Sample records for win world war

  1. Winning the War: A Historical Analysis of the FFA during World War II (United States)

    Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Connors, James J.


    The United States' participation in World War II affected millions of men, women, and children, both at home and around the world. The war effort also affected the Future Farmers of America (FFA). FFA members, agriculture teachers, and national FFA officers all volunteered to serve their country during the war. Local FFA chapters and individual…

  2. Convincing American Women to Join in the Efforts to Win World War I: A Lesson Plan. (United States)

    Sunal, Cynthia S.; Haas, Mary E.


    Asserts that World War I, unlike previous wars, was not fought by small groups of professional soldiers, but with large groups of citizens, including women. Presents a lesson plan using poster and postcards that examines methods used by the U.S. government to rally women to join the war effort. (CFR)

  3. America's war on drugs: who's winning


    Diaz, Mary Lu Anna.


    Recently, Congress, the literary community, and the public at large have come to reconsider the war on drugs. There are many opinions regarding alternatives to this pseudo war or new measures to be taken in the war effort, but the ongoing effort itself has escaped evaluation (to determine if the United States is winning this campaign). The intent of this thesis, then, is to explore the objectives of the war on drugs, and to determine if America is winning. This work concludes that the current...

  4. Defeating ISIS by Winning the War of Ideas (United States)


    United States tell if it is winning the war of ideas? Robert Reilly, author of Assessing the War of Ideas during War, explains that the winning the war...AU/ACSC/2017 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY DEFEATING ISIS BY WINNING THE WAR OF IDEAS by Lt Col Lyson Siame...Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Defeating ISIS by Winning the War of Ideas 2 Disclaimer The views expressed in this academic

  5. From chaos to control: winning the war. (United States)

    Wojciak, P J


    This article illustrates how a small manufacturing facility in the Midwest undertook the process of an MRP II implementation and ultimately gained class A status at a true make-or-break time in its history. The control that was gained throughout the entire process has helped create a winning environment and will continue to strengthen our position as we move toward world-class excellence.

  6. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm


    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...... in the future. The “extreme 20th century” will have another history and another impact. Its extremes will be narrated as more extreme, and its temporal bindings become easier to observe. The much celebrated “revolutions in military affairs” will not dominate future war systems. Unipolarity is fading away...

  7. World War II Homefront. (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel


    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  8. Win-win Imageries in a Soap Bubble World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne


    This article explores the imagery and notions of personhood underlying the willingness to undertake extreme work among creative knowledge workers. The core argument is that extreme work is informed by pervasive win-win fantasies which can be recognized in a number of current organizational trends...

  9. The oil world war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafargue, F.


    Since the beginning of the 21. century, a war has started between the USA, China and India. The USA, first oil consuming and importing country in the world, has now to take into account the increasing energy consumption of China and India. China is now, just behind Japan, the third oil importing country and India ranked number seven. From the Gulf of Guinea to the Arabic peninsula, from the Orenoque basin to the Caspian sea banks, Washington, Beijing and New Delhi covet the same oil fields. This rivalry exacerbates the political tensions in many regions of the Earth and already provokes a latent food crisis. This black gold war is changing the World's face and should provoke serious armed conflicts. (J.S.)

  10. Iowa and World War I. (United States)

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.


    This issue of the children's quarterly magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on World War I. A brief discussion of how the United States came to enter the War is followed by a discussion of propaganda. An article on the use of posters to encourage citizens to participate in the war effort is illustrated with reproductions of several of…

  11. Winning the Battle of Ideas in the War on Terrorism (United States)


    campaign, which symbolized all U.S. women who worked in manufacturing jobs to support the World War II effort. This single advertising campaign increased...Jack Valenti, Cinema and War: Hollywood’s response to September 11, Harvard International Review, Volume: 24. Issue: 2; 2002, 78. 43 George J. Siegel

  12. Enabling Others to Win in a Complex World: Maximizing Security Force Assistance Potential in the Regionally Aligned Brigade Combat Team (United States)


    security policy formulation. iii v Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press ENABLING OTHERS TO WIN IN A COMPLEX WORLD: MAXIMIZING...while also getting the best soldiers suited for advisor duty into those roles. 1 ENABLING OTHERS TO WIN IN A COMPLEX WORLD: MAXIMIZING SECURITY...of Defense Robert Gates noted: “strategic reality de- mands that the U.S. government get better at what is called ‘building partner capacity.’”1

  13. Winning the War and Winning the Peace: Reconciling Occupation Law and the Small Wars Manual (United States)


    the twentieth century . Comprising the combined expe- rience of a generation of Marine Corps leaders, the Small Wars Manual derives those lessons...lessons learned from the Marine Corps’ involvement in small-scale conflicts during the first half of the twentieth century . Comprising using the early stages of Operation Iraqi Freedom to expose the tensions between occupation law and the American policies for promoting stability

  14. Rockets in World War I (United States)


    World War I enlisted rockets once again for military purposes. French pilots rigged rockets to the wing struts of their airplanes and aimed them at enemy observation balloons filled with highly inflammable hydrogen.

  15. Lessons from World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery


    Full Text Available The history of World War I is reviewed, starting with a discussion of the development of nationalist movements in Europe. It is pointed out that the global disaster started with a seemingly small operation by Austria, which escalated uncontrollably into an all-destroying conflagration. A striking feature of the war was that none of the people who started it had any idea of what it would be like. Technology had changed the character of war, but old patterns of thought remained in place. We also examine the roots of the war in industrial and colonial competition, and in an arms race. Finally, parallels with current events, and the important lessons for today’s world are discussed.

  16. Cyberspace Human Capital: Building a Cadre Today to Win Tomorrows War (United States)


    James Kaplan, Naufal Khan and Roger Roberts . Winning the Battle for Technology Talent, Business Technology Office, 2012. 41 Recommendation R8...Building a Cadre Today to Win Tomorrow’s War by Erica Fountain, Brian Viola & Michael Williams, Major United States Air Force A...Schwartz, kick-started the transformation of the USAF’s foundational mission imperatives with a new mission statement: “to fly, fight and win in air

  17. Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa: Winning the War on Terror with Information Engagement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michelle M


    ...) to win the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) in the Horn of Africa. Because of the mission, the resources available to the task force, and the nature of the conflict, the command chose a COA that uses Information Operations (IO...

  18. World War II Weather Record Transmittances (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  19. War without Violence: Leveraging the Arab Spring to Win the War on Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Proctor


    Full Text Available After a decade of war, the United States has failed to eradicate the threat of salafist jihadism. No matter how hard it tries, the United States cannot kill its way to victory in the war on terrorism. Sweeping changes across the Middle East—dubbed the "Arab Spring" by the media—have presented the West with a unique opportunity to pursue an alternative approach. Rather than engaging in war (politics through violence, the United States should engage in mass politics (war without violence to compel the Arab world to reject the salafist jihadism idea. This article proposes a strategy calibrated to defeat international terrorism without unnecessarily antagonizing non-jihadist salafists and political salafists who enjoy broad-based support in the Arab world. The article goes on to identify key political figures already espousing elements of this counternarrative, and it describes the methods the United States should use to empower these and other anti–salafist jihadism activists.

  20. World War II Homefront: A Historiography. (United States)

    Winkler, Allan M.


    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  1. Failed catharsis after the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijelić Biljana


    Full Text Available The Second World War is not relevant only in historical and political context. Its unsolved character is usually mentioned as one of the causes of the 1990 war. The after war policy of identity is especially relevant for today’s difficulties in consideration of collective responsibility and achieving reconciliation between communities which were in conflict. Croatian example of war crimes against Serbs in the Second World War is especially illustrative. However, that is only one of many Yugoslavs’ examples, where ethnic violence in after war period was overshadowed by general suffering from foreign occupants and local traitors in the Second World War. Instead of reassessment of existing ethnic and national identities, the process of reconciliation between Croatian and Serbian community after the Second World War was exhilarated with radical changes of collective identities.

  2. Winning hearts and minds in the Namibian border war | de Visser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the Namibian border war, South African counterinsurgency doctrine acknowledged the importance of securing the allegiance and cooperation of the population. This article demonstrates that, in the operational zone, the responsibility of winning the hearts and minds of the Namibian people largely fell to the SADF ...

  3. World War II Informational Fact Sheets. (United States)

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This commemorative book provides numerous fact sheets on various aspects of World War II, both on the fighting front and the homefront. Replicas of posters of the war era, descriptions of battles with maps, contributions of women and minorities to the war effort, even music of the wartime era, add to this collection of resource materials useful to…

  4. The World of WarsRisky systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably on different subjects than we are used to. The paper proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less on tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we have....... The "extreme 20th century" will have another history and another impact. Its extremes will be more extreme and its temporal bindings easier to observe. The much celebrated revolutions in military affairs will not dominate future war systems. Unipolarity is fading away. Kantian convergences may appear....

  5. Winning hearts and minds in the Namibian border war

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    14 This indicates immediate military objectives. In Ovamboland, the quantity and quality of information received from the population got better towards the end of the war.15. Indeed, the number of times that information supplied ...

  6. Understanding a Complex World: Why an Emphasis on Empathy Could Better Enable Army Leaders to Win (United States)


    the problem of how to win in a complex world. 1 Brig. Gen. Oscar W. Koch and Robert G. Hayes, G-2: Intelligence for Patton (Atglen, PA: Schiffer...UNDERSTANDING A COMPLEX WORLD: WHY AN EMPHASIS ON EMPATHY COULD BETTER ENABLE ARMY LEADERS TO WIN A thesis presented to the...Leaders to Win 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Matthew J. Fontaine, MAJ 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  7. Teaching World War I from Multiple Perspectives. (United States)

    Foster, Stuart J.; Rosch, Richard


    Outlines a multicultural approach to World War I that emphasizes the truly international character of the war, in which many soldiers and support workers from European colonies were compelled to participate. Discusses the fighting in East Africa and Asia, as well as, the contributions of the Indian Expeditionary Forces. (MJP)

  8. "War of the Worlds" and the Editors. (United States)

    Wolfe, G. Joseph


    An analysis of 1938 newspaper editorials about Orson Welles' notorious "War of the Worlds" broadcast reveals that they explained audience reaction on the grounds of gullibility, the ominous threat of war, and the technique of the broadcast, and that they offered radio a rather stern lecture on the relationship between freedom and responsibility.…

  9. The World Wide Web of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Craig A


    Modern communications, combined with the near instantaneous publication of information on the World Wide Web, are providing the means to dramatically affect the pursuit, conduct, and public opinion of war on both sides...

  10. Russian deserters of World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Os'kin Maksim


    Full Text Available Desertion is one of the most active forms of ordinary resistance of the people to the state pressure during the low-popular war which is conducting for the purposes unclear for the people. At the same time, mass desertion is a manifestation of «total» war in the world conflicts of the XX century. During World War I in all armies of the world there was the desertion often accepting mass character. In the Russian army, as well as in other, deserters appeared from the war beginning. Desertion scales in the Russian army explained as objective factors - diffi cult fights, shortage of supply, defeat at the front, and subjective - unwillingness to participate in war, melancholy for the house, desire to help a family the work. Desertion in different years of war had various forms. If at the beginning of war there were mainly «self-arrows», in 1915, during defeats at the front - evasion from entrenchments. By the end of 1916, because of the general fatigue from war, desertion takes the real form - flight from the front to the back. After February revolution desertion becomes mass in which hundreds thousands military personnel take part already. Disorder of army and development of revolutionary process extremely strengthen desertion scales that is explained by the actual lack of punishment for this crime. Destruction of the Russian state during revolution became the main reason of coming to power of Bolsheviks, an exit of Russia from war and the army demobilization which essential part in 1917 already deserted from the front.

  11. [German nurses during the First World War]. (United States)

    Wagner, Franz


    Nurses from several German organisations participated in the First World War. For the most part, they did not work on the frontline but at the rear, in hospital trains, hospitals or refugee camps. They cared forwounded soldiers and faced epidemics of infectious diseases. The journal of the national association of nurses, which continued to be published during the war, provides a snapshot of their concerns and their questioning regarding the profession and its evolution.

  12. [Order of Malta during First World War]. (United States)

    Peureux, Laure; Dubourg, Olivier; Rousseau, Fra Emmanuel; Lefort, Hugues


    The sovereign Military Order of Malta is one of the oldest humanitarian organizations still existing today The First World War gave it the opportunity to prove its large knowledge of emergency medicine, under exceptional circumstances, from the front to the hospitals at the back of the front. On all parts of the European conflict the Order took care of more than 800 000 victims of the war.

  13. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2 (United States)


    mankind. and they used the war to test and purify American society in prepza.ation for that millennial task. As a consequence. political theorists...Revolution also lost many civil and economic rights. They could neither vote nor hold office. They could neither collect debts nor buy and sell land. They...little economic levelling-because only the Revolutionary elite had the funds to buy the seized property-but a lot of propeny did change hands. More

  14. The "War Poets": Evolution of a Literary Conscience in World War I. (United States)

    Galambos, Ellen


    Pre-World War I poetry often used picturesque images which blinded people to the actual horrors of war. The war poets, who experienced the destruction of World War I, led the way in expressing new images of the devastation and death of war, rather than focusing on honor and glory. (IS)

  15. Teaching a Course on World War III: An Introductory Approach. (United States)

    Sussman, Glenn


    Provides a description of an upper division college course on nuclear war. The course, which used an interdisciplinary approach and many resource speakers, was divided into three components: the consequences of World War III, the causes of World War III, and the prevention of World War III. Includes a detailed course outline along with required…

  16. World War I: an air war of consequence. (United States)

    Hallion, Richard P


    On December 17, 1903, the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the world's first successful airplane, following this with the first military airplane in 1908. (The 1908 Flyer was built by the brothers in response to a 1907 requirements specification for a 2-place aircraft capable of flying at 40 mph and able to be broken down and transported in a horse-drawn wagon. Technically, since it crashed during its demonstration program and was not formally delivered to the Army, it never became Army property. But the trials had been so impressive that the Army ordered a second, delivered in 1909.) Just six years later, Europe erupted in a general war. Often portrayed as a sideshow to the war on land and sea, the air war heralded the advent of mechanized warfare, the airplane being one of four great technological advances--the submarine, the tank, and radio communication--that, together, revolutionized military affairs. Aircraft reconnaissance influenced the conduct of military operations from the war's earliest days, and airborne observers routinely governed the fall of artillery barrages, crucially important in an artillery-dominant war. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. World war against our will

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, D.


    Corresponding to the topic under investigation, i.e. referring to the two-pronged decision of the NATO consisting of the modernization of TNF and the offer for arms control, the present study is structured as a balance of forces analysis, embedded into the theory and practice of the cooperative Ruestungssteuerung (arms control), and aiming at the analyses of the risk and prevention of war in the Euronuclear field. The two leading questions of the investigation are: 1. Does the WTO in fact have a dangerous military superiority in the TNF sector which had required the NATO decision of the modernization of TNF in 1979 without delay and, in particular, without previous arms control negotiations. 2. Can, as a general principle independent a so of the answer to the preciding question - an increase of nuclear intermediate range missiles be identified with more strategic stability and security even at the beginning of the eighties. (orig./HP) [de

  18. War of the British Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel


    The 1982 Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship, and belonging. This article casts light on the persistent purchase of the idea of Greater Britain long after the end of empire, addressing a case that would normally be deemed...... outside its spatial and temporal boundaries. By highlighting the inherent contradictions of this transnational bond, the South Atlantic conflict had a profound effect on an underexposed British community with a lingering attachment to a “British world”: the Anglo-Argentines. As they found themselves...... wedged between two irreconcilable identities, divisions threatened to derail this already enfeebled grouping. Yet leaders of the community, presuming a common Britishness with the Falkland Islanders and Britons in the United Kingdom, sought to intervene in the conflict by reaching out to both...

  19. Arsenal Workers During World War II (United States)


    During World War II, Arsenal workers from Huntsville, Alabama. and surrounding areas responded to the call for civilian defense workers. This February 20, 1945 photo shows workers filling colored smoke grenades that were used for signaling. (Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  20. The Black Soldier in World War I. (United States)

    Bodle, Walter S., Ed.


    A poster from the National Archives that intermediate grade and secondary social studies teachers can use to teach students about race relations in the military during World War I is presented. Background information concerning the ill treatment given blacks and teaching activities are also included. (RM)

  1. A Camp Director Remembers World War II. (United States)

    Cohen, Helen Herz


    A girl's camp in Maine during World War II had to deal with food rationing and black-market food dealers. Campers picked beans to raise money for refugees, sewed clothes for refugees, and spotted for enemy planes from Mt. Pleasant. An attempt to use a horse-drawn cart for transportation failed, and good help was hard to find. (TD)

  2. The Macroeconomic Effects of War Finance in the United States: World War II and the Korean War.


    Ohanian, Lee E


    During World War II, government expenditures were financed primarily by issuing debt. During the Korean War, expenditures were financed almost exclusively by higher taxes, reflecting President Truman's preference for balanced budgets. This paper evaluates quantitatively the economic effects of the different policies used to finance these two wars. Counterfactual experiments are used to explore the implications of financing World War II like the Korean War, and financing the Korean War like Wo...

  3. Psychiatry and race during World War II. (United States)

    Dwyer, Ellen


    Although the American literature on "war neuroses" expanded during World War II, psychiatrists remained more interested in dramatic instances of "combat fatigue" than in the problems of soldiers who broke down far from the field of battle. This bias in the medical literature shaped both diagnosis and treatment. It had an especially powerful effect on African American soldiers who, in the "Jim Crow" army of World War II, were assigned in disproportionate numbers to service units. When military neuropsychiatrists did write about troubled young African Americans, many revealed a racial conservatism that was surprising given the liberal environmentalist paradigm of the day. (Here, a particularly useful source is the two-volume history of Neuropsychiatry in World War II, produced by the Medical Department of the U.S. Army.) The major challenge to such views came from the National Medical Association (NMA). Despite its many criticisms of military medicine, the NMA argued that African American soldiers and veterans needed more, not fewer, psychiatric services. NMA members also joined their white counterparts in the campaign to diminish the stigma of mental illness, especially among the families of soldiers returning home. We need more investigation of the subsequent history of race and psychiatry, especially within the Veterans Administration.

  4. Towards a war-free world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, J.


    The world is committed through the Non-proliferation Treaty, not only to ultimate goal of complete nuclear disarmament bur also to complete disarmament with respect to to conventional arms. The way to a sane and war-free world will be long and difficult, the European Union is one step along this road. The START, NPT and CTB treaties are also important steps. Education is also needed to build up the concept of the world as a single community, and here are the almost miraculous achievements of modern information technology which is of great help

  5. Declaring world war on AIDS. (United States)

    MacSween, S


    There were over 10,000 delegates from all over the world at the 5th International Conference on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Montreal, Canada. A continuing debate throughout the conference by gay rights and AIDS support groups criticized an international obsession with scientific methods in fighting the epidemic. They indicated little financial and moral support from policy makers for health workers and those in high risk groups. Developing country representatives indicated the major threats of AIDS exposure includes huge numbers of street children, the growing numbers of migrant workers, the rapid expansion of cities, widespread prostitution and homosexuality, inadequate sanitation, and lack of health care resources. In West African cities there are a large number of prostitutes that have AIDS and are uneducated and poor. Researchers on sex behavior indicated that 1 of 3 white middle class males will have sexual activity with a prostitute once in his lifetime, 1 of 4 male college students between 17-22 years of age has had anal sex, and 3 of 4 persons, whether heterosexual or homosexual have had a sexual with the gender opposite to that of their normal partner. The risks for health care workers to not appear to be higher than normal except in the states of New York, Florida, and California where high risk populations are present. Some health care workers may not take precautions because of time constraints and less than 10% of paramedics surveyed took proper precautions at any time.

  6. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the United...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the United...

  8. Nordic Narratives of the Second World War : National Historiographies Revisited



    How have the dramatic events of the Second World War been viewed in the Nordic countries? In Nordic Narratives of the Second World War, leading Nordic historians analyse post-war memory and historiography. They explore the relationship between scholarly and public understandings of the war. How have national interpretations been shaped by official security-policy doctrines? And in what way has the end of the Cold War affected the Nordic narratives? The authors not only present the ...

  9. Impact of World War I on Chemistry (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.


    Mention chemistry and the Great "War to End all Wars" in the same sentence, and nearly everybody who ever had a history class will nod sorrowfully and say,"Yes, poison gases." True enough, and Fritz Haber, who led the development of them for the Central Powers, was the one German scientist whom Rutherford never forgave or spoke to again. Such substances (not all really gaseous, and something like 50 have been tried) were used by both sides from 1915 onward, killed about 90,000 people (about 1% of the total), maimed many more, and arguably loosened constraints on future uses of chemical weapons in other wars, prison camps, and terrorist actions. But the war was not determined by them and could have been fought without them. On the other hand, the sudden blockading of ports and termination of most international trade forced Germany (etc) to expand very quickly processes for fixing nitrogen for explosives and for fertilizers in lieu of Chilean guano (yes there is also a Haber process for that). They needed in addition to find domestic replacements for rubber (for tires, hoses, and gas masks) and liquid fuels for tanks and aircraft. The Allies, for their part, had been heavily dependent on German dyestuffs, optical-quality glass for binoculars, and phosphates (fertilizer again). Production facilities for derivatives of coal tars, cottonseed oil, etc. were of necessity scaled up rapidly. And once people have learned to do these things, there is no way to have them be forgotten. The same is, of course, true of the nuclear weapons of World War II and of whatever biological and/or cybernetic entities prove to be essential in the next war.

  10. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World War...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II...

  12. Maintenance of foreign Prisoners of War in Territory of Russia within the First world war


    Борис Игоревич Ниманов


    In clause it is analyzed conditions of the maintenance of foreign prisoners of war in Russia during the First world war. The author has shown with what difficulties the reasons of high death rate of prisoners of war and the ambiguous attitude from authorities to prisoners of war, having slavic an origin and prisoners of war other nationalities collided foreign prisoners of war, got in Russia.

  13. Maintenance of foreign Prisoners of War in Territory of Russia within the First world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Борис Игоревич Ниманов


    Full Text Available In clause it is analyzed conditions of the maintenance of foreign prisoners of war in Russia during the First world war. The author has shown with what difficulties the reasons of high death rate of prisoners of war and the ambiguous attitude from authorities to prisoners of war, having slavic an origin and prisoners of war other nationalities collided foreign prisoners of war, got in Russia.

  14. Nurses across borders: displaced Russian and Soviet nurses after World War I and World War II. (United States)

    Grant, Susan


    Russian and Soviet nurse refugees faced myriad challenges attempting to become registered nurses in North America and elsewhere after the World War II. By drawing primarily on International Council of Nurses refugee files, a picture can be pieced together of the fate that befell many of those women who left Russia and later the Soviet Union because of revolution and war in the years after 1917. The history of first (after World War I) and second (after World War II) wave émigré nurses, integrated into the broader historical narrative, reveals that professional identity was just as important to these women as national identity. This became especially so after World War II, when Russian and Soviet refugee nurses resettled in the West. Individual accounts become interwoven on an international canvas that brings together a wide range of personal experiences from women based in Russia, the Soviet Union, China, Yugoslavia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere. The commonality of experience among Russian nurses as they attempted to establish their professional identities highlights, through the prism of Russia, the importance of the history of the displaced nurse experience in the wider context of international migration history.

  15. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth


    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  16. Lessons from Sarajevo and the First World War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tea Sindbæk


    within a European context. In Serbia, First World War narratives remain national and heroic and are framed as a virtuous, pro-democratic and European legacy. In Croatia and Bosnia First World War history is being created anew and, at least in the Bosnian case, with an aspiration to present Bosnia’s war......This article investigates the developments of public memory of the First World War as it is written in to the national narratives of Bosnia, Croatia and Serbia on the way to the centennial of the war’s outbreak. The First World War constitutes both a shared and a divided memory in Serbia, Croatia...... and Bosnia. Though the war was a catastrophe everywhere, to Serbia it also became a triumph on allied side, whereas in Bosnia and Croatia it was mainly a state collapse. Yet, the First World War also provided the immediate conditions for the creation of the first Yugoslav state, and consequently the history...

  17. How important was Latin America to the First World War?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Dehne


      This article examines the impact of Latin America on the First World War, fitting into the gap between the existing histories of Latin America that focus on how the Great War impacted each republic and the histories of the First World War that completely ignore Latin America. This study exposes ways that the war was fought in Latin America, considers how the diplomacy and decisions of the region’s leaders affected the situation of each belligerent side, and judges the impact of the conflict in Latin America on the outcome of the overall World War.

  18. World Wars at Home: U.S. Response to World War II Propaganda. (United States)

    Nagy, Alex


    Focuses on how the United States Post Office reacted to the massive influx of political propaganda, primarily from the Soviet Union, immediately prior to and during World War II. Describes how the Post Office played an active role in stopping and burning some 50 tons of incoming material. (RS)

  19. The world after the atomic war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, G.


    There would be hundreds of millions of dead people and another hundreds of millions of injured or severely radiation-injured people in a nuclear world war who would hardly have any chances of survival without intensive medical care as cannot be expected in the world ''after''. By the clouds of smoke coming from the fires started by the bomb explosions the sun would be darkened for many weeks. There would be heavy smog on the whole of the Northern hemisphere. The social structures, industry, transport and also agricultural production would break down. Most of the people who would have survived for the first few weeks would finally starve. These are the conclusions drawn from a study carried out on behalf of the Swedish Academy of Sciences. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Fear of failure: why american science is not winning the war on cancer. (United States)

    Ness, Roberta B


    How to maximize creativity in biological science is a topic rarely discussed and yet critical to success in improving health. I believe that the needed approaches are not simply to flog individuals to try harder but to build systems and infrastructures that enhance creative effort. Lateral thinking can and should be taught. My hope for the future is that every graduate science curriculum will have a course in innovation. Institutions must provide time, space, and individual credit to the long and slow process of creative output. Highly multidisciplinary science should be supported, some of which may require seed or infrastructure support. Funders can separate idea generation from implementation. Scientists can minimize costs of failure by piloting and modeling ideas through incremental research, if supported by funders. But perhaps the very first step is to initiate a vibrant discussion of what we can do to enhance creativity in American biological science-it is time to stop complaining and to start winning the war on cancer.

  1. Chronic Heart Failure: We Are Fighting the Battle, but Are We Winning the War?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Atherton


    Full Text Available Heart failure represents an end-stage phenotype of a number of cardiovascular diseases and is generally associated with a poor prognosis. A number of organized battles fought over the last two to three decades have resulted in considerable advances in treatment including the use of drugs that interfere with neurohormonal activation and device-based therapies such as implantable cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy. Despite this, the prevalence of heart failure continues to rise related to both the aging population and better survival in patients with cardiovascular disease. Registries have identified treatment gaps and variation in the application of evidenced-based practice, including the use of echocardiography and prescribing of disease-modifying drugs. Quality initiatives often coupled with multidisciplinary, heart failure disease management promote self-care and minimize variation in the application of evidenced-based practice leading to better long-term clinical outcomes. However, to address the rising prevalence of heart failure and win the war, we must also turn our attention to disease prevention. A combined approach is required that includes public health measures applied at a population level and screening strategies to identify individuals at high risk of developing heart failure in the future.

  2. Chronic Heart Failure: We Are Fighting the Battle, but Are We Winning the War? (United States)

    Atherton, John J.


    Heart failure represents an end-stage phenotype of a number of cardiovascular diseases and is generally associated with a poor prognosis. A number of organized battles fought over the last two to three decades have resulted in considerable advances in treatment including the use of drugs that interfere with neurohormonal activation and device-based therapies such as implantable cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy. Despite this, the prevalence of heart failure continues to rise related to both the aging population and better survival in patients with cardiovascular disease. Registries have identified treatment gaps and variation in the application of evidenced-based practice, including the use of echocardiography and prescribing of disease-modifying drugs. Quality initiatives often coupled with multidisciplinary, heart failure disease management promote self-care and minimize variation in the application of evidenced-based practice leading to better long-term clinical outcomes. However, to address the rising prevalence of heart failure and win the war, we must also turn our attention to disease prevention. A combined approach is required that includes public health measures applied at a population level and screening strategies to identify individuals at high risk of developing heart failure in the future. PMID:24278681

  3. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education (United States)

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III


    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  4. Match statistics related to winning in the group stage of 2014 Brazil FIFA World Cup. (United States)

    Liu, Hongyou; Gomez, Miguel-Ángel; Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Sampaio, Jaime


    Identifying match statistics that strongly contribute to winning in football matches is a very important step towards a more predictive and prescriptive performance analysis. The current study aimed to determine relationships between 24 match statistics and the match outcome (win, loss and draw) in all games and close games of the group stage of FIFA World Cup (2014, Brazil) by employing the generalised linear model. The cumulative logistic regression was run in the model taking the value of each match statistic as independent variable to predict the logarithm of the odds of winning. Relationships were assessed as effects of a two-standard-deviation increase in the value of each variable on the change in the probability of a team winning a match. Non-clinical magnitude-based inferences were employed and were evaluated by using the smallest worthwhile change. Results showed that for all the games, nine match statistics had clearly positive effects on the probability of winning (Shot, Shot on Target, Shot from Counter Attack, Shot from Inside Area, Ball Possession, Short Pass, Average Pass Streak, Aerial Advantage and Tackle), four had clearly negative effects (Shot Blocked, Cross, Dribble and Red Card), other 12 statistics had either trivial or unclear effects. While for the close games, the effects of Aerial Advantage and Yellow Card turned to trivial and clearly negative, respectively. Information from the tactical modelling can provide a more thorough and objective match understanding to coaches and performance analysts for evaluating post-match performances and for scouting upcoming oppositions.

  5. Former IDRC grantee Daniel Hillel wins World Food Prize | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    May 26, 2016 ... Daniel Hillel, who pioneered an innovative way of bringing water to crops in arid and dry-land regions, was named the winner of the 2012 World Food Prize. The announcement was made in Washington where US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton described Hillel as understanding "the critical role water ...

  6. World Refugee Crisis: Winning the Game. Facts for Action #6. (United States)

    Oxfam America, Boston, MA.

    Definitions, statistics, and problems of world refugees are presented in this document for high school global education classes. Although various agencies have determined different definitions of the term, the authors consider as refugees all those forced to flee their native land in order to survive. For most refugees the attraction of a higher…

  7. The Quotidianisation of the War in Everyday Life at German Schools during the First World War (United States)

    Scholz, Joachim; Berdelmann, Kathrin


    The outbreak of the First World War had a powerful impact on German schools. Undoubtedly, schools were institutions of socialisation that did offer support to the war. Indeed, research has shown that a specific "war pedagogy" made an aggressive propaganda possible in the classroom. This research usually emphasises the enthusiasm for war…

  8. Reconstructing the Study of World War II for Gender Equity. (United States)

    Vandergrift, Kay E.


    Presents a list of feminist writings in American History with an emphasis on World War II, as well as resources on the World Wide Web dealing with women and the war. These range from personal narratives to analyses of particular people or events to bibliographies and teaching plans. (AEF)

  9. All Students Can Write Poetry: World War I Poems. (United States)

    Sanchez, Rebecca


    Describes how a 10th-grade English teacher brings a historical event such as World War I to life with words and visuals of the time. Discusses World War I poems as products of that era, and helps students realize they have the stream of language inside themselves by journaling, making a "word bank," and writing poems. (SR)

  10. The lifelong struggle of Finnish World War II veterans. (United States)

    Nivala, Sirkka; Sarvimäki, Anneli


    In many countries veterans from World War II are growing old. Research has shown that war experiences continue to impact those who have been involved in war for a long time. The present study targets old injured war veterans from World War II in Finland. The aim of this study was to produce knowledge of the impact of war experiences and injuries on the lifespan of Finnish war veterans. The method used was grounded theory. Data were collected by interviewing 20 aged war veterans in their homes. The analysis resulted in four categories, with also subcategories: (1) lost childhood and youth; (2) war traumas impacting life; (3) starting life from scratch; and (4) finding one's own place. A substantive theory of war veterans' lifelong struggle for freedom throughout the lifespan was outlined. The war overshadowed the whole lifespan of the veterans, but in old age they finally felt free. Since war experiences vary depending on historical context, a formal theory would require additional research.

  11. Bessarabian clergy during the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Scutaru


    Full Text Available Bessarabian clergy actively provided moral and material support to the victims of war. It was created a clerical department to help the soldiers and their families. Each district elected a delegate to be part of a clerical group that would be subordinated to this department. The members if this group were sent to the front line if needed. The medical centers opened by the Bessarabian clergy treated wounded soldiers not only from Bessarabia, but also from the remote provinces of Russia and from Serbia. The clergy that was faithful to imperial authorities also helped to collect donations for the Russian army, which they regarded as Christ-loving. The departure of church choristers to the front line led to significant degradation of church music during that period. Another important aspect is that the monasteries also supported charity activities initiated by the tsarist authorities. Thus, the money raised was sent to cover various needs of the front and monks were assigned to perform religious services. Some monasteries provided shelter for children whose parents have died or been wounded in battle. The February Revolution of 1917 had a significant effect on the activity of the Bessarabian clergy, whose members began to publish articles on the problems of Bessarabia. They offered options for a peaceful reorganization of state and church based on new principles of Orthodox Faith. However, the socialist ideas have gained many supporters among soldiers and the faithful who believed that a new society could be built through destruction and anarchy. This caused persecutions of the clergy and even assassinations. Some priests supported the national movement and the principles of freedom and democratization of the church. However, assessing the impact of the First World War to Bessarabia, it should be recognized that the clergy supported the imperial power and subordinated to political interests of Russia.

  12. Introduction: Untold Legacies of the First World War in Britain. (United States)

    Fell, Alison S; Meyer, Jessica


    The current centenary of the First World War provides an unrivalled opportunity to uncover some of the social legacies of the war. The four articles which make up this special issue each examine a different facet of the war's impact on British society to explore an as yet untold story. The subjects investigated include logistics, the history of science, the social history of medicine and resistance to war. This article introduces the four which follow, locating them in the wider historiographic debates around the interface between warfare and societies engaged in war.

  13. 20 CFR 404.1343 - When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. 404.1343 Section 404.1343 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. The limits on...

  14. American Orthopaedic Surgeons in World War I. (United States)

    Green, David P; DeLee, Jesse C


    On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war on Germany and entered what was then called the Great War. Among the first officers sent to Europe were 21 orthopaedic surgeons in the so-called First Goldthwait Unit. Prior to the war, orthopaedics had been a nonoperative "strap-and-buckle" specialty that dealt primarily with infections, congenital abnormalities, and posttraumatic deformity. The Great War changed all of that forever, creating a new surgical specialty with emphasis on acute treatment, prevention of deformity, restoration of function, and rehabilitation.


    Hăisan, Anca; Dumea, Mihaela; Ursaru, Manuela; Bulat, C; Cimpoeşu, Diana Carmen


    Emergency medicine as a medical specialty has to deal with all kind of emergency situations, from medical to post traumatic acute eyents and from new born to the elderly persons, but also with particular situations like explosions. In Romania nowadays these are accidental explosions and rare like frequency, but may be dramatic due to numbers of victims and multisystem injury that may occur. We present a case of a single victim of accidental detonated bomb, a projectile from the Second World War, which unfortunately still may be found in some areas. The management of the case from first call to 112 until the victim is discharge-involves high professional team work. We use these opportunity to make a brief review of the mechanism through the lesions may appear and also to renew the fact that the most impressive lesion may not be the most severe, and we have to examine carefully in order to find the real life threatening injury of the patient.

  16. World war II veterans, social support, and veterans' associations. (United States)

    Hunt, N; Robbins, I


    People use many different coping strategies to deal with their traumatic recollections. Twenty-five British World War II veterans were interviewed regarding the ways they used social support both during the war and in the years afterwards. The findings demonstrate that social support is used in fundamentally different ways. During the war comradeship was particularly important and even fifty years after the war comrades are still a valuable resource for discussing war experiences, and dealing with the emotional content of traumatic recollections. Veterans rely on wives and families to help deal with the more physical and practical elements of coping, but tend not to discuss their traumatic memories with them. The findings show that social support is an important lifelong coping strategy for World War II veterans.

  17. The Missing Men: World War I and Female Labor Participation


    Gay, Victor; Boehnke, Jörn


    We explore the effect of military fatalities from World War I on female labor participation in post-war France. We build a unique dataset containing individual level information for all 1.3 million fallen soldiers, and find that the tightness of the marriage market along with negative income shocks generated by the scarcity of men induced many young single women and older widows to enter the labor force permanently after the war, especially in the industrial sector. These findings are robust ...

  18. [Health problems of combatants during the First World War]. (United States)

    Lefort, Hugues; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Tabbagh, Xavier; Domanski, Laurent; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre


    The First World War because of the use of new weapons, injured more than 3 500 000 people (500 000 in the face), more than diseases (tuberculosis, typhoid fever, etc.) or even weather circumstances. The healing of the war wounds through surgery undertook a significant evolution thanks to the use of asepsis and antiseptics. Mortality go down, opening the way to the physical and psychological rehabilitation of those injured by the war.

  19. [The International Council of Nurses during the First World War]. (United States)

    Williamson, Lindsey


    The outbreak of the First World War and the four years of conflict disrupted the activities of the International Council of Nurses (ICN). The results obtained before the war, notably with regard to the improvement of women's working conditions, were thrown into question, and the international spirit which characterised the ICN was threatened. After the war, nurses were nevertheless considered as having a key role to play in public healthcare.

  20. World War Two and the Holocaust. (United States)

    Boas, Jacob

    This resource book presents readings that could be used to teach about the Holocaust. The readings are brief and could be appropriate for middle school and high school students. Several photographs accompany the text. The volume has the following chapters: (1) "From War to War" (history of Germany from late 19th Century through the end…

  1. The World Wide Web of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Craig A


    ... and events by web logs or blogs. This war also has seen the enemy create slick web sites containing information and professional quality graphics and video of their operations and exploits, including gruesome beheadings. U.S...

  2. NPDES Permit for National World War II Memorial (United States)

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number DC0000345, the National World War II Memorial is authorized to discharge from a facility located at 17th St. and Independence Ave., S.W. Washington DC 20024.

  3. Mustard Gas: Its Pre-World War I History (United States)

    Duchovic, Ronald J.; Vilensky, Joel A.


    The Meyer-Clarke synthetic method was used in the German process for large scale production of mustard gas during World War I, which clearly shows the historical connection of synthesis of mustard gas.

  4. Admiral Chester W Nimitz's Strategic Leadership During World War 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerabek, David


    Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, as Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Fleet and Pacific Ocean Area during World War II, commanded the most powerful naval force ever assembled and was arguably the individual most responsible...

  5. Persuasive History: A Critical Comparison of Television's "Victory at Sea" and "The World at War." (United States)

    Mattheisen, Donald J.


    Discusses the television series "Victory at Sea" and "The World at War" and their use in teaching about World War II. Contrasts that war's glorious portrayal in "Victory at Sea" with the more ambiguous presentation of "The World at War." Suggests that students can learn a great deal about war and film itself…

  6. The Next World War: World-System Cycles and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chase-Dunn


    Full Text Available This essay places the contemporary period of global development in long-run historical perspective, elaborates a model of world-system cycles and trends, and discusses the main structural forces influencing the probability of future war among core powers. The possible continuation of the cycle of hegemonic rivalry is discussed in terms of the similarities and differences between the coming three decades and earlier periods in which a declining hegemon was challenged by upwardly mobile states. Possible bids for economic and political hegemony by Japan, Germany, China and the United States are discussed, as are the possibilities for different coalitions in East Asia and Europe. The phenomenon of bloc formation is discussed in a long-term perspective that includes earlier periods of colonial empire and "commonwealth." We conclude that there is a significantly high probability that warfare among core states could occur in the 2020s. The prospects for global state formation within the next three decades are considered. We recommend a combination of the build-up of U.N. peace-keeping forces and the continuation of U.S. military strength as the least worst and most feasible solution to the problem of avoiding nuclear holocaust in the 2020s.

  7. Australia's female military surgeons of World War I. (United States)

    Neuhaus, Susan J


    The war service of Lilian Violet Cooper, the first female surgeon of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, is well recognized. Not so well known however, are the other pioneering female doctors who also undertook work as military surgeons during World War I. At least four of the 14 Australian female doctors that undertook overseas war service during World War I were engaged as surgeons and treated Australian, British and Allied casualties. These women operated in London, in Egypt and on the frontlines of the Macedonian campaign. While none of these other women became Fellows of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, their war efforts deserve recognition. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Despite the attempts of historians to objectively present the events of the prehistory and history of the war, the opening of new archives and the desire to get rid of ideological stereotypes, are driving the need to once again explore the role of Ukraine in world war II to prevent its recurrence. On the other hand, the deep understanding of the history of the previous generations will provide an opportunity to properly understand the events of today. The analysis of the research. During the years of independence in the national historiography it was a new understanding of the conceptual foundations of the study of war. Over the past decade it was written a large number of scientific studies in which the main direction of new concepts there was an increased attention to the person, separate social groups and society as a whole in situations of conflict and crises. The article aims to analyze the role and place of Ukraine in the events of the Second world war; identify "Ukrainian dimension" of war and its implications for the modern generation, especially the youth. Conclusion. The effects of war for decades identified the complex and contradictory political, economic and social processes in Ukrainian society, affected the moral and psychological qualities of post-war generations. The memory of war – spiritual-historical heritage of our nation, which lays the foundations for self-sufficiency and identity and integrates it seamlessly into a civilizational flow. The modern level of researches of the events of world war II pays special attention to humanitarian problems of the war. For the youth of Ukraine it is important to join the European perception of the war as tragedy, to understand the responsibility for the memory of the past, because it's a chance for the future.

  9. The First World War in Popular Music since 1958


    Grant, P.


    The First World War in Popular Music since 1958Peter GrantIntroductionSince 1958 there have been over 1,400 newly composed songs ‘about’ the First World War in the different genres of popular music with numbers increasing signifi cantly since the new millennium. By this I mean songs where the infl uence of the war is discernible, whether directly or through ‘signifi ers’ or references, in the title or lyrics. Not surprisingly the largest number emanate from countries that were prominent in th...

  10. The Manhattan Project: Science in the Second World War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.


    The Manhattan Project: Science in the Second World War'' is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details of the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  11. The AEF Way of War: The American Army and Combat in the First World War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grotelueschen, Mark


    Many scholars of the First World War have examined the European armies in new ways that have shown not only how those armies actually fought along the Western Front, but how they changed their ideas...

  12. I «cinque giganti» e la genesi del welfare state in Europa tra le due guerre / The Five “Giant Evils" and the Genesis of the Welfare State in Europe between the Two World Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rapini


    Full Text Available The essay reconstructs the genesis of the welfare state during the early forties of the twentieth century. The welfare state is situated inside the European crisis caused by the Wall Street crash of 1929, by the fascisms and by the second world war. The essay focuses on the social policies of Fascism and Nazism, underlining their genetic connection with the war. The democracies decide to oppose the welfare state to warfare state of the fascisms to win not only the war, but, especially, to win the peace.

  13. Influence of World Wars on the Development of International Law on War Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorov Sergey


    Full Text Available The Regulations on laws and customs of land warfare of 1907 that existed during World War I did not protect war prisoners. The tragic experience forced us to return tothe problem of protection of the rights of the victims of war. The Geneva Convention on the war prisoners of 1929 was the first document of international law in which the status of war prisoners was determined in detail. The Soviet Union did not join the states which had signed the Convention, and during the World War II it was guided by its national legislation confirmed by the Soviet Government on July 1, 1941. On the whole, the items of the Regulations on War Prisoners adopted in 1941 corresponded to the Geneva Convention. But non-recognition of the international convention provided the heads of fascist Germany with the reason for inhuman treatment of the Soviet captives. Serious consequences of war compelled the world community to pay the closest attention to the issues of military captivity again. On August 12, 1949 in Geneva the Soviet Union joined the new Convention on prisoners.

  14. Nursing during World War II: Finnmark County, Northern Norway. (United States)

    Immonen, Ingrid


    This study is part the project "Nursing in Borderland - Finnmark 1939-1950" within nursing history that sheds light on nursing and health care during World War II in Finnmark County, Northern Norway. The study focuses on challenges in nursing care that arose during the war because of war activities in the Barents area. This article focuses on challenges caused by shortage of supplies. The aim of the project is to widen the understanding of development within health care and living conditions in the area. This is a historical study using narratives, government documents and literature. Interviews with nurses and persons active in health care during World War II constitute the main data of the research. Thematic issues that arise from interviews are analysed. Primary and secondary written sources are used in analysing the topics. Because of war activities, deportation and burning of the county, archives were partly destroyed. Central archives can contribute with annual reports, whereas local archives are fragmentary. There are a number of reports written soon after the War, as well as a number of biographical books of newer date. CHALLENGES CAUSED BY WAR, WHICH APPEAR IN THE INTERVIEWS, ARE: 1) shortage of supplies, 2) increased workload, 3) multicultural society, 4) ethical dilemmas, 5) deportation of the population. In this paper, focus is on challenges caused by shortage of supplies. Both institutions, personnel and patients were marked by the war. This has to be taken in consideration in health care today.

  15. Changes in Scottish suicide rates during the Second World War. (United States)

    Henderson, Rob; Stark, Cameron; Humphry, Roger W; Selvaraj, Sivasubramaniam


    It is believed that total reported suicide rates tend to decrease during wartime. However, analysis of suicide rates during recent conflicts suggests a more complex picture, with increases in some age groups and changes in method choice. As few age and gender specific analyses of more distant conflicts have been conducted, it is not clear if these findings reflect a change in the epidemiology of suicide in wartime. Therefore, we examined suicide rates in Scotland before, during and after the Second World War to see if similar features were present. Data on deaths in Scotland recorded as suicide during the period 1931-1952, and population estimates for each of these years, were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland. Using computer spreadsheets, suicide rates by gender, age and method were calculated. Forward stepwise logistic regression was used to assess the effect of gender, war and year on suicide rates using SAS V8.2. The all-age suicide rate among both men and women declined during the period studied. However, when this long-term decline is taken into account, the likelihood of suicide during the Second World War was higher than during both the pre-War and post-War periods. Suicide rates among men aged 15-24 years rose during the Second World War, peaking at 148 per million (41 deaths) during 1942 before declining to 39 per million (10 deaths) by 1945, while the rate among men aged 25-34 years reached 199 per million (43 deaths) during 1943 before falling to 66 per million (23 deaths) by 1946. This was accompanied by an increase in male suicides attributable to firearms and explosives during the War years which decreased following its conclusion. All age male and female suicide rates decreased in Scotland during World War II. However, once the general background decrease in suicide rates over the whole period is accounted for, the likelihood of suicide among the entire Scottish population during the Second World War was elevated. The overall

  16. 20 CFR 404.1310 - Who is a World War II veteran. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is a World War II veteran. 404.1310... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1310 Who is a World War II veteran. You are a World War II veteran if you were in the active...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (United States)


    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to be...

  18. The Critical Error of World War II, (United States)


    University and its component institutions, the National War College and the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. The purpose of this series is We were, therefore, instructed to seek information about localities where we had no intention of landing. I sent my dear pal, Major Hotaling , who

  19. Interrogation: World War II, Vietnam, and Iraq (United States)


    War II, he soft ened them with gift s of magazines, cig- arettes, and chocolates . He broke through their reserve with humor. And he spoke to them in...109. 208 Camp 020, 107. 96 | such as personality, mood , and acting ability.209 Noting that some interroga- tors would necessarily be incompatible with

  20. Women’s Pacifism during the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Lamarra


    Full Text Available Women’s pacifism in the course of the First World War is a chapter of collective memory that has never become a shared memory.The idea that war is “men’s business, not ladies”, is largely responsible for it. Paul Fussel summarises this attitude: correctly or not, as he writes in The Great War and Modern Memory, the current idea of the Great War derives primarily from images of the trenches in France and Belgium. Given this, it is not something unusual that outstanding events such as The Hague International Congress of Women (April-May 2015 is still a neglected chapter of women’s history. This paper focuses on the event and other significant experiences in women’s partecipation in the Great War.

  1. Chemical warfare and medical response during World War I. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Gerard J


    The first large-scale use of a traditional weapon of mass destruction (chemical, biological, or nuclear) involved the successful deployment of chemical weapons during World War I (1914-1918). Historians now refer to the Great War as the chemist's war because of the scientific and engineering mobilization efforts by the major belligerents. The development, production, and deployment of war gases such as chlorine, phosgene, and mustard created a new and complex public health threat that endangered not only soldiers and civilians on the battlefield but also chemical workers on the home front involved in the large-scale manufacturing processes. The story of chemical weapons research and development during that war provides useful insights for current public health practitioners faced with a possible chemical weapons attack against civilian or military populations.

  2. Unknown Fronts : The "Eastern Turn" in First World War History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agoston-Nikolova, Elka; van Diggelen, Marijke; van Hengel, Guido; van Koningsbrugge, Hans; Kraft van Ermel, Nicolaas A.


    One hundred years ago Europe unleashed a storm of violence upon the world: The First World War had an enormous impact on the lives of Europeans, European history and culture. To this day, the iconic images of trench warfare in Belgium and France are burned onto our retinas, the names of its major

  3. U.S. Army Corps Development in World War I (United States)


    in movement and communication that was unheard of in the wars of Europe’s past.30 This flexibility and speed gave Napoleon the ability to mass forego speed and agility for firepower and strength.67 Once General Pershing was established in Europe and American divisions were fighting in...Source: atlases /WorldWarOne/WWOneJPG/ WWOne22.jpg 51 Figure 5. Meuse-Argonne plan of attack, 26

  4. Radiation protection research during the Second World War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Dietrich


    The president commission of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft studied the contribution of German scientists to research projects during the Second World War, classified as ''important for the war''. The study is also thought as remembrance to the victims of these research projects. During the last years the history of the field office Oberschlema of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute for biophysics was and the radium research institute Oberschlema was investigated. Obviously there were no casualties among the voluntary test persons.

  5. Douglas Hanahan: The daunting complexity of cancer: understanding the battlefield is a step towards winning the war

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The Inaugural Grace-CERN Lecture The daunting complexity of cancer: understanding the battlefield is a step towards winning the war  Douglas Hanahan, Ph.D. Director, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC)  Professor of Molecular Oncology, School of Life Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) Vice Director, Swiss Cancer Center Lausanne Synopsis (version francaise ci-dessous) Cancer is a disease with hundreds of variations, both in affected organs and in responses to different therapies.  Modern human cancer research is producing an avalanche of data about the distinctive genetic aberrations of its specific types, further accentuating the diversity and vast complexity of the disease. There is hope that elucidating its mechanisms will lead to more informed and more effective therapeutic strategies.  Understanding the enemy is paramount, and yet tumors arising in different organs can be so different as to de...

  6. Thanks, but no thanks: how denial of osteopathic service in World War I and World War II shaped the profession. (United States)

    Silver, Shawn A


    Osteopathic physicians were denied the same rights and privileges that were granted to allopathic physicians by the US government regarding voluntary and compulsory service in World War I and World War II. Even after changes to the examination process allowed osteopathic physicians to take the examinations required to obtain commission as a physician in the army, osteopathic physicians' service was still rejected. The US government's decision to ban DOs from serving in the war was a blessing in disguise that led to tremendous changes in osteopathic medicine, education, and public acceptance of osteopathic physicians. Using primary documents from military officials, congressional hearings, and archived publications of the American Osteopathic Association, the author recounts the battle osteopathic physicians fought to serve their country during war and the challenges they faced while obtaining both legal and social equality in the eyes of the government and the public.

  7. Psychological Trauma and the Legacies of the First World War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This transnational, interdisciplinary study of traumatic neurosis moves beyond the existing histories of medical theory, welfare, and symptomatology. The essays explore the personal traumas of soldiers and civilians in the wake of the First World War; they also discuss how memory and representati......This transnational, interdisciplinary study of traumatic neurosis moves beyond the existing histories of medical theory, welfare, and symptomatology. The essays explore the personal traumas of soldiers and civilians in the wake of the First World War; they also discuss how memory...... and political authorities, this volume draws on diverse sources, such as family archives and narratives by children of traumatized men, documents from film and photography, memoirs by soldiers and civilians. This innovative study challenges us to re-examine our approach to the complex psychological effects...... of the First World War....

  8. WORLD WAR III The 1960's Version (United States)

    Brocklebank, Roy


    This article is based on a lecture to the Royal Institute of Navigation History of Air Navigation Group at Tangmere Museum on 12 May 2004. The author served as a navigator-radar or a radar bomb aimer within RAF Bomber Command during the mid-1960s. This article is based on his experience of this time in Bomber Command and describes how the Medium Bomber Force would have carried out their war operations had nuclear deterrence failed. In its day these plans were TOP SECRET.

  9. Photographic Histories of the Civil War and the First World War and Rebirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Meigs


    Full Text Available The article compares The Photographic History of the Civil War published in 1912, with A Photographic History of the First World War, published in 1933. The author is looking for similarities in the reworking of interpretations of war photography after the war and discovers that the photographs in conjunction with their editing can be made to cover up as much as they reveal. The Photographic History of the Civil War, published at the height of the Jim Crow era, with its hugely elaborate editorial structure, manages to deny the importance of slavery to the war and the importance of freed slaves afterwards. Even photographs of the dead of Gettysburg take on a meaning more appropriate to 1912 than to the event that produced them. The comparatively direct A Photographic History of the First World War, manages loyalty only to the thought of the author at the moment of its publication. Other interpretations were possible at other times as the author editor followed literary fashion and history.

  10. End of World War II: Truth and Lie of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Bahdanovich


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the main events of the last period of the World War II. A special attention is paid to the feat of the Soviet Armed Forces, that defeated the Kwantun Army in August 1945 and precipitated an unconditional capitulation of Japan and brought freedom to the peoples of Asia. The paper also reveals tragic consequences of atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The authors emphasize a key role of the Soviet Union in victorious completion of the World War II.

  11. Exposure to a First World War blistering agent. (United States)

    Le, H Q; Knudsen, S J


    Sulfur mustards act as vesicants and alkylating agents. They have been used as chemical warfare since 1917 during the first world war. This brief report illustrates the progression of injury on a primary exposed patient to a first world war blistering agent. This case documents the rapid timeline and progression of symptoms. It emphasises the importance of appropriate personal protective equipment and immediate medical response plan with rapid decontamination and proper action from military and civilian medical treatment facilities. This case reports the first US active duty military exposure to a blistering agent in the age of global terrorism.

  12. [The First World War and medical school of Petrograd]. (United States)

    Rostovtsev, E A; Sidorchuk, I V


    The article is devoted to the history of higher medical education of the Petrograd just before and during the First World War. The topical issue is the lack of information concerning this period of the history of Russian medicine and medical education, and the history of development of domestic medicine during the First World War, the centenary of which is celebrated this year. On the basis of a wide range of published and archival sources the authors show the basic vectors of development of medical education and exploring the role of St. Petersburg as one of the leading academic medical centres in the country.

  13. War and the Beautiful : On the Aestheticizing of the First World War in Film Yesterday and Today


    Fengler, Silke; Krebs, Stefan


    Our lecture explores the medial construction and aestheticising of the war, examining current TV documentaries on the First World War. Two time planes are here intertwined: on the first level we see how the film medium during World War One lends to the industrialised war events a new aesthetic dimension. In the second, contemporary level, this film material is reassembled and charged with additional significance. Both temporal levels are inseparably intertwined with one another – both con...

  14. [War trauma and PTSD among German war survivors. A comparison of former soldiers and women of World War II]. (United States)

    Nandi, C; Weierstall, R; Huth, S; Knecht, J; Elbert, T


    Stressful war experiences can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors. To what extent were the soldiers and young women of World War II affected by PTSD symptoms over the course of their lives? Do these men and women differ in the traumatic experiences and PTSD symptom severity? To investigate these questions 52 male and 20 female Germans aged 81-95 years were recruited through newspaper advertisements and notices and interviewed regarding war experiences and PTSD symptoms. Of the men 2% and 7% met the criteria for current and lifetime PTSD diagnoses, respectively, as compared to 10% and 30% of the women, respectively. Using multiple linear regression a dose-response relationship between the number of trauma types experienced and PTSD symptom severity could be demonstrated. The slope of the regression curve was steeper for women than for men. When controlling for the number of different traumatic experiences women reported a significantly higher severity of PTSD symptoms than men. It is presumed that this difference in severity of symptoms can be attributed to qualitative differences in the type of traumatic stress factors during the war. The present study provides evidence that even today people continue to be affected by PTSD symptoms due to events which occurred during World War II; therefore, during patient contact with this age group the war experiences specific to each individual need to be considered as potential moderators of symptoms.

  15. Romanian Orthodox Priests on the World War I Fronts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Cotan


    Full Text Available Unlike the World War II which brought a series of ideologies, such as Nazism and communism as reasons of outbreak, the World War I used religious themes in its propagandistic message, namely the idea to defend the homeland and faith. Religion was present in the propaganda promoted on the fronts of the Great War, and the military clergy – Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox – supported it. The military clergy have morally supported the soldiers in the trenches, most of them coming from the peasantry and labor still attached to the Christian values. This study is trying to present the efforts of the Romanian military priests enrolled in the Austro-Hungarian and Romanian armies for spiritually helping the Romanian militaries.

  16. Aspects of Romania's Economic Efforts in the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gheorghe


    Full Text Available Romania's participation in the Second World War was caused by loss of an area ofapproximately 1/3 of the national territory and has 6 million inhabitants, for the three neighbors of theRomanian state, that the Soviet Union, Hungary and Bulgaria will bethe reason fundamental ofRomania's participation in military operations on both fronts, east and west of the Second World War.Although Romania's war economic effort, amounted to the enormous amount of 1,200,000,000dollars in 1938 currency, a situationan honorable fourth place in the hierarchy of the United Nationsthat led the fight against Germany, co-belligerent status, the country justly deserved our will berefused for political reasons known only to the Great Powers. Of all the states, are in a situationsomewhat similar to that of Romania, no one made an effort not so much military or economic indefeating Germany.

  17. World War One in Africa: Implications on Christian Missions | Lang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The First World War resulted in serious complexities that had to be surmounted by the missions. In all German territories in Africa that were turned into battle fields as well as in Allied possessions, missionaries suffered at the hands of Allied Forces. This article attempts an analysis of the treatment of the missions during and ...

  18. Is Baseball Essential?: World War I and the National Pastime (United States)

    Jarosik, Kris Maldre; Sweeney, Jenny McMillen


    In this article, the authors demonstrate how a series of National Archives documents related to professional baseball players and the military draft can launch a lesson on the American home front during World War I, as the 100th anniversary approaches.


    During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among othe...

  20. Propaganda to Mobilize Women for World War II. (United States)

    Mathis, Susan


    Describes government efforts to mobilize U.S. women during World War II. Discusses the need for women's participation and the problems confronted by women who joined the wartime labor force. Describes efforts to increase participation by women in the armed forces. (CFR)

  1. China's Propaganda in the United States during World War II. (United States)

    Tsang, Kuo-jen

    Drawing data from a variety of sources, a study was undertaken to place China's propaganda activities in the United States during World War II into a historical perspective. Results showed that China's propaganda efforts consisted of official and unofficial activities and activities directed toward overseas Chinese. The official activities were…

  2. Propaganda in Warner Brothers World War II Cartoons. (United States)

    Machowski, James Stanley; Brown, James William

    To examine the role of the animated cartoon in propaganda associated with World War II, 194 of 262 cartoons produced for theatrical release by Warner Brothers, Inc., from 1939 to 1946 were analyzed. Propaganda content was determined by the number and nature of symbols used and the cartoon's "attitudes" toward these symbols. An analysis…

  3. The Propaganda Analysis Movement since World War I. (United States)

    Sproule, J. Michael

    To recount the development of the propaganda analysis movement before and since World War I, this paper reviews the precursors of the movement, traces the propaganda conciousness produced by wartime campaigns and subsequent domestic campaigns, and looks at major obstacles to propaganda analysis produced by social and academic conditions after…

  4. Decision-Making under Stress: World War II and Beyond. (United States)

    Johns, Robert


    Provides a teaching plan which helps students imaginatively take the roles of leaders in the United States during World War II so that they might more completely understand such difficult decisions as allying with the Soviet Union, relocating Japanese-Americans, and dropping the atomic bomb. Provides a statement of goals and objectives, required…

  5. The Rise of Conservatism since World War II. (United States)

    Carter, Dan T.


    Discusses the rise of the conservatism movement in the United States since World War II. States that laissez-faire capitalism and the rise of communism contributed to the popularity of conservatism in the United States. Focuses on the role of U.S. Presidents, such as Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. (CMK)

  6. SA forces in the Second World war | Esterhuyse | Scientia Militaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 3 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. SA forces in the Second World war.

  7. Review article: Deneys Reitz and the First World War: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The historical sources detailing South Africa's participation in the First World War are vast, and range from official publications to regimental histories, private diaries and first-hand accounts. The Department of Defence (DOD) Documentation Centre is the custodian of all military archival material generated since the ...

  8. First world war: 'The first big test of professional nursing'. (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer


    When Helen Fairchild, a young nurse in Pennsylvania, volunteered to take her skills to Europe in the first world war, she was glad to go but felt sorry for her mother. 'If she would only not worry so much', she wrote to her brother Ned.

  9. Education and Welfare during the Second World War. (United States)

    Lloyd, John


    Before World War II, British schools provided free meals only to poor, malnourished children. Bombing, evacuation, and food rationing transformed public opinion about child welfare efforts and led to cabinet policies expanding school meals and milk services. Particular outcomes in Scotland and special provisions for small schools are discussed.…

  10. The Netherlands and World War II, Jews and suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultee, W.C.; Luijkx, R.; van Tubergen, F.; Sher, L.; Vilens, A.


    World War II in the Netherlands lasted from May 1940 to May 1945. Suicide numbers peaked in these months, in the first case because of suicide by Jews, and in the second case because of suicide by collaborators with the German occupier. Suicide rates for Jews were higher in 1942 than in 1940 and

  11. Strategic Dissonance: British Middle East Command in World War II (United States)


    colonial levies by the tens of thousands. In December 1940, three months after the establishment of the Italian base at Sidi Barrani in Egypt...York: Harper, 1961. 40 McGregor, Malcolm, Andrew Mollo and Pierre Turner. The Armed Forces of World War II: Uniforms, Insignia, and Organization

  12. Rebuilding Special Education in Germany after World War II. (United States)

    Sengstock, Wayne L.; Ruttgardt, Sieglind Ellger


    The corruption of education values and the destruction of an outstanding educational system for children with mental retardation during Nazi rule in Germany necessitated a complete revamping after World War II. In its redevelopment, Germany resumed the practice of segregation and was slow to embrace social integration as adopted in other…

  13. [Tracing a journal fragment from the World War I]. (United States)

    Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella


    The paper presents a fragment of the World War I journal, discovered recently to belong to Vladimir Jelovšek (1879-1934) the physician, writer and one of the most prominent editors of Liječnički vjesnik. The journal was written during his attendance at the eastern front from June 1915 to July 1916 beginning with the fall of Lvov and partly following both Brusilov's invasions. On the territory of Croatia the war journals written by medical representatives are very rare. However, such sources could extend our knowledge on individual war reflexions, soldiers' principles or mindset, as well as to enable the comparison of their content with the body of already published autobiographical and other sources. Recently detected journal of Vladimir Jelovšek exposes the individual perception of war carried out through traumatic war experience of an individual abruptly exposed to war conditions. Furthermore, it adds to our knowledge the Jelovšek's life enlightening in those segments of his life which haven't been explored so far.

  14. Misfits of War: First World War Nurses in the Daughters of Mars by Thomas Keneally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branach-Kallas Anna


    Full Text Available The article is an analysis of the representation of Australian nurses in Thomas Keneally 2012 First World War novel, The Daughters of Mars. Inspired by rigorous research, Keneally fictionalizes the lives of two nursing sisters in the Middle East, on a hospital ship in the Dardanelles, as well as in hospitals and casualty clearing stations on the Western Front. His novel thus reclaims an important facet of the medical history of the First World War. The author of the article situates her analysis in the context of historical research on the First World War and the Australian Anzac myth, illuminating the specifically Australian elements in Keneally’s portrait of the Durance sisters. She demonstrates that The Daughters of Mars celebrates the achievements of “Anzac girls”, negotiating a place for them in the culture of commemoration. Yet, at the same time, Keneally attempts to include his female protagonists in the “manly” world of Anzac values, privileging heroism over victimization. Consequently, they become “misfits of war”, eagerly accepting imperial and nationalist ideologies. Thus, in a way characteristic of Australian First World War literature, The Daughters of Mars fuses the tropes of affirmation and desolation.

  15. Situation in the Albanian territories a$ er World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Seferi


    Full Text Available The end of World War I and the victory of the forces of Antante on 11 November 1918 did not result in the end of war in Londonized Albania and in the territories inhabited by Albanian people in Yugoslavia and Greece because neighbouring countries did not withdraw from Albanian territories since their desires were to extend even more to the detriment of the Albanian and were not satisfi ed only with the invasion of Kosovo by Serbia, Cameria by Greece, and Italy aspiring to keep Albania under its supervision. The European countries of Antante, such as England, France and Italy, did not support the Albanian people because they had reached an agreement during the World War 1 to conquer the countries of the triple alliance by promising Albanian territories to the neighbouring countries of Albania. The Protocol of April 1915 was devastating for Albania. The fate of Albanian people was such that European countries could not change the course of the World War 1. The intervention of USA was the one that changed the course of the World War 1, and USA even joined the war by stating that it did not recognize the agreements made during the war with regard to the territorial division. The neighboring countries of Albania had forgo$ en that in the global stage a political-military power was emerging which would lay the foundations of the new world order. Even though the war had ended, the neighboring countries of Albania were making agreements for the supervision of Albania. Italy was interested in keeping Albania under its supervision whereas Greece and Yugoslavia were interested in the division of Albania. Under these circumstances the Albanian people was facing new invasive challenges and they had to get organized both inside and outside the country for their national salvation. Albanians were organized in clubs and associations abroad, in order to help the freedom of Londonized Albania. The Albanians in Albania were fed up with long and savage invasions

  16. How World War 1 changed global attitudes to war and infectious diseases. (United States)

    Shanks, G Dennis


    World War 1 was a key transition point towards scientific medicine. Medical officers incorporated Louis Pasteur's discoveries into their understanding of microorganisms as the cause of infectious diseases, which were therefore susceptible to rational control and treatment measures even in the pre-antibiotic era. Typhoid vaccination led to the successful evasion of the disastrous epidemics of previous wars. The incidence of tetanus was probably decreased by giving millions of doses of horse antitoxin to wounded soldiers. Quinine treated but could not control malaria; its use required mass compulsion. Tuberculosis was not a great military problem during World War 1, although mortality in civilian populations increased substantially. Treatment of sexually transmitted infections remained a matter of aversive conditioning, with invasive antiseptics used in the absence of antibiotics. Pandemic influenza in 1918-19 killed more people than died during the entire war, showing how much remained beyond the capability of the scientists and doctors who fought infectious diseases during World War 1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The First World War and Its Implications for Education in British Museums. (United States)

    Kavanagh, Gaynor


    Examines how the First World War prompted British museums to change their educational functions. Discusses museums in pre-war Britain, wartime exhibitions and educational activities, the outcome of the war experience, and First World War's implications for education in museums. (GEA)

  18. First World War impact on economic development of worldlead countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Polchanov


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of economic development of world lead countries after the First World War. The aim of investigation is the identification of regularities of the post-conflict reconstruction of national economies of the world lead countries in the interwar period and the assessment of the dynamics of national defense financing as the indicator of international tension. The authors studies the experience in reconstruction of the European economies at the end of the First World War, in particular the main activities of the League of Nations (the world first International Organization for Security and Peace in Germany, Hungary, Estonia, Greece and Bulgaria in the interwar period are highlighted. Considering the data of military expenditures of main military and political bloc participants on the eve of the Second World War, the number of military personnel and the volume of iron and steel production during the 1920–1938, the author examines their relation with the help of correlation and regression analysis that allows to quantify the impact of these factors on the financing the defense sector.

  19. "Who's winning the human race?"Cold war as pharmaceutical political strategy. (United States)

    Tobbell, Dominique A


    Between 1959 and 1962, Senator Estes Kefauver led a congressional investigation into the pricing practices of U.S. drug firms. As part of its defense, the industry mobilized the rhetoric of cold war and promoted the industry as a critical national asset in the global war against communism. The industry argued that any effort to undermine corporate innovation by inviting, as Kefauver proposed, greater government involvement in drug development threatened the public's health and invited socialism-in the form of socialized medicine-into the domestic political economy. This strategy proved critical to the industry's efforts to build political support for itself, particularly among the medical profession, and undermine Kefauver's reform agenda.


    Fara, Patricia


    World War I is often said to have benefited British women by giving them the vote and by enabling them to take on traditionally male roles, including ones in science, engineering and medicine. In reality, conventional hierarchies were rapidly re-established after the Armistice. Concentrating mainly on a small group of well-qualified scientific and medical women, marginalized at the time and also in the secondary literature, I review the attitudes they experienced and the work they undertook during and immediately after the war. The effects of century-old prejudices are still felt today.

  1. [Nurses and spies during the First World War]. (United States)

    Halioua, Bruno


    During the First World War, some nurses distinguished themselves by playing a significant role in spy networks, using their activity as a cover. They took an active part in the setting up of escape routes for allied prisoners of war and the gathering of intelligence on the positions of German troops, in particular in Belgium and northern France. Among them Edith Cavell, Gabrielle Petit, Louise de Bettignies, Marie-Léonie Vanhoutte, Marthe Cocknaert and Emilienne-Rose Ducimetière are considered as heroines.

  2. Crossroads. Life Changing Stories from the Second World War: A (Transmedia) Storytelling Approach to World War II Heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvi, Licia; Hover, Moniek


    textabstractCrossroads is the name of the concept that narratively connects several WWII-related cultural institutions in Brabant. We were initially looking for ways to connect 4 otherwise very diverse World War II-related institutions (in fact, 3 museums and a commemoration centre) and we found it

  3. Why the Weak Win Wars: A Study of the Factors That Drive Strategy in Asymmetric Conflict (United States)


    and interests asymmetrical to those of the U.S., as 1 Caspar W. Weinberger, The Uses of Military Power (address to the National Press Club ...threats as possible. Immediately following WWII, the U.S. thought a robust nuclear arsenal would be able to respond to any threat along the...however often the action is repeated. But this elementary fact—on which are based the whole of science and technology—does not apply to war, football

  4. Canadian Military Nurse Deaths in the First World War. (United States)

    Dodd, Dianne


    This paper examines the lives of sixty-one Canadian Nursing Sisters who served during the First World War, and whose deaths were attributed, more or less equally, to three categories: general illness, Spanish Influenza, and killed in action. The response by Canadian Army Medical Corps (CAMC) physicians to the loss of these early female officers who were, in fact, Canada's first female war casualties, suggests a gendered construction of illness at work in the CAMC. While nurses tried to prove themselves good soldiers, military physicians were quick to attribute their illnesses and deaths to horrific war conditions deemed unsuitable for women. This gendered response is particularly evident in how CAMC physicians invoked a causal role for neurasthenia or shell shock for the nurses' poor health. The health profile of these women also suggests that some of these deaths might have occurred had these women stayed in Canada, and it encourages future comparative research into death rates among physicians and orderlies.

  5. 20 CFR 404.1320 - Who is a post-World War II veteran. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is a post-World War II veteran. 404.1320... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1320 Who is a post-World War II veteran. You are a post-World War II veteran if you...

  6. The correspondence between Winkler and Monakow during World War I. (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J; Jagella, Caroline


    The correspondence (1907-1930) between two leading European neurologists, Cornelis Winkler (1855-1941) and Constantin von Monakow (1853-1930), has been preserved in Amsterdam and Zurich. For this paper, letters exchanged during World War I were studied. Professional as well as personal issues were discussed. An international neurology meeting in Berne in September 1914 had to be cancelled due to the war. They hoped that (neuro)scientists would remain politically neutral, continue scientific cooperation, and even be able to influence the course of the war. Winkler and Monakow tried to continue their work on the International Brain Atlas. Although living in neutral countries (The Netherlands and Switzerland), they observed that their practice and scientific work suffered from war conditions. While Winkler continued his activities as a neurologist, Monakow, affected emotionally, experienced a change in scientific interest toward psychoneurology. He used his diaschisis concept, originally an explanation for transient phenomena in stroke, as a metaphor for the social and cultural effects of the war. He directly related cultural development and brain science, bringing in his own emotions, which resulted in the first of several publications on the relations between biology, brain science, and culture.

  7. How China Wins: A Case Study of the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War (United States)


    Officers. Their recollections are individual in nature and only reflect their personal memories of the time in question, and are not used for...and civilians often forgotten in the west’s memory of the last century’s wars. China under the CCP does not appear to shy away from casualties in...better to smell the dung of the French than to eat Chinese dung all one’s life. ―Ho Chi Minh, Quoted in Jean Sainteny, Ho Chi Minh and His Vietnam

  8. 20 CFR 408.216 - Are you a World War II veteran? (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are you a World War II veteran? 408.216 Section 408.216 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS SVB Qualification and Entitlement Military Service § 408.216 Are you a World War II...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1322 - Post-World War II service included. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Post-World War II service included. 404.1322... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1322 Post-World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1323 - Post-World War II service excluded. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Post-World War II service excluded. 404.1323... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1323 Post-World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service...

  11. 78 FR 64500 - World War One Centennial Commission; Notification of Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting (United States)


    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Notice-WWI-2013-02; Docket No. 2013-0007; Sequence 2] World War One Centennial Commission; Notification of Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting AGENCY: World War One... the schedule and agenda for the November 15, 2013, meeting of the World War One Centennial Commission...

  12. Lessons of the Great Patriotic War and World War II for Contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor I. Belousov


    Full Text Available After the Second World War 70 years have passed. Essentially already gone a generation of people for whom it was not a story, and the nationwide disaster and personal experience. And let time more and more we move away from the victory of 1945, the value and results of the war are enormous for the future of the modern world. Memory of the Great Victory presents to all of us now living, special requirements, the main of which consists in the fact that based on the analysis draw the necessary lessons from the past, draw the right conclusions for the safety of modern Russia. Over the years, the world has changed considerably. On the stage of world politics, a host of new independent states. There are new centers of economic development, and hence the new poles of power. Meanwhile, the events of recent months show that the main results of the Victory have not lost their importance today. This is best spoken of their incessant attempts to challenge by distorting the main points of the war and its lessons. And, obviously, it is no accident the day before and during the celebration of 70th anniversary of Victory wishing her to steal the peoples of Russia have been particularly active, as they claim - stiff and awkward. For domestic historiography it is not something unexpected. On the socio-political, military and economic results of the Second World War written many works, but probably in the light of the development of military-political processes in the world of individual instructive lesson it is important not to forget.

  13. Broadcasting Britishness during the Second World War -Radio and the British World-




    This essay considers the role of radio broadcasting in appealing to and reinforcing Britannic sentiment during the Second World War, and thus mobilising a united imperial war effort. Radio played on the bonds of sentiment in a particularly powerful fashion, because it addressed listeners intimately and with a sense of authenticity, and allowed rapid, regular, and direct communication with audiences over long distances. Imperial broadcasting structures established during the 1920s and 1930s we...

  14. The Battle of Moscow - Turning Point of World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V M Falin


    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the Battle of Moscow in October- December, 1941. Author analyzes the causes of the failure of German army, who tries to encircle and capture Moscow, the events taking place on the outskirts of Moscow, German troops attempts to encircle Moscow. The author presents data on the speech by Adolf Hitler in Berlin on October 5, 1941, in which he acknowledged the failure of the Blitzkrieg and the Battle for Moscow and its suburbs. The researcher uses the documents of the Wehrmacht High Command, which stated that after the Battle of Moscow, German troops could not on any further stage of the war to restore the quality and morale of the armed forces, with whom Reich rushed to a campaign for world domination. The author, a prominent public and political figure of the USSR, also relies on personal recollections, interviews with prominent generals of World War II, including I. Konev.

  15. [Human hepatitis experiments in the 2d World War]. (United States)

    Leyendecker, B; Klapp, F


    During the Second World War a hepatitis epidemic spread across wide areas of Europe, leaving no doubt about the previously questioned infectious nature of the disease. The losses to the German forces due to hepatitis, presented a challenge to several German scientists to identify the infective agent via animal trials and experiments with humans. Kurt Gutzeit, the "Beratende Internist beim Heeres-Sanitäts-Inspekteur" was in charge of the hepatitis research in the army. Under his guidance, two co-workers conducted experiments on non-voluntary subjects: in 1941, Hans Voegt infected psychiatric patients from the mental hospital in Breslau, and in 1944, Arnold Dohmen carried out experiments on jewish children in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. In the Nürnberg trials, Gutzeit had denied his and Dohmen's responsibility. Further investigation into the hepatitis research which was carried out by German scientists during the Second World War, especially Gutzeit's group, is regarded necessary.

  16. World War, Then and Now: World War III in the 21st Century (United States)


    groups. Fascism is a form of radical authoritarianism that became prominent in early 20th-century Europe. Fascists sought to unify their nations or...strong leader, and an emphasis on elimina- tion of diversity and of civil and human rights and the rule of law. Fascism views political violence, war

  17. The war against bacteria: how were sulphonamide drugs used by Britain during World War II? (United States)

    Davenport, Diana


    Penicillin is often considered one of the greatest discoveries of 20th century medicine. However, the revolution in therapeutics brought about by sulphonamides also had a profound effect on British medicine, particularly during World War II (WWII). Sulphonamides were used to successfully treat many infections which later yielded to penicillin and so their role deserves wider acknowledgement. The sulphonamides, a pre-war German discovery, were widely used clinically. However, the revolution brought about by the drugs has been either neglected or obscured by penicillin, resulting in less research on their use in Britain during WWII. By examining Medical Research Council records, particularly war memorandums, as well as medical journals, archives and newspaper reports, this paper hopes to highlight the importance of the sulphonamides and demonstrate their critical role in the medical war effort and their importance in both the public and more particularly, the medical, sectors. It will present evidence to show that sulphonamides gained importance due to the increased prevalence of infection which compromised the health of servicemen during WWII. The frequency of these infections led to an increase in demand and production. However, the sulphonamides were soon surpassed by penicillin, which had fewer side-effects and could treat syphilis and sulphonamide-resistant infections. Nevertheless, despite these limitations, the sulphonamides drugs were arguably more important in revolutionising medicine than penicillin, as they achieved the first real success in the war against bacteria.

  18. Mitigation win-win (United States)

    Moran, Dominic; Lucas, Amanda; Barnes, Andrew


    Win-win messages regarding climate change mitigation policies in agriculture tend to oversimplify farmer motivation. Contributions from psychology, cultural evolution and behavioural economics should help to design more effective policy.

  19. The Changing Face of War in Textbooks: Depictions of World War II and Vietnam, 1970-2009 (United States)

    Lachmann, Richard; Mitchell, Lacy


    How have U.S. high school textbook depictions of World War II and Vietnam changed since the 1970s? We examined 102 textbooks published from 1970 to 2009 to see how they treated U.S. involvement in World War II and Vietnam. Our content analysis of high school history textbooks finds that U.S. textbooks increasingly focus on the personal experiences…

  20. You Can Help Your Country: English Children's Work during the Second World War (United States)

    Mayall, Berry; Morrow, Virginia


    Using a rich collection of archives, school histories, photographs and memoirs, this book charts and discusses the contributions English children made to the war effort during World War II. As men and women were increasingly called up for war work, as the country needed to grow as much food as possible, and as the war effort required ever…

  1. Lifetime Alcohol Abuse in Institutionalized World War II Veterans. (United States)

    Herrmann, Nathan; Eryavec, Goran


    The authors document the lifetime prevalence and etiological correlates of alcohol abuse in a sample of elderly World War II veterans. Subjects (mean age 74.2 years), residing in a veterans' long-term care facility were given the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. A second investigator gave the Modified Combat Exposure Scale and administered a checklist of pre-war and wartime variables. The lifetime prevalence of alcohol abuse was 53%. There was no correlation between alcohol abuse and any other psychiatric diagnosis. There was a significant correlation between the severity of combat stress and subsequent alcohol abuse. Veterans with alcohol abuse also had significantly more wartime head injuries. There was also a trend for the alcoholic group to have experienced more pre-war stressors. Examination of pre-war variables and the severity of the combat stress might help to identify veterans at risk for development of alcohol abuse. Copyright © 1996 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Captives of the First World War in the Kurgan District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichkov Evgeniy


    Full Text Available The article deals with the process of locating foreign war prisoners in the Kurgan district from September 1914 to January 1917 and provides the data on their number and placement process. The author studies in detail the employment of captives in the economy of the district and characterizes the food, monetary and other regulations. The article also contains the information about companies and jobs where captives were involved and analyzes the legal rules applicable to captives and their practical implementation. The overview of the governance structure of captives is given. On the basis of extensive archival material, the author provides many early-unknown or little-studied historical facts about Trans-Urals in a given period. The conclusion is made about the importance of captives’ labor for the economic development of the Kurgan district during the First World War. The war prisoners were deeply involved in the economic development of the Kurgan district, their number was considerable, and they represented the major group of the population. It is also worth mentioning that the conditions of captives affected directly the military situation in the country – if at the beginning of the war, they were actually recognized by the Russian army, to its completion the allowance has been abbreviated in order to save the military.

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Institutionalized World War II Veterans. (United States)

    Herrmann, Nathan; Eryavec, Goran


    Relatively little is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in World War II (WWII) veterans, despite the significant number of studies on this problem in Vietnam veterans. The authors document the prevalence of PTSD and other psychiatric disorders and investigate the etiological correlates of the syndrome in elderly, institutionalized WWII veterans. Sixty-two cognitively intact subjects (mean age 74.2 years), residents in a veterans' long-term care facility, were assessed for past and present psychopathology. A second investigator, blind to patients' psychiatric status, determined the degree of combat exposure and administered a checklist of pre-war and wartime variables. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 23%. Of those veterans with PTSD, 57% experienced chronic symptoms. The lifetime prevalence of other diagnoses was also high, including 3 7% for major depression and 53% for alcohol abuse. There was a strong correlation between the severity of the combat stressor and the development of PTSD. Significant correlations between PTSD and some pre-war variables were also found: more family histories of alcohol abuse, more deaths of close family members in early life, and less likelihood of having held a job for more than 1 year prior to the war. PTSD in elderly, institutionalized WWII veterans is a common, serious problem that is often unrecognized. Copyright © 1994 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Two World Wars as Evidence of the Absence of International Anarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Horta Fernandes


    Full Text Available The First World War and the decades of turmoil thereafter, namely the 1930s, the Second World War and, later, the Cold War, are historical moments relevant to prove that one of the most famous ideas of International Relations is, in fact, impossible. The idea of an ontologically, yet not phenomenologically, permanent state of war is incompatible with a world filled with sovereignties. These sovereignties have never lost their political and strategic control of wars, not even in the main conflicts of the 20thc. All these conflicts were strategically mediated and never led to absolute war.

  5. Wars, Revolutions and the First Real World Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Minkkinen


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es promover la discusión conceptual para una publicación más amplia “Los Ciclos del Imperialismo, Guerra, y Revolución”. Empieza desde una presuposición que nuestro mundo común esta atravesando una transición desde un contexto histórico amplio eurocéntrico hacia un contexto histórico amplio non-eurocéntrico. Continua con la discusión histórica de los conceptos relacionados con la guerra, la reforma y la revolución y explica porque, en el contexto de la fase actual de la transición mundial y la Primera Verdadera Guerra Mundial, a pesar de la discusión anterior acerca de las revoluciones y revoluciones mundiales, es razonable sugerir que nuestro mundo común esta atravesando la Primera Verdadera Revolución Mundial._____________________ABSTRACTThe purpose of this article is to engage in a conceptual discussion for a broader publication on “The Cycles of Imperialism, War and Revolution”. It departs from a presupposition that our common world is experiencing a transition from a broad Eurocentric historical context into a non-Eurocentric broad historical context. It proceeds by a historical discussion on the concepts related to wars, reforms and revolutions and explains why, in the context of the actual phase of global transition and the First Real World War, it is, despite earlier discussions on revolutions and world revolutions, meaningful to suggest that our common world is experiencing a First Real World Revolution.

  6. [The treatment of wounds during World War I]. (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio


    The First World War was a huge tragedy for mankind, but, paradoxically, it represented a source of significant progress in a broad series of human activities, including medicine, since it forced physicians to improve their knowledge in the treatment of a large number of wounded soldiers. The use of heavy artillery and machine guns, as well as chemical warfare, caused very serious and life-threatening lesions and wounds. The most frequent causes of death were not mainly related to gunshot wounds, but rather to fractures, tetanus and septic complications of infectious diseases. In the first part of this article, we describe the surgical procedures and medical therapies carried out by Italian physicians during the First World War, with the aim of treating wounded soldiers in this pre-antibiotic era. Antibacterial solutions, such as those of Dakin-Carrel and sodium hypochlorite and boric acid, the tincture of iodine as well as the surgical and dressing approaches and techniques used to remove pus from wounds, such as ignipuncture and thermocautery or lamellar drainage are reported in detail. In the second part of the paper, the organization of the Italian military hospitals network, the systems and tools useful to transport wounded soldiers both in the front lines and in the rear is amply discussed. In addition, the number of soldiers enrolling, and those dying, wounded or missing during the Great War on the Italian front is estimated.

  7. International Context during and after World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Protopopov


    Full Text Available The author examines the international context of the Soviet Union and today's Russia during and after the World War II. Relations between the allies (the USSR, the US and the UK shortly after the end of World War II «gave a crack». Particular attention is paid to the development of the American nuclear program in an international context and objectives of the nuclear bombing of Japan, the expansion of NATO. The author concludes that the problem of military and economic development in the post-war period were largely dictated by the difficult international situation at that time. The Soviet Union was forced not only to establish a peaceful life, but also to take steps to create its own nuclear weapons and their means of delivery, strengthening the country's defense. After the troubled times of the second half of the 1980s and 1990s, in the XXI century Russia again began to strengthen its international position. The author proves the need for a consistent foreign policy.

  8. [Nurses in the first times of World War one]. (United States)

    Marc, Bernard


    The First World War originated in new and huge problems for both military authorities and military health service. The modern war which begun in 1914 overflowed this Service reformed in 1912. Famous journalists and political men such as Barrès and Clémenceau took part against dramatic conditions encountered by wounded soldiers. The First World War saw the introduction of many new technologies to the art of killing one's enemy among them the machine gun and the heavy use of artillery. It resulted in massive amount of wounded and ill soldiers which overflowed the military health service and every evacuation mean to the rear front. From August 2nd, 1914 to December 31st, 1914, 798. 833 French wounded soldiers and 322.672 ill soldiers were treated by the French Army 7th direction, in charge of the military health service. In such circumstances, a voluntary, parallel and the efficient sanitary organisation took an importance unknown until yet. This organisation, the Red Cross, associated the Société française de secours aux blessés militaires (French society for help to the wounded soldiers), the Union des Femmes de France (French Women Union) and the Association des Dames françaises (French Ladies Association). These three organisations, associated to many religious ones, brought a real sanitary structure so necessary in the troubled period as the beginning of the First World War. Everywhere in France, health service structures such as the hôpital temporaire no. 103 (Temporary Hospital number 103) in Paris, model hospital from the Union des Femmes de France, associated volunteers civilian doctors and surgeons. To increase the professional value of the paramedical staffs, a very specific effort was done for the formation of nurses in number, as correctly and as quickly as possible. During the first year of the First World War, nurses will be estimated since they had been able by their action to balance the disorder of the very first time of the conflict.

  9. Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) and cholera: the cause of World War II? (United States)

    Spellberg, Brad


    Here it is proposed that, by killing Prussian Major General Carl von Clausewitz before he could complete the work on his military text On War, cholera strongly influenced the nature of World War I (1914-18) and, by direct extension, contributed to the cause of World War II (1939-45).

  10. A British Second World War veteran with disseminated strongyloidiasis. (United States)

    Gill, G V; Beeching, N J; Khoo, S; Bailey, J W; Partridge, S; Blundell, J W; Luksza, A R


    A case is described of a 78-year-old British veteran of the Second World War (1939-45) who was stationed in Southeast Asia and who developed a recurrent pneumonia with blood eosinophilia. He was treated with steroids, and eventually died with a severe Pseudomonas pneumonia. Just prior to death, larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were identified in his sputum, and a specific serum ELISA test was later positive. At autopsy no other organs were involved, but bronchoalveolar carcinoma was found. Longstanding (57 years) chronic strongyloidiasis in a veteran who served in Southeast Asia but who was not a prisoner of war is very unusual. The pattern of dissemination was also not that of a true hyperinfection syndrome, and the case demonstrates the continued need for diagnostic vigilance amongst former soldiers who were based in the Far East.

  11. Spain, regenerationism and sports during the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Torrebadella Flix


    Full Text Available The First World War (FWW was a turning point in the contemporary era. Its social impact led to the penetration by ideological forces into physical education and sport; and the publicity-related discourse of these forces were marshaled to capitalize on the productive capacity of adolescents and young adults. The current study focuses on analyzing —through the texts of the period—in what manner the events of the FWW influenced sport in Spain, socially and institutionally. The exploration of original texts from the period in question and a critical discourse analysis provides a chronological narrative of events. The study concludes that the impact of the FWW was decisive in enabling sport to appropriate the values of patriotic excitation provoked not by fears of the war itself, but rather by underlying fears of an expanding industrial context that might find itself compromised by the revolutionary conflicts of the workers’ movement.

  12. The First World War in the Caribbean: Research Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Calmettes


    Full Text Available On the eve of World War I, the countries of the Caribbean basin are absent from the international arena. In Cuba, the Platt amendment - inscribed in the constitutional statute of the Republic - deprives the island of all diplomatic independence. Dominican Republic and Haití construct their nationalistic discourses in relation to their historical oppositions for the dominion of the island. In Cuba, a large part of the members of the independence elite express sincere admiration for the “civilized” culture of their neighbor. They perceive the latter as a means of erasing the vestiges of a Spanish “barbarism” that should be definitively relegated to a distant past. The American intervention of 1906-1909, the invasion of Nicaragua and the Enrique Mazas case contributed to the birth of an anti-imperialist intellectual movement in the period immediately prior to the war whose first manifesto titled Contra el Yankee was published in 1913 by Cesar Gandarilla.

  13. The Chronicle Of The First World War And Its Impact On The Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjada Progonati


    Full Text Available The process of the two Balkan Wars (1912-1913 remained incomplete until the First World War started. The aim of this study is to give some informations about The First World War and the role that Balkan region played to this war when the national consciousness of Balkan peoples began to crystallize. After the two Balkan Wars, all the Balkan states continued their efforts to gather their co-nationals into their national states. It’s concluded that the Balkan Wars leaded to the internationalization of this crisis spreading it to an ample area while many other crises at the same region were resolved without a general war in Europe. It appears that the First World War that began in 1914 in the Balkan region was a continuation of the wars that started in 1912-1913 period in the same are.

  14. The war of guns and mathematics mathematical practices and communities in France and its Western allies around World War I

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, David


    For a long time, World War I has been shortchanged by the historiography of science. Until recently, World War II was usually considered as the defining event for the formation of the modern relationship between science and society. In this context, the effects of the First World War, by contrast, were often limited to the massive deaths of promising young scientists. By focusing on a few key places (Paris, Cambridge, Rome, Chicago, and others), the present book gathers studies representing a broad spectrum of positions adopted by mathematicians about the conflict, from militant pacifism to military, scientific, or ideological mobilization. The use of mathematics for war is thoroughly examined. This book suggests a new vision of the long-term influence of World War I on mathematics and mathematicians. Continuities and discontinuities in the structure and organization of the mathematical sciences are discussed, as well as their images in various milieux. Topics of research and the values with which they were d...

  15. 'The gut war': Functional somatic disorders in the UK during the Second World War. (United States)

    Jones, Edgar


    Hospital admission and mortality statistics suggested that peptic ulcer reached a peak prevalence in the mid-1950s. During the Second World War, against this background of serious and common pathology, an epidemic of dyspepsia afflicted both service personnel and civilians alike. In the absence of reliable diagnostic techniques, physicians struggled to distinguish between life-threatening illness and mild, temporary disorders. This article explores the context in which non-ulcer stomach conditions flourished. At a time when fear was considered defeatist and overt psychological disorder attracted stigma, both soldiers and civilians exposed to frightening events may have unconsciously translated their distress into gastrointestinal disorders. While the nature of army food was initially identified as the cause of duodenal ulcer in servicemen, the pre-war idea that conscientious and anxious individuals were at high risk gathered support and fed into post-war beliefs that this was a stress-related illness. Diet continued to be employed as a means of management at a time when the nation was preoccupied by food because of the constraints imposed by rationing. The peptic ulcer phenomenon set much of the medical agenda for the war years and conflicted with the commonly held view that the British people had never been healthier.

  16. “Experience World War II like never before!” : A systematic content analysis of promotional materials surrounding World War II-themed digital games.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heede, Pieter; Ribbens, Kees; Jeroen, Jansz


    Especially since the 1990s, World War II has been one of the most popular historical conflicts to be represented and simulated in digital games (Mobygames, 2016). Yet, in the current body of research about these games, mainly aspects of individual games or game types, such as the World War II-themed

  17. Pearl to V-J Day: World War II in the Pacific

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neufeld, Jacob; Y'Blood, William T; Jefferson, Mary L


    In observance of the 50th anniversary of the end of World War II, the Air Force History and Museums Program sponsored a symposium on the War in the Pacific held at the Bethesda, MD, Naval Officers' Club...

  18. Soviet and American Airwomen During World War II: A Comparison of Their Formation, Treatment and Dismissal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Beth


    .... World War II provides an interesting setting to study women and warfare because the belligerent countries mobilized millions of women for the war effort, both in civilian and military capacities...

  19. Cultural shift in mental illness: a comparison of stress responses in World War I and the Vietnam War. (United States)

    Skinner, Rasjid; Kaplick, Paul M


    Post-traumatic stress disorder is an established diagnostic category. In particular, over the past 20 years, there has been an interest in culture as a fundamental factor in post-traumatic stress disorder symptom manifestation. However, only a very limited portion of this literature studies the historical variability of post-traumatic stress within a particular culture. Therefore, this study examines whether stress responses to violence associated with armed conflicts have been a culturally stable reaction in Western troops. We have compared historical records from World War I to those of the Vietnam War. Reference is also made to observations of combat trauma reactions in pre-World War I conflicts, World War II, the Korean War, the Falklands War, and the First Gulf War. The data set consisted of literature that was published during and after these armed conflicts. Accounts of World War I Shell Shock that describe symptom presentation, incidence (both acute and delayed), and prognosis were compared to the observations made of Vietnam War post-traumatic stress disorder victims. Results suggest that the conditions observed in Vietnam veterans were not the same as those which were observed in World War I trauma victims. The paper argues that the concept of post-traumatic stress disorder cannot be stretched to cover the typical battle trauma reactions of World War I. It is suggested that relatively subtle changes in culture, over little more than a generation, have had a profound effect on how mental illness forms, manifests itself, and is effectively treated. We add new evidence to the argument that post-traumatic stress disorder in its current conceptualisation does not adequately account, not only for ethnocultural variation but also for historical variation in stress responses within the same culture.

  20. [Use of chemical war gases at the Russian-German front during the First World War]. (United States)

    Budko, A A; Ivanovskii, Yu V


    The First World War was notable for the widespread use of machine military hardware and absolutely new type of weapon--chemical weapon. As a result of the first gas attack by chlorine undertaken by the German army against the Russian armies on May, 31st, 1915, heavy poisonings have received 9100 people, 6000 of them died. Chemical attack of Germany against Russia was limited by the use chemical gases of suffocating action: chlorine, bromine,phosgene and diphosgene. It is not known exactly, how many times Germany attacked Russian positions with use of chemical gases. On available data, in the First World War from application by German of the chemical weapon Russia has suffered more, than any other of the at war countries: from five hundred thousand poisoned have died nearby 66,000 people. In turn, having received in the order the chemical weapon of own manufacture, Russian army itself tried to attack in the German armies. It is authentically known only about several cases of application dy Russian of fighting poison gases, and in all cases of loss of germen were insignificant.

  1. "A Woman's World": The University of California, Berkeley, during the Second World War (United States)

    Dorn, Charles


    During World War II, female students at the University of California, Berkeley--then the most populous undergraduate campus in American higher education--made significant advances in collegiate life. In growing numbers, women enrolled in male-dominated academic programs, including mathematics, chemistry, and engineering, as they prepared for…

  2. The general age of leadership: older-looking presidential candidates win elections during war.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Spisak

    Full Text Available As nation-state leaders age they increasingly engage in inter-state militarized disputes yet in industrialized societies a steady decrease in testosterone associated with aging is observed--which suggests a decrease in dominance behavior. The current paper points out that from modern societies to Old World monkeys increasing both in age and social status encourages dominant strategies to maintain acquired rank. Moreover, it is argued this consistency has shaped an implicit prototype causing followers to associate older age with dominance leadership. It is shown that (i faces of older leaders are preferred during intergroup conflict and (ii morphing U.S. Presidential candidates to appear older or younger has an overriding effect on actual election outcomes. This indicates that democratic voting can be systematically adjusted by activating innate biases. These findings appear to create a new line of research regarding the biology of leadership and contextual cues of age.

  3. The general age of leadership: older-looking presidential candidates win elections during war. (United States)

    Spisak, Brian R


    As nation-state leaders age they increasingly engage in inter-state militarized disputes yet in industrialized societies a steady decrease in testosterone associated with aging is observed--which suggests a decrease in dominance behavior. The current paper points out that from modern societies to Old World monkeys increasing both in age and social status encourages dominant strategies to maintain acquired rank. Moreover, it is argued this consistency has shaped an implicit prototype causing followers to associate older age with dominance leadership. It is shown that (i) faces of older leaders are preferred during intergroup conflict and (ii) morphing U.S. Presidential candidates to appear older or younger has an overriding effect on actual election outcomes. This indicates that democratic voting can be systematically adjusted by activating innate biases. These findings appear to create a new line of research regarding the biology of leadership and contextual cues of age.

  4. 20 CFR 404.1321 - Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (United States)


    ... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War II...

  5. The Chronicle Of The First World War And Its Impact On The Balkans


    Progonati, Erjada


    The process of the two Balkan Wars remained incomplete until the First World War started. The aim of this study is to give some informations about The First World War and the role that Balkan region played to this war when the national consciousness of Balkan peoples began to crystallize. After the two Balkan Wars, all the Balkan states continued their efforts to gather their co-nationals into their national states. It’s concluded that the Balkan Wars leaded to the internationalization of th...

  6. [Contribution of Russian surgeons-participants of the First World War in development of vascular surgery]. (United States)

    Kokhan, E P; Gliantsev, S P; Galik, N I


    During the First World War wounds of vessels took 0,3-1,5% of all wounds, and lethality - 10-22%. Experience of vascular treatment, get by military-field surgeons during this war, was great. They have demonstrated advantage of vascular seam of bandage of vessels in conditions of their damages. Russian surgeons-participants of the First World War have formed the base, on which russian vascular surgery was advancing not only during wars, but also during peace-time.

  7. "Voices of the people": linguistic research among Germany's prisoners of war during World War I. (United States)

    Kaplan, Judith


    This paper investigates the history of the Royal Prussian Phonographic Commission, a body that collected and archived linguistic, ethnographic, and anthropological data from prisoners-of-war (POWs) in Germany during World War I. Recent literature has analyzed the significance of this research for the rise of conservative physical anthropology. Taking a complementary approach, the essay charts new territory in seeking to understand how the prison-camp studies informed philology and linguistics specifically. I argue that recognizing philological commitments of the Phonographic Commission is essential to comprehending the project contextually. My approach reveals that linguists accommodated material and contemporary evidence to older text-based research models, sustaining dynamic theories of language. Through a case study based on the Iranian philologist F. C. Andreas (1846-1930), the paper ultimately argues that linguistics merits greater recognition in the historiography of the behavioral sciences. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Posttraumatic stress disorder and current relationship functioning among World War II ex-prisoners of war. (United States)

    Cook, Joan M; Riggs, David S; Thompson, Richard; Coyne, James C; Sheikh, Javaid I


    This study examined the association of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with the quality of intimate relationships among present-day male World War II ex-prisoners of war (POWs). Ex-POWs had considerable marital stability; those with PTSD were no less likely to be in an intimate relationship. Ex-POWs in an intimate relationship who had PTSD (N=125 ) were compared with ex-POWs in a relationship who did not have PTSD (N=206). Marital functioning was within a range expected for persons without traumatic exposure. Yet, over 30% of those with PTSD reported relationship problems compared with only 11% of those without PTSD. Ex-POWs with PTSD reported poorer adjustment and communication with their partners and more difficulties with intimacy. Emotional numbing was significantly associated with relationship difficulties independent of other symptom complexes and severity of PTSD. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  9. Ukrainians in German Armed Forces During the Second World War


    Khromeychuk, Olesya


    During the Second World War large numbers of inhabitants of central, eastern and southern Europe joined the German Armed Forces. Among them were around 250,000 soldiers who identified themselves as Ukrainian. They served in the Wehrmacht, as well as the Waffen SS; a considerable number of them also served in the auxiliary police. They were motivated to join the German Armed Forces by a combination of different factors. This paper aims to shed some light on the broad range of circumstances tha...

  10. Borrowed buildings: Canada's temporary hospitals during World War I. (United States)

    Adams, A


    This article explores the alterations and additions made to houses, colleges, and larger public buildings in their temporary use as convalescent homes for wounded Canadian soldiers during World War I. These ''borrowed buildings'' anticipated and emphasized three important characteristics of subsequent hospital architecture by suggesting that domestic environments enhanced healing, that hospitals should be accessible, and that patients should be segregated according to social status and disease. The broader implications of the study are that temporarily appropriated spaces contribute to the definition of many institutions and often act as arenas of resistance to established practices.

  11. Happenings in histopathology - a post-World War II perspective. (United States)

    Shanmugaratnam, K


    There have been several important developments in the practice of histopathology since World War II; those reviewed in this lecture are grouped under 4 headings: new techniques (cytopathology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology), organisational issues (recruitment, training and certification, subspecialties, quality control and consultations), ethical and legal issues (service costs, and the ownership and uses of biopsy tissues) and globalisation (international associations, standardised classification and nomenclature, and telepathology). Advances in the fields of molecular pathology and telepathology are expected to have the greatest impact on the practice of pathology in the next decade.

  12. Poison gas and thefirst World War: key role ofpharmacists. (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno


    Poison gas has been the subject of attention from the French army (Grand Quartier General). The 22sd of April 1915, General Joffre decided that the General Direction for Health Service was in charge of the protection of troops against what he called "this new mode of terror, disease, and death". Actions are been launched to found ways for the protection means and to obtain for the army at least equivalent weapons. Pharmacists will have a leading role thanks to their knowledge in chemistry. Research laboratories were working in two areas: individual protection and production of aggressive agents. Paul Lebeau, Gabriel Bertrand, Alexandre Degrez, Charles Moureu were among many others very committed to fight and remains at the top and to react quickly to ennemy's attacks. At the end of the war, Paul Lebeau received the Legion d'Honneur medal for his contribution to war. The school of pharmacy was recognized as faculty of pharmacy, by a decree of May 14th, 1920. The knowledge that were obtained during this period will be used for the second World War, but the chemical weapon was not much used, as opposed to more recent usage in Vietnam, Irak and Syria.

  13. World War II : won by American planes and ships, or by the poor bloody Russian infantry?


    Harrison, Mark


    This short paper reviews a new book about World War II. In most such books, what is new is not usually important, and what is important is not new. This one is an exception. How the War Was Won: Air-Sea Power and Allied Victory in World War II, by Phillips Payson O'Brien, sets out a new perspective on the war. An established view is that World War II was decided on the Eastern front, where multi-million armies struggled for supremacy on land and millions died. According to O’Brien, this negle...

  14. Neurologic sequelae of deficiency diseases in World War II prisoners of war: Extracts from a videographic narrative. (United States)

    Kumar, Neeraj; Boes, Christopher J; Vilensky, Joel


    This report aims at bringing attention to still frames from a film that provides a videographic narrative of neurologic deficiency diseases in post World War II prisoners of war. An abbreviated version of the original film is provided as Supplementary material. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Young New Zealanders and the Great War: Exploring the Impact and Legacy of the First World War, 1914-2014 (United States)

    Graham, Jeanine


    Drawing on school histories, published adult recollections, oral interviews and children's letters, this article explores how the lives of young New Zealanders were affected by contemporary attitudes and activities during World War I in a country far removed from the actual theatre of war. Particular emphasis is given to school-related…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Pivec


    Full Text Available Author describes the history of General Hospital Maribor from its foundation (1799 to the beginning of World War II. In 1799 the magistrate of the town Maribor issued a memorandum regarding establishment of a town hospital in the renovated building of the town hospice, providing space for 24 patients. The work of the hospital was carried out in the former hospice building until 1855. 26 beds were added in the period between its establishment and eventual relocation. The last two decades of the hospital’s operation at the original location were marked by the assiduous work of the town’s physicist, Dr. Anton Kuker. In the first half of the 19th century, the population of Maribor rapidly grew as a consequence of the construction of the Southern Railway. The city authorities therefore purchased the Prosenjak family villa in the Magdalena suburbs and relocated the hospital to it in 1855, providing 28 rooms for 110 patients. For a whole century, the care of patients was taken over by the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul. The hospital was soon admitting over 1000 patients a year; the most common complaints being pulmonary catarrh, gastritis and fever. In 1872, when the Master of Surgery, Feliks Ferk, joined the hospital, the internal, medical, and the »external« surgical departments were formed. Although medical studies were not easily accessible, there was a number of Slovene physicians working in the hospital and the town in that period. In the last decades of the 19th century, the hospital was often renovated and enlarged. The infrastructure (telephone, water supply system, heating, lighting had also been modernized by World War I. In 1914, the first X-ray apparatus was purchased. Between the wars, the hospital’s development was stepped up by the recruitment of the Slovene physicians Ivan Matko, Mirko Černič, Janko Dernovšek and Hugon Robič. The initial external and medical departments split into several departments

  17. [Asbestos at the time of the First World War]. (United States)

    Bianchi, C; Bianchi, T


    Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th numerous asbestos industries began operations in various parts of the world. At the time of the First World War there is ample evidence of the use of this mineral in shipbuilding, the aircraft industry and in the construction industry. In the years 1912-17 the writer Franz Kafka was co-proprietor of a small asbestos factory in Prague. Some of the writer's novels and journal pages were inspired by this experience. In this way asbestos entered into the history of 20th century European literature. In 1917 asbestos extraction was started at the quarry in Balangero, near Turin, Italy. Risks related to the use of asbestos were known at the beginning of the 20th century and legislation aimed at preventing the harmful effects of the mineral were approved in Italy.

  18. Media and nationalism in Baja California during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Gruel Sández


    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to explain some journalistic representations of the Northern Territory of Baja California. The body of documents that pertain this article, will document different versions of the past of the peninsula, from the nature of political discourse. Bajacalifornians will appear represented by journalists, struggling to eliminate an image of an isolated, uninhabited place filled with U.S. citizens. The editorial portrayal of the Tijuana, Mexicali and Mexico City press will be analyzed in context with the regional, national and international conflicts. Public opinion was a ground where the people of Baja California negotiated the nationalism, as the rest of the world collapsed with World War ii.

  19. George Grosz and Croatian Art between the Two World Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaš, Lovorka


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the key aspects of George Grosz's influence on Croatian art between the two World Wars. A number of artists, especially the members of the association Zemlja, considered Grosz to be an author of similar ideological belief, who advocated an active role of art in society. Grosz's standpoints thus indirectly influenced the formation of the overall cultural atmosphere, marked by the polarization of the entire artistic scene. The artist became one of the key reference points and a figure cited by those who exerted a crucial influence on the formation of Croatian artistic scene between the two World Wars – the writer and one of the most prominent intellectuals Miroslav Krleža and visual artists Krsto Hegedušić and Ljubo Babić. The paper also addresses the circumstances regarding the organization of Grosz's solo exhibition in Zagreb in 1932, along with an analysis of the reception of his work among Croatian art critics.

  20. War on fear: Solly Zuckerman and civilian nerve in the Second World War. (United States)

    Burney, Ian


    This article examines the processes through which civilian fear was turned into a practicable investigative object in the inter-war period and the opening stages of the Second World War, and how it was invested with significance at the level of science and of public policy. Its focus is on a single historical actor, Solly Zuckerman, and on his early war work for the Ministry of Home Security-funded Extra Mural Unit based in Oxford's Department of Anatomy (OEMU). It examines the process by which Zuckerman forged a working relationship with fear in the 1930s, and how he translated this work to questions of home front anxiety in his role as an operational research officer. In doing so it demonstrates the persistent work applied to the problem: by highlighting it as an ongoing research project, and suggesting links between seemingly disparate research objects (e.g. the phenomenon of 'blast' exposure as physical and physiological trauma), the article aims to show how civilian 'nerve' emerged from within a highly specific analytical and operational matrix which itself had complex foundations.

  1. Foreign War Prisoners in the Astrakhan Province in the Years of the First World War and the Russian Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena G. Timofeeva


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of various aspects of military captivity, which became a mass phenomenon (“mass experience” in the years of the First World War and the revolutionary events in Russia and which influenced both the individual fate of war prisoners and different sides of the development of society. The article presents data on the number of war prisoners located in the years of war and revolution on the territory of the Astrakhan province, their categories and ethnic composition. The majority of war prisoners were soldiers of the German, Austro-Hungarian armies. The largest number of war prisoners on the territory of the province was recorded in May 1918. On the basis of documentary material, most of which is first introduced in the scientific use, the war prisoners’ accommodation, provision of clothing, food, medical care is researched. The placement of the contingent of war prisoners and their number depended on the needs of the region in labour force. War prisoners were sent to work on the municipal facilities in the provincial center and district towns, were attached to joint-stock and private enterprises, worked as doctors and paramedics in hospitals. The situation of war prisoners fully depended on socio-economic and political situation in the country. The problems of supply of war prisoners with clothing and food aggravated with the economic and political crisis in the country as well as rising prices and were common to all categories of population who needed support. The deterioration of living conditions led to increase in diseases, epidemics and deaths among the prisoners. Local authorities made efforts to supply war prisoners with food and provide with higher wages and hospitals. After the events of February 1917 there were hopes for mitigation of the regime of war prisoners, but visible improvement did not follow and the weakening supervision of war prisoners resulted in the growth of prison breaks.

  2. [Humanities as a means of survival: the testimony of a Siberian prisoner of war in the First World War]. (United States)

    Inić, Suzana; Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella; Kujundžić, Nikola


    This article looks into the autobiography of the Croatian chemist and pharmacognosist Antun Vrgoč (1881-1949) entitled My Memories of the World War 1914-1920 and published in Zagreb in 1937. The author was captured in October 1914 and deported to Siberia, where he remained prisoner of war until 1920. Since there are few memoirs describing the life of Siberian prisoners during the First World War, this work is a precious testimony about the attitude towards the prisoners of war, human relations, and the survival of an AustroHungarian army officer. The book shows a striking lack of civilian or military hostility towards the prisoners and the respect of the Geneva Convention. Antun Vrgoč adopted the culture, customs and language of his formal enemies, took part in their civilian life, and taught at their university. His cathartic experience of survival includes a clear message about the absurdity of war.

  3. Reading at the Front: Books and Soldiers in the First World War (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Marcella P.


    This paper focuses on the reading and educational practices of common soldiers during the First World War. It argues that the question of how war libraries were imagined and constructed by civilians needs to be framed in the larger context of pre-war Edwardian debates surrounding the "value of books" in society. Indeed, it was within…

  4. Fighting for Social Democracy: R.H. Tawney and Educational Reconstruction in the Second World War (United States)

    Ku, Hsiao-Yuh


    R.H. Tawney (1880-1962), a leading English economic historian and prominent socialist, was vigorously involved in educational reconstruction during the Second World War. For Tawney, the war was a war for social democracy. His ideals of social democracy formed a basis for his case for Public (independent) School reform and free secondary education…

  5. [The activities of the Russian Society of Red Cross during the First World War]. (United States)

    Gorelova, L Ye; Rudoiy, N A


    During the First World War, the Russian Society of Red Cross used experience of previous wars expanded its activities. The medical service functioned in the conditions of cruel war. For the first time in history, the weapon of mass destruction was applied The merit of the Russian society of Red Cross was development of specialized medical care.

  6. A Model for Winning-An Alternative Perspective for Applying Operational Art to the War on Drugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillespie, Jeremy


    ...-called war on drugs, the author proposes a thesis to explain why operational success in fighting the drug war has not translated in a straight-forward way into attainment of national strategic goals as set...

  7. Children's experiences of war: handicapped children in England during the Second World War. (United States)

    Wheatcroft, Sue


    The experiences of children during the Second World War have attracted considerable attention, both scholarly and popular. Not all children however, have received equal attention. Handicapped children are conspicuous by their absence from all types of literature, both on evacuation and on children's experiences of the Second World War. This article restores these children to the story of wartime England and assesses their experiences. It examines the plans that were made for their evacuation and how they were carried out, and compares their lives, both individually and institutionally (i.e. in the various types of 'special' school) with those who, for various reasons, were not evacuated. It also compares their experiences, to a lesser degree, with those of their non-handicapped counterparts. The article argues that for many handicapped children it was a positive experience but one which depended on specific aspects, such as the attitudes of the authorities and of the general public, and perhaps more importantly, the attitudes and quality of the teaching and nursing staff, who were responsible for the children on a daily basis.

  8. PTSD prevalence among Polish World War II survivors. (United States)

    Lis-Turlejska, Maja; Łuszczyńska, Aleksandra; Szumiał, Szymon


    Over the past decade research has been published in several Western European countries on the prevalence of PTSD among World War II survivors, mostly civilians. Prevalence rates ranged from 1.9% to 10.8 %. The aim of the study was to measure the frequency of PTSD occurrence among Polish WWII survivors. Data from 96 persons: 59 women and 37 men, aged 70-96 were analyzed. All participants were born before 1945. They completed Polish adaptations of: Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS), Impact of Events Scale (IES), Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and WWII trauma related questionnaire. Prevalence rate of potential PTSD was 32,3% Mean values of both number and severity of symptoms of PTSD were significantly higher for respondents with at least one war related trauma comparing to the participants who did note relate any such trauma. Comparing to other studies on WWII related PTSD the prevalence rate of possible PTSD was very high. Looking for possible explanation of such results seems to be an important challenge.

  9. The Nervous Flyer: Nerves, Flying and the First World War. (United States)

    Shaw Cobden, Lynsey


    This is not an article about 'shell-shock'. It explores the military medical response to nervous disorders in the Royal Flying Corps. The First World War exposed the propensity of pilots to the nervous and psychological rigours of aerial warfare, but their unique experiences have been overlooked in favour of 'trauma' in infantrymen. This represents a critical lacuna in the historiography of military medicine, for flying personnel were studied apart from 'shell-shocked' soldiers. This article will show that flyers were believed to be medically different, and what set them apart from men in the trenches was their unique employment. The war necessitated, and provided the conditions for, the study of the medical problems of flying, including the significant nervous strains. Medical officers quickly established that flying not only affected bodily functions, but also 'wore down' the nerves that regulated psychological responses. This article will therefore present the medical view. It will study the research of air-minded medical officers and the conclusions reached on the nervous disorders of flying personnel.

  10. Organization of Sisters of Mercy During World War One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribnaia Anna


    Full Text Available The article examines the labour organization of Russian sisters of mercy during World War One. The author indicates two periods which took place before and after the February Revolution. Based on archive documents and offi cial publications the article describes general structure of Russian Red Cross Society institutions and basic principles of sisters of mercy communities’ work. It examines the rules of new sisters’ employment, their training, service assignment and professional duties. The emphasis is put on nurses’ work in wartime. During first years of war sisters’ position was stable. Due to specifi c hierarchy in the managing structure sisters’ work was productive and demanded. After the February Revolution the managing system changed drastically as well as the status of sisters of mercy and their reception in society. The author gives a thorough examination of sisters’ position after reorganization of Russian Red Cross Society. In time of political instability Russian sisters of mercy were able to organize themselves into one big organization thus creating All-Russian Union of Sisters of Mercy. This article for the first time ever implements into scientific research a huge amount of documents which allowed a signifi cant extension of views on Bolsheviks’ political approaches to Russian Red Cross Society and institution of sisters of mercy.

  11. Kilts, tanks, and aeroplanes: Scotland, cinema, and the First World War


    David Archibald; Maria Velez-Serna


    This article charts commercial cinema’s role in promoting the war effort in Scotland during the First World War, outlining three aspects of the relationship between cinema and the war as observed in Scottish non-fiction short films produced between 1914 and 1918. The existing practice of local topical filmmaking, made or commissioned by cinema managers, created a particular form of engagement between cinema and war that was substantially different from the national newsreels or official fi...

  12. Information Engagement to Garner Public Support: TTPs from World War II (United States)


    others, including the second Persian Gulf war, winning in the process thirty-seven Emmy Awards, six Peabody Awards, and nine Overseas Press Club awards...information office that resembled the Committee of Public Information led by Mr. George Creel in WWI. George Creel became synonymous with propaganda...Obama’s administration is conducting diplomacy less from the DoD agency and more from the DoS agency than President George W. Bush’s Administration

  13. The Bluebirds: World War I Soldiers' Experiences of Occupational Therapy. (United States)

    Pettigrew, Judith; Robinson, Katie; Moloney, Stephanie

    More is known about the experience of occupational therapists than the experience of patients during the profession's early years. We examined soldiers' experiences of occupational therapy in American Base Hospital 9 in France during World War I through analysis of a 53-line poem by Corporal Frank Wren contained in the unpublished memoir of occupational therapy reconstruction aide Lena Hitchcock. Historical documentary research methods and thematic analysis were used to analyze the poem, the memoir, and the hospital's published history. The poem describes the activities engaged in during occupational therapy, equipment used, and the context of therapy. It articulates positive dimensions of the experience of engaging in activities, including emotional benefits, diversion, and orthopedic benefits. Previous historical research has identified core philosophical premises about the use of occupational therapy; in this article, the enactment of these principles is established through the analysis of a soldier's account of receiving occupational therapy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  14. Some autobiographical data (my life before the First World War) (United States)

    Fesenkov, V. G.; Fesenkova, L. V.

    The autobiography of the distinguish astronomy academician V. G. Fesenkov consists of two parts. The first one describes the period before 1914, the second one - the next period of academician life. The education in primary school, Harkov's University, his work in Tashkent and Harkov observatories, work at dissertation, work at the observatories in Paris, Medon and Nyssa are under discussion. This part of biography talks about the educational state and astronomy in Russia and Europe before the First World War. Also there are discussion of life of Russian intelligence at the beginning of XX century and intellectual atmosphere of life and work of scientists in Russia and France. The second part is devoted to the development of native astronomy in the Soviet period.

  15. Trace Explosives Signatures from World War II Unexploded Undersea Ordnance (United States)

    Darrach, M. R.; Chutjian, A.; Plett, G. A.


    Trace explosives signatures of TNT and DNT have been extracted from multiple sediment samples adjacent to unexploded undersea ordnance at Halifax Harbor, Canada. The ordnance was hurled into the harbor during a massive explosion some 50 years earlier, in 1945 after World War II had ended. Laboratory sediment extractions were made using the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method in seawater and detection using the Reversal Electron Attachment Detection (READ) technique and, in the case of DNT, a commercial gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Results show that, after more than 50 years in the environment, ordnance that appeared to be physically intact gave good explosives signatures at the parts per billion level, whereas ordnance that had been cracked open during the explosion gave no signatures at the 10 parts per trillion sensitivity level. These measurements appear to provide the first reported data of explosives signatures from undersea unexploded ordnance.

  16. The Rhetoric of Disfigurement in First World War Britain (United States)

    Biernoff, Suzannah


    Summary During the First World War, the horror of facial mutilation was evoked in journalism, poems, memoirs and fiction; but in Britain it was almost never represented visually outside the professional contexts of clinical medicine and medical history. This article asks why, and offers an account of British visual culture in which visual anxiety and aversion are of central importance. By comparing the rhetoric of disfigurement to the parallel treatment of amputees, an asymmetrical picture emerges in which the ‘worst loss of all’—the loss of one's face—is perceived as a loss of humanity. The only hope was surgery or, if that failed, prosthetic repair: innovations that were often wildly exaggerated in the popular press. Francis Derwent Wood was one of several sculptors whose technical skill and artistic ‘wizardry’ played a part in the improvised reconstruction of identity and humanity.

  17. Dermatotoxicology of sulfur mustard: Historical perspectives from World War I. (United States)

    Jiang, Austin; Maibach, Howard


    Sulfur mustard has been used as a chemical warfare agent for the past century. After its introduction by the Germans in World War I, investigators quickly began studying its impact on the human body including its deleterious effects on skin. This review focuses on two groups in particular who conducted experiments from 1917 to 1918: the United States Army at the American University Experiment Station Laboratories and Torald Sollmann at Western Reserve University. Through this work, these researchers proved far ahead of their time by anticipating dermatologic phenomena not described in the literature until later in the twentieth century. These include regional variation of percutaneous penetration, effect of vehicle on penetration and predicting immunologic contact urticaria. The work conducted by these researchers set the groundwork for much of twentieth century dermatotoxicology. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Early Tests of Piagetian Theory Through World War II. (United States)

    Beins, Bernard C


    Psychologists recognized the importance of Jean Piaget's theory from its inception. Within a year of the appearance of his first book translated into English, The Language and Thought of the Child (J. Piaget, 1926) , it had been reviewed and welcomed; shortly thereafter, psychologists began testing the tenets of the theory empirically. The author traces the empirical testing of his theory in the 2 decades following publication of his initial book. A review of the published literature through the World War II era reveals that the research resulted in consistent failure to support the theoretical mechanisms that Piaget proposed. Nonetheless, the theory ultimately gained traction to become the bedrock of developmental psychology. Reasons for its persistence may include a possible lack of awareness by psychologists about the lack of empirical support, its breadth and complexity, and a lack of a viable alternate theory. As a result, the theory still exerts influence in psychology even though its dominance has diminished.

  19. History of respiratory mechanics prior to World War II. (United States)

    West, John B


    The history of respiratory mechanics is reviewed over a period of some 2,500 years from the ancient Greeks to World War II. A cardinal early figure was Galen (130-199 AD) who made remarkably perceptive statements on the diaphragm and the anatomy of the phrenic nerves. The polymath Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) contributed observations on pulmonary mechanics including the pleural space and bronchial airflow that still make good reading. Vesalius (1514-1564) produced magnificent illustrations of the lung, ribcage, and diaphragm. In the 17th century, the Oxford School including Boyle, Hooke, Lower, and Mayow were responsible for many contributions on mechanical functions including the intercostal muscles and the pleura. Hales (1677-1761) calculated the size and surface area of the alveoli, the time spent by the blood in the pulmonary capillaries, and intrathoracic pressures. Poiseuille (1799-1869) carried out classical studies of fluid mechanics including one of the first demonstrations of flow limitation in collapsible vessels. The culmination of the pre-World War II period was the outstanding contributions of Rohrer (1888-1926) and his two Swiss countrymen, Wirz (1896-1978) and von Neergaard (1887-1947). Rohrer developed the first comprehensive, quantitative treatment of respiratory mechanics in the space of 10 years including an analysis of flow in airways, and the pressure-volume behavior of the respiratory system. von Neergaard performed landmark studies on the effects of surface tension on pressure-volume behavior. Progress over the 2,500 years was slow and erratic at times, but by 1940 the stage was set for the spectacular developments of the next 70 years. © 2012 American Physiological Society

  20. Russian War Prisoners of the First World War in German Camps


    Gulzhaukhar Kokebayeva; Erke Kartabayeva; Nurzipa Alpysbayeva


    The article considers the problem of the custody of Russian war prisoners in German camps. The German authorities treated Russian war prisoners in accordance with the ‘Provision of War Prisoners Custody’, approved by the Emperor on 11 August, 1914. The content of this document mainly corresponded to the Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. But German authorities discriminated the war prisoners of different nationalities.

  1. Russian War Prisoners of the First World War in German Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar Kokebayeva


    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of the custody of Russian war prisoners in German camps. The German authorities treated Russian war prisoners in accordance with the ‘Provision of War Prisoners Custody’, approved by the Emperor on 11 August, 1914. The content of this document mainly corresponded to the Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. But German authorities discriminated the war prisoners of different nationalities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian M. DOBRESCU


    Full Text Available Mentality is defined as an assembly of manners of acting or thinking about someone or something. Related to the history of mentalities in the 19th century the core elements were the building of the nation and the constitutional law and only at the beginning of the 20th century the economic development and the relations between social classes. Mentalities change hard and slowly. Therefore, quick leaps (social, economic, political and cultural cannot be done within a population which is immersed in old mentalities. The traditional rural society is animated by religious dogmas and conceptions. Old mentalities of the population very often generate social unrest. In Romania between the two world wars these mentalities were the background of the future social changes imposed after the Soviet model and which continue to influence even today the development of the country. Enlightened minds of Romania concerned in the first decades of the 20th century about learning and evaluating the mentalities specific to our nation. Foreseeing the important and creative role of individuals for a nation on multiple levels, these free-thinking minds inferred the assembly of conscience and behaviour traits that build up the national characteristics of the Romanian nation. In a comparative regard of the studies quoted hereunder, that we might characterise as being of reference for characterising the mentalities of our nation in the period between the two World Wars of the 20th century, we may conclude that the Romanian nation pertains to the extended family of the European nations and world nations; demanding times endowed the Romanian nation and its representative with some negative behavioural traits, but which are not predominant; the Romanian’s nature is positive, constructive and creative. A logical conclusion imposes itself: despite the relatively low number of population, along centuries, the Romanian nation still holds a place of honour in the world gallery of

  3. The cold and the dark: The world after nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, P.R.; Sagan, C.; Kennedy, D.; Roberts, W.O.


    This book contains the following three selections: The Atmospheric and Climatic Consequences of Nuclear War; The Biological Consequences of Nuclear War; and The Moscow Link: A Diaglogue between U.S. and Soviet Scientists

  4. Making War Work for Industry: The United Alkali Company's Central Laboratory During World War One. (United States)

    Reed, Peter


    The creation of the Central Laboratory immediately after the United Alkali Company (UAC) was formed in 1890, by amalgamating the Leblanc alkali works in Britain, brought high expectations of repositioning the company by replacing its obsolete Leblanc process plant and expanding its range of chemical products. By 1914, UAC had struggled with few exceptions to adopt new technologies and processes and was still reliant on the Leblanc process. From 1914, the Government would rely heavily on its contribution to the war effort. As a major heavy-chemical manufacturer, UAC produced chemicals for explosives and warfare gases, while also trying to maintain production of many essential chemicals including fertilisers for homeland consumption. UAC's wartime effort was led by the Central Laboratory, working closely with the recently established Engineer's Department to develop new process pathways, build new plant, adapt existing plant, and produce the contracted quantities, all as quickly as possible to meet the changing battlefield demands. This article explores how wartime conditions and demands provided the stimulus for the Central Laboratory's crucial R&D work during World War One.

  5. Full and partial post-traumatic stress disorder among World War II prisoners of war. (United States)

    Favaro, Angela; Tenconi, Elena; Colombo, Giovanni; Santonastaso, Paolo


    The aim of the study is to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of full and partial post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 66 World War II Nazi prisoners of war, some of whom had been deported to death camps. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to assess the presence of PTSD and major depression. The Dissociative Experiences Scale and the 58-item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist were also administered. Partial PTSD was defined as the presence of at least one symptom in each of the clusters defined by DSM-IV. Forty-eight percent of the subjects have a partial PTSD, while 20% reported the full syndrome. When compared to subjects with full PTSD, those with partial PTSD showed a significantly lower frequency of comorbid depression and lower levels of psychological distress, as measured by the Symptom Checklist. No differences were found with regards to dissociative symptoms and help-seeking. The problem of definition of PTSD partial syndromes deserves more attention in the literature. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Cognitive dysfunctions associated with PTSD: evidence from World War II prisoners of war. (United States)

    Hart, John; Kimbrell, Timothy; Fauver, Peter; Cherry, Barbara J; Pitcock, Jeffery; Booe, Leroy Q; Tillman, Gail; Freeman, Thomas W


    The authors aim to delineate cognitive dysfunction associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by evaluating a well-defined cohort of former World War II prisoners of war (POWs) with documented trauma and minimal comorbidities. The authors studied a cross-sectional assessment of neuropsychological performance in former POWs with PTSD, PTSD with other psychiatric comorbidities, and those with no PTSD or psychiatric diagnoses. Participants who developed PTSD had average IQ, while those who did not develop PTSD after similar traumatic experiences had higher IQs than average (approximately 116). Those with PTSD performed significantly less well in tests of selective frontal lobe functions and psychomotor speed. In addition, PTSD patients with co-occurring psychiatric conditions experienced impairment in recognition memory for faces. Higher IQ appears to protect individuals who undergo a traumatic experience from developing long-term PTSD, while cognitive dysfunctions appear to develop with or subsequent to PTSD. These distinctions were supported by the negative and positive correlations of these cognitive dysfunctions with quantitative markers of trauma, respectively. There is a suggestion that some cognitive decrements occur in PTSD patients only when they have comorbid psychiatric diagnoses.

  7. Preserving the Memories of World War II: An Intergenerational Interview Project (United States)

    Percoco, James A.


    The Friends of the National World War II Memorial was established in 2007 to serve, in part, as an organization devoted to educating young people and visitors to the memorial in an effort to ensure that the lessons, legacy, and sacrifices of World War II not be forgotten. After 32 years of teaching history at West Springfield High School in…

  8. 5 CFR 831.304 - Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II. 831.304 Section 831.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Nurse Corps during World War II. (a) Definitions and special usages. In this section— (1) Basic pay is...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1059 - Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. 404.1059 Section 404.1059 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...-Employment Income Wages § 404.1059 Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. (a) In...

  10. Economic Crisis during the second World War and the Response of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soaring prices of imported goods that accompanied the Second World War led to the increase in demand for locally made goods, indigenous industries like the textile and tinsmith therefore thrived. However, the most severe problem created by the Second World War was the acute shortage of food all over Nigeria due ...

  11. Civilians in World War II and DSM-IV mental disorders: results from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. (United States)

    Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E; Betancourt, Theresa S; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G; Ten Have, Margreet; Kessler, Ronald C


    Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Adults (n = 3370) who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders.

  12. Civilians in World War II and DSM-IV mental disorders: Results from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative (United States)

    Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E.; Betancourt, Theresa S.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G.; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G.; Have, Margreet ten; Kessler, Ronald C.


    Purpose Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Methods Adults (n= 3,370)who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Results Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders. (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Conclusions Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders. PMID:29119266

  13. War and Marriage: Assortative Mating and the World War II GI Bill. (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew F; McCarthy, T J; Moulton, Jeremy G; Page, Marianne E; Patel, Ankur J


    World War II and its subsequent GI Bill have been widely credited with playing a transformative role in American society, but there have been few quantitative analyses of these historical events' broad social effects. We exploit between-cohort variation in the probability of military service to investigate how WWII and the GI Bill altered the structure of marriage, and find that it had important spillover effects beyond its direct effect on men's educational attainment. Our results suggest that the additional education received by returning veterans caused them to "sort" into wives with significantly higher levels of education. This suggests an important mechanism by which socioeconomic status may be passed on to the next generation.

  14. Two Eclipses, a Theory, and a World War (United States)

    Batten, Alan H.


    Both the beginning and ending of World War I were signalled by total solar eclipses at which attempts were made to measure the deflection, predicted by Albert Einstein, of starlight passing close to the Sun. An American team led by W. W. Campbell and a German team led by E. F. Freundlich travelled to Russia to observe the eclipse of 1914 August 21. The Americans were foiled by the weather, and the Germans were interned as enemy aliens, so no successful measurements were made. British astronomers, led by A. S. Eddington, mounted two expeditions to observe the eclipse of 1919 May 29, one to Brazil, the other, with Eddington personally in charge, to an island off the west coast of Africa. The results, presented with much fanfare, appeared to constitute a spectacular confirmation of general relativity, although much debate surrounded the observations and their interpretation in later decades. The stories of Freundlich and Eddington intertwine not only with controversial questions about how best to make and to reduce the observations, but also with attitudes toward the war, notably the extreme anti-German sentiment that pervaded the countries of the western alliance, contrasted with the Quaker pacifism of Eddington himself; and also with differing attitudes to relativity among European and American astronomers. Eddington later played a role in bringing Freundlich to the United Kingdom after the rise of Hitler and the Nazis. Ironically, in later life, Freundlich became increasingly sceptical of general relativity and proposed a theory of proton-proton interaction to account for the cosmological red-shifts.

  15. Two manic-depressives, two tyrants, two world wars. (United States)

    Lieb, Julian


    Napoleon Bonaparte, Adolph Hitler and Joseph Stalin were tyrants who attained absolute power, and misused it in a gargantuan fashion, leaving in his wake a trail of hatred, devastation and death. All made war on their perceived enemies and on their own countrymen. In "A Brotherhood of Tyrants: Manic Depression and Absolute power" (1994) Amherst, Prometheus Books, D. Jablow Hershman and I expose manic-depressive disorder as the force that drove them to absolute power and the terrible abuse of it. We uncover manic-depressive disorder as a hidden cause of dictatorship, mass killing and war, and show how the psychopathology of the disorder can be a key factor in the political pathology of tyranny. In our earlier "The Key To Genius: Manic-Depression and the Creative Life" (1998) Amherst Prometheus Books we catalog the role of the disorder in the lives and careers of Isaac Newton, Ludwig von Beethoven, Charles Dickens, Vincent van Gogh and other creative geniuses. Thus manic-depressive disorder is variable to the extreme of paradox. Key to the destroyers is an indifference to the suffering of others, a need to control everyone and everything, a resistance to reason, and grandiose and paranoid delusions. The paranoid and grandiose delusions of manic-depressives are as infectious and as virulent as a deadly microbe, and can easily infect those in thrall to the host figure. It is a phenomenon known as "induced psychosis" and its imprint is often to be seen on the world stage. In this article I will add Kaiser Wilhelm to the list of manic-depressive warmongers, and passages from Robert Payne's "The Life and Death of Adolph Hitler" that are not only pathognomonic of manic-depressive disorder, but of the mixed variant.

  16. Vascular Surgery in World War II: The Shift to Repairing Arteries. (United States)

    Barr, Justin; Cherry, Kenneth J; Rich, Norman M


    Vascular surgery in World War II has long been defined by DeBakey and Simeone's classic 1946 article describing arterial repair as exceedingly rare. They argued ligation was and should be the standard surgical response to arterial trauma in war. We returned to and analyzed the original records of World War II military medical units housed in the National Archives and other repositories in addition to consulting published accounts to determine the American practice of vascular surgery in World War II. This research demonstrates a clear shift from ligation to arterial repair occurring among American military surgeons in the last 6 months of the war in the European Theater of Operations. These conclusions not only highlight the role of war as a catalyst for surgical change but also point to the dangers of inaccurate history in stymieing such advances.

  17. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe (United States)

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.


    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973

  18. "The Masters of War": Finding Ways to Talk about the First World War Today (United States)

    O'Connor, Peter


    This article sets out to challenge conventional descriptions and explanations of war and teaching about war. It draws on raw data from three qualitative arts-based projects to illustrate the complexity of cognitive and affective understandings of the place of war, past, present and future, through the jarring dissonance of "mash-up"--a…

  19. Aviation medicine in the United Kingdom: from the end of World War I to the end of World War II, 1919-1945. (United States)

    Gibson, T Michael; Harrison, Michael H


    This is the second of three brief papers that summarize the history of Aviation Medicine in the Royal Air Force. British aviation medicine research was rescued from the doldrums of retrenchment after the end of the First World War by the need to support attempts on world records for height and speed. Despite this, the outbreak of the Second World War still found the British inadequately prepared. This part of the account of British aviation medicine research charts its transition from an organization with three full-time workers into a thriving research institute.

  20. Persistence of traumatic memories in World War II prisoners of war. (United States)

    Rintamaki, Lance S; Weaver, Frances M; Elbaum, Philip L; Klama, Edward N; Miskevics, Scott A


    To assess the long-term effects of the prisoner of war (POW) experience on U.S. World War II (WWII) veterans. Exploratory study. Participants were recruited through the Hines Veterans Affairs Hospital; a POW reunion in Orlando, Florida; and the WWII veterans periodical, "The QUAN." One hundred fifty-seven American military veterans who were former WWII POWs. Participants completed a mailed survey describing their POW experiences, POW effects on subsequent psychological and physical well-being, and ways in which these experiences shaped major decisions in their lives. Participants from the European and Pacific theaters reported that their captivity during WWII affected their long-term emotional well-being. Both groups reported high rates of reflection, dreaming, and flashbacks pertaining to their POW experiences, but Pacific theater POWs did so at higher rates in the present than in the past. Large portions of both groups reported greater rumination on POW experiences after retirement. Finally, 16.6% of participants met the requirements of a current, clinical diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on the Mississippi PTSD scale, with PTSD rates in Pacific theater POWs (34%) three times those of European theater POWs (12%). Traumatic memories and clinical levels of PTSD persist for WWII POWs as long as 65 years after their captivity. Additionally, rumination about these experiences, including flashbacks and persistent nightmares, may increase after retirement, particularly for those held in the Pacific theater. These findings inform the current therapeutic needs of this elderly population and future generations of POWs from other military conflicts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Eduardo Meinerz


    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze why Latin America, especially Argentina, was the region of the world that harbored the most Nazi war criminals—for example, Josef Mengele, Adolf Eichmann and Klaus Barbie—after World War II. It also aims to analyze how this fact has set the tone for the appearance of literary works about the fantastic adventures of “Nazi hunters” seeking the whereabouts of those individuals. For this purpose, in the first part of the article we will address Nazis’ escape to Latin America. Next, we analyze some literary works by authors who called themselves Nazi hunters.

  2. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun


    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  3. External and Internal Impact on Soviet Memorial Landscape Development by THE World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Cherkasski


    Full Text Available The World War II led to serious casualties and left deep scars / wounds of memory. As the victory over occupation regime was glorified, honored and starting from 1965 was widely celebrated at national level, there was a great gap between official and personal memory of war. Monuments are one of the forms of living examples of the past and thus are reliable sources for the study of different epochs and Zeitgeist / spirit of time and their changes. This article considers the development of Soviet memorial landscape by the World War II starting from the war termination to the Soviet Union collapse. Special attention is attached to internal political and international views / interpretations and development with respect to victims of war. In other words, the process of different groups of war victims exclusion and inclusion in Soviet collective memory under the influence of internal political and foreign political interests symbiosis. And, as a result, resultant attitude towards memorial places.

  4. 20 CFR 408.420 - What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us? (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What evidence of World War II military... SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Military Service § 408.420 What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us? (a) Kinds of evidence you can give us. To...

  5. 76 FR 11935 - Death of Army Corporal Frank W. Buckles, the Last Surviving American Veteran of World War I (United States)


    ... of Army Corporal Frank W. Buckles, the Last Surviving American Veteran of World War I By the... Corporal Frank W. Buckles, the last surviving American veteran of World War I, and in remembrance of the generation of American veterans of World War I, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the...

  6. [Illustration of military medicine on the pages of mass printed media during the First World War]. (United States)

    Poddubnyĭ, M V


    The article analyses some of illustrations dedicated to the military medical topics on the pages of some Russian magazines and newspapers (magazine "Ogonek" newspaper "Petrograd's paper" and its annexes), its place among the images of the war, formed in the mass consciousness by periodical subjects. It is concluded that with the beginning of the First World War medical illustrations were finally approved as a recognizable symbol of the war. Mass printed media played a significant role in its entrenchment.

  7. Global Origins of World War One. Part One: The World Crisis over Concessions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D'Agostino


    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se ahonda en el debate sobre los prolegómenos, orígenes y responsabilidades de la I Guerra Mundial. Alejándose de un enfoque eurocéntrico, se pretende exponer la importancia que para el desencadenamiento de los hechos de 1914 tuvo el desencadenamiento de tensiones y crisis diplomáticas situadas en la periferia del sistema internacional. Se prestará especial a las ocurridas en Extremo Oriente, describiéndose las causas de las mismas, las posiciones adoptadas por cada una de las grandes potencias ante ellas y las consecuencias que tuvieron para el equilibrio geoestratégico tanto de la región como del planeta, vinculándolo al estallido del primer conflicto mundial.______________________ABSTRACT:In the present article the author deepens in the debate on the origins and responsibilities of the World War One. Moving away from an eurocentric approach, the author tries to expose the importance that for the facts of 1914 had the triggering of tensions and diplomatic crises placed in the periphery of the international system. The author will give specially attention to happened in Far East. It will be described the reasons of the same ones, the positions adopted as each of the great powers before them and the consequences that had for the geostrategic balance both of the region and of the planet, linking it to the snap of the World War One.

  8. #ww1. Twitter, the Centenary of the First World War and the Historian


    CLAVERT, Frédéric; Majerus, Benoît; Beaupré, Nicolas


    International audience; What is the on-line echo of the commemoration of the centenary of the 1st World War ? What is the behavior of Memorial/Heritage Institutions about the 1st World War on Twitter ? How do they pass information about the Centenary ? Is there an effect of the English predominance on Twitter about the Centenary on the way non-English twitter accounts are considering the 1st World War? Those questions are to be answered by a research project that is to be presented in this po...

  9. World War I--Catalyst for the Creation of the Social Studies (United States)

    Shermis, S. Samuel


    In honor of the 100th anniversary of "The Social Studies," the journal is reprinting this article, originally published in Vol. 55, No. 6 (November 1964). In this essay, Shermis explains that, while prior to 1914 the social studies did not exist, the field had come into existence within five years after World War I ended. The war, subsequent…

  10. Germany's Armed Forces in the Second World War: Manpower, Armaments, and Supply. (United States)

    Balsamo, Larry T.


    Discusses the state of Germany's armed forces in World War II. Describes Germany's progress from inferior weaponry and unprepared military at the beginning of the war to superior weapons and fighting. Stresses heavy German dependence on horse drawn supply. Credits Germany's defeat to human attrition accelerated by Hitler's operational leadership.…

  11. Commercial Radio Broadcasts of Propaganda: An Activity for Teaching about World War II. (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.


    By using propaganda commercial radio broadcasts which occurred during the Second World War as the basis for classroom activities, teachers can help students capture the emotional drama of various topics of the war, as well as certain themes still applicable in contemporary society, and stimulate student curiosity about the past. (RM)

  12. "MEJ" and World War II: A Review of "Music Educators Journal", 1940-42 (United States)

    Parker, Nancy


    As the United States prepared to enter the Second World War and during the early years of the conflict, Music Educators National Conference (MENC) focused attention on how music educators could support the war effort. The association worked with the federal government and other agencies on a number of national programs. Through its publication,…

  13. Roosevelt's World War II Army of Community Service Workers. Children and Their Teachers. (United States)

    Field, Sherry L.


    Profiles the extraordinary World War II public support efforts conducted by school children and teachers across the United States. Encouraged by the Roosevelt administration, teachers and pupils mobilized support for war bond sales and salvage collection drives. Many children raised "Victory Gardens" producing food to help the war…

  14. On the Border: The Contested Children of the Second World War (United States)

    Ericsson, Kjersti; Simonsen, Eva


    This article conceptualizes Second World War children of German soldiers and native women in Norway as "border children", who became symbolic bearers of deep societal conflicts. The authors demonstrate that this position had painful consequences in the personal experiences of the children, experiences that were shared with war children…

  15. Famine food of vegetal origin consumed in the Netherlands during World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstenbosch, Tom; de Zwarte, Ingrid; Duistermaat, Leni; van Andel, Tinde


    Background Periods of extreme food shortages during war force people to eat food that they normally do not consider edible. The last time that countries in Western Europe experienced severe scarcities was during World War II. The so-called Dutch famine or Hunger Winter (1944–1945) made at least

  16. The First World War, Sex Education, and the American Social Hygiene Association's Campaign against Venereal Disease. (United States)

    Imber, Michael


    Prior to the First World War, the public's attitude toward sex education was apathetic. With venereal disease posing a threat to America's "military efficiency" during the war, however, military programs in sex education were instituted that then gave rise to similar programs in secondary schools in the 1920s. (JBM)

  17. Famine food of vegetal origin consumed in the Netherlands during World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstenbosch, Tom; Zwarte, de Ingrid; Duistermaat, Leni; Andel, van Tinde


    Background: Periods of extreme food shortages during war force people to eat food that they normally do not consider edible. The last time that countries in Western Europe experienced severe scarcities was during World War II. The so-called Dutch famine or Hunger Winter (1944-1945) made at least

  18. Teaching about World War II: An ERIC/ChESS Sample. (United States)

    Schlene, Vickie L.


    Presents nine documents from the ERIC database dealing with teaching about World War II. Includes articles addressing the lessons of Pearl Harbor, the Holocaust, the wartime internment of Japanese Americans, industry's response to the war, and the moral lessons of Nazism. (SG)

  19. Societal Changes Affecting Primary School Education after the Second World War in Finland (United States)

    Paksuniemi, Merja; Niemisalo, Sari


    To demonstrate how changes in both foreign and domestic environments after the Second World War affected primary education and teacher training in Finland, the article presents a historical picture of the post-war reality of the school system, based on a review of sources that include laws, decrees, curricula, textbooks and previous research. The…

  20. Meeting Yesterday Head-On: The Vietnam War in Vietnamese, American, and World History. (United States)

    Lockard, Craig A.


    Asserts that the American-Vietnamese War can be analyzed best in the context of three distinct entities: (1) Vietnam; (2) the United States; and (3) the larger world. Discusses Vietnam's revolutionary tradition, U.S. Cold War foreign policy, and the global context of anticolonialism and antiimperialism. (CFR)

  1. Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders and personality profiles of American World War II prisoners of war. (United States)

    Engdahl, B E; Speed, N; Eberly, R E; Schwartz, J


    To characterize the effects of trauma sustained more than 40 years ago, prevalence of psychiatric disorders and personality dimensions were examined in a sample of 62 former World War II POWs. The negative effects of their experiences are reflected in their multiple lifetime diagnoses and in their current personality profiles. Fifty percent met DSM-III posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria within 1 year of release; 18 (29%) continued to meet the criteria 40 years later at examination (chronic PTSD). A lifetime diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder was found for over half the entire sample; in 42% of those who never had PTSD, 38% of those with recovery from PTSD, and 94% of those with chronic PTSD. Ten percent of those without a PTSD diagnosis had experienced a depressive disorder, as had 23% of those with recovery from PTSD and 61% of the POWs with chronic PTSD. The combination of depressive and anxiety disorders also was frequent in the total sample (61%). Current MMPIs of three groups with psychiatric diagnosis were compared with those of POWs who had no diagnoses and with a group of Minnesota normal men. Profile elevations for the groups, from highest to lowest, were: POWs with chronic PTSD, POWs with recovery from PTSD, POWs with other psychiatric diagnoses, POWs with no disorders, and Minnesota normal men. Symptoms of anxiety, depression, and somatic concerns combined with the personality styles of suppression and denial characterize the current adjustment of negatively affected POWs.

  2. Historical perspective on neurosurgery in Germany after World War II. (United States)

    Collmann, Hartmut; Vitzthum, Hans-Ekkehart


    AFTER THE COLLAPSE of the Third Reich, the specialty of neurosurgery in Germany, although well developed in the late 1930s, had to start anew, and for decades to come, had to deal with the physical and political consequences of World War II. Because of the division of the country, neurosurgery developed separately in the two independent states. In West Germany, the evolution was promoted by a few personalities who represented different schools according to their own training: these "surgical neurologists" emphasized the neurological basis of neurosurgery and were represented by Traugott Riechert and the students of Otfrid Foerster, such as Arist Stender and Hans Kuhlendahl. In contrast, the "neurological surgeons" stressed their origins in general surgery. Their main proponent was Wilhelm Tönnis, who gained particular merit for promoting neurosurgical teaching, the development of new neurosurgical units, and the recognition of neurosurgery as an autonomous specialty. In East Germany, progress was delayed by a weak economy and a repressive political system. Yet several excellent neurosurgeons won international recognition, predominantly Georg Merrem, who came from the school of Fedor Krause. Following a worldwide trend, the number of neurosurgical units in West Germany increased dramatically from 18 in 1950 to 85 in 1988. In 2006, in the unified nation, 1200 certified neurosurgeons in 138 hospital departments and 75 private practices served 82 million people. Since its founding in 1949, the German Neurosurgical Society has promoted the idea of reconciliation and has focused on international collaboration in both science and education. This idea, shared by other European nations, eventually gave rise to the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies. At present, escalating costs in the health sector pose a problem to neurosurgical services and have led to reconsiderations about their structure and financing.

  3. Searching for the mother missed since the Second World War. (United States)

    Zupanič Pajnič, Irena; Petaros, Anja; Balažic, Jože; Geršak, Ksenija


    The aim of the study was to perform the genetic identification of a human cranium from a Second World War gravesite in Slovenia and find out if it belonged to the mother of a woman used as a family reference. Both genetic and anthropological examinations were carried out. The genetic examination was performed on 2 molars and petrous bone. Prior to DNA isolation 0.5 g of tooth and bone powder was decalcified. The DNA was purified in a Biorobot EZ1 (Qiagen) device. The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified and short tandem repeat (STR) typing performed using two different autosomal and Y-STR kits. Up to 22.4 ng DNA/g of powder was obtained from samples analyzed. We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from the left second molar and from the petrous bone. Full autosomal genetic profile including amelogenin locus revealed the male origin of the cranium that was further confirmed by the analyses of Y-STRs. The same conclusions were adopted after the anthropological analysis which identified the cranium as that of a very young Caucasoid male. The male origin of the cranium rejected the possibility of motherhood for the compared daughter. For traceability in the event of contamination, we created an elimination database including genetic profiles of the nuclear and Y-STRs of all persons that had been in contact with the analyzed cranium and no match was found. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship between the First World War and neurology: 100 years of "Shell Shock". (United States)

    Pedroso, José Luiz; Linden, Stefanie C; Barsottini, Orlando G; Maranhão, Péricles; Lees, Andrew J


    The First World War was a global war, beginning on 28 July 1914, until 11 November 1918. Soon after the beginning of the war, there was an "epidemic" of neurological conversion symptoms. Soldiers on both sides started to present in large numbers with neurological symptoms, such as dizziness, tremor, paraplegia, tinnitus, amnesia, weakness, headache and mutism of psychosomatic origin. This condition was known as shell shock, or "war neurosis". Because medically unexplained symptoms remain a major challenge, and considering the close relationship of symptoms described in shell shock with clinical neurology, we should study their history in order to improve future care.

  5. Psychological Consequences of the World War II Prisoner of War Experience: Implications for Treatment. (United States)

    Engdahl, Brian E.

    The Former Prisoners of War Act (1981) mandated complete health examinations for all interested prisoners of war (POWs). This paper reports on examinations of more than two-thirds of the POWs in the Minneapolis Veterans Administration Medical Center catchment area under the established POW protocol and special psychiatric examinations. The…

  6. War stress and late-life mortality in World War II civilian resistance veterans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Velde, Wybrand Op; Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Hovens, Johannes E.; Van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.; Aarts, Petra G. H.

    The mental and physical health of 146 Dutch males exposed to severe war stress during their young adulthood were examined in 1986-1987 when they were at ages 61 to 66 years. The veterans' data were compared with a randomly selected population-based sample of same-aged males. In 2005, 70% of the war

  7. Shell Shock and the Kloppe: war neuroses amongst British and Belgian troops during and after the First World War. (United States)

    Reid, Fiona; Van Everbroeck, Christine


    During the First World War combatants of all armies were prey to nervous disorders or psychological breakdown. These war neuroses were a response to the highly-industrialised nature of the warfare as well as to the fatigue engendered over four years of intense conflict. Yet while fear and mental breakdown were universal, national responses varied. A comparison of British and Belgian shell shock indicates that men suffered in very similar ways but that symptoms met with rather different responses: in Britain treatment and diagnostic regimes stressed the importance of class difference and shell shock was often linked to cowardice. These issues were not of overriding importance in the Belgian army. In the longer term shell shock became, and remained, a topic of political and social concern in Britain whereas in Belgium men suffering from kloppe (extreme fear) tended to be forgotten and the topic has not excited much popular interest or scholarly attention. Yet despite these differences one overarching theme remains clear, namely that despite the extensive experience of war neuroses during and after the First World War, there still remains a fierce stigma about the mental wounds of war.

  8. The war is a racket! The emergence of the libertarian discourse about world war I in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre M. da Fonseca


    Full Text Available "It is not a coincidence that the century of war coincided with the century of central banking,” wrote Ron Paul, the libertarian candidate "sensation" for the presidential elections in 2008 and 2012, in the book End the Fed. This discussion explores in short, the powerful pamphlet by Major General Smedley Butler, "War is a Racket", demonstrating, specifically, who profited economically and who, in turn, bore the weight and violence of WW1, assuming that a war is never fought with the acquiescence of the population. However, this monograph goes further, looking for a reinterpretation of the official American history of the First World War through the lens of libertarian discourse. The aim is thus to understand, from another perspective, the fundamental cause of the paradigm shift from nonintervention to intervention taking place during this war, linking it to the project which led to the creation of the League of Nations and the growing importance of the US in the world. Finally, a fundamental connection will be established, exploring the theories argued in the book A Foreign Policy of Freedom, between the policies of Woodrow Wilson and the foreign policy of the United States throughout the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st.

  9. The 37th Bombardment Squadron's Service in World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    ..., The squadron's participation in the famous Doolittle raid on Tokyo is examined along with a brief description of the planes they flew during the war, the B-25 and the B-26, The bulk of the report covers...

  10. The History of MIS-Y: U.S. Strategic Interrogation During World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kleinman, Steven M


    As World War II unfolded, the strategic interrogation programs established by the British, German, and American forces evolved into robust collection entities that proved to be a unique source of critical intelligence...

  11. Separate and Unequal: Race Relations in the AAF During World War 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osur, Alan M


    Race relations between white and black Americans in the Army Air Forces (AAF) during World War II ran the gamut from harmonious to hostile, depending upon the unique circumstances existing within each unit, command, and theater...

  12. An Analysis of the Norwegian Resistance During the Second World War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Kim


    The Norwegian Resistance during the Second World War (April 1940-June 1945) was basically a peaceful set of events conducted by the civilian population as well as underground military organizations...

  13. The Effects of Japan's Apology for World War II Atrocities on Regional Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cathey, Emily A


    This thesis explores the impact of atrocities that Japan committed against its neighbors during and prior to World War II on Japan's relationships with its neighbors, China and the Republic of Korea...

  14. The Evolution and Demise of U.S. Tank Destroyer Doctrine in the Second World War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denny, Bryan


    This study examines the U.S. Army's use of tank destroyers in World War II, particularly the origins and evolution of tank destroyer doctrine, changes in training at the tank destroyer school at Camp Hood, and selection...

  15. Unexplored aspects of the South Africa's First World War history ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the Great War of 1914-18 is within living memory it is disturbing to discover how many gaps there seem to be in our knowledge of this subject. In this offering I shall consider some of these in the hope that the interest of other researchers may be aroused, before the last of the veterans of that most terrible of all wars, ...

  16. On the Effectiveness of Military Institutions: Historical Case Studies from World War I, The Interwar Period and World War II. Volume 1. World War I (United States)


    symptomatic of the tangled web of German military organization that the navy’s highest administrative officer, T1rpitz as head of the Navy Office, should have...With Russia out of the war and a geineral German offensive looming in 1918, Petain began 3 to reorganize the French front Into zones profondes . However...the first line into a lightly held web of listening posts and machine gun nests, and sited the second line -- a *battle -on.-’ of three trench lines

  17. Elaboration of the Visual Pathways from the Study of War-Related Cranial Injuries: The Period from the Russo-Japanese War to World War I. (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J


    As a result of the wars in the early 20th century, elaboration of the visual pathways was greatly facilitated by the meticulous study of visual defects in soldiers who had suffered focal injuries to the visual cortex. Using relatively crude techniques, often under difficult wartime circumstances, investigators successfully mapped key features of the visual pathways. Studies during the Russo- Japanese War (1904-1905) by Tatsuji Inouye (1881-1976) and during World War I by Gordon Holmes (1876-1965), William Lister (1868-1944), and others produced increasingly refined retinotopic maps of the primary visual cortex, which were later supported and refined by studies during and after World War II. Studies by George Riddoch (1888-1947) during World War I also demonstrated that some patients could still perceive motion despite blindness caused by damage to their visual cortex and helped to establish the concept of functional partitioning of visual processes in the occipital cortex. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The inclusion of Brazilian flight female nurses in the second world war: challenges and achievements


    Mariane Bonfante Cesário Lourenço; Cecília Maria Izidoro Pinto; Osnir Claudiano da Silva Junior; Lúcia Helena Silva Corrêa Lourenço; Graciele Oroski Paes; Alexandre Barbosa de Oliveira


    Abstract Objectives: To describe the circumstances of inclusion of female nurses in the Second World War through the Brazilian Air Force, and discuss the challenges faced by and the achievements of these nurses. Methods: Socio-historical study developed with textual and photographic sources, in addition to oral sources through interviews with war veterans. Data were treated according to the historical method and discussed with concepts support from the theory of social world, by Pierre Bour...

  19. Hand Surgery In World War II. Medical Department, United States Army, (United States)


    This book remained almost the only standard text on hand care until the outbreak of World War II. During the intervening 25 years significant work in...such hand surgery was being done at the outbreak of World War II. Kanavel’s prin- ciples concerning the management of infections were accepted and...179, Anxiety states. See Psychotic patients, 208, 238, 263, 282, 283 (illus.), 296, categories of. 302, 303, 332, 352, 393, 394 (illus.), Arm boards

  20. Colombia's Neutrality during 1914-1918: An Overlooked Dimension of World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. Rausch


     In the horrific conflict of 1914-1918 known first as "The Great War" and later as World War I, Latin American nations were peripheral players. Perhaps this lack of involvement explains why historians have paid scant attention to events in Latin America related to the war, but nevertheless, it is remarkable that Percy Alvin Martin’s account, Latin America and the War first published in 1915, remains the standard text on the topic. This essay partially redresses this omission by examining Colombia’s role in the war and its impact on the country’s development. These findings support Martin’s assertion that even those countries that were neutral in the Great War were not immune to its effects.

  1. The Activities of Community Organizations in Providing Assistance to Prisoners of World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to examine the activities of the International Committee of the Red Cross and other community organizations in providing assistance to prisoners of the World War I. According to Article 15 of the Hague Convention of 1907, organizations that assist the prisoners of war, as well as their representatives can use all the benefits from the authorities of the warring countries. Representatives of these organizations are allowed to distribute benefits to places of detention of POWs, provided that a nominal permit is issued by the military authorities. During the World War I, the community organizations played a significant role in providing material and moral support to prisoners of war of belligerent countries. The role of the Red Cross in the protection of war victims and providing assistance to the POWs during the World War I is undeniable, international and national organizations interacted as natural mediators and influenced their own governments, in order to further alleviate the plight of the prisoners of war.

  2. Verbal and physical aggression in World War II former prisoners of war: role of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. (United States)

    O'Donnell, Casey; Cook, Joan M; Thompson, Richard; Riley, Kevin; Neria, Yuval


    This study examined the relationship among posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and intimate partner relationship aggression in a community sample of World War II (WWII) male military former prisoners of war (POWs). Sixty percent of these POWs reported verbal aggression in their marriages, and 12% endorsed physical aggression. Both verbal and physical aggression were significantly correlated to the severity of captivity trauma and to PTSD symptoms. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms significantly mediated the relationship between severity of trauma and both verbal and physical aggression. Depression was a significant moderator of the relationship between PTSD and both physical and verbal aggression. Theoretical and clinical implications are suggested.

  3. The Evolution of the Modern Snack Tax Bill: From World War I to the War Against Obesity


    Sheu, Wendy


    This paper offers a historical perspective on soft drinks and snack taxes in the United States in light of recent legislative snack tax proposals that have been introduced in at least twenty states since an obesity crisis was declared in 2002. Selective taxes on soft drinks and candy can be traced to the War Revenue Acts during World War I and have frequently appeared, disappeared, and resurfaced at the state level during the past eighty-five years. This paper surveys the history and various ...

  4. Linking spinal cord injury rehabilitation between the World Wars: The R. Tait McKenzie legacy. (United States)

    Ditunno, John F


    Spinal cord injury (SCI) medicine emerged after World War II due to mass casualties, which required specialized treatment centers. This approach to categorical care, however, was first developed during World War I, led by pioneers R. Tait McKenzie and George Deaver, who demonstrated that soldiers disabled by paralysis could return to society through fitness/mobility, recreational and vocational training. McKenzie, a Canadian and the first professor of physical therapy in the US, influenced Deaver and military physicians in Britain, Canada, and the U.S. with his achievements and publications. Although early mortality from SCI was high, advances in the treatment of skin and bladder complications coupled with rehabilitation developed through lessons learned in World War I, resulted in major changes in survival and quality of life for veterans of World War II in England, US, and Canada. Harry Botterell and Al Jousse, founders of Lyndhurst Lodge, the first SCI center in Canada, adopted Deaver's principles and techniques of rehabilitation and Donald Munro's approach to medical complications. The consequences of failing to organize continuity of care in World War I were recognized both by consumers and physicians. Together with John Counsell, a World War II veteran, they formed the Canadian Paraplegic Association, which "revolutionized" the care of veterans with SCI, as well as civilians, women, and children.

  5. Empowerment or endurance? War wives' experiences of independence during and after the Second World War in Germany, 1939-1948. (United States)

    Vaizey, Hester


    As German men were conscripted into the armed forces during the Second World War, more and more wives were left to manage their families alone. At the same time more women than ever entered paid employment to fill the gaps in the market left by their soldier husbands. Scholars working in the field have made much of the dislocation to gender roles prompted by the Second World War. This article questions whether women's wartime experiences changed their views on being confined to the home. Ultimately, this article argues, women wanted to return to a sense of normality at the end of the war. In the aftermath of defeat, in which mere survival rather than speculation about potentially improved models of the family set-up were paramount, "normality" was most obviously represented by prewar gender roles. Women were hoping for normalization, not only in the public sphere in the sense of a flourishing economy, but also in the private sphere with the return of the men and a resumption of the old role divisions. It was therefore not only conservative politicians who wished to preserve prewar structures within the home - so too did women themselves. The re-emergence of the traditional family model in the wake of the Second World War was thus as much the result of popular aspirations "from below" as of government policies imposed "from above".

  6. 46 CFR 32.20-1 - Equipment installations on vessels during World War II-TB/ALL. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment installations on vessels during World War II... installations on vessels during World War II—TB/ALL. Boilers, pressure vessels, machinery, piping, electrical... the termination of title V of the Second War Powers Act, as extended (sec. 501, 56 Stat. 180, 50 U.S.C...

  7. The Cause of Nowadays and the End of History? School History and the Centenary of the First World War (United States)

    McCulloch, Gary


    The review of the National Curriculum and the centenary of the First World War have emphasised an orthodox patriotic and nostalgic historical ideal. The British coalition Conservative-Liberal government has aligned itself with the centenary commemorations of the First World War, while the war as social and political history may be in danger of…

  8. UNICEF, syphilis and the state: negotiating female citizenship in the post-Second World War world. (United States)

    Morris, Jennifer


    Few charitable organizations have achieved the status of global recognition enjoyed by UNICEF, the United Nations Children's Fund, which embodies the international effort to provide for needy children the world over. Created because of its synchronicity with the United Nations' stated purpose—to maintain peace in the world—UNICEF launched its operations in 1946. Its founding, early operations and eventual restructuring reveal a great deal about concurrent political and economic events, but also provide keen insight into international ideas about who qualified for full citizenship in the post-war world. The consequences of UNICEF's policies, procedures and practices posed challenges to notions of citizenship for both women and children. It challenged citizenship not by questioning sex-specific gender roles, but by judiciously adhering to the United Nations' promise to create equality for men and women alike. UNICEF found itself in the unique position to be able to globalize definitions of what constituted full citizenship in any nation, due to its rapid expansion throughout the world. Through its programs, especially those related to health care, it not only challenged these roles in the West, but began over several decades to complicate the definition of citizenship as it became a forceful presence in Asia and Africa throughout the 1970s.

  9. Design at the Edge of the World: The Birth of American Air Intelligence in the China, Burma, India, and the Pacific Theaters during World War II (United States)


    the Pacific theater intersect with the story of air intelligence in the very first minutes of World War II. Japan’s surprise attack on Pearl Harbor...DESIGN AT THE EDGE OF THE WORLD : THE BIRTH OF AMERICAN AIR INTELLIGENCE IN THE CHINA, BURMA, INDIA, AND THE PACIFIC THEATERS DURING WORLD WAR ...Burma-India Theater during World War II. Growing up, he imparted a love for my nation, history and learning which motivated me to select and pursue a

  10. Role of the Ottoman Geopolitics During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Çınar


    Full Text Available Ottoman Empire had the potential to influence policy on three continents, to expand the war broken out in Europe in 1914, thanks to its geographical position. To continue the war, Germany had to get rid of containment of the Triple Entente, and found the solution to maximize to benefit from the Ottoman geopolitics. Germans succeeded in driving the Ottomans. When the war spread with the Ottoman Empire’s entry into the war, Germany took a breath in Europe. Thanks to the newly emerging fronts Ottoman forces drew many Russian and British Colonial divisions on its own divisions. Accumulation of the British divisions in Egypt; reinforcement of fronts emerged in Gallipoli, Palestine and Iraq; and opening a second front to Russia was by courtesy of the Ottomans. This was providing strategic advantage to the Germans. And the Entente powers saw German defeat completing the containment after the Ottoman Empire out of war. Thus the British took on the Ottomans despite numerous fronts. This blow would change the Middle East map.

  11. The national between the global and the local: Commemorating the First World War in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mulligan


    Full Text Available Some German commentators have spoken of 2014 as the Supergedenksjahr –the super commemoration year– which marks the 25th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, the 75th anniversary of the start of the Second World War, and the centenary of the outbreak of the First World War. This article offers a number of observations about the commemoration of the First World War within the context of a broader politics of history in contemporary Germany. First, the First World War has emerged from the shadows of the two other major events in twentieth-century German history – the Third Reich and the division of Germany overcome in 1989. Whether this will remain the case is doubtful, as the pull of the other events remains stronger. Second, if there was a single overriding debate in Germany about the First World War it owed much to the success of The Sleepwalkers by Christopher Clark. His thesis of shared responsibility was read against the background of Fritz Fischer’s thesis, which ascribed most responsibility to reckless German leaders. In turn, the re-emergence of the war guilt debate was related to discussions about Germany’s role in European politics today. Finally, the commemoration has been marked by a move away from the nation-state framework so that many exhibitions and programmes adopt either a global or a local perspective.

  12. Observations on Occupation and Military Governance: An Analysis of the American Occupation of Japan and Germany in World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duray, Jr, Paul H


    Prior to the current Global War on Terror (GWOT), the United States military had not participated in occupation and military governance mission on as a massive a scale as that experienced in World War II...

  13. Growing up in wartime: Evidence from the era of two world wars. (United States)

    Havari, Enkelejda; Peracchi, Franco


    We document the association between war-related shocks in childhood and adult outcomes for Europeans born during the first half of the twentieth century. Using a variety of data, at both the macro- and the micro-level, we address the following questions: What are the patterns of mortality among Europeans born during this period? Do war-related shocks in childhood and adolescence help predict adult health, human capital and wellbeing of the survivors? Are there differences by sex, socio-economic status in childhood, and age when the shocks occurred? At the macro-level, we show that the secular trend towards lower mortality was interrupted by dramatic increases in mortality during World War I, the Spanish Flu, the Spanish Civil War, and World War II, and we quantify the size of these mortality shocks. Different patterns characterize these high-mortality episodes, with substantial variation by country, sex and age group. At the micro-level, we show that war-related hardship in childhood or adolescence, in particular exposure to war events and experience of hunger, is associated with worse physical and mental health, education, cognitive ability and subjective wellbeing at older ages. The strength of the association differs by sex and type of hardship, with war exposure being more important for females and experience of hunger for males. We also show that hardships matter more if experienced in childhood, and have stronger consequences if they last longer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The memory and historiography of the First World War in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ferrari


    Full Text Available The memory and historiography of the First World War in Italy may be divided into four broad periods. During the immediate post-war period (1918-1922 debate mainly focused on such issues as the Italian defeat at Caporetto in 1917, the human and material costs of the war, and the peace treaty. In the subsequent decades (1922-1960, fascism was presented as the heir of the war, which became a fundamental element of its nationalist identity as well as part of the rituals of the regime. This nationalistic and fascist interpretation of the conflict then survived in many respects until the start of the 1960s. Perspectives on the war were subsequently revised over the next twenty years (1960-1980. The new cultural tendencies of these decades produced a history of the conflict from below, which encompassed the experiences of Italian soldiers, who were often seen as victims of the military machine. The historiography focused on their opposition to the war, including cases of indiscipline and mental breakdown. In more recent times (1980-2014 these trends have continued, and new studies have emerged, but many aspects of the war, including the home front and the international context (including Italy’s enemies are still relatively neglected. Moreover, although there is a keen public interest in the First World War in north-east Italy, which was the theatre of operations, the period 1915-1918 is probably part of a faraway past for most Italians.

  15. Stiff upper lip: coping strategies of World War II veterans with phantom limb pain. (United States)

    Machin, P; de C Williams, A C


    Study of coping with phantom pain in nonclinical war veteran amputees. Semistructured interview with amputees in their home setting. Residential home for war veteran amputees or respondents' own homes. Amputee veterans of World War II with phantom pain. Pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire) and pain history, coping (daily coping; Stone and Neale, J Pers Soc Psychol 1984;46:892-906), size of social network, and quality of war memories. No differences in pain or coping were associated with place of residence (and prevalence of cues) or social networks; war memories appeared not to be associated with availability of cues, whether media coverage or other amputees. There was some association between the emotional tone of war memories and pain intensity. Veteran amputees were in general accepting of high levels of pain and made little use of medical resources, relating that to past experience of their pain being dismissed. Coping with phantom pain in war veteran amputees is predominantly silent acceptance of the pain, with little use of social support however available, and rare recourse to medical help, based on past unhelpful experience. Pain and mood appeared to be unrelated to specific war cues, but higher pain scores were reported by those with unhappier war memories.

  16. The II Italian Corps Deployment on the Western Front during the First World War (April 1918-May 1919) (United States)


    the post-war Fascist propaganda that shaped the Italian public view of World War I as the Fourth Independence War for the Italian country9. The idea...THE II ITALIAN CORPS DEPLOYMENT ON THE WESTERN FRONT DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR (APRIL 1918-MAY 1919) A thesis presented to the...SCIENCE Military History by MAJ FASSERO MASSIMILIANO, ITALIAN ARMY, INFANTRY B.A., Universita’ di Torino, Torino, Italy, 2001

  17. The Harvard Fatigue Laboratory: Contributions to World War II (United States)

    Folk, G. Edgar


    The war contributions of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory in Cambridge, MA, were recorded in 169 Technical Reports, most of which were sent to the Office of the Quartermaster General. Earlier reports were sent to the National Research Council and the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Many of the reports from 1941 and later dealt with…

  18. Teaching with Documents: Victory Gardens in World War II. (United States)

    Baars, Patricia, Ed.


    Covers the Victory Garden campaign of the early 1940s begun by the Office of War Information and the Office of Civil Defense. Provides a facsimile of a poster designed to publicize the program in addition to seven teaching activities. (JDH)

  19. The Impact of The Second World War on Basotho Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of an “unprotected” protectorate being forced to aid a belligerent colonial power and neglectful peacetime protector. Most of all, the crux of the study is that it was Basotho women, young and old, who were “left behind” to assume the main burden of the war effort amidst the harsh daily reality of life under wartime conditions.

  20. Private Higher Education in a Cold War World: Central America (United States)

    Harrington, James J.


    In Central America the Cold War support of the elites by the United States was designed to ward off the communist threat. At the same time social and economic demands by the working and middle classes created revolutionary movements in the face of rigid and violent responses by Central American governments. Issues of social justice pervaded the…

  1. the internment of japanese americans during world war ii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    components such as estrangement, detachment, eating disorders, amnesia, psychological numbness .... received from both the news media and from interactions among citizens. Deep levels of sadness, fear, and ... media reports circulated, assumptions about the likelihood of an invasion, or the course of the war, remained ...

  2. How Hugh Hampton Young's treatment of President Woodrow Wilson's urinary retention and urosepsis affected the resolution of World War I. (United States)

    Fogg, Ryan; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert G; Canter, Daniel


    President Woodrow Wilson was never able to gain ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, the peace accord to end World War I. Before he could convince the American people of the importance of ratification, Wilson suffered a stroke followed by life threatening urinary sepsis due to urinary retention, and was treated by the father of modern urology, Hugh Hampton Young. The effects of these health problems are examined in the context of their implications on international affairs. Biographical sources and primary documentation of Wilson's physicians were reviewed to determine the effect of Wilson's stroke on his voiding habits. Hugh Hampton Young's evaluation and decision making is examined in depth. In the fall of 1919 President Wilson was recovering from a stroke. Shortly after the stroke his preexisting voiding dysfunction progressed to urinary retention from which urinary sepsis developed. Hugh Hampton Young advised on Wilson's case and counseled patience over surgery. The President began voiding spontaneously and recovered from sepsis. The illness left him severely weakened and unable to mount an aggressive campaign to persuade the U.S. Senate of the importance of ratifying the Treaty of Versailles. His personal physician, Admiral Cary T. Grayson, stated that the President was mentally never the same after the sepsis. Wilson's voiding dysfunction contributed to his inability to win approval for the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations. As a result, the United States returned to a policy of isolationism and Europe plunged into 2 decades of upheaval, leading to World War II. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The unwanted heroes: war invalids in Poland after World War I. (United States)

    Magowska, Anita


    This article focuses on the unique and hitherto unknown history of disabled ex-servicemen and civilians in interwar Poland. In 1914, thousands of Poles were conscripted into the Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies and forced to fight against each other. When the war ended and Poland regained independence after more than one hundred years of partition, the fledgling government was unable to provide support for the more than three hundred thousand disabled war victims, not to mention the many civilians left injured or orphaned by the war. The vast majority of these victims were ex-servicemen of foreign armies, and were deprived of any war compensation. Neither the Polish government nor the impoverished society could meet the disabled ex-servicemen's medical and material needs; therefore, these men had to take responsibility for themselves and started cooperatives and war-invalids-owned enterprises. A social collaboration between Poland and America, rare in Europe at that time, was initiated by the Polish community in the United States to help blind ex-servicemen in Poland.

  4. World War II : won by American planes and ships, or by the poor bloody Russian infantry?\\ud


    Harrison, Mark


    This short paper reviews a new book about World War II. In most such books, what is new is not usually important, and what is important is not new. This one is an exception. How the War Was Won: Air-Sea Power and Allied Victory in World War II, by Phillips Payson O'Brien, sets out a new perspective on the war. An established view is that World War II was decided on the Eastern front, where multi-million armies struggled for supremacy on land and millions died. According to O’Brien, this negle...

  5. Online Answers Dealing with the Internment of Japanese Americans during World War II (United States)

    Lazar, Alon; Hirsch, Tal Litvak


    The internment of Americans of Japanese descent during World War II lies at the heart of ongoing discussions in American social studies. We analyzed inputs of members of the Yahoo! Answers Q&A online community following students' questions dealing with differential treatment of Japanese and German and Italian American citizens during World War…

  6. From the Eighty Years War to the Second World War: New Perspectives on the Economic Effects of War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hart, M.


    Most historians used to regard war as economically destructive. They focused on short-term damage to the economy, guided by archives that were dominated by documents related to reparation demands and official statistics that did not take the black market and the re-routing of trade into account.

  7. Leadership Case Studies from Women Serving During World War I (United States)


    7 Nancy A. Hewitt, ed., A Companion to American Women’s History (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002). 8 Ibid., 174. 9 John C. Fredriksen, American Military...died in Cuba and was buried with full military honors.29 This contrast is illustrative of the inconsistencies between how the military services...communications lines. Within the United States, women were the dominate employees of the telephone companies. General John J. Pershing requested from the War

  8. Eagles of the RAF. The World War II Eagle Squadrons (United States)


    Virginia hams, California oranges and steam- ing, juicy steaks, for Britain’s war-time rationing was a sore point with American volunteers in the Royal...All went like clockwork ! No e/a interfered and there were no casualties. All landed safely at 1425. At 1550 the Squadron with 72 and Gravesend took...powdered chocolate, and powdered orange juice. ’ 07 George Sperry continued: German issues of rations were mostly unappetizing. Jam was made of an

  9. The Origins of Operational Depth in the First World War (United States)


    Western Front and the Emergence of Modern War, 127. 122 George A. B. Dewar, Sir Douglas Haig’s Command, December 19, 1915, to November 11, 1918...bombardment followed by a tank and infantry assault. After the British secured the initial trench, armored cars and cavalry interdicted German...destroy it.199 Additionally, over four days prior to the attack, huge 14-inch navy guns, mounted on railway cars , devastated 25 miles into the German

  10. The Army’s Cargo Fleet in World War II (United States)


    increasing use of pack trains. As early as September 1943, Lt General Mark W. Clark of the Fifth Army anticipated an increasing need of "more of this...John H. Leavell , OCT, presided, while Major Curtis F. Bryan, OCT, served as Acting Secretary. Others on the committee were representa- tives of the Army...Admiral, Adminis- trator, War Shipping Adminis- tration, 40, 41, 66 Landing ship, tank, 71-72, 108 Leavell , John H., Colonel, 102 Lend-Lease

  11. Estimates of mortality and population changes in England and Wales over the two World Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgueni Andreev


    Full Text Available Almost one million soldiers from England and Wales died during the First and Second World War whilst serving in the British Armed Forces. Although many articles and books have been published that commemorate the military efforts of the British Armed Forces, data on the demographic aspects of British army losses remain fragmentary. Official population statistics on England and Wales have provided continuous series on the civilian population, including mortality and fertility over the two war periods. The combatant population and combatant mortality have not been incorporated in the official statistics, which shows large out-migration at the beginning and large in-migration towards the end of the war periods. In order to estimate the dynamics of the total population and its excess mortality, we introduce in this paper a model of population flows and mortality in times of war operations. The model can be applied to a detailed reconstruction of war losses, using various shapes of the input data. This enables us to arrive at detailed estimates of war-related losses in England and Wales during the two world wars. Our results agree with elements of data provided by prior studies.

  12. The Clash of Empires in Africa: The First World War in the British and German Colonies


    Steinbach, Daniel


    Exhibited at the second Glucksman Memorial Symposium on June 13th 2007 From its very beginnings the First World War was a global war. The most severe fighting outside Europe took place in the tropical German colonies of the Cameroons and German East Africa (present-day Tanzania), as well as in the deserts of German Southwest Africa (present-day Namibia). The main burden of the war was carried on the shoulders of the Africans who either were enlisted as regular soldiers or forced into servi...

  13. The Program of Activities and Objectives of the Resettlement Administration During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Voloshinova


    Full Text Available The activities of the Russian Resettlement Office during the First World War are considered on the basis of the archival materials. The Office was in charge of the resettlement of peasants and land management. It took care of refugees since the beginning of the war. Resettlement posts were transformed into the epidemic control and isolation points for the prisoners of war. The Office solved the important problems of examination and development of new territories of the country, especially the North of the European Russia, in which it secceeded.

  14. From Mars to Kassandra: the memorialisation of World War I in the work of Otto Dix


    Murray, Ann


    This thesis argues that the memorialisation of World War I in the work of German artist and soldier Otto Dix (1891-1969) challenged Germany’s prevailing social and political attitudes to war and militarism, demanding action against growing public support for militarist politics in the late Weimar Republic. Scholarship has dwelt on the art-historical context of Dix’s war pictures but not their interaction with the socio-political context, specifically in Dresden, where Dix worked, and where nu...

  15. The psychological study of anxiety in the era of the Second World War. (United States)

    Shapira, Michal


    The mid-twentieth century in Britain ushered in a new age of anxiety with the development of total war and the aerial bombing of civilians. Rather than trying to chart and quantify levels of anxiety and fear on the British home front during the Blitz, this article's goal is to examine how these emotions were conceptualized by psychological experts immediately prior to and during the war. The essay follows the rising problematization of anxiety and fear as new concepts calling for professional knowledge and management. It emphasizes the contribution of psychoanalysts to this development while pointing to gradual change between the two world wars.

  16. Investing In The Army Organic Industrial Base To Operate And Win In A Complex And Austere Environment (United States)


    background of the industrial base beginning with the period before the American Revolution and concluding with World War II when the American industrial ...Investing in the Army Organic Industrial Base to Operate and Win in a Complex and...05-2016 Monograph nJN 2015 - MAY 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Investing in the Army Organic Industrial Base to Operate and Win in a

  17. Suffering What They Must: The Shifting Alliances of Romania and Finland in World War II (United States)


    encounter during the Peloponnesian War between representatives of the great empire of Athens and the minor colony of Melos. The Athenian include the citizenry, of a new but considerable democracy , wielded considerable pressure. This examination of the Finnish decision of World War II against this background of a well-developed democracy and an empowered populace. It also provides an appreciation for the

  18. Survivors of imprisonment in the Pacific theater during World War II. (United States)

    Goldstein, G; van Kammen, W; Shelly, C; Miller, D J; van Kammen, D P


    Data were obtained from 41 survivors of imprisonment by the Japanese during World War II. Interview data suggested that these individuals, despite the 40 years that had passed since their prisoner of war experiences, showed manifestations of posttraumatic stress disorder, notably a sleep disturbance marked by recurrent nightmares. MMPI data suggested significant pathology, characterized as an anxiety state, in this group. Half of the subjects met the full set of DSM-III criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder.

  19. Racialized Bodies and Phantom Limb Citizenship: The Case of the Filipino World War II Veterans


    Valiente-Neighbours, Jimiliz Maramba


    The United States recruited more than half a million Filipino soldiers and guerrillas in the Philippines during World War II with the promise of American citizenship in return for their wartime service. Even after the official victory of the United States and its allies in 1945, the United States government continued to recruit Filipinos to serve under the American flag for post-war reconstruction and the development of American military bases in the Pacific. But in February 1946, the United ...

  20. Austro-Hungary peoples in World War I in Vision of russianantagonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Спартаковна Сенявская


    Full Text Available The article is devoted relation of Russia to the peoples of the Austro-Hungary during the first world war. The author examines the ethnic composition of the Austro-Hungarian army, the attitude of Russians to representatives of the different peoples Austro-Hungarian, policy of the Russian authorities in respect of prisoners of war from the Austro-Hungarian nationals.

  1. What Kept the Tank from Being the Decisive Weapon of World War One? (United States)


    Turko-Italian War. Early in World War I, the Admiralty formed the Royal Naval Armoured Car Division around the Rolls Royce Silver Ghost Chassis. Its...armored car section of the Motor Machine Gun Corps.28 At Bisley, England, Swinton established his new headquarters and began crew and maneuver training...intellectual battlefield as it rolled across the line of departure for the very first time on 15 September 1916, in Flers- Courcelette. A working

  2. Suicide among Polish officers during World War II in Oflag II-C Woldenberg. (United States)

    Czabański, Adam; Lester, David


    Although scholars have examined the occurrence of suicide in the concentration camps during World War Two, little has appeared on suicide in prisoner-of-war camps. The present note presents an attempt to document the occurrence of suicide in the Oflag II-C Woldenberg camp in what is now Western Poland, and estimates a suicide rate of between 22.4 to 38.4 per 100,000 per year in the roughly 6,600 prisoners.

  3. US Effects on Allied Strategic Decision Making during the First World War (United States)


    Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be... Company , 1936), 396. 4 This thesis builds upon previous histories and writings on the First World War by examining specifically how US...Little, Brown, and Company , 1936), 175. 22 jointly by allied armies often results from divergence of war aims. In pursuit of these aims, governments

  4. "World-Mindedness": The Lisle Fellowship and the Cold War (United States)

    Brownlee, Kimberly


    This article will examine a little known but long-standing group, the Lisle Fellowship, that endeavored to open the world to college students and foster international understanding--or "world-mindedness," as the organization's founders called it--ultimately with the goal to contribute to the ideal of world peace. It will also, in…


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    Harvey G. Hudspeth


    Full Text Available This paper examines the dramatic rise of the Roosevelt Court between the years 1937 and 1941. Having gone through his first term of office without a single Supreme Court appointment, Franklin Roosevelt was to be given the opportunity during his second term to make no less than five nominations with an additional four coming in his third term. Initially, however, he was to face great controversy; first with his notorious “Court Packing” scheme of 1937, followed quickly by revelations that his first Court appointee, Hugo Black, had once been affiliated with the Ku Klux Klan. Weathering these early defeats, however, Franklin Roosevelt ultimately won his war against the “Nine Old Men” to turn the Court towards economic liberalism. This paper traces the course of Roosevelt’s struggle, his early losses, and his ultimate victory.

  6. Professors and Teaching Staff of Tomsk University during the World War I

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    Sergei A. Nekrylov


    Full Text Available The article deals with the participation of the teaching staff and professors of Tomsk Imperial University in the organizing of medical aid to the wounded in the World War I. Moreover, they actively took part in the fulfillment of the defense orders for the battlefront, producing of medical drugs and development of asphyxiant gases countermeasures. The paper reconstructs the history of Tomsk University contribution to the struggle against Germany during the First World War on the basis of the existing scientific literature, documental materials, including the ones introduced into the research use for the first time and the periodical media. The article is devoted to those, who are interested in the history of the World War I and in the history of higher education and science in Russia, as well.

  7. Division and Corps Command Posts in World War II. (United States)

    1986-03-27 1 S ol co0Mmmnders anld tsLatt vi ith onsis LlI Scope oi sttC I oil itc autLiisit i responsibl Iity. DISTRIBUTioN STATEMENT A 20. DISTRIBUTION...command posts. The remote location of II Corps command post in February 1942 during the * Tunisian campaign was considered a poor commentary on its...briefing began at 0730 in the War Room, housed in two wall tents located in an olive grove near Grosseto about ten miles inland from the coast

  8. Out of a clear blue sky? FOM, the bomb and the boost in Dutch physics funding after World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeneveld, F.; van Dongen, J.


    Soon after the end of World War II, Dutch science was reconstituted by novel funding agencies with well-filled coffers. The currently received view is that in a vulnerable and war-torn society the new institutions were created on the basis of technocratic ideals that date back to pre-war years. One

  9. Out of a Clear Blue Sky? FOM, The Bomb, and The Boost in Dutch Physics Funding after World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeneveld, F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165170964; van Dongen, J.A.E.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/242629431


    Soon after the end of World War II, Dutch science was reconstituted by novel funding agencies with well-filled coffers. The currently received view is that in a vulnerable and war-torn society the new institutions were created on the basis of technocratic ideals that date back to pre-war years. One

  10. Sex in an Imperial war zone: transnational encounters in Second World War India. (United States)

    Khan, Yasmin


    This article suggests how the waging of war in an imperial setting may have reshaped military and civilian relations in India from 1939-45. The number of troops stationed in India had repercussions for society and local politics. The article investigates widespread prostitution as one aspect of the gendered wartime economy. Indian prostitution was closely linked to militarization and to the effects of the 1943 Bengal famine. The article also argues this was symptomatic of a more far-reaching renegotiation of the interactions between men and women in the Indian Empire of the 1940s. Other Indian, European, North American and Anglo-Indian women worked as nurses, with the Red Cross and in a variety of roles towards the war effort. Women were subject to new social and sexual demands due to the increased numbers of troops stationed in India in the 1940s.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark James Crowley


    Full Text Available In Britain during the Second World War, the Post Office constituted the single largest employer of women. Historically, the Post Office, like many other employers, had discriminated against women. During World War I, shortages of male labor had resulted in some opportunities for women at the Post Office, but the improvement had neither been comprehensive nor enduring. Unlike World War I, World War II, however, proved to a real turning point in the Post Office's personnel practices. By the end of the Second World War, while the Post Office still did not treat women workers completely equally (persisting, for instance, in gender-biased pay practices, management nevertheless had made strides in their treatment and perception of women workers. Post Office executives increasingly perceived women on the payroll not as temporary wartime employees, but as permanent employees, who would be just as essential peacetime as in war.

  12. Risk of selected cardiovascular diseases and posttraumatic stress disorder among former World War II prisoners of war. (United States)

    Kang, Han K; Bullman, Tim A; Taylor, Judith W


    American World War II (WWII) prisoners of war (POWs) suffered both mental and physical deprivation while interned. The long-term health consequences of the internment were studied for an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study evaluated healthcare utilization data for 10 years (1991-2000) from Veterans Affairs (VA) and non-VA healthcare providers for 19,442 former WWII POWs and 9728 non-POW controls. The risk of diseases was approximated by odds ratios adjusted for race and age. Collectively, former POWs had statistically significant increased risk of PTSD, and those POWs with PTSD also had statistically significant increased risks of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension and chronic ischemic heart disease when compared to both non-POWs and POWs without PTSD. Among former WWII POWs, risk of cardiovascular disease is related to having PTSD.

  13. [The Red Cross System for War Relief during the Second World War and Actual Conditions of Its Efforts in Burma]. (United States)

    Kawahara, Yukari


    This paper aims to show the system for relief provided by the Japanese Red Cross relief units during the Second World War, as well as the actual activities of sixteen of its relief units dispatched to Burma. The Red Cross wartime relief efforts involved using personnel and funding prepared beforehand to provide aid to those injured in war, regardless of their status as ally or enemy. Thus they were able to receive support from the army in order to ensure safety and provide supplies. Nurses dispatched to Burma took care of many patients who suffered from malnutrition and physical injuries amidst the outbreak of infectious diseases typical of tropical areas, without sufficient replacement members. Base hospitals not meant for the front lines also came under attack, and the nurses' lives were thus in mortal danger. Of the 374 original members, 29 died or went missing in action.

  14. British artists and the Second World War, with particular reference to the War Artists' Advisory Committee of the Ministry of Information


    Foss, B. F.


    The War Artists' Advisory Committee, under the chairmanship of Kenneth Clark, was established in November 1939 by the Ministry of Information 'to draw up a list of artists qualified to record the [Second World] war at home and abroad..., to advise on the selection of artists from the list for War purposes and [to] advise on such questions as copyright, disposal and exhibition of works and the publication of reproductions.' It ceased operation at the end of 1945, after whi...

  15. The influence of the Second World War on black labour in the Witwatersrand area, 1941-1947



    M.A. As a way of demonstrating the truth of the argument that war is a catalyst for social change, the Second World War added impetus to the transformation of the social standing of South African Blacks, black workers in particular. Although the war was not necessarily being fought for their benefit, but because of South Africa's political allegiance to the allied forces and consequent entry into the war, black workers were all the same affected by it. The outbreak of the Second World War,...

  16. The demographic impact of the First World War: an anthropometric perspective. (United States)

    Harris, B


    During the 1970s and 1980s Jay Winter published a series of highly influential articles on the demographic impact of the First World War, culminating in his study of The Great War and the British People in 1986. Winter argued that the war led to a dramatic improvement in average living standards, and that the survival chances of most sections of the civilian population improved more rapidly than they might have done if peace had been maintained. This paper seeks to test the strength of Winter's hypothesis in three main ways. Section I examines the arguments which Winter himself put forward to support his view that the war led to a systematic erosion of pre-war differentials in infant mortality. Section III utilizes evidence relating to children's heights to examine the extent to which the war led to improvements in children's 'nutritional status'. The paper's overall conclusion is that the war did not lead to any dramatic improvements in civilian health; the overall impression to be gained from an analysis of wartime health statistics is one of continuity rather than change.



    Hendrik Snyders


    Due to their centrality in war communications, carrier pigeons, lofts and pigeon handlers were legitimate targets for enemy forces during the First World War (1914–18). As a result of the multi-faceted nature and conflicting interests associated with the post-war debate on appropriate ways of memorialising the war dead (humans), the contribution the animals was largely excluded from the discussions and rarely considered. Belgian and French pigeon fanciers in particular, who as moral witnesses...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The League of Nations and the United Nations Organization were two post-World War (World War I and World War II organizations established for the maintenance of peace and security in the international system. One of the cardinal objectives of these organizations was the promotion of a Collective Security System which was considered as vital in the pursuit of global peace and security. In other words, Collective Security is an institutional mechanism established to address a comprehensive list of major threats to peace and security around the world. With the escalation of conflicts and wars in different parts of the world, there is therefore the need for collective responses at global, regional and national levels in conflict situations. The achievement of collective security in the international system would be based on the principle that any attack on any member of the United Nations would be considered as an attack on all the members. After a panoramic discourse of the meaning and nature of Collective Security, the paper also examines the problems of collective security in the international system; its failure under the League of Nations and the United Nations. The paper concludes that the weaknesses inherent in the system do not make it unuseful as it is a relevant factor in the maintenance of international peace and security.

  19. Towards a war-free world. Report on working group five

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    While the group basically followed the agenda set out for it, it was felt that the three elements that it comprised - general and complete disarmament; world governance and peacekeeping and peace enforcement - were not the only ones or even the most apposite in considering how to attain a war-free world. A war-free world would be brought about not only by institutional means, as the agenda appeared to imply, but also by dramatic changes in the norms relating to the utility of the use of violence as a means of resolving human problems. There already appears to be a growing belief in the disutility of war as a means of settling issues between states, as witnessed by the current decline in the prevalence of inter-state wars. There are also strong indications of the growth of a norm, backed by the recent advisory opinions of the International Court of Justice (ICJ), against the legitimacy of the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons. However in large parts of the globe there appear to be quite flimsy norms against the use of violence to settle intra-state disputes, which are currently by far the predominant progenitors of armed conflict. Individuals and parties within states continue to regard war not only as legitimate but as necessary to help them retain or achieve power. Here democratization, economic justice and the establishment of the rule of law would meet the challenge

  20. Mortality of first world war military personnel: comparison of two military cohorts. (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Clement, Christine; Summers, Jennifer A; Bannister, John; Harper, Glyn


    To identify the impact of the first world war on the lifespan of participating military personnel (including in veterans who survived the war). Comparison of two cohorts of military personnel, followed to death. Military personnel leaving New Zealand to participate in the first world war. From a dataset of the New Zealand Expeditionary Forces, we randomly selected participants who embarked on troopships in 1914 and a comparison non-combat cohort who departed on troopships in late 1918 (350 in each group). Lifespan based on dates of birth and death from a range of sources (such as individual military files and an official database of birth and death records). A quarter of the 1914 cohort died during the war, with deaths from injury predominating (94%) over deaths from disease (6%). This cohort had a significantly shorter lifespan than the late 1918 "non-combat" cohort, with median ages of death being 65.9 versus 74.2, respectively (a difference of 8.3 years shown also in Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log rank Pfirst world war in 1914 from New Zealand lost around eight years of life (relative to a comparable military cohort). In the postwar period they continued to have an increased risk of premature death. © Wilson et al 2014.

  1. The Russian Aviation in the First World War: the Features of Artillery Fire Correction

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    Vladimir B. Karataev


    Full Text Available The article discusses theregulations and combat use of the Russian aviation during the First World War. The attention is paid to the implementation of the exploration and correction of artillery fire from the airplane. The authors have selected as sources the documents of the Central state historical archive of Georgia, in which there are reflected the materials governing the use of airplanes on the fronts of the First World War. The authors used the general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, concretization, generalization, as well as the traditional methods of historical analysis. The authors used the historical-situational method, which involves the study of historical facts in the context of the studied era in conjunction with the "neighboring" events and facts. At the conclusion of the study, it should be noted that the use of aircraft has passed a long way of developmentduring the First World War. There were expanded the spectra of the use of aircraft in war, from intelligence and reconnaissance and adjustment to using the airplanes as fighters and bombers. The change of the functional responsibilities required the establishment of clear and implemented quickly regulations in a combat situation, and such instructions governing the actions of the crew were created during the war.

  2. "We Need to Remember They Died for Us": How Young People in New Zealand Make Meaning of War Remembrance and Commemoration of the First World War (United States)

    Sheehan, Mark; Davison, Martyn


    This article examines the extent to which young people in New Zealand share the dominant beliefs and assumptions that inform contemporary notions of war remembrance concerning the First World War. In particular, it considers how they make meaning of the ANZAC/Gallipoli narrative. Informed by two empirical studies, it questions whether young people…

  3. Why Did They Fight the Great War? A Multi-Level Class Analysis of the Causes of the First World War (United States)

    Gillette, Aaron


    The question, "What were the causes of World War I?," has become one of the classic historical debates of which there seem to be endless permutations. In the past 90 years historians, journalists, and politicians have offered many more or less rational explanations for the war. Although at least some of the usual "causes"…

  4. Commemorating a ‘Foreign’ War in a Neutral Country : The Political Insignificance of World War I Memory in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribbens, Kees

    The recent creation of a First World War museum exhibit at Huis Doorn reflects the increased Dutch attention paid to this war, accompanying the international Centenary efforts, although the neutral Netherlands had not been actively involved in the military events of wwi. This initiative, on a small

  5. Echoes of the Great War: The recordings of African prisoners in the First World War

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    Anette Hoffmann


    Full Text Available Apart from army registers, some (often anonymous photographs and the files of anthropometric examination, the involvement of thousands of African soldiers in WWI and their presence in POW camps in Europe seems to have left few traces in European archives. Vis-à-vis a mass of autobiographic texts on the Great War, written by Europeans and Americans, there are very few published accounts of African soldiers that would allow for their historical experiences and views to be included in historiographies of WWI. A collection of sound recordings produced with African prisoners of war in German camps by a group of German linguists, musicologists and anthropologists between 1915-18 offers a notable documentation of their presence. Yet, similar to the anthropometric registration, these recordings were not designed to accommodate the soldiers’ accounts, but to create a collection of language recordings. If these cannot be considered as ‘authentic voices from the past’ and unmediated accounts of WWI, how do we understand and theorise these hitherto untranslated voice recordings, their form and content? This essay understands the recordings not as ‘voices’ but as echoes, that is, as mediated, often effaced reverberations of accounts of the self and the war. The notion of echo in this essay grapples with issues of extraction, attenuation, limitation, distance and distortion, or outright effacement, that is the result of the form and the mediation of those speech acts, the belatedness of listening to them, as well as, the gaps in meaning and intelligibility the recordings entail. By conceptualising the recorded voices and their translation as echoes, I seek to understand the status of the recordings, the effects of this linguistic practice and gain a sense of the situation in the camps, so as to position these subaltern articulations in their mediated, distorted form as part of the colonial archive.

  6. [Sanitary and epidemiological supply for the Russian Army during the First World War (1914-1918)]. (United States)

    gorelova, L E; Loktev, A E


    At the beginning of the First World War the most typical diseases in the Russian Army were typhoid, typhus, diphtheria, cholera, smallpox and other infectious diseases. At the beginning of the First World War the level of infectious morbidity was significantly low, but further increased and pandemic risk arose. Servicemen were mostly ill with typhus, relapsing fever, flux, cholera, smallpox and typhoid. The highest mortality rate was registered in patients with cholera, typhus and typhoid. According the prewar deployment program of the Russian Army anti-epidemiologic facilities were established. By the end of war were established 110 sanitary-and-hygienic and 90 disinfection units. However, organization of anti-epidemiologic security was unsatisfactory. Due to lack of specialists and equipment anti-epidemiologic facilities of units were under strength. Commanders of sanitary units and sanitary service had not enough resources for operational service in the Forces and facilities of rear area.

  7. Maxo Vanka's collage "World War II" is a brilliant gematrical composition

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    Tine T. Kurent


    Full Text Available The American-Croatian painter Maksimilian Vanka, 1 1889-1963, or Maxo for his friends, composed together with his American wife Margaret, her father dr. Stetten DeWitt and his friends Louis and Stella Adamic, his most enigmatic work, the "WORLD WAR II" collage. The collage originated at the reunion of Maxo Vanka, his wife Margaret, his friends Louis and Stella Adamic, with Margaret's father Dr. Stetten DeWitt, after his return from Europe at war. The party was exhilarated with Dr. Stetten's safe escape from Korcula (Dalmatia to Paris, Le Havre and on board of the French liner lie de France to New York, and preoccupied with the imminent World War.

  8. Coping with War: KGST 'Radio' and Other Media Strategies of Civilian Internees in the Philippines in World War II

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    Elizabeth L. Enriquez


    Full Text Available The experience of the almost 4,000 internees, mostly American, at the Santo Tomas Internment Camp (University of Santo Tomas campus shows how the media may help tide people through even the most difficult conditions. Thrown into confinement during the Second World War from January 1942 to February 1945, the internees built a community that struggled to sustain itself through self-government and the management of everyday necessities such as food, health and sanitation and other resources, as well as the performance of normal activities like educating the young and organizing recreational activities. Communication among the internees, the need for which was heightened by the conditions of war and the uncertainty brought about by incarceration, was aided by camp newspapers until paper became scarce in mid-1942. A makeshift radio station soon replaced the newspaper, which the internees fondly called KGST. While not a broadcast station in the technical sense of the word, it served the important function of keeping morale high until the internees were freed towards the end of the war.

  9. Thinking through war: the social thought of Richard T. Ely, John R. Commons, and Edward A. Ross during the First World War. (United States)

    Herzberg, D L


    This paper examines the social thought of University of Wisconsin professors Richard T. Ely, John R. Commons, and Edward A. Ross during World War I. Like many of their fellow scholars, these three were actively involved in the pro-war effort. Although their support for the war was strongly conditioned by personal and occupational considerations, the impact of their wartime service was not restricted to those realms. Their social thought, which they impressed into service explaining and justifying the war, was itself altered in subtle and sometimes surprising ways by the forceful positions they took on the political, economic, and racial significance of the conflict. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. The "Chugakuryoko" and Hogan's Heroes: The Experience Gap between U.S. and Japanese Students' Knowledge of World War II (United States)

    Olwell, Russ


    Based on his own teaching experiences and findings, the author discusses the experience gap between U.S. and Japanese students' knowledge of World War II. He compares and contrasts how the subject of World War II is taught in the United States versus Japan. While it takes teacher effort to enrich the history experiences of U.S. students, the…

  11. 8 CFR 329.5 - Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. 329.5 Section 329.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. (a) A person desiring to naturalize...

  12. Literature and History--A Focus on the Era of the Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945). (United States)

    Ahern, John; Sandmann, Alexa


    Provides an annotated bibliography and suggested teaching activities for units on the Great Depression and World War II. The materials support inquiry into the causes of the Great Depression and World War II and how these events transformed U.S. society. The annotated bibliography includes novels, memoirs, biographies, and political studies. (MJP)

  13. Teaching about Rosie the Riveter: The Role of Women during World War II. (United States)

    Anderson, Karen


    Discusses a neglected area of U.S. history: the impact of World War II on the role and status of women. Shows how women's work in the home and in the community assisted the national defense effort, and examined the way that changes in employment opportunities affected traditional ideas about women's roles and fostered the modern women's movement.…

  14. Inventing Citizens During World War I: Suffrage Cartoons in "The Woman Citizen." (United States)

    Ramsey, E. Michele


    Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by examining the rhetorical invention strategies of suffrage rhetoric in the cultural context of World War I. Shows how the political cartoons published in the mainstream Suffrage Movement's "The Woman Citizen" constructed women as strong, competent, and…

  15. Between bacteriology and virology: the development of typhus vaccines between the First and Second World Wars. (United States)

    Weindling, P


    This paper provides an overview of the development of typhus vaccines between the first and second world wars. It is shown that there was a shift in the classification of the causal Rickettsiae from being classed as bacteria to being conceptualised as a type of virus. This 'paradigm switch' stimulated interest in the possibility of producing an effective medicine.

  16. Positivism and Post-World War I Elementary School Reform in Ontario (United States)

    Milewski, Patrice


    Following the end of World War I, the Ontario Department of Education initiated a series of reforms aimed at both elementary and secondary schooling. This article examines the reforms that were made to elementary school curriculum and pedagogy. These were initiated within the context of a call for a general reconstruction of education and society…

  17. The development of military medical care for peripheral nerve injuries during World War I. (United States)

    Hanigan, William


    Although the clinical and electrical diagnoses and treatments of peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) had been described prior to World War I, many reports were fragmented and incomplete. Individual physicians' experiences were not extensive, and in 1914 the patient with a PNI remained a subject of medical curiosity, and was hardly a focus of comprehensive care. World War I altered these conditions; casualties with septic wounds and PNIs swamped the general hospitals. By 1915, specialized hospitals or wards were developed to care for neurological injuries. In the United Kingdom, Sir Robert Jones developed the concept of Military Orthopedic Centres, with coordinated specialized care and rehabilitation. Military appointments of neurologists and electrotherapists sharpened clinical diagnoses and examinations. Surgical techniques were introduced, then discarded or accepted as surgeons developed skills to meet the new conditions. The US Surgeon General, William Gorgas, and his consultant in neurosurgery, Charles Frazier, went a step further, with the organization of a research laboratory as well as the establishment of a Peripheral Nerve Commission and Registry. Despite these developments and good intentions, postwar follow-up for PNIs remained incomplete at best. Records were lost, personnel transferred, and patients discharged from the system. The lack of a standardized grading system seriously impaired the ability to record clinical changes and compare outcomes. Nevertheless, specialized treatment of a large number of PNIs during World War I established a foundation for comprehensive care that influenced military medical services in the next world war.

  18. 7 squadron in World War II (Part 2: 1943-1945) | Robinson | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 3 (1975) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. 7 squadron in World War II (Part ...

  19. World War II in Ukrainian School History Textbooks: Mapping the Discourse of the Past (United States)

    Klymenko, Lina


    The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the conceptualisation of a textbook as a site of memory, a discourse and a genre. This paper investigates the semantic and linguistic elements of the discourse of World War II in Ukrainian school history textbooks for the 11th grade, centring on the following distinct key themes: the…

  20. The World Wars through Tabletop Wargaming: An Innovative Approach to University History Teaching (United States)

    Reynaud, Daniel; Northcote, Maria


    This article explores the experiences of a lecturer and students in a class on the World Wars, where wargaming is used alongside traditional lecturing as a learning experience. It outlines the processes used and then evaluates the various kinds of learning, historical and other, that occur. Drawing on literature associated with history education…


    During World War I, the American University in Washington, D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitons including chemcial weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite. After the end of ...

  2. Poetry and World War II: Creating Community through Content-Area Writing (United States)

    Friese, Elizabeth E. G.; Nixon, Jenna


    Two educators and a classroom of fifth grade students integrated poetry writing into social studies curriculum focusing on World War II. Several strategies and approaches to writing poetry are highlighted including list poems, writing from photographs and artifacts, and two voice poems. The study culminated in a poetry reading and the creation of…

  3. The calamus root: a study of American gay poetry since World War II. (United States)

    Holland, W


    This paper traces the development of gay poetry in America after World War II. A taxonomy and publishing history is outlined for various poetic movements. An overview is given of the aesthetic and thematic characteristics of the tradition and its connection to homosexual writing in the nineteenth century.

  4. Everything for the Lulz: Historical Memes and World War II Memory on Lurkomor’e

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makhortykh, M.


    The article explores interactions between digital media and cultural memory in post-Soviet countries by focusing on internet memes related to World War II. It introduces the concept of historical internet memes, which are groups of digital content units associated with a historical event or a

  5. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II (United States)

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  6. Go spy out the land: intelligence preparations for World War I in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As World War I approached, the potential for conflict drove the principal future protagonists, England and Germany, to seek detailed information on their anticipated enemies, not just in Europe, but wherever their nations' interests crossed paths. After 1910, the Union of South Africa turned its eyes to the northwest to keep ...

  7. The World War II Homefront: An ERIC/ChESS Sample. (United States)

    Pinhey, Laura


    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Includes background information and teaching materials on topics such as popular music from 1941-1945, propaganda directed towards women, and learning about Japanese American internment. (CMK)

  8. Powers of Persuasion--Poster Art of World War II. Teaching with Documents. (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    Guns, tanks, and bombs were the principal weapons of World War II, but there were other, more subtle forms of warfare. Words, posters, and films waged a constant battle for the hearts and minds of the U.S. citizenry as military weapons engaged the enemy. Persuading the U.S. public became a wartime industry, almost as important as the manufacturing…

  9. Czechs and Slovaks in Russian Captivity during World War I (1914-1918)


    Oksana E. Dmitrieva


    The article is focused on the features of more than 250 000 Czechs and Slovaks in Russian captivity during World War I: the amount, quartering and supply benefits, work in various sectors of the Russian economy, military units formation, social and national organizations activities, charity support. The conditions of Czechs and Slovaks captivity are recollected. New sources are introduced into scientific use.

  10. The Destruction of Jewish Libraries and Archives in Cracow during World War II. (United States)

    Sroka, Marek


    Examines the loss of various collections, especially school libraries and the Ezra Library, in Cracow (Poland) during World War II. Highlights include Nazi policies toward Cracow's Jews; the destruction of libraries, archives, and collections; Jewish book collections in the Staatsbibliotek Krakau (state library); and the removal of books by Jewish…

  11. The application of Radar in the UDF during World War II | Vlok ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such were in their time: ballistae, the short sword, bows and arrows, gunpowder, breech loading rifles, machine guns, submarines, aerial bombs, tanks, and poison gas. The World War II crop was roughly: Blitzkrieg, radar, V.-type bombs and the atomic bomb. Great leaps ahead like these, in advance of current practice, ...

  12. Enduring Lessons of Justice from the World War II Japanese American Internment (United States)

    Gallavan, Nancy P.; Roberts, Teresa A.


    In 1942, less than four months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent United States entry into World War II , nearly 120,000 persons of Japanese ancestry living along the west coast of the United States were ordered to evacuate their homes and sent to internment camps. The evacuees, separated from their extended families, former…

  13. The Depression and World War II as Seen through Country Music. (United States)

    Brown, Sheldon


    The social upheaval of the Great Depression and the U.S. reaction to World War II are analyzed to demonstrate how country music songs, artists, and composers can help students gain historical insights. Songs appropriate for studying these two topics in U.S. history are listed. (RM)

  14. Humanism's Sisyphean Task: Curricular Reform at Brown University during the Second World War (United States)

    Porwancher, Andrew


    In the midst of a curricular debate at Brown University during the Second World War, the faculty's humanists seized the opportunity to pen their views on the nature and purpose of higher education. This investigation reveals humanism as a fragmented force, at once principal and peripheral to the American academy. The central argument of this study…

  15. Collective Memories of the Second World War in History Textbooks from China, Japan and South Korea (United States)

    Suh, Yonghee; Yurita, Makito; Lin, Lin; Metzger, Scott


    Informed by recurring international controversies, this study explores representations of the Second World War as official history in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean secondary-level textbooks and theorizes about how they influence and function as collective memories about this time period. Using grounded theory, it finds that the examined Japanese…

  16. [Reconstructive investigations and identification measures in unknown soldiers of the Second World War]. (United States)

    Jopp-van Well, Eilin; Gehl, Axel; Säring, Dennis; Amling, Michael; Hahn, Michael; Sperhake, Jan; Augustin, Christa; Krebs, Oliver; Püschel, Klaus


    The article reports on the exhumation and identification of unknown soldiers from the Second World War. With the help of medicolegal investigation and reconstruction methods an American pilot presumably murdered by a shot to the head (lynch law) and an interned Italian soldier could be identified after about 70 years and brought back home.

  17. Marianne Wahnschaff Ballester's Personal Experiences: United States, World War Two, Soviet Zone. (United States)

    Oliver, Paula Popow

    This family history recounts the life and personal experiences of Marianne Wahnschaff Ballester who was born in the United States in 1929 to German parents. Marianne and her mother spent the World War II years in Stassfurt, Germany, and returned to the United States in 1946. The overview of her life includes a reunion with her father, attendance…

  18. Use of medical and mental health care by World War II survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramsen, I.; van der Ploeg, H.M.


    This study examined the mental and medical health care utilization of World War II (WW II) survivors and the characteristics of survivors seeking professional health care. Forty seven years after the end of WW II, a random sample of 4,057 Dutch WW II survivors answered a four-page questionnaire;

  19. Sewing Seams of Stories: Becoming a Teacher during the First World War (United States)

    Sinner, Anita


    In this article the author shares a partial biography of Elizabeth Evans, who became a domestic science teacher in Britain during the First World War. This story begins with a small collection of artefacts--professional letters and personal photographs--which infuse our understanding of teaching and learning and Elizabeth's everyday life nearly a…

  20. The british military hospitals in macedonia during the first world war. (United States)

    Cvetkovski, Vladimir

    The paper focusses its attention to the medical work of the British Military hospitals stationed in Macedonia during the First World War, the surgical work carried out under very heavy conditions in improvised operating theatres as well as the treatment of the wounded and sick solders brought from the battlefields on the Macedonian Front.

  1. The First World War in the Literacy-Focused Classroom: Teaching German through Cultural Themes (United States)

    Redmann, Jennifer; Sederberg, Kathryn


    This article offers approaches to the topic of the First World War at the intermediate and advanced levels of the German curriculum through thematically diverse WWI-era cultural texts. By situating the texts within a multiliteracies framework, the authors demonstrate how this historical and literary content can provide authentic material for…

  2. Exploring Diversity at GCSE: Making a First World War Battlefields Visit Meaningful to All Students (United States)

    Philpott, Joanne; Guiney, Daniel


    Having already reflected on ways of improving their students' understanding of historical diversity at Key Stage 3, Joanne Philpott and Daniel Guiney set themselves the challenge of extending this to post-14 students by means of fieldwork activities at First World War battlefields sites. In addition, they wanted to link the study of past diversity…

  3. A Lesson of Two World Wars: Protect the Ship, not the SLOCs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pillsbury, James


    ... hands of the United States' potential adversaries. The enduring lesson of both World Wars was that it took time for the Allies to realize that technology was not the anti-submarine panacea it had been hoped to be, and it was the age-old practice...

  4. The Swiss "Willensnation" at Risk: Teachers in the Cultural Gap during the First World War (United States)

    Brühwiler, Ingrid


    As a neutral and multilingual country, Switzerland struggled with major domestic political conflicts during the First World War due to the two cultures of the French-speaking and German-speaking parts of the country. The divided cultural loyalties ("fossé moral", "Röstigraben"), consisting of Swiss-Germans supporting Germany…

  5. German Eagle vs. Russian Bear: A World War II Russian Front Boardgame Kit. (United States)

    Coatney, Louis R.

    This board game encourages junior and senior high school student analysis of the German campaign against the USSR and gauges student decision-making skills. The World War II Russo-German Front is simulated in a standard board game format. A key element of the game is its analysis and results form. Using this form compels students to analyze and…

  6. Women in the University during the First World War--An Autobiographical Report. (United States)

    Flitner, Elisabeth


    The author describes her experiences as one of the first females in secondary schools and universities in three German cities in the early 1900s. These experiences illustrate the development of educational opportunities for female students during the First World War. (Author/BSR)

  7. Correspondence Urging Bombing of Auschwitz during World War II. Teaching with Documents. (United States)

    Blondo, Richard A.; Schmael, Wynell Burroughs


    Presents a classroom lesson that utilizes primary sources about Auschwitz, the World War II Nazi concentration camp. Two letters confronting the issue of whether or not U.S. planes should bomb the camps are included. Recommends seven teaching strategies for the lesson and identifies additional resources. (CFR)

  8. Cocoa Export Permit and Quota System In Nigeria During World War ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The cocoa trade in colonial West Africa, before World War II, had been operated through market forces. All attempts made by foreign trading firms to form 'cocoa buying pool' and eliminate market forces met with stiff opposition by African farmers and middlemen, the famous of which was the cocoa hold-up in Ghana ...

  9. Teaching Giants to Learn: Lessons from Army Learning in World War II (United States)

    Visser, Max


    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the "truism" that learning organizations cannot be large organizations and, conversely, that large organizations cannot be learning organizations. This paper analyzes learning in the German and US armies in the Second World War, based on a four-dimensional model of the learning organization.…

  10. Intelligence Preparations for World War I in South West Africa James

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. As World War I approached, the potential for conflict drove the principal future protagonists, England and. Germany, to seek detailed information on their anticipated enemies, not just in Europe, but wherever their nations' interests crossed paths. After 1910, the Union of South Africa turned its eyes to the northwest ...

  11. Problems of Legal Regulation of Currency Circulation in Eastern Russia during the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petin D. I.


    Full Text Available The survey of the overall economic and financial situation in the Eastern Russia during the First World War is presented in the article. Special attention is paid by the author to the first experience of local emissions of money surrogates.

  12. Combining individual memory & collective memory? : Classics Illustrated’s representation of World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribbens, Kees

    WWII is widely remembered and represented. Keeping the memories of this international conflict alive, both within academic and popular history writing, occurred largely within various national frameworks. On the one hand, in the immediate post-war world many stories appeared about the great events

  13. Education, Nation-Building and Modernization after World War I: American Ideas for the Peace Conference (United States)

    Ment, David M.


    The First World War ended with the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian, Russian, German and Ottoman Empires. In planning for the peace negotiations the allied governments considered not only the European boundaries but especially the national aspirations and future development of the peoples of the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Africa and…

  14. Rape in World War II film: comparing narrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzadevych, Tetyana


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to show how the filmmaker’s genre of choice shapes the main discourse of the film. The author compares Helke Sander’s documentary Liberators Take Liberties (1991-1992 and Max Farberbock’s narrative feature A Woman in Berlin (2008 both dealing with the dramatic effect of the end of WWII, in particular with the instances of German women having been raped by the Allied troops, a theme first publicized in the anonymous diary A Woman in Berlin (1953. There is a clear connection between the book and the two films, but if Sander focuses on the rape itself and on the extraordinary female experience of war, Farberbock is more concerned with cross-national revenge. The author looks closer at the genre elements, particularly at the genres of the diary, the (feminist documentary, and the narrative film. Then, the author draws some parallels between the Helke Sander film and the diary A Woman of Berlin and discusses the documentaries within the feminist framework inspired by Sander’s accomplishments.

  15. Mental health, citizenship, and the memory of World War II in the Netherlands (1945-85). (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Harry


    After World War II, Dutch psychiatrists and other mental health care professionals articulated ideals of democratic citizenship. Framed in terms of self-development, citizenship took on a broad meaning, not just in terms of political rights and obligations, but also in the context of material, social, psychological and moral conditions that individuals should meet in order to develop themselves and be able to act according to those rights and obligations in a responsible way. In the post-war period of reconstruction (1945-65), as well as between 1965 and 1985, the link between mental health and ideals of citizenship was coloured by the public memory of World War II and the German occupation, albeit in completely different, even opposite ways. The memory of the war, and especially the public consideration of its victims, changed drastically in the mid-1960s, and the mental health sector played a crucial role in bringing this change about. The widespread attention to the mental effects of the war that surfaced in the late 1960s after a period of 20 years of public silence should be seen against the backdrop of the combination of democratization and the emancipation of emotions.

  16. Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany: from 1936 to the end of World War II. (United States)

    Schoenl, William


    This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  17. Post-traumatic stress disorder in Australian World War II veterans attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic. (United States)

    Kidson, M A; Douglas, J C; Holwill, B J


    To ascertain the frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in World War II veterans attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic in an Australian veterans' hospital and to compare veterans with and without PTSD according to certain psychological variables. Over a three-month period veterans were assessed at their next appointment by their treating doctors (psychiatrists or psychiatric registrars) for PTSD according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-III-R). At the same time they completed two questionnaires and provided information about their war experiences. The psychiatric outpatient department at Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital, Melbourne. One hundred and twenty World War II veterans attended during the three-month period and 108 (90%) agreed to participate and are included in this study. The treating doctors recorded the presence or absence and severity of veterans' symptoms of PTSD. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-60) and the Impact of Events Scale (IES) were then completed by participants under supervision. Forty-nine veterans (45%) were found to have active PTSD 45 years after the war. The presence of PTSD was significantly associated with the taking of casualties (an indicator of severity of war stress as reported by the veterans themselves) and with combat stress as rated by their treating doctors. The veterans with PTSD obtained significantly higher scores on both the GHQ-60 and the IES, and reported no significant reduction in symptoms of PTSD over the preceding 10 years. The presence of both an anxiety and a depressive disorder was substantially and significantly more common in the veterans who had PTSD. Overall, the study revealed a high frequency of PTSD and a strong persistence of this condition in psychiatric outpatients who were veterans of World War II.

  18. Historical Conditions and the Remigration of Ukrainians from France after the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergij Tkačov


    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of remigration of Ukrainians from France. The author discloses the history of the Ukrainian emigration in this country, the character of the state policy of France and Poland before World War II considering the migration processes. The post-war situation is shown on the background of complicated political struggle in Europe, in particular, of the Franco-Soviet relations. The author analyses the evolution in manipulations of the terms "refugees", "ernigrants", "displaced persons" by official Soviet authorities.

  19. World War I and Propaganda Poster Art: Comparing the United States and German Cases


    Joseph Jon Kaminski


          This paper looks at some similarities and differences between propaganda art used by Germany and the United States during World War I.  The first section briefly looks at aesthetic theory and addresses the philosophical question of whether war propaganda posters are, in fact, ‘art’ at all.  Then images of various posters that were popular and widely published by both nations are shown and discussed.  This paper concludes that while there are many thematic similarities between the poster...

  20. Neurology, poetry and the first world war of 1914-1918. (United States)

    Gardner-Thorpe, Christopher


    The First World War of 1914-1918 produced a wealth of disability and death and much has been written of this catastrophe for mankind. Prose is prolific and much poetry has been written too, some of it discussed here; it consists of works by healthcare workers and also about the effects of the war upon those who fought and those who were left behind. Some of the work is by neurologists and some deals with the neurological disorders of those who fought. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Death and bereavement in the First World War: the Australian experience. (United States)

    Jalland, Pat


    The First World War was a turning point in the cultural history of death and bereavement in Australia. The mass deaths of some 60,000 soldiers overseas led to communal rituals of mourning for the war dead and minimal public expressions of private grief. The mass slaughter of so many young men and the interminable grief of so many families devalued the deaths of civilians at home and helped to create a new cultural model of suppressed and privatised grieving which deeply constrained the next two generations. Emotional and expressive grieving became less common, mourning ritual was minimised and sorrow became a private matter. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Romania’s economic contribution to making a Long World War II shorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan GHEORGHE


    Full Text Available Romania’s participation in World War II was brought about by political reasons and strategic needs that resulted from the internationalpolitical situation at the middle of the twentieth century. One can hardly say that Romania did not do its best to avoid becoming involved in the war.From September 1939 to June 1941, the foreign policy laid focus on non-belligerency and neutrality. But eventually Romania was drawn in, too,right after the series of unfortunate events in the summer of 1940

  3. Paula Lind Ayers: "song-physician" for troops with shell shock during World War I. (United States)

    Reschke-Hernandez, Alaine E


    Little is known about the therapeutic uses of music during the First World War. This historical study provides a biography of Paula Lind Ayers (1891-1974), a vocalist, actress, and YMCA Entertainer who became known as "the girl who could sing away shell shock." The purpose of this study is to describe Paula Lind Ayers' respite services during World War I and provide a contextual biography of her life. The author conducted an exhaustive search regarding Paula Lind Ayers' life and her activities during World War I. Numerous databases were used to locate print sources. Libraries, archives, and organizations were consulted to obtain unpublished primary sources. The author evaluated materials via a recursive process that included corroborating evidence, assessing source reliability, and contextualizing information. Data were synthesized and analyzed for emergent themes. Findings suggest that Paula Lind Ayers developed a systematic approach using familiar, live singing that was effective in alleviating symptoms of shell shock. Her method was replicated by others overseas during World War I. After the war, she returned to a successful performance career until the Great Depression. No information was found about Ayers' life from the year 1929 until her death in 1974. Understanding Paula Lind Ayers' contribution to music therapy provides a deeper awareness of past therapeutic uses of music with soldiers who experienced shell shock. Such understanding helps shape the way we view the present conception of music therapy with veterans and how we might answer questions that will affect the future of the field. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  4. Charitable activities in Tsaritsyn during the World War I (on materials of periodicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana A. Karagodina


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify the charitable activities carried out in the city of Tsaritsyn during the World War I. As a method of research used analysis of materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals published in the city in time of war. The main source of analysis is the issues of the newspaper «Tsaritsyno Bulletin» for the period from July 1914 to February 1917. The analysis allowed to identify the most priority directions of charitable aid, carried out in Tsaritsyn in the war. Also, the article discusses the activities of public organizations and associations, involved in the provision of charitable assistance to the sick and wounded soldiers, their wives and children, refugees. In particular, the reports of the Ladies' Committee of Tsaritsyn and the Tsaritsyn branch of the Russian Red Cross Society are analyzed and the features of the activity of these organizations are revealed.

  5. Some aerodynamic discoveries and related NACA/NASA research programs following World War 2 (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.


    The World War 2 time period ushered in a new era in aeronautical research and development. The air conflict during the war highlighted the need of aircraft with agility, high speed, long range, large payload capability, and in addition, introduced a new concept in air warfare through the use of guided missiles. Following the war, the influx of foreign technology, primarily German, led to rapid advances in jet propulsion and speed, and a host of new problem areas associated with high-speed flight designs were revealed. The resolution of these problems led to a rash of new design concepts and many of the lessons learned, in principle, are still effective today. In addition to the technical lessons learned related to aircraft development programs, it might also be noted that some lessons involving the political and philosophical nature of aircraft development programs are worth attention.

  6. “The End of Innocence”. The Children of Bukovina in the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harieta Mareci-Sabol


    Full Text Available Interest in the children’s experiences in World War One has grown substantially in the last decades. Autobiographies and private memories, documents and all kind of stories present the dimension of warfare and how the children perceived it. Affected by disruption to home life and to schooling, by absent parents, and death, these innocents tried to understand the reasons behind the events that stunned their community, restructuring attitudes towards family, fear, play, and life. This paper aims to expose how the children of the most eastern province of the Austrian Monarchy experienced the Great War, how was manifested the pervasiveness of the war to their everyday lives, and how the combatants – Russians, Austrians, Germans, and Hungarians – were seen by the youngest inhabitants of Bukovina.

  7. From Globalization to Liquidation: The Deutsch-Asiatische Bank and the First World War in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Moazzin


    Full Text Available This article uses the case of the Deutsch-Asiatische Bank and its liquidation during the First World War to examine the challenges faced by German businesses during the war in China and China’s involvement in Allied economic warfare. This case suggests the detrimental effect that political crises and global shifts of power had on foreign businesses in modern China’s globalized treaty port economy. It also reveals China’s role in the global economic warfare of the Allies, showing that China first resisted Allied demands for a full liquidation of the German bank but eventually acquiesced to Allied pressure and handed control over the liquidation to the Allies. As a consequence, China ended up violating the very international law it had put so much value on when entering the war.

  8. An Interview with Cass R. Sunstein: Author of The World According to Star Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cass R. Sunstein


    Full Text Available The guest editors of special issue 12, Jason W. Ellis and Sean Scanlan, interview Cass R. Sunstein, the Robert Walmsley University Professor at Harvard, where he is founder and director of the Program on Behavioral Economics and Public Policy. He is the author of many books, including the bestseller Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness (with Richard H. Thaler. His 2016 book The World According to Star Wars attempts to understand the Star Wars universe in ten chapters through the lenses of Sunstein’s academic interests, namely: culture, sociology, psychology, behavioral science, and political science. The book is both personal and theoretical, practical and academic. It takes accurate measure of the genesis of the movies, the movies themselves, and briefly, but trenchantly, it examines concepts such as reputational cascades and speculates on what Star Wars can teach viewers about constitutional disputes.

  9. Surgical advances during the First World War: the birth of modern orthopaedics. (United States)

    Ramasamy, Arul; Eardley, W G P; Edwards, D S; Clasper, J C; Stewart, M P M


    The First World War (1914-1918) was the first truly industrial conflict in human history. Never before had rifle fire and artillery barrage been employed on a global scale. It was a conflict that over 4 years would leave over 750,000 British troops dead with a further 1.6 million injured, the majority with orthopaedic injuries. Against this backdrop, the skills of the orthopaedic surgeon were brought to the fore. Many of those techniques and systems form the foundation of modern orthopaedic trauma management. On the centenary of 'the War to end all Wars', we review the significant advances in wound management, fracture treatment, nerve injury and rehabilitation that were developed during that conflict. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  10. Music for the injured soldier: a contribution of American women's military bands during World War II. (United States)

    Sullivan, Jill M


    This study is an investigation of the contributions of women's military bands in the United States to the reconditioning of the injured American troops during World War II. Primary and secondary sources revealed that these bands welcomed home hospital ships, performed for convalescing soldiers in hospitals, and provided music for hospital dances. While each of the bands investigated served in similar capacities, only one, the 403rd Women's Army Corps (WAC) Band, was stationed at a hospital. While entertainment by women's bands was an important part of the Army Reconditioning Program for the injured, the study also revealed a working partnership that developed between these musicians and the medical community. Sixty years after the war, band members believe their performances in hospitals were the most important contribution of their service. Some historians have concluded that music used in military hospitals during the war was the impetus for the music therapy profession.

  11. China and the post-cold-war nuclear world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuji, Keiji


    On May 15, 1995, only a few days after the indefinite extension of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, China tested a nuclear bomb. The rapid growth in China's defence spending is also alarming. Against the spirit of international non-proliferation regimes, China has sold missile components to Pakistan, a research reactor and an electromagnetic isotope separation facility to Iran. In addition to the repression of human rights domestically, in China as well as in Tibet, no one can ignore the possibility of a serious international conflict over the Spratly Islands. This paper examines whether China will pose a grave future threat to world peace or whether, fearing international isolation, it will become a guardian of the international non-proliferation regime. In other words, the paper aims to set straight the record of China's recent nuclear policy

  12. Kilts, tanks, and aeroplanes: Scotland, cinema, and the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Archibald


    Full Text Available This article charts commercial cinema’s role in promoting the war effort in Scotland during the First World War, outlining three aspects of the relationship between cinema and the war as observed in Scottish non-fiction short films produced between 1914 and 1918. The existing practice of local topical filmmaking, made or commissioned by cinema managers, created a particular form of engagement between cinema and war that was substantially different from the national newsreels or official films. The article offers an analysis of surviving short ‘topicals’ produced and exhibited in Scotland, which combine images of local military marches with kilted soldiers and enthusiastic onlookers and were designed to lure the assembled crowds back into the cinema to see themselves onscreen. Synthesising textual analysis with a historical account of the films’ production context, the article examines the films’ reliance on the romanticised militarism of the Highland soldier and the novelty appeal of mobilisation and armament, sidelining the growing industrial unrest and anti-war activities that led to the birth of the term ‘Red Clydeside’. The article then explores how, following the British state’s embracing of film propaganda post-1916, local cinema companies such as Green’s Film Service produced films in direct support of the war effort, for example Patriotic Porkers (1918, for the Ministry of Food. Through their production and exhibition practice exhibitors mediated the international conflict to present it to local audiences as an appealing spectacle, but also mobilised cinema’s position in Scottish communities to advance ideological and practical aspects of the war effort, including recruitment, refugee support, and fundraising.

  13. The agony of a neutral? Spain and the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Sáenz-Frances


    Full Text Available This article examinesSpain’s position in the international arena at the start of the First World War and the country’s role in the system of alliances that contributed to the outbreak of hostilities in 1914. The war had an important effect on Spanish domestic politics, as well as the economy, aspects that will be covered in depth. Special attention will be paid to the positioning of the main political parties and public opinion in relation to the two warring power blocs. Even without taking a direct part in the conflict, Spain’s neutrality had a significant and enduring effect on its political evolution, deepening the internal crisis of the ‘Restoration’ regime. One hundred years later, Spaniards still turn their curious eyes to a war that –even if only witnessed by their ancestors as neutrals– had an important impact on the configuration of their country’s own internal history. The article will cover the perspectives from which the war is seen nowadays in Spain.

  14. 'His nerves gave way': Shell shock, history and the memory of the First World War in Britain. (United States)

    Reid, Fiona


    During the First World War soldiers suffered from a wide range of debilitating nervous complaints as a result of the stresses and strains of modern warfare. These complaints--widely known as shell shock--were the subject of much medical-military debate during the war and became emblematic of the war and its sufferings afterwards. One hundred years after the war the diagnosis of PTSD has not resolved the issues initially raised by First World War shell shock. The stigma of mental illness remains strong and it is still difficult to commemorate and remember the mental wounds of war in a culture which tend to glory or glamorise military heroes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The first world war drives rehabilitation toward the modern concepts of disability and participation. (United States)

    Bonfiglioli Stagni, S; Tomba, P; Viganò, A; Zati, A; Benedetti, M G


    The First World War produced a huge number of disabled soldiers. During the war, surgeons realized that it was not enough to merely treat the limbs of the wounded soldiers; it was also necessary to train them to use their remaining abilities to their greatest capacity. Governments at the same time realized that such a high number of veterans created a financial burden, by entitling disabled veterans to full healthcare, raising the issues of social welfare. Both in the US and Europe, programs of rehabilitation were instituted, providing injured soldiers with long-term medical care and vocational training aimed at restituting soldier's independence for a speedy return to work. In Italy at the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, one of the most renowned Hospitals for the treatment of orthopedic deformities, Putti set up a technologically advanced Orthopedic Workshop, and a Rehabilitation House. The so called "reconstruction programs" addressed all aspects of rehabilitation (including physiotherapy, curative workshops and vocational therapy), seeing disability in terms of function. The experience gained in the treatment of war victims markedly enriched rehabilitation techniques, but overall the First World War helped engender the concept of rehabilitative programs to assist disabled veterans reintegrate in the workplace, thus laying the foundations of the modern concept of participation at a social level. In the centenary of Italy's entry into the First World War, it is worth underlining just how much hindsight affords us a new perspective on Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. It reminds us that rehabilitation is not merely the role of medicine, but forms part of a multifaceted approach involving societal roles and expectations, regardless of the psychological and physical impairments suffered by the individuals concerned.

  16. The inclusion of Brazilian flight female nurses in the second world war: challenges and achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Bonfante Cesário Lourenço


    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To describe the circumstances of inclusion of female nurses in the Second World War through the Brazilian Air Force, and discuss the challenges faced by and the achievements of these nurses. Methods: Socio-historical study developed with textual and photographic sources, in addition to oral sources through interviews with war veterans. Data were treated according to the historical method and discussed with concepts support from the theory of social world, by Pierre Bourdieu. Results: The research has demonstrated that the inclusion of female nurses to the Air Force was characterized by social and symbolic effects of war demands and gender boundaries. Conclusion: The great challenge was the official incorporation of women by the Brazilian Air Forces in the post-war period. For this purpose, the organization of a flight female nurses cadre during the conflict was fundamental. Moreover, the record of this history reiterates the Nursing's legacy and the necessity of preparation for care in chaos situations.

  17. Coalmining and the National Scheme for Disabled Ex-Servicemen after the First World War. (United States)

    Mantin, Mike


    After the First World War, disabled British veterans returned home to an uncertain future of work. In addition to voluntary efforts, the government's response to the national employment crisis - the National Scheme for Disabled Ex-Servicemen (commonly known as the King's Roll) - was established in 1919 to encourage employers to hire a five per cent quota of disabled ex-servicemen. Historians have recently revisited the scheme, noting that in many cases the process was slow and fraught, with many disabled veterans facing the prospect of unemployment, yet few have paid attention to soldiers' pre-war working backgrounds and the specific requests of British industries. This article focuses on British coalminers returning from war. What role was there in this national situation for an industry known for its own high rate of accident and injury? Although the King's Roll made some attempt to find veterans specifically targeted jobs above and below ground according to their impairments, it proved unable to incorporate coalmining. Instead, many disabled ex-servicemen returned to the workplace and utilized their existing identities as miners to navigate the process. With the industry beginning to decline, many faced potential regression in job status, exploitation or unemployment. By shifting to an industry-specific focus, this case study explores the contested nature of work for disabled people after the First World War, and highlights the interrelation and importance of workplace identity for the returning disabled veteran.

  18. Popular health education and venereal diseases in Croatia between two World Wars. (United States)

    Dugac, Zeljko


    The article presents the research of popular health education on venereal diseases in Croatia between the World Wars. In the inter-war period, the traditional plain approach to popular health education was replaced with new, complex meth-ods, which became the basis for the modem work in this field. New social medicine ideas and new health politics, as well as the new founded institutions such as the School of Public Health in Zagreb and different anti-venereal outpatient facilities, were crucial for changing popular health education after World War I. Based mostly on archival documents, this article explores popular health education as a vehicle for identification of attitudes and concepts within the medical community. Ambivalence in the perception of essential approaches towards popular heath education is elaborated on the ground of controversies within prominent medical representatives. With the support of new technologies, public health methods in the inter-war period matured in form and complexity. Despite various new methods, which made their way into different parts of everyday life, the subject matter of venereal diseases was treated through a limited number of methods due to the conservative attitudes of society, as well as resistance of many physicians.

  19. Psychological effects of chemical weapons: a follow-up study of First World War veterans. (United States)

    Jones, E; Everitt, B; Ironside, S; Palmer, I; Wessely, S


    Chemical weapons exercise an enduring and often powerful psychological effect. This had been recognized during the First World War when it was shown that the symptoms of stress mimicked those of mild exposure to gas. Debate about long-term effects followed the suggestion that gassing triggered latent tuberculosis. A random sample of 103 First World War servicemen awarded a war pension for the effects of gas, but without evidence of chronic respiratory pathology, were subjected to cluster analysis using 25 common symptoms. The consistency of symptom reporting was also investigated across repeated follow-ups. Cluster analysis identified four groups: one (n=56) with a range of somatic symptoms, a second (n=30) with a focus on the respiratory system, a third (n=12) with a predominance of neuropsychiatric symptoms, and a fourth (n=5) with a narrow band of symptoms related to the throat and breathing difficulties. Veterans from the neuropsychiatric cluster had multiple diagnoses including neurasthenia and disordered action of the heart, and reported many more symptoms than those in the three somatic clusters. Mild or intermittent respiratory disorders in the post-war period supported beliefs about the damaging effects of gas in the three somatic clusters. By contrast, the neuropsychiatric group did not report new respiratory illnesses. For this cluster, the experience of gassing in a context of extreme danger may have been responsible for the intensity of their symptoms, which showed no sign of diminution over the 12-year follow-up.

  20. The din of gunfire: Rethinking the role of sound in World War II newsreels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Shpolberg


    Full Text Available French film historian Laurent Véray has famously called World War I ‘the first media war of the twentieth century’. Newsreels, which first appeared in 1910, brought the war to movie theaters across Europe and the U.S., screening combat for those on the ‘home front’. However, while the audience could see the action it could not hear it – sometimes only live music would accompany the movements of the troops. The arrival of sound newsreels in 1929 radically transformed moviegoers’ experiences of the news, and, by necessity, of armed conflict. Drawing on examples of World War II newsreels from British Pathé’s archive that was recently made available online, this article seeks to delineate the logic governing the combination of voice-over commentary, music, sound effects, and field-recorded sound, and argues that it can be traced directly to the treatment of sound in the ‘Great War’ fiction films of the preceding decade.

  1. Unknown history of Slovenian librarianship: Celje Public Library during World War II

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    Marjetka Šelih


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate and present the activities of the Public Library in Celje during German occupation during World War II. The research is based on a survey of archival sources – relevant documents are available in Celje Historical Arcives (Zgodovinski arhiv Celje – ZAC. The article is divided in two parts, the first one presenting the condition of librarianship in Nazi Germany in general, and the second one focusing on a case study: the conditions of librarianship in occupied Slovenian city of Celje. The city was an important administrative, commercial, industrial, traffic and educational centre in the area of Styria during the occupation. Its library operated according to standards and models applied to libraries in Germany. This was reflected in the overall library operation: selection and processing of material, layout, employee selection and work with users. Public libraries were founded by individual municipalities or groups of municipalities, which took care of the operation of libraries. Special government advisory centres (Staatliche Volksbuechereistelle provided library’s additional materials. Consequently, libraries played an important role in dissemination of the German language and culture in new border areas, which was regarded as their major aim. War conditions did not deter users from visiting libraries and employee complaints about the lack of financial means were not recorded. Towards the end of the war only the lack of paper was noticed. Key words: Public libraries, World War II, occupation, German librarianship, Celje

  2. Uranium: War, Energy and the Rock That Shaped the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoellner, T.


    Having traveled extensively through the savannah of Africa, the mountains of Eastern Europe, and the deserts of Utah, the author delves into the complex science, politics and history of uranium, which presents the best and worst of mankind: the capacity for scientific progress and political genius; the capacity for nihilism, exploitation, and terror. Because the author covers so much ground, from the discovery of radioactivity, through the development of the atomic bomb, he does not go into great depth on any one topic. Nonetheless, he paints vivid pictures of uranium's impact, including forced labor in Soviet mines and lucky prospectors who struck it rich in harsh environments, the spread of uranium smuggling, as well as an explanation of why it was absurd to claim that Saddam Hussein was attempting to purchase significant quantities of uranium from Niger. The only shortcoming is the author's omission of the issue of radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power. The author knows well what uranium looks like, why peril pulses in its every atom, and how scientists exploit its nuclear volatility. The drama is found in the weaponry uranium has spawned as demonstrated at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In pursuit of this raw power, the U.S. let Navajos die extracting needed ore and let southwestern cities sicken beneath clouds from reckless testing. The Soviet Union sentenced tens of thousands to lethal gulag mines. Israel diverted ore through deception on the high seas. Pakistan stole European refining technology. Alive with devious personalities, the author's narrative ultimately exposes the frightening vulnerability of a world with too many sources of a dangerous substance and too little wisdom to control it



    Erik Benson


    This article will address the role of American commercial aviation in the Good Neighbor policy during the period of World War Two. The Good Neighbor was a complex policy, and American commercial aviation both reflected and augmented this complexity. Through the early years of thew orld war, American commercial aviation proved to be a valuable instrument for promoting hemispheric unity. Yet as the war progressed, commercial aviation became a catalyst for conflict and an indicator of the demise...

  4. Winning the Transformation War Ugly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akam, Robert B


    ... research and development of the Objective Force and its Future Combat System (FCS). Clearly, the Army needs a process for monitoring the status and preparedness for each of its modular Brigade Combat Teams (BCT...

  5. Intestinal parasites in First World War German soldiers from "Kilianstollen", Carspach, France. (United States)

    Le Bailly, Matthieu; Landolt, Michaël; Mauchamp, Leslie; Dufour, Benjamin


    Paleoparasitological investigations revealed the presence of intestinal helminths in samples taken from the abdominal cavities of two German soldiers, recovered in the First World War site named "Kilianstollen" in Carspach, France. Eggs from roundworm, whipworm, tapeworm and capillariids were identified. The morphological and morphometrical comparison, followed by statistical analyses, showed that the Carspach capillariid eggs are similar to rodent parasites. Poor sanitary conditions in the trenches, the lack of knowledge of parasites, and the widespread presence of commensal animals, can explain the occurrence of such parasites in human intestines. This study is the second dealing with 20th century human samples. It confirms the presence of intestinal worms in First World War German soldiers. In this case study, the application of statistics to precise measurements facilitated the diagnosis of ancient helminth eggs and completed the microscopic approach.

  6. 'A very valuable fusion of classes': British professional and volunteer nurses of the First World War. (United States)

    Hallett, Christine E


    Public perceptions of the work of nurses and VAD-volunteers in the First World War have been heavily influenced by a small number of VAD-writings. The work of trained, professional nurses in supporting and supervised the work of VADs has been largely overlooked. This paper examines several of the writings of both volunteers and professionals, and emphasises the overlooked supervisory, managerial and clinical work of trained nurses. In this centenary year of the First World War's opening months, the paper also explores the ways in which the British mass-media--notably the BBC--have chosen to cling to a romantic image of the untrained nurse, whilst at the same time acknowledging the significance of trained, professional nursing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Red Cross hospital in Krapina, during the First world war from 1914 to 1918]. (United States)

    Fures, Rajko; Habek, Dubravko; Kozina, Drago


    Red Cross Hospital in Krapina, during the First World War, was active from 1914 to 1918. Hospital led by Dr. Mirko Crkvenac, oriented humanist. The hospital is operated thanks to the help of municipalities and citizens. The hospital staff concern is for civilian and military victims of the First World War. Dr. Crkvenac, with the support of the City of Krapina and Mayor Vilibald Sluga, he succeeds to the organization and operation of the hospital to an enviable level. Across the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Croatian, Hospitals Red Cross, had a significant role in caring for the wounded, injured and sick soldiers and civilians. Red Cross Hospital in Krapina, is an example of a well-organized hospital in the toughest conditions. Such an organization was not simple in its implementation, and left the valuable lessons and experience.

  8. Governing the grapevine: the study of rumor during World War II. (United States)

    Faye, Cathy


    Throughout the early 1940s, a host of rumors relating to the Second World War began to circulate, leading the government to establish various committees and undertake multiple projects intended to counteract rumors that were believed to threaten civilian morale and compromise national security. Simultaneously, social scientists also began taking measures to study and combat rumor. Such efforts included the institution of several community groups, deemed "rumor clinics," that aimed to decrease the prevalence of wartime rumor by educating the general public. This article outlines the rise and fall of rumor clinics, focusing specifically on the shifting boundaries and the mounting tensions between the United States government and social scientists in the study of rumor during World War II.

  9. Follow-up studies of world war II and Korean conflict prisoners. III. Mortality to January 1, 1976. (United States)

    Keehn, R J


    Mortality through 1975 in US Army veterans released from prisoner-of-war camps following World War II (Europe, Pacific) and the Korean conflict and in several non-prisoner groups is compared using death rates and standard mortality ratios. The World War II Pacific and Korean conflict experience reveal increased risk of dying among former prisoners which, though diminishing with time, persist for 9 and 13 years, respectively. Mortality from tuberculosis and from trauma contributes to the increase among Pacific ex-prisoners, while for Korea the increase is limited to trauma. An excess of deaths due to cirrhosis of the liver in all three former prisoner groups appeared from about the 10th follow-up year. While the reported mortality experience for World War II spans 30 calendar years and for Korea 22 years, no evidence of increased aging among former prisoners of war is seen in mortality from the chronic and degenerative diseases.

  10. Mahan Goes to War: Effects of World War I on the U.S. Navy’s Force Structure and Operational Planning (United States)


    World War I,” The Journal of Military History 60, No. 1 (Jan. 1996), 19. 100 Naval Investigation, 29. 101 Elting E. Morison, Admiral Sims and the...Navy’s most prominent professional journal , featured extensive and detailed reporting on the war in Europe each issue. 3 Thomas Frothingham, The Naval...organizations in the Navy. William Williams’ 1996 Journal of Military History article, “Josephus Daniels and the U.S. Navy’s Shipbuilding Program During

  11. The "Periphery Principle": Unesco and the International Commitment of Scientists After World War II


    Petitjean, Patrick


    To be published in the proceedings of the 2nd ESHS conference (Krakow, September 2006); International audience; Before World War II, international science was mainly European and Eurocentric. The International Council of Scientific Unions and the International Institute for Intellectual Co-operation paid very little attention to science and scientists beyond Europe, which were mostly confined to colonial science institutions. Non-Western scientific achievements were ignored.When joining the n...

  12. Czechs and Slovaks in Russian Captivity during World War I (1914-1918

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    Oksana E. Dmitrieva


    Full Text Available The article is focused on the features of more than 250 000 Czechs and Slovaks in Russian captivity during World War I: the amount, quartering and supply benefits, work in various sectors of the Russian economy, military units formation, social and national organizations activities, charity support. The conditions of Czechs and Slovaks captivity are recollected. New sources are introduced into scientific use.

  13. Combat Engineers of World War II: Lessons on training and Mobilization (United States)


    visited II Corps Headquarters on 12 February 1943.49 After observing how General Lloyd R. Fredendall, Commander of II Corps, had scattered the American...Private Frank B. Sergeant, an engineer, stated: I know well those men who were cut to ribbons at the Kasserine Pass, and I know why they were thrown...Corps of Engineers, 1992. 93 Fowle, Barry W., and Floyd D. Wright . The 51st Again! An Engineer Combat Battalion in World War II. Shippensburg, PA

  14. Setting the Theater: US Sustainment Operations in the Pacific during World War II (United States)


    participated while assigned in paradise . The third key event was my experience while serving on Joint Task Force (JTF) 505 for a Humanitarian... paper has provided the background and the larger global context, dating back to the nineteenth century, for the emerging contest between the Axis...Warfare, AUSA, Land Warfare Paper No. 107, May 2015. Center for Military History. Logistics in World War II: Final Report of the Army Service

  15. French school and World War First: neurological consequences of a frightening time. (United States)

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota


    Some aspects of a dark period in the history of the modern neurology, that of the World War I (WWI), are here remembered, mainly by the neurological French School participation . Some personalities and their works related to the WWI are presented such as Joseph Babinski, Jules Froment, Clovis Vincent, Jules Joseph Dejerine, Augusta Déjérine-Klumpke, Jules Tinel, Pierre Marie, Achille Alexandre Souques, Charles Foix, and Georges Guillain.

  16. Edgar Pask and his physiological research--an unsung hero of World War Two. (United States)

    Enever, G


    Edgar Pask died in 1966 at the age of 53. He was the Professor of Anaesthesia in Newcastle upon Tyne, and a quiet and unassuming man. But during the Second World War he had been involved in a number of dangerous and remarkable experiments; these included investigating the effects of acute hypoxia related to high altitude parachute descents, resuscitation techniques and the effectiveness of lifejackets.

  17. French school and World War First: neurological consequences of a frightening time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes


    Full Text Available Some aspects of a dark period in the history of the modern neurology, that of the World War I (WWI, are here remembered, mainly by the neurological French School participation . Some personalities and their works related to the WWI are presented such as Joseph Babinski, Jules Froment, Clovis Vincent, Jules Joseph Dejerine, Augusta Déjérine-Klumpke, Jules Tinel, Pierre Marie, Achille Alexandre Souques, Charles Foix, and Georges Guillain.

  18. Teaching about the Moral Lessons of World War II and How to Integrate This into the Educational System (United States)

    Bykov, A. K.; Liuban, T. N.


    The Ninth of May 2010 marks the sixty-fifth anniversary of the Day of Victory in the Great War for the Fatherland (World War II). Although so much time has passed, the moral asset of this historical event remains large. The Russian people perceive this victory as a heroic symbol of the whole Fatherland, and its results and consequences are…

  19. Putting Their Lives on the Line: Personal Narrative as Political Discourse among Japanese Petitioners in American World War II Internment (United States)

    Okawa, Gail Y.


    One of the more complex and premeditated acts of covert violence during World War II concerns the American surveillance, arrest, and incarceration of thousands of resident Japanese immigrants prior to and upon the outbreak of the Pacific War. While briefly outlining the historical and political context of this mass incarceration, specifically…

  20. [The transgenerational transmission of traumatic experiences of the Second World War over three generations--a psychoanalytical perspective]. (United States)

    Silke, Wiegand-Grefe; Möller, Birgit


    The paper presents some reflections on the transgenerational transmission of traumatic experiences of war and in particular bombing during Second World War. These theoretical considerations are based on a case study (family interview) deriving from the research project "Kriegskindheit im Hamburger Feuersturm" additionally illustrated and complemented with impressions based on interviews with three generations in context of the project.

  1. The Rebirth of Educational Exchange: Anglo-German University Level Youth Exchange Programmes after the Second World War (United States)

    Naumann, Cindy


    In the early years of the Second World War the British had already begun post-war planning for education in Germany. They expressed a need to re-educate Germans and re-establish personal contacts with German people. One tool conceived to achieve these policy objectives was educational exchange. This paper will examine British educational exchange…

  2. "Silence and Cowardice" at the University of Michigan: World War I and the Pursuit of Un-American Faculty (United States)

    Cain, Timothy Reese


    Numerous faculty members at the University of Michigan and institutions across the nation found themselves victims of hysteria and anti-German extremism during World War I. Through an examination of restrictions on speech before American entry into the war, investigations into the loyalty of more than a dozen educators, and considerations of the…

  3. So Much More than a Humble Hall: World War I Memorials in NSW Schools of Arts & Mechanics' Institutes (United States)

    Morris, Roger K.; Parkinson, Robert J.; Ryan, Melanie J.


    This paper outlines the important role that School of Arts and Mechanics' Institutes played in the story of Australian adult education and highlights their significance in acknowledging those members of their local communities who had served in World War I, in honoring who had fallen, and in stressing the great cost of war to the community. [For…

  4. Understanding the Influence of Parkinson Disease on Adolf Hitler's Decision-Making during World War II. (United States)

    Gupta, Raghav; Kim, Christopher; Agarwal, Nitin; Lieber, Bryan; Monaco, Edward A


    Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia. Common symptoms of PD include a reduction in control of voluntary movements, rigidity, and tremors. Such symptoms are marked by a severe deterioration in motor function. The causes of PD in many cases are unknown. PD has been found to be prominent in several notable people, including Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor of Germany and Führer of Nazi Germany during World War II. It is believed that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic PD throughout his life. However, the effect of PD on Adolf Hitler's decision making during World War II is largely unknown. Here we examine the potential role of PD in shaping Hitler's personality and influencing his decision-making. We purport that Germany's defeat in World War II was influenced by Hitler's questionable and risky decision-making and his inhumane and callous personality, both of which were likely affected by his condition. Likewise his paranoid disorder marked by intense anti-Semitic beliefs influenced his treatment of Jews and other non-Germanic peoples. We also suggest that the condition played an important role in his eventual political decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The United States Army and malaria control in World War II. (United States)

    Hays, C W


    The United States Army faced difficult malaria control problems both at home and abroad during World War II. This challenge forced the Army to develop new tools and strategies for use in malarious areas where fighting was occurring. Due to the severe malaria problems being faced in some combat areas and the need to solve these problems quickly, intensive malaria research and operational programs were developed and implemented. With these concerted efforts and the simultaneous development of new control technologies, malaria was successfully controlled in most locations. In order to accomplish this high level of control both in the US and overseas, the Army developed a very organized approach to the malaria problem and implemented it in an effective manner. The creation of new technical solutions was also strongly emphasized and out of this effort came the development of effective antimalaria drugs to replace quinine, of new insecticides and of more effective systems for delivering these insecticides. Some of the major new tools which came out of this research were DDT and drugs such as Atabrine and chloroquine. The availability of Atabrine and DDT revolutionized malaria control throughout the world. The knowledge and experience gained through the use of these new tools by the US Army and other agencies in World War II provided the basis for a new optimism regarding malaria control which then led to the development of the global malaria eradication strategy in the post-war years.

  6. Investigating Trauma in Narrating World War I: A Psychoanalytical Reading of Pat Barker’s Regeneration

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    Bakhtiar Sadjadi


    Full Text Available The present paper seeks to critically read Pat Barker’s Regeneration in terms of Cathy Caruth’s psychoanalytic study of trauma. This analysis attempts to trace the concepts of latency, post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic memory, and trauma in Barker’s novel in order to explore how trauma and history are interrelated in the narrative of past history and, particularly, in the history of World War I. The present paper also demonstrates how Barker’s novel Regeneration acts as the narrative of trauma that vocalizes the silenced history of shell-shocked soldiers of World War I to represent British society, the history that has been concealed due to social and individual factors. The study thus investigates the dissociative disorders which are experienced by traumatized survivors of World War I as the aftermath of traumatic experiences of wartime. In addition, it argues how time moves for the traumatized victim and how the notion of latency in terms of Caruth’s theory is traceable in Barker’s novel. In Regeneration, the traumatized survivors are haunted with traumatic memory of past history; furthermore, past history constantly disrupts their present and the victims are in continuous shift from present time to past time. Time thus loses its linearity in the narrative of traumatized survivors. Keywords: Latency, post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic memory, trauma

  7. Anaesthetic and other treatments of shell shock: World War I and beyond. (United States)

    McKenzie, A G


    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an important health risk factor for military personnel deployed in modern warfare. In World War I this condition (then known as shell shock or 'neurasthenia') was such a problem that 'forward psychiatry' was begun by French doctors in 1915. Some British doctors tried general anaesthesia as a treatment (ether and chloroform), while others preferred application of electricity. Four British 'forward psychiatric units' were set up in 1917. Hospitals for shell shocked soldiers were also established in Britain, including (for officers) Craiglockhart War Hospital in Edinburgh; patients diagnosed to have more serious psychiatric conditions were transferred to the Royal Edinburgh Asylum. Towards the end of 1918 anaesthetic and electrical treatments of shell shock were gradually displaced by modified Freudian methods psychodynamic intervention. The efficacy of 'forward psychiatry' was controversial. In 1922 the War Office produced a report on shell shock with recommendations for prevention of war neurosis. However, when World War II broke out in 1939, this seemed to have been ignored. The term 'combat fatigue' was introduced as breakdown rates became alarming, and then the value of pre-selection was recognised. At the Maudsley Hospital in London in 1940 barbiturate abreaction was advocated for quick relief from severe anxiety and hysteria, using i.v. anaesthetics: Somnifaine, paraldehyde, Sodium Amytal. 'Pentothal narcosis' and 'narco-analysis' were adopted by British and American military psychiatrists. However, by 1945 medical thinking gradually settled on the same approaches that had seemed to be effective in 1918. The term PTSD was introduced in 1980. In the UK the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for management (2005) recommend trauma-focussed Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and consideration of antidepressants.

  8. Fatal injury epidemiology among the New Zealand military forces in the First World War. (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Summers, Jennifer A; Baker, Michael G; Thomson, George; Harper, Glyn


    Despite the large mortality burden of First World War (WW1) on New Zealand (NZ) military forces, no analysis using modern epidemiological methods has ever been conducted. We therefore aimed to study injury-related mortality amongst NZ military forces in WW1. An electronic version of the Roll-of-Honour for NZ Expeditionary Force (NZEF) personnel was supplemented with further coding and analysed statistically. We also performed literature searches to provide context. Out of a total of 16,703 deaths occurring during the war (28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918), injury deaths predominated: 65.1% were "killed in action" (KIA), 23.4% "died of wounds" (DOW), 1.0% were other injuries (e.g. "accidents", drownings, suicides and executions), and 10.5% were other causes (mainly disease). During the course of the war, the annual mortality rate from injury (for KIA + DOW) per 10,000 NZEF personnel in the North Hemisphere peaked at 1335 in 1915 (Gallipoli campaign) and then peaked again in 1917 at 937 (largely the Battle of Passchendaele). Some of the offensive campaigns involved very high mortality peaks (e.g. 2 days with over 450 deaths per day in October 1917). Participation in First World War was by far the worst fatal injury event in New Zealand's history. Many of these injury deaths could be considered to have been preventable through: better diplomacy (to prevent the war), improved military planning to reduce failed campaigns (e.g. Gallipoli, Passchendaele), earlier use of protective equipment such as helmets, and improved healthcare services.

  9. Infiltrating to Win: The Conduct of Border Denial Operations (United States)


    must believe 14 Robert A. Pape, Bombing to Win : Air Power and Coercion in War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996), 4. 15 Ibid., 7. 16 Ibid...Vietnam. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Pape, Robert A. Bombing to Win : Air Power and Coercion in War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University...Infiltrating to Win : The Conduct of Border Denial Operations A Monograph by MAJ Craig A. Broyles United

  10. Posttraumatic stress symptoms among Polish World War II survivors: the role of social acknowledgement. (United States)

    Lis-Turlejska, Maja; Szumiał, Szymon; Drapała, Iwona


    Background : There is growing evidence of the important role played by socio-interpersonal variables on the maintenance of PTSD. Many World War II survivors in Poland could, as a result of political circumstances during the aftermath of the war, have experienced a lack of social recognition of their war-related trauma. Objective : The main aim of the study was to examine the association between perceived social reactions and the level of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSD) and depression. Method : Participants ( N  = 120) were aged 71-97 years ( M  = 82.44; SD  = 6.14). They completed a WWII trauma-related questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS), the Impact of Events Scale (IES) and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). The Social Acknowledgement Questionnaire (SAQ) was used to measure participants' perception of others' acknowledgement and disapproval of their war trauma. Results : The rate of probable PTSD, diagnosed according to DSM-IV, was 38.3%. PTSD symptoms and General Disapproval were significantly correlated for all three PTSD symptom groups (Pearson's r ranged from .25 to .41). The structural equation modelling results also demonstrated the importance of General Disapproval with regard to the level of PTSD symptoms. It explained both the intensity of PTSD symptoms (13.4% of variance) and the level of depression (12.0% of variance). Conclusion : In addition to confirming the high rate of PTSD among WWII survivors in Poland, the results indicate the importance of social reactions to survivors' traumatic experiences.

  11. Periodicals оn the Fate of Russian Captives During the First World War

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    Nazarova Tatyana


    Full Text Available The materials of periodicals represent an important source for studying public opinion and the executive policy regarding the fate of Russian captives. The analysis of the periodicals proves that despite the patriotic fervor that swept the press during the First World War, the plight of Russian captives was not widely highlighted. The article analyzes the nature of the publications on the Russian captives and identifies the reasons of journalists’ neglect of their problems. Among these reasons, the author calls an unprecedented scale of captivity – the millions of war prisoners from each warring sides. The government and their controlled press tried to forget the captives instead of analyzing the causes of mass captivity and correcting the command errors. The theme of captivity was not a separate issue in the national press, and it was used only as the material for the formation of the “image of enemy” to illustrate the violations of the international humanistic principles by the Germans. This was largely due to the attitude of the government and the military toward their captives – they were treated like traitors, they were blamed for the failures that have dogged the Russian army in the first years of the war.

  12. The Invasion of Iran by the Allies during World War II

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    Süleyman Erkan


    Full Text Available When the Nazi Germany attacked the Soviets at the beginning of World War II, the USA, the UK and the Soviet Union took part on the same side and were called the Allies. In order to convey the military aid to the Soviets through Iran, the USA and the UK invaded Iran with the Soviets and dethroned Ahmad Reza Shah, who felt sympathy for Germany. By signing a treaty in 1942, they pledged to evacuate their troops from Iran six months after the war ended. They published a declaration that they would protect Iran’s territorial integrity as well as they repeated these decisions during the conference they made in Tehran in 1943. However; despite these decisions, a hidden rivalry began between the USSR and the West in Iran. The rivalry became very clear towards the end of the war. The Soviets wouldn’t withdraw from Iran. Additionally, they endeavored to divide Iran. The Iran crisis of 1946 between the West and the Soviets formed the start of the Cold War according to some people. As a country, Iran was highly affected by this process.

  13. Demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American troops of World War II: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cesar Alves Ferraz


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to discuss the results of a comparative study of demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American veterans of World War II. . In spite of the obvious difference in scale of the two military experiences, I argue that the study of the two experiences can offer new insights into lights on various common issues to both countries: the relationship between the societies and their armed forces, between the governments and their citizens, social and racial inequalities and, finally, the experiences of building welfare state structures during the war and postwar periods. Based on international studies of demobilization and social integration war veterans, the variables that were decisive for the success or failure of adaptation were: a past experiences in the reintegration of war veterans; b the nature and consequences of recruitment of future veterans; c planning by the State and the Armed Forces of procedures for post-bellum demobilization and reintegration; d the implementation of demobilization and the effects within the military institution and in civil society.

  14. Tungsten in the Second World War: China, Japan, Germany, the Allies and Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Maria Thomàs


    Full Text Available This article studies the production, legal and illegal trade, and provisioning of strategic mineral wolfram/tungsten both by the Allies and the Axis during World War II. It analyzes the case the world’s largest producer of this mineral, China, the trade agreements signed by Chiang Kai-shek before the war with Nazi Germany, the USSR and Britain and their evolution during the global conflict. It also analyzes Japan, its difficulties in obtaining Chinese wolfram and its dependence on Korea. As for Nazi Germany, it studies its supply of Chinese ore until 1941 and later in the Iberian Peninsula, a trade made difficult by the Allied preventive purchases in Spain and Portugal. The article also studies the case of the US, its progressive auto provisioning in the Western Hemisphere, the airlift established between China and India to extract tungsten and distribution of amounts of it in Britain and the USSR. Finally, the article includes an assessment of the importance of tungsten within the set of strategic materials used by the contenders in the war and concludes that the Allied strategy hinder or prevent the provision of the enemy helped to reduce use and negatively affected the effectiveness of its machinery of war.

  15. Russia Foreign Ministry And The State Duma During The First World War

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    S. I. Chernyavskiy


    Full Text Available The article studies the cooperation between the Russian Foreign Ministry and the State Duma during the First World War. A hundred years ago, the Russian parliament made the first real steps in democratization of public administration. MPs to the best of their ability and within the limits of the emperor’s powers sought to modernize the outdated system of monarchical rule. They were pushed by the tragic conditions of the First World War in which Russia was plunged by the royal family. The February Revolution of 1917 breathed new strength into the political struggle unfolding in Russia, it forced many conservative oriented public administrators to support the efforts of the MPs to establish a republican form of government. Russian diplomats also contributed to the effort when they assisted thousands of Russians who were caught up in captivity in hostile countries, as well as prisoners of war and seriously wounded. Using archival documents and memoirs, the author observes the evolution of the relationship between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the emerging civil society and how these changing relationships influenced the work of Russian diplomatic missions. This complex set of relationships evolved around issues faced by the authorities during the First World War and the February Revolution. Methodologically, the author relies on institutional approach and partially on the Annals school, analyzing the subject matter taking into account the specific historical conditions. In addition, the study uses elements of diachronic analysis, a comparison of the post-revolutionary and post-Soviet restructuring of diplomatic institutions in Russia, which demonstrates how deep the institutional memory can be under conditions of a consistent change in the socio-political structure.

  16. Transnational Debts: The Cultural Memory of Navajo Code Talkers in World War II

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    Birgit Däwes


    Full Text Available Even 70 years after it ended, World War II continues to endure in the global imagination. In the United States, images of the “Good War” prevail, and memories of the soldiers have been widely translated into displays of national heroism and glorification. At the same time, the celebratory narrative of national unity and democratic triumph is undercut by the counter-histories and experiences of the 44,000 Native American soldiers who served in this war. Their experiences and memories—in oral histories, interviews, as well as in fiction and film—challenge the narrative of a glorious nation in unison, especially in light of the historical conflicts between American nationalism and Native American political sovereignty. This paper investigates the specific memorial debt owed to the Navajo Code Talkers of World War II. Focusing on John Woo’s film Windtalkers (2002, Joseph Bruchac’s novel Code Talker (2005, and Chester Nez’s memoir Code Talker (2011, I will inquire into the field of tension between tribal, national, and transnational identities and explore the ways in which these tensions are negotiated at different sites of commemoration, especially in contrast to the distorted, consumer-oriented memory produced by the Hollywood industry. Through codes of orality, communal identity, and historicity, I argue, counter-strategies of narrating and remembering World War II not only decisively shape a revisionist writing of recent history and enrich the multicultural narrative of ‘America’ by Indigenous voices, but they also substantially contribute to current debates about transnational American identities.

  17. [The boycott against German scientists and the German language after World War I]. (United States)

    Reinbothe, R


    After the First World War, the Allied academies of sciences staged a boycott against German scientists and the German language. The objective of the boycott was to prevent the re-establishment of the prewar dominance of German scientists, the German language and German publications in the area of international scientific cooperation. Therefore the Allies excluded German scientists and the German language from international associations, congresses and publications, while they created new international scientific organizations under their leadership. Medical associations and congresses were also affected, e. g. congresses on surgery, ophthalmology and tuberculosis. Allied physicians replaced the "International Anti-Tuberculosis Association" founded in Berlin in 1902 with the "Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose"/"International Union against Tuberculosis", founded in Paris in 1920. Only French and English were used as the official languages of the new scientific organizations, just as in the League of Nations. The boycott was based on the fact that the German scientists had denied German war guilt and war crimes and glorified German militarism in a manifesto "To The Civilized World!" in 1914. The boycott first started in 1919 and had to be abolished in 1926, when Germany became a member of the League of Nations. Many German and foreign physicians as well as other scientists protested against the boycott. Some German scientists and institutions even staged a counter-boycott impeding the resumption of international collaboration. The boycott entailed an enduring decline of German as an international scientific language. After the Second World War scientists of the victorious Western Powers implemented a complete reorganization of the international scientific arena, based on the same organizational structures and language restrictions they had built up in 1919/1920. At the same time scientists from the U.S.A. staged an active language and publication policy, in

  18. Enhancing Combat Effectiveness, The Evolution of the United States Army Infantry Rifle Squad Since the End of World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karcher, Timothy


    This study analyzes the organization of the US Army infantry rifle squad since the end of World War II, focusing on the attempt to gain and then maintain the capability of fire and maneuver at the squad level...

  19. Famine food of vegetal origin consumed in the Netherlands during World War II. (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Tom; de Zwarte, Ingrid; Duistermaat, Leni; van Andel, Tinde


    Periods of extreme food shortages during war force people to eat food that they normally do not consider edible. The last time that countries in Western Europe experienced severe scarcities was during World War II. The so-called Dutch famine or Hunger Winter (1944-1945) made at least 25,000 victims. The Dutch government took action by opening soup kitchens and providing information on wild plants and other famine food sources in "wartime cookbooks." The Dutch wartime diet has never been examined from an ethnobotanical perspective. We interviewed 78 elderly Dutch citizens to verify what they remembered of the consumption of vegetal and fungal famine food during World War II by them and their close surroundings. We asked whether they experienced any adverse effects from consuming famine food plants and how they knew they were edible. We identified plant species mentioned during interviews by their local Dutch names and illustrated field guides and floras. We hypothesized that people living in rural areas consumed more wild species than urban people. A Welch t test was performed to verify whether the number of wild and cultivated species differed between urban and rural citizens. A total number of 38 emergency food species (14 cultivated and 21 wild plants, three wild fungi) were mentioned during interviews. Sugar beets, tulip bulbs, and potato peels were most frequently consumed. Regularly eaten wild species were common nettle, blackberry, and beechnuts. Almost one third of our interviewees explicitly described to have experienced extreme hunger during the war. People from rural areas listed significantly more wild species than urban people. The number of cultivated species consumed by both groups was similar. Negative effects were limited to sore throats and stomachache from the consumption of sugar beets and tulip bulbs. Knowledge on the edibility of famine food was obtained largely by oral transmission; few people remembered the written recipes in wartime

  20. Why insurgents fail examining post-World War II failed insurgencies utilizing the prerequisites of successful insurgencies as a framework


    Zimmerman, Frank H.


    This thesis identifies five common characteristics of successful post-World War II insurgencies: (1) a cause to fight for, (2) local populace support, (3) weakness in the authority, (4) favorable geographic condictions, and (5) external support during the middle and later stages of an insurgency. This list of characteristics is incomplete for current and future insurgencies and a sixth characteristic, (6) an information advantage, is necessary. For this study, 72 post-World War II insurgenc...

  1. Nursing typhus victims in the Second World War, 1942-1944: a discussion paper. (United States)

    Brooks, Jane


    This article explores the care British nurses provided to victims of typhus during the Second World War. Typhus is associated with poverty and overcrowding. During wars in the pre-antibiotic era, civilians were particularly susceptible to epidemics, which military governments feared would spread to their troops. This discussion paper draws on archival data from three typhus epidemics in the Second World War to examine the expert work of British nurses in caring for victims during these potential public health disasters. The published sources for the paper include material from nursing and medical journals published between 1940-1947. Archival sources come from the National Archives in Kew, the Wellcome Library and the Army Medical Services Museum, between 1943-1945. Of particular interest is the correspondence with Dame Katharine Jones from nurses on active service overseas. Whilst epidemics of typhus are now rare, nurses in the present day may be required to care for the public in environments of extreme poverty and overcrowding, where life-threatening infectious diseases are prevalent. This article has demonstrated that it is possible for expert and compassionate nursing to alleviate suffering and prevent death, even when medical technologies are unavailable. Expert and compassionate care, adequate nutrition and hydration and attention to hygiene needs are crucial when there are limited pharmacological treatments and medical technologies available to treat infectious diseases. The appreciation of this could have implications for nurses working in current global conflicts. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The USSR Victory in World War II and the Emergence of the Independent Republic of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa M. Efimova


    Full Text Available Victorious ending of the World War 2 on May, 9, 1945, stroke a crushing blow on the military axis Berlin - Rome - Tokyo. The USSR played a decisive role both on European and Asian fronts. Fulfilling its allied duty the Soviet Union entered the war in the Far East on 9 August, 1945 and defeated the Japanese army in Manchuria. This act became a great contribution to liberation of Asian peoples from the Japanese occupation. On the 17 August 1945 the Republic of Indonesia declared its independence. The recognition on the side of international community as well as diplomatic support became\\e vital for the survival of the newly emerged Republic.The Soviet victory together with the allied nations in the Second World War, the new status of the USSR as a superpower, its constant anticolonial stance stimulated former colonies to appeal to the Soviet Union for backing and support. One of the first was the Republic of Indonesia, to which the USSR rendered all kind of help and encourages. The present article which is a result of the study of newly available documents from several recently opened Soviet archives shows the Soviet backing of Indonesia in the UN, its diplomatic recognition, in strengthening of Indonesian status as a sovereign state on the international arena as a whole.

  3. Shell shock, trauma, and the First World War: the making of a diagnosis and its histories. (United States)

    Loughran, Tracey


    During the First World War, thousands of soldiers were treated for "shell shock," a condition which encompassed a range of physical and psychological symptoms. Shell shock has most often been located within a "genealogy of trauma," and identified as an important marker in the gradual recognition of the psychological afflictions caused by combat. In recent years, shell shock has increasingly been viewed as a powerful emblem of the suffering of war. This article, which focuses on Britain, extends scholarly analyses which question characterizations of shell shock as an early form of post-traumatic stress disorder. It also considers some of the methodological problems raised by recasting shell shock as a wartime medical construction rather than an essentially timeless manifestation of trauma. It argues that shell shock must be analyzed as a diagnosis shaped by a specific set of contemporary concerns, knowledges, and practices. Such an analysis challenges accepted understandings of what shell shock "meant" in the First World War, and also offers new perspectives on the role of shell shock in shaping the emergence of psychology and psychiatry in the early part of the twentieth century. The article also considers what relation, if any, might exist between intellectual and other histories, literary approaches, and perceptions of trauma as timeless and unchanging.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen CIORNEA


    Full Text Available The present study aims to be a recovery of the suffering, of the victims of the Second World War, Sandu Tudor's biography being approached as exempla. The observation of the up to the edge experiences he went through is, we believe, an effective method to reconstruct historical phenomena and processes that also can facilitate bringing to light the obscured areas. The presentation of the investigation and the process in which Monk Agathon was involved are added to the samples of spiritual dare and sacrifice of the director of "Credința (Faith", one of the representatives of the elite of the spiritualist younger generation who placed his existence into a continuous war held in the name of Orthodoxy, for the promotion of spiritual and social dimension of faith, rooted in liturgical horizon, was a constant and fervent mission of our subject. The Second World War was for Sandu Tudor, apparently paradoxically, a time of deepening his spiritual and clerical searches, a stage in the formation of the one who was to become the founder of the Burning Altar. In our try to re-build a real image of the process in which Monk Agathon (Sandu Tudor was involved, we conjunction the documents from the archive C.N.S.A.S. with interwar press.

  5. A 'German world' shared among doctors: a history of the relationship between Japanese and German psychiatry before World War II. (United States)

    Hashimoto, Akira


    This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan.

  6. Anaesthesiology as an integral part of Slovene partisan medical services provided during the second world war

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    Aleksander Manohin


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work was to describe the practice of anaesthesia in partisan military hospitals in Slovenia during the Second World War. The organisation of anaesthetic services delivered as an integral part of partisan medical care was unique in Europe and in the world. Healthcare givers exhibited a high level of professsional knowledge as well as exceptional resourcefulness, adaptability, and willigness to cope with physical and psychological demands of their work.Conclusions: During the Second World War, a number of healthcare facilities for treatment of wounded and severly ill soldiers, run by partisan forces, were established on the territory of Slovenia. The paper deals with the first and most important, Slovene central military partisan hospital in Kočevski Rog, and the best-known, Franja and Pavla Hospitals in Primorska region (Franja was proposed for entry in UNESCO’s list of World Heritage Sites. The authors used a large body of written documentation, as well as the testimony provided by the living witnesses of war events. The main characteristics of partisan fighting were constant movement of troops and absence of hinterland. Therefore, it was not possible to apply the basic principle of war medical services, i. e. to evacuate wounded soldiers to the hinterland through graded units of care. No handbooks on the organization of partisan medical services were available at the time, and there were no hard and fast rules for action. Frequently, healthcare had to be provided before any arrangements for the management of wounded soldiers had been made. The apparently unsolvable problems had to be solved on the spot. The paper gives information not only on anaesthesia but also on general conditions characteristic of that period. It is only in the light of this dramatically different situation that the role of anaesthetic services provided during the war can be understood correctly. The material is illustrated with more, mostly

  7. Before the Obesity Epidemic: The Body Mass Index of Canadians in the First and Second World Wars. (United States)

    Cranfield, John; Inwood, Kris; Ross, J Andrew


    Enlistment medical examinations indicate that Canadian soldiers in the Second World War had a lower Body Mass Index (BMI), or weight adjusted for height, than soldiers in the First World War. This evidence, if representative of Canadian society more generally, implies either that the long-run trend to increasing obesity in Canada did not begin until after 1945 or that the generation that came of age between 1914-1939 had particularly challenging socio-economic experiences. The patterns visible for Quebec differ insofar as BMI was initially lower and remained roughly the same from one war to the other.

  8. How to Dispel the Fog over the Past? Post-War Children, Their Fathers-Soldiers and Consequences of the Second World War

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    Ekaterina S. Lyubomirova


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the new aspects in the study of the history of post-war Germany, revealed in the book written by Sabine Bode «Post-war children - born in the 1950s, and their fathers-soldiers». It discusses the contribution made by Bode in the study of mental and psycho-emotional consequences of the Second World War and the «exclusion of the past», which is reflected in the fate of the post-war children and continues to have an impact on the socio-political life of the Federal Republic of Germany up to the present day. Nevertheless the article criticizes an excessive preoccupation of the monograph with the descriptions of the individual biographies to the detriment of analysis.

  9. The First World War and the Discussions on Establishing the Universal International Organization

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    Khodnev Aleksandr


    Full Text Available Traditionally, historians begin the League of Nations’ history with the postwar settlement and the creation of the Versailles system. However, the continuity exists between the First World War and the emergence of international organization. There was no steady institution of multilateral diplomacy for the international arbitration before the War. The Hague Peace Conferences (1899, 1907 were not able to create strong international institutions. The ways out of the Great War and the mechanisms of preventing its repetition had to be looked for in the bloody conflict. The situation in the USA and in the UK differed significantly. The censorship rules that did not allow publishing essays about peace or any negotiations with the enemy were introduced. In the US they could freely discuss these issues. In the US the university academicians, businessmen, and representatives of various faiths, and prominent politicians were involved in the discussions. In the UK, the League of Nations theme was discussed by the pressure groups such as Fabian Society and selected intellectuals such as Leonard Woolf. During 1916–1917 the views of the governments and various social organizations about the League of Nations significantly differed. The public opinion and social groups demanded the creation of the international organization immediately, or as part of the post-war settlement structure. The UK government recognized the need for the creation of the League of Nations only as a part of the United States involving into the war and the strengthening of the British Empire. As a result of the League of Nations carried out signs of hybridity in a dangerous form.

  10. [Parkinson's disease of Adolf Hitler and its influence in the development of World War Second]. (United States)

    Guerrero, A L


    Adolf Hitler very probably suffered from Parkinson's disease. The first symptoms of it began to appear in 1937/1938. It is likely that its appearance, and the fear that it caused regarding his survival, lead Hitler to advance his initial projects of military expansion of the great Germany beginning in 1943. Thus, the Second World War broke out in 1939, perhaps quite before the time in which Germany would be prepared. Chronic treatment carried out with opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and strychnine may very well be related with a very abnormal judgement of the problems and absence of trust in the advice of his team. With this, he would make military decisions that would end up being ill-fated for his interests and which, after 1942, would lead to a change in the course of the war.

  11. Marking Time: Women and Nazi Propaganda Art during World War II

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    Barbara McCloskey


    Full Text Available "Marking Time" considers the relative scarcity of woman's image in Nazi propaganda posters during World War II. This scarcity departs from the ubiquity of women in paintings and sculptures of the same period. In the fine arts, woman served to solidify the "Nazi myth" and its claim to the timeless time of an Aryan order simultaneously achieved and yet to come. Looking at poster art and using Ernst Bloch's notion of the nonsynchronous, this essay explores the extent to which women as signifiers of the modern – and thus as markers of time – threatened to expose the limits of this Nazi myth especially as the regime's war effort ground to its catastrophic end.

  12. Psychological reactions to redress: diversity among Japanese Americans interned during World War II. (United States)

    Nagata, Donna K; Takeshita, Yuzuru J


    The psychological reactions of 2nd-generation (Nisei) Japanese Americans to receiving redress from the U.S. government for the injustices of their World War II internment were investigated. The respondents, all of whom had been interned during the war, rated the degree to which the receipt of redress nearly 50 years after their incarceration was associated with 8 different areas of personal impact. Results indicated that redress was reported to be most effective in increasing faith in the government and least effective in reducing physical suffering from the internment. Women and older respondents reported more positive redress effects. In addition, lower levels of current income, an attitudinal preference for Japanese Americans, and preredress support for seeking monetary compensation each increased the prediction of positive redress effects. Findings are discussed in relation to theories of social and retributive justice.

  13. Prosthetic Manhood in the Soviet Union at the End of World War II. (United States)

    Bernstein, Frances


    Millions of Soviet soldiers were disabled as a direct consequence of their service in the Second World War. Yet despite its expressions of gratitude for their sacrifices, the state evinced a great deal of discomfort regarding their damaged bodies. The countless armless and legless veterans were a constant reminder of the destruction suffered by the country as a whole, an association increasingly incompatible with the postwar agenda of wholesale reconstruction. This article focuses on a key strategy for erasing the scars of war, one with ostensibly unambiguous benefit for the disabled themselves: the development of prostheses. In addition to fostering independence from others and ultimately from the state, artificial limbs would facilitate the veterans' return to the kinds of socially useful labor by which the country defined itself. In so doing, this strategy engendered the establishment of a new model of masculinity: a prosthetic manhood.

  14. The emergence of vitamins as bio-political objects during World War I. (United States)

    Smith, Robyn


    Biochemists investigating the problem of the vitamins in the early years of the twentieth century were working without an object, as such. Although they had developed a fairly elaborate idea of the character of the 'vitamine' and its role in metabolism, vitamins were not yet biochemical objects, but rather 'functional ascriptions' and 'explanatory devices'. I suggest that an early instance of the changing status of the object of the 'vitamins' can be found in their stabilization, through the course of World War I, as bio-political objects for the British and Allied war effort. Vitamins emerged as players, active agents, in Britain's wartime bio-political problems of food distribution and population health and because of this they became increasingly real as bio-political objects, even prior to their isolation as bio-chemical molecules. I suggest that the materiality of our biology has agency in the development of political regimes and schemes.

  15. Parents and children in Second World War Germany: an inter-generational perspective on wartime separation. (United States)

    Vaizey, Hester


    This article discusses how the relationship between parents and their children were affected by the second world war in Germany. With fathers away from home for often as long as a decade, many children grew up without a father being physically present. The current historiography suggests that wartime separation caused a crisis in the family. But did the prolonged periods of time apart and the separate experiences of husbands at the Front and wives and children at home really destabilize family relationships? This article questions such a picture of families in ruin. It argues that family relationships were far more resilient in the face of wartime separation than has previously been credited. Indeed, it reveals the importance of children in keeping mothers and fathers focused on getting through the war. It further contends that, even from afar, fathers continued to play an important role in their children’s lives. And this in turn revises our understanding of the situation facing reuniting families.

  16. Aspects of neutrality: two Dutch ambulances at the eastern front in the First World War. (United States)

    van Bergen, Leo


    The paper looks at two First World War ambulance teams which distinctly differed from each other, both in the way they perceived the war and the places at the front where they worked. The first was working on the Serbian side and the second on the Austrian-Hungarian. The questions raised are: how was medical neutrality defined (was it defined at all)? Was neutrality maintained, and if so how? The writings of several protagonists are closely examined, and placed in context, to show that total neutrality was not adhered to by the physicians and nurses of these ambulances. Apparently neutrality in wartime is difficult, even for men and women coming from a neutral country with an occupation seen as essentially neutral.

  17. Farm Hall and the German atomic project of World War II a dramatic history

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David C


    This gripping book brings back to life the events surrounding the internment of ten German Nuclear Scientists immediately after World War II. It is also an "eye-witness" account of the dawning of the nuclear age, with the dialogue and narrative spanning the period before, during and after atomic bombs were dropped on Japan at the end of the war. This pivotal historical episode is conveyed, along with the emotions as well as the facts, through drama, historical narrative, and photographs of the captive German nuclear scientists - who included Werner Heisenberg, Otto Hahn, and Max von Laue. The unique story that unfolds in the play is based on secretly recorded transcripts of the scientists’ actual conversations at Farm Hall, together with related documents and photographs.

  18. Research and protection of natural resources of the Southern Russia during the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Eremeeva


    Full Text Available This article is provided the historical analysis of the main directions in the research and protection of natural resources of the Southern Russia in the conditions of the First World War. It is based on the materials from the funds of central and regional archives, periodical publications, and little-known scientific and scientific-popular works of 1914-1917. Author deals with the old, ongoing projects as well as the new ones which were the response to the challenges of war. The activities of state and public structures in “mobilization” of science are elucidated. The close connection of many research initiatives and development of recreational area in the South of Russia is shown.

  19. Determining If the Actions of African American Combat Forces during World War I Positively Affected the Employment of African American Combat Soldiers during World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doward, Jr, Oscar W


    .... The War Department's recruitment, assessment, and induction practices in its preparation for the Great War are explored, and the impact of Jim Crow practices on the process of African American troop...

  20. German Emergency Care in Neurosurgery and Military Neurology during World War II, 1939-1945. (United States)

    Stahnisch, Frank W


    A critical analysis of the historical involvement of neurology and neurosurgery in military emergency care services enables us to better contextualize and appreciate the development of modern neurology at large. Wartime neurosurgery and civil brain science during the German Nazi period tightly coalesced in examining the specific injury types, which military neurosurgeons such as Wilhelm Toennis, Klaus Joachim Zuelch, and Georg Merrem encountered and treated based on their neurophysiological understanding gained from earlier peacetime research. Collaborative associations with Dr. Toennis in particular proved to be highly beneficial to other military neurologists and neurosurgeons during World War II and beyond. This article also discusses the prewar developments and considers the fate of German neurosurgeons and military neurologists after the war. The envisaged dynamic concepts of fast action, reaction, and recycling, which contemporary physicians had intensively studied in the preceding scientific experiments in their neurophysiological laboratories, had already been introduced into neurological surgery during the interwar period. In retrospect, World War II emergency rescue units greatly strengthened military operations through an active process of 'recycling' indispensable army personnel. Neurosurgical emergency chains thereby introduced another decisive step in the modernization of warfare, in that they increased the momentum of military mobility in the field. Notwithstanding the violence of warfare and the often inhumane ways in which such knowledge in the field of emergency neurology was gained, the protagonists among the group of experts in military neurology and neurosurgery strongly contributed to the postwar clinical neuroscience community in Germany. In differing political pretexts, this became visible in both East Germany and West Germany after the war, while the specific military and political conditions under which this knowledge of emergency medicine

  1. British military operation at Sheikh Sa‘id in the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Rauh Yaccob


    Full Text Available It is a difficult task to measure the importance of South West Arabia to the Ottomans and the British prior to and during World War I. Early history of imperial expansion in the area which followed by constant conflicts and involved a considerable amount of diplomacy and intrigues with the natives may suggest that South West Arabia was considered as equally as important to other areas within the empire. However from the beginning of the 20th century South West Arabia was considered something of a backwater. It may also be observed that during the First World War the position of South West Arabia to these powers in relation to other war theatres remained practically the same except in the episodes of British action at Sheikh Said and the Ottomans advance at Lahej. The Indian authorities who believed that the Ottomans were contemplating a move to Sheikh Sa‘id with the aim of acting against British Perim with the telegraphic communication, convoys and shipping, only two miles away, took the opportunity of the movement of the troops through the Red Sea to attack the fort of Sheikh Sa‘id. The action was quickly taken before obtaining official approval from the Admiralty and the India Office in London. The action was taken due to the persistent reports of the Ottoman reinforcement with guns had been sent to Sheikh Sa‘id, further to take advantage of the presence of transports with troops for Egypt. Subsequently future military operations at Sheikh Sa‘id and the Red Sea appeared to dominate the discussions among the authorities at the India Office, the Admiralty, the Indian authorities and the Resident at Aden throughout the war without materializing any further military action.

  2. Consequences of captivity: health effects of far East imprisonment in World War II. (United States)

    Robson, D; Welch, E; Beeching, N J; Gill, G V


    Though medical consequences of war attract attention, the health consequences of the prisoner-of-war (POW) experience are poorly researched and appreciated. The imprisonment of Allied military personnel by the Japanese during the World War II provides an especially dramatic POW scenario in terms of deprivation, malnutrition and exposure to tropical diseases. Though predominantly British, these POWs also included troops from Australia, Holland and North America. Imprisonment took place in various locations in Southeast Asia and the Far East for a 3.5-year period between 1942 and 1945. Nutritional deficiency syndromes, dysentery, malaria, tropical ulcers and cholera were major health problems; and supplies of drugs and medical equipment were scarce. There have been limited mortality studies on ex-Far East prisoners (FEPOWs) since repatriation, but these suggest an early (up to 10 years post-release) excess mortality due to tuberculosis, suicides and cirrhosis (probably related to hepatitis B exposure during imprisonment). In terms of morbidity, the commonest has been a psychiatric syndrome which would now be recognized as post-traumatic stress disorder--present in at least one-third of FEPOWs and frequently presenting decades later. Peptic ulceration, osteoarthritis and hearing impairment also appear to occur more frequently. In addition, certain tropical diseases have persisted in these survivors--notably infections with the nematode worm Strongyloides stercoralis. Studies 30 years or more after release have shown overall infection rates of 15%. Chronic strongyloidiasis of this type frequently causes a linear urticarial 'larva currens' rash, but can potentially lead to fatal hyperinfection if immunity is suppressed. Finally, about 5% of FEPOW survivors have chronic nutritional neuropathic syndromes--usually optic atrophy or sensory peripheral neuropathy (often painful). The World War II FEPOW experience was a unique, though often tragic, accidental experiment into

  3. Crypts, Phantoms, and Cultural Trauma: A Hauntological Approach to Recent British First World War Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Branach-Kallas


    Full Text Available In my article, I analyse selected British novels about the First World War published at the turn of the 20th century, from the theoretical perspectives proposed by Maria Torok and Nicolas Abraham in The Shell and the Kernel: Renewals of Psychoanalysis. Pat Barker in Toby’s Room (2012 and Sue Gee in Earth and Heaven (2000 imagine their protagonists’ difficult evolution from melancholia to mourning after the loss of brothers and/or lovers, at the front. The concepts of incorporation and illness of mourning are used to explore the complicated process of bereavement in Barker’s novel, where hauntology becomes a form of honte-ology, from the French honte, shame. In Gee’s beautifully melancholic novel, the haunting trauma of loss is subtly evoked by images of empty fields, neglected farms, urban vistas filled with spectral figures of unemployed veterans. Moreover, Earth and Heaven affects the reader so deeply because the understated pain of loss becomes movingly tangible after the accidental death of the central protagonist’s six-year-old son, which seems to “condense” the pain of war bereavements a decade after the conflict. My intention is also to demonstrate that Sebastian Faulks in Birdsong (1993, Esther Freud in Summer at Gaglow (1997 and Pat Barker in Another World (1998 approach the Great War as a phantom haunting their contemporary protagonists. The persistence of the unknown past has a profound impact on these characters and only by trying to relate to the Great War do they find answers to their existential dilemmas. This directs our attention to the incomplete processes of First World War mourning, the persistence of endless grief and the potential continuity of unresolved trauma(s in transgenerational memory. The five novels under consideration also problematise the issue of silence—the unsayable family secret and/or the collective disregard for the national past. The psychoanalytic concept of crypt illuminates the relation

  4. Fifty years of violent war deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia: analysis of data from the world health survey programme. (United States)

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Murray, Christopher J L; Gakidou, Emmanuela


    To provide an accurate estimate of violent war deaths. Analysis of survey data on mortality, adjusted for sampling bias and censoring, from nationally representative surveys designed to measure population health. Estimated deaths compared with estimates in database of passive reports. 2002-3 World health surveys, in which information was collected from one respondent per household about sibling deaths, including whether such deaths resulted from war injuries. Estimated deaths from war injuries in 13 countries over 50 years. From 1955 to 2002, data from the surveys indicated an estimated 5.4 million violent war deaths (95% confidence interval 3.0 to 8.7 million) in 13 countries, ranging from 7000 in the Republic of Congo [corrected] to 3.8 million in Vietnam. From 1995 to 2002 survey data indicate 36,000 war deaths annually (16,000 to 71,000) in the 13 countries studied. Data from passive surveillance, however, indicated a figure of only a third of this. On the basis of the relation between world health survey data and passive reports, we estimate 378,000 globalwar deaths annually from 1985-94, the last years for which complete passive surveillance data were available. The use of data on sibling history from peacetime population surveys can retrospectively estimate mortality from war. War causes more deaths than previously estimated, and there is no evidence to support a recent decline in war deaths.

  5. ["At times I had to be an allopathic medical officer and then again I was allowed to be a homoeopathic physician." Homoeopathy and war from the Franco-German War (1870/71) to World War I (1914-1918)]. (United States)

    Eisele, Philipp


    With its focus on the Franco-German War and World War I the present paper constitutes a first approach to the comprehensive topic of "homoeopathy and war". Sources used include articles from homoeopathic magazines, homoeopathic specialist literature, material from the estate of the homoeopathic lay organization "Hahnemannia" and individual testimonies from non-homoeopaths. The paper begins by examining the importance of the two wars for research into the history of homoeopathy compared to previous conflicts and demonstrates the value of the sources used. A brief outline of homoeopathy and the military forces in the decades before 1870 provides insight into the historical context. This is followed by the investigation of homoeopathic war hospitals at home with an analysis of the attitude of the homoeopathic physicians and lay-healers involved. The paper also describes the difficult relationship between homoeopathy and conventional medicine during the two conflicts.

  6. Correspondence between the Family Members as the Historical Source of the First World War

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    Svetlana A. Khubulova


    Full Text Available The extracts from the personal correspondence of the career soldier of the Russian Army E.I. Denisov and his spouse E.I. Denisova-Gerlih are published for the first time. The information, obtained from the letters, enables to reconstruct some spheres of everyday life of the servicemen of the Russian Army and the wives of combatants, trace back the change of worldview attitudes, individual and social behavioral aspects of the population in the First World War. Modern challenges allow us to raise new, unpublished data, analyze the problems beyond the research survey. Letters of the contemporaries contain the data, concerning new realities in Russian citizens’ worldview formation in wartime. They enable to feel the war through people’s impressions, to see the emotional experience of the ordinary person, to penetrate into his inner world with its worries, thoughts and emotions. Personal correspondence fills the gap in our knowledge of the changes in mass and personal strategy of survival. The letters reflect the full extent of the personal values of wartime period. The study of the wartime letters helps us to get the idea of contemporaries’ inner world, understand the deep origins of selflessness, fortitude, mass heroism.

  7. Poisson regression analysis of the mortality among a cohort of World War II nuclear industry workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frome, E.L.; Cragle, D.L.; McLain, R.W.


    A historical cohort mortality study was conducted among 28,008 white male employees who had worked for at least 1 month in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during World War II. The workers were employed at two plants that were producing enriched uranium and a research and development laboratory. Vital status was ascertained through 1980 for 98.1% of the cohort members and death certificates were obtained for 96.8% of the 11,671 decedents. A modified version of the traditional standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis was used to compare the cause-specific mortality experience of the World War II workers with the U.S. white male population. An SMR and a trend statistic were computed for each cause-of-death category for the 30-year interval from 1950 to 1980. The SMR for all causes was 1.11, and there was a significant upward trend of 0.74% per year. The excess mortality was primarily due to lung cancer and diseases of the respiratory system. Poisson regression methods were used to evaluate the influence of duration of employment, facility of employment, socioeconomic status, birth year, period of follow-up, and radiation exposure on cause-specific mortality. Maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in a main-effects model were obtained to describe the joint effects of these six factors on cause-specific mortality of the World War II workers. We show that these multivariate regression techniques provide a useful extension of conventional SMR analysis and illustrate their effective use in a large occupational cohort study

  8. The extant World War 1 dysentery bacillus NCTC1: a genomic analysis (United States)

    Baker, Kate S; Mather, Alison E; McGregor, Hannah; Coupland, Paul; Langridge, Gemma C; Day, Martin; Deheer-Graham, Ana; Parkhill, Julian; Russell, Julie E; Thomson, Nicholas R


    Summary Background Shigellosis (previously bacillary dysentery) was the primary diarrhoeal disease of World War 1, but outbreaks still occur in military operations, and shigellosis causes hundreds of thousands of deaths per year in developing nations. We aimed to generate a high-quality reference genome of the historical Shigella flexneri isolate NCTC1 and to examine the isolate for resistance to antimicrobials. Methods In this genomic analysis, we sequenced the oldest extant Shigella flexneri serotype 2a isolate using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology. Isolated from a soldier with dysentery from the British forces fighting on the Western Front in World War 1, this bacterium, NCTC1, was the first isolate accessioned into the National Collection of Type Cultures. We created a reference sequence for NCTC1, investigated the isolate for antimicrobial resistance, and undertook comparative genetics with S flexneri reference strains isolated during the 100 years since World War 1. Findings We discovered that NCTC1 belonged to a 2a lineage of S flexneri, with which it shares common characteristics and a large core genome. NCTC1 was resistant to penicillin and erythromycin, and contained a complement of chromosomal antimicrobial resistance genes similar to that of more recent isolates. Genomic islands gained in the S flexneri 2a lineage over time were predominately associated with additional antimicrobial resistances, virulence, and serotype conversion. Interpretation This S flexneri 2a lineage is a well adapted pathogen that has continued to respond to selective pressures. We have created a valuable historical benchmark for shigellae in the form of a high-quality reference sequence for a publicly available isolate. Funding The Wellcome Trust. PMID:25441199

  9. "A Prostitution Alike of Matter and Spirit": Anti-War Discourses in Children's Literature and Childhood Culture before and during World War I (United States)

    Reynolds, Kimberley


    Histories of the First World War have regularly implicated children's literature in boys' eagerness to enlist in the first two years of that conflict. While undoubtedly the majority of children's books, comics and magazines did espouse nationalistic, jingoistic and martial attitudes, there were alternative stories and environments. Looking at the…

  10. USAF Warrior Studies: Air Superiority in World War 2 and Korea, (United States)


    Gen. Darr H. Alkire, Brig. Gen. Jarred V. Crabb, Brig. Gen. Oliver S. Picher, and Brig. Gen. William P Nuckols, May 1951 ....... 80 F-86 Sabre jets of...aircraft kills while flying combat missions in the Tunisian . Sicilian. and Naples-Foggia campaigns. In 1944 Momyer returned to the United States and...the 2,tt,,tc i"" \\ l a rt1’ bIe ’tt 1 HarI .c li . 1" irt \\t I llk t, i h I htIl.rt I"m M1 oil \\ L ~ pl( . ] PRE-WORLD WAR II two-ship formation %kith

  11. Latin American World War I Historiography: the Cases of Argentina, Mexico and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Ramírez Bacca


    Full Text Available DOI: The text provides a critical review of the Latin American historiography during the First World War. The author focuses on Argentina, Mexico and Colombia in order to account for the lines of work, categories of analysis and the recent contributions on the issue. In the same way, it takes into account the Western historiographical context, poses questions and dialogues based on recent studies as well as highlights the limitations and explains the reason for the identified historiographical gaps.

  12. "Help Us, Serve England": First World War Military Nursing and National Identities. (United States)

    Toman, Cynthia


    Historians generally argue that the First World War was a defining experience from which Canadians emerged with a strong sense of national identity distinct from their British roots. There is little historical research on women's wartime experiences and even less on military nurses. This article explores the working relationships of Nursing Sister Emeline Robinson with British nurses, VAD volunteers, orderlies, and medical officers during her one and a half years with the Queen Alexandra Imperial Military Nursing Service Reserve through her diary, which spans her enlistment, resignation, and re-enlistment with the Canadian Army Medical Corps.

  13. Notes on Colombian Foreign Policy Since the American Involvement in the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Felipe Mesa Valencia


    Full Text Available The article analyzes Colombian foreign policy following the rupture of American neutrality. It focuses on the second stage of the Second World War, i.e., from the participation of the United States until the end of the conflict. The article also examines national defense as an indispensable mechanism to preserve national sovereignty, emphasizing the significance of the Third Meeting of Foreign Ministers, held in Rio de Janeiro, on continental security and strengthening of Pan-Americanism.

  14. The radiance of France; nuclear power and national identity after world war 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, G.


    This book discusses the early history of French nuclear power within its social and political context from the end of world war 2 to 1970. The author describes the creation of the nuclear reactors, the work at the reactor sites, and the impact of nuclear power on local communities. Information on the French atomic bomb program is also included. The conflicts and negotiations surrounding the nuclear programs are detailed, and the importance of the programs to French national identity is made clear. An excellent bibliography and extensive footnotes are provided

  15. African-American Medical Personnel in the US Army in the First World War. (United States)

    Marble, Sanders


    In WWI, the United States was segregated by custom and law, and the Army obeyed the laws, reducing opportunities for Black medical professionals to serve their country in uniform. This article surveys African-American medical personnel serving in the US Army in World War I. It includes physicians, dentists, veterinarians, and other commissioned officers, as well as medical enlisted men. Overall, despite segregation and associated professional limitations, determined individuals still served with distinction in a variety of roles, opening doors for future advances. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Agostino Gemelli and the scientific study of courage in the First World War. (United States)

    Patriarca, Carlo; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo


    Agostino Gemelli (1878-1959) is known as the founder of the Catholic University in Italy. Franciscan monk and doctor he had a central role in promoting studies on human behavior, thanks to his solid scientific training as a student of Camillo Golgi at the University of Pavia. His research activities during the years of the First World War involved studying the motivation, courage and psychological adaptation of the soldiers, engaged in trench warfare, laying the foundations of modern studies of behavior and trauma. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Total Control: How the Nazis Countered Unconventional Warfare in the Netherlands During World War Two (United States)


    11:mrnn ’ cc11rit) pnlic) :.incc I >t66. l·Dlkm ing the (jcrman ’ ict ori1.:~ ~) f 1939- 19-10. I titler grantccl I limmlcr rrnthority over la" :md...better deterrent in the c;mall " Durch cnmmunity. the Scc11rit) :-1.:n ict ’’i pro’ idcd the names of death candidates 3nu c"<ccu tcd people tu thl...Total Control: I low the Nazis Countered Unconventional Warfare in the Netherlands During World War Two A Monograph by Major Jeroen F van


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Lewandowski


    Full Text Available In many articles we can read that containers weren't in Europe before 1966, when ship SS Fariland came with 35 feet containers invented by Keith Tantlinger for Sea Land Company owned by Malcom McLean. The focus of this study is on the problem with development norms for European containers. Thus, the main definitions and briefly literature overview in the analysed research area are given. Later, the information about these constructions are developed. Article presents Czechoslovak activity to preparation of three European norms for containers, which were described before Second World War.

  19. [Brazilian Army nurses and transportation of the wounded: a challenge faced during World War II]. (United States)

    Bernardes, Margarida Maria Rocha; Lopes, Gertrudes Teixeira


    This historic-sociologic study aims to analyse the challenges faced by the Brazilian Expeditionary Force's Air Transportation Nurses of the Army with the Theatre of Operations on the course of World War II. The primary source was comprised of a photograph from this time period and oral testimonies of those who participated in the conflict. Ideas by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu support the discussion. Results suggest that Brazilian nurses were challenged to transport the wounded without medical advice. We conclude that the challenge to fulfill the task imposed, which led to independent decision-making, gave confidence and autonomy to the ones already responsible for the transportation of the wounded.

  20. Prenatal loss of father during World War One is predictive of a reduced lifespan in adulthood. (United States)

    Todd, Nicolas; Valleron, Alain-Jacques; Bougnères, Pierre


    Although early-life stress is known to alter health, its long-term consequences on mortality remain largely unknown. Thanks to unique French legislation established in 1917 for war orphans and children of disabled soldiers, we were able to study the adult mortality of individuals born in 1914-1916 whose fathers were killed during World War 1. Vital information and socio-demographic characteristics were extracted manually from historical civil registers for 5,671 children born between 1 August 1914 and 31 December 1916 who were granted the status of " pupille de la Nation " (orphan of the Nation). We used a database comprising 1.4 million deceased soldiers to identify war orphans and collect information on their fathers and then paired each orphan with a nonorphan from the same birth register matched for date of birth, sex, and mother's age at the infant's birth. Mortality between ages 31 and 99 y was analyzed for 2,365 orphan/nonorphan pairs. The mean loss of adult lifespan of orphans who had lost their father before birth was 2.4 y (95% CI: 0.7, 3.9 y) and was the result of increased mortality before age 65 y. Adult lifespan was not reduced when the father's death occurred after the infant's birth. These results support the notion that intrauterine exposure to a major psychological maternal stress can affect human longevity.