impact of wind energy on the stability and reliability of the overall power system. In precedent works, Shen and his co-workers developed a re-designed operation schema to run wind turbines in s...

  6. Spatial planning of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes guidelines for spatial planning for wind power, based on experience with spatial planning in Belgium, Denmark, France and the Netherlands. In addition experiences from Germany and Ireland have been used. This guidelines quotes all decisive criteria for successful implementation of wind energy: landscape integration, stakeholders involvement, noise and distance from buildings. (author)

  7. 3D-PTV around Operational Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Ian; Dabiri, John

    2016-11-01

    Laboratory studies and numerical simulations of wind turbines are typically constrained in how they can inform operational turbine behavior. Laboratory experiments are usually unable to match both pertinent parameters of full-scale wind turbines, the Reynolds number (Re) and tip speed ratio, using scaled-down models. Additionally, numerical simulations of the flow around wind turbines are constrained by the large domain size and high Re that need to be simulated. When these simulations are preformed, turbine geometry is typically simplified resulting in flow structures near the rotor not being well resolved. In order to bypass these limitations, a quantitative flow visualization method was developed to take in situ measurements of the flow around wind turbines at the Field Laboratory for Optimized Wind Energy (FLOWE) in Lancaster, CA. The apparatus constructed was able to seed an approximately 9m x 9m x 5m volume in the wake of the turbine using artificial snow. Quantitative measurements were obtained by tracking the evolution of the artificial snow using a four camera setup. The methodology for calibrating and collecting data, as well as preliminary results detailing the flow around a 2kW vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT), will be presented.

  8. Online wind turbine measurement laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.S.; Helgesen Pedersen, K.O.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.

    2006-01-01

    conditions, 3) electrical quantities and 4) mechanical loads in terms of strain gauge signals. The data acquisition system has been designed and implemented by Risø together with students and teachers from DTU. It is based on LabVIEW© combined with a MySQL database for data management. The system enables...... calculations and extreme loads estimation in basic wind turbine courses. Power quality analysis is carried out based on high speed sampled, three-phase voltage and current signals. The wide spectrum of sensors enables a detailed study of the correlation between meteorological, mechanical and electrical...

  9. Noise immission from wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report is in itself a Summary of the entire NIWT project, JOR3-CT95-0065, which consisted of a jointly EC funded collaboration between nine European partners in six Countries which ran between January 1996 and December 1997. The primary aims of the project were to investigate a number of aspects associated with more precisely quantifying the uncertainties associated with the Measurement of Acoustic Noise Immission of wind turbines. The main findings of the report are contained in the technical reports issued by partners on individual tasks. Copies of individual reports can be obtained directly from the participating partners. (author)

  10. Seaside, mountain and... wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossement, A.

    2011-01-01

    Several courts have given a ruling considering that the law 'Montagne' (January 9., 1985) and the law 'Littoral' (January 3., 1986) are opposable to the building license of wind turbines. The law 'Littoral' imposes that any new construction in seaside areas has to be built in continuity of existing villages or hamlets. The law 'Montagne' imposes similar constraints to avoid the construction of isolated buildings in mountain areas but, contrary to the law 'Littoral', it allows some impairment for instance for the construction of certain public equipment. (A.C.)

  11. Large superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Magnusson, Niklas; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2012-01-01

    and the rotation speed is lowered in order to limit the tip speed of the blades. The ability of superconducting materials to carry high current densities with very small losses might facilitate a new class of generators operating with an air gap flux density considerably higher than conventional generators...... and thereby having a smaller size and weight [1, 2]. A 5 MW superconducting wind turbine generator forms the basics for the feasibility considerations, particularly for the YBCO and MgB2 superconductors entering the commercial market. Initial results indicate that a 5 MW generator with an active weight of 34...

  12. Wind Turbine Generator System Power Performance Test Report for the ARE442 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.; Jager, D.

    2010-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the ARE 442 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines, IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.1.0, 2005-12. However, because the ARE 442 is a small turbine as defined by IEC, NREL also followed Annex H that applies to small wind turbines. In these summary results, wind speed is normalized to sea-level air density.

  13. Orthogonal Analysis Based Performance Optimization for Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometrical shape of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT is composed of multiple structural parameters. Since there are interactions among the structural parameters, traditional research approaches, which usually focus on one parameter at a time, cannot obtain performance of the wind turbine accurately. In order to exploit overall effect of a novel VAWT, we firstly use a single parameter optimization method to obtain optimal values of the structural parameters, respectively, by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD method; based on the results, we then use an orthogonal analysis method to investigate the influence of interactions of the structural parameters on performance of the wind turbine and to obtain optimization combination of the structural parameters considering the interactions. Results of analysis of variance indicate that interactions among the structural parameters have influence on performance of the wind turbine, and optimization results based on orthogonal analysis have higher wind energy utilization than that of traditional research approaches.

  14. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    generation unit, are becoming crucial in the wind turbine system. The objective of this project is to study the power electronics technology used for the next generation wind turbines. Some emerging challenges as well as potentials like the cost of energy and reliability are going to be addressed. First...... conversion is pushed to multi-MW level with high power density requirement. It has also been revealed that thermal stress in the power semiconductors is closely related to many determining factors in the wind power application like the reliability, cost, power density, etc. therefore it is an important......The wind power generation has been steadily growing both for the total installed capacity and for the individual turbine size. Due to much more significant impacts to the power grid, the power electronics, which can change the behavior of wind turbines from an unregulated power source to an active...

  15. Gone with the wind? The impact of wind turbines on tourism demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekel, Tom; Alfken, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    While wind energy production is relatively free from environmental externalities such as air pollution, it is frequently considered to negatively impact landscapes' visual aesthetic values, thereby inducing negative effects on tourism demand. Existing evidence for Germany indeed points towards a negative relationship between tourism demand and wind turbine construction. However, the existing studies primarily rely on interview data and simple bivariate statistics. In contrast, we make use of secondary statistics on tourism and wind turbine locations at the level of German municipalities. Using spatial panel regression techniques, we confirm a negative relation between wind turbines around municipalities and tourism demand for municipalities not located near the coast. In the latter regions, the relation between wind turbines and tourism demand is more complex. - Highlights: • Comprehensive quantitative empirical study on wind turbines and tourism demand. • Consideration of wind turbines in vacation municipalities and in their geographic surroundings. • Novel data set on wind turbines and touristic demand in all German municipalities. • Application of spatial panel analysis in the context of tourism research. • Evidence for a negative relationship between wind turbines and tourism demand.

  16. Detection of Wind Turbine Power Performance Abnormalities Using Eigenvalue Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Sweeney, Christian Walsted; Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi

    2014-01-01

    Condition monitoring of wind turbines is a field of continu- ous research and development as new turbine configurations enter into the market and new failure modes appear. Systems utilising well established techniques from the energy and in- dustry sector, such as vibration analysis...

  17. The wind energy takes off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapin, M.; Degobert, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    After having evoked the objectives defined for wind energy production by 2050, the important growth of wind energy in Europe and in other parts of the world, and its importance in terms of business and jobs, this article presents the Denmark model where the wind energy industry is a world leader but now faces the need of a new development model. It comments the investments and incentives implemented in Western countries after the first oil crisis. It outlines the increasing power of wind generators and their technological evolution, the development of offshore wind farms and their cost, and finally the intermittency problem and the case of small wind turbines

  18. Impact of wind turbine noise in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Edwin; Jabben, Jan; Schreurs, Eric; Smith, Kevin B

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch government aims at an increase of wind energy up to 6 000 MW in 2020 by placing new wind turbines on land or offshore. At the same time, the existing noise legislation for wind turbines is being reconsidered. For the purpose of establishing a new noise reception limit value expressed in L den , the impact of wind turbine noise under the given policy targets needs to be explored. For this purpose, the consequences of different reception limit values for the new Dutch noise legislation have been studied, both in terms of effects on the population and regarding sustainable energy policy targets. On the basis of a nation-wide noise map containing all wind turbines in The Netherlands, it is calculated that 3% of the inhabitants of The Netherlands are currently exposed to noise from wind turbines above 28 dB(A) at the faηade. Newly established dose-response relationships indicate that about 1500 of these inhabitants are likely to be severely annoyed inside their dwellings. The available space for new wind turbines strongly depends on the noise limit value that will be chosen. This study suggests an outdoor A-weighted reception limit of L den = 45 dB as a trade-off between the need for protection against noise annoyance and the feasibility of national targets for renewable energy.

  19. Iterative data-driven load control for flexible wind turbine rotors

    OpenAIRE

    Navalkar, S.T.

    2016-01-01

    Wind energy has reached a high degree ofmaturity: for wind-rich onshore locations, it is already competitive with conventional energy sources. However, for low-wind, remote and offshore regions, research efforts are still required to enhance its economic viability. While it is possible to reduce the cost of energy by upscaling wind turbines, it is believed that we may be approaching a plateau in turbine size. Beyond this plateau, the material costs associated with the high dynamic turbine loa...

  20. Habitat use of bats in relation to wind turbines revealed by GPS tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Roeleke; Torsten Blohm; Stephanie Kramer-Schadt; Yossi Yovel; Christian C. Voigt

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, many countries aim at countering global climate change by promoting renewable energy. Yet, recent studies highlight that so-called green energy, such as wind energy, may come at environmental costs, for example when wind turbines kill birds and bats. Using miniaturized GPS loggers, we studied how an open-space foraging bat with high collision risk with wind turbines, the common noctule Nyctalus noctula (Schreber, 1774), interacts with wind turbines. We compared actual flight trajec...

  1. Microprocessor control of a wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnecco, A. J.; Whitehead, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a microprocessor based system used to control the unattended operation of a wind turbine generator. The turbine and its microcomputer system are fully described with special emphasis on the wide variety of tasks performed by the microprocessor for the safe and efficient operation of the turbine. The flexibility, cost and reliability of the microprocessor were major factors in its selection.

  2. Electrical components library for HAWC2; Wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutululis, N.A.; Larsen, Torben J.; Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D. (Risoe National Lab., DTU, Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (DK)); Iov, F. (Aalborg Univ., Institute of Energy Technology (DK))

    2007-12-15

    The work presented in this report is part of the EFP project called ''A Simulation Platform to Model, Optimize and Design Wind Turbines'' partly funded by the Danish Energy Authority under contract number 1363/04-0008. The project is carried out in cooperation between Risoe National Laboratory and Aalborg University. In this project, the focus is on the development of a simulation platform for wind turbine systems using different simulation tools. This report presents the electric component library developed for use in the aeroelastic code HAWC2. The developed library includes both steady state and dynamical models for fixed and variable speed wind turbines. A simple steady-state slip model was developed for the fixed speed wind turbine. This model is suitable for aeroelastic design of wind turbines under normal operation. A dynamic model of an induction generator for the fixed speed wind turbine was developed. The model includes the dynamics of the rotor fluxes. The model is suitable for a more detailed investigation of the mechanical-electrical interaction, both under normal and fault operation. For the variable speed wind turbine, a steadystate model, typically used in aeroelastic design, was implemented. The model can be used for normal and, to some extent, for fault operation. The reduced order dynamic model of a DFIG was implemented. The model includes only the active power controller and can be used for normal operation conditions. (au)

  3. Experiences and results from Elkraft 1 MW wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raben, N; Jensen, F V [SEAS Distribution A.m.b.A., Wind Power Dept., Haslev (Denmark); Oeye, S [DTU, Inst. for Energiteknik, Lyngby (Denmark); Markkilde Petersen, S; Antoniou, I [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The Elkraft 1 MW Demonstration wind turbine was at the time of installation in 1993 the largest stall controlled wind turbine in the world. It was constructed to allow accurate comparison of two different forms of operation: pitch control and stall control. A comprehensive programme for the investigation of the two operation modes was established. This paper presents the main experiences from five years of operation and measurements. For a three-year period the wind turbine was in operation in stall controlled mode. During this period the turbine faced problems of various significance. Especially lightning strikes and unusually poor wind conditions caused delays of the project. In early 1997, the wind turbine was modified to enable pitch controlled operation. The gearbox ratio was changed in order to allow higher rotor speed, the hydraulic system was altered and new control software was installed. Tests were carried out successfully during the spring of 1997 and the wind turbine has since been operating as a pitch controlled wind turbine. The most significant events and problems are presented and commented in this paper along with results from the measurement programme. The results cover both stall and pitch controlled operation and include power curves, annual energy production, structural loads, fatigue loads etc. (au) 10 refs.

  4. A Comparison on the Dynamics of a Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine on Three Different Floating Support Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, Michael; Collu, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    To increase the competitiveness of offshore wind energy in the global energy market, it is necessary to identify optimal offshore wind turbine configurations to deliver the lowest cost of energy. For deep waters where floating wind turbines are the feasible support structure option, the vertical axis wind turbine concept might prove to be one of these optimal configurations. This paper carries out a preliminary investigation into the dynamics of a vertical axis wind turbine coupled with three...

  5. Design Mining Interacting Wind Turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preen, Richard J; Bull, Larry

    2016-01-01

    An initial study has recently been presented of surrogate-assisted evolutionary algorithms used to design vertical-axis wind turbines wherein candidate prototypes are evaluated under fan-generated wind conditions after being physically instantiated by a 3D printer. Unlike other approaches, such as computational fluid dynamics simulations, no mathematical formulations were used and no model assumptions were made. This paper extends that work by exploring alternative surrogate modelling and evolutionary techniques. The accuracy of various modelling algorithms used to estimate the fitness of evaluated individuals from the initial experiments is compared. The effect of temporally windowing surrogate model training samples is explored. A surrogate-assisted approach based on an enhanced local search is introduced; and alternative coevolution collaboration schemes are examined.

  6. Assessment of C-Type Darrieus Wind Turbine Under Low Wind Speed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaran, M. S.; Rahman, Md. M.; Muzammil, W. K.; Ismail, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    Harvesting wind energy in in a low wind speed region is deem un-economical if not daunting task. Study shows that a minimum cut in speed of 3.5 m/s is required to extract a meaningful wind energy for electricity while a mean speed of 6 m/s is preferred. However, in Malaysia the mean speed is at 2 m/s with certain potential areas having 3 m/s mean speed. Thus, this work aims to develop a wind turbine that able to operate at lower cut-in speed and produce meaningful power for electricity generation. A C-type Darrieus blade is selected as it shows good potential to operate in arbitrary wind speed condition. The wind turbine is designed and fabricated in UMS labs while the performance of the wind turbine is evaluated in a simulated wind condition. Test result shows that the wind turbine started to rotate at 1 m/s compared to a NACA 0012 Darrieus turbine that started to rotate at 3 m/s. The performance of the turbine shows that it have good potential to be used in an intermittent arbitrary wind speed condition as well as low mean wind speed condition.

  7. A wind-tunnel investigation of wind-turbine wakes in different yawed and loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastankhah, Majid; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Wind-turbine wakes have negative effects on wind-farm performance. They are associated with: (a) the velocity deficit, which reduces the generated power of downwind turbines; and (b) the turbulence level, which increases the fatigue loads on downwind turbines. Controlling the yaw angle of turbines can potentially improve the performance of wind farms by deflecting the wake away from downwind turbines. However, except for few studies, wakes of yawed turbines still suffer from the lack of systematic research. To fill this research gap, we performed wind-tunnel experiments in the recirculating boundary-layer wind tunnel at the WIRE Laboratory of EPFL to better understand the wakes of yawed turbines. High-resolution stereoscopic particle image-velocimetry (S-PIV) was used to measure three velocity components in a horizontal plane located downwind of a horizontal-axis, three-blade model turbine. A servo-controller was connected to the DC generator of the turbine, which allowed us to apply different loadings. The power and thrust coefficients of the turbine were also measured for each case. These power and thrust measurements together with the highly-resolved flow measurements enabled us to study different wake characteristics such as the energy entrainment from the outer flow into the wake, the wake deflection and the helicoidal tip vortices for yawed turbines.

  8. When wind turbines go to the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.

    2010-01-01

    Land wind turbines are not designed to operate in the open seas. In order to enhance their reliability, facilitate their maintenance and increase their power, existing technologies are adapted to the offshore constraints (direct drive for the blades, maintenance optimization, etc.) while innovating designs (such as vertical axis wind turbines, floating platforms, etc.) are presently tested. Several of these new concepts are described

  9. Tjæreborg Wind Turbine (Esbjerg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øye, Stig

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the first measured timeseries for the Tjæreborg (Tjaereborg) Wind Turbine during operation with stepwise pitch angle changes.......This paper presents the first measured timeseries for the Tjæreborg (Tjaereborg) Wind Turbine during operation with stepwise pitch angle changes....

  10. Advanced Wind Turbine Drivetrain Concepts. Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-12-01

    This report presents key findings from the Department of Energy’s Advanced Drivetrain Workshop, held on June 29-30, 2010, to assess different advanced drivetrain technologies, their relative potential to improve the state-of-the-art in wind turbine drivetrains, and the scope of research and development needed for their commercialization in wind turbine applications.

  11. Voltage Quality of Grid Connected Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Sun, Tao

    2004-01-01

    Grid connected wind turbines may cause quality problems, such as voltage variation and flicker. This paper discusses the voltage variation and flicker emission of grid connected wind turbines with doubly-fed induction generators. A method to compensate flicker by using a voltage source converter...

  12. Reliability-Based Optimization of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Tarp-Johansen, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    Reliability-based optimization of the main tower and monopile foundation of an offshore wind turbine is considered. Different formulations are considered of the objective function including benefits and building and failure costs of the wind turbine. Also different reconstruction policies in case...

  13. The Electromagnetic Impact of Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    Applied Project 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE ELECTROMAGNETIC IMPACT OF WIND TURBINES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Gregory Sasarita and Charles R...DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The objective of this project was to investigate the impact that a wind turbine can have on

  14. Wind Turbine Aerodynamics from an Aerospace Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Garrel, Arne; ten Pas, Sebastiaan; Venner, Cornelis H.; van Muijden, Jaap

    2018-01-01

    The current challenges in wind turbine aerodynamics simulations share a number of similarities with the challenges that the aerospace industry has faced in the past. Some of the current challenges in the aerospace aerodynamics community are also relevant for today’s wind turbine aerodynamics

  15. Iterative feedback tuning of wind turbine controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Solingen, E.; Mulders, S.P.; van Wingerden, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, wind turbine controllers are designed using first principles or linearized or identified models. The aim of this paper is to show that with an automated, online, and model-free tuning strategy, wind turbine control performance can be significantly increased. For this purpose,

  16. Dynamic Phase Compensation of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, P.; Skaarup, J.; Iov, Florin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic phase compensation unit for a wind turbine with directly connected induction generators. The compensation unit is based on thyristor switched capacitors, where conventional wind turbine compensations use mechanical contactors to switch the capacitors. The unit modules...

  17. Design evolution of large wind turbine generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    During the past five years, the goals of economy and reliability have led to a significant evolution in the basic design--both external and internal--of large wind turbine systems. To show the scope and nature of recent changes in wind turbine designs, development of three types are described: (1) system configuration developments; (2) computer code developments; and (3) blade technology developments.

  18. Wind Turbine Wake-Redirection Control at the Fishermen's Atlantic City Windfarm: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchfield, M.; Fleming, P.; Bulder, B.; White, S.

    2015-05-06

    In this paper, we will present our work towards designing a control strategy to mitigate wind turbine wake effects by redirecting the wakes, specifically applied to the Fishermen’s Atlantic City Windfarm (FACW), proposed for deployment off the shore of Atlantic City, New Jersey. As wind turbines extract energy from the air, they create low-speed wakes that extend behind them. Full wake recovery Full wake recovery to the undisturbed wind speed takes a significant distance. In a wind energy plant the wakes of upstream turbines may travel downstream to the next row of turbines, effectively subjecting them to lower wind speeds, meaning these waked turbines will produce less power.

  19. Power control for wind turbines in weak grids: Concepts development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    will make wind power more firm and possible to connect to weaker grids. So, when the concept is matured, theexpectation is that for certain wind power installations, the cost of the power control is paid back as added wind power capacity value and saved grid reinforcement costs. Different systems...... and analyze methods and technologies for making it viable to utilize more of the wind potential in remote areas. The suggestion is to develop a power control concept for wind turbines which will even out thepower fluctuations and make it possible to increase the wind energy penetration. The main options...... are to combine wind power with a pumped hydro power storage or with an AC/DC converter and battery storage. The AC/DC converter can either be an "add-on" typeor it can be designed as an integrated part of a variable speed wind turbine. The idea is that combining wind power with the power control concept...

  20. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in New Mexico, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James B.; Fancher, Tammy; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This dataset represents an update to U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 596. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in New Mexico, 2009 (available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/596/).This updated New Mexico wind turbine Data Series provides geospatial data for all 562 wind turbines established within the State of New Mexico as of June 2011, an increase of 155 wind turbines from 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, county, and development status of wind turbine. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, and year the facility went online. The locations of turbines are derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters. The locations of turbines constructed during or prior to August 2009 are based on August 2009 NAIP imagery and turbine locations constructed after August 2009 were based June 2011 NAIP imagery. The location of turbines under construction during June 2011 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (http://my.usgs.gov/eerma/). The Energy Atlas synthesizes data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and includes additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools also are included in the Energy Atlas. The format of the Energy

  1. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Fancher, Tammy; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This dataset represents an update to U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 597. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009 (available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/597/). This updated Colorado wind turbine Data Series provides geospatial data for all 1,204 wind turbines established within the State of Colorado as of September 2011, an increase of 297 wind turbines from 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, county, and development status of the wind turbine. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, and year the facility went online. The locations of turbines are derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters. Locations of turbines constructed during or prior to August 2009 are based on August 2009 NAIP imagery and turbine locations constructed after August 2009 were based on September 2011 NAIP imagery. The location of turbines under construction during September 2011 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (http://my.usgs.gov/eerma/). The Energy Atlas synthesizes data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and includes additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools also are included in the Energy Atlas. The format of

  2. Mechanical Loads Test Report for the U.S. Department of Energy 1.5-Megawatt Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rick [Santos Wind Engineering Technologies, Inc., Portland, ME (United States); van Dam, Jeroen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-16

    The objective of the test was to obtain a baseline characterization of the mechanical loads of the DOE 1.5 wind turbine located at NREL. The test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Specification, IEC 61400-13 Wind Turbine Generator Systems – Part 13: Measurement of mechanical loads; First Edition 2001-06 [1]. The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at NREL conducted this test in accordance with its quality system procedures so that the final test report meets the full requirements of its accreditation by the American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA). NREL’s quality system requires that all applicable requirements specified by A2LA and International Standards Organization/IEC 17025 be met or to note any exceptions in the test report.

  3. Introduction to wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H.-J.

    2017-07-01

    This article presents the basic concepts of wind energy and deals with the physics and mechanics of operation. It describes the conversion of wind energy into rotation of turbine, and the critical parameters governing the efficiency of this conversion. After that it presents an overview of various parts and components of windmills. The connection to the electrical grid, the world status of wind energy use for electricity production, the cost situation and research and development needs are further aspects which will be considered.

  4. Canadian wind energy program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templin, R J; South, P

    1976-01-01

    Several aspects of recent work at the National Research Council of Canada on the development of vertical-axis turbines have been reviewed. Most of this work, during the past year or more, has been in support of the design of a 200 kW unit now being built for experimental operation on the Magdelen Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Results of small and large scale aeroelastic wind tunnel model experiments have confirmed that very large scale vertical-axis wind turbines are feasible, especially if designed for normal operation at constant rotational speed. A computer model of a simple mixed power system has indicated that substantial cost savings may be possible by using wind energy in Canadian east coast regions. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Lightning protection system for a wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Daniel P [Chelsea, VT; Petter, Jeffrey K [Williston, VT

    2008-05-27

    In a wind turbine (104, 500, 704) having a plurality of blades (132, 404, 516, 744) and a blade rotor hub (120, 712), a lightning protection system (100, 504, 700) for conducting lightning strikes to any one of the blades and the region surrounding the blade hub along a path around the blade hub and critical components of the wind turbine, such as the generator (112, 716), gearbox (708) and main turbine bearings (176, 724).

  6. Wind Resource Assessment and Requested Wind Turbine Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ken [Municipal Civil Corporation, Gas City, IN (United States); Wolar, John [Municipal Civil Corporation, Gas City, IN (United States)

    2012-10-22

    Alternate Energy Solutions, Inc. (“AESWR”) was engaged by the Town of Brookston (“Brookston”) to assemble, erect and maintain one 60 m XHD meteorological tower manufactured by NRG Systems, Inc.; for monitoring, recording and evaluating collected wind data. It is the opinion of AESWR staff that study results support the development of a wind turbine project at the Bol Family Farm provided: a) additional land is leased for the project; b) project construction costs are controlled; and c) a prudent power purchase agreement is negotiated with a power take-off entity. We believe that a project having an aggregate nameplate rating sized from 6.0 MW to 20 MW would be appropriate for this location. We recommend 100-125 acres of land per installed MW be used as a general rule for acquiring wind energy land lease agreements, total land lease holdings to be acquired would then approach 750 acres to 2,500 acres.

  7. Effects of setting angle and chord length on performance of four blades bionic wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. X.; Li, G. S.; Song, L.; Bai, Y. F.

    2017-11-01

    With the energy crisis and the increasing environmental pollution, more and more efforts have been made about wind power development. In this paper, a four blades bionic wind turbine was proposed, and the outline of wind turbine was constructed by the fitted curve. This paper attempted to research the effects of setting angle and chord length on performance of four blades bionic wind turbine by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The results showed that the setting angle and chord length of the bionic wind turbine has some significant effects on the efficiency of the wind turbine, and within the range of wind speed from 7 m/s to 15 m/s, the wind turbine achieved maximum efficiency when the setting angle is 31 degree and the chord length is 125 mm. The conclusion will work as a guideline for the improvement of wind turbine design

  8. Small power wind turbine (Type DARRIEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel STERE

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This presentation focuses on the calculation for small vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT for an urban application. The fixed-pitch straight – bladed vertical axis wind turbine (SB-VAWT is one of the simplest types of wind turbine and accepts wind from any angle (no yaw system. This turbine is useful for moderate wind speeds (3 - 6 m/s. A case study is presented based upon the use of well documented symmetrical NACA 0012 turbine blade profile. We describe a solution for VAWT. To perform a linear static analysis in the structure, the commercial finite element analysis code ANSYS is used because of its flexibility for handling information in files written in a more or less free format.

  9. Prototype bucket foundation for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    The first full scale prototype bucket foundation for wind turbines has been installed in October 2002 at Aalborg University offshore test facility in Frederikshavn, Denmark. The suction caisson and the wind turbine have been equipped with an online monitoring system, consisting of 15 accelerometers...... and a real-time data-acquisition system. The report concerns the in service performance of the wind turbine, with focus on estimation of the natural frequencies of the structure/foundation. The natural frequencies are initially estimated by means of experimental Output-only Modal analysis. The experimental...... estimates are then compared with numerical simulations of the suction caisson foundation and the wind turbine. The numerical model consists of a finite element section for the wind turbine tower and nacelle. The soil-structure interaction of the soil-foundation section is modelled by lumped-parameter models...

  10. 'Wind turbine syndrome': fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farboud, A; Crunkhorn, R; Trinidade, A

    2013-03-01

    Symptoms, including tinnitus, ear pain and vertigo, have been reported following exposure to wind turbine noise. This review addresses the effects of infrasound and low frequency noise and questions the existence of 'wind turbine syndrome'. This review is based on a search for articles published within the last 10 years, conducted using the PubMed database and Google Scholar search engine, which included in their title or abstract the terms 'wind turbine', 'infrasound' or 'low frequency noise'. There is evidence that infrasound has a physiological effect on the ear. Until this effect is fully understood, it is impossible to conclude that wind turbine noise does not cause any of the symptoms described. However, many believe that these symptoms are related largely to the stress caused by unwanted noise exposure. There is some evidence of symptoms in patients exposed to wind turbine noise. The effects of infrasound require further investigation.

  11. Organizational forms promoting wind power development. Organizational and legal evaluation, energy- and environmental analysis and socio-economic analysis of wind turbine location along railways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    Modernization of the train material and transition from diesel-driven to el-driven trains result in reduced air pollution in Denmark. The purpose of this study is to define, concretize and compare organizational forms for use of wind power as the 'green' electric power for train operation. An investment into an wind turbine array with 500 kW wind turbines in roughness class 2 would be repaid in 7.9 year period. Air pollution abatement together with improved socio-economic structure due to growing employment would be achieved. Several models of 'green' electrification of the national railways are given, both for state- and privately owned wind power plants. (EG)

  12. Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Grossmann, Iris; Apt, Jay

    2012-02-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that if the United States is to generate 20% of its electricity from wind, over 50 GW will be required from shallow offshore turbines. Hurricanes are a potential risk to these turbines. Turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons, but no offshore wind turbines have yet been built in the United States. We present a probabilistic model to estimate the number of turbines that would be destroyed by hurricanes in an offshore wind farm. We apply this model to estimate the risk to offshore wind farms in four representative locations in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal waters of the United States. In the most vulnerable areas now being actively considered by developers, nearly half the turbines in a farm are likely to be destroyed in a 20-y period. Reasonable mitigation measures--increasing the design reference wind load, ensuring that the nacelle can be turned into rapidly changing winds, and building most wind plants in the areas with lower risk--can greatly enhance the probability that offshore wind can help to meet the United States' electricity needs.

  13. Danish wind energy co-operatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranaes, Flemming

    1993-01-01

    An outline is given of the historical development of Danish wind energy cooperatives. Topics covered include wind turbine owners and their relations with parliament and public authorities, the power station companies and the wind turbine industry. Interest in the environment and support of popular cooperative activities in the local community are essential to success. (UK)

  14. Rotating transformers in wind turbine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylander, J. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Engstroem, S. [Aegir konsult AB, Lidingoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The power consumption of rotating electrical components is often supplied via slip-rings in wind turbines. Slip-ring equipment is expensive and need maintenance and are prone to malfunction. If the slip-rings could be replaced with contact-less equipment better turbines could be designed. This paper presents the design, some FE calculations and some measurements on a prototype rotating transformer. The proposed transformer consists of a secondary rotating winding and a stationary exciting primary winding. The results indicate that this transformer could be used to replace slip-rings in wind turbines. 4 refs, 3 figs

  15. Diagnosis of wind turbine rotor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Mirzaei, Mahmood; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2016-01-01

    is based on available standard sensors on wind turbines. The method can be used both on-line as well as off-line. Faults or changes in the rotor system will result in asymmetries, which can be monitored and diagnosed. This can be done by using the multi-blade coordinate transformation. Changes in the rotor......This paper describes a model free method for monitoring and fault diagnosis of the elements in a rotor system for a wind turbine. The diagnosis as well as the monitoring is done without using any model of the wind turbine and the applied controller or a description of the wind profile. The method...

  16. Analysis of the Environmental Impact on Remanufacturing Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa Skrainka, Manuel R.

    To deliver clean energy the use of wind turbines is essential. In June 2011 there was an installed wind capacity equivalent to 211,000MW world-wide (WWEA, 2011). By the end of the year 2009 the U.S. had 35,100MW of wind energy installed capacity to generate electricity (AWEA, 2010). This industry has grown in recent years and is expected to grow even more in the future. The environmental impacts that will arise from the increased number of wind turbines and their end-of-life should be addressed, as large amounts of resources will be required to satisfy the current and future market demands for wind turbines. Since future 10MW wind turbines are expected to be as heavy as 1000 tons each, the study of the environmental response of profitable retirement strategies, such as remanufacturing for these machines, must be considered. Because of the increased number of wind turbines and the materials used, this study provides a comparison between the environmental impacts from remanufacturing the components installed inside the nacelle of multi-megawatt wind turbines and wind turbines manufactured using new components. The study methodology is the following: • Describe the life-cycle and the materials and processes employed for the manufacture and remanufacturing for components inside the nacelle. • Identify remanufacturing alternatives for the components inside the nacelle at the end of the expected life-time service of wind turbines. • Evaluate the environmental impacts from the remanufactured components and compare the results with the impacts of the manufacturing of new components using SimaPro. • Conduct sensitivity analysis over the critical parameters of the life cycle assessment • Propose the most environmentally friendly options for the retirement of each major component of wind turbines. After an analysis of the scenarios the goal of the study is to evaluate remanufacturing as an end-of-life option from an environmental perspective for commercial multi

  17. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portilla S, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The wind energy or eolic energy is a consequence of solar energy, the one which is absorbed by the atmosphere and is transformed into energy of movement of large bulks of air. In this process the atmosphere acts as the filter to the solar radiation and demotes the ultraviolet beams that result fatal to life in the Earth. The ionosphere is the most external cap and this is ionized by means of absorption process of ultraviolet radiation arising to the Sun. The atmosphere also acts as a trap to the infrared radiation, it that results from the continual process of energetic degradation. In this way, the interaction between Earth - Atmospheres, is behaved as a great greenhouse, maintaining the constant temperatures, including in the dark nights. Processes as the natural convection (that occur by the thermodynamic phenomenon), equatorial calmness, trade winds and against trade winds and global distribution of the air currents are described. The other hand, techniques as the transformation of the wind into energy and its parameters also are shown

  18. Effect of topography on wind turbine power and load fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Christian; Ciri, Umberto; Leonardi, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Onshore wind turbines produce more than 17 GW in the US, which constitutes 4 . 4 % of all the energy produced. Sites selection is mostly determined by the atmospheric conditions and the topographical characteristics of the region. While the effect of the atmospheric boundary layer had been widely studied, less attention has been given to the effect of the topography on the wind turbine aerodynamics. To address how the topography affects the flow, Large Eddy Simulations of the flow over a wind turbine placed over wavy wall are performed. The wavelength of the wavy terrain, λ, is 1 . 7 D where D is the turbine rotor diameter. Two different values of the height of the wavy wall, a / D = 0 . 05 and a / D = 0 . 10 have been considered. In addition, two positions of the turbine with respect to the wavy wall had been studied, on the crest and trough of the wavy wall and compared with a wind turbine over a flat wall. For the turbine located at the crest, the pressure gradient due to the wavy wall caused a recirculation behind the wind tower 2 . 5 D larger than that of the smooth wall. When placed at the trough of the wavy terrain, the favorable pressure gradient increases the wake velocity near the wall and promotes entrainment into the turbine wake. Numerical simulations were performed on XSEDE TACC, Grant CTS070066. This work was supported by the NSF, grant IIA-1243482 (WINDINSPIRE).

  19. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  20. Superconductivity for Large Scale Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Fair; W. Stautner; M. Douglass; R. Rajput-Ghoshal; M. Moscinski; P. Riley; D. Wagner; J. Kim; S. Hou; F. Lopez; K. Haran; J. Bray; T. Laskaris; J. Rochford; R. Duckworth

    2012-10-12

    A conceptual design has been completed for a 10MW superconducting direct drive wind turbine generator employing low temperature superconductors for the field winding. Key technology building blocks from the GE Wind and GE Healthcare businesses have been transferred across to the design of this concept machine. Wherever possible, conventional technology and production techniques have been used in order to support the case for commercialization of such a machine. Appendices A and B provide further details of the layout of the machine and the complete specification table for the concept design. Phase 1 of the program has allowed us to understand the trade-offs between the various sub-systems of such a generator and its integration with a wind turbine. A Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) analysis have been completed resulting in the identification of high risk components within the design. The design has been analyzed from a commercial and economic point of view and Cost of Energy (COE) calculations have been carried out with the potential to reduce COE by up to 18% when compared with a permanent magnet direct drive 5MW baseline machine, resulting in a potential COE of 0.075 $/kWh. Finally, a top-level commercialization plan has been proposed to enable this technology to be transitioned to full volume production. The main body of this report will present the design processes employed and the main findings and conclusions.