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Sample records for willow short rotation

  1. Commercially Grown Short Rotation Coppice Willow in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Sevel, Lisbeth; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate biomass production in commercially grown short rotation coppice willow in Denmark and to investigate effects of site and management factors on willow yield. Biomass production assessed by non-destructive sampling on 296 plots from 25 plantations was a...

  2. Storage and handling of willow from short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P. D.; Spinelli, R.

    1997-07-01

    During the project two main storage and drying trials were organised. The first trial in 1996 consisted of 14 piles of 6 different size material (whole shoots, via 200 mm chunk, 100 mm chunk, 50 mm chip, 28 mm chips, 25 mm chips) and six different methods of covering: Open air storage, storage under plastic cover, storage under top-cover, airtight storage, unventilated storage under roof, and intermittent ventilation (cooling) under roof. The drying trial in 1997 which consisted of four piles was established in Horsens in the same building as the ventilated trials the year before. Only Austoft 50 mm chips were used for this trial. The four piles were established in February and removed in May. Based on all the results of the trials the following conclusions can be drawn: Storage of willow from short rotation coppice is very difficult. Fine chips, such as producted by the two main harvesting machines Claas and Austoft are not suitable for storage over prolonged periods of time (more than 2 months); fine chips loose a large amount of dry matter and a lot of their lower heating value; fine chips also have a heavy infestation of micro-organisms which might cause working environment problems; short rotation coppice is best delivered straight into the heating plants during harvest; if short rotation coppice has to be stored, then this should be done as whole shoots or large chunk; if short rotation coppice has to be stored as chips for a longer period of time (more than two months), then these chips should be sealed airtight as silage. (EG) EFP-94; EFP-95; EFP-96. 10 refs.

  3. Phenology and population dynamics of willow beetles (Coleoptera: chrysomelidae) in short-rotation coppiced willows at Long Ashton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The life cycles and phylogeny of three willow beetle pests, Phyllodecta vulgatissima, P. vitellinae and Galerucella lineola (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), were investigated during 1994-95 in an experimental plantation of short-rotation coppiced willows (Salix viminalis Bowles Hybrid) at Pearces Farm, Long Ashton (Bristol), UK, Willow rods were sampled at regular intervals throughout the year and carefully search for eggs, larvae and adult beetles. An extensive survey was done in hedgerows around the site during February 1995 in order to identify the overwintering sites of adult beetles. In autumn 1995, hibernation trap-bands were used to study the onset of hibernation and the distribution of hibernating in the vicinity of the willow plantation. Adult flight activity was monitored each week throughout the year using window traps. Pot-grown willows were established in the field to augment observations on beetle behaviour in spring and autumn. Exclusion cages were used during the summer in an attempt to estimate the natural mortality of eggs larvae and pupae, but this technique had to be abandoned because all the cages were attacked and damaged by wasps. The fecundity of adult beetles and the development of eggs, larvae and pupae were measured in the laboratory under controlled environment conditions. (Author)

  4. Genetic improvement of willow for short-rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, S. [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloev (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    A commercial breeding programme of willows was started by Svalof Weibull AB in 1987. Since willow is a novel crop when it comes to breeding for biomass production, rapid progress has been made in terms of improved yield, erect growth, resistance to leaf rust and insects and tolerance to frost. Seven varieties have been released up to now. Material collected in Europe, central Russia and Siberia constitutes the main gene pool in the breeding population. Data are presented on relative yields, rust and gall midge susceptibility, and pest resistance. (author)

  5. Chemical weed control by planting of poplar (Populus and willow (Salix short rotation coppice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Five field trials were carried out from 2010 – 2012 on three different locations. The trials conformed high requirement of effective weed control by planting poplar and willow short rotation coppice (SRC on arable area. The selectivity of different pre-emergent and post-emergent herbicide treatments was tested. Further trials focused on sufficient and long-standing herbicide efficacy of tank mixture and sequence treatments. As results of these trials it is advisable to use proper soil active herbicides like Artist, Cadou SC, Sencor WG, Spectrum, Spectrum Plus or Stomp Aqua as pre-emergent tank mixture treatment after planting of poplar and willow SRC. Aramo and Lontrel 100 can be used as post-emergent treatment for control of specific weeds. We intend to register the successful tested herbicides for minor use in poplar and willow SRC under licensing referred to Art. 51 regulation (EC no 1107/2009.

  6. Improving the water use efficiency of short rotation coppice (SRC) willows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, W.; Bonneau, L.; Groves, S.; Armstrong, A.; Lindegard, K.

    2003-07-01

    On the premise that biofuels will make a significant contribution to the UK's renewable energy sources by the year 2010, willow short rotation coppicing is being studied. The high water requirement of willow is seen as a potential problem in the drier regions of the UK and increasing the water use efficiency and/or draught resistance would extend the areas where willow coppicing would be profitable. The first part of the project was to investigate the water use of a number of near-market varieties of willow and evaluate techniques for early drought tolerance screening in a breeding program and for this, field studies were conducted. This report gives some very early results from the preliminary study. Since DTI funding ceased before the one-season study of the three-year program was complete, the results should be regarded as tentative only. The next phase of the program will be funded by DEFRA and will include efforts to identify how a range of high-yielding willows respond to water stress.

  7. The influence of canopy density on willow leaf rust (Melampsora epitea) severity in willow short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toome, M.; Heinsoo, K.; Holm, B.; Luik, A. [Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1A, Tartu 51014 (Estonia)

    2010-08-15

    Willow short rotation coppice is used as a renewable energy source and also as a vegetation filter for purifying wastewater. Wastewater irrigation might change microclimatic conditions and increase the canopy density in plantations, which might decrease production due to leaf rust (Melampsora epitea). The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of the canopy density on rust abundance on willows. For that, we counted rust pustules on leaves of five different willow clones from dense and sparse areas in both the wastewater irrigated and control part of the plantation. The results demonstrated clear differences between clones; clone '81090' was very susceptible, '78183' susceptible, '78021' fairly tolerant and 'Tora' rust resistant. Clone 'Gudrun', which was previously reported resistant, had severe rust damages in Estonia. In the case of clones '78183' and '78021' there were significantly more rust pustules per leaf unit area at areas with denser canopy, which confirmed that higher plant density could result in biomass losses caused by leaf rust. No differences, however, were detected between dense and sparse areas of hybrid clone 'Gudrun', most probably because in this particular case leaves from upper canopy layer were used. There was a tendency detected that clones with a higher number of shoots per plant had more rust damages on their leaves, however, the correlation was not statistically confirmed. In conclusion, the impact of canopy density on rust abundance is clone-specific and significant in the case of clones on which infection starts from the lower part of the canopy. (author)

  8. Short rotation coppice culture of willows and poplars as energy crops on metal contaminated agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttens, Ann; Boulet, Jana; Weyens, Nele; Smeets, Karen; Adriaensen, Kristin; Meers, Erik; Van Slycken, Stijn; Tack, Filip; Meiresonne, Linda; Thewys, Theo; Witters, Nele; Carleer, Robert; Dupae, Joke; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2011-01-01

    Phytoremediation, more precisely phytoextraction, has been placed forward as an environmental friendly remediation technique, that can gradually reduce increased soil metal concentrations, in particular the bioavailable fractions. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of growing willows and poplars under short rotation coppice (SRC) on an acid, poor, sandy metal contaminated soil, to combine in this way soil remediation by phytoextraction on one hand, and production of biomass for energy purposes on the other. Above ground biomass productivities were low for poplars to moderate for willows, which was not surprising, taking into account the soil conditions that are not very favorable for growth of these trees. Calculated phytoextraction efficiency was much longer for poplars than these for willows. We calculated that for phytoextraction in this particular case it would take at least 36 years to reach the legal threshold values for cadmium, but in combination with production of feedstock for bioenergy processes, this type of land use can offer an alternative income for local farmers. Based on the data of the first growing cycle, for this particular case, SRC of willows should be recommended.

  9. Field evaluation of willow under short rotation coppice for phytomanagement of metal-polluted agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Slycken, Stijn; Witters, Nele; Meiresonne, Linda; Meers, Erik; Ruttens, Ann; Van Peteghem, Pierre; Weyens, Nele; Tack, Filip M G; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2013-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) of willow and poplar might be a promising phytoremediation option since it uses fast growing, high biomass producing tree species with often a sufficient metal uptake. This study evaluates growth, metal uptake and extraction potentials of eight willow clones (Belders, Belgisch Rood, Christina, Inger, Jorr, Loden, Tora and Zwarte Driebast) on a metal-contaminated agricultural soil, with total cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations of 6.5 +/- 0.8 and 377 +/- 69 mg kg(-1) soil, respectively. Although, during the first cycle, on average generally low productivity levels (3.7 ton DM (dry matter) ha(-1) y(-1)) were obtained on this sandy soil, certain clones exhibited quite acceptable productivity levels (e.g. Zwarte Driebast 12.5 ton DM ha(-1) y(-1)). Even at low biomass productivity levels, SRC of willow showed promising removal potentials of 72 g Cd and 2.0 kg Zn ha(-1) y(-1), which is much higher than e.g. energy maize or rapeseed grown on the same soil Cd and Zn removal can be increased by 40% if leaves are harvested as well. Nevertheless, nowadays the wood price remains the most critical factor in order to implement SRC as an acceptable, economically feasible alternative crop on metal-contaminated agricultural soils.

  10. Biomass production of four willow clones grown as short rotation coppice on two soil types in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, Lisbeth; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Ambitious targets for reducing emissions of carbon dioxide have created a demand for renewable sources of energy. Short rotation coppice (SRC) willow has the potential for meeting part of this demand. In this study, an experiment including four commercial clones of willow grown on two different......-destructive method showed a large increase in annual biomass production from the first to the second growing season. Based on the harvested willow, average annual biomass production of the four clones ranged from 5.2 to 8.8 odt ha-1 yr-1 with a significant effect of both soil type and clone. The interaction between...

  11. Conversion from cropland to short rotation coppice willow and poplar: Accumulation of soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Petros; Stupak, Inge; Vesterdal, Lars; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Increased demand for bioenergy has intensified the production of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow and poplar in temperate zones. We used a combined chronosequence and paired plot approach to study the potential of SRC willow and poplar stands to increase the soil carbon stock compared to stocks of the previous arable land-use. The study focused on well-drained soils. We sampled soil from 30 SRC stands in Denmark and southern Sweden including soils from their adjacent arable fields. The 18 willow and 12 poplar stands formed a chronosequence ranging between 4 and 29 years after conversion. The soil was sampled both with soil cores taken by fixed depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-25, and 25-40 cm and by genetic horizons from soil pits to 1m depth. The aim of the study was to estimate the difference and the ratio between soil carbon contents of the SRC and annual crop land and analyze the results as a chronosequence to examine the effect of age after conversion on the difference. Covariates such as soil type, fertilization type and harvest frequency were also taken into account. Preliminary results suggest an overall increase in carbon stocks over time with average accumulation rates ranging from 0.25 to 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in willow and poplar stands. Poplar stands had higher rates of C gain, probably due to less frequent harvesting. The differences in carbon between the SRC and the paired cropland were initially negative but changed to positive over time, implying loss of carbon after conversion and a later gain in soil carbon with stand age. Pairwise differences ranged from -25 Mg C ha-1 to 37 Mg C ha-1 for the top 40 cm. The carbon stock ratio of the SRC stand to the arable land was estimated to minimize the effect of site-related factors. The results of this analysis suggested that the ratio increased significantly with age after conversion for the top 10 cm of the soil, both for poplar and willow. A slight increase with age was also noticed at the deeper depths, but

  12. Volatile organic compound emissions from Miscanthus and short rotation coppice willow bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Nichola; Cape, J. Neil; Heal, Mathew R.

    2012-12-01

    Miscanthus × giganteus and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow (Salix spp.) are increasingly important bioenergy crops. Above-canopy fluxes and mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in summer for the two crops at a site near Lincoln, UK, by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and virtual disjunct eddy covariance. The isoprene emission rate above willow peaked around midday at ˜1 mg m-2 h-1, equivalent to 20 μg gdw-1 h-1 normalised to 30 °C and 1000 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR, much greater than for conventional arable crops. Average midday peak isoprene mixing ratio was ˜1.4 ppbv. Acetone and acetic acid also showed small positive daytime fluxes. No measurable fluxes of VOCs were detected above the Miscanthus canopy. Differing isoprene emission rates between different bioenergy crops, and the crops or vegetation cover they may replace, means the impact on regional air quality should be taken into consideration in bioenergy crop selection.

  13. Yield and spatial supply of bioenergy poplar and willow short-rotation coppice in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylott, Matthew J; Casella, E; Tubby, I; Street, N R; Smith, P; Taylor, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Limited information on likely supply and spatial yield of bioenergy crops exists for the UK. Here, productivities are reported of poplar (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) grown as short-rotation coppice (SRC), using data from a large 49-site yield trial network. A partial least-squares regression technique was used to upscale actual field trial observations across England and Wales. Spatial productivity was then assessed under different land-use scenarios. Mean modelled yields ranged between 4.9 and 10.7 oven-dry tonnes (odt) ha(-1) yr(-1). Yields were generally higher in willow than in poplar, reflecting the susceptibility of older poplar genotypes to rust and their tendency for single stem dominance. Replacing 10% of arable land, 20% of improved grassland and 100% of set-aside grassland in England and Wales with the three most productive genotypes would yield 13 Modt of biomass annually (supplying 7% of UK electricity production or 48% of UK combined heat and power (CHP) production). Results show existing SRC genotypes have the immediate potential to be an important component of a mixed portfolio of renewables and that, in future, as new and improved genotypes become available, higher yields could extend this potential further.

  14. The silviculture, nutrition and economics of short rotation willow coppice in the uplands of mid-Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.J.; Randerson, P.F.; Slater, F.M.

    2000-07-01

    The potential of short rotation coppice as a biomass crop on land over 250m (the uplands) of mid Wales was studied. The results found in this study indicate that growing short rotation coppice willow in the uplands is a viable proposition with regard to establishment success and yields. In the event of a secure wood chip market in Wales, returns to the grower would be comparable to those from sheep production. (author)

  15. Radiocaesium soil-to-wood transfer in commercial willow short rotation coppice on contaminated farm land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommers, A; Gäfvert, T; Smolders, E; Merckx, R; Vandenhove, H

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of willow short rotation coppice (SRC) for energy production as a revaluation tool for severely radiocaesium-contaminated land was studied. The effects of crop age, clone and soil type on the radiocaesium levels in the wood were assessed following sampling in 14 existing willow SRC fields, planted on radiocaesium-contaminated land in Sweden following Chernobyl deposition. There was only one plot where willow stands of different maturity (R6S2 and R5S4: R, root age and S, shoot age) and clone (Rapp and L78183 both of age category R5S4) were sampled and no significant differences were found. The soils differed among others in clay fraction (3-34%), radiocaesium interception potential (515-6884 meq kg(-1)), soil solution K (0.09-0.95 mM), exchangeable K (0.58-5.77 meq kg(-1)) and cation exchange capacity (31-250 meq kg(-1)). The soil-to-wood transfer factor (TF) of radiocaesium differed significantly between soil types. The TF recorded was generally small (0.00086-0.016 kg kg(-1)), except for willows established on sandy soil (0.19-0.46 kg kg(-1)). Apart from the weak yet significant exponential correlation between the Cs-TF and the solid/liquid distribution coefficient (R2 = 0.54) or the radiocaesium interception potential, RIP (R2 = 0.66), no single significant correlations between soil characteristics and TF were found. The wood-soil solution 137Cs concentration factor (CF) was significantly related to the potassium concentration in the soil solution. A different relation was, however, found between the sandy Trödje soils (CF = 1078.8 x m(K)(-1.83), R2 = 0.99) and the other soils (CF = 35.75 x m(K)(-0.61), R2 =0.61). Differences in the ageing rate of radiocaesium in the soil (hypothesised fraction of bioavailable caesium subjected to fast ageing for Trödje soils only 1% compared to other soils), exchangeable soil K (0.8-1.8 meq kg(-1) for Trödje soils and 1.5-5.8 meq kg(-1) for the other soils) and the ammonium concentration in the soil solution

  16. An evaluation of harvesting machinery for short rotation coppice willow in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Spinelli, R.

    1997-12-31

    During the harvesting seasons 1994-1995 and 1995-1996 several harvesting trials were carried out within the EU project on harvesting and storage of Short Rotation Crops and within a national project. During this period the following machines were investigated: Diemelstadt poplar harvester, cut and chip; Claas forage harvester with SRF header, cut and chip; Austoft sugarcane harvester, adapted to SRF, cut and chip; Bender II, cut and chip; Hvidsted Energy Allrounder, whole shoot harvester; Dansalix whole shoot harvester. In the 1994-1995 season the intention was to harvest 300 tonnes of whole shoots, chunks and chips for a storage trial. The main conclusions of the 1994-1995 harvesting season must be that harvesting willow with the existing machines in wet winters without frozen ground is very difficult. The machines will have to be developed further and special interest should be given to developing shuttle vehicles with the same flotation as the tracked harvester. Several of the problems encountered with the machines in Denmark were confirmed by the experience in the other trials. Road transportation of chips from SRF plantations is just as expensive as transporting energy chips from the forest at about Dkr 50 per tonne over 48 km. Transporting whole shoots is very expensive due to the low bulk density. Transportation of whole shoots over 48 km costs on the average Dkr 133 per tonne fresh. A very short pilot study into chipping of whole shoots from a three metre high pile indicated that this comminution with a normal forest chipper has a low productivity (8.9 tonnes fresh per work place hour) and is very expensive at Dkr 157 per tonne. This productivity can be improved by equipping the chipper with a special feeding table and better feed rollers for the SRF crop. (EG)

  17. Energy balance and evaporation of a short-rotation willow forest. Variation with season and stand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iritz, Z.

    1996-10-01

    Energy balance and evaporation of a short-rotation willow (Salix viminalis L.) forest was studied in relation to season and stand development. The developmental stage of the forest stand considerably influenced how the energy, received as net radiation, was partitioned between the connective fluxes and the storage components. The main part of the available energy was utilised for evaporation during most of the season. Only at the beginning of the season did the willow forest supply heat to the atmosphere. Later in the season, energy was taken from air and utilised for evaporation, which resulted in negative sensible heat fluxes. Soil heat storage was also a significant term in the energy balance and also strongly depended on canopy development. Changes in energy partitioning relative to leaf area indices indicated the existence of a threshold value for leaf area index of the developing canopy. The analysis suggested that the canopy of the willow forest could be considered as closed at a leaf area index of 2. It was further found that evaporation from well-irrigated willow forest occurred also during night-time, particularly in windy and dry weather conditions. The sources of nocturnal evaporation were both the canopy, i.e. indicating non-closed stomata, and the soil surface. Partitioning of the total evaporation into components was investigated using a physically-based model with a two-layer aboveground representation and a two-layer soil module. The model estimates evaporation with respect to developmental stage of the willow stand and also takes into account the interaction between the fluxes from the canopy and the soil surface. Good performance of the model indicated that, after further testing in drier conditions, it could be used as a tool for analysing the prerequisites for energy-forest establishment, and practical management of energy forest stands. 37 refs, 9 figs

  18. Dry Matter Losses and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Outside Storage of Short Rotation Coppice Willow Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Carly; Yates, Nicola E; Powers, Stephen J; Misselbrook, Tom; Shield, Ian

    This study examined the dry matter losses and the greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations within two short rotation coppice (SRC) willow wood chip storage heaps. One heap was built on a grassland area (East Midlands) and the other (Rothamsted) on a concrete hard standing. A series of 1- and 3-m probes were embedded in the heaps in order to retrieve gas samples for analysis, and pre-weighed net bags were positioned in the core of the heap to detect dry matter losses. The bagged samples showed dry matter losses of 18 and 19 % in the East Midlands and Rothamsted heaps after 210 and 97 days storage, respectively. The Rothamsted heap showed a whole-heap dry matter loss of 21 %. During this time, the wood chips dried from 54 to 39 % moisture content in the East Midlands heap and 50 to 43 % at Rothamsted. The results from analysing the whole Rothamsted heap indicated an overall loss of 1.5 GJ per tonne stored, although measurements from bagged samples in the core suggested that the chips dried sufficiently to have a minimal energy loss from storage. The process of mixing the heap, however, led to incorporation of wet outer layers and hence the average moisture content was higher in an average sample of chip. After establishment of the heaps, the temperature rose rapidly and this correlated with a peak in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration within the heap. A peak in methane (CH4) concentration was also detected in both heaps, though more noticeably in the East Midlands heap after around 55 days. In both instances, the peak CH4 concentration occurred as CO2 concentrations dropped, suggesting that after an active period of aerobic decomposition in the first 2 months of storage, the conditions in the heap became anaerobic. The results from this study suggest that outside wood chip storage is not an efficient method of storing biomass, though this may be location-specific as there are some studies showing lower dry matter losses. It is necessary to explore other methods of

  19. Field performance and biomass production of 12 willow and poplar clones in short-rotation coppice in southern Quebec (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrecque, Michel; Teodorescu, Traian I. [Montreal Botanical Garden, Inst. de Recherche en Biologie Vegetale, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Twelve clones of fast growing trees (willow and poplar) were planted in 1999 under short-rotation intensive culture (SRIC) on an abandoned farmland in southern Quebec. The plantation was established at a density of 18,000 trees per hectare from stem cuttings and no fertilizer and irrigation were applied. Tree performances were measured at regular intervals during four growing seasons. The aims of the experiment were to compare the growth, insect and disease resistance of these clones in order to select those that have good potential for use as commercial biomass energy crops in northern regions of North America. The follow up of the growing performance has shown statistically significant differences between the clones. Poplar clones registered the highest above ground biomass yield after 4 growing seasons (from 66.48 to 72.20 tDM ha{sup -1}). The best willow biomass productivity was obtained from clones SX64 (67.58 tDM ha{sup -1}) and clone SX61 (62.34 tDM ha{sup -1}). Only one willow clone S301 (Salix interior x S. eriocephala) was sensitive to leaf rust (Melampsora spp.) and clones SVQ (S. viminalis) and SV1 (S. dasyclados) were more prone to insect attacks. The results proved that some clones of S. miyabeana and S. sachalinensis were more productive and more resistant to insect and disease damage than S. viminalis which has been widely planted in SRIC in southern Quebec for many years. (Author)

  20. Vegetation and flora of short-rotation willow stands from a conservation viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, L.

    1986-01-01

    The energy forests were studied using random 0.5 x 0.5 m quadrats in which cover for field- and bottom-layer species was recorded in a percentage scale. The data were analysed using various multivariate methods. The vegetation and flora of twelve coppices in southern Sweden were investigated. Also the succession during the establishment phase on a meadow on the west coast and on a peat bog in the east-central part of the country was studied. Moreover, the impact on fen vegetation downstream of an energy forest on a peat bog was investigated. The flora and vegetation of energy forests is dominated by common ruderal species like Cirsium arvense, Galeopsis tetrahit and Urtica dioica. Uncommon species from woodland and fen habitats are only occasionally found. The field layer of energy forests shows a clear seasonality with maximal cover in July. The species number and the composition of vegetation vary greatly between the coppices and is largely determined by the management system. Intense cultivation including fertilization and the use of herbicides depletes the flora. Long rotation times decrease both species diversity and the field-layer cover. Uncommon species are mostly found in old coppices, which also often have a rich spring flora. A change in flora and vegetation occurs when an energy forest is established. The change is great and the time needed for stabilization of the energy forest flora is long when the original flora is dissimilar to the coppice flora. Willow coppices can increase habitat diversity in regions dominated by coniferous forests or in large-scale agricultural areas. Structural heterogeneity of a stand promotes diversity of the flora. Such heterogeneity can be created if a stand is composed of a variety of willow clones, if it is harvested at intervals, contains gaps, open ditches and is surrounded by edge zones of various types.

  1. Investigation of tension wood formation and 2,6-dichlorbenzonitrile application in short rotation coppice willow composition and enzymatic saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Michael J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short rotation coppice willow is a potential lignocellulosic feedstock in the United Kingdom and elsewhere; however, research on optimising willow specifically for bioethanol production has started developing only recently. We have used the feedstock Salix viminalis × Salix schwerinii cultivar 'Olof' in a three-month pot experiment with the aim of modifying cell wall composition and structure within the stem to the benefit of bioethanol production. Trees were treated for 26 or 43 days with tension wood induction and/or with an application of the cellulose synthesis inhibitor 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile that is specific to secondary cell walls. Reaction wood (tension and opposite wood was isolated from material that had received the 43-day tension wood induction treatment. Results Glucan content, lignin content and enzymatically released glucose were assayed. All measured parameters were altered without loss of total stem biomass yield, indicating that enzymatic saccharification yield can be enhanced by both alterations to cell wall structure and alterations to absolute contents of either glucan or lignin. Conclusions Final glucose yields can be improved by the induction of tension wood without a detrimental impact on biomass yield. The increase in glucan accessibility to cell wall degrading enzymes could help contribute to reducing the energy and environmental impacts of the lignocellulosic bioethanol production process.

  2. Investigation of tension wood formation and 2,6-dichlorbenzonitrile application in short rotation coppice willow composition and enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Nicholas Jb; Pitre, Frederic E; Ray, Michael J; Karp, Angela; Murphy, Richard J

    2011-05-24

    Short rotation coppice willow is a potential lignocellulosic feedstock in the United Kingdom and elsewhere; however, research on optimising willow specifically for bioethanol production has started developing only recently. We have used the feedstock Salix viminalis × Salix schwerinii cultivar 'Olof' in a three-month pot experiment with the aim of modifying cell wall composition and structure within the stem to the benefit of bioethanol production. Trees were treated for 26 or 43 days with tension wood induction and/or with an application of the cellulose synthesis inhibitor 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile that is specific to secondary cell walls. Reaction wood (tension and opposite wood) was isolated from material that had received the 43-day tension wood induction treatment. Glucan content, lignin content and enzymatically released glucose were assayed. All measured parameters were altered without loss of total stem biomass yield, indicating that enzymatic saccharification yield can be enhanced by both alterations to cell wall structure and alterations to absolute contents of either glucan or lignin. Final glucose yields can be improved by the induction of tension wood without a detrimental impact on biomass yield. The increase in glucan accessibility to cell wall degrading enzymes could help contribute to reducing the energy and environmental impacts of the lignocellulosic bioethanol production process.

  3. Fate of heavy metals after application of sewage sludge and wood-ash mixtures to short-rotation willow coppice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, I; Eriksson, J; Adler, A; Aronsson, P; Verwijst, T

    2006-07-01

    Short-rotation willow coppice (SRWC), grown on farmland in Sweden for energy-biomass production, was fertilised with sewage sludge and wood-ash mixtures on the basis of the permitted annual phosphorus supply. Two identical experiments were conducted in central Sweden, on two newly harvested commercial SRWC fields. The maximum legally permitted amount of the sludge-ash mixture, sludge only, ash only, and twice the maximum permitted sludge-ash amount, were applied. The aim was to assess the effect of pH changes following treatment, on the ability of SRWC to take up large amounts of Cd and other metals. The remediation effect of SRWC was also studied. Under the experimental conditions applied, uptake by SRWC was unaffected by pH changes. The differences between the amounts of metals experimentally applied, less the uptake by SRWC after a potential harvest, were broadly within the permitted limits. For Cd, a reduction of total amounts in soil was observed.

  4. Effect of biomass pretreatment on the product distribution and composition resulting from the hydrothermal liquefaction of short rotation coppice willow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoras, I F; Stroe, R E; Sintamarean, I M; Rosendahl, L A

    2017-05-01

    A major challenge for the implementation of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) as a continuous process is the formulation of lignocellulosic feedstock, which is prone to phase separation into water and biomass parts when pressurized. One approach to remedy such phase separation is to reduce the dry matter content; however, as this approach is detrimental to process cost efficiency, designing an appropriate pretreatment step to ensure pumpability at high dry matter content is preferable. This paper evaluated the effect of various pretreatment methods on product distribution and composition resulting from the HTL of willow and proposes short rotation coppice as an alternative biomass feedstock for biofuels production. Alkaline-thermal pretreatment, besides making high dry matter pumpable feedstock slurries, also led to an increase in the production of the bio-crude product with an oxygen content lower than 8wt% and a higher concentration of aromatics and phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of poplar and willow short-rotation coppice used as vegetation filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Werther; Piccioni, Emiliano; Bonari, Enrico

    2008-07-01

    Ten-day evapotranspiration (ETc) and crop coefficient (k(c)) of willow and poplar SRC used as vegetation filter and grown under fertilised (F) and unfertilised (NF) conditions, were determined for two successive growing seasons using volumetric lysimeters. During the first growing season, total ETc observed was, respectively, 620 (NF)-1190 (F)mm in willow and 590 (NF)-725 (F) in poplar. During the second growing season, ETc showed a general increase, mainly in fertilised lysimeters where it ranged between 890 (NF)-1790 mm (F) in willow and 710 (NF)-1100 mm (NF) in poplar. kc reached in both years its maximum between the end of August and the beginning of September. In 2004 maximum kc ranged from 1.25-2.84 in willow and 1.06-1.90 in poplar, whereas in 2005 it ranged from 1.97-5.30 in willow and 1.71-4.28 in poplar. ETc seemed to be strongly correlated to plant development and mainly dependent on its nutritional status rather than on the differences between the species.

  6. The use of short rotation willows and poplars for the recycling of saline waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaconette Mirck; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Ioannis Dimitriou; Jill A. Zalesny; Timothy A. Volk; Warren E. Mabee

    2009-01-01

    The production of high-salinity waste waters by landfills and other waste sites causes environmental concerns. This waste water often contains high concentrations of sodium and chloride, which may end up in local ground and surface waters. Vegetation filter systems comprised of willows and poplars can be used for the recycling of saline waste water. These vegetation...

  7. Pathogenic and Ice-Nucleation Active (INA) Bacteria causing Dieback of Willows in Short Rotation Forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejad, Pajand

    2005-03-01

    To find out whether bacteria isolated from diseased plant parts can be the main causal agent for the dieback appearing in Salix energy forestry plantations in Sweden during the last few years, and if the joint effects of bacteria and frost injury are synergistic, extensive sampling of shoots from diseased Salix plants was performed. We performed several laboratory and greenhouse investigations and used evaluation techniques on the functions of the Ice-Nucleation Active (INA) bacteria. We carried out a comparison between spring and autumn bacterial communities isolated from within (endophytically) and surface (epiphytically) plant tissues of Salix viminalis. Seasonal variation of bacteria in willow clones with different levels of frost sensitivity and symptoms of bacterial damage was also investigated. We further focussed on possible effect of fertilisation and nutrient availability on the bacterial community in relation to plant dieback in Estonian willow plantations. The identification and detection of INA bacteria which cause damage in combination with frost to willow (Salix spp) plants in late fall, winter and spring was performed using BIOLOG MicroPlate, biochemical tests, selective INA primers and 16S rDNA analysis. To distinguish the character for differentiation between these bacteria morphologically and with respect to growing ability different culture media were used. We studied the temperature, at which ice nucleation occurred for individual bacteria, estimated the population of INA bacteria, effect of growth limiting factors, and evaluated the effect of chemical and physical agents for disruption and possible inhibition of INA among individual bacterial strains. The concentration of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus on INA is discussed. We demonstrate that among the bacterial isolates recovered from the willow plantations, there were many that were capable of ice nucleation at temperatures between -2 and -10 deg C, many that were capable of inducing a

  8. Biomass yield and fuel characteristics of short-rotation coppice (willow, poplar, empress tree)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, J.; Vetter, R. [Institute for Land Management Compatible to Environmental Requirements, Muellheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In two pedo-climatic different regions in the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg three shortrotation coppices willow, poplar and empress tree were tested with regard to their biomass productivity on arable land and to their properties for energetic use. Between 8 and 13 tons of dry matter per hectare and year could be produced under extensive cultivation conditions, over 15 tons with irrigation. Due to their composition, it can be assumed that their use as solid fuel in a biomass combustor is just as unproblematic as with forest timber. (orig.)

  9. Prospects for arable farm uptake of Short Rotation Coppice willow and miscanthus in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glithero, Neryssa J; Wilson, Paul; Ramsden, Stephen J

    2013-07-01

    Biomass will play a role in the UK meeting EU targets on renewable energy use. Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and miscanthus are potential biomass feedstocks; however, supply will rely on farmer willingness to grow these crops. Despite attractive crop establishment grants for dedicated energy crops (DECs) in the UK, uptake remains low. Drawing on results from an on-farm survey with 244 English arable farmers, 81.6% (87.7%) of farmers would not consider growing miscanthus (SRC), while respectively, 17.2% (11.9%) would consider growing and 1.2% (0.4%) were currently growing these crops. Farmer age, location, land ownership, farm type, farm size and farmer education level were not significant factors in determining acceptance of DECs. The main reasons cited for not growing DECs were impacts on land quality, lack of appropriate machinery, commitment of land for a long period of time, time to financial return and profitability. Reasons cited for willingness to grow DECs included land quality, ease of crop management, commitment of land for a long period of time, and profitability. Farmers cited a range of 'moral' (e.g. should not be using land for energy crops when there is a shortage of food), land quality, knowledge, profit and current farming practice comments as reasons for not growing DECs, while those willing to grow DECs cited interest in renewable energy, willingness to consider new crops, and low labour needs as rationale for their interest. Farm business objectives indicated that maximising profit and quality of life were most frequently cited as very important objectives. Previous research in the UK indicates that farmers in arable areas are unlikely to convert large areas of land to DECs, even where these farmers have an interest and willingness to grow them. Assuming that those farmers interested in growing DECs converted 9.29% (average percentage of arable land set-aside between 1996 and 2005) of their utilised agricultural area to these crops, 50,700

  10. Potential benefits of commercial willow Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) for farm-scale plant and invertebrate communities in the agri-environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Rebecca L.; Hanley, Mick E.; Goulson, Dave; Clarke, Donna J.; Doncaster, C. Patrick; Taylor, Gail [University of Southampton, Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences Building, Southampton, S017 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The cultivation of bioenergy crops (BECs) represents a significant land-use change in agri-environments, but their deployment has raised important issues globally regarding possible impacts on biodiversity. Few studies however, have systematically examined the effect of commercial scale bioenergy plantations on biodiversity in agri-ecosystems. In this study we investigate how the abundance and diversity of two key components of farmland biodiversity (ground flora and winged invertebrates) varied between mature willow Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and two alternative land-use options (arable crops and set-aside land). Although the abundance of winged invertebrates was similar across all land-uses, taxonomic composition varied markedly. Hymenoptera and large Hemiptera (>5 mm) were more abundant in willow SRC than in arable or set-aside. Similarly although plant species richness was greater in set-aside, our data show that willow SRC supports a different plant community to the other land-uses, being dominated by competitive perennial species such as Elytrigia repens and Urtica dioica. Our results suggest that under current management practices a mixed farming system incorporating willow SRC can benefit native farm-scale biodiversity. In particular the reduced disturbance in willow SRC allows the persistence of perennial plant species, potentially providing a stable refuge and food sources for invertebrates. In addition, increased Hymenoptera abundance in willow SRC could potentially have concomitant effects on ecosystem processes, as many members of this Order are important pollinators of crop plants or otherwise fulfil an important beneficial role as predators or parasites of crop pests. (author)

  11. Short-rotation forestry of birch, maple, poplar and willow in Flanders (Belgium) I - Biomass production after 4 years of tree growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vande Walle, Inge; Lemeur, Raoul [Laboratory of Plant Ecology, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Camp, Nancy; Van de Casteele, Liesbet; Verheyen, Kris [Laboratory of Forestry, Ghent University, Geraardsbergse Steenweg 267, B-9090 Melle (Belgium)

    2007-05-15

    During the last three decades, oil crises, agricultural surpluses and global climate change enhanced the interest in short-rotation forestry (SRF). In this study, the biomass production of birch (Betula pendula Roth), maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L. - Tintigny), poplar (Populus trichocarpa x deltoides - Hoogvorst) and willow (Salix viminalis - Orm) growing under a short-rotation (SR) management system were compared after a 4 years period. The plantation was established on former agricultural land. The sandy soil had a mean pH of 4.5 and a mean carbon content of 1.0%. Survival rates after 4 years were 75.8%, 96.8%, 86.3% and 97.6% for birch, maple, poplar and willow, respectively. The mean actual annual biomass production for these four species amounted to 2.6, 1.2, 3.5 and 3.4 t DM ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, respectively. The large variation in biomass production at the different plots of the plantation could not be explained by the measured soil parameters. Biomass production results found here were in the lower range of values reported in literature. However, in contrast to most other studies, no weed control, fertilisation or irrigation was applied in this experiment. As marginal agricultural soils are suboptimal for the growth of poplar and willow, birch can be considered as a very interesting alternative for the establishment of SR plantations in Flanders. (author)

  12. Reducing the establishment costs of short rotation willow coppice (SRC) - A trial of a novel layflat planting system at an upland site in mid-Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowthe-Thomas, S.C.; Slater, F.M. [Cardiff University, Llysdinam Field Centre, Newbridge-on-Wye, Llandrindod Wells, Powys, LD1 6NB (United Kingdom); Randerson, P.F. [School of Biosciences, BIOSI 2, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3US (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Two mechanical planting systems, the traditional Turton Step planter and a prototype layflat planter, were compared for the planting and establishment of short rotation willow coppice (SRC) at an upland site in Mid-Wales. Planted during March 2000, both plots were monitored for three seasons and after this establishment phase monitoring continued for the layflat planted plot until year three of a second rotation. Establishment parameters of stem density, survival rates and estimated biomass yields of a range of willow varieties during the first three years growth were greater for the layflat planted willows than step planted. At the first harvest (4 growing seasons), layflat planted willows achieved mean yields of 6.22 odt ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, three years into the second rotation estimated yields ranged from 1.99 odt ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} to 12.34 odt ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} (mean of 8.14 odt ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}). Since layflat planting has been shown to reduce planting costs by up to 48%, and yields achieved were equivalent to traditionally planted SRC, it is clear that this method of planting could provide an economic alternative to the traditional step planter. It is recommended that further trials take place using new varieties available, particularly to investigate stem density/thinning effects and harvesting time, and also to test recent modifications to the planter which allow adjustable planting depth for planting under drier soil conditions. (author)

  13. Correspondence of ectomycorrhizal diversity and colonisation of willows (Salix spp.) grown in short rotation coppice on arable sites and adjacent natural stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Toljander, Ylva K; Baum, Christel; Fransson, Petra M A; Taylor, Andy F S; Weih, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are mycorrhizal tree species sometimes cultivated as short rotation coppice (SRC) on arable sites for energy purposes; they are also among the earliest plants colonising primary successional sites in natural stands. The objective of this study was to analyse the degree of colonisation and diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities on willows grown as SRC in arable soils and their adjacent natural or naturalized stands. Arable sites usually lack ectomycorrhizal host plants before the establishment of SRC, and adjacent natural or naturalized willow stands were hypothesized to be a leading source of ectomycorrhizal inoculum for the SRC. Three test sites including SRC stands (Salix viminalis, Salix dasyclados, and Salix schwerinii) and adjacent natural or naturalized (Salix caprea, Salix fragilis, and Salix × mollissima) stands in central Sweden were investigated on EM colonisation and morphotypes, and the fungal partners of 36 of the total 49 EM fungi morphotypes were identified using molecular tools. The frequency of mycorrhizas in the natural/naturalized stands was higher (two sites) or lower (one site) than in the corresponding cultivated stands. Correspondence analysis revealed that some EM taxa (e.g. Agaricales) were mostly associated with cultivated willows, while others (e.g. Thelephorales) were mostly found in natural/naturalized stands. In conclusion, we found strong effects of sites and willow genotype on EM fungi formation, but poor correspondence between the EM fungi abundance and diversity in SRC and their adjacent natural/naturalized stands. The underlying mechanism might be selective promotion of some EM fungi species by more effective spore dispersal.

  14. Effects of plantation site and wastewater sludge fertilization on biomass production of two willow species in short rotation culture: a pilot study in Southern Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrecque, M.; Teodorescu, T.I.; Daigle, S. [Institut de Recherche en Biologie Vegetale, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    A pilot study of short-rotation woody crop (SRWC) for biomass production has been underway since 1995 in an area located southwest of Montreal. Three unirrigated sites (1 ha{sup -1} each) were chosen according to their soil texture: sandy loam (S1), clay silt (S2) and clay loam (S3). A randomized complete block design (split-split-plot) of six blocks was established on each site. Twenty-four lysimeters (eight per site) were installed on treated and untreated plots. A dose of 12 t ha{sup -1} of dried and pelleted wastewater sludge (150 kg of ''available'' N ha{sup -1}), was applied in the spring of the second season of growth. The aims of the present research are to (i) determine the biomass production of two willow species grown on three sites when supplied with dried and pelleted sludge, (ii) follow the leaching of nitrates and metals from sludge in the soil solution. During the first season, stem biomass production was superior on the sandy site (S1) for Salix discolor and did not vary between species on clay sites (S2, S3). The greatest biomass production was obtained with Salix viminalis on clay sites when sludge was applied. Successful establishment of willows depends strongly on the characteristics of the plantation site. Weather conditions also have a great influence on the first two years of growth. The use of dried and pelleted sludge as a fertilizer was beneficial to the growth performance of willows. SRWC could represent a solution to many environmental and economic problems for rural areas. (author)

  15. The impacts of land-use change from grassland to bioenergy Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow on the crop and ecosystem greenhouse gas balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Z. M.; Taylor, G.; Alberti, G.; Dondini, M.; Smith, P.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research is to better understand the greenhouse gas balance of land-use transition to bioenergy cropping systems in a UK context. Given limited land availability, addressing the food-energy-water nexus remains a challenge, and it is imperative that bioenergy crops are sited appropriately and that competition with food crops is minimised. Initial analyses included an extensive literature review and meta-analysis with a focus on the effects of land-use change to bioenergy on soil carbon and GHGs. This data mining exercise allowed us to understand the current state of the literature and identify key areas of research which needed to be addressed. Significant knowledge gaps were identified, with particular uncertainty around transitions from grasslands and transitions to short rotation forestry. A paired site experiment was established on a commercial SRC willow plantation and grassland to measure soil and ecosystem respiration. Initial results indicate that willow was a net sink for CO2 in comparison to grassland which was a net source of CO2. This provides evidence that the GHG balance of transition to SRC bioenergy willow will potentially result in increased soil carbon, in the long-term. The empirical findings from this study have been combined with modelled estimates for the site to both test and validate the ECOSSE model. Initial comparisons show that the model is able to accurately predict the respiration occurring at the field site, suggesting that it is a valuable approach for up-scaling from point sites such as this to wider geographical areas, and for considering future climate scenarios. The spatial modelling outputs will be used to build a modelling tool for non-specialist users which will determine the GHG and soil carbon effects of changing land to bioenergy for UK. This work is based on the Ecosystem Land Use Modelling & Soil Carbon GHG Flux Trial (ELUM) project, which was commissioned and funded by the Energy Technologies Institute (ETI).

  16. Long-term yield effects of establishment method and weed control in willow for short rotation coppice (SRC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ugilt; Jørgensen, Uffe; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup

    2014-01-01

    A prerequisite for successful willow production is a reliable and economically competitive establishment of the crop. Here, we compare different establishment methods including long-term yield effects. A field trial with the new-bred variety Bjørn was established in 1996 and included four establi...

  17. Impact of herbaceous competition and drainage conditions on the early productivity of willows under short-rotation intensive culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrecque, M.; Teodorescu, T.I.; Babeux, P.; Cogliastro, A.; Daigle, S. (Inst. de Recherche en Biologie Vegetale, Montreal, PQ (Canada))

    1994-03-01

    The productivity of trees under short-rotation intensive culture is influenced by herbaceous competition and drainage conditions. During the first year of establishment of Salix discolor Muehl. and Salix viminalis L., four weed-suppression treatments were applied to two sites showing different drainage conditions, one well drained and the other poorly drained. On the well-drained site, the productivity of the trees increased in all the plots under treatment, whereas on the poorly drained site, only the use of a plastic mulch increased the biomass production. The mean productivity on the well-drained site was always superior to the productivity measured on the poorly drained site except when vegetation was controlled by the use of a plastic mulch. The analyses related to nutrition revealed that the trees on the well-drained site absorbed more nutrients than those on the poorly drained site. Salix discolor showed a higher intake of K and S. viminalis, a higher concentration of Ca. Results indicate that weed suppression is essential to the establishment of trees in short-rotation intensive culture and that the use of a plastic mulch proved to be particularly profitable on marginal sites. 27 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Harvest and logistics for better profitability from small cultivations of Short Rotation Willow Coppice; Skoerdeteknik och logistik foer baettre loensamhet fraan smaa odlingar av Salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baky, Andras; Forsberg, Maya; Rosenqvist, Haakan; Jonsson, Nils; Sundberg, Martin

    2010-06-15

    In Sweden, the political desire to increase the amount of short rotation willow coppice (Salix) plantations has been expressed. However, for various reasons interest from farmers has been low. The hypothesis of this study is that the total area of Salix cultivation can be increased by also cultivating fields smaller than those generally considered economic today. In order to lower production costs, machine systems adapted for harvest of smaller fields are required. The possibility of using farmers' existing tractors and more convenient machines, as well as achieving lower machine costs for smaller fields, may increase farmers' interest. The long-term objective is to achieve large-scale deliveries of willow with small-scale solutions at farm level, as an option and complement to today's more large-scale systems for harvesting willow. Costs, energy use and climatic impact (CO{sub 2} emissions) for two harvest and logistical chains suitable for small fields have been calculated from field to energy plant, and methods for minimizing these costs have been analyzed. Comparison is made with the direct chipping system, the most commonly used in Sweden today. The systems studied comprised: 1. Direct bundling harvest system with a tractor-towed harvester, collection of bundles in the field with a trailer-mounted crane, and storage in a pile before delivery. Chipping is performed at the energy plant. 2. Direct billeting with a tractor-towed harvester accompanied simultaneously by a tractor and trailer for collection, and storage in a pile before delivery. 3. Direct chipping with a self-propelled modified forage harvester accompanied simultaneously by a tractor and container for collection, and direct delivery to plant. Both the billet and bundle systems show higher costs than the direct chipping system, irrespective of field size. The analysis of different scenarios and conditions shows possibilities of lowering the costs through certain measures. Furthermore

  19. First results from the UK network to establish the greenhouse gas balance of land conversion to second generation bioenergy willow, Miscanthus and short rotation forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Zoe M.; Bottoms, Emily; Massey, Alice; McCalmont, Jon; Yamulki, Sirwan; Drewer, Julia; McNamara, Niall; Finch, Jon; Donnison, Ian; Perks, Mike; Smith, Pete; Taylor, Gail

    2013-04-01

    ELUM is UK consortium project with 7 partners, funded by a joint incentive of public and private investment from the Energies Technology Institute (ETI). The aim of this project is to assess the impact of land conversion to second generation non-food bioenergy crops on greenhouse gas balance for several land use transitions, including from arable and grassland. A network of 6 sites has been established across the UK to assess these processes underpinning GHG balance and to provide input data to a meta-model that will be used as a tool to assess the sustainability of our land use transitions. The planned outputs of this project include an assessment of our current understanding of land use change and bioenergy cropping systems, the addition of greenhouse gas (GHG) data to national inventories and development of novel technologies to monitor GHG. Here we focus on the results of the soil GHG flux data (CO2, N2O and CH4) which are being collected at 5 sites and transitions, gaining good spatial coverage of the UK including Scotland, Wales, northern and southern England. These sites cover the following transitions: grassland to short rotation forestry, grassland to Miscanthus, arable to short rotation coppice (SRC) willow, arable to Miscanthus and grassland to SRC willow. A year of data capturing has been collected at these sites revealing the seasonal variability with increased CO2 fluxes, representing total soil respiration, in the summer months, irrespective of site. The importance of non-CO2 GHGs is also being considered and monthly measurements of CH4 and N2O using static chambers, provide no evidence that these gases contribute significantly to the overall carbon footprint of the bioenergy crops, in contrast to recent reports on SRC poplar. There were, however, some occasional large unexplained fluxes in these gases suggesting they may play a lesser part in some bioenergy cropping systems and are more complicated to evaluate. As well as this experiment, data will

  20. Development of a sink-source interaction model for the growth of short-rotation coppice willow and in silico exploration of genotype×environment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasuolo, M; Richter, G M; Richard, B; Cunniff, J; Girbau, S; Shield, I; Purdy, S; Karp, A

    2016-02-01

    Identifying key performance traits is essential for elucidating crop growth processes and breeding. In Salix spp., genotypic diversity is being exploited to tailor new varieties to overcome environmental yield constraints. Process-based models can assist these efforts by identifying key parameters of yield formation for different genotype×environment (G×E) combinations. Here, four commercial willow varieties grown in contrasting environments (west and south-east UK) were intensively sampled for growth traits over two 2-year rotations. A sink-source interaction model was developed to parameterize the balance of source (carbon capture/mobilization) and sink formation (morphogenesis, carbon allocation) during growth. Global sensitivity analysis consistently identified day length for the onset of stem elongation as most important factor for yield formation, followed by various 'sink>source' controlling parameters. In coastal climates, the chilling control of budburst ranked higher compared with the more eastern climate. Sensitivity to drought, including canopy size and rooting depth, was potentially growth limiting in the south-east and west of the UK. Potential yields increased from the first to the second rotation, but less so for broad- than for narrow-leaved varieties (20 and 47%, respectively), which had established less well initially (-19%). The establishment was confounded by drought during the first rotation, affecting broad- more than narrow-leaved canopy phenotypes (-29%). The analysis emphasized quantum efficiency at low light intensity as key to assimilation; however, on average, sink parameters were more important than source parameters. The G×E pairings described with this new process model will help to identify parameters of sink-source control for future willow breeding. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Development of a sink–source interaction model for the growth of short-rotation coppice willow and in silico exploration of genotype×environment effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasuolo, M.; Richter, G. M.; Richard, B.; Cunniff, J.; Girbau, S.; Shield, I.; Purdy, S; Karp, A.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying key performance traits is essential for elucidating crop growth processes and breeding. In Salix spp., genotypic diversity is being exploited to tailor new varieties to overcome environmental yield constraints. Process-based models can assist these efforts by identifying key parameters of yield formation for different genotype×environment (G×E) combinations. Here, four commercial willow varieties grown in contrasting environments (west and south-east UK) were intensively sampled for growth traits over two 2-year rotations. A sink–source interaction model was developed to parameterize the balance of source (carbon capture/mobilization) and sink formation (morphogenesis, carbon allocation) during growth. Global sensitivity analysis consistently identified day length for the onset of stem elongation as most important factor for yield formation, followed by various ‘sink>source’ controlling parameters. In coastal climates, the chilling control of budburst ranked higher compared with the more eastern climate. Sensitivity to drought, including canopy size and rooting depth, was potentially growth limiting in the south-east and west of the UK. Potential yields increased from the first to the second rotation, but less so for broad- than for narrow-leaved varieties (20 and 47%, respectively), which had established less well initially (–19%). The establishment was confounded by drought during the first rotation, affecting broad- more than narrow-leaved canopy phenotypes (–29%). The analysis emphasized quantum efficiency at low light intensity as key to assimilation; however, on average, sink parameters were more important than source parameters. The G×E pairings described with this new process model will help to identify parameters of sink–source control for future willow breeding. PMID:26663471

  2. Shoot allometry and biomass productivity in poplar and willow varieties grown as short rotation coppice. Summary of results 1995-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, R.; Henshall, P.; Tubby, I.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a 4 year study assessing shoot diameters and lengths using non-destructive measurements in order to establish allometric relationships between biomass and non-destructive measurements and also to provide estimates of increments for the development of a model of short rotation cultivation growth and yield. Details are given of the basic methodology and measurement conventions; the data preparation, quality assurance classification and storage; and shoot diameter and length assessments and allometry analyses.

  3. Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters. Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Stig [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloef (Sweden); Cuingnet, Christian; Clause, Pierre [Association pour le Developpement des Culture Energetiques, Lille (France); Jakobsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Dawson, Malcolm [Queens Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Backlund, Arne [A and B Backlund ApS, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Mavrogianopoulus, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises results and experiences gathered from field trials with recycling of pre-treated wastewater, diverted human urine mixed with water, and municipal sludge, within plantations of willow species specifically selected for biomass production. Experimental sites were established in Sweden (Roma), France (Orchies), Northern Ireland (Culmore) and Greece (Larissa). The project was carried out during a 4-year period with financial support from the EU FAIR Programme. The experimental sites were supplied with primary effluent from municipal treatment plants (Culmore and Larissa), stored industrial effluent from a chicory processing plant (Orchies), biologically treated and stored municipal wastewater (Roma) and human urine mixture from diverting low-flush toilets mixed with water (Roma). Application rates of the wastewaters or the urine mixture were equivalent to the calculated evapotranspiration rate at each site. Wastewaters were also applied up to three times this value to evaluate any possible negative effects. Estimations and evaluations were carried out mainly concerning: biomass growth, potential biological attacks of the plantations, plant water requirements, fertilisation effects of the wastewater, plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals from applied wastewater, possible soil or groundwater impact, sanitary aspects, and potentials for removal in the soil-plant filter of nutrients and biodegradable organic material from applied wastewater. The results clearly indicated that biomass production in young willow plantations could be enhanced substantially after recycling of wastewater resources. The impact on soil and groundwater of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and cadmium) was limited, even when the application of water and nutrients exceeded the plant requirements. Also, the soil-plant system seemed to function as a natural treatment filter for pre-treated (primary settled) wastewater, with a treatment

  4. Genetic structure and population dynamics of a heteroecious plant pathogen Melampsora larici-epitea in short-rotation coppice willow plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Carlos; Pei, Ming H; Ruiz, Carmen; Hunter, Tom; Karp, Angela; Tubby, Ian

    2009-07-01

    Complex life strategies are common among plant pathogens belonging to rust fungi (Uredinales). The heteroecious willow rust Melampsora larici-epitea produces five spore stages and alternates on larch (Larix). To shed light on the epidemiology of this pathogen, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) were used to determine the genetic diversity and genetic structure of rust samples collected from coppice willow (Salix) plantations at three UK sites (LA, CA and MC) over three sampling dates (September 2000, July 2001 and September 2001). Of the total of 819 isolates, 465 were unique AFLP phenotypes and there was a shift in genotype diversity between the two seasons (0.67 in 2000 and 0.87-0.89 in 2001). No phenotypes were common between the two seasons within a site, suggesting that the rust did not overwinter as an asexual stage within plantations. A temporal analysis detected large amounts of genetic drift (F(S) = 0.15-0.26) between the two seasons and very small effective population sizes (N(e) = 2-3) within sites. These results all point to a new colonization of the plantations by the rust in the second season (2001). The F(ST)-analogue values were Phi(CT) = 0.121, Weir and Cockerham's theta = 0.086 and the Bayesian estimate theta(B) = 0.087-0.096. The results suggest that the sources of inoculum were somewhat localized and the same sources were mainly responsible for disease epidemics in LA and CA over the two seasons. The relatively low F(ST)-values among sites (0.055-0.13) suggest the existence of significant gene flow among the three sampled sites.

  5. Short Rotation Coppice in Austria - Management and Producticivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochbichler, E.; Hofmann, H.; Bellos, N.; Zeitlinger, C.; Liebhard, P.

    2012-04-01

    In Austria energy wood production in short rotation coppice systems (SRC) becomes increasingly important to meet the demands of the growing bio-energy sector. In order to successfully develop the SRC market, the achievement of high and constant yields in SRC management is just as important as a reliable harvesting technology, which facilitates the production of high quality wood chips. Yield models and site-specific knowledge about productivity are needed with respect to clones, site factors and management alternatives. Therefore in the years 2007 and 2008 experimental plots (Marchfeld; 16 poplar clones and 19 willow clones) and a network of demonstration plots (different regions in Lower Austria; 7 poplar clones, 4 willow clones) were established. Single shoot surveys and biomass functions in combination with stand inventories form the general basis for estimating yield and productivity. They also help to optimize yield and rotation length by taking the maximum harvestable tree diameter into account, which is determined by harvesting techniques. For optimizing the yield estimation of SRC stands, preliminary clone specific yield functions for poplar and willow clones were developed. These specific yield functions were based on common yield estimation functions with respect to the newly used clones (e.g. faster growth, lower wood density), using a regression analytical approach. Standard stand surveys were carried out in autumn 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. We were able to show a high variety in biomass production of poplar and willow clones on the specific site. For the first and second rotation cycle the mean productivity of poplar clones was within a range of 4 - 12 t/y/ha and for willow clones within a range of 3 - 17 t/y/ha. These results were compared with the productivity of older experimental plots in Austria. Based on the preliminary results of productivity of poplar and willow clones for various site factors and management alternatives (planting design

  6. Willow Bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... white willow or European willow, black willow or pussy willow, crack willow, purple willow, and others. The ... Purple Osier, Purple Osier Willow, Purple Willow, Purpurweide, Pussy Willow, Reifweide, Salicis Cortex, Salix alba, Salix daphnoides, ...

  7. Fertilization of SRC Willow, II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, L.; Ingerslev, Morten; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) willow is an emerging cropping system in focus for production of biomass for energy. To increase production, the willow is commonly fertilized, but studies have shown differing effects of fertilization on biomass production, ranging from almost no response to consider......Short rotation coppice (SRC) willow is an emerging cropping system in focus for production of biomass for energy. To increase production, the willow is commonly fertilized, but studies have shown differing effects of fertilization on biomass production, ranging from almost no response...... to considerable positive effects. Focus has also been on replacing mineral fertilizer with organic waste products, such as manure and sludge. However, the effect on biomass production and environmental impact of various dosage and types of fertilizer is not well described. Therefore we studied the environmental...

  8. Closed Loop Short Rotation Woody Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Michael [CRC Development, LLC, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2012-09-30

    CRC Development LLC is pursuing commercialization of shrub willow crops to evaluate and confirm estimates of yield, harvesting, transportation and renewable energy conversion costs and to provide a diverse resource in its supply portfolio.The goal of Closed Loop Short Rotation Woody Biomass Energy Crops is supply expansion in Central New York to facilitate the commercialization of willow biomass crops as part of the mix of woody biomass feedstocks for bioenergy and bioproducts. CRC Development LLC established the first commercial willow biomass plantation acreage in North America was established on the Tug Hill in the spring of 2006 and expanded in 2007. This was the first 230- acres toward the goal of 10,000 regional acres. This project replaces some 2007-drought damaged acreage and installs a total of 630-acre new planting acres in order to demonstrate to regional agricultural producers and rural land-owners the economic vitality of closed loop short rotation woody biomass energy crops when deployed commercially in order to motivate new grower entry into the market-place. The willow biomass will directly help stabilize the fuel supply for the Lyonsdale Biomass facility, which produces 19 MWe of power and exports 15,000 pph of process steam to Burrows Paper. This project will also provide feedstock to The Biorefinery in New York for the manufacture of renewable, CO2-neutral liquid transportation fuels, chemicals and polymers. This project helps end dependency on imported fossil fuels, adds to region economic and environmental vitality and contributes to national security through improved energy independence.

  9. Erratum to: Fertilization of SRC Willow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, L; Ingerslev, Morten; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) willow is an emerging cropping system in focus for production of biomass for energy. To increase production, the willow is commonly fertilized, but studies have shown differing effects of fertilization on biomass production, ranging from almost no response to consider......Short rotation coppice (SRC) willow is an emerging cropping system in focus for production of biomass for energy. To increase production, the willow is commonly fertilized, but studies have shown differing effects of fertilization on biomass production, ranging from almost no response...... to considerable positive effects. Focus has also been on replacing mineral fertilizer with organic waste products, such as manure and sludge. However, the effect on biomass production and environmental impact of various dosage and types of fertilizer is not well described. Therefore we studied the environmental...

  10. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  11. Determining the effects of felling method and season of year on the regeneration of short rotation coppice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel P.L. de Souza; Tom Gallagher; Dana Mitchell; Tim McDonald; Mathew Smidt

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest in plantations with the objective of producing biomass for energy and fuel. These types of plantations are called Short Rotation Woody Crops (SRWC). Popular SRWC species are Eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp.), Cottonwood (Populus deltoides) and Willow (Salix spp.). These species have in...

  12. Performance and sustainability of short-rotation energy crops treated with municipal and industrial residues

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriou, Ioannis

    2005-01-01

    The sustainability of short-rotation willow coppice (SRWC) as a multifunctional system for phytoremediation—the use of plants for treatment of contaminated air, soil or water—and for producing energy biomass, was studied. SRWC is grown commercially in Sweden to produce energy biomass, nutrient-rich residues being applied as cost-efficient fertiliser to increase production. The principal residues used are municipal wastewater, landfill leachate, industrial wastewater (e.g. log-yard runoff), se...

  13. Cadmium phytoextraction using short-rotation coppice Salix: the evidence trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Nicholas M; Pulford, Ian D

    2005-05-01

    A substantial body of evidence has now accumulated that raises expectations that clean-up of Cd-contaminated land can be achieved through cultivation and harvest of selected clones of short-rotation coppice willow within a realistic crop lifecycle. Cd uptake rates into Salix are high compared to other trace elements and to other plant species. Effective phytoextraction would require (i) careful targeting of hotspots, (ii) repeated harvest prior to leaf fall and (iii) final removal of the root bole.

  14. An evaluation of herbicides for post-emergence use in short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the project was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a range of herbicides and mixtures of herbicides, with both contact and residual activity, for the post-emergence control of weeds in newly planted willow short rotation coppice (SRC). This report provides growers and advisers of short rotation coppice with important (but still limited) information on how to achieve improved weed control of problem weeds increasingly prevalent in SRC fields. This may provide guidance towards often-essential emergency treatments when the crop establishment is under considerable pressure and the potential safety, or otherwise, of certain weed-specific herbicides. (author)

  15. Effect of fertilisation on biomass yield, ash and element uptake in SRC willow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup

    2016-01-01

    Optimal fertilization of short rotation coppice (SRC) willow is important both in terms of economic yield and environmental effect. We measured biomass yield and nutrient uptake in two willow clones, Inger and Tordis, grown on a coarse sandy soil and within six different fertilization regimes. Fe...

  16. Evaluating growth effects from an imidacloprid treatment in black willow and eastern cottonwood cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano de Sene Fernandes; Ray A. Souter; Theodor D. Leininger

    2015-01-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) and eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marsh.), two species native in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, have importance in short rotation woody crop (SRWC) systems for biomass production (Ruark 2006).

  17. Short rotation coppice: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumont, N.

    1993-01-01

    This Report summarises scientific literature relating to the influence of coppice management upon wildlife. Where information is available, special attention is given to short rotation coppice. The Report also summarises the literature regarding coppice woodland management techniques which could be applied to enhance the nature conservation interest of short rotation coppice sites generally. (2 tables, 57 references) (author)

  18. Water Quality Changes in a Short-Rotation Woody Crop Riparian Buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, D.; Clausen, J.; Kuzovkina, J.

    2016-12-01

    Converting riparian buffers in agricultural areas from annual row crops to short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) grown for biofuel can provide both water quality benefits and a financial incentive for buffer adoption among agricultural producers. A randomized complete block design was used to determine water quality changes resulting from converting plots previously cultivated in corn to SRWC willow (Salix. spp) adjacent to a stream in Storrs, CT. Both overland flow and ground water samples were analyzed for total nitrogen (TN), nitrate + nitrite (NO2+NO3-N), and total phosphorus (TP). Overland flow was also analyzed for suspended solids concentration (SSC). Lower (p = 0.05) concentrations of TN (56%) and TP (61%) were observed in post-coppice surface runoff from willow plots than from corn plots. Shallow ground water concentrations at the edge of willow plots were lower in TN (56%) and NO3+NO2-N (64%), but 35% higher in TP, than at the edge of corn plots. SSC was also lower (72%) in overland flow associated with willow compared to corn. The treatment had no effect on discharge or mass export. These results suggest conversion from corn to a SRWC in a riparian area can provide water quality benefits similar to those observed in restored and established buffers.

  19. An assessment of short rotation coppice (SRC) woody biomass to heat greenhouses in southern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.; Fraleigh, S.; McKenney, D.; Yemshanov, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Sault Ste. Marie, ON (Canada). Canadian Forest Service Great Lakes Forestry Centre

    2008-07-01

    This presentation identified the best options/scenarios for short rotation coppice (SRT) bioenergy systems as an alternative to fossil fuel supply. Research priorities associated with heating greenhouses with SRC woody biomass were also evaluated along with the economic potential of short-rotation forestry systems to supply biomass for energy production. The presentation outlined the key steps in the production of willow biomass crops and provided an overview of a fast-growing hybrid poplar and willow bio-energy plantation located in Claremont, Ontario. Photographs of established treatments were presented. The presentation also discussed the Canadian Forest Service's SRC greenhouse heating model (GHM) which consisted of a spreadsheet-based cost-benefit analysis tool used to evaluate the feasibility of purpose-grown woody biomass for small scale bioenergy systems to replace existing fossil fuel systems. The model considered greenhouse dimensions, thermal resistance factors of materials, construction factors, system factors, local weather conditions, and desired indoor temperature to determine annual heating requirements. A series of charts and graphs depicted model variables and inputs for southern Ontario; results for the internal rate of return, net present value, and payback period; and results of break even fuel prices versus appliance efficiency and growth rate assumptions; sensitivity analysis; and regional analysis. The presentation also discussed the Canadian Forest Service bioeconomic model and geographical distribution of break-even willow prices. It was concluded that future work should consider un-priced potential environmental benefits and carbon offsets. tabs., figs.

  20. Hybrid willows provide renewable energy for greenhouse growers in Petrolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, C. [LandSaga Biogeographical, New Hamburg, ON (Canada)

    2007-03-15

    This article demonstrated that hybrid willows, as a wood to energy crop, can provide a level of independence from fossil fuel use. Hybrid willows are bred specifically for high biomass production. The greenhouse growers at the Enniskillen Pepper Company planted fast growing hybrid willows as a fuel source to heat their 6 acres of greenhouse ranges in Petrolia, Ontario. Heated greenhouses, high energy costs and adjacent agricultural land in this region of Ontario provides optimal agronomic and economic conditions for this energy crop to realize its potential. It was estimated that heating all of the greenhouses in Ontario with willow biomass alone could replace dependence on more than 37 million GJ of fossil fuel energy per year. Biomass plantations also have value in providing carbon credits for achieving Kyoto targets for greenhouse gas emitters because the root systems are permanent carbon sinks. The biomass burner at the Enniskillen greenhouse range currently burns oat hull pellets. The hybrid willows will provide a chipped product for experimentation in the existing burner system. The wood has a high BTU content and dries quickly compared to denser hardwoods. High biomass hybrid willows can be repeatedly harvested in 3 year rotations over a 25 year period. This system of short rotation intensive coppice (SRIC) is widely practiced in Sweden, where hybrid willow is planted for energy and for the treatment of municipal solid waste, which is applied as a fertilizer. Hybrid willows are generally planted in the spring using 25 cm long cuttings which are sections of tree stem up to 2 cm in diameter. Some varieties will grow 2 meters in one year. At Enniskillen, the first harvest for biomass fuel will occur in 2008 and every three years after for the next 25 years or longer. Once the plantation is established, there are no major operating expenses other than harvesting. However, nutrient enhancement will stimulate willow growth. Other plantations of hybrid willows have

  1. Black willow tree improvement: development of a biomass species for marginal agricultural land in the lower Mississippi alluvial valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle Brazas Bailey; Randall J. Rousseau; Emile Gardiner; Jason C. Mack

    2014-01-01

    Short rotation woody crops, such as willows (Salix spp.), continue to be examined as biomass species because of their fast growth, ease of vegetative propagation, and ability to be coppice regenerated. Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) fits well into a biomass program for the southern United States because of its ability to grow on...

  2. A further evaluation of herbicides for post-emergence use in short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project evaluating the safety and efficiency of eleven herbicides for controlling weeds in newly plated willow short rotation coppices, and provides growers with information on post-emergence herbicide options, control of problem weeds, and emergency treatments. Weed germination, crop safety, and the encouraging results obtained using Reflex T and Impuls are discussed. It is suggested that a Technical Register of herbicide applications with contributions by growers and advisers should be considered by the British Biogen trade industry body.

  3. Woody biomass from short rotation energy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Zalesny; M.W. Cunningham; R.B. Hall; J. Mirck; D.L. Rockwood; John Stanturf; T.A. Volk

    2011-01-01

    Short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) are ideal for woody biomass production and management systems because they are renewable energy feedstocks for biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts that can be strategically placed in the landscape to conserve soil and water, recycle nutrients, and sequester carbon. This chapter is a synthesis of the regional implications of producing...

  4. Selection of Willows (Salix sp. for Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kajba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Willows compared with other species are the most suitable for biomass production in short rotations because of their very abundant growth during the first years. Nowadays, in Croatia, a large number of selected and registered willow clones are available. The main objective of the research should be to find genotypes which, with minimum nutrients, will produce the maximum quantity of biomass. Material and Methods: Clonal test of the arborescent willows include the autochthonous White Willow (Salix alba, interracial hybrids of the autochthonous White Willow and the English ‘cricket’ Willow (S. alba var. calva, interspecies hybrids (S. matsudana × S. alba, as well as multispecies hybrids of willows. Average production of dry biomass (DM∙ha-1∙a-1 per hectare was estimated in regard to the clone, survival, spacing and the number of shoots per stump. Results: The highest biomass production as well as the best adaptedness and phenotypic stability on testing site was shown by clones (‘V 374’, ‘V 461’, ‘V 578’ from 15.2 - 25.0 t∙DM∙ha-1∙a-1 originated from backcross hybrid S. matsudana × (S. matsudana × S. alba and by one S. alba clone (‘V 95’, 23.1 - 25.7 t∙DM∙ha-1∙a-1. These clones are now at the stage of registration and these results indicate significant potential for further breeding aimed at biomass production in short rotations. Conclusions: Willow clones showed high biomass production on marginal sites and dry biomass could be considerably increased with the application of intensive silvicultural and agro technical measures. No nutrition or pest control measures were applied (a practice otherwise widely used in intensive cultivation system, while weed vegetation was regulated only at the earliest age.

  5. Short rotation coppice for revaluation of contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, H; Thiry, Y; Gommers, A; Goor, F; Jossart, J M; Holm, E; Gäfvert, T; Roed, J; Grebenkov, A; Timofeyev, S; Gäufert, T

    2001-01-01

    When dealing with large-scale environmental contamination, as following the Chernobyl accident, changed land use such that the products of the land are radiologically acceptable and sustain an economic return from the land is a potentially sustainable remediation option. In this paper, willow short rotation coppice (SRC) is evaluated on radiological, technical and economic grounds for W. European and Belarus site conditions. Radiocaesium uptake was studied in a newly established and existing SRC. Only for light-texture soils with low soil potassium should cultivation be restricted to soils with contamination levels below 100-370 kBq m-2 given the TFs on these soils (5 x 10(-4) and 2 x 10(-3) m2 kg-1) and considering the Belarus exemption limit for firewood (740 Bq kg-1). In the case of high wood contamination levels (> 1000 Bq kg-1), power plant personnel working in the vicinity of ash conveyers should be subjected to radiation protection measures. For appropriate soil conditions, potential SRC yields are high. In Belarus, most soils are sandy with a low water retention, for which yield estimates are too low to make production profitable without irrigation. The economic viability should be thoroughly calculated for the prevailing conditions. In W. Europe, SRC production or conversion is not profitable without price incentives. For Belarus, the profitability of SRC on the production side largely depends on crop yield and price of the delivered bio-fuel. Large-scale heat conversion systems seem the most profitable and revenue may be considerable. Electricity routes are usually unprofitable. It could be concluded that energy production from SRC is potentially a radiologically and economically sustainable land use option for contaminated agricultural land.

  6. Short period tidal variations of earth rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, C. F.; Williams, J. G.; Parke, M. E.; Dickey, J. O.

    1981-01-01

    It is explained that the tidal deformation of the earth's polar moment of inertia by the moon and sun cause periodic variations in rotation. The short period oscillations give rise to a meter-sized, diurnal signature in the lunar laser ranging data obtained at McDonald Observatory. A solution is given for the scale parameter k/C at fortnightly and monthly tidal frequencies. The results are compared with those obtained by other investigators and with a theoretical estimate which includes the effect of oceans and a decoupled fluid core.

  7. Short-rotation plantations. Wood from the acre - that's the way; Kurzumtriebsplantagen. Holz vom Acker - So geht's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setzer, Frank [Deutsche Landwirtschaftsgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Fachgebiet Forstwirtschaft und Bioenergie; Landgraf, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Poplar or willow instead of rapeseed and wheat? It is not quite obviously: There is no question that one may achieve still more profits by means of cultivation of quality wheat than the cultivation of fast growing wood. However, under certain circumstances birch trees, robinia et cetera may be a very lucrative alternative to grassland or low yield rye cultivation. Especially with currently rising timber prices. The book under consideration is a practical decision support for whom a short-rotation plantations is worthwhile as well as how to create and maintain a short-rotation plantation.

  8. Willow yield is highly dependent on clone and site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    , differing considerably in soil type, climatic conditions and management. Compared to the best clone, the yield was up to 36 % lower for other clones across sites and up to 51 % lower within sites. Tordis was superior to other clones with dry matter yields between 5.2 and 10.2 Mg ha−1 year−1 during the first...... to the best site, yield level was up to 51 % lower on other sites across all clones, probably due to combined effects of differences in soil type, climate and management. Thus, willow yield depends both on the use of high-yielding clones and on the combined site effects of soil, climate, and management.......Use of high-yielding genotypes is one of the means to achieve high yield and profitability in willow (Salix spp.) short rotation coppice. This study investigated the performance of eight willow clones (Inger, Klara, Linnea, Resolution, Stina, Terra Nova, Tora, Tordis) on five Danish sites...

  9. Wastewater and sewage sludge application to willows and poplars grown in lysimeters-Plant response and treatment efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, I.; Aronsson, P. [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Ecology building, P.O. Box 7043, SE 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    Adding nutrient-rich residues such as municipal wastewater and sludge to willow and poplar short-rotation coppice gives more cost-effective and sustainable cultivation, but leaching to groundwater and disturbance to plant growth must be avoided. The effects of adding municipal wastewater irrigation to willows and poplars and sewage sludge to willows were compared in a two-year experiment. Wastewater irrigation enhanced plant growth. Near-zero nitrate-N concentrations occurred in drainage water when the root system of both species was well-established. The ability to retain N and P was satisfactory when poplars and willows were irrigated with wastewater. Thus relatively high additions of N and P with wastewater will probably not contaminate groundwater, but potential P leaching should not be underestimated. The same applies for sewage sludge applications to willow. (author)

  10. Short rotation coppice as alternative land use for Chernobyl-contaminated areas of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Goor, François; Timofeyev, Sergey; Grebenkov, Alexander; Thiry, Yves

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in the Chernobyl-affected area to assess if short rotation coppice (SRC) for energy production is a feasible alternative for contaminated land. Four willow clones were planted on sandy and peaty soil and the radiocaesium (137Cs) and radiostrontium (90Sr) transfer factors (TF) and yield relevant parameters were recorded during four growing seasons. The 137Cs and 90Sr soil-to-willow wood TF on sandy soil (second growing season) were on average 1.40+/-1.06 x 10(-3) m2 kg(-1) and 130+/-74 x 10(-3) m2 kg(-1), respectively. The 137Cs TF recorded for the peaty soil (fourth growing season or end of the first rotation cycle) was on average 5.17+/-1.59 x 10(-3) m2 kg(-1). The 90Sr-TF was on average 2.61+/-0.44 x 10(-3) m2 kg(-1). No significant differences between clones for the 137Cs and 90Sr-TF were observed. Given the high TFs and the high deposition levels, Belarus exemption levels for fuel wood were highly exceeded. The annual average biomass production for one rotation cycle on the peaty soil ranged from 7.8 to 16.0 t ha(-1) y(-1) for one of the clones, comparable with average annual yield figures obtained for western Europe. On the sandy soils, first-year yields were 0.25 t ha(-1) y(-1). These soils are not suitable for SRC production and should better be dedicated to pine forests or drought-resistant grasses.

  11. Site-growth relationship of different short-rotation coppice tree species in southwestern Germany four years after establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Nerlich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to lack of detailed information on the suitability of short rotation coppice (SRC species for different climatic regions, over four years this study investigated tree growth and susceptibility to pests and diseases of willow (Salix spp. and poplar (Populus spp. clones and other tree species like Alnus spp. and Robinia pseudoacacia at four sites located in southwestern Germany. The study was undertaken in order to deduce the kind of tree species recommended for the various site conditions. In 2009, field trials were established at four sites which differ in climate and soil characteristics (Forchheim, Kupferzell, Marbach and Aulendorf. At all tested locations, a high survival rate (>90 % was observed for almost all willow and poplar clones and little infestations with leaf rust (Melampsora and minor leaf damages caused by the poplar leaf beetle (Chrysomela populi had occurred. The survival of the other tree species varied from 22 to 97 % depending on the site and species. Across all tree species and locations, results indicated that willow clones can be recommended for cold sites and poplars generally seem to require higher temperatures. The Alnus spp. seems to be favorable for both cold and warm conditions while Robinia pseudoacacia can be recommended for warm sites. Due to its chilling sensitivity, Paulownia tomentosa seems to be rather unsuitable for cultivation in southwestern Germany. For all tested sites, it appears that those with heavy soils and dry conditions are inappropriate for establishing SRC species.

  12. The Energy Efficiency Of Willow Biomass Production In Poland - A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczukowski, Stefan; Tworkowski, Józef; Stolarski, Mariusz J.; Krzyżaniak, Michał

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments with willow (Salix L.) coppice cultivation and Eko-Salix systems have been conducted at the University of Warmia and Mazury since 1992. In that wider context, the aim of the work described here was to compare energy inputs involved in setting up a plantation and producing biomass, and to assess the efficiency of willow-chips production under the coppice and Eko-Salix systems. The energy gain determined in the experiments was several to more than twenty times as great as the inputs needed to operate the plantation and to harvest willow biomass, this leaving both systems of willow cultivation under study attractive where setting up short-rotation coppices is concerned.

  13. Sampling procedure in a willow plantation for estimation of moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed; Lærke, Poul Erik; Liu, Na

    2015-01-01

    Heating value and fuel quality of wood is closely connected to moisture content. In this work the variation of moisture content (MC) of short rotation coppice (SRC) willow shoots is described for five clones during one harvesting season. Subsequently an appropriate sampling procedure minimising l...

  14. Selected Harvesting Machines For Short Rotation Intensive Culture Biomass Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammy Woodfin; Doug Frederick; Bryce Stokes

    1987-01-01

    Three different harvesting systems were observed and analyzed for productivity and costs in a short rotation.intensive culture plantation of 2 to 5 year old sycamore. Individual machines were compared to create an optimum system.

  15. Harvesting systems and costs for short rotation poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Rummer; D. Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to compare the cost of coppice and longer rotation poplar harvesting technology. Harvesting technology for short rotation poplar has evolved over the years to address both coppice harvest and single-stem harvest systems. Two potential approaches for coppice harvesting are modified forage harvesters and modified mulcher-balers. Both of...

  16. The assessment of physiology parameters of willow plants as a criterion for selection of prospective clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodzkin Aleh I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy production based on short rotation coppice willow plantations (SRC is an effective direction both for economic and environment profit. The yield of willow wood can amount to 10-15 tons per hectare of dry biomass per year and the cost of thus obtained energy is lower in comparison with other energy crops. In order to achieve high yield and profitability, the use of special willow clones is necessary. Species most often used in selection for biomass production are shrub type willows: Salix viminalis, Salix dasyclados and Salix schwerini, while the clones tested in this paper were also of tree species Salix alba. The productivity and some physiology characteristics of Serbian selection clones of Salix alba (Bačka, Volmianka and Drina and Swedish selection clone Jorr (Salix viminalis were investigated in greenhouses and in field conditions. As the result of testing three clones of Salix alba - Bačka, Volmianka and Drina, having special preferences and adaptability to different environmental conditions, these were included in State register of Republic of Belarus in 2013. In our experiment it was also satisfactory that specific properties of willows (intensity of transpiration and photosynthesis, water use efficiency and others, were conserved both in greenhouses and in field conditions. This factor gives opportunity to select prospective clones of willows at an early stage of ontogenesis for further testing.

  17. Genetic strategies for dissecting complex traits in biomass willows (Salix spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Steven J; Karp, Angela

    2014-11-01

    Willows are highly diverse catkin-bearing trees and shrubs of the genus Salix. They occur in many growth forms, from tall trees to creeping alpines, and successfully occupy a wide variety of ecological niches. Shrubby willows (sub-genus Vetrix) have many characteristics that render them suited to cultivation in much faster growth cycles than conventional forestry. They respond well to coppicing, can be propagated vegetatively as cuttings and achieve rapid growth with low fertilizer inputs. As a result, willows grown as short rotation coppice are now among the leading commercially grown biomass crops in temperate regions. However, although willows have a long history of cultivation for traditional uses, their industrial use is relatively recent and, compared with major arable crops, they are largely undomesticated. Breeding programmes initiated to improve willow as a biomass crop achieved a doubling of yields within a period of coppicing response (shoot number and shoot vigour), as well as resistance to pests, diseases and environmental stress, with little or no knowledge of the genetic basis of these traits. Genetics and genomics, combined with extensive phenotyping, have substantially improved our understanding of the basis of biomass traits in willow for more targeted breeding via marker-assisted selection. Here, we present the strategy we have adopted in which a genetic-based approach was used to dissect complex traits into more defined components for molecular breeding and gene discovery. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A comparison of the suitability of different willow varieties to treat on-site wastewater effluent in an Irish climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curneen, S J; Gill, L W

    2014-01-15

    Short rotation coppiced willow trees can be used to treat on-site wastewater effluent with the advantage that, if planted in a sealed basin and sized correctly, they produce no effluent discharge. This paper has investigated the evapotranspiration rate of four different willow varieties while also monitoring the effects of three different effluent types on each variety. The willow varieties used are all cultivars of Salix viminalis. The effluents applied were primary (septic tank) effluent, secondary treated effluent and rain water (control). The results obtained showed that the addition of effluent had a positive effect on the evapotranspiration. The willows were also found to uptake a high proportion of the nitrogen and phosphorus from the primary and secondary treated effluents added during the first year. The effect of the different effluents on the evapotranspiration rate has been used to design ten full scale on-site treatment systems which are now being monitored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic improvement of willow for bioenergy and biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Angela; Hanley, Steve J; Trybush, Sviatlana O; Macalpine, William; Pei, Ming; Shield, Ian

    2011-02-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are a very diverse group of catkin-bearing trees and shrubs that are widely distributed across temperate regions of the globe. Some species respond well to being grown in short rotation coppice (SRC) cycles, which are much shorter than conventional forestry. Coppicing reinvigorates growth and the biomass rapidly accumulated can be used as a source of renewable carbon for bioenergy and biofuels. As SRC willows re-distribute nutrients during the perennial cycle they require only minimal nitrogen fertilizer for growth. This results in fuel chains with potentially high greenhouse gas reductions. To exploit their potential for renewable energy, willows need to be kept free of pests and diseases and yields need to be improved without significantly increasing the requirements for fertilizers and water. The biomass composition needs to be optimized for different end-uses. Yields also need to be sustainable on land less productive for food crops to reduce conflicts over land use. Advances in understanding the physiology and growth of willow, and in the identification of genes underlying key traits, are now at the stage where they can start to be used in breeding programs to help achieve these goals. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Natural flood retention in mountain areas by forests and forest like short rotation coppices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt-Imjela, Christian; Schulte, Achim; Hartwich, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Natural water retention is an important element of flood risk management in flood generating headwater areas in the low mountain ranges of Central Europe. In this context forests are of particular interest because of the high infiltration capacities of the soils and to increase water retention reforestation of agricultural land would be worthwhile. However competing claims for land use in intensely cultivated regions in Central Europe impede reforestation plans so the potential for a significant increase of natural water retention in forests is strongly limited. Nevertheless the development of innovative forms of land use and crop types opens new perspectives for a combination of agricultural land use with the water retention potential of forests. Recently the increasing demand for renewable energy resources leads to the cultivation of fast growing poplar and willow hybrids on agricultural land in short rotation coppices (SRC). Harvested in cycles of three to six years the wood from the plantations can be used as wood chips for heat and electricity production in specialized power plants. With short rotation plantations a crop type is established on arable land which is similar to forests so that an improvement of water retention can be expected. To what extend SRC may contribute to flood attenuation in headwater areas is investigated for the Chemnitzbach watershed (48 km2) in the Eastern Ore Mountains (Free State of Saxony, Germany), a low mountain range which is an important source of flood runoff in the Elbe basin. The study is based on a rainfall-runoff model of flood events using the conceptual modelling system NASIM. First results reveal a significant reduction of the flood peaks after the implementation of short rotation coppices. However the effect strongly depends on two factors. The first factor is the availability of areas for the plantations. For a substantial impact on the watershed scale large areas are required and with decreasing percentages of SRC

  1. The Swedish energy forestry research programme at the Department of Short Rotation Forestry, SUAS, Uppsala. Summary report prepared for the evaluation of the short-rotation forestry research 1993-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledin, S.; Christersson, L. [eds.

    1996-12-31

    The overall aim of the Department of Short Rotation Forestry is to carry out research for development of basic, theoretical and practical knowledge in the related disciplines of biology, ecology and cultivation techniques in order to reach a high and sustainable production of woody biomass for energy purposes using environmentally acceptable methods. This report gives summaries of nine research programs within the Department, and the reports were prepared for the evaluation of the research during the period 1993-1996. The projects are: 1. Competition in short rotation forests (Theo Verwijst); 2. Carbon allocation as a function of nutrient and water availability (Lars Rytter, Tom Ericsson); 3. States and fluxes of water and carbon dioxide in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (Anders Lindroth); 4. Root dynamics of fast growing deciduous trees (Rose-Marie Rytter); 5. Accumulation and mobilization of root reserves in coppice growth (Lisa Sennerby-Forsse, Lars Bollmark, Yuehua von Fircks); 6. Effects of nutrient supply on frost resistance in fast growing Salix clones (Heinrich von Fircks); 7. Optimizing water and nutrients in poplar and willow plantations for maximum growth (Sune Elowson); 8. Soil biology in relation to energy forestry (Ulf Granhall); and 9. Plant protection in short rotation forestry against fungi and bacteria (Mauritz Ramstedt)

  2. Melampsora rust species on biomass willows in central and north-eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubner, Ben; Wunder, Sebastian; Zaspel, Irmtraut; Zander, Matthias; Gloger, Jan; Fehrenz, Steffen; Ulrichs, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Melampsora willow rusts are the most important fungal pathogens in short rotation coppices of biomass willows. In the past, breeding programmes for rust resistant biomass willows concentrated on the distinction of races within the forma specialis Melampsora larici-epitea f. sp. larici-epitea typica that colonized Salix viminalis and related clones. In a new breeding program that is based on a wider range of willow species it is necessary to identify further Melampsora species and formae specialis that are pathogens of willow species other than S. viminalis. Therefore, three stock collections with Salix daphnoides, Salix purpurea, and other shrub willow species (including S. viminalis) species were sampled in north-eastern Germany. A fourth stock collection in central Germany contributed rusts of tree willows (Salix fragilis and Salix alba) and the large shrub Salix caprea. Out of 156 rust samples, 149 were successfully sequenced for ITS rDNA. A phylogenetic analysis combining Neighbour-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood and Bayesian analysis revealed six species: Melampsora ribesii-purpureae, Melampsora allii-salicis-albae, Melampsora sp. aff. allii-fragilis, Melampsora larici-pentandrae, Melampsora larici-caprearum, and Melampsora larici-epitea. The first four species were found exclusively on the expected hosts. Melampsora larici-caprearum had a wider host range comprising S. caprea and S. viminalis hybrids. Melampsora larici-epitea can be further differentiated into two formae speciales. The forma specialis larici-epitea typica (59 samples) colonized Salix viminalis clones, Salix purpurea, Salix×dasyclados, and Salix×aquatica. In contrast to this relatively broad host range, f. sp. larici-daphnoides (65 samples) was found exclusively on Salix daphnoides. With the distinction and identification of the rust species/formae speciales it is now possible to test for race-specific resistances in a more targeted manner within the determined pairings of rust and willow

  3. A further evaluation of herbicides for post-emergence use in short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes a study of the safety and efficacy of a range of herbicides and mixtures of herbicides (with both contact and residual activity) for the post-emergence control of weeds in newly planted willow short rotation coppice (SRC). Severe competition from weeds that have not been controlled adequately by pre-emergence herbicide application is one of the commonest causes of SRC crop failure. In the study, the effects of 11 herbicide treatments currently recommendation for weed control with cereals, legumes or potatoes were compared with an untreated control. There was minimal crop death from any treatment, though most of the treatments caused varying degrees of phytotoxicity. Two commercial products, Reflex T and Impuls, gave the best overall crop safety and weed control results. The report provides growers of SRC and their advisors with some information on how to achieve improved weed control in SRC fields, and recommends that British Biogen (the trade industry body) should consider the compilation of a technical register of herbicide applications based on information supplied by growers and advisers, including field treatment details.

  4. Assessing the potential of short rotation coppice (SRC) for cleanup of radionuclide-contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, M V; Humphreys, P N

    2005-01-01

    A small-scale greenhouse investigation was undertaken using Goat willow (Salix caprea) and aspen (Populus tremula) to evaluate the potential of short rotation coppice for remediation of 137Cs- and 90Sr-contaminated sites. Results showed that both species were able to accumulate these radionuclides from a representative disposal soil (aged) and a spiked soil S. caprea accumulating greater levels of 137Cs than P. tremula, with no difference between species for 90Sr accumulation. For each radionuclide, the distribution in both species was similar, with 137Cs accumulation greatest in the roots, whereas 90Sr accumulation was greatest in the leaves. It was also evident that the soil-to-plant transfer factor (Tf) values for 90Sr were greater than for 137Cs, agreeing with differences in the reported bioavailailablity of these radionuclides in soil Based on the Tf values for S. caprea (conservative), estimated remediation times were 92 and 56 yr, for 137Cs and 90Sr, respectively. It is suggested that the selection of Salix species grown in a system of SRC provides a significant opportunity for removal of both 137Cs and 90Sr, primarily due to its higher biomass production. However, for 137Cs phytoremediation investigations into the appropriate use of soil amendments for increasing bioavailability are required.

  5. Life cycle and genetic diversity of willow rusts (Melampsora spp. in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Ciszewska-Marciniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a review of classical and recent studies on willow rusts in Europe, with special reference to short rotation coppice willows used for biomass production, such as common osier willow (Salix viminalis L.. The review presents the taxonomic classification of rust fungi from the genus Melampsora spp. We present a list of telial hosts (genus Salix as well as aecial hosts for different rust species. The life cycle of this fungal pathogen is described in detail from the epidemiological and genetic point of view. The DNA polymorphism of M. lariciepitea, the rust species most responsible for severe yield losses of plant biomass, is characterised based on RAPD, AFLP and RFLP-PCR methods.

  6. Woody biomass from short rotation energy crops. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S., Jr. Zalesny Jr.; M.W. Cunningham; R.B. Hall; J. Mirck; D.L. Rockwood; J.A. Stanturf; T.A. Volk

    2011-01-01

    Short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) are ideal for woody biomass production and management systems because they are renewable energy feedstocks for biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts that can be strategically placed in the landscape to conserve soil and water, recycle nutrients, and sequester carbon. This chapter is a synthesis of the regional implications of producing...

  7. Cut-to-length harvesting of short-rotation Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Hartsough; David J. Cooper

    1999-01-01

    Traditional whole-tree harvesting systems work well in short-rotation hardwood plantations, but other methods are needed where it is desirable to leave the residues on the site. We tested a system consisting of a cut-to-length harvester, forwarder, mobile chipper, and chip screen to clearcut a 7-year-old plantation of Eucalyptus viminalis. Three...

  8. Simulation of hydrology of short rotation hardwood plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Parsons; Carl C. Trettin

    2001-01-01

    A 76 ha hardwood plantation at Trice Research Forest near Sumter, SC is being usedto study forest hydrology on an operational scale. The overall objective of this project is to develop tools to enable forest managers to assess and manage sustainable short rotation woody crop production systems. This paper reports on the use of the water management model, WATRCOM, as a...

  9. Water use by short rotation Eucalyptus woodlots in southern Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugunga, C.P.; Kool, D.; Wijk, van M.T.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus is abundant in Rwanda, mainly planted in short rotation woodlots, scattered in small clusters over the hilly landscape. A study was done in Butare and Busoro catchments, southern Rwanda from May to November 2007 to estimated water use of eucalypts in representative catchments in Rwanda,

  10. Soil organic carbon stock change by short rotation coppice cultivation on croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Katja; Don, Axel; Flessa, Heinz

    2013-04-01

    Bioenergy is a means to climate mitigation if the overall greenhouse gas balance of the respective crop is better than that of the replaced fossil fuel. The change in soil organic carbon (SOC) by land use change to bioenergy has to be integrated into the greenhouse gas balance. One promising way to provide biomass for energy purposes is the cultivation of fast growing trees in short rotation coppices (SRC), because their energy input is low compared to their energy output. Moreover, due to high litter input and no-till management we hypothesize that SOC is accumulating in SRC on the long term. To study this long term effect 18 old poplar and willow SRC plantations and adjacent croplands with the same land use history were sampled throughout Germany using a standardized sampling protocol with a sampling depth down to 80 cm. The age of SRC ranged from 8 to 35 years and they were harvested every 3 to 15 years. Soil organic carbon content, bulk density, pH value and texture were determined. The SOC stocks were calculated and corrected for equivalent soil masses. In the top 10 cm, SOC increased under poplar and willow plantations at all sites by 4.8 +/- 3.2 Mg ha-1, which is an accumulation rate of 0.3 Mg ha-1 a-1. Regarding the whole profile to 80 cm depth, the SOC change was not significant with 0.8 +/- 13.5 Mg ha-1. At 8 sites SOC stocks increased compared to the respective cropland, at 10 sites SOC stocks decreased (-18 Mg C ha-1 to +30 Mg C ha-1). The litter accumulation was low compared to afforestations, ranging from 0.4 Mg C ha-1 to 3.2 Mg C ha-1 which is a litter C accumulation rate of 0.2 Mg ha-1 a-1. Including the respective litter carbon, the average SOC accumulation rate was 0.1 ± 0.8 Mg C ha-1 a-1. Taking into account the large scatter of SOC stock changes among different sites, the hypothesis of long-term SOC accumulation by SRC cannot generally be confirmed. Nevertheless, SRC may substantially increase SOC if installed on carbon depleted croplands and

  11. Economics of willow pyrolysis after phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewys, Theo; Kuppens, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The Campine is a vast cross-border area in the northeast of Belgium and southeast of the Netherlands that has been contaminated with heavy metals. As traditional excavation techniques are too expensive, phytoremediation is preferred. Economically viable conversion techniques for the biomass are researched in order to lower reclamation costs and to guarantee the income of the local farmers, mainly cultivating roughage for dairy cattle rearing. Energy generation by means of pyrolysis of willow from short-rotation coppice seems to be very interesting. This article aims to search for the maximum possible biomass price so that the net present value of the profits stemming from energy conversion based on pyrolysis is at least positive.

  12. Harvesting short rotation woody crops with a shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington Cardoso; Dana Mitchell; Tom Gallagher; Daniel. and de Souza

    2014-01-01

    A time and motion study was performed on a skid steer equipped with a 14-inch tree shear attachment. The machine was used to install initial coppice harvesting treatments on three stands across the south. The study included one willow and two cottonwood sites. The stands averaged from 2 to 4 years old. Approximately 200 trees were shear harvested from each of the...

  13. Functional screening of willow alleles in Arabidopsis combined with QTL mapping in willow (Salix) identifies SxMAX4 as a coppicing response gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jemma; Ward, Sally P; Hanley, Steven J; Leyser, Ottoline; Karp, Angela

    2014-05-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are important biomass crops due to their ability to grow rapidly with low fertilizer inputs and ease of cultivation in short-rotation coppice cycles. They are relatively undomesticated and highly diverse, but functional testing to identify useful allelic variation is time-consuming in trees and transformation is not yet possible in willow. Arabidopsis is heralded as a model plant from which knowledge can be transferred to advance the improvement of less tractable species. Here, knowledge and methodologies from Arabidopsis were successfully used to identify a gene influencing stem number in coppiced willows, a complex trait of key biological and industrial relevance. The strigolactone-related More AXillary growth (MAX) genes were considered candidates due to their role in shoot branching. We previously demonstrated that willow and Arabidopsis show similar response to strigolactone and that transformation rescue of Arabidopsis max mutants with willow genes could be used to detect allelic differences. Here, this approach was used to screen 45 SxMAX1, SxMAX2, SxMAX3 and SxMAX4 alleles cloned from 15 parents of 11 mapping populations varying in shoot-branching traits. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies were locus dependent, ranging from 29.2 to 74.3 polymorphic sites per kb. SxMAX alleles were 98%-99% conserved at the amino acid level, but different protein products varying in their ability to rescue Arabidopsis max mutants were identified. One poor rescuing allele, SxMAX4D, segregated in a willow mapping population where its presence was associated with increased shoot resprouting after coppicing and colocated with a QTL for this trait. © 2014 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Short rotation plantations policy history in Europe: lessons from the past and recommendations for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindegaard, Kevin N; Adams, Paul W R; Holley, Martin; Lamley, Annette; Henriksson, Annika; Larsson, Stig; von Engelbrechten, Hans-Georg; Esteban Lopez, Gonzalo; Pisarek, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    Short rotation plantations (SRPs) are fast-growing trees (such as willow (Salix spp.), poplar (Populus spp.) and Eucalyptus) grown closely together and harvested in periods of 2-20 years. There are around 50,000 hectares of SRPs in Europe, a relatively small area considering that there have been supportive policy measures in many countries for 30 years. This paper looks at the effect that the policy measures used in different EU countries have had, and how other external factors have impacted on the development of the industry. Rokwood was a 3-year European funded project which attempted to understand the obstacles and barriers facing the woody energy crops sector using well established methods of SWOT and PESTLE analysis. Stakeholder groups were formed in six different European regions to analyze the market drivers and barriers for SRP and propose ways that the industry could make progress through targeted research and development and an improved policy framework. Based upon the outcomes of the SWOT and PESTLE analysis, each region produced a series of recommendations for policymakers, public authorities, and government agencies to support the development, production, and use of SRP-derived wood fuel in each of the partner countries. This study provides details of the SRP policy analysis and reveals that each region shared a number of similarities with broad themes emerging. There is a need to educate farmers and policymakers about the multifunctional benefits of SRPs. Greater financial support from regional and/or national government is required in order to grow the SRP market. Introducing targeted subsidies as an incentive for growers could address lack of local supply chains. Long-term policy initiatives should be developed while increasing clarity within Government departments. Research funding should enable closer working between universities and industry with positive research findings developed into supportive policy measures.

  15. Energy plants increasingly important. Scientific results and practical experiences on the production of biogas plants and short rotation coppices. Symposium; Energiepflanzen im Aufwind. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse und praktische Erfahrungen zur Produktion von Biogaspflanzen und Feldholz. Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiermann, M.; Scholz, V.; Foltan, H. (comps.)

    2007-05-15

    The conference proceedings contain 15 contributions on energy plants: energy plant production in Germany - developments and research activities; potentials and constraints of cultivating energy crops; environmental aspects of production and utilization of energy plants; costs of energy crop supply; crops for the biogas production in the territory of Brandenburg; mixed cropping systems on sandy soils - alternative cropping strategies; impact of ensiling process on biogas production - recent research results; solid state anaerobic digestion of renewable biomass sources - state of research and development; energy crops as feedstock in a biogas plant; proffer and demand of wood fuel in the State of Brandenburg; regulatory framework of growing short rotation coppice; mechanization of SRC production; 20 years of short rotation coppice; willow production and marketing in Denmark; short rotation coppice production in Italy.

  16. First Record Of Clytra Laeviuscula Ratzeburg As Potential Insect Pest Of Energy Willow (Salix Viminalis L. In Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanovska Tatyana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of short rotation coppice energy willow (SRC EW, Salix viminalis L., has a great potential in Ukraine as a source of biomass for biofuel production. Commercial production of this species was recently initiated in the country. The growing of SRC EW in Western and Northern Europe for a long time showed that leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae are key pests causing significant biomass reduction. However, data about the pest complex for energy willow growing in Ukraine is not available. Our three-year experiment in Poltava region, Ukraine showed that foliar damage caused by Clytra laeviuscula Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae occurred at energy willow plantations in the second year of production, which could have an effect on commercial production. Accordingly, information about seasonal activity, population dynamics, host range and the role of natural enemies in pest regulation are requested for developing pest control program.

  17. Using Arabidopsis to study shoot branching in biomass willow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sally P; Salmon, Jemma; Hanley, Steven J; Karp, Angela; Leyser, Ottoline

    2013-06-01

    The success of the short-rotation coppice system in biomass willow (Salix spp.) relies on the activity of the shoot-producing meristems found on the coppice stool. However, the regulation of the activity of these meristems is poorly understood. In contrast, our knowledge of the mechanisms behind axillary meristem regulation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has grown rapidly in the past few years through the exploitation of integrated physiological, genetic, and molecular assays. Here, we demonstrate that these assays can be directly transferred to study the control of bud activation in biomass willow and to assess similarities with the known hormone regulatory system in Arabidopsis. Bud hormone response was found to be qualitatively remarkably similar in Salix spp. and Arabidopsis. These similarities led us to test whether Arabidopsis hormone mutants could be used to assess allelic variation in the cognate Salix spp. hormone genes. Allelic differences in Salix spp. strigolactone genes were observed using this approach. These results demonstrate that both knowledge and assays from Arabidopsis axillary meristem biology can be successfully applied to Salix spp. and can increase our understanding of a fundamental aspect of short-rotation coppice biomass production, allowing more targeted breeding.

  18. Short-range correlations in modified planar rotator model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žukovič, M.; Hristopulos, D. T.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce a model inspired from statistical physics that is shown to display flexible short-range spatial correlations which are potentially useful in geostatistical modeling. In particular, we consider a suitably modified planar rotator or XY model, traditionally used for modeling continuous spin systems in magnetism, and we demonstrate that it can capture spatial correlations typically present in geostatistical data. The empirical study of the spin configurations produced by Monte Carlo simulations at various temperatures and stages in the nonequilibrium regime shows that their spatial variability can be modeled by the flexible class of Matern covariance functions. The correlation range and the smoothness of these functions vary significantly in the parameter space that consists of the temperature and the simulation time. We briefly discuss the potential of the model for efficient and automatic prediction of spatial data with short-range correlations, such as commonly encountered in geophysical and environmental applications.

  19. Response of weeping willows to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, X.; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, P.

    2006-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is the most commonly used anionic surfactant in laundry detergents and cleaning agents. LAS compounds are found in surface waters and soils. The short-term acute toxicity of LAS to weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) was investigated. Willow cuttings were grown...

  20. Fertilization of Willow Coppice Over Three Consecutive 2-Year Rotations—Effects on Biomass Production, Soil Nutrients and Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Petros; Sevel, Lisbeth; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) willow is a promising bioenergy feedstock. Fertilization is an integrated part of the production system, but knowledge about the effects in consecutive rotations is scarce. The objective of this study was to identify an appropriate fertilization regime for achieving...... high yields, reducing risks of nutrient leaching and maintaining the soil nutrient stocks in SRC willow on a former arable land. Ten different fertilization treatments were applied, with different application frequencies, fertilizer types and doses over three consecutive 2-year rotations. The biomass...... that nutrients were adequately available to maintain production for at least 6 years without fertilization. When adding 60 kg N ha−1 year−1, biomass production tended to be higher than the control, by 33% (p = 0.055), and the treatment where 360 kg N ha−1 rotation−1 was added, by 31% (p = 0.08). Treatments...

  1. Treatment of landfill leachate by irrigation of willow coppice--plant response and treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronsson, Pär; Dahlin, Torleif; Dimitriou, Ioannis

    2010-03-01

    Landfill leachates usually need to be treated before discharged, and using soil-plant systems for this has gained substantial interest in Sweden and in the UK. A three-year field study was conducted in central Sweden to quantify plant response, treatment efficiency and impact on groundwater quality of landfill leachate irrigation of short-rotation willow coppice (Salix). Two willow varieties were tested and four irrigation regimes in sixteen 400-m2 plots. The willow plants did not react negatively, despite very high annual loads of nitrogen (willow varieties tested, relative leaf length accurately predicted growth rate. Irrigation resulted in elevated groundwater concentrations of all elements applied. Treatment efficiency varied considerably for different elements, but was adequate when moderate loads were applied. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Landfill leachate treatment with willows and poplars--efficiency and plant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, I; Aronsson, P

    2010-11-01

    Irrigation of willow and poplar short-rotation coppice with landfill leachate is an increasingly interesting treatment option. Minimal leaching to groundwater and disturbance to plant growth must be ensured, but in such systems, where various site-specific factors interact, a case-specific approach is needed to determine potential hazards. This paper compares the effect of leachate irrigation on willow grown in clay lysimeters and poplar grown in sand lysimeters. Leachate irrigation increased willow biomass production, but not that of poplar. Near-zero nitrate-N concentrations were found in drainage water for both species after 2 years of irrigation. Ability to retain total N and P, and TOC was relatively high for willow, taking into account the large amounts supplied, and better than for poplar. To reduce environmental risks the irrigation load should be reduced, but if leachate concentrations are reduced, the irrigation load can be as high as 6mm/day. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High yielding biomass genotypes of willow (Salix spp.) show differences in below ground biomass allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniff, Jennifer; Purdy, Sarah J; Barraclough, Tim J P; Castle, March; Maddison, Anne L; Jones, Laurence E; Shield, Ian F; Gregory, Andrew S; Karp, Angela

    2015-09-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) are viewed as a sustainable source of biomass with a positive greenhouse gas (GHG) balance due to their potential to fix and accumulate carbon (C) below ground. However, exploiting this potential has been limited by the paucity of data available on below ground biomass allocation and the extent to which it varies between genotypes. Furthermore, it is likely that allocation can be altered considerably by environment. To investigate the role of genotype and environment on allocation, four willow genotypes were grown at two replicated field sites in southeast England and west Wales, UK. Above and below ground biomass was intensively measured over two two-year rotations. Significant genotypic differences in biomass allocation were identified, with below ground allocation differing by up to 10% between genotypes. Importantly, the genotype with the highest below ground biomass also had the highest above ground yield. Furthermore, leaf area was found to be a good predictor of below ground biomass. Growth environment significantly impacted allocation; the willow genotypes grown in west Wales had up to 94% more biomass below ground by the end of the second rotation. A single investigation into fine roots showed the same pattern with double the volume of fine roots present. This greater below ground allocation may be attributed primarily to higher wind speeds, plus differences in humidity and soil characteristics. These results demonstrate that the capacity exists to breed plants with both high yields and high potential for C accumulation.

  4. ARBRE monitoring - ecology of short rotation coppice. Four year study involving wildlife monitoring of commercial SCR plantations planted on arable land and arable control plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M.D.; Bishop, J.D.; McKay, H.V.; Sage, R.B.

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) funded project monitoring wildlife within and around a number of commercially managed Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) plantations aimed at using the information gathered to assess the ecological impact of SRC plantations on the wildlife in the area. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of the monitoring programme examining the distribution of flora and fauna within the plantations, and the monitoring of birds, plants, insects and butterflies. The greater diversity of wildlife and plants in the SRC plots, the higher densities of birds, and the increasing number of butterfly species are discussed along with the increased mean number of invertebrate orders with subsequent growth of willow coppices, and the habitats at the edges of the plots and at headlands designed for access to machinery within the plots.

  5. Soils organic C sequestration under poplar and willow agroforestry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunina, Anna; Tariq, Azeem; Lamersdorf, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRC) as monocultures or as agroforestry (AF) applications (e.g. alley cropping) are two techniques to implement forest into agricultural practices. Despite afforestation promotes soil carbon (C) accumulation, age and type of the tree stand can affect the C accumulation in different degrees. Here, we studied the impact of afforestation on C accumulation for: i) pure SCR of willow (Salix viminalis x Salix schwerinii) and poplar (Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii) and ii) AF cropping system with willow. Forest systems have been established within the BEST agroforestry project in Germany. Adjacent agricultural field have been used as a control. Soil samples were collected in 2014, three years after plantation establishment, from three soil depths: 0-3, 3-20, and 20-30 cm. Total organic C, labile C (incubation of 20 g soil during 100 days with measuring of CO2) and aggregate structure were analysed. Additionally, density fractionation of the samples from 0-3 cm was applied to separate particulate organic matter (POM) and mineral fractions. Aggregates and density fractions were analyzed for C content. High input of plant litter as well as root exudates have led to increases of organic C in AF and SRC plots compare to cropland, mainly in the top 0-3 cm. The highest C content was found for willow SRC (18.2 g kg-1 soil), followed by willow-AF (15.6 g kg-1 soil), and poplar SRC (13.7 g kg-1 soil). Carbon content of cropland was 12.5 g kg-1 soil. Absence of ploughing caused increase portion of macroaggregates (>2000 μm) under SRC and AF in all soil layers as well as the highest percentage of C in that aggregate size class (70-80%). In contrast, C in cropland soil was mainly accumulated in small macroaggregates (250-2000 μm). Intensive mineralisation of fresh litter and old POM, taking place during first years of trees development, resulted to similar portions of free POM for willow AF, willow SRC and cropland (8%), and even lower ones for poplar

  6. An economic assessment of the use of short-rotation coppice woody biomass to heat greenhouses in southern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenney, Daniel W.; Yemshanov, Denys; Fraleigh, Saul; Allen, Darren; Preto, Fernando [Natural Resources (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    This study explores the economic feasibility of fossil fuel substitution with biomass from short-rotation willow plantations as an option for greenhouse heating in southern Ontario, Canada. We assess the net displacement value of fossil fuel biomass combustion systems with an integrated purpose-grown biomass production enterprise. Key project parameters include greenhouse size, heating requirements, boiler capital costs and biomass establishment and management costs. Several metrics have been used to examine feasibility including net present value, internal rate of return, payback period, and the minimum or break-even prices for natural gas and heating oil for which the biomass substitution operations become financially attractive. Depending on certain key assumptions, internal rates of return ranged from 11-14% for displacing heating oil to 0-4% for displacing natural gas with woody biomass. The biomass heating projects have payback periods of 10 to >22 years for substituting heating oil and 18 to >22 years for replacing a natural gas. Sensitivity analyses indicate that fossil fuel price and efficiency of the boiler heating system are critical elements in the analyses and research on methods to improve growth and yield and reduce silviculture costs could have a large beneficial impact on the feasibility of this type of bioenergy enterprise. (author)

  7. Willow ptarmigan study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus; see Appendix I for scientific names of birds observed during this study) are a species of management interest because they are...

  8. Modelling short-rotation coppice and tree planting for urban carbon management - a citywide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Nicola; Edmondson, Jill L; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R; O'Sullivan, Odhran S

    2015-10-01

    The capacity of urban areas to deliver provisioning ecosystem services is commonly overlooked and underutilized. Urban populations have globally increased fivefold since 1950, and they disproportionately consume ecosystem services and contribute to carbon emissions, highlighting the need to increase urban sustainability and reduce environmental impacts of urban dwellers. Here, we investigated the potential for increasing carbon sequestration, and biomass fuel production, by planting trees and short-rotation coppice (SRC), respectively, in a mid-sized UK city as a contribution to meeting national commitments to reduce CO 2 emissions.Iterative GIS models were developed using high-resolution spatial data. The models were applied to patches of public and privately owned urban greenspace suitable for planting trees and SRC, across the 73 km 2 area of the city of Leicester. We modelled tree planting with a species mix based on the existing tree populations, and SRC with willow and poplar to calculate biomass production in new trees, and carbon sequestration into harvested biomass over 25 years.An area of 11 km 2 comprising 15% of the city met criteria for tree planting and had the potential over 25 years to sequester 4200 tonnes of carbon above-ground. Of this area, 5·8 km 2 also met criteria for SRC planting and over the same period this could yield 71 800 tonnes of carbon in harvested biomass.The harvested biomass could supply energy to over 1566 domestic homes or 30 municipal buildings, resulting in avoided carbon emissions of 29 236 tonnes of carbon over 25 years when compared to heating by natural gas. Together with the net carbon sequestration into trees, a total reduction of 33 419 tonnes of carbon in the atmosphere could be achieved in 25 years by combined SRC and tree planting across the city. Synthesis and applications . We demonstrate that urban greenspaces in a typical UK city are underutilized for provisioning ecosystem services by trees and

  9. Effect of biomass pretreatment on the product distribution and composition resulting from the hydrothermal liquefaction of short rotation coppice willow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigoras, Ionela; Stroe, Rodica-Elisabeta; Sintamarean, Iulia-Maria

    2017-01-01

    A major challenge for the implementation of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) as a continuous process is the formulation of lignocellulosic feedstock, which is prone to phase separation into water and biomass parts when pressurized. One approach to remedy such phase separation is to reduce the dry...

  10. Environmental performance of gasified willow from different lands including land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez de Bikuna Salinas, Koldo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Pilegaard, Kim

    2017-01-01

    the bioenergy potential without undesirable iLUC effects, especially relevant regarding biodiversity impacts, requires that part of the marginally used extensive grasslands are released from their current use or energy cropping on abandoned farmland incentivized....... was developed for the estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from indirect land-use changes (iLUC) induced by willow cropping on arable land. For this, area expansion results from a general equilibrium economic model were combined with global LUC trends to differentiate between land transformation (as......A life-cycle assessment (LCA) of a low-input, short rotation coppice (SRC) willow grown on different Danish lands was performed. Woodchips are gasified, producer gas is used for co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and the ash-char output is applied as soil amendment in the field. A hybrid model...

  11. Combustion quality of poplar and willow clones grown as SRC at four sites in Brandenburg, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2017-01-01

    , the concentrations were no higher in willow than in the poplar clones. Shoot diameter significantly affected fuel quality with thin shoots generally having higher ash mass fraction and element concentrations than thicker shoots. In conclusion, fuel quality of SRC biomass may be improved by selecting appropriate......The fuel quality was assessed for nine poplar clones (AF2, Androscoggin, Max1, Max3, Max4, Monviso, Muhle-Larsen, NE42, Weser6) and one willow clone (Inger) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) on four sites in the Brandenburg area in Germany. Fuel quality was analysed in 3-year old shoots...... in terms of dry matter (DM) mass fraction, total ash mass fraction and concentration of 14 ash-related elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Si, Zn). Clone significantly affected DM and ash mass fraction and concentration of 11 of the 14 elements, site affected concentration of 7 elements...

  12. A phytotoxicity test using transpiration of willows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Zambrano, Kim Cecilia; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    A short-term acute toxicity assay for willow trees growing in contaminated solution or in polluted soil was developed and tested. The test apparatus consists of an Erlenmeyer flask with a prerooted tree cutting growing in it. Growth and reduction of transpiration are used to determine toxicity. T.......8 and 9.6 mg/L were found. This is similar to the results from algal growth rate tests. The willow tree toxicity test may be useful for determining the site-specific toxicity of polluted soils and for terrestrial risk assessment of new chemicals and pesticides....

  13. Reaction wood – a key cause of variation in cell wall recalcitrance in willow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brereton Nicholas JB

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic cell wall biomass to deconstruction varies greatly in angiosperms, yet the source of this variation remains unclear. Here, in eight genotypes of short rotation coppice willow (Salix sp. variability of the reaction wood (RW response and the impact of this variation on cell wall recalcitrance to enzymatic saccharification was considered. Results A pot trial was designed to test if the ‘RW response’ varies between willow genotypes and contributes to the differences observed in cell wall recalcitrance to enzymatic saccharification in field-grown trees. Biomass composition was measured via wet chemistry and used with glucose release yields from enzymatic saccharification to determine cell wall recalcitrance. The levels of glucose release found for pot-grown control trees showed no significant correlation with glucose release from mature field-grown trees. However, when a RW phenotype was induced in pot-grown trees, glucose release was strongly correlated with that for mature field-grown trees. Field studies revealed a 5-fold increase in glucose release from a genotype grown at a site exposed to high wind speeds (a potentially high RW inducing environment when compared with the same genotype grown at a more sheltered site. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for a new concept concerning variation in the recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis of the stem biomass of different, field-grown willow genotypes (and potentially other angiosperms. Specifically, that genotypic differences in the ability to produce a response to RW inducing conditions (a ‘RW response’ indicate that this RW response is a primary determinant of the variation observed in cell wall glucan accessibility. The identification of the importance of this RW response trait in willows, is likely to be valuable in selective breeding strategies in willow (and other angiosperm biofuel crops and, with further work to dissect

  14. Reaction wood – a key cause of variation in cell wall recalcitrance in willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic cell wall biomass to deconstruction varies greatly in angiosperms, yet the source of this variation remains unclear. Here, in eight genotypes of short rotation coppice willow (Salix sp.) variability of the reaction wood (RW) response and the impact of this variation on cell wall recalcitrance to enzymatic saccharification was considered. Results A pot trial was designed to test if the ‘RW response’ varies between willow genotypes and contributes to the differences observed in cell wall recalcitrance to enzymatic saccharification in field-grown trees. Biomass composition was measured via wet chemistry and used with glucose release yields from enzymatic saccharification to determine cell wall recalcitrance. The levels of glucose release found for pot-grown control trees showed no significant correlation with glucose release from mature field-grown trees. However, when a RW phenotype was induced in pot-grown trees, glucose release was strongly correlated with that for mature field-grown trees. Field studies revealed a 5-fold increase in glucose release from a genotype grown at a site exposed to high wind speeds (a potentially high RW inducing environment) when compared with the same genotype grown at a more sheltered site. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for a new concept concerning variation in the recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis of the stem biomass of different, field-grown willow genotypes (and potentially other angiosperms). Specifically, that genotypic differences in the ability to produce a response to RW inducing conditions (a ‘RW response’) indicate that this RW response is a primary determinant of the variation observed in cell wall glucan accessibility. The identification of the importance of this RW response trait in willows, is likely to be valuable in selective breeding strategies in willow (and other angiosperm) biofuel crops and, with further work to dissect the nature of RW

  15. Reaction wood - a key cause of variation in cell wall recalcitrance in willow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Nicholas Jb; Ray, Michael J; Shield, Ian; Martin, Peter; Karp, Angela; Murphy, Richard J

    2012-11-22

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic cell wall biomass to deconstruction varies greatly in angiosperms, yet the source of this variation remains unclear. Here, in eight genotypes of short rotation coppice willow (Salix sp.) variability of the reaction wood (RW) response and the impact of this variation on cell wall recalcitrance to enzymatic saccharification was considered. A pot trial was designed to test if the 'RW response' varies between willow genotypes and contributes to the differences observed in cell wall recalcitrance to enzymatic saccharification in field-grown trees. Biomass composition was measured via wet chemistry and used with glucose release yields from enzymatic saccharification to determine cell wall recalcitrance. The levels of glucose release found for pot-grown control trees showed no significant correlation with glucose release from mature field-grown trees. However, when a RW phenotype was induced in pot-grown trees, glucose release was strongly correlated with that for mature field-grown trees. Field studies revealed a 5-fold increase in glucose release from a genotype grown at a site exposed to high wind speeds (a potentially high RW inducing environment) when compared with the same genotype grown at a more sheltered site. Our findings provide evidence for a new concept concerning variation in the recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis of the stem biomass of different, field-grown willow genotypes (and potentially other angiosperms). Specifically, that genotypic differences in the ability to produce a response to RW inducing conditions (a 'RW response') indicate that this RW response is a primary determinant of the variation observed in cell wall glucan accessibility. The identification of the importance of this RW response trait in willows, is likely to be valuable in selective breeding strategies in willow (and other angiosperm) biofuel crops and, with further work to dissect the nature of RW variation, could provide novel targets for

  16. Energy product options for Eucalyptus species grown as short rotation woody crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald Rockwood; Alan W. Rudie; Sally A. Ralph; J.Y. Zhu; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2008-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are native to Australia but grown extensively worldwide as short rotation hardwoods for a variety of products and as ornamentals. We describe their general importance with specific emphasis on existing and emerging markets as energy products and the potential to maximize their productivity as short rotation woody crops. Using experience in Florida...

  17. Response of Organ Structure and Physiology to Autotetraploidization in Early Development of Energy Willow Salix viminalis

    OpenAIRE

    Dudits, D.; Torok, K.; Cseri, A.; Paul, K; Nagy, A.V.; Nagy, B.; Sass, L.; Ferenc, G.; Vaňková, R.; Dobrev, P.; Vass, I.; Ayaydin, F.

    2016-01-01

    The biomass productivity of the energy willow Salix viminalis as a short-rotation woody crop depends on organ structure and functions that are under the control of genome size. Colchicine treatment of axillary buds resulted in a set of autotetraploid S. viminalis var. Energo genotypes (polyploid Energo [PP-E]; 2n = 4x = 76) with variation in the green pixel-based shoot surface area. In cases where increased shoot biomass was observed, it was primarily derived from larger leaf size and wider s...

  18. Modelling supply and demand of bioenergy from short rotation coppice and Miscanthus in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauen, A W; Dunnett, A J; Richter, G M; Dailey, A G; Aylott, M; Casella, E; Taylor, G

    2010-11-01

    Biomass from lignocellulosic energy crops can contribute to primary energy supply in the short term in heat and electricity applications and in the longer term in transport fuel applications. This paper estimates the optimal feedstock allocation of herbaceous and woody lignocellulosic energy crops for England and Wales based on empirical productivity models. Yield maps for Miscanthus, willow and poplar, constrained by climatic, soil and land use factors, are used to estimate the potential resource. An energy crop supply-cost curve is estimated based on the resource distribution and associated production costs. The spatial resource model is then used to inform the supply of biomass to geographically distributed demand centres, with co-firing plants used as an illustration. Finally, the potential contribution of energy crops to UK primary energy and renewable energy targets is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of short-rotation woody crops in sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, J.P. [National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, Medford, MA (United States); Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    One answer to increase wood production is by increasing management intensity on existing timberland, especially in plantation forests. Another is to convert land currently in agriculture to timberland. Short-rotation woody crops can be used in both cases. But, what are the environmental consequences? Short-rotation woody crops can provide a net improvement in environmental quality at both local and global scales. Conversion of agricultural land to short-rotation woody crops can provide the most environmental quality enhancement by reducing erosion, improving soil quality, decreasing runoff, improving groundwater quality, and providing better wildlife habitat. Forest products companies can use increased production from intensively managed short-rotation woody crop systems to offset decreased yield from the portion of their timberland that is managed less intensively, e.g. streamside management zones and other ecologically sensitive or unique areas. At the global scale, use of short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy is part of the solution to reduce greenhouse gases produced by burning fossil fuels. Incorporating short-rotation woody crops into the agricultural landscape also increases storage of carbon in the soil, thus reducing atmospheric concentrations. In addition, use of wood instead of alternatives such as steel, concrete, and plastics generally consumes less energy and produces less greenhouse gases. Cooperative research can be used to achieve energy, fiber, and environmental goals. This paper will highlight several examples of ongoing cooperative research projects that seek to enhance the environmental aspects of short-rotation woody crop systems. Government, industry, and academia are conducting research to study soil quality, use of mill residuals, nutrients in runoff and groundwater, and wildlife use of short-rotation woody crop systems in order to assure the role of short-rotation crops as a sustainable way of meeting society`s needs.

  20. Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbies, Mark [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Volk, Timothy [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Abrahamson, Lawrence [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Shuren, Richard [GreenWood Resources, Inc., Portland, OR (United States); Stanton, Brian [GreenWood Resources, Inc., Portland, OR (United States); Posselius, John [Case New Holland, New Holland, PA (United States); McArdle, Matt [Mesa Reduction Engineering and Processing, Inc., Auburn, NY (United States); Karapetyan, Samvel [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Patel, Aayushi [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Shi, Shun [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Zerpa, Jose [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States)

    2014-10-03

    Biomass for biofuels, bioproducts and bioenergy can be sourced from forests, agricultural crops, various residue streams, and dedicated woody or herbaceous crops. Short rotation woody crops (SRWC), like willow and hybrid poplar, are perennial cropping systems that produce a number of environmental and economic development benefits in addition to being a renewable source of biomass that can be produced on marginal land. Both hybrid poplar and willow have several characteristics that make them an ideal feedstock for biofuels, bioproducts, and bioenergy; these include high yields that can be obtained in three to four years, ease of cultivar propagation from dormant cuttings, a broad underutilized genetic base, ease of breeding, ability to resprout after multiple harvests, and feedstock composition similar to other sources of woody biomass. Despite the range of benefits associated with SRWC systems, their deployment has been restricted by high costs, low market acceptance associated with inconsistent chip quality (see below for further explanation), and misperceptions about other feedstock characteristics (see below for further explanation). Harvesting of SRWC is the largest single cost factor (~1/3 of the final delivered cost) in the feedstock supply system. Harvesting is also the second largest input of primary fossil energy in the system after commercial N fertilizer, accounting for about one third of the input. Therefore, improving the efficiency of the harvesting system has the potential to reduce both cost and environmental impact. At the start of this project, we projected that improving the overall efficiency of the harvesting system by 25% would reduce the delivered cost of SRWC by approximately $0.50/MMBtu (or about $7.50/dry ton). This goal was exceeded over the duration of this project, as noted below.

  1. Effect of composting on the Cd, Zn and Mn content and fractionation in feedstock mixtures with wood chips from a short-rotation coppice and bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, B; Willekens, K; Zwertvaegher, A; Degrande, L; Tack, F M G; Du Laing, G

    2013-11-01

    Micronutrient content and availability in composts may be affected by the addition of wood chips or tree bark as a bulking agent in the compost feedstock. In the first part of this study, micronutrient levels were assessed in bark and wood of poplar and willow clones in a short-rotation coppice. Large differences between species were observed in bark concentrations for Cd, Zn and Mn. In the second part of the study, we aimed to determine the effect of feedstock composition and composting on Cd, Zn and Mn concentrations and availability. By means of three composting experiments we examined the effect of (a) bark of different tree species, (b) the amount of bark, and (c) the use of bark versus wood chips. In general, compost characteristics such as pH, organic matter and nutrient content varied due to differences in feedstock mixture and composting process. During the composting process, the availability of Cd, Zn and Mn decreased, although the use of willow and poplar bark or wood chips resulted in elevated total Cd, Zn or Mn concentrations in the compost. Cd concentrations in some composts even exceeded legal criteria. Cd and Zn were mainly bound in the reducible fraction extracted with 0.5M NH2OH⋅HCl. A higher acid-extractable fraction for Mn than for Cd and Zn was found. Higher Cd concentrations in the compost due to the use of bark or wood chips did not result in higher risk of Cd leaching. The results of the pH-stat experiment with gradual acidification of composts illustrated that only a strong pH decline in the compost results in higher availability of Cd, Zn and Mn. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation report. Willow; Evalueringsrapport. Pil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang Bilgaard, H. [AgroTech A/S, Skejby, Aarhus (Denmark); Eide, T.; Gertz, F. [Videncentret for Landbrug, Skejby, Aarhus (Denmark)] [and others

    2012-10-15

    This evaluation report brings together the main findings of willows activities in the BioM project in the period 2010-2012. The report contains sections relating to growing and cultivation conditions, energy production, environmental effects, landscape aspects, harvesting techniques, economics, and organization, marketing, and business effects, and a description of willow cultivation on a large scale in the project area in western Jutland, Denmark. The report concludes with an overall assessment of willow cultivation for the production of sustainable bioenergy. (LN)

  3. Potential of willow (Salix) as a resource of bioenergy in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viglasky, J.; Suchomel, J. (Technical Univ. of Zvolen, Zvolen (Slovakia)), e-mail: viglasky@vsld.tuzvo.sk; Polak, M. (Univ. of Economics in Bratislawa, Kapusary (Slovakia)), e-mail: vvich@vvich.sk, e-mail: polak@euke.sk

    2010-07-01

    Short Rotation Plantations (SRPs) represent a perspective source of biomass for energy purposes. These plantations can be established on soils suitable for their growing, but also on contaminated soils, which cannot be used for food production. The present state of fuel and energy basis in the world as well as in Slovakia urges on the need for radical intervention to the energy sector. Biomass from fast growing tree species cultivated on SRPs or 'energy forests' has the potential to substantially contribute to the achievement of ambitious EU and national goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural production zones in Slovakia suitable for willow cultivation are corn, beet, potato and upland production zones with soils containing high groundwater table. It does not have high demands for soil quality, but it is intolerant to soils being flooded by backwater. It is also intolerant to dry or peat soils. Therefore, the most suitable soils for energy forests cultivation are heavy loam and clay soils with high groundwater table, eventually soils occasionally being flooded. This paper deals with development of SRP implementation in Slovakia. The results of energy balance evaluation of biomass gained from short rotation coppice willow (Salix spp.) carried out in recent years. (orig.)

  4. Using Arabidopsis to Study Shoot Branching in Biomass Willow1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sally P.; Salmon, Jemma; Hanley, Steven J.; Karp, Angela; Leyser, Ottoline

    2013-01-01

    The success of the short-rotation coppice system in biomass willow (Salix spp.) relies on the activity of the shoot-producing meristems found on the coppice stool. However, the regulation of the activity of these meristems is poorly understood. In contrast, our knowledge of the mechanisms behind axillary meristem regulation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has grown rapidly in the past few years through the exploitation of integrated physiological, genetic, and molecular assays. Here, we demonstrate that these assays can be directly transferred to study the control of bud activation in biomass willow and to assess similarities with the known hormone regulatory system in Arabidopsis. Bud hormone response was found to be qualitatively remarkably similar in Salix spp. and Arabidopsis. These similarities led us to test whether Arabidopsis hormone mutants could be used to assess allelic variation in the cognate Salix spp. hormone genes. Allelic differences in Salix spp. strigolactone genes were observed using this approach. These results demonstrate that both knowledge and assays from Arabidopsis axillary meristem biology can be successfully applied to Salix spp. and can increase our understanding of a fundamental aspect of short-rotation coppice biomass production, allowing more targeted breeding. PMID:23610219

  5. Soil carbon and belowground carbon balance of a short-rotation coppice: assessments from three different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhongaray, Gonzalo; Verlinden, Melanie S; Broeckx, Laura S; Janssens, Ivan A; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2017-02-01

    Uncertainty in soil carbon (C) fluxes across different land-use transitions is an issue that needs to be addressed for the further deployment of perennial bioenergy crops. A large-scale short-rotation coppice (SRC) site with poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix) was established to examine the land-use transitions of arable and pasture to bioenergy. Soil C pools, output fluxes of soil CO 2, CH 4, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and volatile organic compounds, as well as input fluxes from litter fall and from roots, were measured over a 4-year period, along with environmental parameters. Three approaches were used to estimate changes in the soil C. The largest C pool in the soil was the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool and increased after four years of SRC from 10.9 to 13.9 kg C m-2. The belowground woody biomass (coarse roots) represented the second largest C pool, followed by the fine roots (Fr). The annual leaf fall represented the largest C input to the soil, followed by weeds and Fr. After the first harvest, we observed a very large C input into the soil from high Fr mortality. The weed inputs decreased as trees grew older and bigger. Soil respiration averaged 568.9 g C m-2 yr-1. Leaching of DOC increased over the three years from 7.9 to 14.5 g C m-2. The pool-based approach indicated an increase of 3360 g C m-2 in the SOC pool over the 4-year period, which was high when compared with the -27 g C m-2 estimated by the flux-based approach and the -956 g C m-2 of the combined eddy-covariance + biometric approach. High uncertainties were associated to the pool-based approach. Our results suggest using the C flux approach for the assessment of the short-/medium-term SOC balance at our site, while SOC pool changes can only be used for long-term C balance assessments.

  6. Short-rotation coppices. State of the realizability, organisation and a model for the evaluation of the production and supply of rapidly growing wood from short-rotation coppices als a biofuel for biomass-fuelled heating power stations in Bavaria; Kurzumtriebsplantagen. Stand der Umsetzbarkeit, Organisation und ein Modell zur oekonomischen Bewertung von Produktion und Bereitstellung schnell wachsenden Holzes aus Kurzumtriebsplantagen als biogener Festbrennstoff fuer Biomasse(heiz)kraftwerke in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschlau, Helmut F.

    2011-04-07

    The study examines most aspects of Short-rotation Coppice Crops (SRC), mainly from willows (Salix sp.) and poplars (Populus sp.), for energetic use in big biomass powerstations in Bavaria (southern Germany). In addition to the compilation of framework conditions concerning environmental and agrarian politics as well as legal issues, every link in the process chain of SRC will be considered - from planting to harvesting, treatment of the wood chips and Just-in-time delivery to the powerplant - followed by an evaluation of SRC in ecological terms. The basic aim of this study is to evaluate every single link with regard to organisational und economic issues, analysis of relevant markets and to develop a comprehensive calculation model for the amount of annuities of the whole process chain.

  7. Mapping the expansion and distribution of willow plantations for bioenergy in Sweden: Lessons to be learned about the spread of energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola-Yudego, Blas [University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, PO Box 111, FI 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Gonzalez-Olabarria, Jose Ramon [Centre Tecnologic Forestal de Catalunya, Pujada del Seminari, s/n. 25280 Solsona (Lleida) (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Where and when farmers will adopt new energy crops is a key issue for the proper development of a country's energy strategy on renewables based in bioenergy. This paper analyses the spread of willow cultivation for bioenergy in Sweden, during the period 1986-2005, linked to the changes in the policies of promotion of wood-energy crops and to the local economic framework. To perform the study, a geostatistic method based on kernel analysis is applied, in order to identify the spatial grouping patterns of growers and plantations, and the areas where cultivation was successful. The analysis of the resulting figures shows that the development of an infrastructure and a market for willow chips are essential pre-conditions for the development of short rotation coppice for bioenergy. The results of this study confirm that probably the most important factor in the location of willow plantations is the existence of consumers that can guarantee a long-term demand for willow chips. The tools and methods presented, and its analysis, can provide a better understanding of the interactions between the biomass producers, the energy consumers and the different local and national actors. (author)

  8. Competition favors elk over beaver in a riparian willow ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.W.; Peinetti, H.R.; Coughenour, M.C.; Johnson, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    Beaver (Castor spp.) conservation requires an understanding of their complex interactions with competing herbivores. Simulation modeling offers a controlled environment to examine long-term dynamics in ecosystems driven by uncontrollable variables. We used a new version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model to investigate beaver (C. Canadensis) and elk (Cervus elapses) competition for willow (Salix spp.). We initialized the model with field data from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, to simulate a 4-ha riparian ecosystem containing beaver, elk, and willow. We found beaver persisted indefinitely when elk density was or = 30 elk km_2. The loss of tall willow preceded rapid beaver declines, thus willow condition may predict beaver population trajectory in natural environments. Beaver were able to persist with slightly higher elk densities if beaver alternated their use of foraging sites in a rest-rotation pattern rather than maintained continuous use. Thus, we found asymmetrical competition for willow strongly favored elk over beaver in a simulated montane ecosystem. Finally, we discuss application of the SAVANNA model and mechanisms of competition relative to beaver persistence as metapopulations, ecological resistance and alternative state models, and ecosystem regulation.

  9. Weed management in short rotation poplar and herbaceous perennial crops grown for biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhler, D.D. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service National Soil Tilth Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Netzer, D.A.; Riemenschneider, D.E. [USDA-Forest Service, Forestry Sciences Lab., Rhinelander, WI (United States); Hartzler, R.G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Agrimony

    1998-12-31

    Weed management is a key element of any crop production system. Weeds are a particular problem in the production of short rotation woody and perennial herbaceous biomass crops due to the shortage of registered herbicides and integrated weed management systems. Herbicides will be an important component of weed management of biomass crops. However, producers should take a broader view of weeds and incorporate all available weed management tactics in these production systems. In both short rotation poplar and herbaceous perennial crops, weed control during the establishment period is most critical. New plantings of these species grow very slowly and do not compete well with weeds until a canopy develops. Effective weed control can double the growth of short rotation poplar crops and affect the variability of the resulting stand. In crops like switchgrass, uncontrolled weeds during establishment can result in stand failure. Cultural practices such as site preparation, using weed-free seed, fallowing, selecting the proper planting dates, companion crops and controlling weeds in previous crops must be combined with herbicides to develop integrated management systems. Weeds may also cause problems in established stands through competition with the biomass crop and by contaminating the product. Effective and economical weed management systems will be essential for the development of short rotation woody and herbaceous perennial biomass crop production systems. (Author)

  10. Future market scenarios for pulpwood supply from agricultural short-rotation woody crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander N. Moiseyev; Daniel G. de la Torre Ugarte; Peter J. Ince

    2000-01-01

    The North American Pulp And Paper (NAPAP) model and USDA POLYSYS agricultural policy analysis model were linked to project future market scenarios for pulpwood supply from agricultural short-rotation woody crops in the United States. Results suggest that pulpwood supply from fast- growing hybrid poplars and cottonwoods will become marginally economical but fairly...

  11. The investigation of morphological characteristics of willow species in different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodzkin Aleh I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative or renewable energy is a modern strategy with a good per­spective in the nearest future. There are several directions of renewable energy development that depend on climatic, economic and technological opportunities of a region. The perspective choice for areas with moderate climate is bioenergy. One of the bioenergy directions is agro forestry based on short rotation coppice plantations (SRC of trees, like willow, poplar and others. The goal of experiments was the assessment of the potential of different willow species for the obtaining of energy in two climatic zones and on two types of soils of Belarus. For this purpose several morphological characteristics were metered: height of plants, biomass, diameter and number of sprouts. The field experiments were conducted on two types of soils: post-mining peaty soils in Grodno region and on degraded peaty soils in Brest region of Belarus. The same soils are very problematic for growing of traditional agricultural crops, thus willow production is a good alternative for biomass production of energy as well as for the reclamation of these soils. In our experiments the following species of willow were tested (Salix alba, Salix viminalis, Salix dasyclados, Salix aurita that may grow on peaty soils at the natural conditions. The most popular species for modern selection of SRC of willow is Salix viminalis. Nevertheless, the most suitable morphological characteristics on post-mining peaty soils were established for plants of Salix dasyclados and on degraded peaty soils for the plants of Salix alba. The unfavorable parameters at the both type of soils were identified for the plants of Salix aurita. However, it is necessary to take into account that the used species are more popular for natural wetlands and in our experiments plants have best results of survival of cutting and rates of growth at the beginning of vegetation. In accordance with these facts Salix aurita may not be used for energy

  12. Insights into nitrogen allocation and recycling from nitrogen elemental analysis and 15N isotope labelling in 14 genotypes of willow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Nicholas J B; Pitre, Frederic E; Shield, Ian; Hanley, Steven J; Ray, Michael J; Murphy, Richard J; Karp, Angela

    2014-11-01

    Minimizing nitrogen (N) fertilization inputs during cultivation is essential for sustainable production of bioenergy and biofuels. The biomass crop willow (Salix spp.) is considered to have low N fertilizer requirements due to efficient recycling of nutrients during the perennial cycle. To investigate how successfully different willow genotypes assimilate and allocate N during growth, and remobilize and consequently recycle N before the onset of winter dormancy, N allocation and N remobilization (to and between different organs) were examined in 14 genotypes of a genetic family using elemental analysis and (15)N as a label. Cuttings were established in pots in April and sampled in June, August and at onset of senescence in October. Biomass yield of the trees correlated well with yields recorded in the field. Genotype-specific variation was observed for all traits measured and general trends spanning these sampling points were identified when trees were grouped by biomass yield. Nitrogen reserves in the cutting fuelled the entirety of the canopy establishment, yet earlier cessation of this dependency was linked to higher biomass yields. The stem was found to be the major N reserve by autumn, which constitutes a major source of N loss at harvest, typically every 2-3 years. These data contribute to understanding N remobilization in short rotation coppice willow and to the identification of traits that could potentially be selected for in breeding programmes to further improve the sustainability of biomass production. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Short-length and robust polarization rotators in periodically poled lithium niobate via shortcuts to adiabaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Wang, Hong-Wei; Ban, Yue; Tseng, Shuo-Yen

    2014-10-06

    Conventional narrowband spectrum polarization devices are short but not robust, based on quasi-phase matching (QPM) technique, in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal. In this paper, we propose short-length and robust polarization rotators by using shortcuts to adiabaticity. Beyond the QPM condition, the electric field and period of PPLN crystal are designed in terms of invariant dynamics, and further optimized with respect to input wavelength/refractive index variations. In addition, the stability of conversion efficiency on the electric field and period of PPLN crystal is also discussed. As a consequence, the optimal shortcuts are fast as well as robust, which provide broadband spectrum polarization devices with short length.

  14. An evaluation of the optimum timing for planting short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, D.J.; Jefferies, R.; Parfitt, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to determine the optimum timing for planting, evaluate problems due to late planting in the spring, and to study the planting of willows at different times during the autumn. Details are given of the site installation, previous research on the effect of planting date and storage, and assessment of the establishment and biomass productivity and the viability of cuttings in long-term storage. Charts illustrating biomass productivity are presented, and long-term storage of willow cuttings for autumn planting is discussed.

  15. Short-Sampled Blind Source Separation of Rotating Machinery Signals Based on Spectrum Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the existing blind source separation (BSS algorithms in rotating machinery fault diagnosis can hardly meet the demand of fast response, high stability, and low complexity simultaneously. Therefore, this paper proposes a spectrum correction based BSS algorithm. Through the incorporation of FFT, spectrum correction, a screen procedure (consisting of frequency merging, candidate pattern selection, and single-source-component recognition, modified k-means based source number estimation, and mixing matrix estimation, the proposed BSS algorithm can accurately achieve harmonics sensing on field rotating machinery faults in case of short-sampled observations. Both numerical simulation and practical experiment verify the proposed BSS algorithm’s superiority in the recovery quality, stability to insufficient samples, and efficiency over the existing ICA-based methods. Besides rotating machinery fault diagnosis, the proposed BSS algorithm also possesses a vast potential in other harmonics-related application fields.

  16. Gaussian Element Formulation of Short-Axis Rotation of a Rigid Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2008-08-01

    Equations of the short-axis-mode rotation of a rigid body under a general torque field are derived in terms of a new set of variables. The transformation between the new variables and the non-canonical Andoyer variables is explicitly given in closed form. The right-hand sides of the new equations are the sum of two main terms for two angle variables and six perturbative terms. All the perturbative terms are expressed as linear combinations of torque vector components. In the case of torque-free motions, the two angle variables become linear functions of time and the remaining four variables become constants of motion. As a result, the new variables consist of a set of rotational elements in a broad sense. This formulation is a counterpart, in rotational dynamics, of the Gaussian formulation of the Keplerian orbital elements for elliptic orbits.

  17. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. Short-Rotation Crops under Marginal Site Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RÉDEI, Károly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of the reliability of renewable resources and the decline in reserves offossile raw material in the coming decades will lead to increasing demands for wood material andconsequently to a greater role of short rotation forestry (SRF. Particular efforts have been made inEurope to substitute fossils with renewables, in this context the proportion of renewable energy shouldbe increased to 20% by 2020. SRF can be provide relatively high dendromass (biomass incrementrates if the short rotation tree plantations are grown under favourable site conditions and for anoptimum rotation length. However, in many countries only so-called marginal sites are available forsetting up tree plantations for energy purpose. For SRF under marginal site conditions black locust(Robinia pseudoacacia L. can be considered as one of the most promising tree species thanks to itsfavourable growing characteristics. According to a case study presented in the paper black locust canproduce a Mean Annual Increment (MAI of 2.9 to 9.7 oven-dry tons ha–1 yr–1 at ages between 3 and7 years using a stocking density of 6667 stems ha–1. On the base of the presented results and accordingto international literature the expected dendromass volume shows great variation, depending upon site,species, their cultivars, initial spacing and length of rotation cycle.

  18. Clinical, socio-demographic and radiological predictors of short-term outcome in rotator cuff disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engebretsen Kaia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is common with rotator cuff disease as the most frequently used clinical diagnosis. There is a wide range of treatment options for this condition, but limited evidence to guide patients and clinicians in the choice of treatment strategy. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible prognostic factors of short-term outcome after corticosteroid injection for rotator cuff disease. Methods We performed analyses of data from 104 patients who had participated in a randomized controlled study. Socio-demographic, clinical and radiographic baseline factors were assessed for association with outcome at six-weeks follow-up evaluated by Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI and patient perceived outcome. Factors with significant univariate association were entered into multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses. Results In the multivariate analyses; a high SPADI score indicating pain and disability at follow-up was associated with decreasing age, male gender, high baseline pain and disability, being on sick-leave, and using regular pain medication. A successful patient perceived outcome was associated with not being on sick-leave, high active abduction, local corticosteroid injection and previous cortisone injections. Structural findings of rotator cuff tendon pathology on MRI and bursal exudation or thickening on ultrasonography did not contribute to the predictive model. Conclusions Baseline characteristics were associated with outcome after corticosteroid injection in rotator cuff disease. Sick-leave was the best predictor of poor short-term outcome. Trial registration: Clinical trials NCT00640575

  19. Coyote Willow Mowing Project : Biological Summary Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary goal of the project is to enhance/promote the establishment, growth, spread, and survival of willow species (primarily coyote willow). Many...

  20. Short-rotation woody-crops program. Quarterly progress report for period ending August 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.; Ranney, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    Progress of twenty-one projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program is summarized for the period June 1 through August 31, 1981. Individual quarterly reports included from each of the projects discuss accomplishments within specific project objectives and identify recent papers and publications resulting from the research. The major program activities are species screening and genetic selection, stand establishment and cultural treatment, and harvest, collection, transportation, and storage.

  1. Precipitation partitioning in short rotation bioenergy crops: implications for downstream water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Caldwell; Chelcy F. Miniat; Doug Aubrey; Rhett Jackson; Jeff McDonnell; Ken W. Krauss; James S. Latimer

    2016-01-01

    The southern United States is a potential leader in producing biofuels from intensively managed, short rotation (8–12 years) woody crops such as southern pines, and native and non-native hardwoods. However, their accelerated development under intensive management has raised concerns that fast-growing bioenergy crops could reduce recharge to stream flows and groundwater...

  2. Biochar mineralization and priming effect on SOM decomposition in two European short rotation coppices

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Maurizio; Alberti, Giorgio; Viger, Maud; Jenkins, Joseph R.; Girardin, Cyril; Baronti, Silvia; Zaldei, Alessandro; Taylor, Gail; Rumpel, Cornelia; Miglietta, Franco; Tonon, Giustino

    2015-01-01

    As studies on biochar stability in field conditions are very scarce, the carbon sequestration potential of biochar application to agricultural soils remains uncertain. This study assessed the stability of biochar in field conditions, the effect of plant roots on biochar stability and the effect of biochar on original soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition in two (Italy and United Kingdom) short rotation coppice systems (SRCs), using continuous soil respiration monitoring and periodic isotopi...

  3. Short rotation coppice as a business field of an energy utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, T. (RWE Innogy Cogen GmbH, Dortmund (Germany))

    2010-07-01

    Companies that start planting short rotation coppice (SRC), enter a new territory. In fact, this subject is often discussed, but there is - at least in Germany - still comparatively little practical knowledge on that. Since ca. 1 year, RWE Innogy Cogen is doing pioneer work here and starts establishing SRC in Germany and Europe. Therefore, first results and experiences, as well as consequences for practice shall be presented and discussed in this article. (orig.)

  4. Short-rotation woody-crops program. Quarterly progress report for period ending May 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, J.H.; Ranney, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    Progress of twenty projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program is summarized for the period March 1 through May 31, 1981. Individual quarterly reports included from each of the projects discuss accomplishments within specific project objectives and identify recent papers and publications resulting from the research. The major project activities are species screening and genetic selection, stand establishment and cultural treatment, and harvest, collection, transportation, and storage.

  5. An identification of potential new herbicides for short rotation coppice (Task 4). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project to identify potential new herbicides and their suitability for weed control in commercial short rotation coppice (SRC) crops, and to establish the safety of the crops. The arrangements for the use of 'off-label' pesticides, which are permitted for use on other crops, on SRC are discussed along with the importance of the use of laboratory pot trials and field trials. Several herbicides are proposed for larger scale field trials.

  6. The effects of first-year shoot cut back on willow biomass production during the first and second cutting cycle; Effekter av skottnedklippning efter etableringsaaret paa produktionen under foersta och andra omdrevet i salixodlingar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verwijst, Theo; Nordh, Nils-Erik

    2010-05-15

    During the early phase of commercialisation of willow short rotation forestry in Sweden it was considered to be important to cut down the shoots after the establishment year, and this practice still is maintained today. Several reasons then were put forward for cutting down. The primary goal was to stimulate sprouting of more shoots, thereby obtaining a rapidly closing stand which could compete with weeds. Another reason was that it would enable weed control during the second year. In some of the older clones, which exhibited bow-shaped shoots, cutting down was supposed to lead to more straight growing shoots which rendered less biomass loss at harvest. In the meantime, the practice of cutting down has been abandoned in Denmark, and there are reasons to scrutinise the effects of cutting down on available biomass production figures from Swedish field trials. The main goal with this project was to try to quantify the effects of cutting down on the biomass productivity of willow during the first and later cutting cycles. Thus far, efforts in this research topic have not led to a scientifically documented quantification on the effects, and therefore a scientific basis for hands-on recommendations to willow growers is lacking. The purpose of our work consequently was to generate practical recommendations with regard to the management measure of cutting down, and the audience targeted consisted of willow growers (farmers, land-owners and entrepreneurs) who are deciding about and perform the actual management of willow stands to obtain higher yields. This information also is of large relevance for all extension workers in willow growing. Data have been collected from a field trial which was planted in Flosta, Enkoeping, in 2005. As this was the only experiment on cutting down which ran during the project period, we searched the archives which contained material from another experiment which ran from 1992 to 1996 in Ultuna, Uppsala, and from which some date were collected

  7. Wood quality of white willow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leclercq

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon an exhaustive work made by Sacré (1974 and a review of the literature sine 1960, the author gathered together the anatomical, physical and mechanical characteristics, the machining behaviour (industrial sawing, planing, surfacing, shaping, mortising and nailing and wood end-uses of white willow.

  8. Can we use short rotation coppice poplar for sugar based biorefinery feedstock? Bioconversion of 2-year-old poplar grown as short rotation coppice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Chang; Marcondes, Wilian F; Djaja, Jessica E; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Feedstock cost is a substantial barrier to the commercialization of lignocellulosic biorefineries. Poplar grown using a short rotation coppice (SRC) system has the potential to provide a low-cost feedstock and economically viable sugar yields for fuels and chemicals production. In the coppice management regime, poplars are harvested after 2 years' growth to develop the root system and establish the trees. The biomass from these 2-year-old trees is very heterogeneous, and includes components of leaf, bark, branch, and wood chip. This material is quite different than the samples that have been used in most poplar bioconversion research, which come from mature trees of short rotation forestry (SRF) plantations. If the coppice management regime is to be used, it is important that feedstock growers maximize their revenue from this initial harvest, but the heterogeneous nature of the biomass may be challenging for bioconversion. This work evaluates bioconversion of 2-year-old poplar coppice and compares its performance to whitewood chips from 12-year-old poplar. The 2-year-old whole tree coppice (WTC) is comprised of 37% leaf, 9% bark, 12% branch, and 42% wood chip. As expected, the chemical compositions of each component were markedly different. The leaf has a low sugar content but is high in phenolics, ash, and extractives. By removing the leaves, the sugar content of the biomass increased significantly, while the phenolic, ash, and extractives contents decreased. Leaf removal improved monomeric sugar yield by 147 kg/tonne of biomass following steam pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Bioconversion of the no-leaf coppice (NLC) achieved a 67% overall sugar recovery, showing no significant difference to mature whitewood from forestry plantation (WWF, 71%). The overall sugar yield of NLC was 135 kg/tonne less than that of WWF, due to the low inherent sugar content in original biomass. An economic analysis shows the minimum ethanol selling price required to cover the

  9. Short-Term Variations in the Equatorial Rotation Rate of Sunspot Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaraiah, J.; Bertello, L.

    2016-12-01

    We have detected several periodicities in the solar equatorial rotation rate of sunspot groups in the catalog Greenwich Photoheliographic Results (GPR) during the period 1931 - 1976, the Solar Optical Observing Network (SOON) during the period 1977 - 2014, and the Debrecen Photoheliographic Data (DPD) during the period 1974 - 2014. We have compared the results from the fast Fourier transform (FFT), the maximum entropy method (MEM), and the Morlet wavelet power-spectra of the equatorial rotation rates determined from SOON and DPD sunspot-group data during the period 1986 - 2007 with those of the Mount Wilson Doppler-velocity data during the same period determined by Javaraiah et al. ( Solar Phys. 257, 61, 2009). We have also compared the power-spectra computed from the DPD and the combined GPR and SOON sunspot-group data during the period 1974 - 2014 to those from the GPR sunspot-group data during the period 1931 - 1973. Our results suggest a ˜ 250-day period in the equatorial rotation rate determined from both the Mt. Wilson Doppler-velocity data and the sunspot-group data during 1986 - 2007. However, a wavelet analysis reveals that this periodicity appears mostly around 1991 in the velocity data, while it is present in most of the solar cycles covered by the sunspot-group data, mainly near the minimum epochs of the solar cycles. We also found the signature of a period of ˜ 1.4 years in the velocity data during 1990 - 1995, and in the equatorial rotation rate of sunspot groups mostly around the year 1956. The equatorial rotation rate of sunspot groups reveals a strong ˜ 1.6-year periodicity around 1933 and 1955, a weaker one around 1976, and a strong ˜ 1.8-year periodicity around 1943. Our analysis also suggests periodicities of ˜ 5 years, ˜ 7 years, and ˜ 17 years, as well as some other short-term periodicities. However, short-term periodicities are mostly present at the time of solar minima. Hence, short-term periodicities cannot be confirmed because of

  10. An appraisal of the short lateral rotators of the hip joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sarang; Dedova, Irina; Pather, Nalini

    2015-09-01

    The short lateral rotators (piriformis, obturator internus, superior and inferior gemelli, obturator internus, and quadratus femoris) are functionally important muscles, significantly contributing to hip joint stability. They act as "postural muscles", holding the femoral head in the acetabulum during hip movements, thus are frequently monitored in gait analysis and for muscle rehabilitation post-injury. Despite the need to precisely identify and repair these muscles for stability postoperatively, clinical complications have resulted from the inadequate and inconsistent understanding of their morphological and functional anatomy. Furthermore, the short lateral rotators have complex entheses (osteotendinous insertions on bone) and may be subject to overuse injury in sport. This study aims to review the reported morphology of the short lateral rotators in order to ascertain whether discrepancies exist in our understanding of these muscles, and if further investigation is required to aid in gait analysis, clinical management of hip pathologies, and prevention of overuse injuries. Following a literature search strategy, 59 primary references were retrieved from three databases, with additional 26 anatomical textbooks selected for critical evaluation. Numerous inaccuracies and inconsistencies in the anatomical descriptions of the attachments, patterns of innervation and actions exist, and often insufficiently supported by primary findings. There is also a paucity of information regarding the architectural pattern of the muscles, which would be useful in clarifying the function of these dynamic stabilizers of the hip joint. A better anatomical understanding of these muscles will better inform hip reconstruction and lead to improved surgical outcomes by reducing post-operative complications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Increasing the productivity of short-rotation Populus plantations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBell, D.S.; Harrington, C.A.; Clendenen, G.W.; Radwan, M.A.; Zasada, J.C. [Forest Service, Olympia, WA (United States). Pacific Northwest Research Station

    1997-12-31

    This final report represents the culmination of eight years of biological research devoted to increasing the productivity of short rotation plantations of Populus trichocarpa and Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Studies provide an understanding of tree growth, stand development and biomass yield at various spacings, and how patterns differ by Populus clone in monoclonal and polyclonal plantings. Also included is some information about factors related to wind damage in Populus plantings, use of leaf size as a predictor of growth potential, and approaches for estimating tree and stand biomass and biomass growth. Seven research papers are included which provide detailed methods, results, and interpretations on these topics.

  12. Weed management in short rotation coppice: current status and future requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clay, D.V. [Avon Vegetation Research, Nailsea (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    The current status of weed management in short rotation coppices (SRCs) is reviewed in this updated report from the Energy Technology Support Unit, which draws on data from recently published material and from experimental work on advisory and vegetation monitoring activities from large scale SRC plantings. The report covers the need for weed control in SRCs, current methods, the properties and costs of herbicides, problem weed control. The need for the development and operation of sustainable integrated weed management systems is also highlighted. (UK)

  13. Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L L; Ranney, J W

    1991-01-01

    Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described.

  14. Studies on planting, weed control and fertilizing when growing short rotation willow coppice; Utvaerdering av teknik foer plantering, ograesbekaempning och goedsling vid salixodling. Studier 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danfors, B.

    1998-12-01

    The report describes work studies into planting of Salix, weed control in newly planted plantations and annual stands, and fertilization in tall stands of Salix. The study is a continuation of work on Salix performed at JTI during 1989 and 1991. The report gives a description of the background to the problem, a brief review of earlier work, a description of the purpose of the study, and an account of its planning, extent and accomplishment. The results presented cover planting and weed control at four sites with an early follow-up of results, a description of the weed control and, further, a review of the results after the end of the growing season. The fertilization procedure used on six occasions is also discussed, together with spreading results using diagrams illustrating the distribution of the fertilizer. As mentioned above, similar studies were conducted at JTI during 1989 and 1991 In comparisons both concerning the level of knowledge and access to mechanical equipment, we may note that there has been considerable development within the sectors dealing with planting, weed control and fertilizing. Continued major tasks are to take the technical development further and to disseminate the new knowledge to growers prepared to invest in production of Salix as biofuel 13 refs, 18 figs, 9 figs

  15. Economic assessment of flash co-pyrolysis of short rotation coppice and biopolymer waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, T; Cornelissen, T; Carleer, R; Yperman, J; Schreurs, S; Jans, M; Thewys, T

    2010-12-01

    The disposal problem associated with phytoextraction of farmland polluted with heavy metals by means of willow requires a biomass conversion technique which meets both ecological and economical needs. Combustion and gasification of willow require special and costly flue gas treatment to avoid re-emission of the metals in the atmosphere, whereas flash pyrolysis mainly results in the production of (almost) metal free bio-oil with a relatively high water content. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass and waste of biopolymers synergistically improves the characteristics of the pyrolysis process: e.g. reduction of the water content of the bio-oil, more bio-oil and less char production and an increase of the HHV of the oil. This research paper investigates the economic consequences of the synergistic effects of flash co-pyrolysis of 1:1 w/w ratio blends of willow and different biopolymer waste streams via cost-benefit analysis and Monte Carlo simulations taking into account uncertainties. In all cases economic opportunities of flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with biopolymer waste are improved compared to flash pyrolysis of pure willow. Of all the biopolymers under investigation, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most promising, followed by Eastar, Biopearls, potato starch, polylactic acid (PLA), corn starch and Solanyl in order of decreasing profits. Taking into account uncertainties, flash co-pyrolysis is expected to be cheaper than composting biopolymer waste streams, except for corn starch. If uncertainty increases, composting also becomes more interesting than flash co-pyrolysis for waste of Solanyl. If the investment expenditure is 15% higher in practice than estimated, the preference for flash co-pyrolysis compared to composting biopolymer waste becomes less clear. Only when the system of green current certificates is dismissed, composting clearly is a much cheaper processing technique for disposing of biopolymer waste. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. White Willow in Russian Literature: Folklore "Roots" of Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudareva, Marianna A.; Goeva, Nina P.

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with a complicated archetypal tree complex in Russian literature. The object chosen here is "white willow" (vetla) as one of the species of willow in its different variations--daphne willow (verba) and goat willow (rakita), and willow itself. In the 19th century Russian literature we can find the image of white willow…

  17. Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1985-01-01

    The rotation, in forestry, is the planned number of years between formation of a crop or stand and its final harvest at a specified stage of maturity (Ford-Robertson 1971). The rotation used for many species is the age of culmination of mean usable volume growth [net mean annual increment (MAI)]. At that age, usable volume divided by age reaches its highest level. That...

  18. Effect of drought on fine roots productivity in poplar-based short rotation coppice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani Tripathi, Abhishek; Fischer, Milan; Berhongaray, Gonzalo; Orság, Matěj; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    Short rotation woody crops (SRWC) are alternative source of bioenergy, which apart from their 'carbon neutrality' have potential to store carbon (C) into soil and mitigate the increasing CO2 emission. Studies of below ground biomass of trees are divided into two types according to root diameter - analysis of fine roots (less than 2 mm) and coarse roots (more than 2 mm). Trees roots are spatially highly heterogeneous and it requires large number of samples to obtain a representative estimate of belowground biomass. For this study we used hybrid poplar clone J-105 (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii) grown under short rotation coppice system in the region of Bohemian-Moravian Highland (49o32'N, 16o15'E and altitude 530 m a.s.l.) since April 2000. The plantation with planting density of 9,216 trees ha-1 was established on the former agricultural land and the length of the rotation cycle was set to 6-8 years. While mean annual rainfall was 609 mm with mean annual temperature 7.2oC during 1981-2013 significant increase of temperature and more frequent droughts are expected. In 2011, we established drought experiment based on throughfall exclusion system, reducing up to 70 % of throughfall precipitation. Thus 2 treatments with normal and lowered soil moisture levels were introduced. In January and February 2014, we cored 18 places including drought and control using root bipartite auger. The main goal of the study is to assess the response of fine roots productivity and fine roots vertical distribution on the reduced soil water availability. Results will be presented at the conference. Acknowledgements: This study was funded by research project IGA Mendel University 2014 "Study of below ground biomass in short rotation poplar coppice (J-105) in the Czech-Moravian Highlands", project PASED (KONTAKT II LH12037 ʺDevelopment of models for the assessment of abiotic stresses in selected energy woody plantsʺ and "Building up a multidisciplinary scientific team focused on drought

  19. Persistent stimulation of photosynthesis in short rotation coppice mulberry under elevated CO2 atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhana Sekhar, Kalva; Rachapudi, Venkata Sreeharsha; Mudalkar, Shalini; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2014-08-01

    Current study was undertaken to elucidate the responses of short rotation coppice (SRC) mulberry under elevated CO2 atmosphere (550μmolmol(-1)). Throughout the experimental period, elevated CO2 grown mulberry plants showed significant increase in light saturated photosynthetic rates (A') by increasing intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci) despite reduced stomatal conductance (gs). Reduced gs was linked to decrease in transpiration (E) resulting in improved water use efficiency (WUE). There was a significant increase in carboxylation efficiency (CE) of Rubisco, apparent quantum efficiency (AQE), light and CO2 saturated photosynthetic rates (AMAX), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE), chlorophyll a fluorescence characteristics (FV/FM and PIABS), starch and other carbohydrates in high CO2 grown plants which clearly demonstrate no photosynthetic acclimation in turn resulted marked increase in above and below ground biomass. Our results strongly suggest that short rotation forestry (<1year) with mulberry plantations should be effective to mitigate raising CO2 levels as well as for the production of renewable bio-energy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transplanting soil microbiomes leads to lasting effects on willow growth, but not on the rhizosphere microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne eYergeau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants interact closely with microbes, which are partly responsible for plant growth, health and adaptation to stressful environments. Engineering the plant-associated microbiome could improve plants survival and performance in stressful environments such as contaminated soils. Here, willow cuttings were planted into highly petroleum-contaminated soils that had been gamma-irradiated and subjected to one of four treatments: inoculation with rhizosphere soil from a willow that grew well (LA or sub-optimally (SM in highly contaminated soils or with bulk soil in which the planted willow had died (DE or no inoculation (CO. Samples were taken from the starting inoculum, at the beginning of the experiment (T0 and after 100 days of growth (TF. Short hypervariable regions of archaeal/bacterial 16S rRNA genes and the fungal ITS region were amplified from soil DNA extracts and sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq. Willow growth was monitored throughout the experiment, and plant biomass was measured at TF. CO willows were significantly smaller throughout the experiment, while DE willows were the largest at TF. Microbiomes of different treatments was divergent at T0, but for most samples, had converged on highly similar communities by TF. Willow biomass was more strongly linked to overall microbial community structure at T0 than to microbial community structure at TF, and the relative abundance of many genera at T0 was significantly correlated to final willow root and shoot biomass. Although microbial communities had mostly converged at TF, lasting differences in willow growth were observed, probably linked to differences in T0 microbial communities.

  1. [From the willow to aspirin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, Olivier

    2007-07-01

    At the beginning was the willow bark, which was considered as a medicine by Hippocrates, Dioscorides and Plinus. During the XVIIIth century, the Reverend Edward Stone re-discovered the willow for the cure of agues. In 1829, the french pharmacist Pierre Joseph Leroux isolated salicin. Raffaelle Piria was the first to synthesize salicylic acid from salicin (salicoside). Hermann Kolbe prepared salicylic acid from sodium phenate and carbon dioxide. And then acetylsalicylic acid was first prepared by Charles Gerhardt in 1853, but he did not succeed in identifying its structure. Felix Hoffmann, Arthur Eichengrun and Heinrich Dresen from Bayer Laboratories were at the origin of the use of Aspirin as a medicine. In 1971, John Vane showed that aspirin-like drugs inhibited prostaglandine synthesis.

  2. Background CH4 and N2O fluxes in low-input short rotation coppice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Zenone, Terenzio; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2016-04-01

    Extensively managed short rotation coppice systems are characterized by low fluxes of CH4 and N2O. However due to the large global warming potential of these trace gases (GWP100: CH4: 34, N2O: 298), such background fluxes can still significantly contribute to offsetting the CO2 uptake of short rotation coppice systems. Recent technological advances in fast-response CH4 and N2O analysers have improved our capability to capture these background fluxes, but their quantification still remains a challenge. As an example, we present here CH4 and N2O fluxes from a short-rotation bioenergy plantation in Belgium. Poplars have been planted in a double-row system on a loamy sand in 2010 and coppiced in the beginning of 2012 and 2014 (two-year rotation system). In 2013 (June - November) and 2014 (April - August), the plantation's CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured in parallel with an eddy covariance tower (EC) and an automated chamber system (AC). The EC had a detection limit of 13.68 and 0.76 μmol m-2 h-1 for CH4 and N2O, respectively. The median detection limit of the AC was 0.38 and 0.08 μmol m-2 h-1 for CH4 and N2O, respectively. The EC picked up a few high CH4 emission events with daily averages >100 μmol m-2 h-1, but a large proportion of the measured fluxes were within the EC's detection limit. The same was true for the EC-derived N2O fluxes where the daily average flux was often close to the detection limit. Sporadically, some negative (uptake) fluxes of N2O were observed. On the basis of the EC data, no clear link was found between CH4 and N2O fluxes and environmental variables. The problem with fluxes within the EC detection limit is that a significant amount of the values can show the opposite sign, thus "mirroring" the true flux. Subsequently, environmental controls of background trace gas fluxes might be disguised in the analysis. As a next step, it will be tested if potential environmental drivers of background CH4 and N2O fluxes at the plantation can be

  3. Greenhouse gas balance of cropland conversion to bioenergy poplar short-rotation coppice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, S.; Arriga, N.; Bertolini, T.; Castaldi, S.; Chiti, T.; Consalvo, C.; Njakou Djomo, S.; Gioli, B.; Matteucci, G.; Papale, D.

    2016-01-01

    The production of bioenergy in Europe is one of the strategies conceived to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The suitability of the land use change from a cropland (REF site) to a short-rotation coppice plantation of hybrid poplar (SRC site) was investigated by comparing the GHG budgets of these two systems over 24 months in Viterbo, Italy. This period corresponded to a single rotation of the SRC site. The REF site was a crop rotation between grassland and winter wheat, i.e. the same management of the SRC site before the conversion to short-rotation coppice. Eddy covariance measurements were carried out to quantify the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (FCO2), whereas chambers were used to measure N2O and CH4 emissions from soil. The measurements began 2 years after the conversion of arable land to SRC so that an older poplar plantation was used to estimate the soil organic carbon (SOC) loss due to SRC establishment and to estimate SOC recovery over time. Emissions from tractors and from production and transport of agricultural inputs (FMAN) were modelled. A GHG emission offset, due to the substitution of natural gas with SRC biomass, was credited to the GHG budget of the SRC site. Emissions generated by the use of biomass (FEXP) were also considered. Suitability was finally assessed by comparing the GHG budgets of the two sites. CO2 uptake was 3512 ± 224 g CO2 m-2 at the SRC site in 2 years, and 1838 ± 107 g CO2 m-2 at the REF site. FEXP was equal to 1858 ± 240 g CO2 m-2 at the REF site, thus basically compensating for FCO2, while it was 1118 ± 521 g CO2 m-2 at the SRC site. The SRC site could offset 379.7 ± 175.1 g CO2eq m-2 from fossil fuel displacement. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were negligible. FMAN made up 2 and 4 % in the GHG budgets of SRC and REF sites respectively, while the SOC loss was 455 ± 524 g CO2 m-2 in 2 years. Overall, the REF site was close to neutrality from a GHG perspective (156 ± 264 g CO2eq m-2), while the SRC site was a net sink of

  4. How short rotation forest crops can be used for sustainable remediation of contaminated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiry, I.

    1996-09-18

    In large territories of the CIS, it becomes obvious from the factual consequences of the Chernobyl environmental contamination that no successful remediation actions can be achieved without considering realistic technical and economical issues. In these conditions, the Short Rotation Forestry concept for energy purposes is proposed as an alternative and integrated approach for the recovery of agricultural practices on waste farm land. This corrective option will be examined with respect to this ecological, economical, and social relevancy. Different aspects of the culture in contaminated areas and of energy production from biomass remain to be investigated, developed and validated in the light of radiation protection criteria. In particular, attention will be drawn on the opportunity of this new concept to be integrated in the development of the site remediation research activities at SCK.CEN.

  5. International evaluation of Swedish research projects in the field of short rotation forestry for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, W.M. [N.I. Horticulture and Plant Breeding Station, Armagh (Ireland); Isebrands, J. [USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, Rhinelander, WI (United States); Namkoong, G. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences; Tahvanainen, J. [Univ. of Joensuu (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to inform NUTEK of the scientific quality of the research projects, as seen in an international context. The projects were therefore the main elements considered in the evaluation. The main basis of the evaluation was the scientific quality of the research and its relevance to NUTEK`s aims in the application of industrial research and development. The present report is based on the information contained in the written reports submitted by the grant holders, site visits and discussions between the grant holders and the Committee. The report first gives an overview and general recommendations concerning the overall programme in the field of Short Rotation Forestry for Energy. Thereafter, the 16 projects are evaluated separately

  6. Work analysis of the machine Claas Jaguar 880 employed in short rotation coppice harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verani S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Working times observed during different harvesting phases in a poplar short rotation coppice (second rotation were calculated. The main objective of the work was to evaluate the yard productivity and the economic gain in order to furnish good indications to the field operators about the harvesting planning. A comparisons between productivity and economic features was carried out on observed (experimental yard and optimized data (optimized yard, the latter characterized by the absence of the inproductive times due to suboptimal yard organization. The harvested gross time as a function of distance covered by machine was assessed using linear regressions methods. The observed average biomass in plantation was 47.32 t ha-1. The harvesting gross average productivity observed in experimental yard was 34.20 t h-1 and the optimized was 54.16 t h-1. The working ability was 0.76 and 1.18 ha h-1 for experimental and optimized yard, respectively. The final product (chips costs estimated was 9.81 euro t-1 and 444.46 euro ha-1 in the experimental yard. The optimized yard was 22-24% more efficient. This paper demonstrates the feasibilty to estimate harvesting times and costs per hectare using linear regressions with good approximation when the standing biomass in plantation is known.

  7. Effect of reduced soil water availability on productivity of short rotation coppice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orság, Matěj; Fischer, Milan; Mani Tripathi, Abhishek; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    "Wood, in fact, is the unsung hero of the technological revolution that has brought us from a stone and bone culture to our present age.'' Perlin and Journey (1991). Given its high-energy content and versatile use, biomass in a form of wood has been used for energy purposes since millennia and through times has been preferred source of biomass. Ever since, the production and use of woody biomass resources expands globally. Main drivers for its use as a source of energy are diversification and the mitigation of energy related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through partial substitution of fossil fuels. An alternative option for wood biomass sourcing from natural forests is short rotation woody coppice. Its productivity is largely dependent on the environment in terms of climatic conditions. Especially drought is the major constraint of woody biomass production involving serious economic consequences. In the central Europe, increased global radiation and air temperature together with decreased relative humidity increases the reference evapotranspiration resulting in an increased demand for soil water during growing season. For that reason, our field experiment was designed to evaluate impact of decreased soil water availability on productivity of poplar based short rotation coppice plantation during multiple growing seasons. Throughfall exclusion system based on plastic roof strips placed under the canopy was used to drain up to 70 % of the incoming rain water. Usual methods were used to assess the annual above ground biomass increment expressed in dry matter content. Not surprisingly our results show systematic decline in the productivity of plots subjected to decreased soil water availability but also considerable resilience of the drought-stressed trees which will be also discussed. This study was supported by project "Building up a multidisciplinary scientific team focused on drought", No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248 and PASED - project supported by Czech program

  8. High biomass yield achieved by Salix clones in SRIC following two 3-year coppice rotations on abandoned farmland in southern Quebec, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrecque, M.; Teodorescu, T.I. [Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Montreal Botanical Garden, Quebec (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    Two species of willow, Salix discolor and S. viminalis, were planted in 1995 under short-rotation intensive culture on two abandoned farmland sites: sandy site (S1) and clay site (S2). After three seasons of growth the two species were coppiced. In the spring of the first season following coppicing, one dose of composted sludge equivalent to 100 kg of 'available' Nha{sup -1} was applied to some plots (T1) while others were left unfertilized (T0). The aims of the experiment were to compare the growth performance and nutrients exported by willow species planted on marginal sites with different soil characteristics and to assess the impact of fertilization with wastewater sludge on yields during a second rotation cycle. Over three seasons, willow height, diameter and aboveground biomass were greater for S. viminalis than for S. discolor on all fertilized plots. The best growth performance of two willows were obtained on the clay site. S. viminalis, planted on the fertilized plots of the clay site, had the highest biomass yield (70.36 tDMha{sup -1}). The application of a dose of wastewater sludge (100 kg of 'available' Nha{sup -1}) was not enough to satisfy all nutritional requirements of willows for the period of growth. Over the second rotation the nutrients removed from the soil by willows (in kg per ton of dry mass harvested) were: from 5.3 to 7.5 for N; from 0.6 to 0.9 for P; from 1.8 to 3 for K; from 4.2 to 7.2 for Ca and from 0.4 to 0.7 for Mg. (author)

  9. Testing evolutionary hypotheses for DNA barcoding failure in willows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyford, Alex D

    2014-10-01

    The goal of DNA barcoding is to enable the rapid identification of taxa from short diagnostic DNA sequence profiles. But how feasible is this objective when many evolutionary processes, such as hybridization and selective sweeps, cause alleles to be shared among related taxa? In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Percy et al. (2014) test the full suite of seven candidate plant barcoding loci in a broad geographic sample of willow species. They show exceptional plastid haplotype sharing between species across continents, with most taxa not possessing a unique barcode sequence. Using population genetic and molecular dating analyses, they implicate hybridization and selective sweeps, but not incomplete lineage sorting, as the historical processes causing widespread haplotype sharing among willow taxa. This study represents an exceptional case of how poorly barcoding can perform, and highlights methodological issues using universal organellar regions for species identification. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Organic Carbon Accumulation in Topsoil Following Afforestation with Willow: Emphasis on Leaf Litter Decomposition and Soil Organic Matter Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lafleur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Short-rotation intensive cultures (SRICs of willows can potentially sequester carbon (C in soil. However, there is limited information regarding the factors governing soil organic C (Corg accumulation following afforestation. The objectives of this study were to: (i determine whether willow leads to Corg accumulation in the topsoil (0–10 cm two to six years after establishment in five SRICs located along a large climatic/productivity gradient in southern Quebec, and (ii assess the influence of leaf litter decomposition and soil organic matter (OM quality on Corg accumulation in the topsoil. Topsoil Corg concentrations and pools under SRICs were, on average, 25% greater than reference fields, and alkyls concentrations were higher under SRICs. On an annualized basis, Corg accumulation rates in the topsoil varied between 0.4 and 4.5 Mg ha−1 yr−1. Estimated annual litterfall C fluxes were in the same order of magnitude, suggesting that SRICs can accumulate Corg in the topsoil during early years due to high growth rates. Leaf litter decomposition was also related to Corg accumulation rates in the topsoil. It was positively correlated to growing season length, degree-days, and growing season average air and topsoil temperature (r > 0.70, and negatively correlated to topsoil volumetric water content (r = −0.55. Leaf litter decomposition likely occurred more quickly than that of plants in reference fields, and as it progressed, OM became more decay resistant, more stable and accumulated as Corg in the topsoil.

  11. Phytoremediation of Metal Contaminated Soil Using Willow: Exploiting Plant-Associated Bacteria to Improve Biomass Production and Metal Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Jolien; Weyens, Nele; Croes, Sarah; Beckers, Bram; Meiresonne, Linda; Van Peteghem, Pierre; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) of willow and poplar is proposed for economic valorization and concurrently as remediation strategy for metal contaminated land in northeast-Belgium. However, metal phytoextraction appears insufficient to effectuate rapid reduction of soil metal contents. To increase both biomass production and metal accumulation of SRC, two strategies are proposed: (i) in situ selection of the best performing clones and (ii) bioaugmentation of these clones with beneficial plant-associated bacteria. Based on field data, two experimental willow clones, a Salix viminalis and a Salix alba x alba clone, were selected. Compared to the best performing commercial clones, considerable increases in stem metal extraction were achieved (up to 74% for Cd and 91% for Zn). From the selected clones, plant-associated bacteria were isolated and identified. All strains were subsequently screened for their plant growth-promoting and metal uptake enhancing traits. Five strains were selected for a greenhouse inoculation experiment with the selected clones planted in Cd-Zn-Pb contaminated soil. Extraction potential tended to increase after inoculation of S. viminalis plants with a Rahnella sp. strain due to a significantly increased twig biomass. However, although bacterial strains showing beneficial traits in vitro were used for inoculation, increments in extraction potential were not always observed.

  12. Comparison of Short-term Complications After Rotator Cuff Repair: Open Versus Arthroscopic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Molly; Westermann, Robert; Duchman, Kyle; Gao, Yubo; Pugely, Andrew; Bollier, Matthew; Wolf, Brian

    2018-01-02

    To define and compare the incidence and risk factors for short-term complications after arthroscopic and open rotator cuff repair (RTCR), and to identify independent risk factors for complications after RTCR. All patients who underwent open or arthroscopic RTCR from 2005 to 2013 were identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Short-term complications were categorized as surgical, medical, mortality, and unplanned 30-day readmission. Univariate analysis allowed the comparison of patient demographics and comorbidities. Propensity score matching was used to control for demographic differences between arthroscopic and open RTCR patient groups. Independent risk factors for complication were identified using multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 11,314 RTCRs were identified (24% open, 76% arthroscopic). The mean operative time for open RTCR was 78 minutes compared with 91 minutes for arthroscopic repairs (P arthroscopic repair (1.79% vs 1.17%; P = .006). The overall infection rate after RTCR was 0.56%, with deep wound infection higher in the open repair patient group (P = .003). Multivariate analysis identified age >65 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.3), operative time >90 minutes (OR 1.5; CI 1.1-2.1), and open RTCR (OR 1.6; CI 1.1-2.3) as independent risk factors for complications. Short-term complications after RTCR are rare. Total complications are higher after open RTCR in propensity-matched patient groups and in multivariate analysis. Risk factors for complications include patient age >65, operative time >90 minutes, and open repair. Open RTCR is associated with an increased risk of surgical infections. Level III, retrospective comparative trial. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomass productivity and water use relation in short rotation poplar coppice (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii in the conditions of Czech Moravian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The plantations of short rotation coppice (SRC usually based on poplar or willow species are promising source of biomass for energy use. To contribute to decision-making process where to establish the plantations we evaluated the water consumption and its relation to biomass yields of poplar hybrid clone J-105 (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii in representative conditions for Czech-Moravian Highlands. Water availability is usually considered as one of the main constraints of profitable SRC culture and therefore we focused on analyzing of the linkage between the aboveground biomass increments and the total stand actual evapotranspiration (ETa and on water use efficiency of production (WUEP. During the seasons 2008 and 2009 the total stand ETa measured by Bowen ratio energy balance system constructed above poplar canopy and the stem diameter increments of randomly chosen sample trees were examined. The stem diameters were subsequently converted to total aboveground biomass (AB by allometric equation obtained by destructive analysis at the beginning of 2010. The biomass volume and its increment of particular trees were subsequently converted to the whole canopy growth and correlated with the ETa values. Our results revealed that there was a statistically significant relation between water lost and biomass growth with coefficients of determination r2 0.96 and 0.51 in 2008 and 2009 respectively. By using multiple linear regression analysis additionally accounting for effect of precipitation events and thermal time (sums of effective temperatures above +5 °C the AB growth was explained from 98 and 87% in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Therefore for further analysis the multiple linear regression model was applied. The dynamic of seasonal WUEP (expressed as gram of AB dry matter per thousand grams of water reached up to 6.2 and 6.8 g kg−1 with means 3.13 and 3.54 g kg−1 in both executed years respectively. These values are situated in higher

  14. Ring Laser Gyro-based Digital Processing Technique for Detecting Rotation Rate over Short Time Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Enin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates capabilities of digital techniques to improve measurement accuracy of dithering ring laser gyro (DRLG in detecting constant rotation rate over short time intervals. An array of the GL-1 device output within a LG triad to measure the vertical component of the angular rate of rotation of the Earth in the laboratory setting is selected as the object of study. The selected time of a single measurement is 2 minutes, and as a full standard deviation error of measurement is selected the magnitude at least 0.002 "/ min. The objective of this study is to develop and underpin a new effective technique of LG digital information processing to enable providing an appropriate accuracy to meet modern requirements with reducing measurement time of a constant rate Ωz component. The specific objectives are the comparative analysis of the precision capabilities of the known techniques over limited measurement time intervals, development and support of new, more efficient technique of digital information processing of dithering ring LG, and experimental verification and evaluation of effectiveness of the technique proposed. The article presents a comparative error analysis of practically applied digital techniques such a simple averaging method, Hamming method, and method of "conditional sample of regression lines" with the proposed technique of "recognition of the output signal of the image N". To compare the techniques were used the real digital processing device output data taken at a frequency of 400 Hz over 94 two-minute measurement intervals after the device has been switched on. The proposed LG output image recognition technique enables us to reach about three times higher measuring accuracy over two-minute interval as compared to the known techniques.

  15. Mechanical pre-planting weed control in short rotation coppice using deep forestry ploughing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report describes a trial by Border biofuels to investigate the deep forestry plough as a mechanical pre-planting weed control method to reduce weed infestations in willow coppice and thus contribute to improved establishment and eventual yield. The results suggest that there was a considerable increase in biomass productivity from the deep ploughed area compared to the conventionally cultivated area at all three SRC sites tested. This technique also suggests that the deep forestry ploughing provides the benefit of much reduced levels of seed germination of many annual weed species and a reduction in levels of perennial weed infestation. It is not possible at this stage to predict the longer term benefits in terms of harvestable biomass productivity but it may be considered that the improved establishment and lack of weed competition would consistently produce higher yields of biomass than plantations which suffer from persistent and invasive weed competition. (author)

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from short-rotation forestry on a drained and rewetted fen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaipfer, Martina; Fuertes Sánchez, Alicia; Drösler, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    More than 95 % of German peatlands have been drained, primarily for agricultural and forestry use. They constitute a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHG) with emissions of approximately 47 million tons per year. Propelled by the German energy turnaround farmers have increasingly converted their cropland to short rotation forestry (SRF), amongst them some who are cultivating drained peatland. In this study GHG emissions from alder and poplar short rotation plantations with differing groundwater levels near Rosenheim, Bavaria, were monitored over the course of three-and-a-half years. Moreover, the effect of ploughing for SRF establishment was investigated as well. Understorey GHG fluxes were measured using closed-chamber approaches. Gas samples were enclosed in vials every second week and analysed for their CH4 and N2O concentrations by gas chromatography at a laboratory. On-site measurements of CO2 fluxes were carried out over the course of a day every three to four weeks with a dynamic closed-chamber technique. Allometric methods were employed to estimate carbon sequestration into trees. Sheet piling was installed around a set of measurement sites in December 2014 to accentuate the difference between the sites with high and low water tables. As a result the water level around those sites rose from an average of -36.1 ± 6.1 cm in 2013 and 2014 to -20.8 ± 3.7 cm in 2015. The water table outside the sheet piling showed values of -61.8 ± 5.7 cm and -72.1 ± 6.2 cm in those years, respectively. First results suggest a limited effect of ploughing for SRF establishment on understorey GHG emissions. However, there seems to be a distinct impact on tree productivity. CO2 fluxes in the understorey seem to be strongly influenced by water table, but also land management (mulching of understorey vegetation to reduce weed competition for trees during the first year and for pest control in subsequent years) and shading of the understorey vegetation by trees. There is a

  17. LENGTH CHANGE OF THE SHORT EXTERNAL ROTATORS OF THE HIP IN COMMON STRETCH POSITIONS: A CADAVERIC STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Ryan P; Kivlan, Benjamin R; Martin, RobRoy L

    2017-12-01

    Stretching of the deep rotators of the hip is commonly employed in patients with lumbosacral, sacroiliac, posterior hip, and buttock pain. There is limited research demonstrating the effectiveness of common stretching techniques on the short external rotators of the hip. The objective of this study was to evaluate length change during stretching of the superior and inferior fibers of the piriformis, superior gemellus, obturator internus, and inferior gemellus. Repeated-measures laboratory controlled cadaveric study. Seventeen hip joints from nine embalmed cadavers (5 male; 4 female) with an age between 49-96 years were skeletonized. Polypropylene strings were attached from the origin to insertion sites of the short external rotators. The change of length (mm) noted by excursion of the strings was used as a proxy for change in muscle length, when the hip was moved from the anatomical position to four specific stretch positions: 1) 45 ° internal rotation from hip neutral flexion/extension, 2) 45 ° external rotation from 90 ° hip and knee flexion, 3) 30 ° adduction from 90 ° of hip and knee flexion, and 4) 30 ° of adduction with the hip and knee flexed so the lateral malleolus contacted the lateral femoral epicondyle of the contralateral limb , were recorded. There was a significant effect on string displacement by stretch position, F (15,166) = 14.67, p obturator internus and inferior gemellus had the largest string displacement with 45 ° internal rotation from neutral flexion/extension. While all stretch positions caused a significant string displacement indicating length changes of the deep rotators of the hip, the three stretch positions that caused the greatest change were: 1) 30 ° adduction from 90 ° of hip and knee flexion, 2) 45 ° internal rotation from neutral flexion/extension, and 3) 45 ° external rotation with 90 ° hip and knee flexion. This study has clinical implications for the effectiveness of specific stretching

  18. A STELLA model to estimate water and nitrogen dynamics in a short-rotation woody crop plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Jiaen Zhang; Theodor D. Leininger; Brent R. Frey

    2015-01-01

    Although short-rotation woody crop biomass production technology has demonstrated a promising potential to supply feedstocks for bioenergy production, the water and nutrient processes in the woody crop planation ecosystem are poorly understood. In this study, a computer model was developed to estimate the dynamics of water and nitrogen (N) species (e.g., NH4...

  19. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) enhances biomass production in a short-rotation poplar plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calfapietra, C.; Gielen, B.; Galema, A.N.J.; Lukac, M.; Angelis, de P.; Moscatelli, M.C.; Ceulemans, R.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible contribution of Short Rotation Cultures (SRC) to carbon sequestration in both current and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]). A dense poplar plantation (1 x 1 m) was exposed to a [CO2] of 550 ppm in Central Italy using the free-air CO2 enrichment

  20. Profitability potential for Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) short-rotation bioenergy plantings in the southern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Perdue; John A. Stanturf; Timothy M. Young; Xia Huang; Derek Dougherty; Michael Pigott; Zhimei Guo

    2017-01-01

    The use of renewable resources is important to the developing bioenergy economy and short rotation woody crops (SRWC) are key renewable feedstocks. A necessary step in advancing SRWC is defining regions suitable for SRWC commercial activities and assessing the relative economic viability among suitable regions. The goal of this study was to assess the potential...

  1. Biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts from sustainable agricultural and forest crops: proceedings of the short rotation crops international conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Rob Mitchell; Jim, eds. Richardson

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this conference was to initiate and provide opportunities for an international forum on the science and application of producing both agricultural and forest crops for biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts. There is a substantial global need for development of such systems and technologies that can economically and sustainably produce short rotation crops...

  2. Measuring and partitioning soil respiration in sharkey shrink-swell clays under plantation grown short-rotation woody crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson G. Hood; Michael C. Tyree; Dylan N. Dillaway Dillaway; Theodor D. Leininger

    2015-01-01

    The Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) offers an ecological niche for short-rotation woody crop (SRWC) production by mating marginal agricultural land with optimal growing conditions. Approximately 1.7 million ha within the LMAV consist of Sharkey shrink-swell clays. They are considered marginal in terms of traditional agricultural productivity due to their...

  3. Soil carbon, after 3 years, under short-rotation woody crops grown under varying nutrient and water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez; Mark Coleman; Charles T. Garten; Robert J. Luxmoore; John A. Stanturf; Carl Trettin; Stan D. Wullschleger

    2007-01-01

    Soil carbon contents were measured on a short-rotation woody crop study located on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site outside Aiken, SC. This study included fertilization and irrigation treatments on five tree genotypes (sweetgum, loblolly pine, sycamore and two eastern cottonwood clones). Prior to study installation, the previous pine stand was...

  4. Using short-rotation, intensively managed hardwood plantations as ‘green’ inventory for southeastern U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Gallagher; Bob Shaffer; Bob Rummer

    2008-01-01

    As a routine wood source for a pulp mill, recent studies have shown that intensively managed, short-rotation hardwood plantations are not cost effective. The objective of this study was to determine if these plantations may be cost effective as "green" inventory, replacing some portion of high cost remote woodyard inventory. Three southeastern U.S. pulp mills...

  5. Coppicing evaluation of short rotation coppice in the southeast of the U.S. to determine appropriate harvesting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael Santiago; Tom Gallagher; Matthew Smidt; Dana Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Renewable fuels are being tested as an alternative for fossil fuels. For the Southeast U.S., the use of woody biomass has proven to be an excellent source of renewable energy in terms of cost benefit and availability. Short rotation woody crops (SRWC) are timber plantations with exclusive characteristics that can meet the intensive demand for wood due to their fast...

  6. Biochar stability and priming effect on SOM decomposition in two European short rotation coppices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Maurizio; Alberti, Giorgio; Viger, Maud; Jenkins, Joe; Girardin, Cyril; Baronti, Silvia; Zaldei, Alessandro; Taylor, Gail; Miglietta, Franco; Tonon, Giustino

    2014-05-01

    Biochar application to agricultural soils has been proposed as a promising strategy for carbon (C) sequestration and climate change mitigation. However, most of the knowledge on biochar stability is based on short-term lab incubation experiments, as field studies are scarce. Therefore, little is known about the interactions between biochar and roots and the related effects on biochar stability in field conditions. In two (Italy and UK) short rotation coppice systems (SRCs) the present study aimed to asses, through continuous soil respiration monitoring and δ13C periodic measurements, the stability of biochar in field conditions, the effect of plant roots on biochar stability, the effect of biochar on original soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. The percentage of biochar-derived soil respiration (fB) varied according to the site and sampling date: at the Italian site, it was between 7% and 37%; at the UK site, it varied between 12% and 32%. At both sites, fB was generally higher in the presence of roots (Rtot) than in trenched plots (Rh) where the root growth was excluded. This suggests a positive priming effect of roots on biochar decomposition. On the other hand, a decreased decomposition rate of original SOM after soil biochar addition (-10% and -14% at Italian and UK site, respectively) was observed, suggesting a protective effect of biochar on SOM. In summary, regardless of the experimental site, biochar showed a slow decomposition and a protective effect on original SOM, confirming the carbon mitigation potential of this technology. However, the mechanisms that are behind the observed results deserve to be investigated more deeply in a long-term perspective, in order to understand the real potential of biochar as a strategy for soil C sequestration.

  7. Optimising the Environmental Sustainability of Short Rotation Coppice Biomass Production for Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Dimitriou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Solid biomass from short rotation coppice (SRC has the potential to significantly contribute to European renewable energy targets and the expected demand for wood for energy, driven mainly by market forces and supported by the targets of national and European energy policies. It is expected that in the near future the number of hectares under SRC will increase in Europe. Besides producing biomass for energy, SRC cultivation can result in various benefits for the environment if it is conducted in a sustainable way. This paper provides with an overview of these environmental benefits. Discussion and Conclusions: The review of existing literature shows that SRC helps to improve water quality, enhance biodiversity, prevent erosion, reduce chemical inputs (fertilizers, pesticides and mitigate climate change due to carbon storage. To promote and disseminate environmentally sustainable production of SRC, based on existing literature and own project experience, a set of sustainability recommendations for SRC production is developed. In addition to numerous environmental benefits, sustainable SRC supply chains can bring also economic and social benefits. However, these aspects of sustainability are not addressed in this paper since they are often country specific and often rely on local conditions and policies. The sustainable practices identified in this manuscript should be promoted among relevant stakeholder to stimulate sustainable local SRC production.

  8. Monitoring nutrients fate after digestate spreading in a short rotation buffer area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, Nicolò; Boz, Bruno; Gumiero, Bruna; Mastrocicco, Micòl

    2017-10-01

    One of the main sources of reactive nitrogen pollution is animal manure. The disposal of digestate (material remaining after the anaerobic digestion of a biodegradable feedstock) in agricultural soils could solve both the problems of soil fertilization and waste removal, but the fate of digestate in the environment must be assessed carefully before its massive utilization. To investigate whether digestate could be safely employed as a soil fertilizer, an agricultural field located in Monastier di Treviso (Northern Italy) and characterized by the presence of low hydraulic conductivity clay soils, was selected to be amended with bovine digestate. The experimental site was intensively monitored by a three-dimensional array of probes recording soil water content, temperature, and electrical conductivity, to solve the water and bulk mass fluxes in the unsaturated zone. High-resolution soil coring allowed the characterization of soil water composition over two hydrological years. Chloride, found in high concentrations in the digestate, was used as environmental tracer to track the fate of the percolating water. The study concluded that digestate could be confidently employed in short rotation buffer areas at an average rate of 195 ± 26 kg-N/ha/year in low hydraulic conductivity soils not affected by diffuse fracturing during dry periods.

  9. Tree biomass equations for short rotation eucalyptus grown in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senelwa, K.; Sims, R.E.H. [Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    Five species of eucalypts, namely Eucalyptus ovata, E. saligna, E. globulus, E. nitens and E. regnans were planted, sampled and harvested to develop regression equations to be used for non-destructive estimations of total tree dry weight when grown under a short rotation regime. A total of 458 trees were sampled between 2 and 5 years old. Their diameters ranged between 10 and 314 mm, heights 1.6-18.1 m and weights 0.4-199 kg. A number of equations were developed from these parameters and tested statistically. The best-fit equation for a group of Eucalyptus species incorporated the product of the square of the diameter (D{sup 2}) and height (H): tree dry weight (W) = 1.22D{sup 2*}H x 10{sup -4}. This equation predicted the above ground tree dry weight to within 20% accuracy. The equation developed for eucalypts would be suitable if directly applied to other tree crops such as Pinus radiata or Acacia dealbata under SRF management regimes. (author)

  10. Harvesting of short rotation coppice. Harvesting trials with a cut and storage system in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweier, J.; Becker, G.

    2012-11-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) harvesting techniques are available in Germany, but broad experience and knowledge about machine performance and the related effective costs of harvesting operations are still missing. This information is crucial, as harvesting costs strongly influence the economic performance of the overall supply chain. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to collect and analyze productivity data of different harvesting systems for SRC. The combined cut and chip system on the one hand and the cut and storage system on the other hand were studied by literature review. Several studies analyze the combined cut and chip systems and the reported machine productivities showed great variations. The average was 30 green tons per scheduled machine hour (gt smh{sup -1}). Few studies are analysing the cut and storage system. They report that machines still are under development and that further research is needed. Therefore, time studies of harvesting operations using the cut and storage system were carried out. Five trials were performed with the harvesting machine 'Stemster MK III' developed by Nordic Biomass. The share of productive working time was 85% and the average productivity was 21 gt smh{sup -1}. These results were compared with values from the literature. Resulting harvesting costs were calculated per oven dry ton (Euro odt{sup -1}). The advantages and disadvantages of both harvesting systems are highlighted. (orig.)

  11. A strategy for process modelling of short-rotation Salix coppice plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isebrands, J.G. [North Central Forest Experiment Station, Rhinelander, WI (United States). Forestry Sciences Lab.; Host, G.E. [Minnesota Univ., Duluth, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.; Bollmark, L.; Philippot, S. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research; Porter, J.R. [Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Taastrup (Denmark). Dept. of Agricultural Sciences; Stevens, E. [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Forestry; Rushton, K. [Energy Technology Support Unit, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    A strategy for process modelling of short-rotation Salix coppice plantations is presented. To integrate effectively both large- and small-scale processes, this model must simulate critical processes at scales ranging from the individual leaf to the plantation. This multiscale modelling strategy extrapolates the detail of mechanistic physiological models to the patch and plantation scales. To accomplish this scaling, regional climatic and soil databases are used to generate model inputs; i.e. site and climatic information is passed from the regional scale to drive models operating at the stand or tree level. Key input variables at the individual tree level include genetically determined factors such as leaf morphology and branch architecture, as well as phenological and physiological parameters. Outputs such as carbon fixation, leaf area index, biomass by component, and yields per hectare are then passed back up to address regional questions. This strategy requires a parallel programme of modelling and experimentation. While this strategy focuses on Salix, the approach should also be applicable to species with similar life history attributes, such as Betula and Populus. (author)

  12. Weed control and soil management systems for short-rotation coppice: present knowledge and future requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clay, D.V.

    1993-06-01

    The current information available on weed management in short-rotation coppice (SRC) in the U.K. has been reviewed and aspects where more information or action is required are indicated. Weeds clearly are the main agronomic problem facing the grower of energy coppice who must achieve maximum growth from the start to achieve an economic yield of wood by the first harvest. While there is information on the importance of weed competition in the first year, the need to weed in subsequent years is less well understood and work is needed to define the situations where control is necessary. Most successful plantations have been established with the use of herbicides. There is a need for more selective contact herbicides and better equipment for applying treatments directly to the weeds. All herbicides used in coppice must have Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries (MAFF) Approval, given after consideration of toxicology and environmental fate. More such Approvals are needed to provide farmers with the range of herbicides required for efficient production. The scope for reducing herbicide input in crops in SRC is reviewed. Other practical aspects that require more attention are: the susceptibility of many weed species to commonly-used herbicides; differing coppice variety responses to weed competition and herbicides; detailed guidance for growers on weed management and control programmes. (5 tables, 50 references). (author)

  13. The role of short rotation coppice technology in fuelwood supply in Rungwe district, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Karwani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The roles of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC Technology in fuelwood supply and offsetting CO2 emissions in the Tanzania and most African countries remain poorly understood. This study was carried in Rungwe District, Mbeya region in Tanzania, to determine trends, extent and drivers of adoption of SRC; identify various sources of household energy and assess the contribution of SRC to the total household fuelwood needs, and trees and shrub species used as sources of fuelwood. Data were collected using reconnaissance, field and social surveys and was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results revealed that, 97.5% of local community adopted the SRC technology since 1960s. Eucalyptus spp. are mostly planted in woodlots and field boundaries while Persea americana and Leucaena leucocephala are intercropped in farmlands. The survey indicated that out of 176 tons of fuelwood used annually, 73% comes from SRC technology, 25% from non-SRC technology, and only 2% is purchased to supplement household fuelwood shortage. Local communities depend heavily on biomass energy from woodlots and farmlands where tree species like Eucalyptus spp. plays a key role in meeting the energy demand. This study demonstrates that SRC technologies like woodlots, boundary planting, and intercropping in farmland hold high promise to meet the household energy demand. If promoted and backed with strong policies and supportive land tenure, these technologies may reduce the harvesting pressure on native forests for energy demand and contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  14. Eucalyptus and Populus short rotation woody crops for phosphate mined lands in Florida USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockwood, D.L.; Carter, D.R.; Langholtz, M.H. [The School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Box 110410, Gainesville, FL 32611 0410 (United States); Stricker, J.A. [Polk County Extension Service, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Our short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) research in central and southern Florida is (1) developing superior Eucalyptus grandis (EG), E. amplifolia (EA), and cottonwood (Populus deltoides, PD) genotypes, (2) determining appropriate management practices for and associated productivities of these genotypes, and (3) assessing their economics and markets. Reclaimed clay settling areas (CSA) and overburden sites in phosphate mined areas in central Florida are a potential land base of over 80,000ha for SRWC production. On CSAs, PD grows well in the absence of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) but is not as productive as the non-invasive EG and EA. SRWC establishment on CSAs requires strict implementation of the following cultural practices: thorough site preparation through herbiciding/disking and bedding, superior trees, watering/packing seedlings, fertilization with ammonium nitrate at planting and annually thereafter as feasible, high planting density possibly including double row planting, and winter harvesting so that coppice regeneration suppresses weeds. PD cultural requirements, that may require post-planting weed control to suppress herbaceous competition, exceed those of the eucalypts. EG SRWCs on CSAs are at risk of blowdown 3-4 years after planting or coppicing; younger PD, EG, and EA SRWCs appear much less susceptible to wind damage. Genetic improvement must continue if EG, EA, and PD are to increase in commercial feasibility. SRWC cost competitiveness will depend on establishment success, yield improvements, harvesting costs, and identifying/using incentives. Strong collaboration among public and private partners is necessary for commercializing SRWCs in Florida. (author)

  15. Bark content estimation in poplar (Populus deltoides L.) short-rotation coppice in Central Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidi, Werther; Piccioni, Emiliano; Bonari, Enrico [Land Lab, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, via S. Cecilia 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Ginanni, Marco [Centro Interdipartimentale Enrico Avanzi, Via Vecchia di Marina 6, 56010 San Piero a Grado, Pisa (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    Differences in bark and wood content in woody biomass directly affect its quality and economic value as an energy source. In order to estimate the quality of biomass before harvesting, an allometric regression of bark percentage of total aboveground biomass and DHB (diameter at 1.30 m height) was developed in a 2-year poplar short-rotation coppice system in Central Italy. Firstly, a relationship between mean diameter and bark content percentage was established in 1 cm-wide sections belonging to all diametric classes. The model of best fit for these stem cylindrical sections was an equation y=ax{sup -b}. Following this, sample stems (of which we measured DHB) were collected and divided into sections belonging to a diameter class. Fresh and dry matter were determined for each class. Using the first equation, bark content was calculated separately for all classes. Thereafter, a second equation between bark content in the whole stem and DHB was developed. The best fitting equation for the whole stem was y=cx{sup -d}. Bark content in the whole stem ranged from 33.9-31.4% in large-sized DHB stems to 15.1-12.5% in smallest stems, depending on their moisture content. Bark content decreased rapidly in the small diametric classes until DHB reached 4 cm. Thereafter, the ratio of reduction of bark percentage dropped. (author)

  16. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of short-rotation-coppice based generation of electricity in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.; Meyer-Aurich, A.; Kern, J.; Balasus, A.; Prochnow, A. [Leibniz Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The generation of energy from wood biomass may help secure local energy supplies and reduce the greenhouse effect by substituting fossil resources with bio-based ones. In the case of short rotation coppice (SRC), bio-based resources can be generated by extensive agricultural production systems. They produce less carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2eq}) emissions than fossil resources. This paper reported on a study in which a model system was developed for a regional supply chain producing second generation bioenergy generated from SRC in eastern Germany. The study focuses on the generation of electricity and was compared to a business-as-usual reference system, based on the latest CO{sub 2} mitigation factors for renewable energies in the German power-generation mix. A life cycle assessment based on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories was also conducted in which other factors were also considered, such as options for nutrient cycling. The key determinants for GHG mitigation with SRC were also discussed with regards to indirect land-use effects resulting from increased demand for land.

  17. Update on Project ARBRE: wood gasification plant utilising short rotation coppice and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensfelt, E. [TPs Termiska Processr AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Everard, D. [Arbre Energy Limited, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    This paper provides an update on the development of Project ARBRE by ARBRE Energy Limited; a joint venture company comprising Yorkshire Water Plc, United Kingdom; TPS Termiska Processer AB, Sweden; and the Royal Schelde Group, the Netherlands. The project will establish some 1 000 hectares of short rotation coppices to provide a major part of the fuel requirement of a Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIG-CC) electricity generation plant. The remaining fuel requirement will come from forestry waste, although in the first 5 years most of the fuel will come from the forestry sources until the coppices are mature. The project will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, England, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 MW of electricity, enough electricity for 18 000 households. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK's Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from the European Commission's THERMIE Programme as a targeted BIG-CC project. The project's technical and environmental effects and benefits will be described, together with details of the award of the construction contract, the operating and maintenance contract and the forestry residues contract. (orig.)

  18. A physiological and biophysical model of coppice willow (Salix spp.) production yields for the contiguous USA in current and future climate scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Jaiswal, Deepak; LeBauer, David S; Wertin, Timothy M; Bollero, Germán A; Leakey, Andrew D B; Long, Stephen P

    2015-09-01

    High-performance computing has facilitated development of biomass production models that capture the key mechanisms underlying production at high spatial and temporal resolution. Direct responses to increasing [CO2 ] and temperature are important to long-lived emerging woody bioenergy crops. Fast-growing willow (Salix spp.) within short rotation coppice (SRC) has considerable potential as a renewable biomass source, but performance over wider environmental conditions and under climate change is uncertain. We extended the bioenergy crop modeling platform, BioCro, to SRC willow by adding coppicing and C3 photosynthesis subroutines, and modifying subroutines for perennation, allocation, morphology, phenology and development. Parameterization with measurements of leaf photosynthesis, allocation and phenology gave agreement of modeled with measured yield across 23 sites in Europe and North America. Predictions for the continental USA suggest yields of ≥17 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) in a 4 year rotation. Rising temperature decreased predicted yields, an effect partially ameliorated by rising [CO2 ]. This model, based on over 100 equations describing the physiological and biophysical mechanisms underlying production, provides a new framework for utilizing mechanism of plant responses to the environment, including future climates. As an open-source tool, it is made available here as a community resource for further application, improvement and adaptation. © 2015 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Changes in soil quality following poplar short-rotation forestry under different cutting cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Di Bene

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the change of energy concept induced by global warming and fossil fuel depletion together with the advances in agriculture towards a multifunctional and a more sustainable use of rural areas promoted the development of biomass crops. In this regard, Populus is largely utilised in short-rotation forestry (SRF, as it is known to be a fast-growing tree, producing large yields and having a high energy potential. Most studies focused on economic-productive and energetic aspects of Populus plantations, whereas their impact on soil quality and health have been poorly investigated. In this study, the main soil chemical parameters, microbial biomass and activity were assessed aiming at evaluating the impact of Populus SRF under one, two and three-year cutting cycles (T1, T2 and T3 in comparison with an intensive food cropping system (wheat-soybean rotation, WS. In addition, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungal inoculum potential was measured using root colonisation (RC and number of entry points (EP. In the 0-10 cm soil depth, pH, phosphorus (P, total nitrogen (N and soil organic carbon (SOC were significantly affected by the management. In comparison with WS, Populus SRF treatments produced significant pH decreases together with N and SOC increases, these last ones ranging from 11 to 34% and from 21 to 57%, respectively. Under T3 soil pH decreased of 0.25 units, while P, N and SOC increased of 10, 34 and 57%, respectively, in comparison with WS. Microbial biomass and soil respiration under SRF showed also mean increases of 71 and 17%, respectively. Under SRF treatments, Lolium perenne, commonly observed in all field plots, was more than twofold colonised by AM fungi in comparison with WS, while the number of EP, observed on Lactuca sativa used as a test plant, showed values ranging from 8 to 21 times higher. The present study shows the potential of a Populus SRF to improve soil chemical, biochemical and biological quality parameters in

  20. Influence of Robinia pseudoacacia short rotation coppice on soil physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Morvan; Isabelle, Bertrand; Gwenaelle, Gibaud

    2015-04-01

    Human activities can lead to the degradation of soil physical properties. For instance, machinery traffic across the land can induce the development of compacted areas at the wheel tracks. It leads to a decrease in porosity which results in a decrease of the hydraulic conductivity, and therefore, prevents water infiltration and promotes surface runoff. Land use, soil management and soil cover also have a significant influence on soil physical properties (Kodesova et al., 2011). In the arable land, surface runoff and soil erosion are enhanced by the absence of soil cover for part of the year and by the decrease of aggregate stability due to a decline of soil organic matter. In that context, few studies focused on the effects of a Robinia pseudoacacia short rotation coppice (SRC) on soil physical properties. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effect of the conversion of a grassland in a SRC on soil physical properties. These properties have also been compared to those of arable land and natural forest. For that, in several plots of the experimental farm of Grignon (30 km west of Paris, France), different measurements were performed: i) soil water retention on a pressure plate apparatus for 7 water potential between 0 and 1500 kPa, ii) bulk density using the method for gravelly and rocky soil recommended by the USDA, iii) aggregate stability using the method described in Le Bissonnais (1996), and iv) soil hydraulic conductivity using a Guelph permeameter. All these measurements were performed on the same soil type and on different land uses: arable land (AL), grassland (GL), natural forest (NF) and short rotation coppice (SRC) of Robinia pseudoacacia planted 5 years ago. Soil water retention measurements are still under progress and will be presented in congress. Bulk density measurements of the AL, GL and SRC are not significantly different. They ranged from 1.32 to 1.42. Only the NF measurements are significantly lower than the other (0.97). Aggregate

  1. Evaluation of Water Use Efficiency of Short Rotation Poplar Coppice at Bohemian-Moravian Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaváčová, Marcela; Fischer, Milan; Mani Tripathi, Abhishek; Orság, Matěj; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    The water availability of the locality constitutes one of the main constraint for short rotation coppices grown on arable land. As a convenient characteristic assessing how the water use is coupled with the biomass yields, so called water use efficiency (WUE) is proposed. One method of water use efficiency determination is presented within this study. The study was carried out at short rotation poplar coppice (poplar clone J-105) at the Test Station Domanínek, Ltd. at Bohemian-Moravian Highlands during the growing season 2013. Diameters at breast height (DBH) were measured for 16 sample trees where sap flow measuring systems (Granier's Thermal Dissipation Probe, TDP) were installed. TDP outputs are expressed as temperature differences (ΔT) between the heated and non-heated probes. Estimation of sap flux density (Fd) by the Granier method relies on the measurement of temperature difference (ΔT). Determination of maximum temperature difference (ΔTmax) is fundamental for sap flux density (Fd) calculation. Although ΔTmax can be theoretically defined as ΔT at Fd = 0, many factors may prevent the occurrence of the zero flow state, such as night-time water movement for new growth (vegetative or reproductive) or water loss from the canopy due to high vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Therefore, the VPD condition was established for determination of ΔTmax. VPD condition was established as follows: VPD reaching values 0.2 at least 6 hours during night (from 21 p. m. to 3 a. m. and when the condition was fullfilled, the value at 3 a. m. was taken) because it is a supposed time after that the tree has no transpiration. The programmable part of Mini 32 software (www.emsbrno.cz) was used for application of the script establishing ΔTmax values under this VPD condition. Nevertheless, another script was applied on ΔT data set to determination of ΔTmax values for every night at 3 a. m. (as this is when ΔT should be at its daily maximum) without VPD condition restriction for

  2. Willow Browse Survey 2015 : Biological Summary Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Browse pressure by ungulate species, primarily elk, is known to have a negative impact on the health of willow stands. On Baca and Alamosa NWR’s, it has been noticed...

  3. Willow Browse Survey 2016 : Biological Summary Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Browse pressure by ungulate species, primarily elk, is known to have a negative impact on the health of willow stands. On Baca and Alamosa NWR’s, it has been noticed...

  4. Biomass energy in organic farming - the potential role of short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Uffe; Dalgaard, Tommy [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS), Dept. of Agroecology, Research Centre Foulum, Tjele (Denmark); Kristensen, Erik Steen [Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming (DARCOF), Research Centre Foulum, Tjele (Denmark)

    2005-02-01

    One of the aims of organic farming is to 'reduce the use of non-renewable resources (e.g. fossil fuels) to a minimum'. So far, however, only very little progress has been made to introduce renewable energy in organic farming. This paper presents energy balances of Danish organic farming compared with energy balances of conventional farming. In general, the conversion to organic farming leads to a lower energy use (approximately 10% per unit of product). But the production of energy in organic farming is very low compared with the extensive utilisation of straw from conventional farming in Denmark (energy content of straw used for energy production was equivalent to 18% of total energy input in Danish agriculture in 1996). Biomass is a key energy carrier with a good potential for on-farm development. Apart from utilising farm manure and crop residues for biogas production, the production of nutrient efficient short rotation coppice (SRC) is an option in organic farming. Alder (Alnus spp.) is an interesting crop due to its symbiosis with the actinomycete Frankia, which has the ability to fix up to 185 kg/ha nitrogen (N{sub 2}) from the air. Yields obtained at different European sites are presented and the R and D needed to implement energy cropping in organic farming is discussed. Possible win-win solutions for SRC production in organic farming that may facilitate its implementation are; the protection of ground water quality in intensively farmed areas, utilisation of wastewater for irrigation, or combination with outdoor animal husbandry such as pigs or poultry. (Author)

  5. Successional changes of phytodiversity on a short rotation coppice plantation in Oberschwaben, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine eBirmele

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To allow for information on successional changes in phytodiversity over time and space, as well as information on differences between clones and treatments, phytodiversity was monitored on a poplar short rotation coppice plantation in Oberschwaben, Southwest Germany, in four consecutive years. The investigated plantation was divided into two core areas, one planted with poplar clone Max4, the other with Monviso; each core area was divided into two blocks with alternating treatments: i irrigation and fertilization; ii irrigation; and iii no treatment. All vascular plant species of the ground vegetation were recorded in 72 permanent sampling plots of 25 m² each during vegetation periods using the Braun-Blanquet scale.Results showed that total number of species increased in first two years and declined after harvest of the SRC-trees. Total vegetation cover decreased during the four years of study. Especially for the two clones there was an opposed trend: grass layer had a high cover on Monviso plots, but low cover on Max4 plots; herb layer the very reverse. However, there was no significant difference between the three treatments compared within each year. Perennial species were dominating over all years, as well as light-demanding species, but their proportion decreased steadily. Our results confirm the conclusion of previous studies which indicate that plant community succession takes place in ground vegetation of SRC and imply that species composition is age-dependent. The selection of clones for SRC can influence ground vegetation; some floristic changes for example caused by different treatments may be visible only when monitored over a longer period of time.

  6. Successional changes of phytodiversity on a short rotation coppice plantation in Oberschwaben, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Janine; Kopp, Gabriele; Brodbeck, Frank; Konold, Werner; Sauter, Udo H

    2015-01-01

    To allow for information on successional changes in phytodiversity over time and space, as well as information on differences between clones and treatments, phytodiversity was monitored on a poplar short rotation coppice plantation in Oberschwaben, Southwest Germany, in four consecutive years. The investigated plantation was divided into two core areas, one planted with poplar clone Max4, the other with Monviso; each core area was divided into two blocks with alternating treatments: (i) irrigation and fertilization; (ii) irrigation; and (iii) no treatment. All vascular plant species of the ground vegetation were recorded in 72 permanent sampling plots of 25 m(2) each during vegetation periods using the Braun-Blanquet scale. Results showed that total number of species increased in first 2 years and declined after harvest of the SRC-trees. Total vegetation cover decreased during the 4 years of study. Especially for the two clones there was an opposed trend: grass layer had a high cover on Monviso plots, but low cover on Max4 plots; herb layer the very reverse. However, there was no significant difference between the three treatments compared within each year. Perennial species were dominating over all years, as well as light-demanding species, but their proportion decreased steadily. Our results confirm the conclusion of previous studies which indicate that plant community succession takes place in ground vegetation of SRC and imply that species composition is age-dependent. The selection of clones for SRC can influence ground vegetation; some floristic changes for example caused by different treatments may be visible only when monitored over a longer period of time.

  7. Impact of RAV1-engineering on poplar biomass production: a short-rotation coppice field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Cortés, Alicia; Ramos-Sánchez, José Manuel; Hernández-Verdeja, Tamara; González-Melendi, Pablo; Alves, Ana; Simões, Rita; Rodrigues, José Carlos; Guijarro, Mercedes; Canellas, Isabel; Sixto, Hortensia; Allona, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Early branching or syllepsis has been positively correlated with high biomass yields in short-rotation coppice (SRC) poplar plantations, which could represent an important lignocellulosic feedstock for the production of second-generation bioenergy. In prior work, we generated hybrid poplars overexpressing the chestnut gene RELATED TO ABI3/VP1 1 (CsRAV1), which featured c. 80% more sylleptic branches than non-modified trees in growth chambers. Given the high plasticity of syllepsis, we established a field trial to monitor the performance of these trees under outdoor conditions and a SRC management. We examined two CsRAV1-overexpression poplar events for their ability to maintain syllepsis and their potential to enhance biomass production. Two poplar events with reduced expression of the CsRAV1 homologous poplar genes PtaRAV1 and PtaRAV2 were also included in the trial. Under our culture conditions, CsRAV1-overexpression poplars continued developing syllepsis over two cultivation cycles. Biomass production increased on completion of the first cycle for one of the overexpression events, showing unaltered structural, chemical, or combustion wood properties. On completion of the second cycle, aerial growth and biomass yields of both overexpression events were reduced as compared to the control. These findings support the potential application of CsRAV1-overexpression to increase syllepsis in commercial elite trees without changing their wood quality. However, the syllepsis triggered by the introduction of this genetic modification appeared not to be sufficient to sustain and enhance biomass production.

  8. Water use of a multigenotype poplar short-rotation coppice from tree to stand scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemen, Jasper; Fichot, Régis; Horemans, Joanna A; Broeckx, Laura S; Verlinden, Melanie S; Zenone, Terenzio; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2017-02-01

    Short-rotation coppice (SRC) has great potential for supplying biomass-based heat and energy, but little is known about SRC's ecological footprint, particularly its impact on the water cycle. To this end, we quantified the water use of a commercial scale poplar (Populus) SRC plantation in East Flanders (Belgium) at tree and stand level, focusing primarily on the transpiration component. First, we used the AquaCrop model and eddy covariance flux data to analyse the different components of the stand-level water balance for one entire growing season. Transpiration represented 59% of evapotranspiration (ET) at stand scale over the whole year. Measured ET and modelled ET were lower as compared to the ET of reference grassland, suggesting that the SRC only used a limited amount of water. Secondly, we compared leaf area scaled and sapwood area scaled sap flow (Fs) measurements on individual plants vs. stand scale eddy covariance flux data during a 39-day intensive field campaign in late summer 2011. Daily stem diameter variation (∆D) was monitored simultaneously with Fs to understand water use strategies for three poplar genotypes. Canopy transpiration based on sapwood area or leaf area scaling was 43.5 and 50.3 mm, respectively, and accounted for 74%, respectively, 86%, of total ecosystem ET measured during the intensive field campaign. Besides differences in growth, the significant intergenotypic differences in daily ∆D (due to stem shrinkage and swelling) suggested different water use strategies among the three genotypes which were confirmed by the sap flow measurements. Future studies on the prediction of SRC water use, or efforts to enhance the biomass yield of SRC genotypes, should consider intergenotypic differences in transpiration water losses at tree level as well as the SRC water balance at stand level.

  9. Willow (Salix) biomass production on farmland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, S. (Lantmaennen Agroenergi AB, Svaloev (Sweden)), Email: stig.larsson@lantmannen.com

    2009-07-01

    Willow (Salix) is a quite new agricultural crop that has been cultivated since the 1970's. Currently 15,000 hectares have been planted in Sweden and these plantations provide wood fuel for district heating schemes. In total willow contributes about 3 % of Sweden's requirements of wood fuel, produced from forestry and agriculture. The price of willow wood chips has this season been about 17 Euro per MWh, which is equivalent to that provided from forestry sources. The willows used in energy forestry belong to the sub-species. Salix, which are generally bushy in nature and grow to 5-7 m in height and have numerous shoots. Willows are planted as stem cuttings measuring 18-20 cm in length. A willow plantation is assumed to remain productive for at least 25-30 years and during its lifetime, the plantation may be harvested six to ten times, in cycles of 3-4 years. After each harvest new shoots sprout from the cut stumps producing a dense coppice. (orig.)

  10. Development of an applied black willow tree improvement program for biomass production in the south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Rousseau; Emile S. Gardiner; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    The development of rapidly growing biomass woody crops is imperative as the United States strives to meet renewable energy goals. The Department of Energy has indicated that biomass is a prime source for renewable energy for the southern United States. Black Willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is a potential bioenergy/biofuels crop for dedicated short-...

  11. Can the agricultural AquaCrop model simulate water use and yield of a poplar short-rotation coppice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horemans, Joanna A; Van Gaelen, Hanne; Raes, Dirk; Zenone, Terenzio; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2017-06-01

    We calibrated and evaluated the agricultural model AquaCrop for the simulation of water use and yield of a short-rotation coppice (SRC) plantation with poplar (Populus) in East Flanders (Belgium) during the second and the third rotation (first 2 years only). Differences in crop development and growth during the course of the rotations were taken into account during the model calibration. Overall, the AquaCrop model showed good performance for the daily simulation of soil water content (R2 of 0.57-0.85), of green canopy cover (R2 > 0.87), of evapotranspiration (ET; R2 > 0.76), and of potential yield. The simulated, total yearly water use of the SRC ranged between 55% and 85% of the water use of a reference grass ecosystem calculated under the same environmental conditions. Crop transpiration was between 67% and 93% of total ET, with lower percentages in the first than in the second year of each rotation. The observed (dry mass) yield ranged from 6.61 to 14.76 Mg ha-1 yr-1. A yield gap of around 30% was observed between the second and the third rotation, as well as between simulated and observed yield during the third rotation. This could possibly be explained by the expansion of the understory (weed) layer; the relative cover of understory weeds was 22% in the third year of the third rotation. The agricultural AquaCrop model simulated total water use and potential yield of the operational SRC in a reliable way. As the plantation was extensively managed, potential effects of irrigation and/or fertilization on ET and on yield were not considered in this study.

  12. Use by small mammals of short-rotation plantations in relation to their structure and isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Giordano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last decades, dramatic changes in agricultural practices have led to important modifications of land-use, as well as landscape structure, and to a general biodiversity loss in agro-ecosystems. During 2008 we investigated the small mammal communities of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF stands in Northern Italy. We live-trapped small mammals, during summer and autumn, in different types of SRF stands and surrounding habitats and compared capture rates. We evaluated the influence on small mammals abundance of the distance between the stands and other habitats offering woody or bushy cover. Our results showed that SRF plantations are widely exploited by small mammals, especially in autumn and that capture rate is the highest in “double-row” stands. The distance from woods or other arboriculture stands was negatively correlated to small mammals abundance. We conclude that SRF plantations can be considered a suitable habitat for small mammals and may work as a “corridor habitat” between fragmented patches of suitable habitats.
    Riassunto Uso degli impianti a turno breve da parte dei micrommamiferi, in relazione alla loro struttura e isolamento Negli ultimi decenni profondi cambiamenti nelle pratiche agricole hanno causato modifiche nella tipologia di uso dei terreni, così come nella struttura del paesaggio, che hanno portato a una generale perdita di biodiversità negli agroecosistemi. Nel corso del 2008 abbiamo studiato le comunità di micromammiferi nelle piantagioni di pioppo per la produzione di biomassa (SRF nel Nord Italia. Con l’uso di live-traps abbiamo effettuato due sessioni di cattura, una estiva e una autunnale, nei diversi tipi di impianto delle SRF e negli ambienti circostanti, per comparare le frequenze di cattura. Abbiamo quindi analizzato l’influenza che la distanza tra i diversi ambienti con copertura arborea ha sull’abbondanza dei micromammiferi

  13. GHGs balance in a land use change process from grassland to short rotation coppice of poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Simone; Arriga, Nicola; Baiocco, Andrea; Boschi, Alessio; Castaldi, Simona; Consalvo, Claudia; Gioli, Beniamino; Matteucci, Giorgio; Tomassucci, Michele; Zaldei, Alessandro; Papale, Dario

    2013-04-01

    At present one of the fastest spreading renewable energy sources are bioenergy cultivations. Millions of hectares of traditional crops all over the Europe are expected to be converted in energy crops in the near future, in order to produce green energy and contrast global warming. Last year, in the context of the GHG-Europe FP7 project we set up an experiment to verify the effects on the green-house gases balance of a land use change from traditional agriculture to short rotation coppice of poplar clones in central Italy. CO2 fluxes measured during the last growing season through three Eddy Covariance masts - two on poplar plantations of different ages and one over a reference site (grassland) - have been analysed. We also monitored CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from soil measured using chambers in order to better understand the contribution of other GHGs. The two poplar plantations showed a similar uptake of Carbon, 368 g C m-2 year-1 and 358 g C m-2 year-1, while the grassland absorbed 220 g C m-2 year-1 during the same period. Soil respiration in average was higher for the youngest plantation of poplar and for the grassland, lower for the oldest one, where soil is undisturbed from more time. In all the sites we measured low emissions during the winter (between 80 and 150 mg CO2 m-2 h-1), progressively higher in the spring and early summer with growing temperatures (up to 650 mg CO2 m-2 h-1), quite low during the summer because of a strong drought, while the highest values were recorded in September (ca. 1100 mg CO2 m-2 h-1 in the grassland and youngest poplar) after important rain events. Fluxes of N2O and CH4 from soil are very low: little absorption of CH4 in the grassland (values between 0 and -18.75 μg m-2 h-1), with peak after fertilization; in the SRC little absorption or emission with no clear seasonal pattern. Insignificant fluxes of N2O in all crops (even in the grassland after fertilization). The carbon fluxes measured are strongly related to the particular

  14. Greenhouse gas balance of cropland conversion to bioenergy poplar short rotation coppice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, S.; Arriga, N.; Bertolini, T.; Castaldi, S.; Chiti, T.; Consalvo, C.; Njakou Djomo, S.; Gioli, B.; Matteucci, G.; Papale, D.

    2015-05-01

    The production of bioenergy in Europe is one of the strategies conceived to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The suitability of the land use change from a cropland (REF site) to a short rotation coppice plantation of hybrid poplar (SRC site) was investigated by comparing the GHG budgets of these two systems over 24 months in Viterbo, Italy. Eddy covariance measurements were carried out to quantify the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (FCO2), whereas chambers were used to measure N2O and CH4 emissions from soil. Soil organic carbon (SOC) of an older poplar plantation was used to estimate via a regression the SOC loss due to SRC establishment. Emissions from tractors and from production and transport of agricultural inputs (FMAN) were modelled and GHG emission offset due to fossil fuel substitution was credited to the SRC site considering the C intensity of natural gas. Emissions due to the use of the biomass (FEXP) were also considered. The suitability was finally assessed comparing the GHG budgets of the two sites. FCO2 was the higher flux in the SRC site (-3512 ± 224 g CO2 eq m-2 in two years), while in the REF site it was -1838 ± 107 g CO2 m-2 in two years. FEXP was equal to 1858 ± 240 g CO2 m-2 in 24 months in the REF site, thus basically compensating FCO2, while it was 1118 ± 521 g CO2 eq m-2 in 24 months in the SRC site. This latter could offset -379.7 ± 175.1 g CO2 eq m-2 from fossil fuel displacement. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were negligible. FMAN weighed 2 and 4% in the GHG budgets of SRC and REF sites respectively, while the SOC loss weighed 455 ± 524 g CO2 m-2 in two years. Overall, the REF site was close to neutrality in a GHG perspective (156 ± 264 g CO2 eq m-2), while the SRC site was a net sink of -2202 ± 792 g CO2 eq m-2. In conclusion the experiment led to a positive evaluation of the conversion of cropland to bioenergy SRC from a GHG viewpoint.

  15. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  16. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  17. Biomass production and water use of Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) for short-rotation plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, D.; Veste, M.; Freese, D.

    2012-04-01

    The early successional tree species Robinia pseudoacacia L. demonstrates a high potential for biomass production in short rotation plantations and agroforestry systems. On marginal lands and recultivated areas, often characterized by poor edaphic conditions, black locust is already successfully cropped. In southern Brandenburg (East Germany), vast areas have been exploited for lignite open cast mining and the outcome is a drastic alteration of the top soil layer and subsurface geological structure, causing a radical change of the hydrologic cycle. Soil poor in nutrient and carbon, combined with low rainfall, limits the reclamation of these areas and their use for conventional agriculture. However, promising results have been obtained by the establishment of black locust for bioenergy production. For the evaluation of the black locust growth potential in southern Brandenburg with its sandy soils and low annual mean rainfall, detailed information about the link between growth, transpiration and soil water availability are needed. Therefore, we determined the biomass-transpiration relation and formulated the equation that describes the intertwined interaction between water use and biomass production. The equation will be integrated into mathematical tools. To reduce the numerous environmental variables involved in field experiments, we grew black locust under semi-controlled environmental conditions by using wick lysimeters. The lysimeters were filled with sandy loam soil and water was supplied solely by an automatic irrigation system in relation to the volumetric soil water content (7%, 10%, and 14%). Rainfall is excluded by a light transmissive roof. Water use efficiency (WUE) at whole plant level is evaluated by the ratio between the biomass produced during the vegetation period and the cumulative daily water use. The study encompasses ecophysiological investigations of the gas exchange (H2O and CO2) on single leaves, to evaluate the influence of the stomata

  18. Poplar breeding for the purpose of biomass production in short rotation periods in Germany: Problems and first findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisgerber, H

    1993-12-01

    A special breeding program was implemented to introduce improved poplars for short rotation biomass production in Germany. Comprehensive basic plant material is available for European, North American and East Asian species from the sections Aigeiros, Leuce and Tacamahaca. Interspecific crossings are being carried out mainly in order to make the best possible use of combination and heterosis effects. A period of at least 20 years is necessary to develop new cultivars with high yield performance and yield stability. First results are presented on hybrids of species which are site-tolerant, resistant and particularly fast growing at the juvenile phase. Plans to produce multiclonal varieties each with 5-10 suitable clones with the same growing rhythm are in place. Special cultivation recommendation advocate clonal mixtures for each of the most important site units and for different rotation periods of from 2-5, 6-10 and more than 10 years. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Biomass production and nutrient cycling in Eucalyptus short rotation energy forests in New Zealand. 1: biomass and nutrient accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, L.B.; Sims, R.E.H. [Massey University, Palmerston North (New Zealand). Institute of Technology and Engineering; Horne, D.J. [Massey University, Palmerston North (New Zealand). Institute of Natural Resources

    2002-12-01

    Accumulation of biomass and nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Mn) was measured during the first 3- year rotation of three Eucalyptus short rotation forest species (E. botryoides, E. globulus and E. ovata) irrigated with meatworks effluent compared with no irrigation. E. globulus had the highest biomass and nutrient accumulation either irrigated with effluent or without irrigation. After 3-year growth, E. globulus stands irrigated with effluent accumulated 72 oven dry t/ha of above-ground total biomass with a total of 651 kg N, 55 kg P, 393 kg K, 251 kg Ca, 35 kg Mg and 67 kg Mn. Effluent irrigation increased the accumulation of biomass, N, P, K and Mn, but tended to reduce the leaf area index and leaf biomass, and decreased the accumulation of Ca and Mg. (author)

  20. Standard and Short RoM Isokinetic Testing: Comparative Analysis in Identifying Submaximal Shoulder External Rotator Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Eduard; Chaler, Joaquim; Sucarrats, Laura; López, Inés; Zeballos, Blanca; Garreta, Roser; Dvir, Zeevi

    2017-01-01

    An isokinetic-related parameter termed the difference between eccentric-concentric strength ratios at two distinct test velocities (DEC) based on 60° (standard) range of motion (RoM) has been proven to be highly efficient detecting feigned muscular efforts. This study aimed to verify whether a DEC derived from a much shorter test RoM (20°) was equally useful than a long RoM-derived one. Eighteen healthy men (32.4 ± 6.4 years old) took part in a study focusing on shoulder external rotation isokinetic strength. Participants performed a genuine shoulder external rotator maximal effort (eight pairs of concentric and eccentric contractions at high and low velocities at short and long RoM) and then instructed to feign maximal effort. Contraction velocities were adjusted accordingly by applying a 1:4 gradient and peak moments registered. Both condition DEC was then calculated by subtracting the eccentric and concentric strength ratios at low velocities from those at high velocities. DEC scores in the feigned effort were significantly higher than maximal effort ones in both conditions in men. It enabled the setting of specific cutoff levels for separating the efforts. Both approaches revealed a coincident sensitivity (78%) whereas short RoM showed an even higher specificity: 88% versus 78%. Thus, the short RoM protocol provides clinically acceptable detection power.

  1. Weed control in short rotation coppice crops: a review of recently published literature and current guidance for farmers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, C.

    2000-07-01

    This review with 41 references is based on a literature review and consultation with experts, and examines the importance of effective weed control. Herbicides currently approved for use in short rotation coppice plantations are listed. Current practices and recommendations to farmers on pre-planting, post-planting, post cut-back, post-harvest, and directed herbicide applications in the growing crop are outlined, and the results of recent research on chemical and mechanical weed control, mulches, and ground cover plants are addressed. Research need relating to weed competition, herbicide evaluation, vegetation management without chemicals, and quantification of post-harvest herbicide applications are identified.

  2. Response of Organ Structure and Physiology to Autotetraploidization in Early Development of Energy Willow Salix viminalis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudits, Dénes; Török, Katalin; Cseri, András; Paul, Kenny; Nagy, Bettina; Sass, László; Ferenc, Györgyi; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Petre; Vass, Imre; Ayaydin, Ferhan

    2016-01-01

    The biomass productivity of the energy willow Salix viminalis as a short-rotation woody crop depends on organ structure and functions that are under the control of genome size. Colchicine treatment of axillary buds resulted in a set of autotetraploid S. viminalis var. Energo genotypes (polyploid Energo [PP-E]; 2n = 4x = 76) with variation in the green pixel-based shoot surface area. In cases where increased shoot biomass was observed, it was primarily derived from larger leaf size and wider stem diameter. Autotetraploidy slowed primary growth and increased shoot diameter (a parameter of secondary growth). The duplicated genome size enlarged bark and wood layers in twigs sampled in the field. The PP-E plants developed wider leaves with thicker midrib and enlarged palisade parenchyma cells. Autotetraploid leaves contained significantly increased amounts of active gibberellins, cytokinins, salicylic acid, and jasmonate compared with diploid individuals. Greater net photosynthetic CO2 uptake was detected in leaves of PP-E plants with increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Improved photosynthetic functions in tetraploids were also shown by more efficient electron transport rates of photosystems I and II. Autotetraploidization increased the biomass of the root system of PP-E plants relative to diploids. Sections of tetraploid roots showed thickening with enlarged cortex cells. Elevated amounts of indole acetic acid, active cytokinins, active gibberellin, and salicylic acid were detected in the root tips of these plants. The presented variation in traits of tetraploid willow genotypes provides a basis to use autopolyploidization as a chromosome engineering technique to alter the organ development of energy plants in order to improve biomass productivity. PMID:26729798

  3. Drying of willow biomass in supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigler, J.

    2000-01-01

    The drying process of willow ( Salix viminalis ) in biomass supply chains to energy plants is quantitatively described. Drying at particle level was modelled for chips and stems by a diffusion equation linked to the mass transfer of moisture to the air. Drying at bulk

  4. Environmental applications of poplars and willows

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.G. Isebrands; P. Aronsson; M. Carlson; R. Ceulemans; M. Coleman; N. Dickinson; J. Dimitriou; S. Doty; E. Gardiner; K. Heinsoo; J.D. Johnson; Y.B. Koo; J. Kort; J. Kuzovkina; L. Licht; A.R. McCracken; I. McIvor; P. Mertens; K. Perttu; D. Riddell-Black; B. Robins; G. Scarascia-Mugnozza; W.R. Schroeder; John Stanturf; T.A. Volk; M. Weih

    2014-01-01

    Poplars and willows have been planted for environmental purposes for millennia. There are reports that poplars were planted to improve the human environment 4000 years ago in the third dynasty of Ur, for streamside stabilization 2000 years ago in what is now the south-western USA by native North Americans and for urban amenities by the early Chinese dynasties (see...

  5. Controlling the rotation of asymmetric top molecules by the combination of a long and a short laser pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup, Simon S.; Kumarappan, Vinod; Holmegaard, Lotte

    2009-01-01

    We describe theoretically and experimentally a laser-based method to    control the rotations of asymmetric top molecules in three-dimensional    space. Our method relies on keeping one axis of a molecule essentially    fixed in space along the polarization vector of a nanosecond laser    pulse (...... (termed the long pulse) and forcing the molecule to rotate about    the aligned axis by an orthogonally polarized, femtosecond laser pulse    (termed the short pulse). Experimentally, we use femtosecond timed    Coulomb explosion to image the three-dimensional (3D) alignment of the    3...... the role    played by the intensity of the long and the short laser pulses. To    illustrate the generality of our method, we illustrate its    applicability to a molecule (3,4-dibromothiophene), with significantly    different inertia and polarizability tensors. Finally, our theory shows...

  6. Early Effects of Afforestation with Willow (Salix purpurea, “Hotel” on Soil Carbon and Nutrient Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Farrell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Willow (Salix spp. is currently being researched as a source of biomass energy in Canada. However, it is not certain whether afforestation with willow plantations will enhance or diminish soil C storage and nutrient availability. Trees are known to have pronounced effects on biologically mediated nutrient cycling processes which can increase nutrient availability, but willows are known to be nutrient demanding. In this paper, the net effect of plantation establishment is examined at nine sites across the prairie and southern Ontario regions of Canada. Carbon, N, P, K, Ca and Mg levels in soils and harvestable biomass were compared between willow plantations and paired reference sites at the end of the first three-year rotation. Soils were depleted in total C (−2.22 mg·g−1, p < 0.05, inorganic N (−3.12 μg·N·g−1, p < 0.10, exchangeable K (−0.11 cmolc·kg−1, p < 0.10 and leachable P (−0.03 mg·g−1, p < 0.10. Exchangeable Ca was found to be consistently depleted only at the 20–40 depth. Depletion of soil K was more heavily influenced by disturbance, whereas soil N was directly affected by willow N uptake. Sites with greater growth and biocycling stabilized soil P concentrations.

  7. Genetic variation of the bud and leaf phenology of seventeen poplar clones in a short rotation coppice culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, A; Laureysens, I; Ceulemans, R

    2004-01-01

    Leaf phenology of 17 poplar ( Populus spp.) clones, encompassing spring phenology, length of growth period and end-of-year phenology, was examined over several years of different rotations. The 17 poplar clones differed in their latitude of origin (45 degrees 30'N to 51 degrees N) and were studied on a short rotation experimental field plantation, situated in Boom (province of Antwerpen, Belgium; 51 degrees 05'N, 04 degrees 22'E). A similar, clear pattern of bud burst was observed during the different years of study for all clones. Clones Columbia River, Fritzi Pauley, Trichobel (Populus trichocarpa) and Balsam Spire (Populus trichocarpa x Populus balsamifera) from 45 degrees 30'N to 49 degrees N reached bud burst (expressed as day of the year or degree day sums) almost every year earlier than clones Wolterson (Populus nigra), Gaver, Gibecq and Primo (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra) (50 degrees N to 51 degrees N). This observation could not be generalised to end-of-season phenology, for which a yearly returning pattern for all clones was lacking. Late bud burst and early leaf fall of some clones (Beaupré, Boelare, IBW1, IBW2, IBW3) was brought about by increasing rust incidence during the years of observation. For these clones, the variability in leaf phenology was reflected in high coefficients of variation among years. The patterns of genetic variation in leaf phenology have implications for short rotation intensive culture forestry and management of natural populations. Moreover, the variation in phenology reported here is relevant with regard to the genetic mapping of poplar.

  8. Short Rotations in Forest Plantations Accelerate Virulence Evolution in Root-Rot Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Soularue

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As disease outbreaks in forest plantations are causing concern worldwide, a clear understanding of the influence of silvicultural practices on the development of epidemics is still lacking. Importantly, silvicultural practices are likely to simultaneously affect epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of pathogen populations. We propose a genetically explicit and individual-based model of virulence evolution in a root-rot pathogenic fungus spreading across forest landscapes, taking the Armillaria ostoyae–Pinus pinaster pathosystem as reference. We used the model to study the effects of rotation length on the evolution of virulence and the propagation of the fungus within a forest landscape composed of even-aged stands regularly altered by clear-cutting and thinning operations. The life cycle of the fungus modeled combines asexual and sexual reproduction modes, and also includes parasitic and saprotrophic phases. Moreover, the tree susceptibility to the pathogen is primarily determined by the age of the stand. Our simulations indicated that the shortest rotation length accelerated both the evolution of virulence and the development of the epidemics, whatever the genetic variability in the initial fungal population and the asexuality rate of the fungal species

  9. Biochar mineralization and priming effect on SOM decomposition. Results from a field trial in a short rotation coppice in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Maurizio; Alberti, Giorgio; Panzacchi, Pietro; Delle Vedove, Gemini; Miglietta, Franco; Tonon, Giustino

    2016-04-01

    Biochar application to soil has been proposed as a promising strategy for carbon (C) sequestration and climate change mitigation, helping at the same time to maintain soil fertility. However, most of the knowledge on biochar stability is based on short-term lab incubation experiments, as field studies are scarce. Therefore, little is known about the interactions between biochar and roots and the related effects on biochar stability in field conditions. The present study aimed to assess the stability of biochar, its effect on original soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition, and the effect of plant roots on biochar stability in field conditions in Northern Italy, for a three-year monitoring period within the EuroChar project. The experiment was conducted in a poplar short rotation coppice (SRC). Biochar produced from maize (δ13C = -13.8‰) silage pellets in a gasification plant was applied in a poplar short rotation coppice (SRC) plantation in Northern Italy. Root exclusion subplots were established using the trenching method to measure heterotrophic respiration. Total (Rtot) and heterotrophic (Rh) respiration were measured every 2 hours in control and biochar-treated soil, with a closed dynamic soil respiration system. δ13C of the soil-emited CO2 was periodically measured using the Keeling plot method. The percentage of biochar-derived soil respiration (fB), was calculated using an isotopic mass balance. Results showed that fB varied between 7% and 37% according to the sampling date, and was generally higher in the presence of roots than in trenched plots where the root growth was excluded. Without roots, only the 14% of the carbon originally added with biochar was decomposed. In the presence of roots, this percentage increased to 21%, suggesting a positive priming effect of roots on biochar decomposition. On the other hand, biochar decreased the decomposition of original SOM by about 17%, suggesting a protective effect of biochar on SOM.

  10. Concentrations of Chemical Elements in Willow Biomass Depend on Clone, Site and Management in the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    Eight willow (Salix) clones (Inger, Klara, Linnea, Resolution, Stina, Terra Nova, Tora, Tordis) were planted on two soil types in Denmark. The biomass quality was evaluated after 3 years of growth by measuring differences in concentrations of 14 elements associated with ash behavior during...... to 22, 27, 35, and 23 % higher concentrations of K, S, Ca, and total ash than the other clones. In addition to clone and site, appropriate management could further improve the fuel quality of willow biomass. When shoots of Inger were harvested annually (1-year shoots) high concentrations of K and Cl...... were found in all three consecutive harvests, but concentrations decreased significantly when rotation length was extended beyond 1 year of growth. Significant decreases of Mg, Na, P, S, and Zn were also registered from 2- to 3-year-old shoots. No difference in quality of biomass was found between two...

  11. Insignificant acute toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to willow trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeger, Eva Mareike; Baun, Anders; Kästner, M.

    2009-01-01

    , no results of toxicity tests with trees have been reported. Woody species, dominant in many ecosystems, may be vulnerable in particular due to the large porous wood compartment. This study tests the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles on trees with the short-term willow tree transpiration test. TiO2 particles....... The loss of nanoparticles from solution was faster for particles with larger diameter and in the presence of trees. Willow trees were not sensitive to short-term exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles. Similar results were obtained for other plant species. Effects of nanoparticles were observed for zinc and zinc...... oxide particles, but these effects were probably due to heavy metal toxicity and not nanosize specific. In summary, we came to the conclusion that woody species are not in particular vulnerable to nanosized TiO2 particles in the conditions, concentrations, and time periods used in this study...

  12. Outcomes following arthroscopic transosseous equivalent suture bridge double row rotator cuff repair: a prospective study and short-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Mohamed Abdelnabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transosseous-equivalent cross bridge double row (TESBDR rotator cuff (RC repair technique has been developed to optimize healing biology at a repaired RC tendon insertion. It has been shown in the laboratory to improve pressurized contact area and mean foot print pressure when compared with a double row anchor technique. Pressure has been shown to influence healing between tendon and bone, and the tendon compression vector provided by the transosseous-equivalent suture bridges may enhance healing. The purpose was to prospectively evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic TESBDR RC repair. Methods: Single center prospective case series study. Sixty-nine patients were selected to undergo arthroscopic TESBDR RC repair and were included in the current study. Primary outcome measures included the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS, the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA score, the Constant-Murley (CM Score and Range of motion (ROM. Secondary outcome measures included a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for pain, another VAS for patient satisfaction from the operative procedure, EuroQoL 5-Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5D for quality of life assessment. Results: At 24 months post-operative, average OSS score was 44, average UCLA score was 31, average CM score was 88, average forward flexion was 145°, average internal rotation was 35°, average external rotation was 79°, average abduction was 150°, average EQ-5D score was 0.73, average VAS for pain was 2.3, and average VAS for patient satisfaction was 9.2. Conclusion: Arthroscopic TESBDR RC repair is a procedure with good post-operative functional outcome and low re-tear rate based on a short term follow-up.

  13. Cover crop rotations in no-till system: short-term CO2 emissions and soybean yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Gonsiorkiewicz Rigon

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In addition to improving sustainability in cropping systems, the use of a spring and winter crop rotation system may be a viable option for mitigating soil CO2 emissions (ECO2. This study aimed to determine short-term ECO2 as affected by crop rotations and soil management over one soybean cycle in two no-till experiments, and to assess the soybean yields with the lowest ECO2. Two experiments were carried out in fall-winter as follows: i triticale and sunflower were grown in Typic Rhodudalf (TR, and ii ruzigrass, grain sorghum, and ruzigrass + grain sorghum were grown in Rhodic Hapludox (RH. In the spring, pearl millet, sunn hemp, and forage sorghum were grown in both experiments. In addition, in TR a fallow treatment was also applied in the spring. Soybean was grown every year in the summer, and ECO2 were recorded during the growing period. The average ECO2 was 0.58 and 0.84 g m2 h–1 with accumulated ECO2 of 5,268 and 7,813 kg ha–1 C-CO2 in TR and RH, respectively. Sunn hemp, when compared to pearl millet, resulted in lower ECO2 by up to 12 % and an increase in soybean yield of 9% in TR. In RH, under the winter crop Ruzigrazz+Sorghum, ECO2 were lower by 17%, although with the same soybean yield. Soil moisture and N content of crop residues are the main drivers of ECO2 and soil clay content seems to play an important role in ECO2 that is worthy of further studies. In conclusion, sunn hemp in crop rotation may be utilized to mitigate ECO2 and improve soybean yield.

  14. Fertilization effects on biomass production, nutrient leaching and budgets in four stand development stages of short rotation forest poplar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Petros; Nielsen, Anders Tærø; Stupak, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Dedicated energy poplar plantations have a high biomass production potential in temperate regions, which may be further increased by improved management practices. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fertilization on short rotation forest poplar established on former...... leaching based on water fluxes modelled with CoupModel and soil solution analyses and calculated the nutrient budgets. Fertilization effects depended on the stage of stand development, but were inconsistent in time. The biomass production increased in EST in the first year after fertilization and in PT...... arable land. We examined the effects on biomass production, net nutrient uptake in stems and branches, nutrient leaching fluxes and changes to the nutrient budgets calculated as inputs minus outputs. An experiment was carried out in four stands of different development stages, the establishment (EST...

  15. Assessing the Influence of Summer Organic Fertilization Combined with Nitrogen Inhibitor on a Short Rotation Woody Crop in Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Maienza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Directive 91/676/EEC, known as Nitrates Directive, has dictated basic agronomic principles regarding the use of animal manure source as well as livestock and waste waters from small food companies. The use of nitrification inhibitors together with animal effluents as organic fertilizers could be beneficial for nutrient recycling, plant productivity, and greenhouse gas emission and could offer economic advantages as alternative to conventional fertilizers especially in the Mediterranean region. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in plant productivity between bovine effluent treatments with (or without addition of a nitrification inhibitor (3,4 DMPP in a short rotation woody crop system. Results of the field experiment carried out in a Mediterranean dry environment indicated that the proposed strategy could improve tree growth with indirect, beneficial effects for agroforestry systems.

  16. Impact of elevated CO(2) and nitrogen fertilization on foliar elemental composition in a short rotation poplar plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinari, Sara; Calfapietra, Carlo; De Angelis, Paolo; Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia; Grego, Stefano

    2007-06-01

    The experiment was carried out on a short rotation coppice culture of poplars (POP-EUROFACE, Central Italy), growing in a free air carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere (FACE). The specific objective of this work was to study whether elevated CO(2) and fertilization (two CO(2) treatments, elevated CO(2) and control, two N fertilization treatments, fertilized and unfertilized), as well as the interaction between treatments caused an unbalanced nutritional status of leaves in three poplar species (P. x euramericana, P. nigra and P. alba). Finally, we discuss the ecological implications of a possible change in foliar nutrients concentration. CO(2) enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the concentration of magnesium; whereas nitrogen fertilization had opposite effects on leaf nitrogen and magnesium concentrations. Moreover, the interaction between elevated CO(2) and N fertilization amplified some element unbalances such as the K/N-ratio.

  17. Biomass production and nutrient cycling in Eucalyptus short rotation energy forests in New Zealand: II. Litter fall and nutrient return

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, L.B.; Sims, R.E.H. [Institute of Technology and Engineering, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Horne, D.J. [Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North (New Zealand)

    2006-05-15

    Litter fall and nutrient return via the litter fall were measured during the first 3-yr rotation of three Eucalyptus short rotation forest species (E. botryoides, E. globulus and E. ovata) irrigated with meatworks effluent compared with no irrigation. Up to 13.4 oven-dry t/ha/yr of annual litter fall was recorded with nutrient returns of up to 159kgN/ha/yr, 9kgP/ha/yr, 28kgK/ha/yr, 125kgCa/ha/yr, 22kgMg/ha/yr, and 32kgMn/ha/yr. Effluent irrigation increased the litter fall and the return of some nutrients. More litter fall with higher nutrient return was found under E. globulus than under the other two species. However, the amounts of litter fall and nutrient return were highly dependent on the degree of biomass production and nutrient uptake. During the 3-yr period, up to 20% of the total above ground biomass produced was in the form of litter, and via the litter fall, up to 24% of the total N uptake was returned to the soil surface. (author)

  18. Short rotation coppice with Robinia pseudoacacia L. : a land use option for carbon sequestration on reclaimed mine sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinkenstein, A.; Bohm, C.; Freese, D. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; Huttl, R.R. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A study in northeast Germany has shown that the establishment of short rotation coppices (SRC) of Robinia pseudoacacia L. may be a viable option for improving farmers income on marginal soils. The plantations produce woody biomass at a fast rate for energy use. Carbon is accumulated in the harvestable biomass, as well as in the stump and the roots. These plant compartments form a long-term carbon storage pool because they can survive a harvest, stay vital at the site and continue to grow as the plant ages. As organic litter decomposes, additional carbon is sequestered under SRC as soil organic carbon. The carbon sequestration in SRC of R. pseudoacacia on mining sites within the Lower Lusatian region in northeast Germany was studied and the results were complemented with findings of current field studies conducted on reclaimed mine sites. The average above ground dry matter productivity of R. pseudoacacia was found to be 3 to 10 Mg per hectare per year, depending on the plantation age and rotation period. It has been estimated that the carbon storage within the soil accounts to a carbon sequestration of up to 6 Mg per hectare per year for a soil depth of 60 cm.

  19. Genetic improvement and evaluation of black cottonwood for short- rotation biomass production. Final report, 1987--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stettler, R.F.; Hinckley, T.M. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Coll. of Forest Resources; Heilman, P.E. [Washington State Univ., Puyallup, WA (United States). Research and Extension Center; Bradshaw, H.D. Jr. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1993-04-30

    This project was initiated in 1978 to serve three objectives: (1) develop genetically improved poplar cultivars offering increased productivity under short-rotation culture; (2) identify the major components of productivity in poplar and determine ways in which they can be manipulated, genetically and culturally; and (3) engage in technology transfer to regional industry and agencies so as to make poplar culture in the Pacific Northwest economically feasible. The project is aimed at capturing natural variation in the native black cottonwood. Populus trichocarpa T & G, and enhancing it through selective breeding. Major emphasis has been placed on hybridization of black cottonwood with P deltoides and P maximowiczii, more recently with p nigra. First-generation (F{sub 1}) hybrids have consistently outperformed black cottonwood by a factor of 1.5.-2. The high yields of woody biomass obtained from these clonally propagated hybrids, in rotations of 4-7 years, have fostered the establishment of large-scale plantations by the pulp and paper industry in the region. Physiological studies have helped to elucidate hybrid superiority and several of the underlying mechanisms.

  20. Willow species and aspirin: different mechanism of actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachojannis, J; Magora, F; Chrubasik, S

    2011-07-01

    Many believe that willow is the natural source of aspirin. However, willow species contain only a low quantity of the prodrug salicin which is metabolized during absorption into various salicylate derivatives. If calculated as salicylic acid, the daily salicin dose is insufficient to produce analgesia. Salicylic acid concentrations following an analgesic dose of aspirin are an order of magnitude higher. Flavonoids and polyphenols contribute to the potent willow bark analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect. The multi-component active principle of willow bark provides a broader mechanism of action than aspirin and is devoid of serious adverse events. In contrast to synthetic aspirin, willow bark does not damage the gastrointestinal mucosa. An extract dose with 240 mg salicin had no major impact on blood clotting. In patients with known aspirin allergy willow bark products are contraindicated. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Physiological and morphological responses of pine and willow saplings to post-fire salvage logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions, E. L.; Letts, M. G.; Harvey, T.; Rood, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    With global warming, forest fires may be increasing in frequency, and post-fire salvage logging may become more common. The ecophysiological impacts of this practice on tree saplings remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the physiological and morphological impacts of increased light intensity, due to post-fire salvage logging, on the conifer Pinus contorta (pine) and deciduous broadleaf Salix lucida (willow) tree and shrub species in the Crowsnest Pass region of southern Alberta. Photosynthetic gas-exchange and plant morphological measurements were taken throughout the summer of 2013 on approximately ten year-old saplings of both species. Neither species exhibited photoinhibition, but different strategies were observed to acclimate to increased light availability. Willow saplings were able to slightly elevate their light-saturated rate of net photosynthesis (Amax) when exposed to higher photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), thus increasing their growth rate. Willow also exhibited increased leaf inclination angles and leaf mass per unit area (LMA), to decrease light interception in the salvage-logged plot. By contrast, pine, which exhibited lower Amax and transpiration (E), but higher water-use efficiency (WUE = Amax/E) than willow, increased the rate at which electrons were moved through and away from the photosynthetic apparatus in order to avoid photoinhibition. Acclimation indices were higher in willow saplings, consistent with the hypothesis that species with short-lived foliage exhibit greater acclimation. LMA was higher in pine saplings growing in the logged plot, but whole-plant and branch-level morphological acclimation was limited and more consistent with a response to decreased competition in the logged plot, which had much lower stand density.

  2. Drying of willow biomass in supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Gigler, J.

    2000-01-01

    The drying process of willow ( Salix viminalis ) in biomass supply chains to energy plants is quantitatively described. Drying at particle level was modelled for chips and stems by a diffusion equation linked to the mass transfer of moisture to the air. Drying at bulk level is described by a deep bed model, which accounted for the moisture and temperature gradients of wood and air therein. Experimental validation showed that the deep bed model adequately describe...

  3. Estimation of woody biomass production from a short-rotation bio-energy system in semi-arid Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sochacki, S.J.; Harper, R.J. [Forest Products Commission, Locked Bag 888, Perth Business Centre, Perth, WA 6849 (Australia); Smettem, K.R.J. [School of Environmental Systems Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6907 (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    Short, 3-5 year, rotations of trees have been proposed as a method of regaining hydrological control of dryland farming systems (300-600 mm annual rainfall) in southern Australia and thus alleviating salinization of land and water. At the termination of the rotation, the trees will be removed and used as a bioenergy feedstock. In the absence of any tree growth data in this region, allometric relationships were developed for three prospective short-rotation species (Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus occidentalis and Pinus radiata), for 3-year-old trees, at a site with a mean annual rainfall of 365 mm. Equations that related stem diameter over bark at 10 cm (D{sub 10}) and tree height (ht) to total tree biomass (above and below ground), leaves, stems (stemwood and bark) and roots were developed, by combining data from different planting densities (500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 stem ha{sup -1}) and landscape positions (upper-slope, mid-slope and lower-slope). Mean oven-dry yields of the three species, in the high planting density treatment were not significantly different and ranged from 12 to 14 t ha{sup -1} (3 years){sup -1}. There were consistent increases in biomass yield with planting density, with this generally being greatest with the 4000 stem ha{sup -1} treatment. There were marked differences in productivity with slope position. For E. globulus and E. occidentalis the best yields were obtained in lower landscape positions with initial planting densities of 4000 stem ha{sup -1}, with 16.6 and 22.2 t ha{sup -1} (3 years){sup -1}, total biomass produced, respectively. The best yield of P. radiata was 15.4 t ha{sup -1} (3 years){sup -1} from an initial planting density of 4000 stem ha{sup -1} in an upper landscape position. These differences partly reflected site hydrology, with water accumulating in downslope positions. Partitioning of tree components was variable between species, with root:shoot (R:S) ratio being significantly (P<0.0001) higher for E. occidentalis (0

  4. Short rotation coppice improve the phosphorus (P) supply of arable land through translocation of P from subsoil to topsoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, K.; Kaupenjohann, M.

    2011-12-01

    Even if the agricultural use of P will not increase during the next decades, the stock of phosphorous (P) in global mineral deposits is predicted to last for only less than 50 to 100 years. This will cause a much more severe problem than the shortage of fossil energy because P as an element essential to all life is not substitutable through any other material. Thus, efforts have to be made to close the P-cycle and it will in the near future be no more justifiable to disperse P or dump it at places where it cannot be recovered from. Additionally, new resources of P have to be explored to cover increasing P demand and to compensate for inevitable losses. Subsoil, which is hardly explored by arable crops may contain such P reserves. Deep rooting perennial plants like trees have access to these P resources and may be used to introduce subsoil P into the agricultural P cycle. Using literature data we followed the question to what extent the introduction of short rotation coppice of energy - Populus, Salix and Robinia into the agricultural crop rotation could support the P supply to annual food crops. Leaf litter of Populs, Salix and Robinia will transfer 3 to 13, 5 to 12 and 5 to 12 kg P and ha-1 a-1 to the soil surface, respectively. The large variation is mainly explained by site conditions (soil and climate). Assuming that 30 % of the nutrient requirement of the trees is assimilated from the subsoil, 1 to 5 kg of P ha-1 a-1 may be translocated to the topsoil. The knowledge about root content of P of the three tree species is very scarce. Based on information about other broadleaf trees, we consider that root litter may transfer amounts of P to the topsoil similar to leaf litter. Thus, in total the annual translocation of subsoil-P to the topsoil may range between 2 to 10 kg ha-1 in short rotation plantations. These amounts are far below the annual P removal from soils through food crops which may range from 20 to 40 kg P ha-1 a-1. Therefore subsoil P cannot replace P

  5. Yield models for commercial willow biomass plantations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola-Yudego, Blas [Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-801 01 Joensuu (Finland); Aronsson, Paer [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7016, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    A yield model for willow plantations for bioenergy production in Sweden was developed based on recorded production of 2082 commercial plantations during the period 1989-2005. The model predicts yield for the first, second and third harvest using oats (avena) production as agro-climatic index. The mean annual yields were 2.6, 4.2 and 4.5 oven dry tonnes (odt) per hectare during the first, second and third cutting cycles, respectively. The yield correlated inversely with the length of the cutting cycle. The results of the study show significant differences between growers, which suggest the importance of proper management in the establishment and tending of the plantations. Model estimates for 25% of the best growers vary from 4.0 to 6.3 odt ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in 5-year-rotation plantations during the first cutting cycle, and from 5.4 to 7.1 odt ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in 4-year-rotations for the second cutting cycle. The proposed model can be applied in policy making and for management planning. (author)

  6. Genetics of phenotypic plasticity and biomass traits in hybrid willows across contrasting environments and years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Sofia; Hallingbäck, Henrik R; Beyer, Friderike; Nordh, Nils-Erik; Weih, Martin; Rönnberg-Wästljung, Ann-Christin

    2017-07-01

    Phenotypic plasticity can affect the geographical distribution of taxa and greatly impact the productivity of crops across contrasting and variable environments. The main objectives of this study were to identify genotype-phenotype associations in key biomass and phenology traits and the strength of phenotypic plasticity of these traits in a short-rotation coppice willow population across multiple years and contrasting environments to facilitate marker-assisted selection for these traits. A hybrid Salix viminalis  × ( S. viminalis × Salix schwerinii ) population with 463 individuals was clonally propagated and planted in three common garden experiments comprising one climatic contrast between Sweden and Italy and one water availability contrast in Italy. Several key phenotypic traits were measured and phenotypic plasticity was estimated as the trait value difference between experiments. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analyses were conducted using a dense linkage map and phenotypic effects of S. schwerinii haplotypes derived from detected QTL were assessed. Across the climatic contrast, clone predictor correlations for biomass traits were low and few common biomass QTL were detected. This indicates that the genetic regulation of biomass traits was sensitive to environmental variation. Biomass QTL were, however, frequently shared across years and across the water availability contrast. Phenology QTL were generally shared between all experiments. Substantial phenotypic plasticity was found among the hybrid offspring, that to a large extent had a genetic origin. Individuals carrying influential S. schwerinii haplotypes generally performed well in Sweden but less well in Italy in terms of biomass production. The results indicate that specific genetic elements of S. schwerinii are more suited to Swedish conditions than to those of Italy. Therefore, selection should preferably be conducted separately for such environments in order to maximize biomass

  7. Estimation of genetic parameters of newly introduced tree willow clones in Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Willows being multipurpose species are well recognized in short rotation forestry world over. 200 clones of different species and hybrids were procured from twenty countries over the period of three years. These were subjected for nursery screening and further 18 promising clones were planted in March, 2006 at university main campus Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh. The five years growth performance was evaluated and clone J-799 has given maximum plant height (19.33 m which is at par with the clone NZ-1140 (16.33 m followed by SI-63-007 (14.30 m. As regards with diameter at breast height and volume index, clone J-799 registered first rank followed by NZ-1140 and 131/25 recording 16.50 cm and 0.554 m3, 15.30 cm and 0.386 m3 ;15.30cm and 0.368m3, respectively. Bole straightness was recorded maximum in clone J-795 that is at par with clones J-194, PN-721 and 131/25 followed by clones J-799, SI-63-007, NZ-1140 and SI-64-017. Heritability in broad sense for bole straightness (46.36% and genetic gain of the volume index (67.95% was found highest. Genotypic, phenotypic and environment coefficients of variations were recorded maximum (0.995 for volume index character. Genetic correlation coefficient was highest (0.921 between plant height and volume, while phenotypic correlation coefficient was highest between diameter at breast height and volume index. On the basis of five year growth performance, five clones namely J- 799, NZ-1140, 131/25, SI-63-007 and PN-731 are found suitable for lower and mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh.

  8. Effects of artificial defoliation on growth and biomass accumulation in short-rotation sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetton, Robert M; Robison, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Sweetgum, Liquidambar styraciflua L. (Hamamelidales: Hamamelidaceae), is a species of interest for short-rotation plantation forestry in the southeastern United States. Despite its high levels of resistance to many native insects and pathogens, the species is susceptible to generalist defoliators during outbreak epidemics. The objective of this field study was to evaluate the potential impact of defoliation on sweetgum growth and productivity within the context of an operational plantation. Over three growing seasons, trees were subjected to artificial defoliation treatments of various intensity (control = 0% defoliation; low intensity = 33% defoliation; moderate intensity = 67% defoliation; high intensity = 99% defoliation) and frequency (not defoliated; defoliated once in April of the first growing season; defoliated twice, once in April of the first growing season and again in April of the second growing season). The responses of stem height, stem diameter, stem volume, crown volume, total biomass accumulation, and branch growth were measured in November of each growing season. At the end of the first growing season, when trees had received single defoliations, significant reductions in all growth traits followed the most severe (99%) defoliation treatment only. After the second and third growing seasons, when trees had received one or two defoliations of varying intensity, stem diameter and volume and total tree biomass were reduced significantly by 67 and 99% defoliation, while reductions in stem height and crown volume followed the 99% treatment only. All growth traits other than crown volume were reduced significantly by two defoliations but not one defoliation. Results indicate that sweetgum is highly resilient to single defoliations of low, moderate, and high intensity. However, during the three-year period of the study, repeated high-intensity defoliation caused significant reductions in growth and productivity that could have lasting impacts on yield

  9. Effects of clone and cutting traits on shoot emergence and early growth of willow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verwijst, Theo; Lundkvist, Anneli; Edelfeldt, Stina

    2012-01-01

    To assess if size differences between plants in establishing willow stands may be caused by differences between cuttings prior to planting, plant response (survival, sprouting in terms of emergence time and shoot number, and growth in terms of shoot size, weight and leaf area) was quantified...... as a function of clone, original position on shoots from which cuttings are derived, cutting length, cutting diameter, and field storage time. Longer and thicker willow cuttings developed more and taller shoots and displayed a higher biomass production than shoots from short and thin cuttings. Cuttings derived...... from apical positions along shoots displayed for a given diameter a higher shoot biomass production than cuttings derived from the more basal parts. The effect of position was related to differences between cuttings with regard to phenology, bud burst for cuttings from high positions having progressed...

  10. Five willow varieties cultivated across diverse field environments reveal stem density variation associated with high tension wood abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eBerthod

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable and inexpensive production of biomass is necessary to make biofuel production feasible, but represents a challenge. Five short rotation coppice (SRC willow cultivars, selected for high biomass yield, were cultivated on sites at four diverse regions of Quebec to determine their bioenergy potential in contrasting environments. Wood composition and anatomical traits were characterized. Tree height and stem diameter were measured to evaluate growth performance of the cultivars according to the diverse pedoclimatic conditions. Each cultivar showed very specific responses to its environment. While no significant variation in lignin content was observed between sites, there was variation between cultivars. Surprisingly, the pattern of substantial genotype variability in stem density was maintained across all sites. However, wood anatomy did differ between sites in a cultivar (producing high and low density wood, suggesting a probable response to an abiotic stress. Furthermore, twice as many cellulose-rich G-fibers, comprising over 50 % of secondary xylem, were also found in the high density wood, a finding with potential to bring higher value to the lignocellulosic bioethanol industry

  11. Five willow varieties cultivated across diverse field environments reveal stem density variation associated with high tension wood abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthod, Nicolas; Brereton, Nicholas J B; Pitre, Frédéric E; Labrecque, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable and inexpensive production of biomass is necessary to make biofuel production feasible, but represents a challenge. Five short rotation coppice willow cultivars, selected for high biomass yield, were cultivated on sites at four diverse regions of Quebec in contrasting environments. Wood composition and anatomical traits were characterized. Tree height and stem diameter were measured to evaluate growth performance of the cultivars according to the diverse pedoclimatic conditions. Each cultivar showed very specific responses to its environment. While no significant variation in lignin content was observed between sites, there was variation between cultivars. Surprisingly, the pattern of substantial genotype variability in stem density was maintained across all sites. However, wood anatomy did differ between sites in a cultivar (producing high and low density wood), suggesting a probable response to an abiotic stress. Furthermore, twice as many cellulose-rich G-fibers, comprising over 50% of secondary xylem, were also found in the high density wood, a finding with potential to bring higher value to the lignocellulosic bioethanol industry.

  12. Phytotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to willow trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, R.S.; Trapp, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    The toxicity of PAH to willow trees (Salix alba, S. viminalis, S. viminalisx;schwerinii) was investigated. Willow cuttings were grown in PAH-saturated hydroponic solution (naphthalene NAP, phenanthrene PHEN and benzo(a)pyrene BaP). Toxicity was related to aqueous solubility and was highest for NA...

  13. Models in Educational Administration: Revisiting Willower's "Theoretically Oriented" Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul; Burgess, David; Burns, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Three decades ago, Willower (1975) argued that much of what we take to be theory in educational administration is in fact only theoretically oriented. If we accept Willower's assessment of the field as true, what implications does this statement hold for the academic study and practical application of the theoretically oriented aspects of our…

  14. Adsorption Property and Mechanism of Oxytetracycline onto Willow Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Xu, Haiyang; Yang, Shengke; Wang, Wenke; Wang, Yanhua

    2017-12-22

    To elucidate the adsorption property and the mechanism of plant residues to reduce oxytetracycline (OTC), the adsorption of OTC onto raw willow roots (WR-R), stems (WS-R), leaves (WL-R), and adsorption onto desugared willow roots (WR-D), stems (WS-D), and leaves (WL-D) were investigated. The structural characterization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, and an elemental analyzer. OTC adsorption onto the different tissues of willow residues was compared and correlated with their structures. The adsorption kinetics of OTC onto willow residues was found to follow the pseudo-first-order model. The isothermal adsorption process of OTC onto the different tissues of willow residues followed the Langmuir and Freundlich model and the process was also a spontaneous endothermic reaction, which was mainly physical adsorption. After the willow residues were desugared, the polarity decreased and the aromaticity increased, which explained why the adsorption amounts of the desugared willow residues were higher than those of the unmodified residues. These observations suggest that the raw and modified willow residues have great potential as adsorbents to remove organic pollutants.

  15. Assessment of soil nitrogen and phosphorous availability under elevated CO2 and N-fertilization in a short rotation poplar plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagomarsino, A.; Moscatelli, M.C.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Angelis, de P.; Grego, S.

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic stimulation by elevated [CO2] is largely regulated by nitrogen and phosphorus availability in the soil. During a 6 year Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment with poplar trees in two short rotations, inorganic forms of soil nitrogen, extractable phosphorus, microbial and total

  16. Carbon storage versus fossil fuel substitution: a climate change mitigation option for two different land use categories based on short and long rotation forestry in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaul, M.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Dadhwal, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    Short rotation bioenergy crops for energy production are considered an effective means to mitigate the greenhouse effect, mainly due to their ability to substitute fossil fuels. Alternatively, carbon can be sequestered and stored in the living biomass. This paper compares the two land use categories

  17. ORCHIDEE-SRC v1.0 : An extension of the land surface model ORCHIDEE for simulating short rotation coppice poplar plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groote, T.; Zona, D.; Broeckx, L. S.; Verlinden, M. S.; Luyssaert, S.; Bellassen, V.; Vuichard, N.; Ceulemans, R.; Gobin, A.; Janssens, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    Modelling biomass production and the environmental impact of short rotation coppice (SRC) plantations is necessary for planning their deployment, as they are becoming increasingly important for global energy production. This paper describes the modification of the widely used land surface model

  18. Firewood yield and profitability of a traditional Daniellia oliveri short-rotation coppice on fallow lands in Benin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avohou, T. Hermane [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, University of Abomey Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou (Benin); Bioversity International, West and Central Africa Office, 08 BP 0932 Cotonou (Benin); Houehounha, Remy; Glele-Kakai, Romain; Assogbadjo, Achille Ephrem; Sinsin, Brice [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, University of Abomey Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou (Benin)

    2011-01-15

    Sub-Saharan Africa has a great diversity of local coppicing species which are exploited in traditional short coppice systems for firewood. Biomass yield and profitability of these systems as well as their responses to silvicultural improvement are little known. This study evaluated the firewood yield and the profitability of a traditional Daniellia oliveri short-rotation coppice on fallow lands in central Benin. Two weed management options were considered: (1) the weedy option, usually practiced by locals, which experienced grass competition and bushfires, and (2) the weed-free option, which consisted in periodic removal of grasses and other species. Destructive measurements and allometric equations were used to estimate biomass yield in 12 plots over 42 months. A cost-benefit analysis model based on the net present value and the benefit-cost ratio was used to compare the profitability of the two management options. Biomass accumulation rate averaged 1.08 {+-} 0.20 tonnes of dry matter ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} (t DM ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}) in weedy conditions. Weed removal improved 3.5 times this rate in weed-free plots (3.83 {+-} 0.47 t DM ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}). After 42 months, total biomass reached 3.67 {+-} 0.65 t DM ha{sup -1} in weedy plots and 11.63 {+-} 0.76 t DM ha{sup -1} in weed-free plots. Most of the biomass ({>=}88%) was marketable in local markets. Coppice exploitation was profitable after 24 months for both management options. Weed removal improved the profits three times. A sensitivity analysis showed that both options were still profitable with up to 25% increase of labour and transport costs, 25% decrease of biomass price and 12% increase of the discount rate. (author)

  19. Puente Willow Creek en Monterrey, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available Of the 10 awards given every year by the Prestressed Concrete Institute for the most outstanding prestressed concrete projects, two have been awarded in California this year, one of them to the Willow Creek bridge, near Monterrey. The prestressed, double T girders of this bridge were made at a workshop, a great distance from the bridge site. These are 24 m long, 1.35 m high, and are stabilized by transversal diaphragms, 20 cm in thickness. The table deck is of reinforced concrete, being 8.85 m wide and 20 cm thick. The structure is straightforward, slender, and adapts itself pleasantly to the background. It has seven spans and crosses over a secondary road, in addition to bridging the Willow stream. The supporting piles are hollow, of rectangular cross section, and over them a cross beam carries the five girders and the deck itself. The end abutments consist of vertical reinforced concrete walls, and supporting, soil filled, structures. The above information was supplied by the California Road Department.De los diez premios que anualmente concede el Prestressed Concrete Institute para las obras de hormigón pretensado más notables, dos han correspondido a California y uno de ellos al puente de Willow Creek, situado en la región de Monterrey. Las vigas de hormigón pretensado, con sección en forma de doble T, se prefabricaron en un taller situado a gran distancia del puente. Tienen 24 m de longitud y 1,35 m de canto, estando arriostradas con diafragmas transversales de 20 cm de espesor. La losa del tablero, de hormigón armado, tiene 8,85 m de anchura y 20 cm de espesor. La estructura es sencilla, esbelta y armoniza perfectamente con el paisaje que la circunda. Tiene siete tramos y salva un paso inferior secundario y el arroyo Willow. Los soportes, se apoyan sobre pilotes, algunos de gran altura; son huecos, de sección rectangular y terminan en una cruceta que sirve de sostén a las cinco vigas que soportan la losa del tablero. Los estribos

  20. Short rotation woody biomass production as option for the restoration of post-mining areas in lower Lusatia, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, C.; Quinkenstein, A.; Freese, D. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; Huttl, R.R. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Reclaimed mine sites in the Lusatian lignite-mining district in Germany are characterized by low annual precipitation and marginal soils. As such, crop yield is typically low and conventional land use systems fail in terms of reliable and efficient crop production. The production of woody biomass for bioenergy may be a promising alternative to improve soil fertility and also to enhance the economic value of these post-mining areas. Previous studies have shown that black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) may be a suitable tree species for this purpose. This paper evaluated the ecological and economic benefits of producing woody biomass in short rotation coppices (SRC) and alley cropping systems (ACS) with black locust. The results showed that compared to conventional agriculture, such land use is not very profitable due to high establishment and harvesting costs and the comparatively low prices for wood energy. However, because of the improved microclimate, the crop yield in ACS is higher than in conventional agriculture. The cultivation of black locust resulted in a higher humus accumulation and in a lower harvest-related nutrient export than the cultivation of alfalfa as a typical recultivation crop in this region. It was concluded SRC with black locust is more beneficial than conventional agriculture in terms of improving soil fertility in the degraded post-mining areas of Lower Lusatia.

  1. Allometric equations commonly used for estimating shoot biomass in short-rotation wood energy species: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Ríos-Saucedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos dendroenergéticos de corta rotación en monte bajo (Short Rotation Coppice -SRC comúnmente están formados por individuos unifustales en el primer ciclo de corta, pero a partir del segundo ciclo, de cada cepa surgen numerosos vástagos o brotes, los cuales presentan desafíos interesantes al momento de estimar su biomasa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar especies, longitud de rotación y tipos de modelos alométricos usados para estimar biomasa en SRC, en revistas científicas de las bases de datos Scopus y Web of Science. Entre los modelos para estimar la biomasa (y de uso más frecuente destaca el exponencial, que tiene como variable predictora el diámetro normal ( D ( y = b 0 D b 1 , diámetro basal de tallo ( Db ( y = b 0 Db b 1 y la combinación de diámetro normal al cuadrado por la altura total ( D 2 H ( y = b 0 + b 1 D 2 H . Los géneros con mayor número de modelos diferentes fueron Populus, Salix y Eucalyptus . Los dos primeros son los más estudiados. La longitud de rotación empleada en los cultivos estudiados varió de uno a 15 años.

  2. The development of a wood fuel gasification plant utilising short rotation coppice and forestry residues: project ARBRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitcher, K.F.; Lundbergt, H. [Yorkshire Environmental Ltd., Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    This paper will discuss the development of ARBRE Energy, a joint venture company that includes Yorkshire Environmental of the United Kingdom and Tenniska Processer AB of Sweden. The project will establish 2000 hectares of short rotation coppices, some of which will be organically fertilized with digested sewage sludges, to provide 80% of the fuel requirements of a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) electricity generation plant. The remaining 20% of the fuel requirements will come from forestry waste, although in the first 5 years all the fuel will come from the forestry sources until the coppices are mature. The project will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, England, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 MW of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK's Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from the European Commission's THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. The project's technical and environmental effects and benefits will be examined in detail, together with the award of its planning permit and agreement on its operating license. (author)

  3. Sewage sludge and wastewater fertilisation of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) for increased bioenergy production - Biological and economic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, I. [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7043, SE 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Rosenqvist, H. [Department of Agriculture-Farming Systems, Technology and Product Quality, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 17, SE-261 21 Billeberga (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    Application of municipal residues, e.g. wastewater or sewage sludge, to Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) is among the most attractive methods for attaining environmental and energy goals set for Europe. At current woodchip prices in Sweden, the gross margin for SRC cultivation is positive only if biomass production is >9 t DM/ha yr. The gross profit margin increases (by 39 and 199 EUR/GJ, respectively) if sewage sludge and wastewater are applied to SRC. Application of residues to SRC has proved to be an acceptable alternative treatment method, and the farmer's profit can be markedly increased if compensation is paid for waste treatment. If all available sludge and wastewater were applied to SRC plantations, they could be grown on large agricultural areas in Europe, and c. 6000 PJ of renewable energy could be produced annually. However, a more economical landuse strategy, e.g. the use of more P-rich residues, appears more rational, and is biologically justifiable. (author)

  4. Fine root biomass and turnover of two fast-growing poplar genotypes in a short-rotation coppice culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhongaray, Gonzalo; Janssens, I A; King, J S; Ceulemans, R

    The quantification of root dynamics remains a major challenge in ecological research because root sampling is laborious and prone to error due to unavoidable disturbance of the delicate soil-root interface. The objective of the present study was to quantify the distribution of the biomass and turnover of roots of poplars (Populus) and associated understory vegetation during the second growing season of a high-density short rotation coppice culture. Roots were manually picked from soil samples collected with a soil core from narrow (75 cm apart) and wide rows (150 cm apart) of the double-row planting system from two genetically contrasting poplar genotypes. Several methods of estimating root production and turnover were compared. Poplar fine root biomass was higher in the narrow rows than in the wide rows. In spite of genetic differences in above-ground biomass, annual fine root productivity was similar for both genotypes (ca. 44 g DM m-2 year-1). Weed root biomass was equally distributed over the ground surface, and root productivity was more than two times higher compared to poplar fine roots (ca. 109 g DM m-2 year-1). Early in SRC plantation development, weeds result in significant root competition to the crop tree poplars, but may confer certain ecosystem services such as carbon input to soil and retention of available soil N until the trees fully occupy the site.

  5. Elevated CO2 concentration, fertilization and their interaction: growth stimulation in a short-rotation poplar coppice (EUROFACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberloo, Marion; Dillen, Sophie Y; Calfapietra, Carlo; Marinari, Sara; Luo, Zhi Bin; De Angelis, Paolo; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2005-02-01

    We investigated the individual and combined effects of elevated CO2 concentration and fertilization on aboveground growth of three poplar species (Populus alba L. Clone 2AS-11, P. nigra L. Clone Jean Pourtet and P. x euramericana Clone I-214) growing in a short-rotation coppice culture for two growing seasons after coppicing. Free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) stimulated the number of shoots per stool, leaf area index measured with a fish-eye-type plant canopy analyzer (LAIoptical), and annual leaf production, but did not affect dominant shoot height or canopy productivity index. Comparison of LAIoptical with LAI estimates from litter collections and from allometric relationships showed considerable differences. The increase in biomass in response to FACE was caused by an initial stimulation of absolute and relative growth rates, which disappeared after the first growing season following coppicing. An ontogenetic decline in growth in the FACE treatment, together with strong competition inside the dense plantation, may have caused this decrease. Fertilization did not influence aboveground growth, although some FACE responses were more pronounced in fertilized trees. A species effect was observed for most parameters.

  6. Impact of elevated CO{sub 2} and nitrogen fertilization on foliar elemental composition in a short rotation poplar plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinari, Sara [Department of Agrochemistry and Agrobiology (DABAC), Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, I.01100 Viterbo (Italy)]. E-mail: marinari@unitus.it; Calfapietra, Carlo [Department of Forest Environment and Resources (DISAFRI), Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); De Angelis, Paolo [Department of Forest Environment and Resources (DISAFRI), Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia [Department of Forest Environment and Resources (DISAFRI), Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Grego, Stefano [Department of Agrochemistry and Agrobiology (DABAC), Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, I.01100 Viterbo (Italy)

    2007-06-15

    The experiment was carried out on a short rotation coppice culture of poplars (POP-EUROFACE, Central Italy), growing in a free air carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere (FACE). The specific objective of this work was to study whether elevated CO{sub 2} and fertilization (two CO{sub 2} treatments, elevated CO{sub 2} and control, two N fertilization treatments, fertilized and unfertilized), as well as the interaction between treatments caused an unbalanced nutritional status of leaves in three poplar species (P. x euramericana, P. nigra and P. alba). Finally, we discuss the ecological implications of a possible change in foliar nutrients concentration. CO{sub 2} enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the concentration of magnesium; whereas nitrogen fertilization had opposite effects on leaf nitrogen and magnesium concentrations. Moreover, the interaction between elevated CO{sub 2} and N fertilization amplified some element unbalances such as the K/N-ratio. - CO{sub 2} enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the magnesium concentration in poplar.

  7. Test of aerobic TCE degradation by willows (Salix viminalis) and willows inoculated with TCE-cometabolizing strains of Burkholderia cepacia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Broholm, Mette Martina; Gosewinkel, Ulrich Bay

    2017-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widespread soil and groundwater pollutant and clean-up is often problematic and expensive. Phytoremediation may be a cost-effective solution at some sites. This study investigates TCE degradation by willows (S. viminalis) and willows inoculated with three strains of B...

  8. Effect of crop rotation, cultivar and nematicide on growth and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in short rotations on a marine clay soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.; Jacob, 's J.J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of cropping frequency on the yield of potato and on the development of soil-borne diseases was studied from 1979 to 1985 in a crop rotation experiment on a marine clay soil. Tuber yield decreased markedly with increasing cropping frequency. The yield of cv. Hertha was reduced by 27% in

  9. Agroforestry systems in northern Vietnam with Tephrosia candida as an alternative to short-fallow crop rotations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang Fagerstroem, M.H. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences

    2000-07-01

    Tephrosia candida was experimentally tested on-farm as an improved fallow species (TepFa), in hedgerows, (TepAl) and in a mulch transfer system (TepMu) in an upland rice (Oryza sativa) system on sloping land in northern Vietnam during the period 1996-1999. The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate whether the existing monocropping (Mono) and short-fallow crop rotations (NaFa) are sustainable systems with respect to soil erosion and concomitant nutrient losses; (2) to determine whether agroforestry systems with Tephrosia (TepFa, TepAl, TepMu) can improve nutrient cycling and nutrient balances, for instance by preventing nutrient losses through erosion, as well as sustaining upland rice yields. A criteria system, including soil and nutrient losses, nutrient balances, changes of P-available pools, returns on labour and farmers' response, was used for comparing the systems tested. Only TepFa gave a positive input-output balance for both P and N. TepFa increased soil N and seemed to positively affect the release of soil labile P. However, the cost of Tephrosia seeds made the Net Present Value (NPV) of the Tephrosia fallow crop rotation system negative. TepMu increased upland rice yield by 50% compared to Mono. As a result, NPV was positive and sufficient rice for one more person could be produced per ha and year. However, the yield increase could cause a depletion of plant-available P, and the timing for pruning and mulching activities coincided with the farming activities in paddy fields. TepAl increased soil N, gave a neutral overall effect on crop yield but a negative NPV. NaFa gave a positive and highest NPV. In general, TepFa and TepMu were shown to increase crop yield per hectare with acceptable returns on labour and also to do better than Mono and NaFa with respect to preventing soil and nutrient losses through erosion. Recommendations are made for further research to focus on alternatives to maintain soil P, mechanisms of P pool reallocation and

  10. Bioenergy from willow. 1995 Annual report, November 1987--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.

    1997-07-01

    Experiments were established at Tully, New York, by the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, in cooperation with the University of Toronto and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, to assess the potential of willows for wood biomass production. Specific objectives included determining the effects of clone type, fertilization, spacing, cutting cycle, and irrigation on biomass production. Production was high, with willow clone SV1 yielding nearly 32 oven dry tons per acre (odt ac{sup -1}) with three-year harvest cycle, irrigation, and fertilization. Clone type, fertilization, spacing, cutting cycle, and irrigation all significantly affected biomass production. Willow clone-site trials planted at Massena, and Tully, NY in 1993 grew well during 1994 and 1995, but some clones in the Massena trial were severely damaged by deer browse. Several new cooperators joined the project, broadening the funding base, and enabling establishment of additional willow plantings. Willow clone-site trials were planted at Himrod, King Ferry, Somerset, and Tully, NY, during 1995. A willow cutting orchard was planted during 1995 at the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Saratoga Tree Nursery in Saratoga, NY. Plans are to begin site preparation for a 100+ acre willow bioenergy demonstration farm in central New York, and additional clone-site trials, in 1996.

  11. Selection of ectomycorrhizal willow genotype in phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Baum, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Willow clones are used for the phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils and are usually mycorrhizal. The receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum varies specific to genotype; however, it is unknown if this might have a significant impact on their efficiency in phytoextraction of heavy metals. Therefore, a model system with mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal willows of two different genotypes--one with usually stronger natural mycorrhizal colonization (Salix dasyclados), and one with lower natural mycorrhizal colonization (S. viminalis)--was investigated for its efficiency of phytoextraction of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) from contaminated soil. Inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria significantly decreased the biomass of leaves of both inoculated willow clones, and increased or had no effect on the biomass of trunks and roots of S. dasyclados and S. viminalis, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals in the biomass of S. dasyclados were in general higher than in S. viminalis irrespective of inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation with A. muscaria significantly decreased the concentration of Cu in the trunks of both Salix taxa, but did not affected the concentrations of other heavy metals in the biomass. In conclusion, stronger receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum was correlated with an increased total extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Therefore, this seems to be a suitable criterion for effective willow clone selection for phytoremediation. Increased biomass production with relatively constant metal concentrations seems to be a major advantage of mycorrhizal formation of willows in phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  12. Willow diversity in the fresh water tidal area of the river Schelde : natural, spontaneous, anthropogenic ?

    OpenAIRE

    Vanallemeersch, R; Zwaenepoel, A; Hoffmann, Maurice; Meire, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    The fresh water tidal area of the Schelde-estuary is characterised by a large willow diversity and a prominent presence of willow-dominated vegetation. Marsh vegetation consists for over 60 % of willow scrub and willow forest. These are natural vegetation types on fresh water tidal marshes, and are considered most important climax vegetation under fresh water tidal circumstances. Along the Schelde-estuary (as well as in other parts of the river valley) several willow species were planted thou...

  13. Growth patterns and biomass productivity of two Salix species grown under short-rotation intensive culture in southern Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrecque, M.; Teodorescu, T.I.; Cogliastro, A.; Daigle, S. (Institut de Recherche en Biologie Vegetale, Montreal, PQ (Canada))

    1993-01-01

    Samples of two species of Salix, Salix discolor and S. viminalis were studied to compare their productivity and their growth patterns under the short-rotation, intensive-culture system (SRIC). Growth parameters were measured at regular intervals during summer of the two first years following planting. At the end of each growing season, after leaf drop, a part of each plot was cut down and the stems and branches were harvested and weighed to evaluate their annual growth rates and their biomass yields. For the first growing season, height growth in both species was greater than 2 m. Although S. viminalis grew more rapidly early in summer, S. discolor grew about three weeks longer and its total height at the end of the growing season was greater than the former. Meanwhile the stem-branch dry weight of S. discolor was similar to the one produced by S. viminalis. Two growing seasons after establishment, the total tree height was about 3.5 m for both species, while the biomass of stems and branches of S. viminalis was weakly superior in comparison to S. discolor and reached very high values - about 27 Mg ha[sup -1] for S. viminalis. The growth patterns and yields of the one-year-old coppice were similar to those recorded at the end of the first year for trees developed directly from cuttings. Both species produced a comparable quantity of sprout biomass. The yield of the trees harvested two years after planting was about twice the total biomass harvested two times, at the end of each growing season, that a two-year cycle is more productive than a one-year cycle. (author)

  14. Life cycle assessment of biomass chains: Wood pellet from short rotation coppice using data measured on a real plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantozzi, Francesco; Buratti, Cinzia [University of Perugia - Biomass Research Centre, Via Duranti - 06125 Perugia (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a LCA study about household heat from Short Rotation Coppice wood pellets combustion. The overall process, from field growth to ash disposal, was considered; environmental analysis was carried out using a LCA software programme (Simapro 7.0) and adopting the EcoIndicator 99 model for the evaluation of the global burden; analysis with EPS 2000 and EDIP methodologies were also carried out, in order to compare the different approaches. For the pellet production process, mass and energy flows were measured on an existing Italian plant, while other data were obtained from the Literature; a comparison between results obtained using only data from Literature and using data from the existing plant was made, showing for the pelleting phase a value of about 23% lower if measured data are used. The LCA study showed that agricultural operations account for most of the environmental impact if evaluated both with EcoIndicator 99 and EPS 2000; EDIP gave results that were not very reliable for this chain, due to the high weight given to the infra-structures and machinery construction. The comparison between data obtained considering and not considering the infra-structures contribution in the LCA analysis with EcoIndicator 99 showed a modest contribution of infra-structures on the final score (about 2%). The overall impact evaluated with EcoIndicator 99 is considerably less than the one caused by natural gas heating. The Energy Return Ratio was finally calculated; a value of 3.25 was found, good if compared to the one for the methane combustion, equal to 6. (author)

  15. Performance of Salix viminalis and Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii in short rotation intensive culture under high irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillion, Maud; Brisson, Jacques [Departement de Sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, 4101 Sherbrooke East, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Teodorescu, Traian I.; Labrecque, Michel [Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, 4101 Sherbrooke East, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sauve, Sebastien [Departement de chimie, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    On a plantation established in 2004 from stem cuttings at a density of 20,000 trees per hectare, we investigated growth and nutritional plant response to a high hydraulic regime for two species (Salix viminalis and Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii), using a comparative approach with measurements from irrigated and control plots. The plantation was irrigated from June to September 2005 with about 140 mm per day. The equivalent of 120 Kg NO{sub 3}-N, 40 Kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-P and 85 Kg K{sub 2}O-K per hectare per year was applied by means of irrigation with wastewater. No mortality occurred and stem biomass production of both poplar and willow species were not statistically different on irrigated and control areas. However, S. viminalis revealed to be more tolerant to flooded conditions since these corresponded more closely to its nutritional requirements (foliar concentration of 20 mgN g{sup -1}). The capacity of S. viminalis to withstand waterlogged conditions could play an important role in the sustainability of a plantation for the filtration of effluent at low pollutant concentration. (author)

  16. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  17. Tree and stand water fluxes of hybrid poplar clone (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii) in short rotation coppice culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M.; Trnka, M.; Kucera, J.; Zalud, Z.

    2010-09-01

    This study reports on evapotranspiration and tree water use in short rotation coppice culture of hybrid poplar (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii) for biomass energy in the Czech Republic. The high density poplar plantation (10 000 trees per ha) was established in 2003 on arable land in Czech-Moravian Highland (49°32´ N, 16°15´ E, 530 m a.s.l.) and has been coppiced in rotation period of 7 years. Firstly, evapotranspiration of the stand has been estimated by applying the Bowen ratio-energy budget method, which is considered as reliable, robust, quite simple and inexpensive technique with comparable results to eddy covariance and lysimeters. The gaps in evapotranspiration diurnal patterns caused by limitation of the bowen ratio method were filled with simple linear regression model based on relation between potential and actual evapotranspiration with regard to soil water availability and leaf area index and thus the daily, monthly and seasonal totals could be calculated. The amount of evapotranspiration during the growing season 2009 (1 March - 31 October) was 593 mm with highest monthly total 116 mm in June. Mean daily water loss over the season reached 2.43 mm per day. During the hot summer day, the maximal value 5.73 mm per day, which presented 89 % of potential evapotranspiration calculated by Penman equation, was recorded with a peak rate 0.94 mm per hour. Secondly, the transpiration was measured by sap flow tissue heat balance techniques on four individual trees with greatest stem diameters (11 - 12 cm d.b.h.) and height of 12 - 12.5 m. Relatively high transpiration values by the poplars were found during the measured part of growing season (18 June - 31 October), with maximum and mean daily transpiration of 44.41 dm3 and 16.69 dm3 per day, respectively. The seasonal transpiration of the most vigorous from the investigated individuals amounted 2542 dm3. Because in this study we didńt evaluate the transpiration of thinner trees (technical features of sap

  18. Assessing Regional-Scale Impacts of Short Rotation Coppices on Ecosystem Services by Modeling Land-Use Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Jule; Frank, Karin; Priess, Joerg A; Meyer, Markus A

    2016-01-01

    Meeting the world's growing energy demand through bioenergy production involves extensive land-use change which could have severe environmental and social impacts. Second generation bioenergy feedstocks offer a possible solution to this problem. They have the potential to reduce land-use conflicts between food and bioenergy production as they can be grown on low quality land not suitable for food production. However, a comprehensive impact assessment that considers multiple ecosystem services (ESS) and biodiversity is needed to identify the environmentally best feedstock option, as trade-offs are inherent. In this study, we simulate the spatial distribution of short rotation coppices (SRCs) in the landscape of the Mulde watershed in Central Germany by modeling profit-maximizing farmers under different economic and policy-driven scenarios using a spatially explicit economic simulation model. This allows to derive general insights and a mechanistic understanding of regional-scale impacts on multiple ESS in the absence of large-scale implementation. The modeled distribution of SRCs, required to meet the regional demand of combined heat and power (CHP) plants for solid biomass, had little or no effect on the provided ESS. In the policy-driven scenario, placing SRCs on low or high quality soils to provide ecological focus areas, as required within the Common Agricultural Policy in the EU, had little effect on ESS. Only a substantial increase in the SRC production area, beyond the regional demand of CHP plants, had a relevant effect, namely a negative impact on food production as well as a positive impact on biodiversity and regulating ESS. Beneficial impacts occurred for single ESS. However, the number of sites with balanced ESS supply hardly increased due to larger shares of SRCs in the landscape. Regression analyses showed that the occurrence of sites with balanced ESS supply was more strongly driven by biophysical factors than by the SRC share in the landscape. This

  19. Soil trace gas emissions (CH4 and N2O) offset the CO2 uptake in poplar short rotation coppice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, Terenzio; Zona, Donatella; Gelfand, Iya; Gielen, Bert; camino serrano, Marta; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2015-04-01

    The need for renewable energy sources will lead to a considerable expansion in the planting of dedicated fast-growing biomass crops across Europe. Among them poplar (Populus spp) is the most widely planted as short rotation coppice (SRC) and an increase in the surface area of large-scale SRC poplar plantations might thus be expected. In this study we report the greenhouse gas fluxes (GHG) of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) measured using the eddy covariance technique in a SRC plantation for bioenergy production during the period 2010-2013. The plantation was established in April 2010 on 18.4 ha of former agricultural land with a density of 8000 plants ha-1; the above-ground biomass was harvested on February 2012 and 2014.The whole GHG balance of the four years of the study was 1.90 (± 1.37) Mg CO2eq ha-1; this indicated that soil trace gas emissions offset the CO2 uptake by the plantation. CH4 and N2O almost equally contributed to offset the CO2 uptake of -5.28 (±0.67) Mg CO2eq ha-1 with an overall emission of 3.56 (± 0.35) Mg CO2eq ha-1 of N2O and of 3.53 (± 0.85) Mg CO2eq ha-1 of CH4. N2O emissions mostly occurred during a single peak a few months after the site was converted into SRC and represented 44% of the entire N2O loss during the entire study. Accurately capturing these emission events proved to be critical for correct estimates of the GHG balance. The self-organizing map (SOM) technique graphically showed the relationship between the CO2 fluxes and the principal environmental variables but failed to explain the variability of the soil trace gas emissions. The nitrogen content in the soil and the water table depth were the two drivers that best explained the variability in N2O and CH4 respectively. This study underlines the importance of the "non-CO2 GHG" on the overall balance as well as the impact of the harvest on the CO2 uptake rate. Further long-term investigations of soil trace gas emissions should also monitor the N

  20. Evaluation of Indirect Measurement Method of Seasonal Patterns of Leaf Area Index in a High-Density Short Rotation Coppice Culture of Poplar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek M. Tripathi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is an important determinant of biomass production and yield of short rotation bio-energy plantation. An accurate measurement of LAI is critical for quantifying light interception and penetration within the canopy, and subsequently understanding its influence on the stand carbon and energy balance. The aim of the current study is validation of the Sunscan Plant Canopy Analyzer which serves as an indirect method for the evaluation of the seasonal patterns of LAI, relation between LAI and above ground woody dry biomass and to determine the specific leaf area in short-rotation poplar hybrid clone J-105 (Populus nigra × P. maximowiczii in uncoppiced (1st rotation and coppiced (2nd rotation, respectively. LAI was measured in uncoppiced and coppiced by two different methods using indirect (SunScan Plant Canopy Analyzer and direct (litterfall collection. Sunscan Plant Canopy Analyzer was compared against litterfall collection (only way to retrieve the actual LAI. Simple regression (R2 = 0.82 model was fitted to validate indirect measurement method and a very good agreement (82% was observed in LAI values estimated from SunScan Plant Canopy Analyzer and from litterfall collection. Seasonal variability of LAI in a short rotation coppice (SRC culture of poplar clone J-105 was evaluated over six years period (2008–2013, for uncoppiced (2008 and 2009 and coppiced (2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 culture. The maximum canopy LAI (LAImax reached 7.3 (uncoppiced and 9.5 (coppiced. The linear regression (R2 = 0.93 for average LAI and above ground woody dry biomass was determined, and it was found that LAI acts an indicator of biomass productivity. Specific leaf area (SLA was estimated in both uncoppiced and coppiced culture of poplar. The maximum SLA was found to be 138.9 cm2g−1 in uncoppiced and 126.9 cm2g−1 in coppiced. To conclude, the evaluated indirect LAI measurement method is portable, reliable and faster than direct LAI measurement

  1. Describing Willow Flycatcher habitats: scale perspectives and gender differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1992-01-01

    We compared habitat characteristics of nest sites (female-selected sites) and song perch sites (male-selected sites) with those of sites unused by Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) at three different scales of vegetation measurement: (1) microplot (central willow [Salix spp.] bush and four adjacent bushes); (2) mesoplot (0.07 ha); and, (3) macroplot (flycatcher territory size). Willow Flycatchers exhibited vegetation preferences at all three scales. Nest sites were distinguished by high willow density and low variability in willow patch size and bush height. Song perch sites were characterized by large central shrubs, low central shrub vigor, and high variability in shrub size. Unused sites were characterized by greater distances between willows and willow patches, less willow coverage, and a smaller riparian zone width than either nest or song perch sites. At all scales, nest sites were situated farther from unused sites in multivariate habitat space than were song perch sites, suggesting (1) a correspondence among scales in their ability to describe Willow Flycatcher habitat, and (2) females are more discriminating in habitat selection than males. Microhabitat differences between male-selected (song perch) and female-selected (nest) sites were evident at the two smaller scales; at the finest scale, the segregation in habitat space between male-selected and female-selected sites was greater than that between male-selected and unused sites. Differences between song perch and nest sites were not apparent at the scale of flycatcher territory size, possibly due to inclusion of (1) both nest and song perch sites, (2) defended, but unused habitat, and/or (3) habitat outside of the territory, in larger scale analyses. The differences between nest and song perch sites at the finer scales reflect their different functions (e.g., nest concealment and microclimatic requirements vs. advertising and territorial defense, respectively), and suggest that the exclusive use

  2. Melampsora rust on Salix in short rotation cultivation. Plant protection against fungi and bacteria in deciduous plantations. Final report for the period 1997-1999; Melampsora-rost paa Salix i energiskogsodling. Vaextskydd i intensivodlad loevskog mot svampar och bakterier. Slutrapport foer perioden 1997-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramstedt, Mauritz [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Plant Pathology and Biological Control Unit

    2000-04-01

    The project has focussed on the diseases of Salix in short rotation forestry, with emphasis on the rust fungus, Melampsora ssp., which could be responsible for significant loss in production and dieback of plants. We have studied the virulence patterns of the rust population (rust pathotypes) to be able to give qualified support for analysis of field trials for resistance and advice for choice of breeding strategies. The rust population includes a large number of pathotypes and the variousness indicate a high capacity to adapt to new clones or plantation strategies. The sexual cycle is of crucial importance and gives the rust the property of recombination and exchange of virulence factors every season. The idea with clonal mixtures instead of monoclonal plantations is evaluated on Northern Ireland. The records of pathotypes and genotypes in the rust population in these trials, would after a repeated assessment and analysis give valuable indications concerning the development and selection of rust in relation to plantation design. The question is if a clonal mixture affects the infection pressure or if surrounding plantations and long distance spore migration will eliminate this effect. An analysis of the rust population on european willows in Chile is also performed to study the role of local adaptation and selection as compared to long distance migration of spores. The rust is pathotyped and analysed by AFLP to reveal the relatedness with european rust and analyze the level of long distance exchange. Possible exchange of virulence factors between the continents is of utmost importance for the outcome of the resistance breeding and longevity of the new more resistant clones.

  3. Yields in high density, short rotation intensive culture (SRIC)—plantations of Eucalyptus and Other Hardwood Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M. Sachs; C.B. Low

    1983-01-01

    Initial high density (17,200 trees ha-1, 6961 trees a-1) plantations of Eucalyptus grandis yielded up to 22 oven dry tons (ODT) ha-l yr-I (10 ta-1 yr-1) on an approximate 6 month rotation. Border effects could not be eliminated from the small sized plots used...

  4. Ultra-short pulse generation in a linear femtosecond fiber laser using a Faraday rotator mirror and semiconductor saturable absorber mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, M. J.; Gholami, A.; Omoomi, M.; Abdollahi, M.; Bagheri, A.; Normohammadi, H.; Kanani, M.; Ebrahimi, A.

    2018-02-01

    An innovative method for obtaining ultra-short and perfectly stable femtosecond pulses in a linear erbium-doped fiber laser is proposed. A commercial semiconductor saturable absorber mirror and a standard Faraday rotator are used in both sides of the linear fiber optic laser configuration to shorten the pulse duration and suppress undesirable effects on the polarization state. The laser operation is investigated theoretically using a physical model and it is verified using experimental results. The main idea of this research is to apply a Faraday rotator mirror for pulse shortening purposes. For this reason, two types of Er-doped fiber optics with different group velocity dispersion parameters are used to achieve the optimum net group velocity dispersion in the cavity. Output results demonstrate good consistency between theory and experimental results. The output power of the linear oscillator is approximately 45 mW with 135 fs pulses at the 23.5 MHz repetition rate without any pulse compression.

  5. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis under Abiotic Stresses in the Desert Biomass Willow, Salix psammophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianbo; Jia, Huixia; Han, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Jin; Sun, Pei; Lu, Mengzhu; Hu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Salix psammophila is a desert shrub willow that has extraordinary adaptation to abiotic stresses and plays an important role in maintaining local ecosystems. Moreover, S. psammophila is regarded as a promising biomass feedstock because of its high biomass yields and short rotation coppice cycle. However, few suitable reference genes (RGs) for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) constrain the study on normalization of gene expression in S. psammophila until now. Here, we investigated the expression stabilities of 14 candidate RGs across tissue types and under four abiotic stress treatments, including heat, cold, salt, and drought treatments. After calculation of PCR efficiencies, three different software, NormFinder, geNorm, and BestKeeper were employed to analyze systematically the qRT-PCR data, and the outputs were merged by RankAggreg software. The optimal RGs selected for gene expression analysis were EF1α (Elongation factor-1 alpha) and OTU (OTU-like cysteine protease family protein) for different tissue types, UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2) and LTA4H (Leukotriene A-4 hydrolase homolog) for heat treatment, HIS (Histone superfamily protein H3) and ARF2 (ADP-ribosylation factor 2) for cold treatment, OTU and ACT7 (Actin 7) for salt treatment, UBC and LTA4H for drought treatment. The expression of UBC, ARF2, and VHAC (V-type proton ATPase subunit C) varied the least across tissue types and under abiotic stresses. Furthermore, the relative genes expression profiles of one tissue-specific gene WOX1a (WUSCHEL-related homeobox 1a), and four stress-inducible genes, including Hsf-A2 (Heat shock transcription factors A2), CBF3 (C-repeat binding factor 3), HKT1 (High-Affinity K+ Transporter 1), and GST (Glutathione S-transferase), were conducted to confirm the validity of the RGs in this study. These results provided an important RGs application guideline for gene expression characterization in S. psammophila.

  6. Conception of the technology of wood production out of short rotation coppice. Pt. 1; Konzept fuer ein Gesamtverfahren der Energieholzproduktion aus Kurzumtriebsplantagen. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Mirko; Grosa, Andre; Firus, Siegfried; Herlitzius, Thomas [TU Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl Agrarsystemtechnik

    2011-07-01

    To reach the ambitious German aims in energy and climate politics within ten years, it will be necessary to focus on renewable resources. Great potential is seen in short rotation coppices (SRC), which are based on fast growing wood to use it for energetic and material applications. So far, the installation of these coppices was not very successful, because farmers had have to enter unknown territory and got no overview of economic risks. A lot of scientific institutions acquired knowledge, so they are able to give basics to farmers. (orig.)

  7. Conception of the technology of wood production from short rotation coppice. Pt. 2; Konzept fuer ein Gesamtverfahren der Energieholzproduktion aus Kurzumtriebsplantagen. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Mirko; Firus, Siegfried; Grosa, Andre; Herlitzius, Thomas [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl Agrarsystemtechnik

    2011-07-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRC) of fast-growing tree species are becoming more and more important in Germany. Already in the issue 1.2011 of Landtechnik a part of the current research and development projects in the field of SRC at the professorship of agricultural machines of the Technische Universitaet Dresden were presented. In this second part the importance of harvesting, drying and storage of wood chips will be shown in detail, as they have significant influence on the chip quality. Possible solutions, studies and required developments will be highlighted to existing problems. (orig.)

  8. Screening of willow species for resistance to heavy metals: comparison of performance in a hydroponics system and field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C; Pulford, I D; Riddell-Black, D

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether metal resistance in willow (Salix) clones grown in a hydroponics screening test correlated with data from the same clones grown independently in a field trial. If so, results from a short-term, glasshouse-based system could be extrapolated to the field, allowing rapid identification of willows suitable for planting in metal-contaminated substrates without necessitating longterm field trials. Principal Components Analysis was used to show groups of clones and to assess the relative importance of the parameters measured in both the hydroponics system and the field; including plant response factors such as increase in stem height, as well as metal concentrations in plant tissues. The clones tested fell into two distinct groups. Salix viminalis clones and the basket willow Black Maul (S. triandra) were less resistant to elevated concentrations of heavy metals than a group of hardier clones, including S. burjatica 'Germany,' S.x dasyclados, S. candida and S. spaethii. The more resistant clones produced more biomass in the glasshouse and field, and had higher metal concentrations in the wood. The less resistant clones had greater concentrations of Cu and Ni in the bark, and produced less biomass in the glasshouse and field. Significant relationships were found between the response of the same clones grown the in short-term glasshouse hydroponics system and in the field.

  9. Sampling procedure in a willow plantation for chemical elements important for biomass combustion quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Willow (Salix spp.) is expected to contribute significantly to the woody bioenergy system in the future, so more information on how to sample the quality of the willow biomass is needed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the spatial variation of elements within shoots of a willow...

  10. Amelioration of drought-induced negative responses by elevated CO2 in field grown short rotation coppice mulberry (Morus spp.), a potential bio-energy tree crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Kalva Madhana; Reddy, Kanubothula Sitarami; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2017-05-01

    Present study describes the responses of short rotation coppice (SRC) mulberry, a potential bio-energy tree, grown under interactive environment of elevated CO2 (E) and water stress (WS). Growth in E stimulated photosynthetic performance in well-watered (WW) as well as during WS with significant increases in light-saturated photosynthetic rates (A Sat), water use efficiency (WUEi), intercellular [CO2], and photosystem-II efficiency (F V/F M and ∆F/F M') with concomitant reduction in stomatal conductance (g s) and transpiration (E) compared to ambient CO2 (A) grown plants. Reduced levels of proline, H2O2, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and higher contents of antioxidants including ascorbic acid and total phenolics in WW and WS in E plants clearly demonstrated lesser oxidative damage. Further, A plants showed higher transcript abundance and antioxidant enzyme activities under WW as well as during initial stages of WS (15 days). However, with increasing drought imposition (30 days), A plants showed down regulation of antioxidant systems compared to their respective E plants. These results clearly demonstrated that future increased atmospheric CO2 enhances the photosynthetic potential and also mitigate the drought-induced oxidative stress in SRC mulberry. In conclusion, mulberry is a potential bio-energy tree crop which is best suitable for short rotation coppice forestry-based mitigation of increased [CO2] levels even under intermittent drought conditions, projected to prevail in the fast-changing global climate.

  11. Uptake, metabolism, accumulation and toxicity of cyanide in willow trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten; Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Trapp, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Chemicals taken up into plants may be accumulated so leading to toxic effects. Uptake and phytotoxicity of free cyanide was determined with the willow-tree transpiration test. Willow sets were grown in sand and irrigated with varying levels of cyanide (CN). Toxicity was determined by measuring...... transpiration. At CN concentrations below 10 mg/L, no toxic effects were observed. At 20 mg/L, transpiration was reduced to approximately 50% after 96 h. With 30, 40 and 50 mg/L, the transpiration decreased with a similar rate to plant...... in the plant tissue. This relation between external dose and internal accumulation is nonlinear and explains the toxic effects observed....

  12. How are arbuscular mycorrhizal associations related to maize growth performance during short-term cover crop rotation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Masao; Takahashi, Yuichi; Gunji, Kento; Isobe, Katsunori

    2017-07-31

    Better cover crop management options aiming to maximize the benefits of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to subsequent crops are largely unknown. We investigated the impact of cover crop management methods on maize growth performance and assemblages of AMF colonizing maize roots in a field trial. The cover crop treatments comprised Italian ryegrass, wheat, brown mustard and fallow in rotation with maize. The diversity of AMF communities among cover crops used for maize management was significantly influenced by the cover crop and time course. Cover crops did not affect grain yield and aboveground biomass of subsequent maize but affected early growth. A structural equation model indicated that the root colonization, AMF diversity and maize phosphorus uptake had direct strong positive effects on yield performance. AMF variables and maize performance were related directly or indirectly to maize grain yield, whereas root colonization had a positive effect on maize performance. AMF may be an essential factor that determines the success of cover crop rotational systems. Encouraging AMF associations can potentially benefit cover cropping systems. Therefore, it is imperative to consider AMF associations and crop phenology when making management decisions. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Abandoned lands and tree crops on short rotations : a favourable combination for energy; Les terres abandonnees et les cultures d`arbres sur courtes rotations : une conjoncture favorable pour l`energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrecque, M.; Teodorescu, T.I. [Jardin botanique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    Short-rotation intensive culture on abandoned farmlands has successfully been used in Sweden to produce woody biomass as an energy source. Because of changing economic conditions, it is estimated that 33,000 hectares of farmland are abandoned every year in Quebec. Although it is impractical to use these lands for conventional farming crops, they are nevertheless well-suited for tree plantations. Results of a study to demonstrate the feasibility of this method in Quebec were discussed. Three plantations of one hectare each were established on abandoned farmlands 90 km southwest of Montreal for this pilot study. Salix discolor and Salix viminalis were planted in fertilized and non-fertilized plots. A detailed analysis of costs for planting, maintaining, and harvesting the crop was conducted over a period of three years. Results demonstrate that the economic and soil conditions in southern Quebec make wood biomass a profitable crop on abandoned farmlands. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  14. Fiber length and pulping characteristics of switchgrass, alfalfa stems, hybrid poplar and willow biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jun; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), alfalfa stems (Medicago sativa), second year growth hybrid poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix spp.) were examined to determine fiber characteristics, pulping behavior and paper properties. Alfalfa stems and switchgrass both showed length weighted average fiber length (LWW) of 0.78 mm, a very narrow fiber length distribution and high fines content. Willow and hybrid poplar have lower fines content but a very low average fiber length (0.42 and 0.48 mm LWW). In addition, the four biomass species showed distinctly different chemical compositions. Switchgrass was defibered successfully using Soda and Soda Anthraquinone (AQ) pulping and demonstrated good paper properties. Both fast-growing wood species pulped well using the Kraft process, and showed acceptable tensile strength, but low tear strength. Alfalfa stems reacted very poorly to Soda and Soda AQ pulping but responded well to Kraft and Kraft AQ. Pulps with tensile and tear strength considerably higher than those found for commercial aspen pulps were observed for alfalfa. All four biomass species examined demonstrated low pulp yield. The highest yields were obtained with poplar and switchgrass (around 43%). Considering the short fibers and low yields, all four biomass types will likely only be used in paper manufacturing if they offer considerable economic advantage over traditional pulp wood.

  15. Distribution of P, K, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in wood and bark age classes of willows and poplars used for phytoextraction on soils contaminated by risk elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárubová, Pavla; Hejcman, Michal; Vondráčková, Stanislava; Mrnka, Libor; Száková, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Fast-growing clones of Salix and Populus have been studied for remediation of soils contaminated by risk elements (RE) using short-rotation coppice plantations. Our aim was to assess biomass yield and distributions of elements in wood and bark of highly productive willow (S1--[Salix schwerinii × Salix viminalis] × S. viminalis, S2--Salix × smithiana clone S-218) and poplar (P1--Populus maximowiczii × Populus nigra, P2--P. nigra) clones with respect to aging. The field experiment was established in April 2008 on moderately Cd-, Pb- and Zn- contaminated soil. Shoots were harvested after four seasons (February 2012) and separated into annual classes of wood and bark. All tested clones grew on contaminated soils, with highest biomass production and lowest mortality exhibited by P1 and S2. Concentrations of elements, with exception of Ca and Pb, decreased with age and were higher in bark than in wood. The Salix clones were characterised by higher removal of Cd, Mn and Zn compared to the Populus clones. Despite generally higher RE content in young shoots, partly due to lower wood/bark ratios and higher RE concentrations in bark, the overall removal of RE was higher in older wood classes due to higher biomass yield. Thus, longer rotations seem to be more effective when phytoextraction strategy is considered. Of the four selected clones, S1 exhibited the best removal of Cd and Zn and is a good candidate for phytoextraction.

  16. 75 FR 63431 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications... 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 1. The...

  17. 76 FR 13524 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications... Congressional Review Act, see U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting... as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for part 73 continues to...

  18. "The Wind in the Willows" and the Style of Romance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The style of Kenneth Grahame's "The Wind in the Willows" arises from an alternative vision and choice of values characteristic of romance. Romance seeks fulfillment beyond the consequences of everyday relationships and the constrictions of ordinary life. Causal relationships give way to lists of independent items, unmotivated outcomes, and…

  19. Phytotoxicity of landfill leachate on willow--Salix amygdalina L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialowiec, Andrzej; Randerson, Peter F

    2010-01-01

    Because of low investment and operational costs, interest is increasing in the use of willow plants in landfill leachate disposal. Toxic effects of leachate on the plants should be avoided in the initial period of growth and phytotoxicological testing may be helpful to select appropriate leachate dose rates. The aim of this study was to determine the phytotoxicity of landfill leachate on young willow (Salix amygdalina L.) cuttings, as a criterion for dose rate selection in the early phase of growth. Over a test period of 6 weeks plants were exposed to six concentrations of landfill leachate solutions (0%; 6.25%; 12.5%; 25%; 50% and 100%), under two different regimes. In regime A willow plants were cultivated in leachate solution from the beginning, whereas in regime B they were grown initially in clean water for 4 weeks, after which the water was exchanged for leachate solutions. The lowest effective concentration causing toxic effects (LOEC) was calculated (plandfill leachate solutions with electrical conductivity (EC) values up to 5.0 mS/cm in regime A, whereas in regime B plants were killed when EC exceeded 3.0 mS/cm. This indicates an ability of willow plants to tolerate higher strengths of landfill leachate if they are cultivated in such concentrations from the beginning. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing the carbon sequestration potential of poplar and black locust short rotation coppices on mine reclamation sites in Eastern Germany - Model development and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinkenstein, A; Jochheim, H

    2016-03-01

    In the temperate zone short rotation coppice systems for the production of woody biomass (SRC) have gained great interest as they offer a pathway to both sustainable bioenergy production and the potential sequestration of CO2 within the biomass and the soil. This study used the carbon model SHORTCAR to assess the carbon cycle of a poplar (Populus suaveolens Fisch. x Populus trichocarpa Torr. et Gray cv. Androscoggin) and a black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) SRC. The model was calibrated using data from established SRC plantations on reclaimed mine sites in northeast Germany and validated through the determination of uncertainty ranges of selected model parameters and a sensitivity analysis. In addition to a 'reference scenario', representing the actual site conditions, 7 hypothetical scenarios, which varied in climate conditions, rotation intervals, runtimes, and initial soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, were defined for each species. Estimates of carbon accumulation within the biomass, the litter layer, and the soil were compared to field data and previously published results. The model was sensitive to annual stem growth and initial soil organic carbon stocks. In the reference scenario net biome production for SRC on reclaimed sites in Lusatia, Germany amounted to 64.5 Mg C ha(-1) for R. pseudoacacia and 8.9 Mg C ha(-1) for poplar, over a period of 36 years. These results suggest a considerable potential of SRC for carbon sequestration at least on marginal sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of Different Tillage Systems and Weed Treatments in the Establishment Year on the Final Biomass Production of Short Rotation Coppice Poplar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Spiecker

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the influence of three different tillage systems in combination with eight varying weed treatments applied within the establishment year and its effect on the final above ground leafless biomass production (after the third growing season of short rotation coppice poplar is presented. The three tillage systems included variants with ploughing and harrowing, variants with cultivation and ley cropping and variants without tillage. Weed treatments included the application of different herbicides, but also more environmentally sound variants such as mulching and the use of mulch materials to avoid the use of herbicides. To estimate the influence on final biomass production, regression analysis was undertaken using DBH as the predictor variable. Based on 1056 DBH measurements the biomass production of the different variants was compared. The interactions of tillage system and weed treatment on biomass yield were found to be statistically significant. Between tillage systems the ploughing variant displayed a better overall performance than the cultivation with ley crop variant and the variant without any tillage. Differing weed treatments reveal greater success for the whole area application of herbicides than band application, both being better than the use of mulch materials. These results suggest that the right tillage system in combination with effective chemical weed control is the key to the successful establishment of Short rotation coppice (SRC poplar plantation following the principles of an integrated weed management approach. Furthermore, ecological variants such as ploughing in combination with the use of mulch materials and mechanical vegetation control between the rows could be a solution to reduce dependence on chemical control. However, this comes at the expense of a considerable loss in yield.

  2. Growth and production of a short-rotation coppice culture of poplar - IV: Fine root characteristics of five poplar clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Afas, N.; Marron, N.; Zavalloni, C.; Ceulemans, R. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2008-06-15

    Below-ground characteristics of five Populus clones, belonging to different species and parentages, were studied during the second growing season of the third rotation of a high-density coppice culture. Size (length, area and volume), biomass, nitrogen and carbon concentrations of three classes of fine roots (diameter classes of 0-1, 1-2 and 2-5 mm) were determined for four different soil layers. Fine root biomass varied significantly among clones and among soil layers. Clone Primo (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra) had the highest root biomass and the longest fine roots, while clone Hazendans (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides) had the lowest root biomass and shortest fine roots. The topsoil layer (0-5 cm) was very rich in fine roots; the fine root biomass and distribution of all clones decreased with increasing soil depth. Fine root area index (diameter classes of 0-1 and 1-2 mm) varied among clones, with higher values for clones Wolterson and Primo (3.6 and 3.7, respectively), while clones Hazendans and Columbia River had lower values (1.7 and 2.2, respectively). The absence of a significant correlation between fine root traits and above-ground biomass leads to the conclusion that above-ground biomass was not a reliable indicator of below-ground biomass in poplar, probably because of the age of the plantation in our study (stump age of 10 years). Fine root area index was positively correlated with leaf area index for all clones and at all soil depths, i.e., clones with a high fine root area index also had a high leaf area index. We conclude that leaf area index can be an indicator of root area. (author)

  3. Comparison of scapular posterior tilting exercise alone and scapular posterior tilting exercise after pectoralis minor stretching on scapular alignment and scapular upward rotators activity in subjects with short pectoralis minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Yoon, Tae-Lim; Choi, Sil-Ah; Choi, Woo-Jeong; Choi, Bong-Sam; Ko, Chang-Hee

    2015-08-01

    To compare scapular posterior tilting exercise alone and scapular posterior tilting exercise after pectoralis minor (PM) stretching on the PM index (PMI), scapular anterior tilting index, scapular upward rotation angle, and scapular upward rotators' activity in subjects with a short PM. Fifteen subjects with a short PM participated in this study. The PMI, scapular anterior tilting index, and scapular upward rotation angle were measured after scapular posterior tilting exercise alone and scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretches. Scapular upward rotators' activities were collected during scapular posterior tilting exercise alone and scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretches. The PMI and scapular upward rotation angle, as well as the activity of the upper trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles, were significantly greater for scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching and the scapular anterior tilting index was significantly lower for scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching than the scapular posterior tilting exercise alone. Scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching in subjects with a short PM could be an effective method of modifying scapular alignment and scapular upward rotator activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Local breaking of fourfold rotational symmetry by short-range magnetic order in heavily overdoped Ba (Fe1 -xCux)2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiyi; Song, Yu; Hu, Ding; Li, Yu; Zhang, Rui; Harriger, L. W.; Tian, Wei; Cao, Huibo; Dai, Pengcheng

    2017-10-01

    We investigate Cu-doped Ba (Fe1-xCux) 2As2 with transport, magnetic susceptibility, and elastic neutron scattering measurements. In the heavily Cu-doped regime where long-range stripe-type antiferromagnetic order in BaFe2As2 is suppressed, Ba (Fe1-xCux) 2As2 (0.145 ≤x ≤0.553 ) samples exhibit spin-glass-like behavior in magnetic susceptibility and insulating-like temperature dependence in electrical transport. Using elastic neutron scattering, we find stripe-type short-range magnetic order in the spin-glass region identified by susceptibility measurements. The persistence of short-range magnetic order over a large doping range in Ba (Fe1-xCux) 2As2 likely arises from local arrangements of Fe and Cu that favor magnetic order, with Cu acting as vacancies relieving magnetic frustration and degeneracy. These results indicate locally broken fourfold rotational symmetry, suggesting that stripe-type magnetism is ubiquitous in iron pnictides.

  5. ANALYSIS OF HARMONIC COMPOSITION OF THE ALTERNATING MAGNETIC FIELD ASSOCIATED WITH THE ROTATING ROTOR OF TURBOGENERATOR IN THE NO-LOAD AND SHORT-CIRCUITS MODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Milykh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The method of calculation of the magnetic field alternating component at the surface of the rotating rotor of turbo generator is presented. It is based on multiposition of the numerical calculations of the magnetic field with the rotor turns and changes of currents in the stator winding. Discrete time functions of the alternating component of the magnetic induction are selected in points of the surface . The harmonic analysis is conducted for them. The developed method is universal in terms of excitation modes, designs and the magnetic core saturation. The theory is confirmed by computational researches in the no-load and short circuit modes of large turbo generator. In it, the alternating component of the magnetic induction on the rotor surface in the short-circuit mode is much greater than in the no-load mode. Values and harmonic composition of the alternating component of the magnetic induction differ substantially at different points of the rotor surface. Harmonics are ponderable in the range from the level determined by the phase structure of stator winding to the level determined by the tooth structure of its core. The results obtained are qualitatively fit into the classical notion of oscillatory processes of the magnetic field on the rotor surface, but now the value and harmonic composition of the alternating component of the magnetic induction receive adequate numerical filling. The result of work can be used for designing of a turbogenerators and other synchronous machines.

  6. Status and breeding ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher in the Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, M.K.; Tibbitts, T.J.; Petterson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Ernpidonax trailIll extirnus is one of several recognized subspecies of the Willow Flycatcher (Unitt 1987, Browning 1993), a neotropical migrant that breeds across much of North America. This southwestern race is a riparian obligate, nesting in dense patches of willow (Salix sp.), willow-cottonwood (Populus sp.), or other similarly structured habitats. In some areas of the Southwest, it nests in dense stands of tamarisk (Tamarix sp.). Willow Flycatchers were once widespread and locally common in the Southwest (Unitt 1987) but have declined to the point that E. t. extirnus was listed as an endangered subspecies in 1995 (USFWS 1995).

  7. Goldstone radar evidence for short-axis mode non-principal-axis rotation of near-Earth asteroid (214869) 2007 PA8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozović, Marina; Benner, Lance A. M.; Magri, Christopher; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Busch, Michael W.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Nolan, Michael C.; Jao, Joseph S.; Lee, Clement G.; Snedeker, Lawrence G.; Silva, Marc A.; Lawrence, Kenneth J.; Slade, Martin A.; Hicks, Michael D.; Howell, Ellen S.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Sanchez, Juan A.; Reddy, Vishnu; Dykhuis, Melissa; Le Corre, Lucille

    2017-04-01

    We report radar and optical photometric observations of near-Earth asteroid (214869) 2007 PA8 obtained during October 2-November 13, 2012. We observed 2007 PA8 on sixteen days with Goldstone (8560 MHz, 3.5 cm) and on five days with the 0.6 m telescope at Table Mountain Observatory. Closest approach was on November 5 at a distance of 0.043 au. Images obtained with Goldstone's new chirp system achieved range resolutions as fine as 3.75 m, placing thousands of pixels on the asteroid's surface, and revealing that 2007 PA8 is an elongated, asymmetric object. Surface features include angularities, facets, and a concavity approximately 400 m in diameter. We used the Shape software to estimate the asteroid's 3D shape and spin state. 2007 PA8 has a broad, rounded end and a tapered, angular end with sharp-crested ridges. The asteroid's effective diameter is 1.35 ± 0.07 km, which in combination with the absolute magnitude of 16.30 ± 0.52 gives an optical albedo of pV = 0.29 ± 0.14. The shape modeling of the radar data revealed that 2007 PA8 is a non-principal axis (NPA) rotator in the short-axis mode with an average period of precession by the long axis around the angular momentum vector of 4.26 ± 0.02 days and an oscillatory period around the long axis of 20.55 ± 3.75 days. The amplitude of rolling around the long axis is 42 ± 7° . The angular momentum vector points toward ecliptic longitude and latitude of 273.6 ± 10°, +16.9 ± 5°. 2007 PA8 is only the second confirmed short-axis mode NPA rotator known in the near-Earth asteroid population after (99942) Apophis (Pravec et al., 2014). 2007 PA8 has a geopotential high at the equator, where the equator is defined as the plane that contains the long and intermediate axis. This geopotential extreme could be interpreted as a large, hidden surface depression, or as evidence that 2007 PA8 is a multi-component body.

  8. Productivity, biomass partitioning, and energy yield of low-input short-rotation American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) grown on marginal land: Effects of planting density and simulated drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec; Elissa Ashley; Milan Fischer; Asko Noormets; Jameson Boone; James C. Williamson; John S. King

    2017-01-01

    Short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) grown for bioenergy production are considered a more sustainable feedstock than food crops such as corn and soybean. However, to be sustainable SRWC should be deployed on land not suitable for agriculture (e.g., marginal lands). Here we quantified productivity and energy yield of four SRWC candidate species grown at different planting...

  9. Selection of reliable reference genes for gene expression analysis under abiotic stresses in the desert biomass willow, Salix psammophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salix psammophila is a desert shrub willow that has extraordinary adaptation to abiotic stresses and plays an important role in maintaining local ecosystems. Moreover, S. psammophila is regarded as a promising biomass feedstock because of its high biomass yields and short rotation coppice cycle. However, few suitable reference genes (RGs for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR constrain the study on normalization of gene expression in S. psammophila until now. Here, we investigated the expression stabilities of 14 candidate RGs across tissue types and under four abiotic stress treatments, including heat, cold, salt and drought treatments. After calculation of PCR efficiencies, three different software, NormFinder, geNorm, and BestKeeper were employed to analyze systematically the qRT-PCR data, and the outputs were merged by RankAggreg software. The optimal reference genes selected for gene expression analysis were EF1□□ (Elongation factor-1 alpha and OTU (OTU-like cysteine protease family protein for different tissue types, UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 and LTA4H (Leukotriene A-4 hydrolase homologue for heat treatment, HIS (Histone superfamily protein H3 and ARF2 (ADP-ribosylation factor 2 for cold treatment, OTU and ACT7 (Actin 7 for salt treatment, UBC and LTA4H for drought treatment. The expression of UBC, ARF2 and VHAC (V-type proton ATPase subunit C varied the least across tissue types and under abiotic stresses. Furthermore, the relative genes expression profiles of one tissue-specific gene WOX1a (WUSCHEL-related homeobox 1a, and four stress-inducible genes, including Hsf-A2 (Heat shock transcription factors A2, CBF3 (C-repeat binding factor 3, HKT1 (High-Affinity K+ Transporter 1 and GST (Glutathione S-transferase, were conducted to confirm the validity of the reference genes in this study. These results provided an important RGs application guideline for gene expression characterization in S. psammophila.

  10. Carbon isotope compositions (δ(13) C) of leaf, wood and holocellulose differ among genotypes of poplar and between previous land uses in a short-rotation biomass plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, M S; Fichot, R; Broeckx, L S; Vanholme, B; Boerjan, W; Ceulemans, R

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of water use to produce biomass is a key trait in designing sustainable bioenergy-devoted systems. We characterized variations in the carbon isotope composition (δ(13) C) of leaves, current year wood and holocellulose (as proxies for water use efficiency, WUE) among six poplar genotypes in a short-rotation plantation. Values of δ(13) Cwood and δ(13) Cholocellulose were tightly and positively correlated, but the offset varied significantly among genotypes (0.79-1.01‰). Leaf phenology was strongly correlated with δ(13) C, and genotypes with a longer growing season showed a higher WUE. In contrast, traits related to growth and carbon uptake were poorly linked to δ(13) C. Trees growing on former pasture with higher N-availability displayed higher δ(13) C as compared with trees growing on former cropland. The positive relationships between δ(13) Cleaf and leaf N suggested that spatial variations in WUE over the plantation were mainly driven by an N-related effect on photosynthetic capacities. The very coherent genotype ranking obtained with δ(13) C in the different tree compartments has some practical outreach. Because WUE remains largely uncoupled from growth in poplar plantations, there is potential to identify genotypes with satisfactory growth and higher WUE. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mechanical resistance evaluation of a novel anatomical short glass fiber reinforced post in artificial endodontically treated premolar under rotational/lateral fracture fatigue testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Li

    2016-01-01

    This study develops a novel anatomical short glass fiber reinforced (anatomical SGFR) post and evaluates the mechanical performance in artificial endodontically treated premolars. An anatomical SGFR fiber post with an oval shape and slot/notch designs was manufactured using an injection-molding machine. The three-point bending test and crown/core restorations using the anatomical SGFR and commercial cylindrical fiber posts under fatigue test were executed to understand the mechanical resistances. The results showed that static and dynamic rotational resistance were found significantly higher in the anatomical SGFR fiber post than in the commercial post. The endurance limitations at 1.2×10(6) cycles were 66.81 and 64.77 N for the anatomical SGFR and commercial fiber posts, respectively. The anatomical SGFR fiber post presented acceptable value of flexural strength and modulus, better fit adaption in the root canal resist torque more efficiency but was not a key issue in the lateral fracture resistance in an endodontically treated premolar.

  12. Allometric Models to Predict Aboveground Woody Biomass of Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. in Short Rotation Coppice in Previous Mining and Agricultural Areas in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Carl

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Black locust is a drought-resistant tree species with high biomass productivity during juvenility; it is able to thrive on wastelands, such as former brown coal fields and dry agricultural areas. However, research conducted on this species in such areas is limited. This paper aims to provide a basis for predicting tree woody biomass for black locust based on tree, competition, and site variables at 14 sites in northeast Germany that were previously utilized for mining or agriculture. The study areas, which are located in an area covering 320 km × 280 km, are characterized by a variety of climatic and soil conditions. Influential variables, including tree parameters, competition, and climatic parameters were considered. Allometric biomass models were employed. The findings show that the most important parameters are tree and competition variables. Different former land utilizations, such as mining or agriculture, as well as growth by cores or stumps, significantly influenced aboveground woody biomass production. The new biomass models developed as part of this study can be applied to calculate woody biomass production and carbon sequestration of Robinia pseudoacacia L. in short rotation coppices in previous mining and agricultural areas.

  13. ORCHIDEE-SRC v1.0: an extension of the land surface model ORCHIDEE for simulating short rotation coppice poplar plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, T.; Zona, D.; Broeckx, L. S.; Verlinden, M. S.; Luyssaert, S.; Bellassen, V.; Vuichard, N.; Ceulemans, R.; Gobin, A.; Janssens, I. A.

    2015-05-01

    Modelling biomass production and the environmental impact of short rotation coppice (SRC) plantations is necessary for planning their deployment, as they are becoming increasingly important for global energy production. This paper describes the modification of the widely used land surface model ORCHIDEE for stand-scale simulations of SRC plantations. The model uses weather data, soil texture and species-specific parameters to predict the aboveground (harvestable) biomass production, as well as carbon and energy fluxes of an SRC plantation. Modifications to the model were made to the management, growth, and allocation modules of ORCHIDEE. The modifications presented in this paper were evaluated using data from two Belgian poplar-based SRC sites, for which multiple measurements and meteorological data were available. Biomass yield data were collected from 23 other sites across Europe and compared to 22 simulations across a comparable geographic range. The simulations show that the model predicts very well aboveground (harvestable) biomass production (within measured ranges), ecosystem photosynthesis (R2 = 0.78, NRMSE = 0.064, PCC = 0.89) and ecosystem respiration (R2 = 0.95, NRMSE = 0.078 PCC = 0.91). Also soil temperature and soil moisture are simulated adequately, but due to the simplicity of the soil moisture simulation, there are some discrepancies, which also influence the simulation of the latent heat flux. Overall, the extended model, ORCHIDEE-SRC, proved to be a tool suitable for predicting biomass production of SRC plantations.

  14. Spatial assessment of the economic feasibility of short rotation coppice on radioactively contaminated land in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. I. Model description and scenario analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk Mv, Marcel van der; Burema, Jiske; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Goor, François; Timofeyev, Sergei

    2004-09-01

    The economic feasibility of short rotation coppice (SRC) production and energy conversion in areas contaminated by Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs was evaluated taking the spatial variability of environmental conditions into account. Two sequential GIS-embedded submodels were developed for a spatial assessment, which allow for spatial variation in soil contamination, soil type, and land use. These models were applied for four SRC production and four energy conversion scenarios for the entire contaminated area of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia and for a part of the Bragin district, Belarus. It was concluded that in general medium-scale SRC production using local machines is most profitable. The areas near Chernobyl are not suitable for SRC production since the contamination levels in SRC wood exceed the intervention limit. Large scale SRC production is not profitable in areas where dry and sandy soils predominate. If the soil contamination does not exceed the intervention limit and sufficient SRC wood is available, all energy conversion scenarios are profitable.

  15. Limitations for phytoextraction management on metal-polluted soils with poplar short rotation coppice-evidence from a 6-year field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, E; Annicaerta, B; De Moor, S; Van Nevel, L; De Fraeye, M; Meiresonne, L; Vangronsveld, J; Tack, F M G; Ok, Y S; Meers, Erik

    2018-01-02

    Poplar clones were studied for their phytoextraction capacity in the second growth cycle (6-year growth) on a site in the Belgian Campine region, which is contaminated with Cd and Zn via historic atmospheric deposition of nearby zinc smelter activities. The field trial revealed regrowth problems for some clones that could not be predicted in the first growth cycle. Four allometric relations were assessed for their capacity to predict biomass yield in the second growth cycle. A power function based on the shoot diameter best estimates the biomass production of poplar with R2 values between 0.94 and 0.98. The woody biomass yield ranged from 2.1 to 4.8 ton woody Dry Mass (DM) ha-1 y-1. The primary goal was to reduce soil concentrations of metals caused by phytoextraction. Nevertheless, increased metal concentrations were determined in the topsoil. This increase can partially be explained by the input of metals from deeper soil layers in the top soil through litterfall. The phytoextraction option with poplar short rotation coppice in this setup did not lead to the intended soil remediation in a reasonable time span. Therefore, harvest of the leaf biomass is put forward as a crucial part of the strategy for soil remediation through Cd/Zn phytoextraction.

  16. Spatial assessment of the economic feasibility of short rotation coppice on radioactively contaminated land in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. II. Monte Carlo analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Perk, Marcel; Burema, Jiske; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Goor, François; Timofeyev, Sergei

    2004-09-01

    A Monte Carlo analysis of two sequential GIS-embedded submodels, which evaluate the economic feasibility of short rotation coppice (SRC) production and energy conversion in areas contaminated by Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs, was performed to allow for variability of environmental conditions that was not contained in the spatial model inputs. The results from this analysis were compared to the results from the deterministic model presented in part I of this paper. It was concluded that, although the variability in the model results due to within-gridcell variability of the model inputs was considerable, the prediction of the areas where SRC and energy conversion is potentially profitable was robust. If the additional variability in the model input that is not contained in the input maps is also taken into account, the SRC production and energy conversion appears to be potentially profitable at more locations for both the small scale and large scale production scenarios than the model predicted using the deterministic model.

  17. Seasonal variations in photosynthesis, intrinsic water-use efficiency and stable isotope composition of poplar leaves in a short-rotation plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckx, L S; Fichot, R; Verlinden, M S; Ceulemans, R

    2014-07-01

    Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and transpirational water loss play an important role in the yield and the carbon sequestration potential of bioenergy-devoted cultures of fast-growing trees. For six poplar (Populus) genotypes in a short-rotation plantation, we observed significant seasonal and genotypic variation in photosynthetic parameters, intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi) and leaf stable isotope composition (δ13C and δ18O). The poplars maintained high photosynthetic rates (between 17.8 and 26.9 μmol m(-2) s(-1) depending on genotypes) until late in the season, in line with their fast-growth habit. Seasonal fluctuations were mainly explained by variations in soil water availability and by stomatal limitation upon photosynthesis. Stomatal rather than biochemical limitation was confirmed by the constant intrinsic photosynthetic capacity (Vcmax) during the growing season, closely related to leaf nitrogen (N) content. Intrinsic water-use efficiency scaled negatively with carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13Cbl) and positively with the ratio between mesophyll diffusion conductance (gm) and stomatal conductance. The WUEi-Δ13Cbl relationship was partly influenced by gm. There was a trade-off between WUEi and photosynthetic N-use efficiency, but only when soil water availability was limiting. Our results suggest that seasonal fluctuations in relation to soil water availability should be accounted for in future modelling studies assessing the carbon sequestration potential and the water-use efficiency of woody energy crops. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Production of Short-Rotation Woody Crops Grown with a Range of Nutrient and Water Availability: Establishment Report and First-Year Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Coyle; J. Blake; K. Britton; M.; R.G. Campbell; J. Cox; B. Cregg; D. Daniels; M. Jacobson; K. Johnsen; T. McDonald; K. McLeod; E.; D. Robison; R. Rummer; F. Sanchez; J.; B. Stokes; C. Trettin; J. Tuskan; L. Wright; S. Wullschleger

    2003-12-31

    Coleman, M.D., et. al. 2003. Production of Short-Rotation Woody Crops Grown with a Range of Nutrient and Water Availability: Establishment Report and First-Year Responses. Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 26 pp. Abstract: Many researchers have studied the productivity potential of intensively managed forest plantations. However, we need to learn more about the effects of fundamental growth processes on forest productivity; especially the influence of aboveground and belowground resource acquisition and allocation. This report presents installation, establishment, and first-year results of four tree species (two cottonwood clones, sycamore, sweetgum, and loblolly pine) grown with fertilizer and irrigation treatments. At this early stage of development, irrigation and fertilization were additive only in cottonwood clone ST66 and sweetgum. Leaf area development was directly related to stem growth, but root production was not always consistent with shoot responses, suggesting that allocation of resources varies among treatments. We will evaluate the consequences of these early responses on resource availability in subsequent growing seasons. This information will be used to: (1) optimize fiber and bioenergy production; (2) understand carbon sequestration; and (3) develop innovative applications such as phytoremediation; municipal, industrial, and agricultural wastes management; and protection of soil, air, and water resources.

  19. Allelic variation in a willow warbler genomic region is associated with climate clines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith W Larson

    Full Text Available Local adaptation is an important process contributing to population differentiation which can occur in continuous or isolated populations connected by various amounts of gene flow. The willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus is one of the most common songbirds in Fennoscandia. It has a continuous breeding distribution where it is found in all forested habitats from sea level to the tree line and therefore constitutes an ideal species for the study of locally adapted genes associated with environmental gradients. Previous studies in this species identified a genetic marker (AFLP-WW1 that showed a steep north-south cline in central Sweden with one allele associated with coastal lowland habitats and the other with mountainous habitats. It was further demonstrated that this marker is embedded in a highly differentiated chromosome region that spans several megabases. In the present study, we sampled 2,355 individuals at 128 sites across all of Fennoscandia to study the geographic and climatic variables associated with the allele frequency distributions of WW1. Our results demonstrate that 1 allele frequency patterns significantly differ between mountain and lowland populations, 2 these allele differences coincide with extreme temperature conditions and the short growing season in the mountains, and milder conditions in coastal areas, and 3 the northern-allele or "altitude variant" of WW1 occurs in willow warblers that occupy mountainous habitat regardless of subspecies. Finally these results suggest that climate may exert selection on the genomic region associated with these alleles and would allow us to develop testable predictions for the distribution of the genetic marker based on climate change scenarios.

  20. Typhlodromus pyri and Euseius finlandicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as potential biocontrol agents against spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) inhabiting willows: laboratory studies on predator development and reproduction on four diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalska, Ewa K; Kozak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Euseius finlandicus (Oudemans) are important predators of phytophagous mites. The present laboratory study aimed to determine whether both species can develop and reach maturity feeding on spider mites occurring on willows, i.e., Schizotetranychus schizopus (Zacher), Schizotetranychus garmani Pritchard & Baker, and Tetranychus urticae Koch, and on Brassica napus L. pollen. The predators' development, reproduction and demographic parameters were significantly affected by diet. The data suggest that rape pollen can be useful in mass rearing of E. finlandicus but is completely unsuitable as alternative food for T. pyri. Short development time and high values of population parameters achieved by T. pyri feeding on larvae and protonymphs of S. schizopus and by E. finlandicus feeding on juvenile stages of S. garmani indicate great suitability of these preys as food for the phytoseiids, and make both predatory species promising biocontrol agents in spider mite control on willows.

  1. Quantifying the influence of riparian willows on summer flows in a headwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttila, Hannu; Dudley, Bruce; Graham, Scott; Srinivasan, Mathirimangalam

    2017-04-01

    In seasonally water limited regions, water use by vegetation specifically riparian, can have significant impact on water resources. A combined hydrological-isotopic field study was conducted within a headwater catchment of the North Waipara River, Canterbury, New Zealand, to study the effect of evapotranspiration (ET) from riparian vegetation on summer low flows. Data on weather conditions, depth to unconfined groundwater and stream flows at three locations along the length of the river, representing drainage areas of 0.7, 8, and 34 km2, were used in our analysis. Isotope ratios in monthly samples from runoff, groundwater and soil water (top 30 cm of soil), and in willow xylem from August 2014 to May 2016 were used to estimate catchment flow pathways and willow water sources. The willow ET was estimated using the Penman-Monteith method based on meteorological variables, willow leaf area index and willow surface area measurements. By combining the data from hydrometric, isotopic, and vegetation ET estimation, we found that water usage by riparian willows could be as high as 5.6 mm d-1 during summer and related well to flow differences between branches of the stream with and without willow. Thus riparian vegetation has a significant role in controlling summer low flow conditions. Transit time analysis using isotope data indicated that Waipara headwater has limited water storage capacity, thus making it vulnerable to seasonal variations in precipitation. Willow removal could potentially present a management option for mitigating seasonal low-flow conditions.

  2. The potential of willow for remediation of heavy metal polluted calcareous urban soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J K; Holm, P E; Nejrup, J

    2009-01-01

    Growth performance and heavy metal uptake by willow (Salix viminalis) from strongly and moderately polluted calcareous soils were investigated in field and growth chamber trials to assess the suitability of willow for phytoremediation. Field uptakes were 2-10 times higher than growth chamber...

  3. Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment : A field trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaeke, P; Luyssaert, S.; Mertens, J.; Meers, E.; Tack, F. M.G.; Lust, N

    2003-01-01

    Establishing fast growing willow stands on land disposed contaminated dredged sediment can result in the revaluation of this material and opens possibilities for phytoremediation. A field trial was designed to assess the impact of planting a willow stand (Salix viminalis L. 'Orm') on the dissipation

  4. Conservation assessment for the autumn willow in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Autumn willow, Salix serissima (Bailey) Fern., is an obligate wetland shrub that occurs in fens and bogs in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Disjunct populations of autumn willow occur in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Only two populations occur on Black Hills National Forest lands: a large population at McIntosh Fen and a small...

  5. Valuation of ecosystem services of commercial shrub willow (Salix spp.) woody biomass crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, Alison; Vidon, Philippe; Hirsch, Paul; Volk, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    The development of shrub willow as a bioenergy feedstock contributes to renewable energy portfolios in many countries with temperate climates and marginal croplands due to excessive moisture. However, to fully understand the potential of shrub willow as an alternative crop on marginal cropland, more research is needed to understand the potential of shrub willow for providing a variety of ecosystem services. At the same time, there is much need for research developing strategies to value ecosystem services beyond conventional valuation systems (e.g., monetary, intrinsic). In this context, this project investigates the ecosystem services of shrub willow woody biomass from an environmental science perspective, and proposes a new avenue to assess ecosystem services for management purposes based on the relative value of key ecosystem services under various land management strategies (i.e., willow vs. corn vs. hay). On marginal cropland in the US Northeast, shrub willow may be used to replace crops like corn or hay. Transitioning from conventional corn or hay to willow tends to reduce nutrient loss and erosion, improve biodiversity and adaptability to climate change, and increase access to recreational activities. However, it is unlikely to change soil carbon pools or greenhouse gas emissions at the soil-atmosphere interface. By encouraging decision makers to weigh the pros and cons of each management decision (i.e., willow vs. corn vs. hay) based on the situation, the ecosystems services valuation method used here provides a clear framework for decision making in a watershed management context.

  6. Distribution of assimilated carbon in plants and rhizosphere soil of basket willow (Salix viminalis L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neergaard, de A.; Porter, J.R.; Gorissen, A.

    2002-01-01

    Willow is often used in bio-energy plantations for its potential to function as a renewable energy source, but knowledge about its effect on soil carbon dynamics is limited. Therefore, we investigated the temporal variation in carbon dynamics in willow, focusing on below-ground allocation and

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from willow-based electricity: a scenario analysis for Portugal and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebelo de Mira, R.; Kroeze, C.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on greenhouse gas emissions from power plants using willow as fuel compared to those using fossil fuels. More specifically, we quantify emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils on which willow is grown, and compare these to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil

  8. Installation Restoration Program Site Final Assessment Report, Volume 1: 111th Fighter Group Willow Grove Air Reserve Station, Pennsylvania Air National Guard, Willow Grove, Pennsylvania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ...) at Willow Grove Air Reserve Station (WGARS) in Pennsylvania. The site assessment, as presented herein, has been supplemented by additional Site Characterization work accomplished by PEER Consultants, P.C. in 1997...

  9. Establishment and Early Growth of Willow at Different Levels of Weed Competition and Nitrogen Fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfeldt, Stina; Lundkvist, Anneli; Forkman, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of weed competition and nitrogen fertilization on the early growth performance of willow, cuttings of the clone Tora (Salix schwerinii x S. viminalis) were planted in buckets together with model weeds (spring barley or white mustard) sown 15, 26, and 30 days after willow...... planting. The buckets were fertilized with 30 or 90 kg N ha−1. Willow with weeds sown after 15 days produced less biomass and smaller leaf area and had a lower maximum shoot height compared to willow planted without weeds and willow with weeds sown after 26 or 30 days. Fertilization with 90 kg N ha−1......, fertilization should be delayed....

  10. Elucidating spatially explicit behavioral landscapes in the Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakian, Amanda V.; Sullivan, Kimberly A.; Paxton, Eben H.

    2012-01-01

    Animal resource selection is a complex, hierarchical decision-making process, yet resource selection studies often focus on the presence and absence of an animal rather than the animal's behavior at resource use locations. In this study, we investigate foraging and vocalization resource selection in a population of Willow Flycatchers, Empidonax traillii adastus, using Bayesian spatial generalized linear models. These models produce “behavioral landscapes” in which space use and resource selection is linked through behavior. Radio telemetry locations were collected from 35 adult Willow Flycatchers (n = 14 males, n = 13 females, and n = 8 unknown sex) over the 2003 and 2004 breeding seasons at Fish Creek, Utah. Results from the 2-stage modeling approach showed that habitat type, perch position, and distance from the arithmetic mean of the home range (in males) or nest site (in females) were important factors influencing foraging and vocalization resource selection. Parameter estimates from the individual-level models indicated high intraspecific variation in the use of the various habitat types and perch heights for foraging and vocalization. On the population level, Willow Flycatchers selected riparian habitat over other habitat types for vocalizing but used multiple habitat types for foraging including mountain shrub, young riparian, and upland forest. Mapping of observed and predicted foraging and vocalization resource selection indicated that the behavior often occurred in disparate areas of the home range. This suggests that multiple core areas may exist in the home ranges of individual flycatchers, and demonstrates that the behavioral landscape modeling approach can be applied to identify spatially and behaviorally distinct core areas. The behavioral landscape approach is applicable to a wide range of animal taxa and can be used to improve our understanding of the spatial context of behavior and resource selection.

  11. Lack of Short-Term Effectiveness of Rotating Treadmill Training on Turning in People with Mild-to-Moderate Parkinson's Disease and Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. McNeely

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since turning is often impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD and may lead to falls, it is important to develop targeted treatment strategies for turning. We determined the effects of rotating treadmill training on turning in individuals with PD. This randomized controlled study evaluated 180∘ in-place turns, functional turning (timed-up-and-go, and gait velocity before and after 15 minutes of rotating treadmill training or stepping in place in 26 people with PD and 27 age-matched controls. A subset of participants with PD (=3 completed five consecutive days of rotating treadmill training. Fast as possible gait velocity, timed-up-and-go time, 180∘ turn duration, and steps to turn 180∘ were impaired in PD compared to controls (0.05. Preferred pace gait velocity and timing of yaw rotation onset of body segments (head, trunk, pelvis during 180∘ turns were not different in PD (>0.05 and did not change following either intervention. No improvements in gait or turning occurred after five days of rotating treadmill training, compared to one day. The rotating treadmill is not recommended for short-term rehabilitation of impaired in-place turning in the general PD population.

  12. The aspirin story - from willow to wonder drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, Michael J R; Keeling, David M

    2017-06-01

    The story of the discovery of aspirin stretches back more than 3500 years to when bark from the willow tree was used as a pain reliever and antipyretic. It involves an Oxfordshire clergyman, scientists at a German dye manufacturer, a Nobel Prize-winning discovery and a series of pivotal clinical trials. Aspirin is now the most commonly used drug in the world. Its role in preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease has been revolutionary and one of the biggest pharmaceutical success stories of the last century. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Nestling sex ratio in the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.; McCarthey, T.D.; Keim, P.

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular-genetic techniques, we determined the gender of 202 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nestlings from 95 nests sampled over a five-year period. Overall nestling sex ratio did not vary significantly from 50:50 among years, by clutch order, or by mating strategy (monogamous vs. polygamous pairings). However, we did observe significant differences among the four sites sampled, with sex ratios biased either toward males or females at the different sites. Given the small population sizes and geographic isolation of many of the endangered subspecies' breeding populations, sex-ratio differences may have localized negative impacts. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.

  14. Ungulate herbivory on alpine willow in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigenfuss, L.C.; Schoenecker, K.A.; Amburg, L.K.V.

    2011-01-01

    In many areas of the Rocky Mountains, elk (Cervus elaphus) migrate from low-elevation mountain valleys during spring to high-elevation subalpine and alpine areas for the summer. Research has focused on the impacts of elk herbivory on winter-range plant communities, particularly on woody species such as willow and aspen; however, little information is available on the effects of elk herbivory on alpine willows. In the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of south central Colorado, select alpine areas appear to receive high levels of summer elk herbivory, while other areas are nearly unbrowsed. In 2005 and 2008, we measured willow height, cover, and utilization on sites that appeared to be used heavily by elk, as well as on sites that appeared to be used lightly, to determine differences between these communities over time. We found less willow cover and shorter willows at sites that received higher levels of browsing compared to those that had lower levels of browsing. Human recreational use was greater at lightly browsed sites than at highly browsed sites. From 2005 to 2008, willow utilization declined, and willow cover and height increased at sites with heavy browsing, likely owing to ownership change of adjacent valley land which led to (1) removal of grazing competition from, cattle at valley locations and (2) increased human use in alpine areas, which displaced elk. We discuss the implications of increased human use and climate change on elk use of these alpine habitats. ?? 2011.

  15. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Tyler Pittman

    Full Text Available Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha. This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated. Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%. We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5 cm ground diameter but did not select for small

  16. Removal of 4-chlorobenzoic acid from spiked hydroponic solution by willow trees (Salix viminalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deavers, K.; Macek, T.; Karlson, U.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Chlorobenzoic acids (CBA) are intermediate products of the aerobic microbial degradation of PCB and several pesticides. This study explores the feasibility of using basket willows, Salix viminalis, to remove 4-CBA from polluted sites, which also might stimulate PCB degradation....... Methods The removal of 4-CBA by willow trees was investigated with intact, septic willow trees growing in hydroponic solution and with sterile cell suspensions at concentrations of 5 mg/L and 50 mg/L 4-CBA. Nutrient solutions with different levels of ammonium and nitrate were prepared to achieve different...

  17. Salicin-7-sulfate: A new salicinoid from willow and implications for herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noleto-Dias, Clarice; Ward, Jane L; Bellisai, Alice; Lomax, Charlotte; Beale, Michael H

    2018-02-12

    Willow (Salix sp.) is a historically well-known herbal medicine that provided the lead compound (salicin) for the discovery of aspirin, one of the most successful plant derived drugs in human medicine. During a metabolomics screen of 86 Salix species contained in the UK National Willow Collection, we have discovered, isolated and fully characterised a new natural salicinoid - salicin-7-sulfate. This molecule may have important human pharmacological actions that need to be considered in determining the efficacy and safety of willow herbal medicines. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Willows strongly emit methane (CH4) during dormant season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machacova, Katerina; Janebova, Klara; Stellner, Stanislav; Dusek, Jiri; Pavelka, Marian; Ryplova, Renata; Urban, Otmar

    2017-04-01

    Wetlands are considered to be a substantial natural source of methane (CH4), due to CH4 production by methanogens in flooded soil. Trees, especially wetland tree species possessing an aerenchyma system in roots, are known to emit CH4 into the atmosphere. However, information about the seasonal dynamics of tree CH4 emissions is rare. We determined CH4 emissions from stems of mature willow trees (Salix pentandra, S. fragilis) in wetlands from March 2014 to September 2015. We aimed to investigate the seasonal changes of CH4 emissions within the soil-tree-atmosphere continuum and the impact of environmental parameters on these emissions. An intensive campaign investigating vertical profile of CH4 emissions in stems was performed in May 2016. The measurements were performed in sedge-grass marsh surrounding the ecosystem station Wet Meadows in South Bohemia, Czech Republic (49˚ 01´30´´N,14˚ 46´20´´E), with scattered willow trees. Emissions of CH4 were determined from stems and adjacent soil each month using static chamber systems and laser analyses. Our study revealed that all trees studied consistently emitted CH4 from their stems over the whole year. The CH4 emissions were significantly higher in S. fragilis (up to 14.2 mg CH4 m-2 stem area h-1) than in S. pentandra (up to 1.03 mg CH4 m-2 h-1), and dramatically decreased within first 1.5 m of stem height with highest emissions detected close to the soil surface. Even though the CO2 exchange of willow stems, as an indicator of their physiological activity, showed strong seasonality typical for tree species of temperate zone (high CO2 emissions during vegetation season followed by low, but still detectable emissions in dormant season), the stems emitted CH4 in an opposite pattern. The CH4 emissions were the lowest in summer months (from June until August/September) and dramatically increased from September onwards and remained very high and almost constant until May. The soil even deposited CH4 from the

  19. Tri Annual Narrative Reports : Pishkun, Willow Creek, Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge : May to August 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Benton Lake, Willow Creek, Pishkun National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1955. The report...

  20. Tri Annual Narrative Reports : Pishkun, Willow Creek, Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge : May to August 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Benton Lake, Willow Creek, Pishkun National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May to August of 1960. The report begins...

  1. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Vegetation Plots, Willow Communities, North Slope, Alaska, 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides environmental, soil, and vegetation data collected in July and August 1997 from 85 study plots in willow shrub communities located along a...

  2. Benton Lake, Willow Creek, Pishkun National Wildlife Refuges : Narrative Report : January to December 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Benton Lake, Willow Creek, Pishkun outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  3. Quarterly Narrative Reports : Pishkun, Willow Creek, Benton Lake [National Wildlife Refuge] : August to October 1941

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for WIllow Creek, Benton Lake, and Pishkun National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from August to October of 1941. The report...

  4. Quarterly Narrative Reports : Pishkun, Willow Creek, Benton Lake [National Wildlife Refuge] : February to April 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Willow Creek, Benton Lake, and Pishkun National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from February to April of 1940. The report...

  5. Quarterly Narrative Reports : Pishkun, Willow Creek, Benton Lake [National Wildlife Refuge] : February to April 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Willow Creek, Benton Lake, and Pishkun National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from February to April of 1942. The report...

  6. Quarterly Narrative Reports : Pishkun, Willow Creek, Benton Lake [National Wildlife Refuge] : August to October 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for WIllow Creek, Benton Lake, and Pishkun National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from August to October of 1940. The report...

  7. Annual Report 1937 : Ninepipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake [National Wildlife] Refuges of Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for fiscal year 1937 covers Refuge activities on Ninepipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges....

  8. Annual Report 1938 : Ninepipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake [National Wildlife] Refuges of Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for fiscal year 1938 covers Refuge activities on Ninepipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges....

  9. Annual Report 1939 : Ninepipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake [National Wildlife] Refuges of Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for fiscal year 1939 covers Refuge activities on Ninepipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges....

  10. Benton Lake, Willow Creek, Pishkun National Wildlife Refuges : Narrative Report : January to December 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Benton Lake, Willow Creek, Pishkun outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  11. Use of Willows in Evapotranspirative Systems for Onsite Wastewater Management – Theory and Experiences from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Hans; Arias, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    of the nutrients can be recycled via the plant biomass, and the harvested biomass can serve as a source of bio-energy. In Denmark more than 500 ET systems planted with willows are in operation. The systems generally consist of a 1.5 m deep high-density polyethylene-lined basin filled with soil and planted...... dimensioning parameter. Settled sewage is dispersed underground into the bed under pressure. The stems of the willows are harvested on a regular basis to stimulate the growth of the willows and to remove some nutrients and heavy metals. In this paper, the theory behind the operation of willow based ET systems......Evapotranspiration (ET) is a method of onsite wastewater treatment and disposal that is an alternative to conventional soil absorption systems, particularly for sites where protecting surface water and ground water is essential or where soil infiltration is not possible. One of the most important...

  12. Use of willows in evapotranspirative systems for onsite wastewater management – theory and experiences from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Hans; Arias, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    of the nutrients can be recycled via the plant biomass, and the harvested biomass can serve as a source of bio-energy. In Denmark more than 500 ET systems planted with willows are in operation. The systems generally consist of a 1.5 m deep high-density polyethylene-lined basin filled with soil and planted...... dimensioning parameter. Settled sewage is dispersed underground into the bed under pressure. The stems of the willows are harvested on a regular basis to stimulate the growth of the willows and to remove some nutrients and heavy metals. In this paper, the theory behind the operation of willow based ET systems......Evapotranspiration (ET) is a method of onsite wastewater treatment and disposal that is an alternative to conventional soil absorption systems, particularly for sites where protecting surface water and ground water is essential or where soil infiltration is not possible. One of the most important...

  13. Phytotoxicity of fresh and weathered diesel and gasoline to willow and poplar trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Köhler, A.; Larsen, L.C.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of fresh and weathered gasoline and diesel fuel to willow and poplar trees was studied using a tree transpiration toxicity test. Soils were taken from an abandoned filling station. Concentrations in the samples were measured as the sum of hydrocarbons from C5 to C10 (gasoline) and C12...... diesel and gasoline contaminated soils, and two willow and one poplar species (S. viminalis, S. alba and Populus nigra). Fresh diesel at about 1000 mg/kg showed no effect on S. alba, although P. nigra was more sensitive. 10000 mg/kg seriously affected the transpiration of all species, silver willow (S....... alba) being the least sensitive. Free phase diesel killed all trees within six weeks. Fresh gasoline at 1000 mg/kg was deadly for all trees, hence was more toxic than weathered gasoline. Survival of poplars and willows planted at the abandoned filling station was compared to the laboratory findings...

  14. Narrative Report : Pishkun, Willow Creek & Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges : January to April 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1943. The...

  15. Stream Temperature Data in the Willow-Whitehorse watershed of SE Oregon, 2011-15

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes stream temperatures from a network of 100 data loggers that was installed throughout the Willow-Whitehorse watershed of SE Oregon in September...

  16. Biocomposites based on poly(lactic acid/willow-fiber and their injection moulded microcellular foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Zafar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural fiber reinforced biocomposites have recently attracted many researchers because of their biodegradability, cost effectiveness and ecofriendliness. The present study investigates the properties of willow-fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid based composites and their foam processability. Microcellular foams of the composites were prepared by foam injection moulding using nitrogen gas as the blowing agent. The effects of willow-fiber addition on the morphology, mechanical properties, thermal stability, crystallization, and heat deflection temperature (HDT were studied. At 30 weight percent [wt%] willow-fiber content, unfoamed composites showed good improvement in specific tensile and flexural moduli. Addition of willow-fiber increased crystallinity and the rate of crystallization and yielded narrow crystallite size distribution as observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM results of the foamed composites revealed that increase in willow-fiber content caused smaller average cell size and higher cell density. Specific notch impact strength of foamed composites at both 20 and 30 wt% willow-fiber content showed increasing trend compared to that of their unfoamed counterparts.

  17. Salt intrusion in tidal wetlands: European willow species tolerate oligohaline conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus-Michalczyk, Heike; Hanelt, Dieter; Ludewig, Kristin; Müller, David; Schröter, Brigitte; Jensen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experience salt intrusion due to the effects of climate change. This study clarifies that the European flood plain willows species Salix alba and Salix viminalis tolerate oligohaline conditions. Salix alba L. and Salix viminalis L. are distributed on flood plains up to transitional waters of the oligohaline to the mesohaline estuarine stretch in temperate climates. They experience spatial and temporal variations in flooding and salinity. In the past, willows dominated the vegetation above the mean high water line, attenuated waves and contributed to sedimentation. In recent centuries, human utilization reduced willow stands. Today, the Elbe estuary - a model system for an estuary in temperate zones - exhibits increasing flooding and salinity due to man-induced effects and climatic changes. Willows were described as having no salinity tolerance. In contrast, our soil water salinity measurements at willows in tidal wetlands prove that mature Salix individuals tolerate oligohaline conditions. To assess immature plant salinity tolerance, we conducted a hydroponic greenhouse experiment. Vegetative propagules originating from a freshwater and an oligohaline site were treated in four salinities. Related to growth rates and biomass production, we found interspecific similarities and a salinity tolerance up to salinity 2. Vitality and chlorophyll fluorescence indicated an acclimation of Salix viminalis to oligohaline conditions. We conclude, that the survival of S. alba and S. viminalis and the restoration of willow stands in estuarine flood plains - with regard to wave attenuation and sedimentation - might be possible, despite increasing salinity in times of climate change.

  18. Mental rotation impairs attention shifting and short-term memory encoding: neurophysiological evidence against the response-selection bottleneck model of dual-task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, M.M.; van Dam, W.O.; Band, G.P.H.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Hommel, B.

    2011-01-01

    Dual tasks and their associated delays have often been used to examine the boundaries of processing in the brain. We used the dual-task procedure and recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate how mental rotation of a first stimulus (S1) influences the shifting of visual-spatial

  19. Rotational seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    Rotational seismology is an emerging study of all aspects of rotational motions induced by earthquakes, explosions, and ambient vibrations. It is of interest to several disciplines, including seismology, earthquake engineering, geodesy, and earth-based detection of Einstein’s gravitation waves.Rotational effects of seismic waves, together with rotations caused by soil–structure interaction, have been observed for centuries (e.g., rotated chimneys, monuments, and tombstones). Figure 1a shows the rotated monument to George Inglis observed after the 1897 Great Shillong earthquake. This monument had the form of an obelisk rising over 19 metres high from a 4 metre base. During the earthquake, the top part broke off and the remnant of some 6 metres rotated about 15° relative to the base. The study of rotational seismology began only recently when sensitive rotational sensors became available due to advances in aeronautical and astronomical instrumentations.

  20. Steam gasification of wheat straw, barley straw, willow and giganteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.K. [FLS Miljoe A/S, Valby (Denmark); Rathmann, O.; Olsen, A. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Poulsen, K. [ReaTech, CAT Science Centre Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    A thorough experimental study of the H{sub 2}O gasification char-reactivity of wheat straw, barley straw, willow and giganteus at 1-10 bar total pressure, 0.15-1.5 bar H{sub 2}O and O-1.0 bar H{sub 2} and 750-925 C, was performed in a Pressurized Thermogravimetric Analyzer. There were a total of 58 experiments. Kinetic experiments with char of wheat straw at 10 bar total pressure showed that the reactivity increases with rising temperature and increasing partial pressure of H{sub 2}O,, while it decreases with increasing partial pressure of H{sub 2}. At constant partial H{sub 2}O pressure in the absence of H-2, an indication of a negative influence by the total pressure was observed. Except for the effect of total pressure, the experimental data were analyzed by means of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood equation, including both inhibition by H{sub 2} and reactivity limitation at high H{sub 2}O concentration. Also, the reactivity profile was assumed to be independent of temperature and reactant concentration. The value found for the main activation energy E{sub 1}, 149 kJ/mole, describing the temperature dependence at low H{sub 2}O concentration, is close to experimental values for biomass reported by other workers. At conditions relevant to both fluid-bed and entrained-flow gasifier types the present results indicate an inhibiting effect of the product gas H{sub 2}, reducing the reactivity by a factor of up to 10. A screening study of steam gasification of barley straw, willow and giganteus in addition to the wheat straw showed reaction rates with rather equal temperature dependence. However, at equal temperatures, there was a spread in reactivity of about 10 times from the lowest (wheat and giganteus) to the highest (barley), probably due to different contents of catalytic elements. (au) 5 tabs., 15 ills., 10 refs.

  1. Planting of a filling station with willows; Bepflanzung einer Tankstelle mit Weiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, L.C. [Hedeselskabet Miljo og Energi A/S, Roskilde (Denmark); Zambrano, K.C. [Hedeselskabet Miljo og Energi A/S, Roskilde (Denmark); Miljoe and Ressourcer, DTU, Lyngby (Denmark); Christiansen, H. [Miljoe and Ressourcer, DTU, Lyngby (Denmark); teamProtection A/S, Kobenhavn (Denmark); Koehler, A. [TU Berlin (Germany); Karlson, U. [Mikrobiel Okologi and Bioteknologi, Danmarks Miljoundersogelser, Roskilde (Denmark); Trapp, S. [Miljoe and Ressourcer, DTU, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    In Axelved, Denmark, an abandoned gas filling station serves as a test field for phytoremediation. Laboratory studies accompany the project. The toxicity of fresh and weathered gasoline and diesel to willow and poplar trees was studied by use of a tree transpiration toxicity test. The correlation between diesel content in soil and decrease in willow tree transpiration (Salix viminalis x schwerinii) was highly significant (r{sup 2} = 0.81, n = 19). The EC{sub 50} (50% inhibition of transpiration) for the sum of hydrocarbons (HC) was determined to be 3910 mg/kg (95% confidence interval from 2900 to 5270 mg/kg). The EC{sub 10} was 810 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 396 to 1600 mg/kg). The results were verified with artificially mixed diesel and gasoline-contaminated soils and two willow and one poplar species (S. viminalis, S. alba and Populus nigra). The degradation of radiolabeled m-xylene was studied with and without willows. The compound was readily degraded. Willow trees accelerated the elimination, but mainly due to the volatilization of m-xylene. Model studies provided the result that biodegradation in soil is the fastest elimination process at the site, but it is limited by the availability of electron acceptors. The pollutants are almost persistent in the groundwater, but in aerated soil, 10000 mg/kg hydrocarbons at 1 m depth are degraded within 13 years. The main effect of willows on the pollutants' persistence is that willows transpire water, lower the groundwater level and aerate the soil, hereby speeding up biodegradation. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of the willow root system by electrical impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Repo, Tapani; Silvennoinen, Raimo; Lehto, Tarja; Pelkonen, Paavo

    2011-01-01

    Information on plant roots is increasingly needed for understanding and managing plants under various environmental conditions, including climate change. Several methods have been developed to study fine roots but they are either destructive or cumbersome, or may not be suitable for studies of fine root functionality. Electrical impedance, resistance, and capacitance have been proposed as possible non-destructive measures for studying roots. Their use is limited by a lack of knowledge concerning the electrical circuit of the system. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used for hydroponically raised willows (Salix schwerinii) to estimate the root system size. The impedance spectra were investigated in three experimental set-ups and the corresponding appropriate lumped models were formulated. The fit of the proposed lumped models with the measured impedance spectra data was good. The model parameters were correlated with the contact area of the roots and/or stems raised in the hydroponic solution. The EIS method proved a useful non-destructive method for assessing root surface area. This work may be considered to be a new methodological contribution to understanding root systems and their functions in a non-destructive manner.

  3. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Today`s notice announces BPA`s proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA`s obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  4. Simulation modeling to understand how selective foraging by beaver can drive the structure and function of a willow community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinetti, H.R.; Baker, B.W.; Coughenour, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Beaver-willow (Castor-Salix) communities are a unique and vital component of healthy wetlands throughout the Holarctic region. Beaver selectively forage willow to provide fresh food, stored winter food, and construction material. The effects of this complex foraging behavior on the structure and function of willow communities is poorly understood. Simulation modeling may help ecologists understand these complex interactions. In this study, a modified version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model was developed to better understand how beaver foraging affects the structure and function of a willow community in a simulated riparian ecosystem in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (RMNP). The model represents willow in terms of plant and stem dynamics and beaver foraging in terms of the quantity and quality of stems cut to meet the energetic and life history requirements of beaver. Given a site where all stems were equally available, the model suggested a simulated beaver family of 2 adults, 2 yearlings, and 2 kits required a minimum of 4 ha of willow (containing about10 stems m-2) to persist in a steady-state condition. Beaver created a willow community where the annual net primary productivity (ANPP) was 2 times higher and plant architecture was more diverse than the willow community without beaver. Beaver foraging created a plant architecture dominated by medium size willow plants, which likely explains how beaver can increase ANPP. Long-term simulations suggested that woody biomass stabilized at similar values even though availability differed greatly at initial condition. Simulations also suggested that willow ANPP increased across a range of beaver densities until beaver became food limited. Thus, selective foraging by beaver increased productivity, decreased biomass, and increased structural heterogeneity in a simulated willow community.

  5. Energy wood production in short rotation. Opportunities and problems in their implementation. An analysis involving expert interviews; Energieholzproduktion im Kurzumtrieb. Chancen und Probleme bei ihrer Umsetzung. Eine Analyse unter Einbeziehung von Experteninterviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirkner, Ronny

    2010-12-01

    The thesis has to the content the latest stand and the possibilities of further development of wood energy production by short rotation coppice (SRC). After analyzing the development of this relatively new option of the management of fast growing tree species and their possibilities, the associated legal bases are being analyzed. In addition to related agricultural land, other options will be considered to establish land (forest, fallow land). Weaknesses in delimitation and promotion, especially at country level are discussed. There follows a detailed consideration of the economical and ecological contemplation of wood agricultural cultivation, as well as the basics of the management including the raw material supply. The analyzed results serve as a basis for running interviews with experts of the subject fast growing tree species. The results of the interviews show that SRC mainly as an opportunity for long-term wood energy supply and establishment of regional circuits is seen with emphasis on the agricultural sector, but in this context there are lots of deficits on side of the management technology, basic conditions and other establishment barriers that we are confront with. After overcoming the remaining start-up difficulties however the chances are good to expand the energy wood production in short rotation forestry in an economically viable, ecologically profitable and socially acceptable way and therewith contribute to the diversification of agricultural production and relief of multifunctional forest management. (orig.)

  6. Can energy willow (Salix sp.) remediate cadmium- and nickel-contaminated fish farm sludge?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marianne Bruus

    it meets the criteria. Phytoremediation by willow may combine accumulation of cadmium and nickel from the sludge with the production of an energy crop. The ability of eight selected willow clones to take up and tolerate cadmium and nickel was studied in pots under outdoor conditions. Fish farm sludge...

  7. SELECTIVE FORAGING ON WOODY SPECIES BY THE BEAVER CASTOR FIBER, AND ITS IMPACT ON A RIPARIAN WILLOW FOREST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOLET, BA; HOEKSTRA, A; OTTENHEIM, MM

    1994-01-01

    Beavers were re-introduced in the Biesbosch, The Netherlands, a wood dominated by willows Salix spp. Conservationists expected that herbivory by beavers would enhance succession to a mixed broad-leaved forest. Willows formed the staple food of the beavers, but they removed only 1.4% of the standing

  8. Willow as fuel for district heating. Experiences from test combustion; Energipil som braendsel til fjernvarme - Erfaringsindsamling fra testfyringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Joergen

    2012-10-15

    The project has been a study of the fuel characteristics of willow chips. The study was carried out on Trustrup-Lyngby Heating Plant and Assens District Heating Plant in the period 2011-12. Operating experiences were collected from the two plants. Furthermore, yield and crop data were collected from suppliers of willow chips to Assens District Heating Plant, and the analysis of particle size distribution of the willow chips is carried out. The collected data on yield and particle size distribution are compared with results from previous studies. The project has shown that willow chips generally are a suitable and attractive fuel in wood-fired heat and power plants. The plants are very aware of quality of willow chips and want chips with coarse structure. Furthermore, there is the wish that water content of willow chips are on par with the moisture content of wood chips, i.e. around 30-40%; woodchips are the vast majority of the chips used in the plants. Wood chips produced from fresh willow shoots with chopper will typically have a moisture content of 50-60 %. Such ''wet'' chips will of some plants be deselected during winter, where there is a requirement of safe and high boiler output. Other plants will simply mix the ''wet'' willow chips with other, drier types of chips and can use it almost all the year. If the willow shoots are harvested as branches, which subsequently are allowed to dry for a period before chipping, willow chips can be produced with a moisture content that is in line with what is typical in wood chips. Analysis of particle size distribution shows that willow chips harvested with a cutting machine usually can meet the requirements for quality classes ''fine'', ''medium'' and ''coarse''. An account of the harvested yields of willow among the growers who supplied willow chips to Assens Heating Plant, showed a relatively low yield of 5.1 tonnes dry

  9. Phytoscreening and phytoextraction of heavy metals at Danish polluted sites using willow and poplar trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine typical concentrations of heavy metals (HM) in wood from willows and poplars, in order to test the feasibility of phytoscreening and phytoextraction of HM. Samples were taken from one strongly, one moderately, and one slightly polluted site and from...... three reference sites. Wood from both tree species had similar background concentrations at 0.5 mg kg−1 for cadmium (Cd), 1.6 mg kg−1 for copper (Cu), 0.3 mg kg−1 for nickel (Ni), and 25 mg kg−1 for zinc (Zn). Concentrations of chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) were below or close to detection limit....... Concentrations in wood from the highly polluted site were significantly elevated, compared to references, in particular for willow. The conclusion from these results is that tree coring could be used successfully to identify strongly heavy metal-polluted soil for Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and that willow trees were...

  10. Heavy metal load and dominance hierarchy in juvenile willow tits during winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogstad, Olav [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Section of Natural History, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Pedersen, Hans Chr. [Division of Terrestrial Ecology, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Tungasletta 2, N-7485 Trondheim (Norway)]. E-mail: hans.pedersen@nina.no

    2007-05-15

    Possible links between plasma testosterone levels, heavy metal loads and dominance in juvenile male willow tits (Parus montanus) are studied during winter conditions in Norway. Dominant individuals have better access to food resources, significantly higher cadmium content in the liver and higher plasma testosterone level compared to subordinates. A positive correlation was also found between plasma testosterone level and content of cadmium in the liver. Although the results in our study shows only a limited difference in testosterone level of dominant and subordinate juvenile male willow tits, possible small changes in behaviour might have crucial effects on winter survival of these birds. - Cadmium concentrations in juvenile male willow tits (Parus montanus) were correlated with plasma testosterone levels.

  11. Transcriptomic Response of Purple Willow (Salix purpurea to Arsenic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Yanitch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is a toxic element for plants and one of the most common anthropogenic pollutants found at contaminated sites. Despite its severe effects on plant metabolism, several species can accumulate substantial amounts of arsenic and endure the associated stress. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance remains obscure in many model plant species used for land decontamination (phytoremediation, including willows. The present study assesses the potential of Salix purpurea cv. ‘Fish Creek’ for arsenic phytoextraction and reveals the genetic responses behind arsenic tolerance, phytoextraction and metabolism. Four weeks of hydroponic exposure to 0, 5, 30 and 100 mg/L revealed that plants were able to tolerate up to 5 mg/L arsenic. Concentrations of 0 and 5 mg/L of arsenic treatment were then used to compare alterations in gene expression of roots, stems and leaves using RNA sequencing. Differential gene expression revealed transcripts encoding proteins putatively involved in entry of arsenic into the roots, storage in vacuoles and potential transport through the plant as well as primary and secondary (indirect toxicity tolerance mechanisms. A major role for tannin as a compound used to relieve cellular toxicity is implicated as well as unexpected expression of the cadmium transporter CAX2, providing a potential means for internal arsenic mobility. These insights into the underpinning genetics of a successful phytoremediating species present novel opportunities for selection of dedicated arsenic tolerant crops as well as the potential to integrate such tolerances into a wider Salix ideotype alongside traits including biomass yield, biomass quality, low agricultural inputs and phytochemical production.

  12. Transcriptomic Response of Purple Willow (Salix purpurea) to Arsenic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanitch, Aymeric; Brereton, Nicholas J. B.; Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Labrecque, Michel; Joly, Simon; Pitre, Frederic E.

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic element for plants and one of the most common anthropogenic pollutants found at contaminated sites. Despite its severe effects on plant metabolism, several species can accumulate substantial amounts of arsenic and endure the associated stress. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance remains obscure in many model plant species used for land decontamination (phytoremediation), including willows. The present study assesses the potential of Salix purpurea cv. ‘Fish Creek’ for arsenic phytoextraction and reveals the genetic responses behind arsenic tolerance, phytoextraction and metabolism. Four weeks of hydroponic exposure to 0, 5, 30 and 100 mg/L revealed that plants were able to tolerate up to 5 mg/L arsenic. Concentrations of 0 and 5 mg/L of arsenic treatment were then used to compare alterations in gene expression of roots, stems and leaves using RNA sequencing. Differential gene expression revealed transcripts encoding proteins putatively involved in entry of arsenic into the roots, storage in vacuoles and potential transport through the plant as well as primary and secondary (indirect) toxicity tolerance mechanisms. A major role for tannin as a compound used to relieve cellular toxicity is implicated as well as unexpected expression of the cadmium transporter CAX2, providing a potential means for internal arsenic mobility. These insights into the underpinning genetics of a successful phytoremediating species present novel opportunities for selection of dedicated arsenic tolerant crops as well as the potential to integrate such tolerances into a wider Salix ideotype alongside traits including biomass yield, biomass quality, low agricultural inputs and phytochemical production. PMID:28702037

  13. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam-pretreated willow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, R.; Zacchi, G. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-03-01

    Ethanol was product from SO{sub 2}-impregnated steam-pretreated willow by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Experiments with SSF were performed in stirred 300-ml vessels and in a 3-1 fermentor. Commercial cellulases were used in combination with either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Zymomonas mobilis. The amounts of substrate, enzymes, yeast, bacteria, and nutrients were varied. The temperature was maintained at 37{sup o}C, and the pH at 5.0. The results indicate that it is possible to reach over 85% of the theoretical ethanol yield, based on the glucan available in the raw material, in 3 days. This was achieved with a substrate concentration of 10% (wt/wt) and a yeast concentration of 10 g l{sup -1}; but even with 1 and 3 g l{sup -1} yeast, yields of 84.7 and 80%, respectively, were reached. A cellulase concentration corresponding to 18 filter paper U g{sup -1} substrate was sufficient to complete SSF in 3 days. Zymomonas mobilis gave slightly reduced ethanol yields; however, a reduction in the by-product formation was also obtained compared with the yeast. The nutrient concentration could be considerably reduced compared with literature data without any decrease in the ethanol yield. An increase of substrate concentration from 10 to 15% (wt/wt) reduced the ethanol yield to below 80% as a result of insufficient mass transfer. It was shown that SSF could be performed successfully under nonsterile conditions; however, the substrate and SSF medium must be sterilized prior to SSF. (author)

  14. Irrigation water quality influences heavy metal uptake by willows in biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, W Scott; Baker, Alan J M; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2015-05-15

    Phytoextraction is an effective method to remediate heavy metal contaminated landscapes but is often applied for single metal contaminants. Plants used for phytoextraction may not always be able to grow in drier environments without irrigation. This study investigated if willows (Salix x reichardtii A. Kerner) can be used for phytoextraction of multiple metals in biosolids, an end-product of the wastewater treatment process, and if irrigation with reclaimed and freshwater influences the extraction process. A plantation of willows was established directly onto a tilled stockpile of metal-contaminated biosolids and irrigated with slightly saline reclaimed water (EC ∼2 dS/cm) at a wastewater processing plant in Victoria, Australia. Biomass was harvested annually and analysed for heavy metal content. Phytoextraction of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc was benchmarked against freshwater irrigated willows. The minimum irrigation rate of 700 mm per growing season was sufficient for willows to grow and extract metals. Increasing irrigation rates produced no differences in total biomass and also no differences in the extraction of heavy metals. The reclaimed water reduced both the salinity and the acidity of the biosolids significantly within the first 12 months after irrigation commenced and after three seasons the salinity of the biosolids had dropped to metal extraction. Reclaimed water irrigation reduced the biosolid pH and this was associated with reductions of the extraction of Ni and Zn, it did not influence the extraction of Cu and enhanced the phytoextraction of Cd, which was probably related to the high chloride content of the reclaimed water. Our results demonstrate that flood-irrigation with reclaimed water was a successful treatment to grow willows in a dry climate. However, the reclaimed water can also change biosolids properties, which will influence the effectiveness of willows to extract different metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Removal of 4-chlorobenzoic acid from spiked hydroponic solution by willow trees (Salix viminalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deavers, Kamila; Macek, Tomas; Karlson, Ulrich G; Trapp, Stefan

    2010-08-01

    Chlorobenzoic acids (CBA) are intermediate products of the aerobic microbial degradation of PCB and several pesticides. This study explores the feasibility of using basket willows, Salix viminalis, to remove 4-CBA from polluted sites, which also might stimulate PCB degradation. The removal of 4-CBA by willow trees was investigated with intact, septic willow trees growing in hydroponic solution and with sterile cell suspensions at concentrations of 5 mg/L and 50 mg/L 4-CBA. Nutrient solutions with different levels of ammonium and nitrate were prepared to achieve different pH levels. The concentration of 4-CBA was tracked over time and quantified by HPLC. At the low level of 4-CBA (5 mg/L), willows removed 70% (pH 4.2) to 90% (pH 6.8), while 48% (pH 4.2) to 52% (pH 6.8) of the water was transpired. At the high 4-CBA level (50 mg/L), the pH varied between 4.4 and 4.6, and 10% to 30% of 4-CBA was removed, but only 5% to 9% of the water. In sterile cell suspensions, removal of 4-CBA by fresh biomass was much higher than removal by dead biomass. The results indicate that 4-CBA is toxic to willow trees at 50 mg/L. The removal of 4-CBA from solution is by both passive processes (uptake with water, sorption to plant tissue) and metabolic processes of the plants. Plants, such as willow trees, might assist in the degradation of PCB and their degradation products CBA.

  16. Willow wood (Salix alba as a raw material for pulp production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klašnja Bojana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of willow wood (structural-physical and mechanical properties and chemical composition were investigated to determine the parameters of the technological process of semichemical and sulphate pulp manufacture. The experimental material was willow wood Salix alba cl. 107/65/7. Semichemical and sulphate pulp were obtained in the laboratory. The yield, chemical properties and physical-mechanical properties of the obtained intermediate products intended for paper manufacture, were determined. The properties of poplar wood Populus deltoides Bartr. cl.725, were studied and its pulp production performed with the aim of comparison.

  17. Uptake, removal, accumulation, and phytotoxicity of 4-chlorophenol in willow trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Trapp, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    of implementing phytoremediation as a treatment method for 4-CP contamination was investigated. Willows were exposed to 4-CP levels ≤79.9 mg/L in hydroponic solution. The transpiration of the trees was used to determine toxic effects. Almost no inhibition of transpiration was detected at concentrations ≥15 mg...... concentrations. The loss of chemical from the system in experiments with trees was high, ≤99.5%. In treeless experiments, the mass loss of 4-CP was only 6% to 10%. The results indicated that degradation in the root zone is the main reason for the removal of 4-CP from the media. Phytoremediation of 4-CP in willow...

  18. Heavy metal load and dominance hierarchy in juvenile willow tits during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogstad, Olav; Pedersen, Hans Chr

    2007-05-01

    Possible links between plasma testosterone levels, heavy metal loads and dominance in juvenile male willow tits (Parus montanus) are studied during winter conditions in Norway. Dominant individuals have better access to food resources, significantly higher cadmium content in the liver and higher plasma testosterone level compared to subordinates. A positive correlation was also found between plasma testosterone level and content of cadmium in the liver. Although the results in our study shows only a limited difference in testosterone level of dominant and subordinate juvenile male willow tits, possible small changes in behaviour might have crucial effects on winter survival of these birds.

  19. Offshore marine observation of Willow Ptarmigan, including water landings, Kuskokwim Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Hillgruber, Nicola; Burril, Sean E.; St. Peters, Michelle A.; Wetzel, Jennifer D.

    2005-01-01

    We report an observation of Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) encountered 8 to 17 km from the nearest shoreline on Kuskokwim Bay, Alaska, on 30 August 2003. The ptarmigan were observed flying, landing on our research vessel, and landing and taking off from the water surface. We also report on one other observation of ptarmigan sitting on the water surface and other marine observations of ptarmigan from the North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database. These observations provide evidence that Willow Ptarmigan are capable of dispersing across large bodies of water and landing and taking off from the water surface.

  20. Performance of shrub willows (Salix spp.) as an evapotranspiration cover on Solvay wastebeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirck, Jaconette

    2009-12-01

    Soda ash (Na2CO3) production in the Syracuse New York area created 607 ha of wastebeds over the course of about 100 years. Today the primary concern of the Solvay wastebeds is high chloride concentrations in the leachate and storm water that may end up in the groundwater and nearby Onondaga Lake. The potential of shrub willow evapotranspiration (ET) covers to minimize leaching and to manage storm water was assessed in two studies. A sap flow sensor field study to estimate transpiration rates of four shrub willow varieties over an entire growing season. A greenhouse study focused on recycling saline Solvay storm water onto shrub willows. Annual sap flow and crop coefficients (Kc) were similar among four shrub willows, but differences were present over the course of the growing season. Peak K c values did not coincide with peak leaf area index (LAI), as might be expected if LAI were the main driver of transpiration. Rather than solely being driven by LAI, coupling with the atmosphere was an important factor in stand level sap flow. Estimates of ET were measured during both experiments, the ET/sap flow rankings of the shrub willow varieties were similar; Salix miyabeana (SX64)water that contained 1,625 mg Cl - L-1 (close to the average storm water concentration) did not significantly decrease ET values or growth for any of the willow varieties. Mass balances of sodium and chloride were carried out to assess the potentials of recycling saline Solvay storm water back onto a shrub willow ET cover during the growing season. During a ten-week study the combination of a shallow depth soil (33 cm) and a high irrigation regime (170% of average precipitation in the Syracuse NY area) resulted in the accumulation of at least 62% of both sodium and chloride in the plant/soil system for all five Solvay storm water treatments. Both studies indicated that shrub willows have the characteristics to be part of a sustainable ET cover on the Solvay wastebeds, which will decrease leaching

  1. Rotating Wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  2. The expression and intranuclear distribution of nucleolin in HL-60 and K-562 cells after repeated, short-term exposition to rotating magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiuk, Marek; Rakoczy, Rafal; Masiuk, Stanislaw; Kordas, Marian

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of rotating magnetic fields (RMF) on the expression and intranuclear distribution of nucleolin, protein involved in ribosome biosynthesis, in HL-60 (acute promyelocytic leukemia) and K-562 (chronic myelogenous leukemia) established human cell lines. Cells were exposed to RMF for two chosen states of the magnetic field induction: B=10 mT and B=20 mT in experimental set-up for 30 min with 24-h intervals for four days. Cytospin slides were prepared and expression of nucleolin was detected using monoclonal antibodies. Parameters of fluorescence related to nucleolin were measured in at least 2000 tumor cells in each slide by a laser scanning cytometer with an argon laser. Percentages of cells in different phases of cell cycle were also analyzed. The repeated exposition of cells to RMF caused significant increase in nucleolin expression in the whole nucleus and in the nucleolin aggregates (NUA). The redistribution of nucleolin measured by changes in number of NUA was also observed. The exposition of both cell lines studied to RMF did not alter the cell cycle. The nucleolin is responsive to RMF in HL-60 and K-562. The increase of its expression may indicate a reaction of cells to RMF and it may influence their other biological properties.

  3. Rotational elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliev, Dmitri

    2017-04-01

    We consider an infinite three-dimensional elastic continuum whose material points experience no displacements, only rotations. This framework is a special case of the Cosserat theory of elasticity. Rotations of material points are described mathematically by attaching to each geometric point an orthonormal basis that gives a field of orthonormal bases called the coframe. As the dynamical variables (unknowns) of our theory, we choose the coframe and a density. We write down the general dynamic variational functional for our rotational theory of elasticity, assuming our material to be physically linear but the kinematic model geometrically nonlinear. Allowing geometric nonlinearity is natural when dealing with rotations because rotations in dimension three are inherently nonlinear (rotations about different axes do not commute) and because there is no reason to exclude from our study large rotations such as full turns. The main result of the talk is an explicit construction of a class of time-dependent solutions that we call plane wave solutions; these are travelling waves of rotations. The existence of such explicit closed-form solutions is a non-trivial fact given that our system of Euler-Lagrange equations is highly nonlinear. We also consider a special case of our rotational theory of elasticity which in the stationary setting (harmonic time dependence and arbitrary dependence on spatial coordinates) turns out to be equivalent to a pair of massless Dirac equations. The talk is based on the paper [1]. [1] C.G.Boehmer, R.J.Downes and D.Vassiliev, Rotational elasticity, Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 2011, vol. 64, p. 415-439. The paper is a heavily revised version of preprint https://arxiv.org/abs/1008.3833

  4. Spin rotation and depolarization of high-energy particles in crystals at Hadron Collider (LHC) and Future Circular Collider (FCC) energies and the possibility to measure the anomalous magnetic moments of short-lived particles

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshevsky, V G

    2015-01-01

    We study the phenomena of spin rotation and depolarization of high-energy particles in crystals in the range of high energies that will be available at Hadron Collider (LHC) and Future Circular Collider (FCC). It is shown that these phenomena can be used to measure the anomalous magnetic moments of short-lived particles in this range of energies. We also demonstrate that the phenomenon of particle spin depolarization in crystals provides a unique possibility of measuring the anomalous magnetic moment of negatively-charged particles (e.g., beauty baryons), for which the channeling effect is hampered due to far more rapid dechanneling as compared to that for positively-charged particles. Channeling of particles in either straight or bent crystals with polarized nuclei could be used for polarization and the analysis thereof of high-energy particles.

  5. The green economy for sustainable development: a spatial multi-criteria analysis - ordered weighted averaging approach in the siting process for short rotation forestry in the Basilicata Region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Romano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Optimising bioenergy chains and the creation of a bio-energy district can make a positive contribution to territorial development, land use planning and employment, while reducing environmental pollution. Energy planning issues are complex problems with multiple decision makers and criteria. Given the spatial nature of the problem, the present paper proposes a spatial multi-criteria analysis approach for supporting decision makers in the site selection process for short rotation forestry planting in the Basilicata Region, southern Italy. The methodology applied in the decision-support system is ordered weighted averaging, extended by means of fuzzy linguistic quantifiers. The purpose of the research is to formulate a systematic procedure to analyse complex decision problems, while supplying decision makers with a flexible tool to decide on possible agro-energy policies. The outcomes of the analysis may support decision makers in defining targeted agro-energy policies and help the private sector to identify the most appropriate cropping plan.

  6. Soil ecological impacts of the short rotation industry with poplar trees and pastures in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania; Bodenoekologische Auswirkungen der Kurzumtriebswirtschaft mit Pappeln und Weiden in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahle, Petra; Moeller, Josefine; Seelig, Andreas; Baum, Christel [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Professur Bodenphysik und Ressourcenschutz

    2013-10-01

    The impact of short rotation coppice (SRC), a former soil rotation coppice (FRC) and a continuously annually tilled arable soil (TS) on different soil properties was investigated. Parameters were chemical soil properties, like the concentration of soil organic matter (SOC) and total nitrogen (Nt), physical soil properties, like the bulk density, porosity and aggregate stability and biological soil properties, like abundance and biomass of earth worms. The return to annual crops involved an intense tillage and aeration of the soil. The study indicated, that the lack of tillage under SRC and the quantity of leaf and root litter can lead to an increased carbon accumulation in the upper soil. Tillage of former SRC leads to a fast redistribution of SOC in the topsoil combined with a loss of porosity, aggregate stability and abundance of earth worms. Subsequent investigations should contribute to select tillage strategies for FRC, which contribute to conserve the accumulated SOC and decrease the impact on the porosity and aggregate stability. (orig.)

  7. Southwestern willow flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) in a grazed landscape: factors influencing brood parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine M. Brodhead; Scott H. Stoleson; Deborah M. Finch

    2007-01-01

    Brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater; hereafter "cowbirds") is an important factor contributing to the endangered status of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus, hereafter "flycatcher"). We report on factors that influence brood parasitism on the flycatcher using...

  8. Effect of temperature on the uptake and metabolism of cyanide by weeping willows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, X.-Z.; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, P.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Plants’ uptake and metabolism of cyanide in response to changes in temperature was investigated. Pre-rooted weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) were exposed to hydroponic solution spiked with potassium cyanide for 2–3 d. Ten different temperatures were used, ranging from 11◦C to 32◦C. Cyanide i...

  9. Phytotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride and Uptake of Fluoride in Willow Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Gosewinkel Karlson, Ulrich; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The willow tree (Salix viminalis) toxicity test and a cress seed germination test (Lepidium sativum) were used to determine uptake and phytotoxicity of NaF. Concentrations in hydroponic solutions were 0-1000 mg F/L and 0-400 mg F/L in the preliminary and definitive test. A third test was done wit...

  10. Treatment of log yard run-off by irrigation of grass and willows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Maria [Department of Forest Products and Markets, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)]. E-mail: maria.jonsson@spm.slu.se; Dimitriou, Ioannis [Department of Short Rotation Forestry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7016, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Aronsson, Paer [Department of Short Rotation Forestry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7016, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Elowson, Torbjoern [Department of Forest Products and Markets, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    Log yard run-off is a potential environmental risk, among other things because it creates an oxygen deficiency in receiving watercourses. This study was conducted to investigate the purification efficiency of soil-plant systems with couchgrass (Elymus repens) and willows (Salix sp.) when intensively irrigated with run-off from an open sprinkling system at a Norway spruce (Picea abies) log yard. The purification efficiency was determined both at the field scale (couchgrass) and in 68-L lysimeters (couchgrass and willows). Groundwater in the field and drainage water from the lysimeters were analysed for Total Organic Carbon (TOC), distillable phenols, total P, and total N. Retention of TOC, phenols and P occurred but no difference between couchgrass and willows was observed. The system had better purification capacity at the field scale than in the lysimeters. -- By irrigating willow and couchgrass soil-plant systems with log yard run-off water, TOC, phenols, and phosphorus were reduced with 35% to 96% in the water.

  11. Influence of flooding duration on the biomass growth of alder and willow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis F. Ohmann; M. Dean Knighton; Ronald McRoberts

    1990-01-01

    Simple second-order (quadratic) polynomials were used to model the relationship between 3-year biomass increase (net ovendry weight in grams) and flooding duration (days) for four combinations of shrub type (alder, willow) and soils type (fine-sand, clay-loam).

  12. Effects of hot water extraction pretreatment on pyrolysis of shrub willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment of biomass via hot water extraction (HWE) reduces the amount of hemicellulose and ash in the biomass resulting in a concentration of cellulose and lignin content. In this study, we tested the effect of HWE as a biomass pretreatment on the pyrolysis of shrub willow via both conventional he...

  13. Cd and Zn concentrations in small mammals and willow leaves on disposal facilities for dredged material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Verbeeren, S.; Vervaeke, P; Lust, N

    2001-01-01

    Disposal sites for dredged material are often polluted with heavy metals. The uptake of Cd and Zn by small mammals and willow trees was assessed on three sites with a different pollution degree. Detailed soil sampling showed a huge variation in soil characteristics within the sites, typical for

  14. Simulated winter browsing may lead to induced susceptibility of willows to beavers in spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraart, A.J.; Nolet, B.A.; Rosell, F.; De Vries, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Browsing may lead to an induced resistance or susceptibility of the plant to the herbivore. We tested the effect of winter browsing by Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber L., 1758) on food quality of holme willows (Salix dasyclados Wimm.) in and after the following growth season. Shrubs were pruned in

  15. A genetic linkage map of willow (Salix viminalis) based on AFLP and microsatelite markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanley, S.; Barker, J.H.A.; Ooijen, van J.W.; Aldam, C.; Harris, S.L.; Ahman, I.; Larsson, S.; Karp, A.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Salix (willow) contains a number of species of great value as biomass crops. Efforts to breed varieties with improved biomass yields and resistances to pests and diseases are limited by the lack of knowledge on the genetic basis of the traits. We have used AFLP and microsatellite markers

  16. Analysis of genetic diversity in female, male and half sibs willow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willows belong to the genus Salix (Salicaceae) and consist of large number of species with large phenotypic variations. As a result, it has a low diagnostic value for identifying pure species and interspecific hybrids. Genetic characterization of 34 reference genotypes (4 female, 10 male, and 20 half sibs) of Salix collected ...

  17. The flux of isoprene from a willow coppice plantation and the effect on local air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, M.; Ek-Olausson, B.; Jensen, N.O.

    2005-01-01

    Isoprene fluxes from a Salix viminalis (willow) plantation in western Sweden were measured using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) technique. Fluxes of up to 0.23 mu g m(-2) s(-1) could be observed. A standard emission factor at 303 K and a PAR flux of 1000 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) was estimated to 0...

  18. The role of stress proteins in responses of a montane willow leaf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu Sudhan

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... Adaptive variation at a glycolytic enzyme locus. One of the unique aspects of the Sierra willow leaf beetle is that natural selection to temperature appears to act on the glycolytic enzyme locus phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI). Allele frequency variation at PGI across the biogrographic temperature gradient ...

  19. Predictive analyses of ground-water discharges in the Willow Creek Watershed, northeast Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Jack T.; Lappala, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    Ground-water discharge to Willow Creek in northeast Nebraska was predicted with a digital model of the ground-water/surface-water system. Recharge and irrigation requirements were determined with a model of the soil zone. The regional aquifer is Pliocene and Pleistocene sands and gravels. Water in the regional aquifer is unconfined in the western part of the watershed and confined in the eastern part. The confining layer is Pleistocene eolian silts with very fine sand interbeds overlying a basal clay. Where the regional aquifer is unconfined, perennial flow of Willow Creek is sustained by ground-water discharge. Where it is confined, the low hydraulic conductivity of the confining beds isolates the regional aquifer from Willow Creek. Adequate agreement between simulated and observed streamflows and water levels during 1975 and 1976 was obtained by modifying initial estimates of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. The future perennial flow of Willow Creek was simulated by superimposing six patterns of ground-water withdrawals upon variations in recharge for a monthly climatic sequence identical with the period 1931-34. These analyses showed that the perennial monthly flows would be less than 12 cubic feet per second at least 50 percent of the time. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Status and migration of the Southwestern willow flycatcher in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey F. Kelly

    1999-01-01

    In the Southwestern United States, recent degradation of riparian habitats has been linked to decline of the Southwestern subspecies of the Willow Flycatcher. During a 2-year banding effort, migration patterns and bird fat content were analyzed. Recommendations for managers, and outlines for conservation plans, are included.

  1. White willow sexual regeneration capacity under estuarine conditions in times of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus-Michalczyk, Heike; Hanelt, Dieter; Denstorf, Julian; Jensen, Kai

    2016-10-01

    Tidal wetlands provide both habitats for coastal populations and wildlife, and ecosystem services for human welfare. Building with nature regarding cost-effective coastal protection is of increasing interest. Much research has been carried out on plant reproduction capacities in mangroves and salt marshes, but less is known on this issue in tidal freshwater wetlands. Willows are being successfully used for bank stabilization in riverine habitats, however, today white willow softwood forests in tidal wetlands are highly fragmented, and restoration is required e.g. by the European Habitats Directive. Recently, tolerance to increasing salinity and tidal flooding was found for vegetative propagules of floodplain willows. However, the establishment of autochthonous sexual recruits is necessary to conserve the genetic diversity of local populations, and thus may be preferable in restoration. The germination and early seedling establishment of Salix alba (white willow) was experimentally studied under simulated estuarine conditions. The species tolerance to increasing salinity (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2) was tested in a climate chamber, and its tolerance to flooding at different tidal treatments (control, spring tide, daily tide 15 min and 2 h flooding) in the greenhouse. Germination was neither affected by increasing salinity nor by tidal flooding. Salix seedlings established up to salinity 1.5, but cotyledon performance and radicle growth was largely reduced at salinity 2. Under tidal flooding, seedling growth was similar in all treatments. However, in the treatments with daily tides seedling anchorage in the substrate took more than two weeks, and fewer seedlings reached a suitable length to approach the high water line. We assess S. alba sexual regeneration under estuarine conditions as generally possible. Further studies are needed on the effects of sedimentation-erosion processes on willow establishment in the field, especially on feedbacks between Salix survival and

  2. Host specificity and genetic differentiation of Melampsora epitea (rust on willows)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado Pasten, Sergio [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Plant Pathology and Biocontrol Unit

    2001-07-01

    Rust caused by Melampsora epitea is considered the most serious and widespread disease on willows. When severe, rust can defoliate willows prematurely leading to serious yield losses and rootstock death. Studying the infection process, we found that M. epitea requires no specific recognition signals to germinate, grow, or penetrate the host stomata, regardless of whether interaction with the host plant is compatible or incompatible; instead, plant defense mechanisms are determined by substomatal events. Isolates of the Swedish rust population were classified (pathotyped) by their virulence patterns on a standard set of willow clones (willow differential). Thirty-seven pathotypes of M. epitea were identified and grouped into three formae speciales. For global monitoring of the virulence of M. epitea, an internationally useful naming system was proposed. Partly to confirm the value of such a naming system, the pathotype compositions of two distant M. epitea populations (from Sweden and Chile) were compared using the willow differential. The results indicated that long-distance inocula exchange likely plays an active role in the population dynamics and evolution of pathotype structure for M. epitea. To study the genetics underlying pathotype dynamics, molecular tools, such as AFLP, were used. The resulting dendrogram revealed no clustering based on geographic origin, and because geographic distance among pathogen populations correlated poorly with genetic distance, apparently geographically distant populations have developed collectively as a metapopulation instead of separately. However, the result shows that M. epitea has high levels of gene and genotypic variation within populations, which is consistent with the occurrence of sexual reproduction. The low between-population variation, despite variation in local selection pressures, accords with massive long-distance migration of rust spores.

  3. Salix ×velchevii and S. ×ardana (Salicaceae) - two new willow hybrids from the Bulgarian Rhodope Mts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerzy Zieliński; Ana Petrova; Zhivka Pancheva

    2011-01-01

    Two previously unknown willow hybrids, Salix × velchevii (S. amplexicaulis Bory × S. xanthicola K.I. Chr.) and S. × ardana (S. alba L. × S. xanthicola K.I. Chr.), are described from the Bulgarian Rhodope Mts...

  4. Differential impacts of willow and mineral fertilizer on bacterial communities and biodegradation in diesel fuel oil-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Cathrine C.E. Leewis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research there is limited understanding of how vegetation impacts the ability of microbial communities to process organic contaminants in soil. Using a combination of traditional and molecular assays, we examined how phytoremediation with willow and/or fertilization affected the microbial community present and active in the transformation of diesel contaminants. In a pot study, willow had a significant role in structuring the total bacterial community and resulted in significant decreases in diesel range organics (DRO. However, stable isotope probing (SIP indicated that fertilizer drove the differences seen in community structure and function. Finally, analysis of the total variance in both pot and SIP experiments indicated an interactive effect between willow and fertilizer on the bacterial communities. This study clearly demonstrates that a willow native to Alaska accelerates DRO degradation, and together with fertilizer, increased aromatic degradation by shifting microbial community structure and the identity of active naphthalene degraders.

  5. Narrative Report : Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek & Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges : January to April 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April...

  6. Narrative Report : Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek & Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges : September to December 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September to December...

  7. Narrative Report : Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek & Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges : May to August 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May to August...

  8. Narrative Report : Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek & Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges : January to April 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April...

  9. Narrative Report : Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek & Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges : September to December 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September to December...

  10. Narrative Report : Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek & Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges : September to December 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September to December...

  11. Narrative Report : Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek & Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges : January to April 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April...

  12. Narrative Report : Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek & Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges : May - August 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek topics include grazing and fur harvesting. A progress report on field investigations and applied...

  13. Narrative Report : Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek & Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges : May to August 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May to August...

  14. Narrative Report : Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek & Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges : May to August 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May to August...

  15. Narrative Report : Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek & Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges : January to April 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April...

  16. Narrative Report : Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek & Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges : January to April 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April...

  17. Narrative Report : Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek & Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges : May to August 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May to August...

  18. Narrative Report : Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek & Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges : May to August 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May to August...

  19. Narrative Report : Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek & Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges : January to April 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April...

  20. Narrative Report : Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek & Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges : May to August 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May to August...

  1. Narrative Report : Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek & Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuges : January to April 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Nine-pipe, Pablo, Pishkun, Willow Creek and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April...

  2. Growth and survival of seven native willow species on highly disturbed coal mine sites in eastern Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mosseler, Alex; Major, John E; Labrecque, Michel

    2014-01-01

    .... Unrooted dormant stem sections collected from clones of five willow species previously field-tested and selected for survival and growth, survived and grew better on the mine site to be reclaimed...

  3. Nitrogen removal from landfill leachate in constructed wetlands with reed and willow: Redox potential in the root zone

    OpenAIRE

    Bialowiec, Andrzej; Albuquerque, António; Davies, Laura; Randerson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of reed and willow on bioremediation of landfill leachate in comparison with an unplanted control by measuring redox potential levels in the rhizosphere of microcosm systems in a greenhouse. Plants had a significant influence on redox potential relative to the plant-less system. Redox potential in the reed rhizosphere was anoxic (mean -102 +/- 85 mV), but it was the least negative, being significantly higher than in the willow (mean -286 +/- 118 mV), which ...

  4. Trace Element Concentration and Speciation in Selected Mining-Contaminated Soils and Water in Willow Creek Floodplain, Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Burt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term mining activities in the mountains around Creede, Colorado have resulted in significant contamination in soils and water in the Willow Creek floodplain. Total major and trace were determined for soils and water and sequential chemical extraction for soils. Objectives were to determine concentrations and potential reactivity of trace elements and investigate their relationship with other soil and water properties. Water trace elements showed significant variability among sites, ranging from 347 to 12108 μg/L. Relative trend showed (Zn > Sr > Ba > (Mn > W > Cd > (Sn > V ≈ Ni ≈ Cu > Co > (Ag. Soil trace elements showed significant short-range spatial variability, ranging from 2819 to 19274 mg/kg. Relative trend showed (Pb ≈ Zn > Mn > Ba > P > (As > Cu > Sr > V > Cd > Sb ≈ Ag > (Co ≈ Cr > Mo ≈ Sn ≈ Ni > (Be ≈ W > Se ≈ Hg. Predominant fractions were oxide, specifically-sorbed/carbonate bound, and residual. Water soluble and exchangeable fractions showed (Zn ≈ Cd > Pb and Cd > Zn > Pb, respectively. Mobility factors for highly contaminated soils showed Cd ≈ Zn > Pb > Cu > As.

  5. Porous graphitic carbon microtubes derived from willow catkins as a substrate of MnO2 for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Kang; Li, Hengxiang; Cao, Qing; Jin, Li'e.; Li, Ping

    2017-03-01

    Biomass is receiving considerable attention because of its significant advantages as a sustainable and renewable material. Willow catkins, which have a single-walled microtubular structure are used as both a template and a precursor for synthesizing porous graphitic carbon microtubes (PGCMT) induced by the simultaneous activation-graphitization of K4Fe(CN)6. In addition to providing low-resistant pathways and short ion diffusion channels, as-obtained PGCMT with tubular structure also serves as an ideal platform for anchoring MnO2. The PGCMT/MnO2 composite electrode obtained by MnO2 electrodeposition expressed excellent electrochemical performance, including a significantly enhanced specific capacitance (550.8 F g-1 for the mass of MnO2 at a current density of 2 A g-1), a high capacitance retention of 61.8% even at a high current density of 50 A g-1, and an excellent cycling stability of 89.6% capability retention after 5000 cycles. These findings offer a simple and environmentally friendly strategy for preparing advanced energy materials by utilizing the unique structure of biomass waste from nature.

  6. Farm-gate budget of energy crops: an experiment to assess changes in GHGs balance due to a land use change from grassland to short rotation coppice of poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, S.; Arriga, N.; Baiocco, A.; Boschi, A.; Castaldi, S.; Consalvo, C.; Gioli, B.; Matteucci, G.; Tomassucci, M.; Zaldei, A.; Papale, D.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last decades the rising in the prices of oil pushed many farmers all over the Europe to exploit part of their fields to produce biomass for energy. Government funding promoted this trend in order to contrast global warming and Green-House Gases (GHG) emissions. Nevertheless energy crops entail, in addition to a land use change, a sum of treatments that leads again to emissions of GHG. In the context of the GHG-Europe FP7 project we set-up an experiment to study a case of land use change from grassland to Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) of poplar clones in central Italy. Through the Eddy Covariance (EC) technique, we measure carbon and energy fluxes over two different poplar SRC with different ages, and over a reference site (grassland) representing the original land use. Furthermore, we measured additional fluxes such as soil respiration, CH4 and N2O fluxes using chambers. To compute the Farm-Gate Budget (FGB) of both the grassland and the poplar plantations, we collect also additional data that contribute to GHG budget such as management (tillage, fertilizations, irrigations, harvesting) and disturbances. In this poster we present the experiment set-up and the first results resulting from the measurements.

  7. Phytoremediation capacity of poplar (Populus spp. and willow (Salix spp. clonesin relation to photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajević Slobodanka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Good photosynthetic features and a favorable water regimes of woody plants improve their survival and remediation potential under unfavorable ecological conditions. Accordingly, we here present results of testing plant tolerance of Pb, Cd, Ni, and diesel fuel based on gas exchange parameters and WUE of four poplar and two willow clones grown in a greenhouse on soil culture. Photosynthesis and transpiration of plants grown on soils with individually applied heavy metals decreased significantly, but this was less obvious in the case of Cd treatment. A heavy metal mixture in the soil induced significant reduction in photosynthesis (by more than 50%. Diesel fuel as the only pollutant in soil caused very strong and significant inhibition of photosynthesis and transpiration of willow clones. The results indicate genotypic specificity of all investigated physiological parameters and mark poplar clones as very useful in phytoextraction technology for the bio-cleaning of chemically polluted soils.

  8. Toxicity of 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol to willow trees (Salix viminalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Jensen, Christian Kjær; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Chlorinated phenols have been intensively investigated from an eco-toxicological point of view, however almost nothing is known about toxicity of tetrachlorophenol (TeCP) to higher terrestrial plants. This paper applied the willow tree acute toxicity test to study the toxicity of 2,3,5,6-Te......CP to willows Salix viminalis (S. viminalis) at neutral and acidic conditions (roughly pH 7 and 4) with inhibition of transpiration as toxic endpoint. At neutral pH the EC50 was >10 mg L−1 while the EC50 at acidic conditions was 0.32 ± 0.17 mg L−1, clearly indicating that toxicity is exerted by the non......-ionic chemical fraction. Standard tests running at neutral pH are therefore not capturing the full toxicity of weak acids and bases....

  9. Effect of browsing on willow in the Steel Creek grazing allotment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigley, R.B.; Gale, Gil

    2000-01-01

    The Steel Creek drainage serves as both wildlife range (primarily moose and elk) and as a livestock grazing allotment. For some years there has been concern about the effect of browsing on willows. Dense clusters of twigs have formed at the end of branches; entire stems of some plants have died. As of 1996, the relative impacts attributable to each of the ungulate species had not been documented.

  10. Ernö Goldfinger and 2 Willow Road: inhabiting the modern utopia Hampstead, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Mejía

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 1-3 Willow Road, houses built by Ernö Goldfinger facing Hampstead Heath in London, stand out as a paradigmatic example of Modernist British Architecture. Displacing traditional notions and ideals of a modernist house and of modernist inhabitation, what they ‘are’ goes somehow against to what they represent. Domesticity as well as concepts such as private and public, or exterior and interior are dislocated. Considered as one of the most distinguished manifestations of Modernity, in 2 Willow Road Modernism is suggested, but also disrupted by postmodern gestures. In a lifelong process that fills the space with collected objects, modernity is replaced by a more bourgeois environment: the atmosphere experienced in the interior is that of an inhabited collage closer to a nineteenth century dwelling. The heterogeneity of random order and arbitrary juxtapositions is, for this case, an aesthetic procedure that most likely legitimates Goldfinger’s beliefs and understanding of what life is. What 2 Willow Road actually testifies is about the romantic utopia of Modern inhabitation.

  11. The environmental and economic sustainability of potential bioethanol from willow in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, A L; Dupree, P; Scott, S A; Dennis, J S

    2010-12-01

    Life cycle assessment has been used to investigate the environmental and economic sustainability of a potential operation in the UK in which bioethanol is produced from the hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation of coppice willow. If the willow were grown on idle arable land in the UK, or, indeed, in Eastern Europe and imported as wood chips into the UK, it was found that savings of greenhouse gas emissions of 70-90%, when compared to fossil-derived gasoline on an energy basis, would be possible. The process would be energetically self-sufficient, as the co-products, e.g. lignin and unfermented sugars, could be used to produce the process heat and electricity, with surplus electricity being exported to the National Grid. Despite the environmental benefits, the economic viability is doubtful at present. However, the cost of production could be reduced significantly if the willow were altered by breeding to improve its suitability for hydrolysis and fermentation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Contrasting drought survival strategies of sympatric willows (genus: Salix): consequences for coexistence and habitat specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica A; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine M

    2011-06-01

    Many willow species (genus: Salix) co-occur within habitats (α-diversity) and across the landscape (β-diversity) throughout North America. This high diversity is challenging to explain because closely related species often share similar functional traits and thus experience heightened competition and shared pest and pathogen susceptibility. To investigate whether traits related to drought survival are important in maintaining diversity, we conducted an experimental dry-down on six willow species in a greenhouse. We compared species' growth rates, stem and leaf hydraulics, leaf function and dieback and examined potential associations between their drought responses and habitat affinities. Habitat affinities were characterized based on species occurrence in randomly established field plots in central Minnesota. Overall, species that occur in drier, more seasonally variable habitats tended to have higher water-use efficiency, and faster growth rates than species from wetter habitats. However, the greatest difference in drought survival strategies was found between two species with similar habitat affinities. We conclude that differences in willow species could be important in both driving habitat differentiation and permitting temporal differentiation in resource utilization within habitats. Therefore, species' water-use strategies could be important in maintaining both α- and β-diversity across the landscape.

  13. The Study of Interactions between Active Compounds of Coffee and Willow (Salix sp. Bark Water Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Durak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia. Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed for ability of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power, whereas compounds able to scavenge ABTS radical cation acted antagonistically. Additionally, phytochemicals from willow bark possessed hydrophilic character and thermostability which justifies their potential use as an ingredient in coffee beverages. Proposed mixtures may be used in the prophylaxis or treatment of some civilization diseases linked with oxidative stress. Most importantly, strong synergism observed for phytochemicals able to prevent lipids against oxidation may suggest protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes as an ingredient in coffee beverages can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this issue requires further study.

  14. Effect of temperature on phytoextraction of hexavalent and trivalent chromium by hybrid willows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Peng, Xiao-Ying; Xing, Li-Qun

    2010-01-01

    The removal of hexavalent and trivalent chromium from hydroponic solution by plants to changes in temperature was investigated. Pre-rooted hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz x alba L.) were exposed to a nutrient solution spiked with potassium chromate (K(2)CrO(4)) or chromium chloride (CrCl(3)) for 4 days. Ten different temperatures were tested ranging from 11 to 32 degrees C. Total Cr in solutions and in plant materials were all analyzed quantitatively. The results revealed that large amounts of the applied Cr were removed from the hydroponic solution in the presence of the plants. Significantly faster removal of Cr(III) than Cr(VI) was achieved by hybrid willows from the hydroponic solutions at all temperatures (P or = 24 degrees C. The temperature coefficient values (Q(10)) were 2.41 and 1.42 for Cr(VI) and Cr(III), respectively, indicating that the removal of Cr(VI) by hybrid willows was much more susceptible to changes in temperature than that of Cr(III). This information suggests that changes in temperature have a substantial influence on the uptake and accumulation of both chemical forms of Cr by plants.

  15. An Efficient High Throughput Metabotyping Platform for Screening of Biomass Willows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia I. Corol

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Future improvement of woody biomass crops such as willow and poplar relies on our ability to select for metabolic traits that sequester more atmospheric carbon into biomass, or into useful products to replace petrochemical streams. We describe the development of metabotyping screens for willow, using combined 1D 1H-NMR-MS. A protocol was developed to overcome 1D 1H-NMR spectral alignment problems caused by variable pH and peak broadening arising from high organic acid levels and metal cations. The outcome was a robust method to allow direct statistical comparison of profiles arising from source (leaf and sink (stem tissues allowing data to be normalised to a constant weight of the soluble metabolome. We also describe the analysis of two willow biomass varieties, demonstrating how fingerprints from 1D 1H-NMR-MS vary from the top to the bottom of the plant. Automated extraction of quantitative data of 56 primary and secondary metabolites from 1D 1H-NMR spectra was realised by the construction and application of a Salix metabolite spectral library using the Chenomx software suite. The optimised metabotyping screen in conjunction with automated quantitation will enable high-throughput screening of genetic collections. It also provides genotype and tissue specific data for future modelling of carbon flow in metabolic networks.

  16. Eastern cottonwood and black willow biomass crop production in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley under four planting densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray A. Souter; Emile S Gardiner; Theodor D. Leininger; Dana Mitchell; Robert B. Rummer

    2015-01-01

    "Wood is an obvious alternative energy source": Johnson and others (2007) declare the potential of short-rotation intensively-managed woody crop systems to produce biomass for energy. While obvious as an energy source, costs of production need to be measured to assess the economic viability of selected tree species as woody perennial energy crops

  17. KEPLER RAPIDLY ROTATING GIANT STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A. D.; Martins, B. L. Canto; Bravo, J. P.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Chagas, M. L. das; Leão, I. C.; Oliveira, G. Pereira de; Silva, R. Rodrigues da; Roque, S.; Oliveira, L. L. A. de; Silva, D. Freire da; De Medeiros, J. R., E-mail: renan@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Natal RN (Brazil)

    2015-07-10

    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of substellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present Letter, we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time, the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting a very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points to remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the rotation of the Sun. These giants are combined with six others recently listed in the literature for mid-infrared (IR) diagnostics based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer information, from which a trend for an IR excess is revealed for at least one-half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  18. Rotator Cuff Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Prevention and Wellness Exercise and Fitness Injury Rehabilitation Rotator Cuff Exercises Rotator Cuff Exercises Share Print Rotator Cuff ... Best Rotator Cuff ExercisesNational Institutes of Health: MedlinePlus, ... and WellnessTags: Exercise Prescription, prevention, Shoulder Problems, ...

  19. Rotation periods and photometric variability of rapidly rotating ultracool dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles-Páez, P. A.; Pallé, E.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    We used the optical and near-infrared imagers located on the Liverpool, the IAC80, and the William Herschel telescopes to monitor 18 M7-L9.5 dwarfs with the objective of measuring their rotation periods. We achieved accuracies typically in the range ±1.5-28 mmag by means of differential photometry, which allowed us to detect photometric variability at the 2σ level in the 50 per cent of the sample. We also detected periodic modulation with periods in the interval 1.5-4.4 h in 9 out of 18 dwarfs that we attribute to rotation. Our variability detections were combined with data from the literature; we found that 65 ± 18 per cent of M7-L3.5 dwarfs with v sin I ≥ 30 km s-1 exhibit photometric variability with typical amplitudes ≤20 mmag in the I band. For those targets and field ultracool dwarfs with measurements of v sin I and rotation period we derived the expected inclination angle of their rotation axis, and found that those with v sin I ≥ 30 km s-1 are more likely to have inclinations ≳40 deg. In addition, we used these rotation periods and others from the literature to study the likely relationship between rotation and linear polarization in dusty ultracool dwarfs. We found a correlation between short rotation periods and large values of linear polarization at optical and near-infrared wavelengths.

  20. Clonal variation in survival and growth of hybrid poplar and willow in an in situ trial on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Edmund O. Bauer; Richard B. Hall; Jill A. Zalesny; Joshua Kunzman; Chris J. Rog; Don E. Riemenschneider

    2005-01-01

    Species and hybrids between species belonging to the genera Populus (poplar) and Salix (willow) have been used successfully for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate the potential for establishing genotypes of poplar and willow on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and 2)...

  1. Production of Probiotic Drink Using Pussy willow and Echium amoenum Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobeh Eksiri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Nowadays, due to the lack of lactose and cholesterol, demand for consumption of non-dairy probiotic products is increasing. Probiotic drinks mixed with medicinal plant have great beneficial effect on human health. The main problems of non-dairy probiotic drinks are lack of nutrients for the growth of probiotics and bad taste of the product. The aim of this study was to produce a probiotic medicinal plant drink with favorable physicochemical, viability and sensory properties.Material and Methods: Probiotic drink prepared by Pussy willow and Echium amoenum extract (0.5 % w v-1, for each extract or together, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (108 CFU ml-1, individually and their combination. Glucose and whey powder (0.2% were used as a source of nutrition for the probiotics, and apple juice (20 and 30% was added to improve the taste of drink. The level of glucose was adjusted to reach the brix of 13 g100 g-1. Ascorbic acid (0.05% was used to improve micro-aerophilic conditions. The pH, acidity, glucose and viability of probiotic bacteria as well as the sensory properties of the prepared drink were investigated during 28 days at 4°C.Results and Conclusion: Based on the results, the treatment containing L. casei, Pussy willow, Echium amoenum and 30% apple juice due to the highest probiotic viability and the treatment containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pussy willow, Echium amoenum and 30% apple juice because of higher total acceptance score, proper pH and acidity values were selected as the best treatments.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  2. Environmental life cycle assessment of producing willow, alfalfa and straw from spring barley as feedstocks for bioenergy or biorefinery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou; Corona, Andrea; Birkved, Morten; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2017-05-15

    The current study aimed at evaluating potential environmental impacts for the production of willow, alfalfa and straw from spring barley as feedstocks for bioenergy or biorefinery systems. A method of Life Cycle Assessment was used to evaluate based on the following impact categories: Global Warming Potential (GWP100), Eutrophication Potential (EP), Non-Renewable Energy (NRE) use, Agricultural Land Occupation (ALO), Potential Freshwater Ecotoxicity (PFWTox) and Soil quality. With regard to the methods, soil organic carbon (SOC) change related to the land occupation was calculated based on the net carbon input to the soil. Freshwater ecotoxicity was calculated using the comparative toxicity units of the active ingredients and their average emission distribution fractions to air and freshwater. Soil quality was based on the change in the SOC stock estimated during the land use transformation and land occupation. Environmental impacts for straw were economically allocated from the impacts obtained for spring barley. The results obtained per ton dry matter showed a lower carbon footprint for willow and alfalfa compared to straw. It was due to higher soil carbon sequestration and lower N2O emissions. Likewise, willow and alfalfa had lower EP than straw. Straw had lowest NRE use compared to other biomasses. PFWTox was lower in willow and alfalfa compared to straw. A critical negative effect on soil quality was found with the spring barley production and hence for straw. Based on the energy output to input ratio, willow performed better than other biomasses. On the basis of carbohydrate content of straw, the equivalent dry matter of alfalfa and willow would be requiring higher. The environmental impacts of the selected biomasses in biorefinery therefore would differ based on the conversion efficiency, e.g. of the carbohydrates in the related biorefinery processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermogravimetry-Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of the Pyrolysis of Willow Leaves, Stems, and Branches

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Liu; Na Qi; Yaning Luan; Xiangyang Sun

    2015-01-01

    The pyrolysis of willow samples from various plant positions was analysed using thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). The results indicate that pyrolysis can be divided into four stages. The first stage from 30 to 120°C involves free evaporation of moisture, with a mass loss of 5%. The second stage from 120 to 200°C involves the pyrolysis of hemicellulose and unstable cellulose, with a mass loss of 4%. The third stage is from 200 to 400°C, with a weight loss of 6...

  4. A Natural History Summary and Survey Protocol for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, Mark K.; ,; Ahlers, Darrell; ,; Sferra, Susan J.; ,

    2010-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) has been the subject of substantial research, monitoring, and management activity since it was listed as an endangered species in 1995. When proposed for listing in 1993, relatively little was known about the flycatcher's natural history, and there were only 30 known breeding sites supporting an estimated 111 territories rangewide (Sogge and others, 2003a). Since that time, thousands of presence/absences surveys have been conducted throughout the historical range of the flycatcher, and many studies of its natural history and ecology have been completed. As a result, the ecology of the flycatcher is much better understood than it was just over a decade ago. In addition, we have learned that the current status of the flycatcher is better than originally thought: as of 2007, the population was estimated at approximately 1,300 territories distributed among approximately 280 breeding sites (Durst and others, 2008a). Concern about the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher on a rangewide scale was brought to focus by Unitt (1987), who described declines in flycatcher abundance and distribution throughout the Southwest. E. t. extimus populations declined during the 20th century, primarily because of habitat loss and modification from activities, such as dam construction and operation, groundwater pumping, water diversions, and flood control. In 1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) designated the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher as a candidate category 1 species (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991). In July 1993, the USFWS proposed to list E. t. extimus as an endangered species and to designate critical habitat under the Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1993). A final rule listing E. t. extimus as endangered was published in February 1995 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995); critical habitat was designated in 1997 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1997). The USFWS Service released a Recovery Plan for

  5. Comparing predicted yield and yield stability of willow and Miscanthus across Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren; Jaiswal, Deepak; Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    2016-01-01

    To achieve the goals of energy security and climate change mitigation in Denmark and the EU an expansion of national production of bioenergy crops is needed. Temporal and spatial variation of yields of willow and Miscanthus are not known for Denmark because of a limited number of field trial data...... Miscanthus on poor, sandy soils whereas Miscanthus was higher yielding on clay-rich soils. The major driver of yield in both crops was variation in soil moisture, with radiation and precipitation exerting less influence. This is the first time these two major feedstocks for northern Europe have been compared...

  6. Thermogravimetry-Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of the Pyrolysis of Willow Leaves, Stems, and Branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pyrolysis of willow samples from various plant positions was analysed using thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR. The results indicate that pyrolysis can be divided into four stages. The first stage from 30 to 120°C involves free evaporation of moisture, with a mass loss of 5%. The second stage from 120 to 200°C involves the pyrolysis of hemicellulose and unstable cellulose, with a mass loss of 4%. The third stage is from 200 to 400°C, with a weight loss of 60%, in which the chemical components of wood thermally decompose and emit heat, carbon dioxide, and so on. In the final stage, which occurs above 400°C, the pyrolysis of lignin and charring of cellulose occur, with a mass loss of 10%. Moreover, in FTIR, the samples exhibit the highest absorbance during the main pyrolysis phase, from which wood vinegar ingredients mainly arise, including CO2, H2O, CO, and small amounts of hydrocarbons, alcohols, phenols, acids, esters, and aromatic compounds. Additionally, leaves are decomposed more thoroughly before the main pyrolysis phase, whereas decomposition of branches occurs fullest during this phase. Finally, we put forward some suggestions to support further research on conversion of willow into wood vinegar products.

  7. Plant protection i willow plantations - Insects. Final report; Vaextskydd i Salixodlingar - Insekter. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Stig [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Entomology

    2000-04-01

    Attacks by herbivorous insects reduce biomass production in willow plantations. The long-term goal of our research is to develop sustainable plant protection against these insect pests. Two lines of research are pursued. The first concentrates on identifying factors involved in the regulation of leaf-eating beetles. These insects vary in density among plantations, sometimes reaching outbreak levels resulting in complete defoliation. Mortality factors of eggs and larvae in plantations with low and high beetle densities have been investigated. The importance of plant resistance has also been investigated. The second line of research considers the mechanisms behind an earlier demonstrated resistance in certain willow clones against a gall midge. By using molecular techniques we have searched for markers of resistance. Promising results have been found concerning so called PR proteins; in particular chitinase seems to be present in high activities in plants expressing resistance. We conclude that a better understanding of how factors such as natural enemies and plant resistance affect insect population dynamics will allow us to design sound cultivation systems.

  8. Harvesting, loading and transportation of wood (willow) chips, from agricultural land. Systems and costs. Final report; Skoerd, lastning och transport av traeflis (Salix) fraan jordbruksmark. System och kostnader. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadders, G. [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    In the report, available equipment for harvesting, loading and transportation of willow chips is described. Advantages and disadvantages are highlighted. Further, the practical experiences gathered within the project are presented, as well as results from new calculations of the costs for harvesting willow chips with varying equipment. All of the studied methods including dumping the chips on the ground for short time storage are, according to the calculations, more expensive than the original method handling the chips in containers through out the handling chain. However, this is true only as long as there are no costs for waiting between the links in the chain. As some waiting is impossible to avoid, practical experiences has led to the conclusion that the original system is not sufficient by it self. How it can be replaced by and combined with other techniques is discussed. Presented data and analysis are based on the information gathered at visits with harvest contractors and road carriers during the late winter of 2001, and at meetings following up the experiences during the harvest season of 2000/2001. At the end of the report, the found conditions and some suggestions for actions are listed to serve for further discussion among the parties within the business.

  9. Metabolic Responses of Willow (Salix purpurea L. Leaves to Mycorrhization as Revealed by Mass Spectrometry and 1H NMR Spectroscopy Metabolite Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos A Aliferis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The root system of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic interfaces with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, which are important for nutrient cycling and ecosystem sustainability. The elucidation of the undergoing changes in plants’ metabolism during symbiosis is essential for understanding nutrient acquisition and for alleviation of soil stresses caused by environmental cues. Within this context, we have undertaken the task of recording the fluctuation of willow (Salix purpurea L. leaf metabolome in response to AMF inoculation. The development of an advanced metabolomics/bioinformatics protocol employing mass spectrometry (MS and 1H NMR analyzers combined with the in-house-built metabolite library for willow (http://willowmetabolib.research.mcgill.ca/index.html are key components of the research. Analyses revealed that AMF inoculation of willow causes up-regulation of various biosynthetic pathways, among others, those of flavonoid, isoflavonoid, phenylpropanoid, and the chlorophyll and porphyrin pathways, which have well-established roles in plant physiology and are related to resistance against environmental stresses. The recorded fluctuation in the willow leaf metabolism is very likely to provide AMF-inoculated willows with a significant advantage compared to non-inoculated ones when they are exposed to stresses such as, high levels of soil pollutants. The discovered biomarkers of willow response to AMF inoculation and corresponding pathways could be exploited in biomarker-assisted selection of willow cultivars with superior phytoremediation capacity or genetic engineering programs.

  10. Development of a black willow improvement program for biomass production in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell J. Rousseau; Emile S. Gardiner; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) has the potential to be a significant feedstock source for bioenergy and biofuels production in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV). This potential is based on a number of primary factors including rapid growth, ease of vegetative propagation, excellent rooting, and the ability to regenerate from coppice...

  11. The Willow Microbiome is Influenced by Soil Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Concentration with Plant Compartment-Specific Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie Tardif

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between plants and microorganisms, which is the driving force behind the decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC contamination in phytoremediation technology, is poorly understood. Here, we aimed at characterizing the variations between plant compartments in the microbiome of two willow cultivars growing in contaminated soils. A field experiment was set-up at a former petrochemical plant in Canada and, after two growing seasons, bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, roots and stems samples of two willow cultivars (Salix purpurea cv. FishCreek and Salix miyabeana cv. SX67 growing at three PHC contamination concentrations were taken. DNA was extracted and bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions were amplified and sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Following multivariate statistical analyses, the level of PHC-contamination appeared as the primary factor influencing the willow microbiome with compartment-specific effects, with significant differences between the responses of bacterial and fungal communities. Increasing PHC contamination levels resulted in shifts in the microbiome composition, favoring putative hydrocarbon degraders and microorganisms previously reported as associated with plant health. These shifts were less drastic in the rhizosphere, root and stem tissues as compared to bulk soil, probably because the willows provided a more controlled environment and thus protected microbial communities against increasing contamination levels. Insights from this study will help to devise optimal plant microbiomes for increasing the efficiency of phytoremediation technology.

  12. Effects of Flood Duration and Depth on Germination of Cherrybark, Post, Southern, White and Willow Oak Acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanfei Guo; Michael G. Shelton; Eric Heitzman

    2002-01-01

    Effects of flood duration (0, 10, 20, and 30 days) and depth (10 and 100 centimeters below a water surface) on acorn germination were tested for two bottomland oaks (cherrybark oak [Quercus pagoda Raf.] and willow oak [Q. phellos L.]) and three upland oaks (post oak [Q. stellata Wang.], southern red oak [

  13. Rotating Cavitation Supression Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a rotating cavitation (RC) suppressor for liquid rocket engine turbopump inducers. Cavitation instabilities, such as rotating cavitation,...

  14. Long-term biomass production and nutrient uptake of birch, alder and willow plantations on cut-away peatland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hytoenen, Jyrki [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Unit, PO Box 44, FI-69101 Kannus (Finland); Saarsalmi, Anna [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, PO Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa (Finland)

    2009-09-15

    The leafless above-ground biomass production of planted silver birch (Betula pendula), downy birch (Betula pubescens), grey alder (Alnus incana), indigenous willows (Salix triandra and Salix phylicifolia) and an alder-willow mixture growing on a cut-away peatland area in Central Finland was investigated during a period of 18 (willows) or 19 (birches and alders) years. Biannual fertilization of the birches (0, NPK) and alders (0, PK) and annual fertilization of the willows (NPK1, NPK2) were continued for 10 years. S. phylicifolia had the highest yield (123 t ha{sup -1}). The yield of the fertilized downy and silver birch was 112 t ha{sup -1} and 108 t ha{sup -1} respectively, and that of fertilized grey alder 85 t ha{sup -1}, and alder S. triandra mixture 93 t ha{sup -1}. The mean annual increment of willow was highest at the age of 10 years (S. phylicifolia 7.9 t ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}; S. triandra 5.6 t ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}). NPK-fertilization increased the 19-year biomass production of downy and silver birch by 14 and 29 t ha{sup -1} respectively and PK fertilization that of alders by 25 t ha{sup -1}. The alder plantations bound more N, P, K, Ca and Mg per unit leafless biomass produced after 10-11 growing seasons than the silver birch and downy birch plantations. The silver birch used more N, K and Ca, but similar amounts of P and Mg per unit leafless biomass produced than the downy birch. S. triandra used more N, P, K and Mg per unit biomass produced than S. phylicifolia and both birch species. (author)

  15. All-year supply of willow biomass for power/heat production; Helaarsforsyning af pil til kraftvarmeproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Danish utility companies ELKRAFT and ELSAM were in 1994 granted support from the European Commission for the implementation of an Integrated Gasification and Combined Cycle demonstration plant, the so-called BIOCYLE project. The aim of this project is thus to recommend the optimum way(s) of handling willow fuels with regard to economy, safety of supply etc. The lowest total costs for harvesting whole shoots are calculated to approx. 100 DKK/ton dry matter (DM). Chipping of the whole shoots can be done for approx. 145 DKK/ton DM, provided it is carried out at the site. The total costs of storing willow fuel varies between 5 and 240 DKK/ton DM. The building of storage capacity especially for willow fuel is too expensive to compete with other types of storage regardless of whether the storage are built locally or centrally at the plant. The total cost increases substantially if the storage are ventilated in order to preserve or dry the fuel. In order to secure a stable supply with willow fuel during the harvest season, it is advisable to use full-track Austoft 7700 machines with special tracked vehicles for field transport, or modified Claas Jaguars together with 4WD equipment for field transport. The competitiveness of the Claas Jaguars depends on the possibilities of using the machines for other purposes outside the willow harvest season (eg. maize, grass). The most favourable strategies for supplying the BIOCYCLE plant are: 1. Using Austoft 7700 and Claas Jaguar direct chipping harvesters for covering the supplies from November until May. 2. Using open field storage of chips up to two months and by using anaerobic storage for chips stored from the beginning of the harvest season until May. 3. Harvesting whole shoots with HE-Allrounder and storing the whole shoots in paper-covered field piles. This is to cover supplies from May until November. The whole shoots are chipped before road transport to the plant. (au)

  16. Parasitism, productivity, and population growth: response of Least Bell's Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) to cowbird (Molothrus spp.) control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Barbara E.; Whitfield, Mary J.

    2005-01-01

    Cowbird (Molothrus spp.) control is a major focus of recovery-oriented management of two endangered riparian bird species,the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). During the past 20 years, annual trapping of cowbirds at Least Bell's Vireo and Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites has eliminated or reduced parasitism in comparison with pretrapping rates and, thereby, significantly increased seasonal productivity of nesting pairs. Enhanced productivity, in turn, has resulted in an 8-fold increase in numbers of Least Bell's Vireos; Southwestern Willow Flycatcher abundance, however, has changed little, and at some sites has declined despite cowbird control. Although generally successful by these short-term measures of host population response, cowbird control poses potential negative consequences for long-term recovery of endangered species. As currently employed, cowbird control lacks predetermined biological criteria to trigger an end to the control, making these species' dependence on human intervention open-ended. Prolonged reliance on cowbird control to manage endangered species can shift attention from identifying and managing other factors that limit populations--in particular, habitat availability. On the basis of our analysis of these long-term programs, we suggest that cowbird control be reserved for short-term crisis management and be replaced, when appropriate, by practices emphasizing restoration and maintenance of natural processes on which species depend. /// El manejo orientado hacia la recuperación de dos especies de aves ribereñas Vireo belli pusillus y Empidonax trailli extimus se ha focalizado principalmente en el control de los Molothrus spp parásitos. Durante los pasados 20 años, la captura anual de los Molothrus en las áreas de nidificación de Vireo belli pusillus y Empidonax trailli extimus ha eliminado o reducido el parasitismo en comparación con las tasas

  17. DETERMINATION OF FLAVONOIDS OF WILLOW TRIANDRA (SALIX TRIANDRA L., GROWING IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Sannikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of willow genus are rich in various flavonoids. In 60-e years of the XX century the works of V. A. Kompantsev showed that leaves of willow triandra, growing in the North Caucasus, contain up to 5% of rutin. The method, which required long sample preparation (extraction of the raw material with TLC, chromatographic layer extraction with methanol, removal of the solvent, dissolution in ethanol, optical density measurements was used. Currently available and simple methods for the determination of rutin in plant material are described. Given that leaves of Salix triandra contain significant amounts of rutin and can be a potential raw material for the creation of medicines on their basis, it is essential to determine the amount of flavonoids in the leaves of Salix triandra and its branches.The purpose of this study is determination of the amount of flavonoids in the willow triandra, growing in the North Caucasus, depending on the place and time of collection.Methods. TLC and the method of differential spectrophotometry were used to study chemical reactions. Results. The presence of flavonoids in various vegetative plant organs was established using qualitative reactions (cyanidin test; boric-citric reaction; the reaction with solution of lead acetate and solution of ammonia. Rutin and quercetin flavonoids in the presence of standard samples were identified using TLC. the method of differential spectrophotometry, based on the reaction of flavonoids with aluminum chloride was used for the quantitative determination of the amount of flavonoids. It is shown that the greatest quantity of flavonoids amount accumulated in the leaves (up to 3.76%, its value in branches is slightly smaller (up to 3.26%. The branches without leaves have almost 10 times less flavonoids. It was established experimentally that the accumulation of flavonoids in raw material of Salix triandra is dependent on the place and time of

  18. Productivity, Biomass Partitioning, and Energy Yield of Low-Input Short-Rotation American Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) Grown on Marginal Land: Effects of Planting Density and Simulated Drought

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Domec, J. C.; Ashley, E.; Fischer, Milan; Noormets, A.; Boone, J.; Williamson, J. C.; King, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2017), s. 903-914 ISSN 1939-1234 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : American sycamore * bioenergy * degraded land * bioethanol * productivity * shor-rotation woody crops Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.487, year: 2016

  19. A multilocus assay reveals high nucleotide diversity and limited differentiation among Scandinavian willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintela Maria

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is so far very little data on autosomal nucleotide diversity in birds, except for data from the domesticated chicken and some passerines species. Estimates of nucleotide diversity reported so far in birds have been high (~10-3 and a likely explanation for this is the generally higher effective population sizes compared to mammals. In this study, the level of nucleotide diversity has been examined in the willow grouse, a non-domesticated bird species from the order Galliformes, which also holds the chicken. The willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus has an almost circumpolar distribution but is absent from Greenland and the north Atlantic islands. It primarily inhabits tundra, forest edge habitats and sub-alpine vegetation. Willow grouse are hunted throughout its range, and regionally it is a game bird of great cultural and economical importance. Results We sequenced 18 autosomal protein coding loci from approximately 15–18 individuals per population. We found a total of 127 SNP's, which corresponds to 1 SNP every 51 bp. 26 SNP's were amino acid replacement substitutions. Total nucleotide diversity (πt was between 1.30 × 10-4 and 7.66 × 10-3 (average πt = 2.72 × 10-3 ± 2.06 × 10-3 and silent nucleotide diversity varied between 4.20 × 10-4and 2.76 × 10-2 (average πS = 9.22 × 10-3 ± 7.43 × 10-4. The synonymous diversity is approximately 20 times higher than in humans and two times higher than in chicken. Non-synonymous diversity was on average 18 times lower than the synonymous diversity and varied between 0 and 4.90 × 10-3 (average πa = 5.08 × 10-4 ± 7.43 × 103, which suggest that purifying selection is strong in these genes. FST values based on synonymous SNP's varied between -5.60 × 10-4 and 0.20 among loci and revealed low levels of differentiation among the four localities, with an overall value of FST = 0.03 (95% CI: 0.006 – 0.057 over 60 unlinked loci. Non-synonymous SNP's gave similar results. Low

  20. High doses of ethylene diurea (EDU) are not toxic to willow and act as nitrogen fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathokleous, Evgenios; Paoletti, Elena; Saitanis, Costas J; Manning, William J; Shi, Cong; Koike, Takayoshi

    2016-10-01

    Ethylene diurea (EDU) is synthetic chemical which protects plants against damage caused by ground level O3 and is used experimentally as a biomonitoring tool at doses usually ranging from 200 to 400mgL(-1) a.i. Although several studies have investigated the protective action of EDU, this mechanism remains unclear. Important uncertainties in EDU action are whether EDU acts as a source of nitrogen (N) to plants and whether high doses are phytotoxic. In order to answer these questions, we conducted an open-field experiment where potted willow (Salix sachalinensis Fr. Schm) plants were exposed to ambient O3 conditions and treated with 0, 800 or 1600mgL(-1) EDU as a soil drench, every nine days, for about 2.5months. We examined approximately 50 response variables. Based on N content in different plant organs, we found that (a) all EDU was transferred to the leaves and (b) high doses of EDU increased the leaf N content. However, EDU did not affect the C content and distribution within the plant body. Still, even at the highest dose, EDU was not toxic to this fast-growing species (however such a high dose should not be applied in uncontrolled environments); and there was no EDU persistence in the soil, as indicated by soil N content. Notably, our soil was free from organic matter and N-poor. EDU per se does not cause toxicity to willow plants when applied as drench to a soil with no organic matter, rather, high EDU doses may act as nitrogen fertilizer in a nitrogen-poor soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecological consequences of plant hybridization in willows: inheritance patterns of secondary compounds and herbivore foraging behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, P. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Animal Ecology

    2002-07-01

    Segregation of genetic variation into species is traditionally viewed as the principal unit of evolution while intraspecific hybridization was regarded as a mistake in nature. Nevertheless, intraspecific hybridization is common between many plant species and recent studies have suggested that hybridization may be beneficial to individuals. hybridization is also of interest as it influence species that are interacting with the hybridising species, for example herbivores that need to decide whether or not to forage on hybrids between host plants and non-host plants. To understand how herbivores are influenced by hybridization, and how herb ivory influences hybrid plants, I have studied the inheritance of plant resistance characters, foraging preference and performance of herbivores (leaf beetles and voles) and the degree of herbivore damage on pure and hybrid willows. The studied willow species, Salix caprea, S. repens and S. aurita differ in secondary metabolite composition. The results show that both studied groups of secondary metabolites, phenolic glucosides and condensed tannins, are additively inherited in hybrids between S. repens and S. caprea, while condensed tannins axe equal in S. caprea, S. aurita and hybrids between the two parental species. There is no common response of the studied herbivore community. Instead, it seems that specialist herbivores either discriminate against hybrids and non-host parental species or do not separate between hybrids and host parental species. In contrast, generalists usually show either intermediate preference for hybrids, or do not discriminate between hybrids and parental species. One generalist species shows a preference that indicates a breakdown in resistance. When adding together the effects of all herbivores, it appears that herbivores inflict more damage to hybrids than parental species.

  2. Deconvolving Current from Faraday Rotation Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen E. Mitchell

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, a unique software program is reported which automatically decodes the Faraday rotation signal into a time-dependent current representation. System parameters, such as the Faraday fiber’s Verdet constant and number of loops in the sensor, are the only user-interface inputs. The central aspect of the algorithm utilizes a short-time Fourier transform, which reveals much of the Faraday rotation measurement’s implicit information necessary for unfolding the dynamic current measurement.

  3. Interactive and Single Effects of Ectomycorrhiza Formation and Bacillus cereus on Metallothionein MT1 Expression and Phytoextraction of Cd and Zn by Willows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Dabrowska, Grazyna; Baum, Christel; Niedojadlo, Katarzyna; Leinweber, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Single and joint ectomycorrhizal (+ Hebeloma mesophaeum) and bacterial (+ Bacillus cereus) inoculations of willows (Salix viminalis) were investigated for their potential and mode of action in the promotion of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) phytoextraction. Dual fungal and bacterial inoculations promoted the biomass production of willows in contaminated soil. Single inoculations either had no effect on the plant growth or inhibited it. All inoculated willows showed increased concentrations of nutritional elements (N, P, K and Zn) and decreased concentrations of Cd in the shoots. The lowest biomass production and concentration of Cd in the willows (+ B. cereus) were combined with the strongest expression of metallothioneins. It seems that biotic stress from bacterial invasion increased the synthesis of these stress proteins, which responded in decreased Cd concentrations. Contents of Cd and Zn in the stems of willows were combination-specific, but were always increased in dual inoculated plants. In conclusion, single inoculations with former mycorrhiza-associated B. cereus strains decreased the phytoextraction efficiency of willows by causing biotic stress. However, their joint inoculation with an ectomycorrhizal fungus is a very promising method for promoting the phytoextraction of Cd and Zn through combined physiological effects on the plant.

  4. The neutral species of the weak base trimethoprim is more toxic to willow trees (Salix viminalis) than the cation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikes, O.; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The acute toxicity of the veterinary antibiotic trimethoprim (TMP) to willow trees was tested at three different pH levels in hydroponic solutions with TMP concentrations of 1, 10, 100 or 1000 mg/L. The pH variation was achieved by using ammonium (pH 4.3, low) or nitrate (pH 6.4, medium) as nitro......The acute toxicity of the veterinary antibiotic trimethoprim (TMP) to willow trees was tested at three different pH levels in hydroponic solutions with TMP concentrations of 1, 10, 100 or 1000 mg/L. The pH variation was achieved by using ammonium (pH 4.3, low) or nitrate (pH 6.4, medium...

  5. Water relations and gas exchange in poplar and willow under water stress and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.D. [Washington State Univ., Intensive Forestry Program, Puyallup, WA (United States); Tognetti, R. [Universita del Molize, Dipartimento de Scienze Animali, Vegetali e dell' Ambiente, Compobasso (Italy); Pris, P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Instituto per l' Agroselvicoltura, Porano (Italy)

    2002-05-01

    Predictions of shifts in rainfall patterns as atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] increases could impact the growth of fast growing trees such as Populus spp. and Salix spp. and the interaction between elevated CO{sub 2} and water stress in these species is unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterize the responses to elevated CO{sub 2} and water stress in these two species, and to determine if elevated CO{sub 2} mitigated drought stress effects. Gas exchange, water potential components, whole plant transpiration and growth response to soil drying and recovery were assessed in hybrid poplar (clone 53-246) and willow (Salix sagitta) rooted cuttings growing in either ambient (350 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) or elevated (700 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration ([CO{sub 2}]). Predawn water potential decreased with increasing water stress while midday water potentials remained unchanged (isohydric response). Turgor potentials at both predawn and midday increased in elevated [CO{sub 2}], indicative of osmotic adjustment. Gas exchange was reduced by water stress while elevated [CO{sub 2}] increased photosynthetic rates, reduced leaf conductance and nearly doubled instantaneous transpiration efficiency in both species. Dark respiration decreased in elevated [CO{sub 2}] and water stress reduced Rd in the trees growing in ambient [CO{sub 2}]. Willow had 56% lower whole plant hydraulic conductivity than poplar, and showed a 14% increase in elevated [CO{sub 2}] while poplar was unresponsive. The physiological responses exhibited by poplar and willow to elevated [CO{sub 2}] and water stress, singly, suggest that these species respond like other tree species. The interaction Of [CO{sub 2}] and water stress suggests that elevated [CO{sub 2}] did mitigate the effects of water stress in willow, but not in poplar. (au)

  6. Effect of available nitrogen on phytoavailability and bioaccumulation of hexavalent and trivalent chromium in hankow willows (Salix matsudana Koidz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2008-06-01

    The effect of available nitrogen in nutrient solution on removal of two chemical forms of chromium (Cr) by plants was investigated. Pre-rooted hankow willows (Salix matsudana Koidz) were grown in a hydroponic solution system with or without nitrogen, and amended with hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] or trivalent chromium [Cr (III)] at 25.0+/-0.5 degrees C for 192 h. The results revealed that higher removal of Cr by plants was achieved from the hydroponic solutions without any nitrogen than those containing nitrogen. Although faster removal of Cr (VI) than Cr (III) was observed, translocation of Cr (III) within plant materials was more efficient than Cr (VI). Substantial difference existed in the distribution of Cr in different parts of plant tissues due to the nitrogen in nutrient solutions (pnutrient solutions and more Cr was accumulated in the roots of plants in N-containing ones. No significant difference was found in the removal rate of Cr (VI) between willows grown in the N-free and N-containing solutions (p>0.05). Removal rates of Cr (III) decreased linearly with the strength of nutrient solutions with or without N addition (pnutrient solutions and decreased with the strength of N-free nutrient solutions. Results suggest that uptake and translocation mechanisms of Cr (VI) and Cr (III) are apparently different in hankow willows. The presence of easily available nitrogen and other nutrient elements in the nutrient solutions had a more pronounced influence on the uptake of Cr (III) than Cr (VI). Nitrogen availability and quantities in the ambient environment will affect the translocation of both Cr species and their distribution in willows in phytoremediation.

  7. Rotational Preference in Gymnastics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast's rotational preference...

  8. Minimum Irrigation Requirements for Cottonwood (Populus fremontii and P. deltoides) and Willow (Salix gooddingii) Grown in a Desert Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E. P.; Hartwell, S.; Morino, K.; Nagler, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    Native tree plots have been established in riverine irrigation districts in the western U.S. to provide habitat for threatened and endangered birds. Information is needed on the minimum effective irrigation requirements of the target species. We summarize preliminary (or unpublished) findings of a study or cottonwood (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix gooddingii) trees that were grown for seven years in an outdoor plot in a desert environment in Tucson, Arizona to determine plant water use. Plants were allowed to achieve a nearly complete canopy cover over the first four years, then were subjected to three summer irrigation schedules: 6.2 mm d-1; 8.26 mm d-1 and 15.7 mm d-1. The lowest irrigation rate was sufficient to maintain growth and high leaf area index for cottonwoods over three years, but willows suffered partial die-back on this rate, and required 8.26 mm d-1 to maintain growth. These irrigation rates were required April 15 - September 15, but only 0.88 mm d-1 was required during the dormant periods of the year. Expressed as a fraction of reference crop evapotranspiration (ET/ETo), annual water requirements were 0.83 ETo for cottonwood and 1.01 ETo for willow, which includes irrigation plus precipitation. Current practices tend to over-irrigate restoration plots, and this study can provide guidelines for more efficient water use.

  9. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  10. To each its own: differential response of specialist and generalist herbivores to plant defence in willows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, Martin; Hrcek, Jan; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Novotny, Vojtech

    2015-07-01

    Plant-insect food webs tend to be dominated by interactions resulting from diffuse co-evolution between plants and multiple lineages of herbivores rather than by reciprocal co-evolution and co-cladogenesis. Plants therefore require defence strategies effective against a broad range of herbivore species. In one extreme, plants could develop a single universal defence effective against all herbivorous insects, or tailor-made strategies for each herbivore species. The evolution and ecology of plant defence has to be studied with entire insect assemblages, rather than small subsets of pairwise interactions. The present study examines whether specialists and generalists in three coexisting insect lineages, forming the leaf-chewing guild, respond uniformly to plant phylogeny, secondary metabolites, nutrient content and mechanical antiherbivore defences of their hosts, thus permitting universal plant defence strategies against specialized and generalist folivorous insects from various taxa. The extensive data on folivorous assemblages comprising three insect orders and 193 species are linked with plant phylogeny, secondary chemistry (salicylates, flavonoids and tannins), leaf morphological traits [specific leaf area (SLA) and trichome coverage], nutrient (C : N) content and growth form of eight willow (Salix) and one aspen (Populus) species growing in sympatry. Generalists responded to overall host plant chemistry and trichomes, whilst specialists responded to host plant phylogeny and secondary metabolites that are unique to willows and that are capable of being utilized as an antipredator protection. We did not find any significant impact of other plant traits, that is SLA, C : N ratio, flavonoids, tannins and growth form, on the composition of leaf-chewing communities. Our results show that the response to plant traits is differential among specialists and generalists. This finding constrains the ability of plants to develop defensive traits universally effective

  11. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Willow Creek, Technical Report 1993-1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beilke, Susan

    1994-09-01

    The Willow Creek site is one of the most significant remaining areas of typical native Willamette Valley habitats, with a variety of wetlands, grasslands, and woodlands. A diverse array of native flora and fauna, with significant wildlife habitats, is present on the site. Wildlife diversity is high, and includes species of mammals, songbirds, raptors, reptiles, amphibians, and one rare invertebrate. Over 200 species of native plants have been identified (including populations of six rare, threatened, or endangered species), along with significant remnants of native plant communities. Willow Creek is located in Lane County, Oregon, on the western edge of the City of Eugene (see Figure 1). The city limit of Eugene passes through the site, and the site is entirely within the Eugene Urban Growth Boundary (UGB). At present, only lands to the east and northeast of the site are developed to full urban densities. Low density rural residential and agricultural land uses predominate on lands to the northwest and south. A partially completed light industrial/research office park is located to the northwest. Several informal trails lead south from West 18th at various points into the site. The area encompasses a total of approximately 349 acres under several ownerships, in sections 3 and 4 of Township 18 South, Range 4 West. wildlife habitat values resulting from the purchase of this site will contribute toward the goal of mitigating for habitat lost as outlined in the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Mitigation and Enhancement Plan for the Willamette River Basin. Under this Plan, mitigation goals were developed as a result of the loss of wildlife habitat due to the development and operation of Federal hydro-electric facilities in the Willamette River Basin. Results of the HEP will be used to: (1) determine the current status and habitat enhancement potential of the site consistent with wildlife mitigation goals and objectives; and (2) develop a management plan for

  12. Geographic variation in the plumage coloration of willow flycatchers Empidonax traillii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Sogge, Mark K.; Koronkiewicz, Thomas J.; McLeod, Mary Anne; Theimer, Tad C.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to identify distinct taxonomic groups of birds (species, subspecies, geographic races) can advance ecological research efforts by determining connectivity between the non-breeding and breeding grounds for migrant species, identifying the origin of migrants, and helping to refine boundaries between subspecies or geographic races. Multiple methods are available to identify taxonomic groups (e.g., morphology, genetics), and one that has played an important role for avian taxonomists over the years is plumage coloration. With the advent of electronic devices that can quickly and accurately quantify plumage coloration, the potential of using coloration as an identifier for distinct taxonomic groups, even when differences are subtle, becomes possible. In this study, we evaluated the degree to which plumage coloration differs among the four subspecies of the willow flycatcher Empidonax traillii, evaluated sources of variation, and considered the utility of plumage coloration to assign subspecies membership for individuals of unknown origin. We used a colorimeter to measure plumage coloration of 374 adult willow flycatchers from 29 locations across their breeding range in 2004 and 2005. We found strong statistical differences among the mean plumage coloration values of the four subspecies; however, while individuals tended to group around their respective subspecies' mean color value, the dispersion of individuals around such means overlapped. Mean color values for each breeding site of the three western subspecies clustered together, but the eastern subspecies' color values were dispersed among the other subspecies, rather than distinctly clustered. Additionally, sites along boundaries showed evidence of intergradation and intermediate coloration patterns. We evaluated the predictive power of colorimeter measurements on flycatchers by constructing a canonical discriminant model to predict subspecies origin of migrants passing through the southwestern U

  13. Galaxy cluster's rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolopoulou, M.; Plionis, M.

    2017-03-01

    We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing, and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exist, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude, and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z ≲ 0.1 with member galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR10 spectroscopic data base. After excluding a number of substructured clusters, which could provide erroneous indications of rotation, and taking into account the expected fraction of misidentified coherent substructure velocities for rotation, provided by our Monte Carlo simulation analysis, we find that ∼23 per cent of our clusters are rotating under a set of strict criteria. Loosening the strictness of the criteria, on the expense of introducing spurious rotation indications, we find this fraction increasing to ∼28 per cent. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation within 1.5 h^{-1}_{70} Mpc that the significance of their rotation is related to the dynamically younger phases of cluster formation but after the initial anisotropic accretion and merging has been completed. Finally, finding rotational modes in galaxy clusters could lead to the necessity of correcting the dynamical cluster mass calculations.

  14. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.

  15. A Double-Blinded Placebo Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating Short-term Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Reducing Postoperative Pain After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, Alisha; Rajaratnam, Krishan; Ayeni, Olufemi R; Moro, Jaydeep; Peterson, Devin; Sprague, Sheila; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether patients with arthroscopically repaired rotator cuff (RC) tears would have reduced pain and improved function after ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections compared with placebo injection. PRP compared with placebo (saline) was more effective in reducing pain at the site of an RC injury that has undergone arthroscopic repair. Randomized controlled trial. Level 2. We conducted a 2-centered, blinded, randomized controlled trial comparing the level of pain in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair. Patients were randomized to either PRP or saline (placebo). They received 2 ultrasound-guided injections of the randomized product: 1 intraoperatively and 1 at 4 weeks postoperatively. The primary outcome measure was shoulder pain demonstrated using a visual analog scale (VAS) at 6 weeks postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D); the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC); and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Score (DASH), as well as adverse events and revision surgeries. Patients were assessed clinically preoperatively and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks postsurgery. A prespecified interim analysis was conducted after 50% of patients were recruited and followed. We recruited 25 patients when interim power analysis led to an early trial termination. Follow-up was 96%. The mean difference between groups was not statistically significant (-1.81; 95% CI, -4.3 to 1.2; P = 0.16). The EQ-5D, WORC, and DASH scores also did not show significant differences between groups at week 6 (P = 0.5, 0.99, and 0.9, respectively). There were no revision surgeries, and 4 adverse events (3 PRP, 1 saline). There was no statistical difference in outcome measures when augmenting arthroscopically repaired RC tears with PRP. Identifying therapies that improve outcomes in patients with RC tears remains a challenge and deserves ongoing investigation.

  16. The spatial rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan; Hahn, Ute; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new local volume estimator, the spatial rotator, which is based on measurements on a virtual 3D probe, using computer assisted microscopy. The basic design of the probe builds upon the rotator principle which requires only a few manual intersection markings, thus making...... the spatial rotator fast to use. Since a 3D probe is involved, it is expected that the spatial rotator will be more efficient than the the nucleator and the planar rotator, which are based on measurements in a single plane. An extensive simulation study shows that the spatial rotator may be more efficient...... than the traditional local volume estimators. Furthermore, the spatial rotator can be seen as a further development of the Cavalieri estimator, which does not require randomization of sectioning or viewing direction. The tissue may thus be sectioned in any arbitrary direction, making it easy...

  17. The application of multi-shoots cultures in micropropagation of willow herb (Chamaenerion angustifolium (L. Scop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreger, Mariola

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Willow herb (Chamaenerion angustifolium (L. Scop. syn. Epilobium angustifolium L. from Onagraceae family is a valuable medicinal plant that has been used in the treatment of urogenital disorders including BPH (Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy. The raw material is a rich source of polyphenols as well as steroids, triterpenoids and fatty acids. The extracts show pharmacological activities: anti-androgen, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and analgesic properties. Due to frequent interspecific hybridization, plants collected in the wild display a diverse and variable content of active compounds. This poses a challenge in obtaining high quality and homogenous raw material. Application of the in vitro cultures and micropropagation techniques may offer a solution for alternative methods of cultivation. This work presents preliminary results of the implementation of Ch. angustifolium in vitro cultures to obtain raw material for the first time. Sterile seedlings were donors of explants, which were used for induction of multi-shoots culture according to a modified Turker’s protocol. Six different genotypes (lines originating from root explants were chosen for clonal propagation. Efficiency of the elaborated method was 16 – 20 shoots per explants. Finally, over 3000 acclimatized plants were obtained and used for field crops.

  18. Stabilization of sunflower oil with pussy willow (Salix aegyptiaca) extract and essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyari, Zahra; Farahmandfar, Reza

    2017-03-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant efficacy of pussy willow extract (PWE) and essential oil (PWEO) in stabilization of sunflower oil (SFO) during ambient storage (60 days at 25°C). Initially, total phenolic (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) contents were evaluated. Then, PWE, PWEO, and TBHQ were added to SFO. Peroxide value (PV), carbonyl value (CV), total polar compound (TPC), acid value (AV), and Oxidative stability index (OSI) were measured every 15 days. The results showed that PWE had higher TP and TF than PWEO (TP: 966.72 mg GAE/g and 355.8472 mg GAE/g, respectively; TF: 619.45 mg/100 g and 195.45 mg/100 g, respectively). Furthermore, according to all stabilization parameters, PWE had higher antioxidant efficacy followed by TBHQ, PWEO, and control, respectively. Therefore, PWE has antioxidant activity and it may be recommended as natural strong antioxidants to suppress lipid oxidation.

  19. El Alzado de la Vivienda en Willow Road Ernö Goldfinger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Román Santiago

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl artículo propone aproximarse a la vivienda que el arquitecto húngaro Ernö Goldfinger construyó para sí mismo en 1939 en el barrio de Hampstead (Londres. El complejo y singular ejercicio en el que Goldfinger apoya gran parte de sus teorías se manifiesta en esta propuesta para Willow Road y se desvela especialmente en su fachada. Para el arquitecto es fundamental estudiar la experiencia humana del espacio arquitectónico relacionada con la envolvente del edificio y, en este sentido, sulegado teórico se expresa en los textos que escribió para la revista Architectural Review entre los años 1941 y 1942: The Sensation of Space, Urbanism and Spatial Order y Elements of Enclosed Space.Analizar este alzado enigmático provoca algunos interrogantes que son, en sí mismos, un auténtico manifi esto a favor de una arquitectura libre de toda adscripción estilística. Goldfinger actúa aquí en una mesa de laboratorio donde pone a prueba sus reflexiones sobre el orden espacial, la composición, la escala, el carácter y la construcción.De esta forma la propuesta para Willow Road no puede explicarse exclusivamente en términos funcionales ni mecanicistas, sino que precisa una visión fenomenológica y al mismo tiempo mirarlo con amplitud para empezar a descubrir sus claves. Este hogar, que puede entenderse como vivienda burguesa y también representa un ejercicio moderno, ofrece la oportunidad de desvelar un modo de hacer, muy particular, en el que algunos arquitectos desarraigados y liberados del imperante tradicionalismo inglés y de cualquier dogmatismo, dejan a un lado el itinerario que cabría esperar en aquel momento y 'contaminan' la arquitectura moderna inglesa, para producir un panorama de influencias difícil de reconocer en cualquier otra localización. La huella de esta modernidad revisada, de espíritu inequívocamente moderno pero filtrado desde una actitud clásica, influye en la siguiente generación de arquitectos ingleses

  20. Frost related dieback in Estonian energy plantations of willows in relation to fertilisation and pathogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambours, M.A.; Nejad, P. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7026, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Heinsoo, K. [Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Agricultural University, Riia 181, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Granhall, U. [Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7025, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    Two 9-year old Estonian Salix plantations suffering from dieback were studied: one situated on poor mineral soil and divided into fertilised and unfertilised plots (Saare plantation) and another growing on a well-decomposed and nitrogen-rich organic soil, without fertiliser application (Kambja plantation). Bacteria from internal tissues of visually damaged shoots from seven clones were isolated in spring and autumn. The strains were subsequently biochemically characterised and tested for ice nucleation activity and pathogenicity on Salix. Some strains were also analysed with 16S rRNA. High numbers of culturable bacteria were found, belonging mainly to Erwinia, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas spp. Fertilised plots were significantly more colonised by bacteria than unfertilised plots and also more extensively damaged, showing a lower density of living plants after 7 years of culture. More ice nucleation active (INA) strains were found in Saare fertilised plots and at Kambja than in Saare unfertilised plots. Likewise, most pathogenic strains were isolated from Saare fertilised plots and from Kambja. For some of the willow clones studied, dieback appeared to be related to both clonal frost sensitivity and abundance of INA and pathogenic bacteria. The plantations probably suffered from the presence of high amounts of pathogens and from frost related injuries aggravated by INA bacteria. Most probably the fertilisation at Saare and the nitrogen-rich soil at Kambja created a favourable environment for bacterial development and led to high dieback levels after the first harvest. (author)

  1. Phytoremediation potential of willow trees for aquifers contaminated with ethanol-blended gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corseuil, H X; Moreno, F N

    2001-08-01

    Ethanol-blended gasoline has been used in Brazil for 20 years and, probably, is going to be more widely used in North America due to the MtBE environmental effects on groundwater. The potential impacts caused by the presence of ethanol in UST spills are related to the co-solvency effect and the preferential degradation of ethanol over the BTEX compounds. These interactions may increase the length of dissolved hydrocarbon plumes and the costs associated with site remediation. This study investigates the advantages of phytoremediation to overcome the problems associated with the presence of ethanol in groundwater contaminanted with gasoline-ethanol mixtures. Experiments were performed under lab conditions with cuttings of Willow tree (Salix babylonica) cultivated hydroponically. Results showed that the cuttings were able to reduce ethanol and benzene concentrations by more than 99% in less than a week. The uptake of both contaminants was confirmed by blank controls and was significantly related to cuttings transpiration capacity. Sorption onto roots biomass also markedly affected the behavior of contaminants in solution. Experiments to evaluate plants' toxicity to ethanol indicated that plants were only affected when aqueous ethanol concentration reached 2000mgl(-1). Results suggest that phytoremediation can be a good complement to intrinsic remediation in shallow aquifer sites contaminated with ethanol-blended gasoline spills.

  2. Growth, physiological response and phytoremoval capability of two willow clones exposed to ibuprofen under hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iori, Valentina; Zacchini, Massimo; Pietrini, Fabrizio

    2013-11-15

    Ibuprofen (IBU) is one of the most widespread pharmaceuticals in the aquatic ecosystem, despite the high removal rate that occurs in wastewater treatment plants. Phytoremediation represents a technology to improve the performance of existing wastewater treatment. This study was conducted under hydroponics to evaluate the ability of Salicaceae plants to tolerate and reduce IBU concentration in contaminated water. To this end, we combined growth, physiological and biochemical data to study the effects of different IBU concentrations on two clones of Salix alba L. Data demonstrated that clone SS5 was more tolerant and showed a higher ability to reduce IBU concentration in the solution than clone SP3. The high tolerance to IBU shown by SS5 was likely due to several mechanisms including the capacity to maintain an elevated photosynthetic activity and an efficient antioxidative defence. These results illustrate the remarkable potential of willow to phytoremediate IBU-contaminated waters in natural and constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution in situ: hybrid origin and establishment of willows (Salix L.) on alpine glacier forefields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramlich, S; Sagmeister, P; Dullinger, S; Hadacek, F; Hörandl, E

    2016-06-01

    Little attention has been paid to the evolutionary consequences of the colonizing dynamics and succession processes following glacier retreat. Here we studied hybrid populations that have recently formed and established on glacier forefields of the European Alps owing to secondary contact of a lowland colonizer with a subalpine species. We analyzed the composition of two hybrid populations between Salix purpurea and Salix helvetica with nine microsatellite markers by using Bayesian methods (structure and NewHybrids), and simulations. We also studied niche differentiation between the hybrids and the parental species based on indicator values, soil pH and water retention potential measurements. Allelic structure of hybrids confirms the assumed parentage and in situ origin of the crosses on two independent sites within the last decades. Both hybrid populations comprised F1 and later generation hybrids (F2 and backcrosses), confirming hybrid fertility. The parental species showed significant differences in niche characteristics for temperature, soil pH, nutrients and moisture. Remarkably, the hybrids exhibited a higher tolerance to cold temperatures, nutrient-poor and acidic soils than either parent. Our results show that willow hybrids originated after glacier retreat and have established persistent populations within a few decades. One factor contributing to hybrid establishment in sympatry with their parents is their ability to occupy more extreme niches than either parental species within a mosaic-like pattern of microhabitats on the forefield. Introgression and/or transgressive segregation may have resulted in novel genotypes that are able to expand the ecological spectrum of either parent.

  4. Phytoremediation potential of willow tress for aquifers contaminated with ethanol-blended gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corseuil, H.X. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental; Moreno, F.N. [Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, Palhoca (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e das Engenharias

    2001-07-01

    Ethanol-blended gasoline has been used in Brazil for 20 years and, probably, is going to be more widely used in North America due to the MtBE environmental effects on groundwater. The potential impacts caused by the presence of ethanol in UST spills are related to the co-solvency effect and the preferential degradation of ethanol over the BTEX compounds. These interactions may increase the length of dissolved hydrocarbon plumes and the costs associated with site remediation. This study investigates the advantages of phytoremediation to overcome the problems associated with the presence of ethanol in groundwater contaminated with gasoline-ethanol mixtures. Experiments were performed under lab conditions with cuttings of Willow tree (Salix babylonica) cultivated hydroponically. Results showed that the cuttings were able to reduce ethanol and benzene concentrations by more than 99% in less than a week. The uptake of both contaminants was confirmed by blank controls and was significantly related to cuttings transpiration capacity. Sorption onto roots biomass also markedly affected the behavior of contaminants in solution. Experiments to evaluate plants' toxicity to ethanol indicated that plants were only affected when aqueous ethanol concentration reached 2000mgl{sup -1}. Results suggest that phytoremediation can be a good complement to intrinsic remediation in shallow aquifer sites contaminated with ethanol-blended gasoline spills. (Author)

  5. Fortified Extract of Red Berry, Ginkgo biloba, and White Willow Bark in Experimental Early Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bucolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a complex condition where inflammation and oxidative stress represent crucial pathways in the pathogenesis of the disease. Aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a fortified extract of red berries, Ginkgo biloba and white willow bark containing carnosine and α-lipoic acid in early retinal and plasma changes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single streptozotocin injection in Sprague Dawley rats. Diabetics and nondiabetic (control rats were treated daily with the fortified extract for the ten days. Retina samples were collected and analyzed for their TNF-α and VEGF content. Moreover, plasma oxidative stress was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS. Increased TNF-α and VEGF levels were observed in the retina of diabetic rats. Treatment with the fortified extract significantly lowered retinal cytokine levels and suppressed diabetes-related lipid peroxidation. These data demonstrate that the fortified extract attenuates the degree of retinal inflammation and plasma lipid peroxidation preserving the retina in early diabetic rats.

  6. Dynamics of Tidally Locked, Ultrafast Rotating Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xianyu; Showman, Adam P.

    2017-10-01

    Tidally locked gas giants, which exhibit a novel regime of day-night thermal forcing and extreme stellar irradiation, are typically in several-day orbits, implying slow rotation and a modest role for rotation in the atmospheric circulation. Nevertheless, there exist a class of gas-giant, highly irradiated objects - brown dwarfs orbiting white dwarfs in extremely tight orbits - whose orbital and hence rotation periods are as short as 1-2 hours. Spitzer phase curves and other observations have already been obtained for this fascinating class of objects, which raise fundamental questions about the role of rotation in controlling the circulation. So far, most modeling studies have investigated rotation periods exceeding a day, as appropriate for typical hot Jupiters. In this work we investigate the dynamics of tidally locked atmospheres in shorter rotation periods down to about two hours. With increasing rotation rate (decreasing rotation period), we show that the width of the equatorial eastward jet decreases, consistent with the narrowing of wave-mean-flow interacting region due to decrease of the equatorial deformation radius. The eastward-shifted equatorial hot spot offset decreases accordingly, and the westward-shifted hot regions poleward of the equatorial jet associated with Rossby gyres become increasingly distinctive. At high latitudes, winds becomes weaker and more geostrophic. The day-night temperature contrast becomes larger due to the stronger influence of rotation. Our simulated atmospheres exhibit small-scale variability, presumably caused by shear instability. Unlike typical hot Jupiters, phase curves of fast-rotating models show an alignment of peak flux to secondary eclipse. Our results have important implications for phase curve observations of brown dwarfs orbiting white dwarfs in ultra tight orbits.

  7. Contribution of Legume Rotations to the Nitrogen Requirements of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution of Legume Rotations to the Nitrogen Requirements of a Subsequent Maize Crop on a Rhodic Ferralsol in Tanga, Tanzania. ... The experiment was conducted for two rotation cycles whereby cowpea, pigeonpea or greengram were grown during the short rains followed by maize during the long rains. The maize ...

  8. Pictorial Visual Rotation Ability of Engineering Design Graphics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy Vaughn; Lane, Diarmaid; Clark, Aaron C.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to rotate visual mental images is a complex cognitive skill. It requires the building of graphical libraries of information through short or long term memory systems and the subsequent retrieval and manipulation of these towards a specified goal. The development of mental rotation skill is of critical importance within engineering…

  9. Developing an Asteroid Rotational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Gena; Williams, Miguel; Linder, Tyler; Pakey, Donald

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a theoretical asteroid rotational theory from first principles. Starting at first principles provides a firm foundation for computer simulations which can be used to analyze multiple variables at once such as size, rotation period, tensile strength, and density. The initial theory will be presented along with early models of applying the theory to the asteroid population. Early results confirm previous work by Pravec et al. (2002) that show the majority of the asteroids larger than 200m have negligible tensile strength and have spin rates close to their critical breakup point. Additionally, results show that an object with zero tensile strength has a maximum rotational rate determined by the object’s density, not size. Therefore, an iron asteroid with a density of 8000 kg/m^3 would have a minimum spin period of 1.16h if the only forces were gravitational and centrifugal. The short-term goal is to include material forces in the simulations to determine what tensile strength will allow the high spin rates of asteroids smaller than 150m.

  10. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiong Li

    Full Text Available Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR and a second rotation (SR stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC and soil organic matter (SOC stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1 and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1, respectively and forest floor carbon (FFC conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1. The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  11. From plant extract to molecular panacea: a commentary on Stone (1763) 'An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of the agues'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John N

    2015-04-19

    The application of aspirin-like drugs in modern medicine is very broad, encompassing the treatment of inflammation, pain and a variety of cardiovascular conditions. Although anecdotal accounts of willow bark extract as an anti-inflammatory drug have occurred since written records began (for example by Hippocrates), the first convincing demonstration of a potent anti-pyretic effect of willow bark containing salicylates was made by the English cleric Edward Stone in the late eighteenth century. Here, we discuss the route to optimizing and understanding the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory drugs that have their origins in Stone's seminal study, 'An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of agues'. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  12. Resistance in Salix against willow leaf rust caused by Melampsora epitea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Leif [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Crop Production Science

    2000-07-01

    Cultivation of Salix in short rotation forests (SRF), as a source of renewable energy is a relatively recent phenomenon in Sweden. As all other crops under intensive cultivation, Salix are attacked by pests. The economically most important disease is leaf rust caused by Melampsora epitea. For successful plant breeding of new sustainable rust resistant clones, it is important to have knowledge of the inheritance of resistance and the mechanisms underlying rust resistance. Species hybridisation is one technique used in plant breeding, hence the inheritance pattern of rust resistance in hybrids of two species, S. viminalis and S. dasyclados, selected for the purpose, was studied in greenhouse as well as under field conditions. The study in greenhouse showed that hybrids acquire intermediate rust resistance compared to pure species. Plants of same hybrids in field proved to be more resistant than their parental species. Observations in field also showed that abiotic factors such as weather tend to play a significant role in expression of inheritance pattern. It was further indicated that the interaction between rust and Salix might be race-specific. Metabolic changes in Salix, induced by the pathogen in incompatible and compatible interactions were studied in terms of peroxidase and chitinase activity which were measured in S. viminalis inoculated with rust of two different pathotypes of M. epitea rust. Peroxidase activity revealed an earlier response from plants in the incompatible interactions compared to compatible interactions. Records of the chitinase accumulation showed absence of one basic isoform of chitinase in the incompatible interaction. These results demonstrated physiological differences between incompatible and compatible interactions, and gave further indication toward occurrence of race-specific interactions in this pathosystem. Further, with use of molecular biology techniques, a gene designated svpk1, was cloned and partially characterised. The gene

  13. Greening of the Arctic: Partitioning Warming Versus Reindeer Herbivory for Willow Populations on Yamal Peninsula, Northwest Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.; Macias-Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Kumpula, T.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic warming has been linked to observed increases in tundra shrub cover and growth in recent decades on the basis of significant relationships between deciduous shrub growth/biomass and temperature. These vegetation trends have been linked to Arctic sea-ice decline and thus to the sea-ice/albedo feedback known as Arctic amplification. However, the interactions between climate, sea ice, tundra vegetation and herbivores remain poorly understood. Recently we revealed a 50-year growth response over a >100,000 km2 area to a rise in summer temperature for willow (Salix lanata), one the most abundant shrub genera at and north of the continental treeline and an important source of reindeer forage in spring, summer and autumn. We demonstrated that whereas plant productivity is related to sea ice in late spring, the growing season peak responds to persistent synoptic-scale air masses over West Siberia associated with Fennoscandian weather systems through the Rossby wave train. Substrate was important for biomass accumulation, yet a strong correlation between growth and temperature encompasses all observed soil types. Vegetation was especially responsive to temperature in early summer. However, the role of herbivory was not addressed. The present data set explores the relationship between long-term herbivory and growth trends of shrubs experiencing warming in recent decades. Semi-domestic reindeer managed by indigenous Nenets nomads occur at high densities in summer on exposed ridge tops and graze heavily on prostrate and low erect willows. A few meters away in moderately sloped landslides tall willows remain virtually ungrazed as their canopies have grown above the browse line of ca. 180 cm. Here we detail the responses of neighboring shrub populations with and without intensive herbivory yet subject to the same decadal warming trend.

  14. Microsite affects willow sapling recovery from bank vole (Myodes glareolus) herbivory, but does not affect grazing risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rosalind F; Pakeman, Robin J; Young, Mark R; Iason, Glenn R

    2013-08-01

    Large herbivores are often removed or reduced as part of vegetation restoration programmes, but the resultant increase in vegetation biomass and changes in vegetation structure may favour small mammals. Small mammals may have large impacts on plant community composition via granivory and sapling herbivory, and increased small mammal populations may reduce any benefits of large herbivore removal for highly preferred species. This study tested the impacts of small mammal herbivory, microsite characteristics and their interaction on growth and survival of three montane willow species with differing chemical compositions, Salix lapponum, S. myrsinifolia and S. arbuscula. In two separate years, 1-year-old saplings were planted within a 180 ha, large-mammal scrub regeneration exclosure, and either experimentally protected from or exposed to small mammals (bank voles). Saplings were planted in one of two microsite treatments, vegetation mown (to mimic a grazed sward) or disturbed (all above- and below-ground competition removed), and monitored throughout the first year of growth. Approximately 40 % of saplings planted out in each year were damaged by bank voles, but direct mortality due to damage was very low (<2 %). There were no strong species differences in susceptibility to vole damage. Microsite treatment had no impact on the proportion of saplings attacked, but in 2004 saplings in mown microsites were more severely damaged and had smaller increases in size than those in disturbed microsites. In 2003, saplings in mown microsites had smaller increases in stem diameter following attack than those in disturbed microsites. Planting 1-year-old willow saplings into disturbed microsites may aid growth, reduce the severity of small mammal damage and improve recovery following sub-lethal small mammal damage. Restoration management of montane willow scrub should therefore consider manipulating the planting site to provide disturbed areas of soil.

  15. Variable plant quality and performance of the willow-feeding leaf beetle Galerucella lineola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeggstroem, H.E. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Entomology

    1997-12-31

    Plants vary in their suitability to herbivorous insects owing to differences in chemical, morphological and other traits. In this thesis the focus is on how one optimal host (Salix viminalis) and one suboptimal host (S. dasyclados) influence performance of the leaf beetle Galerucella lineola. Four main questions were addressed: i) Is there a relationship between leaf phenolic composition and larval performance? ii) How does plant hybridization affect phenolic content and larval performance? iii) Why do G. lineola larvae prefer to feed in protected microsites? iv) Can leaf quality indirectly affect the risk of predation? Beetle larvae feeding on S. dasyclados showed lower survival, took longer to develop and were smaller than those feeding on S. viminalis. Larval performance was not correlated with the total concentration of phenolics. Nor did any individual phenolic compounds appear to influence the insect. However, in a multivariate analysis, larval performance was correlated with phenolic composition. Thus performance seems to be affected by interactions between several compounds rather than by single compounds. Hybridization affected insect performance. S. viminalis x dasyclados hybrids were of intermediate suitability as food for G. lineola larvae compared with the parental plants. Furthermore, concentrations of most phenolic compounds were intermediate in the hybrids. However, strong heterosis was displayed for three compounds, the concentrations of which were significantly higher than the parental means. Larvae of G. lineola feeding in protected microsites were protected against desiccation but not against predators. Thus, the preference for protected feeding sites may be the result of selection pressure exerted by weather. G. lineola larvae feeding on the suboptimal willow suffered more from predation than those feeding on the optimal host. This was probably due to the slow-growing larvae being exposed to predators for a longer period. In addition, the

  16. Habitat and sex differences in physiological condition of breeding Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J.C.; Sogge, M.K.; Kern, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; here- after “flycatcher”) is a federally listed endangered species that breeds in densely vegetated riparian habitats dominated by native and exotic plants, including introduced monotypic saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima). Some workers have theorized that saltcedar is unsuitable habitat for the flycatcher, primarily because it generally supports a smaller and less diverse invertebrate community (the flycatcher's food base) than native habitats (e.g. Salix spp.). However, differences in insect communities between native and saltcedar habitats are not proof that saltcedar habitats are inferior. The only way to evaluate whether the habitats differ in dietary or energetic quality is to document actual food limitation or its manifestations. Measurements of an individual's body condition and metabolic state can serve as indicators of environmental stressors, such as food limitation and environmental extremes. We captured 130 flycatchers breeding in native and saltcedar habitats in Arizona and New Mexico and measured 12 variables of physiological condition. These variables included body mass, fat level, body condition index, hematocrit, plasma triglycerides, plasma free fatty acids and glycerol, plasma glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate, plasma uric acid, total leukocyte count, and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. We found substantial sex-based differences in the condition of male and female flycatchers. Ten of the 12 measures of physiological condition differed significantly between the sexes. In all cases where male and female condition differed (except mass), the differences suggest that males were in poorer condition than females. We found few habitat-based differences in flycatcher condition. Only 3 of the 12 physiological condition indices differed significantly between habitats. Our data show that, at least in some parts of the flycatcher's range, there is no evidence that flycatchers breeding in

  17. Application of willow and reed vegetation filters for protection of a stream passing through a zoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obarska-Pempkowiak, H. [Technical Univ. of Gdansk (Poland). Faculty of Hydrotechnics

    1994-12-31

    The Rynaszewski Stream (water flow 25 l/s) is the main tributary of the Jelitkowski Stream which in turn drains to the Bay of Gdansk (Baltic Sea) in an area of popular beaches and hotels. In its middle part, the Rynaszewski Stream passes through the Zoological Gardens in Oliwa, where it is used to receive loads of organic matter and nutrients originating from deer-runs (surface sources) and ponds inhabited with waterfowl, hippopotamus, seals and penguins. Major contaminants identified in water are organic nitrogen and bacteria. In order to protect the Rynaszewski Stream, several hydrobotanical constructions were created in 1992. They included areas of land along the stream planted with willow - Salix viminalis (buffer zones), localized in order to purify surface flow waters. Root zone beds (Phragmites communis), soil filters and artificial wetlands were constructed to purify water from point sources. The effects of the measures taken to protect the Rynaszewski Stream from contaminations were assessed based on results of measurements carried out in samples collected once a month during May to December, 1993. The analyses of organic matter (COD and BOD{sub 5}), nutrients (various species of phosphorus and nitrogen) and coli index were performed. A substantial improvement of water was found in 1993 as compared with 1991. This manifested itself in the decrease of total nitrogen (from 8.8 mg/l in 1991 to 1.75 mg/l in 1993), phosphate (respectively 0.2 mg/l and 0.1 mg/l) and coli index (respectively 0.04 and 0.16). The results indicate that hydrobotanical purification systems are capable of protecting streams from contamination coming from both surface and point sources. 3 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Translocation of Cd and Mn from Bark to Leaves in Willows on Contaminated Sediments: Delayed Budburst Is Related to High Mn Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Vandecasteele

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the hydrology of sediments in tidal marshes or landfills may affect the uptake of metals in the vegetation. Leaf and stem samples of Salix cinerea (grey sallow were collected during four consecutive growing seasons at six contaminated plots on a polluted dredged sediment landfill and one plot on an uncontaminated reference site. The first three contaminated plots were already emerged in the first half of the first growing season, while the other three were submerged in the first year, but became increasingly dry over the study period. Foliar and stem cutting concentrations for Cd, Zn and Mn increased on the latter three plots over the four years. Willow bark contained high concentrations of Cd, Zn and Mn. In two consecutive greenhouse experiments with willow cuttings from different origins (uncontaminated and contaminated sites and grown under different soil conditions (uncontaminated and contaminated, we observed an important translocation of Mn from bark to shoots. In a third experiment with willow cuttings collected on soils with a range of heavy metal concentrations and, thus, with a broad range of Cd (4–67 mg/kg dry matter, Zn (247–660 mg/kg dry matter and Mn (38–524 mg/kg dry matter concentrations in the bark, high Mn concentrations in the bark were found to affect the budburst of willow cuttings, while no association of delayed budburst with Cd and Zn concentrations in the bark was found. We conclude that wood and, especially, bark are not a sink for metals in living willows. The high Mn concentrations in the bark directly or indirectly caused delayed or restricted budburst of the willow cuttings.

  19. Integrated long-term responses of an arctic-alpine willow and associated ectomycorrhizal fungi to an altered environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization and morphotype community composition together with growth response and biomass distribution in the arctic-alpine, prostrate willow Salix herbacea L. x Salix polaris Wahlenb. after 11 seasons of shading, warming, and fertilization at a fellfield...... in subarctic Sweden. The aim was to assess responses of the integrated plant-fungal system to long-term field experiments simulating expected environmental changes. Warming more than doubled aboveground S. herbacea x S. polaris biomass and shoot growth, whereas shading and nutrient addition had less influence...

  20. Effects of cutting characteristics on sprouting and early growth of willow; Effekter av sticklingsparametrar paa grobarhet och tillvaext hos salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verwijst, Theo; Nordh, Nils-Erik; Lundkvist, Anneli

    2010-06-15

    In plantations of willow, the size- and weight variability of established plants is increasing over time. This size-hierarchy development is enforced by competition for resources between plants, and is preserved by root reserves and maintained over harvest. This long-term development causes mortality of entire willow plants, and thereby to gaps in the stand, and production losses under later cutting cycles. Variations in productivity across a field may be caused by soil fertility- and moisture gradients and by differences in weed pressure. Even difference between adjacent plants during the establishment phase may be caused by small scale differences in the biotic (weeds) and abiotic (moisture, nutrients) direct environment of the plants. But the central question here is whether differences between single cuttings may contribute to the development of a size- and weight hierarchy between willow plants during the early establishment phase? And if so, (i) to what degree do differences between cuttings contribute to the development of a hierarchy and (ii) are we able, in commercial practice, to modify cutting handling and selection to minimise the development of early size variations between plants? This research project aimed to quantify how cutting length and -origin and cutting handling during planting affects survival and growth of plants in a willow stand under establishment. The goal was to identify and quantify cutting characteristics which are of relevance for a high viability and for a fast and equal establishment of a willow stand, and thereby to be able to recommend advice which leads to a faster and more reliable establishment of willows. The study was performed by means of two box experiments under controlled conditions and by means of a field experiment during May 2008 - September 2009, on the Ultuna campus (SLU) nearby Uppsala. In all trials, the clones Tora (Salix schwerinii x S. viminalis), Jorr (Salix viminalis), Olof (Salix viminalis x (Salix