WorldWideScience

Sample records for wilga poland xvi

  1. Advanced Photonic and Electronic Systems WILGA 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2010-01-01

    SPIE – PSP WILGA Symposium gathers two times a year in January and in May new adepts of advanced photonic and electronic systems. The event is oriented on components and applications. WILGA Symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering is well known on the web for its devotion to “young research” promotion under the eminent sponsorship of international engineering associations like SPIE and IEEE and their Poland Sections or Counterparts. WILGA is supported by the most important national professional organizations like KEiT PAN and PSP-Photonics Society of Poland. The Symposium is organized since 1998 twice a year. It has gathered over 4000 young researchers and published over 2000 papers mainly internationally, including more than 900 in 10 published so far volumes of Proc. SPIE. This paper is a digest of WILGA Symposium Series and WILGA 2010 summary. Introductory part treats WILGA Photonics Applications characteristics over the period 1998-2010. Following part presents a short report on the XXVth and XXVI...

  2. Photonics applications and web engineering: WILGA Winter 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2016-09-01

    Since twenty years, young researchers form the Institute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw University of Technology, organize two times a year, under only a marginal supervision of the senior faculty members, under the patronage of WEiTI PW, KEiT PAN, SPIE, IEEE, PKOpto SEP and PSF, the WILGA Symposium on advanced, integrated functional electronic, photonic and mechatronic systems [1-5]. All aspects are considered like: research and development, theory and design, technology - material and construction, software and hardware, commissioning and tests, as well as pilot and practical applications. The applications concern mostly, which turned after several years to be a proud specialization of the WILGA Symposium, Internet engineering, high energy physics experiments, new power industry including fusion, nuclear industry, space and satellite technologies, telecommunications, smart municipal environment, as well as biology and medicine [6-8]. XXXVIIth WILGA Symposium was held on 29-31 January 2016 and gathered a few tens of young researchers active in the mentioned research areas. There were presented a few tens of technical papers which will be published in Proc.SPIE together with the accepted articles from the Summer Edition of the WILGA Symposium scheduled for 29.05-06.06.2016. This article is a digest of chosen presentations from WILGA Symposium 2016 Winter Edition. The survey is narrowed to a few chosen and main topical tracks, like electronics and photonics design using industrial standards like ATCA/MTCA, also particular designs of functional systems using this series of industrial standards. The paper, summarizing traditionally since many years the accomplished WILGA Symposium organized by young researchers from Warsaw University of Technology, is also the following part of a cycle of papers concerning their participation in design of new generations of electronic systems used in discovery experiments in Poland and in leading research laboratories of the world.

  3. Photonics Applications and Web Engineering: WILGA 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2017-08-01

    XLth Wilga Summer 2017 Symposium on Photonics Applications and Web Engineering was held on 28 May-4 June 2017. The Symposium gathered over 350 participants, mainly young researchers active in optics, optoelectronics, photonics, modern optics, mechatronics, applied physics, electronics technologies and applications. There were presented around 300 oral and poster papers in a few main topical tracks, which are traditional for Wilga, including: bio-photonics, optical sensory networks, photonics-electronics-mechatronics co-design and integration, large functional system design and maintenance, Internet of Things, measurement systems for astronomy, high energy physics experiments, and other. The paper is a traditional introduction to the 2017 WILGA Summer Symposium Proceedings, and digests some of the Symposium chosen key presentations. This year Symposium was divided to the following topical sessions/conferences: Optics, Optoelectronics and Photonics, Computational and Artificial Intelligence, Biomedical Applications, Astronomical and High Energy Physics Experiments Applications, Material Research and Engineering, and Advanced Photonics and Electronics Applications in Research and Industry.

  4. Photonics and Web Engineering: WILGA 2009

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The paper is a digest of work presented during a cyclic Ph.D. student symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering WILGA 2009. The subject of WILGA are Photonics Applications in Astronomy, Communications, Industry and High-Energy Physics Experiments. WILGA is sponsored by EuCARD Project. Symposium is organized by ISE PW in cooperation with professional organizations IEEE, SPIE, PSP and KEiT PAN. There are presented mainly Ph.D. and M.Sc. theses as well as achievements of young researchers. These papers, presented in such a big number, more than 250 in some years, are in certain sense a good digest of the condition of academic research capabilities in this branch of science and technology. The undertaken research subjects for Ph.D. theses in electronics is determined by the interest and research capacity (financial, laboratory and intellectual) of the young researchers and their tutors. Basically, the condition of academic electronics research depends on financing coming from applications areas. During Wilga 200...

  5. Astronomy and Space Technologies, WILGA 2012; EuCARD Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2012-01-01

    Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments, astroparticle physics and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD – European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. This paper is the first part (out of five) of the research survey of WILGA Symposium work, May 2012 Edition, concerned with photonics and electronics applications in astronomy and space technologies. It presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from different technical universities from this country during the Jubilee XXXth SPIE-IEEE Wilga 2012, May Edition, symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JE...

  6. Photonics applications and web engineering: WILGA Summer 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2016-09-01

    Wilga Summer 2016 Symposium on Photonics Applications and Web Engineering was held on 29 May - 06 June. The Symposium gathered over 350 participants, mainly young researchers active in optics, optoelectronics, photonics, electronics technologies and applications. There were presented around 300 presentations in a few main topical tracks including: bio-photonics, optical sensory networks, photonics-electronics-mechatronics co-design and integration, large functional system design and maintenance, Internet of Thins, and other. The paper is an introduction the 2016 WILGA Summer Symposium Proceedings, and digests some of the Symposium chosen key presentations.

  7. Photonics applications and web engineering: WILGA Summer 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2015-09-01

    Wilga Summer 2015 Symposium on Photonics Applications and Web Engineering was held on 23-31 May. The Symposium gathered over 350 participants, mainly young researchers active in optics, optoelectronics, photonics, electronics technologies and applications. There were presented around 300 presentations in a few main topical tracks including: bio-photonics, optical sensory networks, photonics-electronics-mechatronics co-design and integration, large functional system design and maintenance, Internet of Thins, and other. The paper is an introduction the 2015 WILGA Summer Symposium Proceedings, and digests some of the Symposium chosen key presentations.

  8. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnicki, S.; Budzinski, K.; Juda, J.; Michna, J.; Szpilewicz, A.

    1990-01-01

    Poland is an important case study in understanding the role of international cooperation in reducing the risk of global climate change. A the world's fourth largest coal producer, the nation occupies a key position in the political economy of a changing Europe. More importantly, Poland is pursuing energy policy reforms that half of the world must follow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prosper economically. Poland is undergoing profound economic and environmental change. This nation of 38 million people hopes to shift from planning to markets to allocate economic resources, and at the same time to conserve and protect environmental resources. Per capita incomes are only one-fourth of West Germany's, for example, but per capita energy use (and emissions of carbon dioxide) is just as high. High energy intensity causes much of Poland's serious air and water pollution. Economic efficiency could help reduce carbon and sulfur emissions, but the capital required to improve the energy infrastructure is scarce. The combination of these problems has reduced GNP per capita 9 percent over the last decade

  9. Photon Physics and Plasma Research, WILGA 2012; EuCARD Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2012-01-01

    Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments, astroparticle physica and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD – European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. This paper is the third part (out of five) of the research survey of WILGA Symposium work, May 2012 Edition, concerned with Photon Physics and Plasma Research. It presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from different technical universities from this country during the Jubilee XXXth SPIE-IEEE Wilga 2012, May Edition, symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET tokamak and pi-of-the sky experiments ...

  10. Accelerator Technology and High Energy Physic Experiments, WILGA 2012; EuCARD Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2012-01-01

    Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments, astroparticle physica and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD – European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. The paper is the second part (out of five) of the research survey of WILGA Symposium work, May 2012 Edition, concerned with accelerator technology and high energy physics experiments. It presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from different technical universities from this country during the XXXth Jubilee SPIE-IEEE Wilga 2012, May Edition, symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the ...

  11. WILGA Photonics and Web Engineering, January 2012; EuCARD Sessions on HEP and Accelerator Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2012-01-01

    Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD – European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. The paper presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from technical universities during the SPIE-IEEE Wilga January 2012 Symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, new technologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET and pi-of-the sky experiments development. The symposium held two times a year is a summary in the development of numerable Ph.D. theses carried out in this country in the area of advanced electronic and photonic systems. It is also a great occasion for SPIE, IEEE, OSA and PSP st...

  12. PREFACE: Symmetries in Science XVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This volume of the proceedings ''Symmetries in Science XVI'' is dedicated to the memory of Miguel Lorente and Allan Solomon who both participated several times in these Symposia. We lost not only two great scientists and colleagues, but also two wonderful persons of high esteem whom we will always remember. Dieter Schuch, Michael Ramek There is a German saying ''all good things come in threes'' and ''Symmetries in Science XVI'', convened July 20-26, 2013 at the Mehrerau Monastery, was our third in the sequel of these symposia since taking it over from founder Bruno Gruber who instigated it in 1988 (then in Lochau). Not only the time seemed to have been perfect (one week of beautiful sunshine), but also the medley of participants could hardly have been better. This time, 34 scientists from 16 countries (more than half outside the European Union) came together to report and discuss their latest results in various fields of science, all related to symmetries. The now customary grouping of renowned experts and talented newcomers was very rewarding and stimulating for all. The informal, yet intense, discussions at ''Gasthof Lamm'' occurred (progressively later) each evening till well after midnight and finally till almost daybreak! However, prior to the opening ceremony and during the conference, respectively, we were informed that Miguel Lorente and Allan Solomon had recently passed away. Both attended the SIS Symposia several times and had many friends among present and former participants. Professor Peter Kramer, himself a long-standing participant and whose 80th birthday commemoration prevented him from attending SIS XVI, kindly agreed to write the obituary for Miguel Lorente. Professors Richard Kerner and Carol Penson (both also former attendees) penned, at very short notice, the tribute to Allan Solomon. The obituaries are included in these Proceedings and further tributes have been posted to our conference website. In 28 lectures and an evening poster

  13. [Poland's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, R; Sasiadek, M

    2000-08-01

    Poland's syndrome consists of the variable clinical features, but always includes unilateral aplasia of the chest wall muscles and ipsilateral anomalies of upper extremity. The incidence of Poland's syndrome, reported by different authors ranges from 1:10,000 to 1:100,000 and is observed more frequently in males than in females with the right side of the body affected more often than the left. The etiology of this syndrome is still discussed. However most of described cases were sporadic, rare familial incidence of Poland's syndrome were also presented. Therefore different etiologic factors of the Poland's syndrome are taken into account: genetic, vascular compromise during early stages of embriogenesis but also teratogenic effect of environmental xenobiotics (e.g. cigarette smoking by pregnant women). The authors present also the case of 20-years old man with inherited bilateral syndactyly with the right side aplasia of major pectoralis muscle and face asymmetry. The familial history was negative in respect to the features, associated with Poland's syndrome.

  14. Photovoltaics in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietruszko, Stanislaw M.

    2003-01-01

    The legislative framework and financing possibilities for photovoltaics (PV) in Poland are presented. Barriers that exist or can be encountered in implementing PV technology in Poland are identified. This paper also discusses future prospects and possibilities for developing photovoltaics in Poland. Finally, the paper suggests ways to promote, disseminate, and deploy PV technology in Poland. (Author)

  15. Esclavitud en la Extremadura del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Ballesteros Díez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de esclavos durante el siglo XVI era un hecho tan generalizado en Extremadura como en el resto de Castilla. El conocimiento de este grupo social está diluido entre los marginados o los de ilegítimos, por lo que se hace una aproximación para establecer en distintos lugares de la región algunos datos cuantitativos que permitan medir su participación en el conjunto de la sociedad.The presence of slaves during the Sixteenth Century was a general fact both in Extremadura and in the rest of Castilla. The knowledge of this social group was diluted between the dropouts or the descendents of the illegitimate, therefore we are going to make an approach to establish in different places of the region some quantitative data which allow to measure their participation in the whole of the society.

  16. EDITORIAL: XVI Brazilian Colloquium on Orbital Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Cristiano F.; Macau, Elbert E. N.; Prado, Antonio B. A.; Hetem Jnr, Annibal

    2013-10-01

    The XVI Brazilian Colloquium on Orbital Dynamics was held from 26-30 November 2012, at the Biazi Grand Hotel, Serra Negra, São Paulo, Brazil. The Brazilian Colloquia on Orbital Dynamics are scientific events that occur bi-annually and are designed to develop those areas of research in celestial mechanics, orbital dynamics, planetary science, fundamental astronomy, aerospace engineering, and nonlinear systems and chaos. The meeting has been held for 30 years and it brings together researchers, professors and students from South American and also from other continents. Acknowledgements National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level - CAPES São Paulo Research Foundation - FAPESP

  17. POLAND`S OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczkowski Bogdan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the discussion of motives, determinants and effects of outward FDI of companies from emerging economies. We analyze the the scale, structure, geographical location and effects of Polish foreign direct investments as well as we prioritize their determinants. The interest of Polish companies in investing abroad has increased sharply over the last decade, due to the need to broaden the scale of business operations and geographical scope of their economic activities after the Poland`s accession to the European Union.

  18. Esclavitud y ética comercial en el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Alejandro Tellkamp

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En varios tratados españoles del siglo XVI, la esclavitud como fenómeno social y comercial adquirió una importancia teórica cada vez mayor con respecto al estatus legal y moral de los seres humanos. El presente trabajo trata de esbozar algunos de los argumentos con respecto al comercio de esclavos y sus implicaciones morales y legales de acuerdo los autores Tomás de Mercado (1530-1576 y Bartolomé Frías de Albornoz (s. XVI, mostrando cómo la discusión se encaminó hacia la expresión de derechos individuales, sin, no obstante, superar el tradicional apego al concepto de esclavitud legal.

  19. Teaching anthropology in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchowski, M.; Červinková, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2016), s. 47-51 E-ISSN 2239-625X Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : teaching anthropology * Poland * pedagogy * educational anthropology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology , Ethnology

  20. To understand Poland / Joanna Bar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bar, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Uurimustest Poola igapäevaelu kohta Nõukogude perioodil : Wedel, Janine. The private Poland : an anthropologist look at everyday life ; Dziğiel, Leszek. Paradise in a concrete cage : daily life in communist Poland. Krak̤w, 1998

  1. Crosstalk XVI, basic data communication and RS-232C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hui Yung

    1988-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which deals with compatible software of data communication with IBM PC XT/AT. The first part consists of an introduction to crosstalk XVI, getting start for user, crosstalk practice, call with crosstalk, terminal feature, switch of communication parameter, terminal emulation, capturing data, transmission of text file answer mode, file transfer, command file and script file, command summary and examples. The second part deals with basic personal computer communication, RS-232C and explanation of communication control : RS-232C interface, transmission device and interrupt controller 8259.

  2. Poland's Syndrome: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    The Poland's anomaly was first described in 1841 by Sir Alfred Poland as a syndrome presenting with absence or underdevelopment of pectoralis ... He was the second child in a family of four. There was no familial history of similar .... hypoplasia: a middle degree of Poland syndrome. Acta Radiologica 1996; 37: 759-762. 8.

  3. Poland- Ukraine Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szeptycki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland and Ukraine are the two biggest and most populated countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Because of their size, neighbourhood and position in the region the two countries have often been compared to France and Germany. Both countries are deeply interested in their mutual cooperation. Such situation steams from five factors: direct neighbourhood, common (albeit difficult history, attractiveness of the Polish labour market for the Ukrainians, membership of Poland in the Western structures, and last but not least, the Russian threat. Despite complimentary interests, both countries have difficulty to effectively develop their mutual relations and turn them into a real “strategic partnership”. These problems are due to the internal political and economic situation in Ukraine, limits imposed by the membership of Poland in the EU, Russian policy aiming at keeping Ukraine within its zone of influence and, finally, the EU reluctance to effectively engage in Ukraine.

  4. Water Management in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  5. Pollution problems plague Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajsarowicz, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Poland's environmental problems are said to stem from investments in heavy industries that require enormous quantities of power and from the exploitation of two key natural resources: coal and sulfur. Air and water pollution problems and related public health problems are discussed

  6. Nuclear Physics in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This will be a short presentation of low and high energy nuclear physics in Poland, its history, essential results, and the present status. Nuclear physics in Poland has a tradition of hundred years. Research started just after the discovery of radium and polonium by Polish-born Maria Sklodowska-Curie and her husband Pierre Curie. Maria Sklodowska-Curie employed numerous Polish assistants in her Paris laboratory and supported radioactivity studies in Warsaw, her birth place, then under the occupation of tsarist Russia. In the first decades of the XXth century Poland was one of the leading countries in radioactivity studies. In the late 1930-ies a cyclotron was constructed in Warsaw and an ambitious 'Star of Poland' project was launched to study the cosmic rays. Unfortunately, the Second World War stopped all scientific activity in Poland. A large fraction of Polish physicists perished in the period 1939-1945. After the World War nuclear physics of low and high energy was rebuilt in Warsaw and Krakow. Already in 1952 Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski discovered the first hypernucleus. This important discovery was essential to understand the properties of numerous new particles found in cosmic rays. Polish physicists entered intensive collaboration with both CERN and Dubna and took part also in research at other centers in Europe (DESY, GSI, GANIL, Julich, SACLAY) and the United States (Fermilab). At present the research is concentrated in Warsaw and Krakow (the two largest centers), and smaller teams, mostly theorists, are also in Bialystok, Katowice, Kielce, Lublin, Lodz and Wroclaw. Several years ago a heavy ion cyclotron was built in Warsaw. Among the important discoveries made by Polish nuclear physicists one may mention the theoretical works on superheavy elements and the recent discovery of the two-proton radioactivity

  7. El Papa Benedicto XVI y el ámbito internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Petschen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Benedicto XVI, en el conjunto de los papas de los dos últimos siglos, es un papa eminentemente pastoral, poco diplomático. En algunas ocasiones le faltó tacto para manejar sus relaciones con los musulmanes y con los judíos. No le gustaba la política. Como gran pensador de carácter teórico la preocupaba más bien la profundidad de la filosofía que imperaba en Europa, 'la dictadura del relativismo'. Y también los problemas económicos (el egoísmo del capitalismo financiero y el medio ambiente que no son política internacional aunque sean contenidos que interesen por sí mismos.

  8. PIXE analysis of Italian ink drawings of the XVI century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Enguita, O.; Fernandez-Jimenez, M.T.; Finaldi, G.; Garrido, C.; Matillas, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The composition of inks in a group of 24 drawings of ten XVI century Italian painters, has been determined by PIXE at the external micro-beam line of the Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales of the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. Ink elemental thicknesses have been determined by comparison with a set of certified thin standards. A comprehensive comparison of inks has also been performed by renormalisation of spectra and definition of an ink-to-ink distance. The elemental compositions and the ink-to-ink distances give consistent results that are generally in line with the appearance of the drawings and add relevant instrumental information to the stylistic observation, revealing for example the presence of retouches and additions in different parts of a drawing. Cluster analysis performed on a subgroup of 13 artefacts from the Genoese painter Luca Cambiaso and his school has revealed a partition that separates neatly the work of the master from that of his followers

  9. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) POLAND AT CERN Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the «Poland at CERN» exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, buildin...

  10. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  11. [Migrant vaccinations in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    After the European Union accession in 2004, Poland has been perceived by foreigners as an attractive destination of their migration, and also as a popular transit country for people going further to the Western Europe countries. The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine is involved in the implementation of the international project PROMOVAX (Promote Vaccinations among Migrant Populations in Europe). The objective of the project is to promote immunizations among migrant populations in Europe. This article presents the up-to-date legal regulations that are effective in Poland, taking into account their relevance to the issue of vaccinations in migrant population. The analysis of the Polish legislation concerning this problem shows that there are no specific regulations addressed to migrant population staying in our country. This issue seems to be popular in the European Union, where immunization of migrants is given high priority. From the point of view of health care professionals it is important to be aware of the fact that EU open borders favor the increased flow of people between countries. The scale of migration from outside the EU to its member states also contributes to the increase in potential contacts between health care workers and migrants working in Poland.

  12. Drug Policy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnz-Różyk, Karina; Kawalec, Pawel; Malinowski, Krzysztof; Czok, Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    We presented a general overview of the health care system as well as the pricing and reimbursement environment in Poland. Poland aims to ensure proper access to safe and effective medicines while reducing patients' share in treatment costs. Nevertheless, the co-payment for pharmacotherapy is still high (more than 60%). The key policymaker and regulator in the system is the Ministry of Health, which is supported by the Polish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System (Agencja Oceny Technologii Medycznych i Taryfikacji), responsible for evaluating applicant drugs, and the Economic Commission, responsible for negotiating the official sales prices and conditions for reimbursement with pharmaceutical companies (e.g., level of reimbursement and risk-sharing scheme agreements). The Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System dossier is obligatory for reimbursement application and includes the analysis of clinical effectiveness, economic analysis (with the threshold of quality-adjusted life-year established as no more than 3 times the gross domestic product per capita), and the analysis of budget impact. In Poland, only a positive list of reimbursed drugs is published and it is updated every 2 months. The following levels of reimbursement are in use: 100%, 70%, 50%, and lump sum (about €0.8). The first reimbursement decision is given for a period of 2 years only, the second for 3 years, and the third for 5 years. There is no separate budget or special legal regulations for orphan drugs. Generic substitution of drugs is desired but not mandatory. Physicians are not assigned with pharmaceutical budgets. The access to real-world data is limited; the only registers available are for drugs used in drug programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Clean air for Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Coal power generation produces gases which pollute the environment and cause damage to vegetation and human health. Where alternative sources of energy are not economically viable, the only solution is to ensure that gas emissions are reduced to a minimum. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Department of Research and Isotopes to demonstrate a technology which will show Poland, and possibly other countries, a way to attain European emission standards without the need to compromise industrial growth. (IAEA)

  14. An image quality comparison study between XVI and OBI CBCT systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Srijit; Song, William; Chvetsov, Alexei; Ozawa, Shuichi; Lu, Haibin; Samant, Sanjiv; Liu, Chihray; Li, Jonathan G; Palta, Jatinder R

    2011-02-04

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare image quality characteristics for two commonly used and commercially available CBCT systems: the X-ray Volumetric Imager and the On-Board Imager. A commonly used CATPHAN image quality phantom was used to measure various image quality parameters, namely, pixel value stability and accuracy, noise, contrast to noise ratio (CNR), high-contrast resolution, low contrast resolution and image uniformity. For the XVI unit, we evaluated the image quality for four manufacturer-supplied protocols as a function of mAs. For the OBI unit, we did the same for the full-fan and half-fan scanning modes, which were respectively used with the full bow-tie and half bow-tie filters. For XVI, the mean pixel values of regions of interest were found to generally decrease with increasing mAs for all protocols, while they were relatively stable with mAs for OBI. Noise was slightly lower on XVI and was seen to decrease with increasing mAs, while CNR increased with mAs for both systems. For XVI and OBI, the high-contrast resolution was approximately limited by the pixel resolution of the reconstructed image. On OBI images, up to 6 and 5 discs of 1% and 0.5% contrast, respectively, were visible for a high mAs setting using the full-fan mode, while none of the discs were clearly visible on the XVI images for various mAs settings when the medium resolution reconstruction was used. In conclusion, image quality parameters for XVI and OBI have been quantified and compared for clinical protocols under various mAs settings. These results need to be viewed in the context of a recent study that reported the dose-mAs relationship for the two systems and found that OBI generally delivered higher imaging doses than XVI.

  15. Poland and Global Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  16. Maestros canteros de Trasmiera en Galicia (siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Dúo Rámila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Es conocido el desarrollo que experimenta la cantería en Cantabria en la Edad Moderna. Se trata de un fenómeno significativo en términos cualitativos y cuantitativos, por el elevado número de artífices y obras en las que intervienen, desplegando su actividad no sólo en la Península sino en otras zonas como Canarias y América. El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo el estudio de los canteros cántabros, concretamente de la región de Trasmiera, que se desplazaron a Galicia en el siglo XVI desarrollando una intensa y valiosa labor. Participaron allí de la actividad constructiva en la región con frecuencia en colaboración con maestros de distintas procedencias, lo que originará una confluencia de influencias artísticas que determinarán las particularidades e idiosincrasia del arte gallego de este período.The stonemasonry of Cantabria experiences an important development between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries. This development is determined by a great number of artists and works in what they take part, working in the Peninsula, and other regions like Canaries and America. The objective of this study is to evaluate the activities that performed the master builders of Cantabria (in concrete of trasmiera’s region which displaced to Galicia in sixteenth century developing an intense and valuable activity.

  17. PIXE analysis of Italian ink drawings of the XVI century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Enguita, O.; Fernandez-Jimenez, M. T.; Finaldi, G.; Garrido, C.; Matillas, J. M.

    2005-10-01

    The composition of inks in a group of 24 drawings of ten XVI century Italian painters, has been determined by PIXE at the external micro-beam line of the Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Ink elemental thicknesses have been determined by comparison with a set of certified thin standards. A comprehensive comparison of inks has also been performed by renormalisation of spectra and definition of an ink-to-ink distance. The elemental compositions and the ink-to-ink distances give consistent results that are generally in line with the appearance of the drawings and add relevant instrumental information to the stylistic observation, revealing for example the presence of retouches and additions in different parts of a drawing. Cluster analysis performed on a subgroup of 13 artefacts from the Genoese painter Luca Cambiaso and his school has revealed a partition that separates neatly the work of the master from that of his followers.

  18. On environmental problems in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel, H.; Kenez, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The book contains articles by five authors on the following subjects: General literature in German and Polish language on environmental problems in Poland; legal issues of environmental protection - laws for the protection and development of the environment; environmental health hazards - hazards at work; protection of the sea environment in the region of the Baltic Sea - pollution of the Baltic Sea; the water situation in Poland - the large-scale project 'Weichsel 2000'; the ecological situation of the lakes of Masovia; air pollution and its effects - the dying of Silesian forests; Chernobyl and the Polish reaction; the 27 ecologically endangered areas in Poland. (HSCH) [de

  19. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, b...

  20. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, bu...

  1. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the ´Poland at CERNª exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, building 33, - the exhi...

  2. Sulphur in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seman Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Poland belongs to one of the last countries with native sulphur mining. Its history begun in 15th century. Deposit area of Tarnobrzeg re-presents 80% of all known sulphur reserves in this country. All of explored deposits in this area were created by metasomatic alteration of sulphur bearing limestones with sulphur mineralised liquids, which arised from melt gypsum. The average content is 25 - 30% of sulphur in Tarnobrzeg area. Considerable parts of deposits are created by calcite and native sulphur. Gypstone, baryte and stroncianite have only minera-logic occurencies. The extensive native sulphur deposits account for 88% of the country´s sulphur production. There were five sulphur mines in operation: Jeziórko, Grêbów, Machów I, Machów II and Basznia, but operations in Basznia were ended in 1992 and Machów and Machów II were liquidated. The sixth mine Osiek is currently producing. Only the Machów I mine operated an open-pit extraction and refining process, the other four mines producing sulphur using a modified Frasch method that gives elemental sulphur of up to 99,9% purity. Sulphur is an important export commodity with foreign sales totalling around 1.5 - 2.5 Mt/y. Modern benefication methods, which allowing to achieve sulphur from hydrocarbons, are causing decrease of native sulphur prices in the world and bringing about reduction of mining activities for this raw material in Poland.

  3. Radiation emergency planning in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewodniczanski, J [National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-08-01

    The paper presents a schematic outline of the radiation emergency policy in Poland, rather from the point of view of logistics of the problem than discussing details of existing or proposed procedures. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig.

  4. Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Myxogastrea in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamaga Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Berk. ex Torrend Nann.-Bremek. is rare in Poland, known previously from only one locality. Sixty years after the original report, this paper presents two new localities of it in separate regions of Poland. Although S. trechisporus is recorded mostly on Sphagnum sp., the taxon does not seem to be attached to a specific substrate; rather it is associated with acidic habitats.

  5. Gender Pay Gap in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Oczki, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate the actual and explained gender pay gaps in Poland in comparison with selected highly developed countries, and to discuss the factors determining wage disparities between men and women. Data from Eurostat EU-SILC and the International Labour Organization were used. The article concludes that the gender pay gap in Poland is relatively small and decreasing, and that estimates of the explained gender pay gap published by the Internationa...

  6. Rubella in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. This can be achieved by carrying out the vaccination. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2013, there was big epidemic of rubella in Poland--with 38,548 registered cases (6 times more than in 2012), incidence 84.4 per 100,000 (5 times higher than in the previous year). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (911.6 per 100,000). The incidence of rubella in boys and men was significantly higher than the incidence in girls and women (181.4 versus 23.9). In 2013, two cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. Rubella epidemic which occurred in Poland in 2013 was the result of use in the past vaccination against rubella only for girls 13 years of age. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2013, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  7. Chickenpox in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    A number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2012 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In 2012, 208 276 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The highest number of cases was reported in Śląskie voivodeship, the lowest in Podlaskie voivodeship. Mumps incidence was 540.5 per 100 000 and was higher than in 2011 (448.7). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (7 611.5 per 100 000). The chickenpox incidence among men (570.7) was higher than among women (512.2). The incidence among rural residents (553.9) was higher than among urban residents (531.8). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 361. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 56 213. In 2012, there was an increase in the incidence of smallpox in Poland. This trend is continuing since 2004, which can be partly explained by improved surveillance of the disease.

  8. Poland health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures

  9. Mumps in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps, introduced initially as recommended, from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease in Poland. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In total, there were 2779 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2012. Incidence of mumps was 7.2 per 100 000 and it was higher by 7.5% in comparison with 2011 and lower by 19.4% in comparison to median for the years 2006-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (71.8 per 100 000). Incidence in women (5.9) was lower than in men (8.6). In 2012, 25 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2012 was 97.9%. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  10. Inaptos de oro: figuraciones del otro en el teatro portugués del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Camões

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Las figuraciones de etnias minoritarias marginalizadas han sido una presencia constante en el teatro portugués del siglo XVI. Se analizan casos concretos que muestran como el teatro estrecha las márgenes, integrando en el universo ficcional la realidad cotidiana.

  11. Un caso d’amor fou nella società aristocratica genovese del secolo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Bettin Lattes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Perché nel cuore del centro storico di Genova esiste una “piazza dell’amor perfetto”? Sullo sfondo delle tumultuose vicende politiche del secolo XVI la passione, altrettanto tumultuosa, di Tommasina Spinola, nobile genovese, per Luigi XII, Re di Francia, trasforma l’amore in tragedia.

  12. A TEMPORAL MAP IN GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT: THE COVER ETCHING ON THE EchoStar XVI ARTIFACT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, Joel M.; Paglen, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Geostationary satellites are unique among orbital spacecraft in that they experience no appreciable atmospheric drag. After concluding their respective missions, geostationary spacecraft remain in orbit virtually in perpetuity. As such, they represent some of human civilization's longest lasting artifacts. With this in mind, the EchoStar XVI satellite, to be launched in fall 2012, will play host to a time capsule intended as a message for the deep future. Inspired in part by the Pioneer Plaque and Voyager Golden Records, the EchoStar XVI Artifact is a pair of gold-plated aluminum jackets housing a small silicon disk containing 100 photographs. The Cover Etching, the subject of this paper, is etched onto one of the two jackets. It is a temporal map consisting of a star chart, pulsar timings, and other information describing the epoch from which EchoStar XVI came. The pulsar sample consists of 13 rapidly rotating objects, 5 of which are especially stable, having spin periods <10 ms and extremely small spin-down rates. In this paper, we discuss our approach to the time map etched onto the cover and the scientific data shown on it, and we speculate on the uses that future scientists may have for its data. The other portions of the EchoStar XVI Artifact will be discussed elsewhere.

  13. A TEMPORAL MAP IN GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT: THE COVER ETCHING ON THE EchoStar XVI ARTIFACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, Joel M., E-mail: jweisber@carleton.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States); Paglen, Trevor, E-mail: trevor@paglen.com

    2012-10-01

    Geostationary satellites are unique among orbital spacecraft in that they experience no appreciable atmospheric drag. After concluding their respective missions, geostationary spacecraft remain in orbit virtually in perpetuity. As such, they represent some of human civilization's longest lasting artifacts. With this in mind, the EchoStar XVI satellite, to be launched in fall 2012, will play host to a time capsule intended as a message for the deep future. Inspired in part by the Pioneer Plaque and Voyager Golden Records, the EchoStar XVI Artifact is a pair of gold-plated aluminum jackets housing a small silicon disk containing 100 photographs. The Cover Etching, the subject of this paper, is etched onto one of the two jackets. It is a temporal map consisting of a star chart, pulsar timings, and other information describing the epoch from which EchoStar XVI came. The pulsar sample consists of 13 rapidly rotating objects, 5 of which are especially stable, having spin periods <10 ms and extremely small spin-down rates. In this paper, we discuss our approach to the time map etched onto the cover and the scientific data shown on it, and we speculate on the uses that future scientists may have for its data. The other portions of the EchoStar XVI Artifact will be discussed elsewhere.

  14. [Could phimosis have been the cause of sexual difficulties and delayed fertility of Louis XVI (1754-1793)?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, Georges

    2002-02-01

    The great majority of historians agree that the marriage of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette was only consumated seven years after the official ceremony. This delay could have been due to a genital malformation (phimosis) of Louis XVI, a strict religious education, a traumatic childhood and the young age of the two spouses, factors that may have inhibited their sexuality. In this article, the authors try to determine whether Louis XVI was able to overcome his sexual difficulties following an operation (circumcision) or as a result of spontaneous cure.

  15. THE ISLANDS PROJECT. I. ANDROMEDA XVI, AN EXTREMELY LOW MASS GALAXY NOT QUENCHED BY REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monelli, Matteo; Martínez-Vázquez, Clara E.; Gallart, Carme; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Aparicio, Antonio [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bernard, Edouard J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, SE Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); Weisz, Daniel R. [Astronomy Department, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Cole, Andrew A. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart 7005, TAS (Australia); Martin, Nicolas F. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Cassisi, Santi [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Teramo (Italy); Boylan-Kolchin, Michael [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, via M. Maggini, 64100 Teramo (Italy); Mayer, Lucio [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); McConnachie, Alan [Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Research Council Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Navarro, Julio F., E-mail: monelli@iac.es [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2016-03-10

    Based on data aquired in 13 orbits of Hubble Space Telescope time, we present a detailed evolutionary history of the M31 dSph satellite Andromeda XVI, including its lifetime star formation history (SFH), the spatial distribution of its stellar populations, and the properties of its variable stars. And XVI is characterized by prolonged star formation activity from the oldest epochs until star formation was quenched ∼6 Gyr ago, and, notably, only half of the mass in stars of And XVI was in place 10 Gyr ago. And XVI appears to be a low-mass galaxy for which the early quenching by either reionization or starburst feedback seems highly unlikely, and thus it is most likely due to an environmental effect (e.g., an interaction), possibly connected to a late infall in the densest regions of the Local Group. Studying the SFH as a function of galactocentric radius, we detect a mild gradient in the SFH: the star formation activity between 6 and 8 Gyr ago is significantly stronger in the central regions than in the external regions, although the quenching age appears to be the same, within 1 Gyr. We also report the discovery of nine RR Lyrae (RRL) stars, eight of which belong to And XVI. The RRL stars allow a new estimate of the distance, (m − M){sub 0} = 23.72 ± 0.09 mag, which is marginally larger than previous estimates based on the tip of the red giant branch.

  16. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was evaluation of epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2012 compared to the previous years. The main source of data for this study are statistical overviews contained in the annual bulletins "Infectious Diseases in Poland in 2012" (NIZP-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2013), reports from investigations obtained from the sanitary epidemiological stations. Information on deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2012 and earlier years is based on the data from the Department for Demographic Research of Central Statistical Office. For the purpose of surveillance cases were classified according to the case definition. In Poland in 2012, it was reported a total of 8 444 cases of zoonotic salmonellosis including 8 267 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 177 of extraintestinal one. The incidence was 21.9/100 000. The criteria for a confirmed case met more than 94% of cases. The number of reported cases was lower than in 2011, reflecting the continued downward trend in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. A very high percentage (69.4%) hospitalizations of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella remains. In outbreaks proportion of hospitalizations accounted for one third of the cases. Predominated children under the age of 5 years. Seven people died of salmonellosis. In 2012, it was reported 181 outbreaks caused by Salmonella in which 1 511 people still. They were mostly small family outbreaks. The most common etiological agent of salmonellosis in Poland is S. enteritidis, but slightly increases the percentage cases, for which no serologic type was determined. In 2012 it stood at 14%. This proportion was highest in the Pomorskie province and amounted to 58%. Keeping up for more than 10 years in the percentage of salmonellosis hospitalization rate at 70%, indicates underreporting of the disease in the country and mostly detection of the cases requiring hospital treatment. Growing proportion of

  17. Chickenpox in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    A large number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2013 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In 2013, 178 501 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The incidence was 463.6 and was lower than in 2012 (540.5). The highest number of cases was reported in mazowieckie voivodeship, the lowest in podlaskie voivodeship. The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (6 545.1 per 100,000). The chickenpox incidence among men (491.7) was higher by 12.4% comparing to women (437.3). The incidence among rural residents (497.2) was higher than among urban residents (441.7). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 184. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 57 168. In 2013, there was decrease in the incidence of chickenpox [corrected] in Poland with small fluctuations. Since 2002 the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox increased. The increase in the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox would help maintain the downward trend in subsequent years.

  18. Rubella in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rogalska, Justyna; Polkowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. In Poland participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory tests. Vaccination against rubella was introduced in 1987, initially only in 13 - year-old girls. Since 2003, single jab vaccination against rubella, measles and mumps is used (MMR vaccine for all children: primary vaccination at the age 13-15 months and a booster vaccination at the age of 10). To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2014, there was a significant decrease in the number of rubella cases - with registered 5891 cases (in 2013 - 38 548 cases) - and a decline in incidence (from 101.1 per 100 000 to 15.3). The highest incidence, regardless of gender and the environment was observed in the age group 5-6 years (respectively 93.8 and 109.4 per 100 000). Similarly to 2013, rubella incidence of males was higher than the incidence in girls and women (20.0 versus 10.9). In 2014, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2014, only 0.6% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  19. Mumps in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In total, there were 2 436 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2013. Incidence of mumps was 6.3 per 100,000 and it was lower by 12.5% in comparison with 2012 and lower by 18.2% in comparison with median for the years 2007-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (54.0 per 100,000). Incidence in men (7.5) was higher than in women (5.2). In 2013, 38 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2013 was 97.5% and it was lower by 0.4% in comparison with year 2012. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  20. Radiation monitoring network in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    2001-01-01

    In Poland the radioactive contamination of the environment and food has been controlled since the early sixties by the Service for Measurements of Radioactive Contamination (SPSP). The service comprises a network of measuring stations and the Centre of Radioactive Contamination Measurements (COPSP). Actually, there are 100 measurement stations. The main task of such station is systematic measurement of radioactivity level in samples of environment components and food. Nine stations of SPSP acting within meteorological stations, ten stations of low level air radioactivity measurements (Aerosols Sampling Stations-500) and eleven permanent monitoring stations (PMS) form the radiation monitoring warning system in Poland. (author)

  1. [Salmonellosis in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Furman, Sylwia; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the epidemiology of salmonellosis in Poland in 2010. The study was based on data from: "the Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland 2010", information from laboratories based in sanitary stations, the forms of outbreaks investigations conducted by sanitary stations and data from Demographic Surveys Departament based in the Central Statistical Office. All cases were classified according to the case definition used by surveillance. A total of9 732 salmonellosis cases were reported in Poland. Among them 8 549 cases were intestinal and 183 were extraintestinal. The incidence rate was 25.5 per 100 000 inhabitants. Over 95% of cases met the criteria for a confirmed case. The number of registered cases was higher than in the previous two years, despite this an overall decreasing trend was observed in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. Cases of salmonellosis occurred primarily among children under 5-years old. There were no deaths reported due to salmonellosis. There is still a high percentage, about 70%, hospital admissions of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella. The percentage of hospitalization in outbreaks is almost two and a half times lower -29%. In 2010, 189 outbreaks caused by Salmonella were reported, affecting 1 662 people (almost 18% of all reported cases of intestinal salmonellosis). Most were small family outbreaks. Still the most common etiologic agent in Poland is S. Enteritidis. When compared with previous years, in 2010 there was an increase in the number of cases caused by S. Mbandaka, S. Infantis and S. Virchow. The number of screening tests for carriers among food handlers decreased by over 10% however the percentage diagnosed with positive result increased from 0.3% to 0.5%. Human salmonellosis is still a significant public health problem in Poland. The very high percentage (70%) of hospitalization, persisting for many years indicates that diagnosis and reporting ofsalmonellosis in Poland is

  2. Poland's energy, a special case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    Poland, the sixth member state in terms of population (39 million inhabitants) and with the eighth largest GDP in the EU, stands out more and more clearly on the environmental front, especially as far as energy is concerned. One of the reasons may be that in terms of GDP/capita Poland comes only 23 out of 27... The only European economy to have grown every year over the last twenty years, it has given higher priority than elsewhere to promoting growth, to production cost reduction and to limiting increases in consumer prices. (author)

  3. Air protection strategy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  4. Is Poland an Innovative Country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybowska, Dorota; Chybowski, Leszek; Souchkov, Valeri

    2018-03-01

    The potential for innovativeness is difficult to measure, though many have attempted to do so. In order to look at Poland's innovation potential, its current position and its opportunity to grow, compared with developing and developed countries, this study analysed the patent statistics of the Polish and European Patent Offices. Poland has been a member of the European Union for over a decade now. Therefore, we took into consideration the statistics for patent applications and grants for the last decade, up to the first quarter of 2016. The questions we wanted to answer concerned not only the technology fields that Poland patented its inventions in, but also the types of patent grantees and applicants. In order to determine why Poland is still considered to be only a moderate innovator by the Innovation Union Scoreboard, we also gathered information on Polish inventors abroad in 2015 and the first quarter of 2016, to see their number, technology fields, and types of patent grantees. Finally, we attempted to identify the main barriers that seem to inhibit Polish technology and innovation growth, despite significantly growing R&D intensities (up from 0.56 GDP and EUR 1,139 M in 2004 to 0.94 GDP and EUR 3,864 M in 2014).

  5. Infusion's greenfield subsidiary in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, C.; van Eerde, W.; The, D.

    2012-01-01

    The president of Infusion Development Corporation was reviewing the progress of the new subsidiary the company had set up 15 months earlier in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the subsidiary was to work with other Infusion offices around the world to provide innovative software development services to

  6. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the epidemiologic situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2013 compared to previous years. The main source of data for this study are statistical overviews included in annual bulletin "Infectious Diseases in Poland in 2013", information from sanitary station laboratories as well as forms of outbreak investigations obtained from the sanitary stations. Information on deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2013 and earlier years is based on the data of the Department for Demographic Research of Central Statistical Office. For the purpose of surveillance cases were qualified according to the current definition. In Poland in 2013, a total of 7 578 cases of zoonotic salmonellosis were reported including 7 407 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 171 of parenteral one. The incidence was 19,7/100 000. The criteria for a confirmed case were met by more than 96% of cases. The number of reported cases was lower than in previous year, reflecting the continued downward trend in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. A very high percentage (more than 72%) of hospitalizations of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella continues. In the outbreaks the proportion of hospitalizations accounted only for 35% of all cases. Predominantly children below 5 years of age suffer from the illness. Salmonellosis was an indicated cause of death only in 10 of the cases. In 2013 179 outbreaks were reported, in which Salmonella was found to be the etiological agent. Majority of them were small household outbreaks and they cumulated for a total number of cases of 1 218. The most common species of Salmonella responsible for infection in Poland is S. Enteritidis. For many years, up to date a slight increase is observed in reported cases of the disease, but without known serotype of Salmonella. In 2013 it was 16% and (as in previous year) it was the highest in pomorskie voivodeship (58%). High percentage of

  7. Tissue distribution and developmental expression of type XVI collagen in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C H; Chu, M L

    1996-04-01

    The expression of a recently identified collagen, alpha 1 (XVI), in adult mouse tissue and developing mouse embryo was examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. A polyclonal antiserum was raised against a recombinant fusion protein, which contained a segment of 161 amino acids in the N-terminal noncollagenous domain of the human alpha 1 (XVI) collagen. Immunoprecipitation of metabolically labelled human or mouse fibroblast cell lysates with this antibody revealed a major, bacterial collagenase sensitive polypeptide of approximately 210 kDa. The size agrees with the prediction from the full-length cDNA. Immunofluorescence examination of adult mouse tissues using the affinity purified antibody revealed a rather broad distribution of the protein. The heart, kidney, intestine, ovary, testis, eye, arterial walls and smooth muscles all exhibited significant levels of expression, while the skeletal muscle, lung and brain showed very restricted and low signals. During development, no significant expression of the mRNA or protein was observed in embryo of day 8 of gestation, but strong signals was detected in placental trophoblasts. Expression in embryos was detectable first after day 11 of gestation with weak positive signals appearing in the heart. In later stages of development, stronger RNA hybridizations were observed in a variety of tissues, particularly in atrial and ventricular walls of the developing heart, spinal root neural fibers and skin. These data demonstrate that type XVI collagen represents another collagenous component widely distributed in the extracellular matrix and may contribute to the structural integrity of various tissues.

  8. OECD environmental performance reviews: Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The review surveys the environmental conditions and environmental progress of Poland. It found that although most environmental targets were met Poland still faces challenges in complying with EU environmental laws. Topics covered are: environmental management; air, water and waste management; nature and biodiversity; economy and environment; sectoral integration: transport; and international co-operation. Top issues for conformity include pollution prevention, waste water treatment, waste management, biodiversity and landscape conservation, and climate protection. The review outlines 46 recommendations for the country to take in order to improve its environmental situation. Task areas include progressing toward meeting international environmental commitments and integrating environmental considerations in to economic policies through means such as improved rice signals, subsidy removal, and fiscal reforms.

  9. Asbestos manufacturing plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilk Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique set of physical and chemical properties of asbestos has led to its many industrial applications, such as roof coverings, textiles, rope, cord and yarn, paper, friction and composition materials, household product, acid-resistant filters, packing, insulation, and certain types of lagging, amongst others. In Poland asbestos-containing products were manufactured from raw materials imported mainly from the former Soviet Union, with production launched at the beginning of 20th century. According to Annex 4 to the Act of 19 June 1997 on the prohibition of the use of asbestos-containing products, there were 28 asbestos manufacturing plants in Poland located in 11 provinces throughout the country. The current survey was undertaken to enable asbestos manufacturing plants to be arranged, described and divided in order to contribute to further surveys.

  10. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2014”. In 2014 in Poland 3488 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 61.3% of these were viral infections. In 2014, in comparison to 2013, a 1.1% increase in the number of cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis was observed and 91% with viral etiology.

  11. [Measles in Poland in 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanoff, Paweł; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2005-01-01

    In Poland 48 measles cases were registered in 2003 (0.13 per 100,000 population)--of which 65% were cases imported from Chechnya and Afghanistan. Measles outbreaks occurred in 3 centers for immigrants. In total, 31 cases were reported, of which 96.8% were unvaccinated, and 93.5% were under 15 years of age. Of 17 local cases, 5 (29.4%) cases occurred in unvaccinated persons, 3 (17.6%) in persons vaccinated with one dose and 7 (41.2%) in those vaccinated with two doses of measles vaccine (administered at the age of 13-15 months and 7 years). Among 12 vaccinated cases only one 2-year old child was recently vaccinated. The remaining cases were in the 3-7 and 10-24 age ranges. The most affected were infants (incidence 0.57 per 100,000), 1-year old (0.28) and 2-year old children (incidence 0.27). Cases among adolescents and adults over 15 years of age increased from 23.5% in 2002 to 47.1% in 2003. The increasing age of locally-acquired cases, together with constantly high immunization coverage indicates high effectiveness of vaccinations in Poland. Out of all reported cases 13 (38%) were hospitalized. There were no deaths due to measles in Poland in 2003. Poland participates in the WHO Measles Elimination Strategy. Presently, the most important is the maintenance of a sensitive and timely surveillance of measles and measles-compatible cases, with serologic confirmation of one rash-like illness per 100 000 population. The performance of the surveillance system is insufficient with only 55 measles-compatible cases reported in 2003 (15% of expected reports). Serologic confirmation of cases was also insufficient, with 22 cases (40.0%) confirmed by IgM ELISA test. These results indicate the need to maintain the high immunisation coverage and improve measles surveillance system.

  12. [Malaria in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of imported malaria in Poland in 2010 in comparison to previous years. The study included malaria cases that were collected and registered by the State Sanitary Inspection in 2010 in Poland. Data reported was verified, processed and published by National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. All cases were laboratory confirmed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction or rapid diagnostic tests outlined by the EU case definition. Differences in the distribution of demographic, parasitological and clinical characteristics, and incidence were analyzed. In 2010, a total of 35 confirmed malaria cases were notified in Poland, 13 more than 2009. All cases were imported, 49% from Africa, including 1 case with relapsing malaria caused by P. vivax and 2 cases of recrudescence falciparum malaria following failure of treatment. The number of cases acquired in Asia (37% of the total), mainly from India and Indonesia, was significantly higher than observed in previous years. Among cases with species-specific diagnosis 19 (63%) were caused by P. falciparum, 9 (30%) by P. vivax, one by P. ovale and one by P. malariae. The median age of all cases was 42 years (range 9 months to 71 years), males comprised 69% of patients, females 31%, three patients were Indian citizens temporarily in Poland. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were tourism (57%), work-related visits (37%), one person visited family and in one case the reason for travel was unknown. Sixteen travelers took chemoprophylaxis, but only three of them appropriately (adherence to the recommended drug regimen, continuation upon return and use of appropriate medicines). In 2010, there were no deaths due to malaria and clinical course of disease was severe in 7 cases. When compared with 2009, there was a marked increase in the number of imported malaria cases in Poland, however the total number of notified cases remained low. Serious

  13. The concentration of retail in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gazdecki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the processes of concentration taking place in retail in Poland. In spite of strong concentration processes, which took place after 2000, Poland still remains a country of dispersed retail structure. In the nearest years we can expect capital concentration (mainly takeovers in modern trade and contract concentration (for example, merchants’ societies in traditional trade.

  14. Poland's syndrome: radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi Junior, Joao Lourenco, E-mail: joaobazzijr@gmail.com [Clinica Via Imagem, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); Matta, Eduardo Simoes da [Pro Circulacao - Clinica de Angiologia, Cirurgia Vascular e Ecografia Vascular, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Luciano [Materclinica Materno Infantil, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Felipe Raasch [Universidade Catolica de Pelotas (UCPel), Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Fac. of Medicine

    2012-05-15

    Poland's syndrome is a rare non-inherited congenital anomaly. The authors describe the classic radiologic findings of Poland's syndrome by reporting the case of a male four-year old patient with asymmetry of hands and chest, illustrating the fundamental imaging criteria for a conclusive diagnosis. (author)

  15. Social Inclusion of Foreigners in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa-Behtane, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Poland has a relatively short history of immigration compared to other member states of the European Union. However, in recent decades, the number of foreigners in Poland has increased significantly. Intercultural relations may take the form of hostility, conflict, antagonism, segregation, separation, neutral co-presence, partial social…

  16. Income and its distribution in preindustrial Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinowski, Mikołaj; van Zanden, Jan Luiten

    This article presents per capita GDP and income distribution estimates for preindustrial Poland. It is based on a social table for the Voivodeship of Cracow in 1578. Our evidence indicates that income in Poland was distributed more equally than in contemporary Holland. However, the extraction rate

  17. Os excessos da identidade: Bento XVI e a questão da tolerância Excesses of identity: Benedict XVI and the issue of tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Santiago

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Partindo de algumas das polêmicas opiniões de Bento XVI, o artigo busca compreender a base doutrinária delas e discutir os seus efeitos para a questão da tolerância religiosa. Depois de uma apresentação do que entende por tolerância, propõe um percurso através da encíclica Deus caritas est, que embasa a nova doutrina papal numa interpretação particular da noção de "amor de Deus". Por fim, tenta-se mostrar como esse "amor", mediante uma ênfase exagerada da idéia de identidade, torna-se nos documentos papais um instrumento de combate a todas as diferenças, pondo a perder a possibilidade de convivência entre as religiões e, por conseqüência, semeando o fundamentalismo.This article tries to comprehend the doctrinal base of some polemical assessments of Benedict XVI; discussing its effects on the issue of religious tolerance. After presenting what is understood to mean tolerance, it proposes a way through the encyclical letter Deus caritas est; in this letter, the new papal doctrine is founded on a particular interpretation of the notion of "God's love". Lastly, it intends to show how this "love", by an exaggerated emphasis on the idea of identity, becomes an instrument of fight against every difference, spoiling the possibility of a pacific relationship among the religions and, consequently, sowing the seeds of fundamentalism.

  18. Investigation of the accuracy of MV radiation isocentre calculations in the Elekta cone-beam CT software XVI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, S. J.; Rowshanfarzad, P.; Ebert, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    ) and the radiation field centre (RFC) is calculated. A software package was developed for accurate calculation of the linac isocentre position. This requires precise determination of the position of the ball bearing and the RFC. Results: Data were acquired for 6 MV, 18 MV and flattening filter free (FFF) 6 MV FFF...... radiation isocentre prior to routine use of the cone-beam CT system. The isocentre determination method used in the XVI software is not available to users. The aim of this work is to perform an independent evaluation of the Elekta XVI 4.5 software for isocentre verification with focus on the robustness...... iView GT software. Two images were acquired at each cardinal gantry angle (-180o, -90o , 0o, 90o) at two opposing collimator angles. The images were exported to the conebeam CT software XVI 4.5 where the difference between the ball bearing position in the XYZ-room coordinates (IEC61217...

  19. Radiation atlas of Poland 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagielak, J.; Biernacka, M.; Henschke, J.; Sosinska, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection with support and commitment of the State Inspectorate for Environmental Protection carried out necessary surveys and collected materials which allowed to elaborate present edition of the Radiation Atlas of Poland (1997). Data presented in the form of maps provide readers with the information on the 137 Cs and natural radionuclides concentration in the environment. The average annual doses to the public from various sources of the ionizing radiation, e.g. doses from X-ray apparatus and radionuclides used in medical diagnostics or from the internal contamination of the human organism are also presented in the publication

  20. Plantas medicinais consumidas em Cochim, no século XVI e na atualidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Madaleno

    Full Text Available O objetivo primacial desta pesquisa é investigar como solucionam os habitantes de Cochim, na Índia, seus problemas de saúde, quando não podem aceder aos sistemas convencionais ou quando optam por aceder a sistemas alternativos, na modernidade. O objetivo específico da pesquisa é compilar as espécies vegetais de uso terapêutico no século XVI e compará-las com as atuais. A flora indiana, em particular as especiarias, tem fascinado a humanidade desde o início dos tempos. Em 1498, os portugueses descobriram o caminho marítimo para a Índia e, durante os dois séculos seguintes, o pequeno país europeu dominou o comércio mundial com o oriente. Seguindo a rota das especiarias, o Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical (IICT organizou, recentemente, uma missão científica a Kerala, a fim de investigar os frutos, os legumes, os condimentos, os tubérculos e as plantas medicinais cultivadas em jardins e pátios traseiros, vendidos em mercados e feiras, e recomendados pela medicina Ayurvédica, na cidade de Cochim. O ponto de partida foi a leitura de quatro manuscritos do século XVI que enumeravam as plantas aromáticas, condimentares e medicinais da Índia renascentista. Os resultados demonstram que um número substancial de plantas colhidas durante a missão do IICT, em 2013, já era usado na Índia, no século XVI.

  1. Comparing M31 and Milky Way satellites: The extended star formation histories of Andromeda II and Andromeda XVI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Aparicio, Antonio [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Vía Láctea s/n., E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); McConnachie, Alan; Stetson, Peter B. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Bernard, Edouard J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Boylan-Kolchin, Michael [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Cassisi, Santi [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Teramo (Italy); Cole, Andrew A. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Irwin, Mike [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Martin, Nicolas F. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Universit de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Universit, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Mayer, Lucio [Institut für Theoretische Physik, University of Zurich, Zürich (Switzerland); Navarro, Julio F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    We present the first comparison between the lifetime star formation histories (SFHs) of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites. Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we obtained deep optical imaging of Andromeda II (And II; M{sub V} = –12.0; log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ∼ 6.7) and Andromeda XVI (And XVI; M{sub V} = –7.5; log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ∼ 4.9) yielding color-magnitude diagrams that extend at least 1 mag below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, and are similar in quality to those available for the MW companions. And II and And XVI show strikingly similar SFHs: both formed 50%-70% of their total stellar mass between 12.5 and 5 Gyr ago (z ∼ 5-0.5) and both were abruptly quenched ∼5 Gyr ago (z ∼ 0.5). The predominance of intermediate age populations in And XVI makes it qualitatively different from faint companions of the MW and clearly not a pre-reionization fossil. Neither And II nor And XVI appears to have a clear analog among MW companions, and the degree of similarity in the SFHs of And II and And XVI is not seen among comparably faint-luminous pairs of MW satellites. These findings provide hints that satellite galaxy evolution may vary substantially among hosts of similar stellar mass. Although comparably deep observations of more M31 satellites are needed to further explore this hypothesis, our results underline the need for caution when interpreting satellite galaxies of an individual system in a broader cosmological context.

  2. La educación para la paz: Una asignatura pendiente. Las aportaciones de Benedicto XVI

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Alonso; Carlos Corral

    2012-01-01

    El mensaje de Benedicto XVI para la XLV Jornada Mundial de la Paz, titulado "Educar a los jóvenes en la justicia y la paz", ha puesto sobre la mesa la pregunta de si es posible evitar las guerras y cuáles serían los instrumentos más eficaces para ello. Uno de los principales pilares que ayudan a sostener la estabilidad del sistema internacional es la educación, entendida, por un lado, como un proceso por el cual se van adquiriendo conocimientos y destrezas para el desempeño de las funciones p...

  3. La forma litánica en el teatro. Siglos XVI-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fradejas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Al igual que en el teatro griego, como afirma Rodríguez Adrados, existen en el teatro español desde su origen en el s. XV villancicos y canciones, monódicas y corales. Pero tras la discusión de si la Cántica Eya velar es lírica o teatro, no había aparecido ningún texto hasta la segunda mitad del s. XVI, en que en el Códice de autos viejos se incluye la Farsa de los lenguajes, un poema de tipo religioso que incide en la forma litánica:…

  4. L'influenza del Giappone sulla moda italiana dal XVI al XX secolo

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrio, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Questa ricerca ha per oggetto lo studio dell’influenza del Giappone sulla moda italiana, dalla metà del XVI alla fine del XX secolo. Le prime notizie sugli abiti giapponesi giunsero in Italia intorno al 1550, dopo che il Giappone era stato ‘scoperto’ nel 1543 da alcuni mercanti portoghesi naufragati sulle sue coste. Tuttavia i primi timidi influssi giapponesi nella moda italiana si manifestarono solo dopo la seconda metà del XVII secolo, quando i nobiluomini italiani cominciarono a indoss...

  5. Cartagena de indias en la historia de la lucha por la justicia en el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Arévalo

    1963-04-01

    Full Text Available A juzgar por los libros y opúsculos que en Colombia se publican creemos que es bastante lo que hay que hacer para llevar a nuestros historiadores al convencimiento de que mucho antes de 1810 ya habían sonado voces de libertad en nuestra patria; que la dignidad humana y los derechos de los naturales ya habían sido públicamente defendidos y no por abogados cualesquiera sino por los más calificados teólogos que tuvo la Iglesia en el siglo XVI.

  6. Taki onqoy: epidemia de intoxicación por exposición al mercurio en Huamanga del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Santa María

    Full Text Available Taki Onqoy es un síndrome que corresponde a la intoxicación por exposición al mercurio. Apareció como consecuencia de la explotación de las minas de mercurio de Paras y Huancavelica en el Perú durante el siglo XVI. La caquexia mercurial, última etapa de la enfermedad, estaría asociada a la idea del pishtaco. El Taki Onqoy en el Perú del siglo XVI, representa la mayor epidemia por intoxicación por mercurio conocida por la humanidad.

  7. Indoor radon concentration in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamont-Ciesla, K.; Jagielak, J.; Rosinski, S.W.; Sosinka, A.; Bysiek, M.; Henschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary survey of Rn concentration indoors by means of track detectors and y-ray dose rate with the use of TLD in almost 500 homes in selected areas of Poland was performed in the late 1980s. It was concluded that radon contributes 1.16 mSv i.e. about 46 per cent of the total natural environment ionizing radiation dose to the Polish population. Comparison of the average radon concentrations in 4 seasons of a year and in 3 groups of buildings: masonry, concrete and wood, revealed that the ground beneath the building structure is likely the dominant source of radon indoors. Since the National Atomic Energy Agency in its regulations of 1988-03-31 set up the permissible limit of the equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon in new buildings (equal 100 Bq/m3), the nation-scale survey project for radon in buildings has been undertaken. These regulations were supposed to take effect in 1995-01-01. The project has 3 objectives: to estimate the radiation exposure due to radon daughters received by Polish population to identify radon-prone areas in Poland to investigate dependence of the indoor radon concentrations on such parameters as: type of construction material, presence (or absence) of cellar under the building, number of floor

  8. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  9. [Measles in Poland in 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara; Paweł, Stefanoff

    2006-01-01

    In Poland 11 measles cases were registered in 2004 (0.03 per 100,000 population), of which 3 were cases imported from Chechnya. Of 8 local cases, 3 cases occurred in unvaccinated persons, 2 in persons vaccinated with one dose and 3 in vaccinated with two doses of measles vaccine (administered at the age of 13-15 months and 7 years). The most affected age groups were 1-year old children (0.29 per 100,000 population) and 6-year olds (0.25). Out of 11 reported cases 2 were hospitalized. There were no deaths attributed to measles. Poland participates in the WHO Measles Elimination Strategy. Presently, the most important is the maintenance of a sensitive and timely surveillance of measles and measles-compatible cases, with serologic testing of one suspect case per 100,000 population. The performance of the surveillance system was insufficient with only 44 measles-compatible cases reported in 2004 (12% of expected reports). Serologic confirmation of cases was also insufficient, with 5 cases confirmed in WHO accredited laboratory. These results indicate the need to maintain the high immunisation coverage and improve measles surveillance system.

  10. Free Electron Laser in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The idea of building a new IVth generation of light sources of high luminosity, which use accelerators, arose in the 80ties of XXth century. Now, in a numerable synchrotron and laser laboratories in Europe, there is carried out, since a couple of years, intense applied research on free electron lasers (FEL) [17,18]. Similarly, in this country, free electron laser in Poland – POLFEL [9] is, in a design, a coherent light source of the IVth generation, characterized by very short pulses in the range of 10-100fs, of big power 0,2GW and UV wavelength of 27nm, of average power 1W, with effective high power third harmonic of 9nm. The laser consists of a linear superconducting accelerator 100m in length, undulator and experimental lines. It generates a monochromatic and coherent radiation and can be tuned from THz range via IR, visible to UV, and potentially to X-rays. The linac works in quasi-CW or real-CW mode. It is planned by IPJ [9,10] and XFEL-Poland Consortium [16] as a part of the ESFRI [1] priority EuroFEL...

  11. [Malaria in Poland in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepiń, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    In Poland in 2009 were reported 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the EU case definition for the purposes of routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, including 1 case of recrudescence, 86% from Africa. In 18 cases P falciparum etiology was confirmed and in 2--P vivax, in 1--P ovale and 1 P malariae. Most cases occurred in the age group 21-40 years, there were 21 cases in males and 1 in female. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related visits (14 cases) and tourism (6 cases), one person who visited the family and in one case unknown reason for travel. Three persons used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 5 cases. Clinical course was severe in 7 cases of P falciparum malaria and medium-severe in one case. In 2009, there were no malaria deaths in Poland. Education on the prevention of malaria and pretravel health advising is still greatly needed.

  12. [Malaria in Poland in 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    In Poland in 2007 there were 11 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition reported through the routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, 82% from Africa, including 2 cases of relapse. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was diagnosed in 7 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and P. vivax- in one case. The majority of cases were in the age group 35-45 (8 cases) and were males (10 cases). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related (5 cases) and tourism or family visits (4 cases). Approximately half of the cases for whom the information was available used malaria chemoprophylaxis during their travel. Clinical course was severe in one case of P. falciparum malaria and the person died of the disease. The decreasing trend in malaria incidence in Poland is likely related to incomplete reporting as tourist and professional travel to endemic areas has not decreased and there is no indication of wider use ofchemoprophylaxis.

  13. [Trichinellosis in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Gołab, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    Trichinellosis is still an epidemiological problem in Poland as well as in other countries in the European Union (EU). Across the EU, reporting cases oftrichinellosis is mandatory. In Poland, tirchinellosis is an endemic disease, occurring mainly in territories where it is customary to eat raw meat products prepared from pigs and wild boars. The aim of this work is to evaluate the epidemiological situation of trichinellosis in Poland in the year 2010 in comparison to previous years. Cases of trichinellosis infections were classified according to criteria contained in the definition approved by the European Committee on 28th April 2008 amending the decision 2002/253/EC, and was introduced in Poland in 2009. Case definitions used in are available at http://www.pzh. gov.pl/oldpage/epimeld/inne/Def_PL2_Rob1 h.pdf. An infection was classified and reported as Trichinella spp. if the genus of Trichinella that caused the infection was not specified using molecular examination. In 2010 the number of registered human trichinellosis cases was similar to the average number of cases from the last several years, and it did not exceed 55 (the exceptions were in 2004 and 2007, when larger outbreaks occurred). In 2010, 51 Trichinella infections were registered, yielding an infection rate of 0.13 per 100 000 inhabitants. The infections occurred in 5 voivodeships (table 1). Using the criteria from the definitions, 41 cases were classified as probable and 10 were confirmed cases. Trichinella infections diagnoses were based on the presence of clinical symptoms and an epidemiological link. Serological diagnostic tests confirming the presence of Trichinella antibodies was performed in approximately 20% of the cases. Four individual cases were reported, along with 4 outbreaks in which a total of 47 people were infected? The infections were generally mild. Twenty-two infected persons were hospitalised (43%). Just like in previous years, no trichinellosis-related deaths were reported. The

  14. What Determines State Capture in Poland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Alwasiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the determinants of ex-ante state capture in Poland. Methodology: In order to establish the determinants of ex-ante state capture a logistic regression is estimated. Findings: The study shows that in Poland the majority of legal acts were passed with the aim to satisfy the interest of particular groups. Furthermore, the regression analysis shows that the likelihood of state capture increases during the period of higher economic growth and local elections. The likelihood of state capture, however, declines during presidential elections. The results we attribute to different interests of political parties in the period of local and presidential elections. Finally, we fi nd that the state capture increased over the years in Poland. Additionally, we show that the EU accession did not prevent state capture in Poland. In contrast, the fi nancial crisis of 2007 resulted in a wake-up effect and the likelihood of state capture declined in Poland. Research limitations: In the study we employ proxies for state capture, yet we assume that corruption is a widespread phenomenon in Poland. However, due to its nature corruption is very diffi cult to assess and measure. Originality: The study uses a unique dataset on ex-ante state capture that was identifi ed in the legal acts that have been passed in the period 1990–2011 in Poland.

  15. Nuclear power in Poland. Prospect and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwaszczewski, S.

    1995-01-01

    Poland started the works on construction of first nuclear power plant in 1992. The social protest as well as deep political and economical changes in Poland induced the decision of the Polish government to abandon the construction of the nuclear power plant in Zarnowiec. After the period of political and economical transformation, in 1992 Polish economy starts to grow up, also growth of the electric power consumption. Are there prospect for utilization in Poland the nuclear power plant? This work is devoted to analyse such question. The present structure of power and fuel materials in Poland were analysed and the possible direction of changes was shown for the period up to 2020 year. It was stated, that the economical development in Poland should be bound with the growth of the consumption of most effective fuel and energy. These fuel or energy should be imported to Poland. Therefore, the nuclear power should be treated as one of possible ways of the balance of electric power in Poland. Particularly, that it will be expected the special ecological conditions in the energy production in Europe. In the present work, was shown, that the nuclear power was discriminated in the analysis of the development of power and fuel system in Poland. The incorrect values of economical parameters concerning of the nuclear power plant was used in the analysing numerical programs. The investment costs, design time and fuel price for nuclear energy was analysed, and shown, that in the proper conditions, the cost of the electric energy produced in the nuclear power plant is compared with the costs of electric energy produced in the conventional power stations. In this work, the proposals of the basic nuclear and radiological safety standards for the nuclear power plant in Poland are shown. (author). 20 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  16. El poblamiento en el siglo XVI. Contrastes entre el Caribe y el interior andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Herrera Ángel

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Hablar de poblamiento en el Caribe o en el interior andino y, en general, en América en el siglo XVI, desde la perspectiva de la población que lo habitaba, resulta en buena medida un contrasentido, ya que lo que tuvo lugar en la mayor parte de este continente a lo largo del siglo XVI y buena parte del XVII , como consecuencia de la invasión europea. fue un intenso y continuado proceso de despoblamiento. Ese proceso, en todo caso, no significó la desaparición de la población nativa que, por lo menos hasta finales del siglo XVII y comienzos del siglo XVIII, continuó siendo la población mayoritaria en buena parte del territorio. Pero además, es de resaltar que en las llanuras del Caribe colombiano, así como en el interior andino, al igual que en muchas otras partes del territorio americano, el proceso de despoblamiento que tuvo lugar desde finales del siglo XV no fue compensado por el arribo de pobladores de otros continentes.

  17. Los mareantes pontevedreses y la pesca de altura en el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Fernández, Xosé Manuel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available During most of the 16th century, the town of Pontevedra was recorder as the most dynamic urban centre of the Galician kingdom for its economy based on fishing and sea trade. In contrast with the traditional view which has always regarded the seamen from Rias Baixas as coastal fishermen, Pontevedra's historical legal documents from the Sisteenth Century provide evidence of their presence in Newfoundland and the Canary Island fishing grounds. In the light of this evidence, those seamen appear as faithful continuers of a tradition of seafaring relationships with foreign countries dating back to the late Middle Ages.

    Durante buena parte del siglo XVI la villa de Pontevedra aparece como el mayor y más dinámico núcleo urbano del Reino de Galicia, con una economía asentada en la pesca y el comercio marítimo. Frente a la visión tradicional, que considera a los hombres del mar de las Rías Baixas gallegas como pescadores de bajura, la documentación notarial pontevedresa del siglo XVI informa de su presencia tanto en Terranova como en el banco de pesca canario. De esta forma se muestran fíeles continuadores de una vocación de relación con el exterior por vía marítima presente desde la Baja Edad Media.

  18. LOS arrendadores de la Hacienda de Castilla a comienzos del siglo XVI (1517-1525

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel CARRETERO ZAMORA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El trabajo pretende profundizar en un aspecto esencial de la Hacienda de Castilla a comienzos del siglo XVI: el arrendamiento de las rentas regias. En este sentido, se insiste en la existencia de un gigantesco negocio financiero en torno a dichas rentas, donde se entremezclan intereses económicos y políticos, dando lugar a la existencia de redes clientelares económicas y grupos de presión políticos. El trabajo, por último, hace hincapié en las primeras decisiones hacendísticas de Carlos I. Decisiones que por lo demás pusieron a su servicio todo un sistema de financiación heredado de los Reyes Católicos.ABSTRACT: The present study examines in detail a vital aspect of Castile's economy at the start of the XVI century: the leasing of royal revenues. It emphasises the existence of a vast financial business based on the leasing of said revenues, within which economic and political interests co-existed, leading to the creation of networks of economic patronage and political pressure groups. Finally, the study highlights Charles I early economic decisions, which served to bring into operation the fiscal system that he had inherited from the Catholic Kings.

  19. Hybrid corporate governance: a choice for Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Samól, Katarzyna A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research investigation is to consider the potential opportunities through which corporate governance may be developed to better suit the developing commercial culture within Poland. In order to do this, I formulate the following research questions: ‘What are the weaknesses of the Polish corporate governance system?’, ‘What changes should be made to corporate governance in Poland?’, and ‘Is a hybrid corporate governance model a choice for Poland?’ The concept of hybridisatio...

  20. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2014 in comparison to the previous years. The evaluation was based on the data from the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland 2014”, information from the laboratories of sanitary-epidemiological stations and reports from the epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of salmonellosis, sent by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology, as well as the data from the Department of Demographic Studies of the Central Statistical Office. Cases were classified according to the definitions adopted in the UE. In 2014, a total number of 8 392 cases of salmonellosis derived from animals were reported, including 8 197 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 195 cases of extraintestinal. The total incidence was 21.8/100 000. Almost 96% of the cases met the criteria for a confirmed case. The number of registered cases was, for the first time since many years, higher than in the previous year, but still lower than the median for 2008-2012. A very high percentage (approximately 70%) of hospitalizations remains among patients diagnosed with salmonellosis. Approximately 33% of all cases in outbreaks of salmonellosis were hospitalized. The highest incidence was among children under the age of 5 years. Salmonellosis was reported as the cause of death for 13 patients. In 2014 there were 171 outbreaks reported with Salmonella as an etiological agent. Majority of them were small outbreaks limited to the family in singular household, and the total number of cases in those outbreaks amounted to 1 229 people. In Poland the most common etiological agent of salmonellosis is (and have been for many years) S. Enteritidis. In 2014, the first time in many years, an increase was recorded in the annual number of cases of salmonellosis. A very high percentage of hospitalizations for salmonellosis cases indicates a relatively rare practice among GPs in ordering

  1. 78 FR 9987 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0071] Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias, Misconduct, or Discrimination by Administrative Law Judges (ALJs); Correction AGENCY: Social Security...

  2. 78 FR 22361 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0071] Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias, Misconduct, or Discrimination by Administrative Law Judges (ALJs); Correction AGENCY: Social Security...

  3. 78 FR 8217 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0071] Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias... the third column, the fourth line under the ``Summary'' heading, change ``SSR-13-Xp'' to ``SSR-13-1p...

  4. [Malaria in Poland in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    There were 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition registered in Poland in 2008. All of them were imported, 13 cases (59%) from Africa, 3 from Asia, 5 from Oceania and 1 from South America. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed in 14 cases, P. vivax in 4 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and in 2 cases species of Plasmodium was undetermined. There were 13 cases in males and 9 in females. Age at onset ranged from 23 to 58 years and majority of cases were in the age group 25-40. Common reason for travel to endemic countries were tourism (11 cases) and work-related visits (7 cases). Clinical course was severe in 6 cases of P. falciparum malaria and 1 person died because of the disease. Nine cases used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 6 cases.

  5. [Malaria in Poland in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    There were 19 cases of malaria meeting European Union case definition for confirmed case registered in Poland in 2006. All of them were imported, including 1 case of relapse: 17 from Africa, 1 from Asia and 1 from Oceania. Species of Plasmodium was determined for 12 cases (68%): P. falciparum in 12 cases and P. vivax in one. There were 15 cases in males and 4 in females. Age at onset ranged from 17 to 59 years and a considerable number of cases occurred in persons 50 years old or older (5.26%). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries included tourism or family visits (10 cases) and professional or missionary travel (5 cases). Only four cases used chemoprophylaxis and the relevant information was missing in 4 cases. In two cases of malaria caused by Pl. falciparum the clinical course was severe and one of them died.

  6. Uncooled infrared photodetectors in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, J.; Piotrowski, A.

    2006-03-01

    The history and present status of the middle and long wavelength Hg1-xCdxTe infrared detectors in Poland are reviewed. Research and development efforts in Poland were concentrated mostly on uncooled market niche. Technology of the infrared photodetectors has been developed by several research groups. The devices are based on mercury-based variable band gap semiconductor alloys. Modified isothermal vapour phase epitaxy (ISOVPE) has been used for many years for research and commercial fabrication of photoconductive, photoelectromagnetic and other devices. Bulk growth and liquid phase epitaxy was also used. At present, the fabrication of IR devices relies on low temperature epitaxial technique, namely metalorganic vapour phase deposition (MOCVD), frequently in combination with the ISOVPE. Photoconductive and photoelectromagnetic detectors are still in production. The devices are gradually replaced with photovoltaic devices which offer inherent advantages of no electric or magnetic bias, no heat load and no flicker noise. Potentially, the PV devices could offer high performance and very fast response. At present, the uncooled long wavelength devices of conventional design suffer from two issues; namely low quantum efficiency and very low junction resistance. It makes them useless for practical applications. The problems have been solved with advanced 3D band gap engineered architecture, multiple cell heterojunction devices connected in series, monolithic integration of the detectors with microoptics and other improvements. Present fabrication program includes devices which are optimized for operation at any wavelength within a wide spectral range 1-15 μm and 200-300 K temperature range. Special solutions have been applied to improve speed of response. Some devices show picoseconds range response time. The devices have found numerous civilian and military applications.

  7. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180. From l to r: Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  8. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180 with Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  9. SELECTED PROBLEMS OF REVERSE LOGISTICS IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Mesjasz-Lech

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the essence of reverse logistics and directions of physical and information flows between logistic network partners. It also analyses effects of implementation of the principles of reverse logistics in Poland in the years 2004-2007

  10. Country policy profile - Poland. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Poland is 15%. Poland promotes renewable electricity through a quota system, tax relief and subsidies, as well as loans. There are three subsidy models and a loan scheme, which support heat generated from renewable energy sources. In dimension to transport renewable energy is promoted primarily by bio-fuels. The Republic of Poland established two programmes for renewable energy plants: a training programme, which is dedicated to installers in RES sector and certification system pertaining solar thermal installations. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Poland and was regularly updated (updated until December 2015)

  11. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level....../distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined...

  12. Food irradiation in EU and in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture shows comparison of food radiosterilization in Poland with selected countries in EU. The most popular commercial electron radiation sources are presented. Plant for Food Radiation Sterilization operating in the INCT is discussed in details

  13. Marketing of organic products in southern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kuboń Maciej; Olech Elżbieta

    2018-01-01

    The article presents an outline of the issue concerning formulation of a marketing strategy and the possibility of using the knowledge on consumers' preferences for organic development of farms and their products on the example of southern Poland. The paper analyses the distribution process of organic food in the aspect of developing innovative marketing strategies. The studies were performed in 50 organic farms and on the example of 100 respondents from the region of southern Poland. In the ...

  14. Punk and Anarchist Squats in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Donaghey, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Squats are of notable importance in the punk scene in Poland, and these spaces are a key aspect of the relationship between anarchism and punk. However, the overlap of squatting, punk, and anarchism is not without its tensions. This article, drawn from ethnographic research carried out between 2013 and 2014, explores the issues around punk and anarchist squats in Poland, looking at: criticisms levelled at punk squats by ‘non-punk’ squatting activists (e.g. Przychodnia in Warsaw); instances of...

  15. Review of human osseal remains from XVI-XVIII centuries cemetery of Zatveretsky Posad (Tver, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V. Zinoviev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Human osseal remains from the cemetery of Zatveretsky Posad at the historical Russian city of Tver revealed the data on its population in XVI-XVIII centuries. Obtained data generally agreed with the material from other contemporaneous necropoles of the city. Domination of male burials and underrepresentation of younger individuals are accompanied by the signs of poor oral hygiene. Caries has not only often destroyed majority of molars in males and females by the age of 45-50 years, but affected teeth of teenagers and even younger individuals. The heavily developed dental calculus is one of the signs of insufficient oral hygiene in adults. Possible kinship between buried is manifested by similar genetically determined cranial anomalies.

  16. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities in Ni XVI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, N.C.; Msezane, A.Z.

    2001-01-01

    Fine-structure energy levels relative to the ground state, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for transitions among the lowest 40 fine-structure levels belonging to the configurations 3s 2 3p, 3s3p 2 , 3s 2 3d, 3p 3 and 3s3p3d of Ni XVI are calculated using a large scale CI in program CIV3 of Hibbert. Relativistic effects are included through the Breit-Pauli approximation via spin-orbit, spin-other-orbit, spin-spin, Darwin and mass correction terms. The existing discrepancies between the calculated and measured values for many of the relative energy positions are resolved in the present calculation which yields excellent agreement with measurement. Also, many of our oscillator strengths for allowed and intercombination transitions are in very good agreement with the recommended data by the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST). (orig.)

  17. Community Organization of Siberian Coachmen in Late XVI – XVII Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Semenov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article, basing on the wide range of archival data, mostly introduced into scientific use for the first time, studies communal (secular and church organization of Siberian coachmen in late XVI – XVII centuries. The paper touches upon the issue, concerning the time of its establishment, thoroughly characterizes the structure, functions and officials. The features of interrelation between coachmen ‘world’ and state and other corporate communities of the region are showed. The conclusion that, despite the dependence on the authorities, the processes of bureaucratization and the growth of the villeinage trends, common for the country, coachmen played significant role in the social life of Siberia is made. They intensively protected their interests and forced the government to consider them.

  18. To think modernity/coloniality in Guaraní (XVI-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capucine Boidin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Amerindian general languages were modern/colonial languages through which modern/colonial guaraní subjects were forged and expressed. Early transcriptions of political speeches in tupí-guaraní made by missionaries (XVI-XVII centuries, as well as letters written by indigenous mission authorities (XVIII-XIX centuries, allow for analysing their vocabularies, plots, and styles. Although the words are the same, their significance effects and their translation equivalences varied regarding texts and contexts. Even if arguments (ratio changed, several traditional verbal arts (oratio were reinvented in colonial contexts. Within missions, indigenous political authorities, familiarized with catholic and royal arguments and vocabularies, developed their oral and written eloquence in Cabildos (spaces dedicated to politics, while Jesuits incorporated some of the formal tupí-guaraní verbal arts features in their sermons.

  19. Talis mater, talis filia: las malas madres en los siglos XVI y XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Nausia Pimoulier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un tipo de violencia familiar protagonizado por madres e hijas navarras de los siglos XVI y XVII. Las acu-saciones por lenocinio o alcahuetería contra las madres que emplearon a sus propias hijas en sus tratos de mediadoras sirven para ilustrar una forma de violencia que supone, entre otras cosas, una ruptura del amor materno. La preca-ria situación de la madre y las dificultades tras el fallecimiento del esposo —la gran parte de los casos están protagonizados por madres viu-das— fue el contexto general en el que se desarrollaron los malos tratos. La historia de estas mujeres representa un mal ejercicio de la autoridad materna y una forma de violencia hacia las hijas; una violencia no siempre física, pero sí emocional y psicológica.

  20. XVI 'Jacques-Louis Lions' Spanish-French School on Numerical Simulation in Physics and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Roldán, Teo; Torrens, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents lecture notes from the XVI ‘Jacques-Louis Lions’ Spanish-French School on Numerical Simulation in Physics and Engineering, held in Pamplona (Navarra, Spain) in September 2014. The subjects covered include: numerical analysis of isogeometric methods, convolution quadrature for wave simulations, mathematical methods in image processing and computer vision, modeling and optimization techniques in food processes, bio-processes and bio-systems, and GPU computing for numerical simulation. The book is highly recommended to graduate students in Engineering or Science who want to focus on numerical simulation, either as a research topic or in the field of industrial applications. It can also benefit senior researchers and technicians working in industry who are interested in the use of state-of-the-art numerical techniques in the fields addressed here. Moreover, the book can be used as a textbook for master courses in Mathematics, Physics, or Engineering.

  1. Estudiantes y profesores españoles en universidades extranjeras. Siglos XII-XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabé BARTOLOMÉ MARTÍNEZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Dentro de la línea histórico-comparada de este número de la revista, este trabajo pretende ser una elaboración de síntesis. Es un intento de encontrar unidad a algunas investigaciones dispersas que se van publicando sobre el tema. Los cartularios que existen de algunas universidades extranjeras son insuficientes y los libros de registros de estudiantes o de grados no nos han llegado apenas desde las alturas de aquellos siglos xn-xvi. Sin embargo una intensa indagación en los archivos municipales y catedralicios podría arrojar, para este caso, los datos suficientes.

  2. Una cançó de refrany i cobles glossadores del segle XVI basada en la frase "Mal aja qui en dones fia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Romeu i Figueras

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author studies the origin, spread and connotations of a misogyny proverb picked up from a xvi century refrain that circulated in Valencia and Catalonia as a symbiosis of popular tradition and Renaissance flavour.

  3. Sobre los libros de oro del siglo XVI : notas críticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Martín Martín

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available De sobra es conocido que los Libros de Oro, que aparecen en el siglo XVI en el marco de la renovación pedagógica que introdujo el Humanismo y el Renacimiento, son colecciones de pensamientos, sentencias, máximas y proverbios morales entresacados de las obras de los mejores filósofos estoicos de la Antigüedad Clásica. Sin embargo, poco más es lo que se conoce de ellos fuera del marco de la Historia de la Literatura. Incidentalmente, al ocuparse de la preceptiva de príncipes, algo se ha dicho sobre los textos áureos de la vida, si bien de forma tangencial. Consciente de esta laguna historiográfica voy a redactar las siguientes notas críticas, que no tienen otro objeto más que colaborar en el debate que historiadores, filósofos, pedagogos y literatos han de sostener sobre el tema. Nuestro país aportó al pensamiento educativo del siglo xvi dos figuras señeras: Luis Vives y Pedro Simón Abril. Pero su obra quedó en el plano teórico por cuanto carecieron de capacidad u oportunidad política para implantar sus doctrinas en la sociedad española. Alguna posibilidad tuvo el segundo de los autores citados, pero las mismas se quedaron en forma de memoriales o apuntamientos dirigidos al Rey Felipe II.

  4. Natalidad, nupcialidad y fecundidad en Mérida durante el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Ballesteros Díez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es un estudio demográfico de Mérida durante el siglo XVI, que ha sido realizado a partir de las actas de bautismo, confirmación y matrimonio, por el procedimiento de la agrupación de familias, o método francés, analizando la natalidad con detalle de partos simples y dobles, las concepciones, las distribuciones temporales y sus tendencias, se fia determinado en número de familias y sus composiciones, obteniendo el coeficiente para la transformación de vecinos cabezas de familia en fiabitantes, tanto el general de la ciudad como los correspondientes a las comunidades cristiana y morisca; se tian determinado las edades de acceso al matrimonio, los intervalos genésicos en las mujeres, los estados prenupciales, la distribución temporal de la nupcialidad y los grupos de ilegítimos, expósitos, esclavos y moriscos.This is a demographic study of Mérida (a town of Castilla, Spain during the XVI century, from fhe baptism, confirmation and marriages registers, according to the process of the association of families by analysing the natality in detall of simple and double childbirths, and the concepcions, the temporal distributions and their tendencies; with the determination of the number of families and their composition, by obtaining the coeffcient in order to transform the neighbours into inhabitants. Both the general one of the town and the one wich belongs to the christian and moorish communities; the age of acces to marriage, genesis inervals in women, prenuptial states, temporal distribution of nupcitiality, ilegitimate groves, abandoned people, slaves and moorishes have been determined.

  5. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polański, Piotr

    The aim of this article is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2014 with the regard to the recent years. The assessment was conducted based on the results of the analysis of data from the bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014”, as well as information from the individual cases questionnaires and reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of hepatitis A, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology in NIPH-NIH. In 2014 in Poland there were 76 cases of hepatitis A registered. Incidence per 100 000 inhabitants was 0.20, and in different voivodeships varied from 0.07 (in Dolnosląskie voivodeship) to 0.30 (in Małopolskie voivodeship). The incidence among male and female did not differ (and was 0.20/ 100 000). In 2014 despite the increase in the number of cases (comparing it to the previous year) no significant change in epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was observed. Poland is still regarded as a country of low endemicity of hepatitis A. In routine surveillance system there is no information concerning the professional affiliation of persons being vaccinated, whereas the vaccinations themselves are recommended in the Polish vaccination schedule. Particular attention should be directed towards the vaccinations of persons who take part in berries primal production, product of which Poland is a major exporter of in the EU. In the light of increasing number of international hepatitis A outbreaks (which could be characterized by the prolonged duration, as well as the high possibility of secondary cases appearing- especially in countries of low endemicity) the maintenance of high level routine surveillance in Poland gains importance. The latter could also contribute to the efficiency of epidemiological investigations in multistate outbreaks.

  6. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  7. Russia and Poland: Problems of Inevitable Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy V. Ofitserov-Belskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century relations between Russia and Poland are balancing between trying to understand the burden of mutual guilt and a desire to construct non-emotional pragmatic relations. Sources of tension vary. In particular, it is the desire of Poland to position itself as a valued player in NATO and the EU and the role distance between the two countries in IR system, which does not allow Russia to maintain an equal political dialogue with Poland. In fact, Poland is not afraid of a direct threat from Russia, but the worst scenario is the one in which Russia without changing the content of its imperial policy can be accepted as a full partner in the international community. The evolution of Russian statehood and national specifics of democracy is largely determined the assessment of the prospects of Russian politics in Poland. The mistake of Polish diplomacy last years was that it took no direct efforts to improve relations with Russia, but only tried to impose the dialogue on Russian authorities. Diplomatic methods were designed to hurt Russian interests and to create a topic for discussion. In response, after 2006 Russia chose the tactic of ignoring Poland. But, ignoring Polish authorities, Russian politicians acted similarly with other political forces. In Poland among influential political forces, there was and there is still no loyalty to Russia. For Russian interests it is no matter who are or will be in power in Poland. However as a rule, it is an important factor that foreign policy decisions are de facto within the competences of the President and the government, as well as experiencing a significant influence of the parliamentary forces. Recent trends show no tangible innovations in bilateral programme. But innovations appear in multilateral and conflict enough issues, such as deployment of US missile defense system in Poland or Polish supervision of "Eastern Partnership" programme. The main problem is low self

  8. Wind energy development as a part of Poland's industrial development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoerring, Dagmara; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2003-01-01

    The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland....

  9. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  10. New and interesting records of freshwater Verrucaria in Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Krzewicka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Verrucaria madida is reported as new to Poland. Three other associated species, V. aquatilis, V. hydrela and V. rheitrophila, are compared. The known distribution in Poland and the ecology of these freshwater species are presented.

  11. IS INLAND SHIPPING NEEDED IN POLAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, inland shipping plays only a mariginal role in transport needs fulfillment. Inland shipping has a share of mere 0,3% in goods transport modal split. The reason for this is poor and variable technical parameters of inland waterways together with adverse legal regulations. Different situation takes place in Western European countries, in which the development of this mode of transport is viewed as a way of road transport develop-ment restraint. In Poland, the need to move some of the volume from road transport to in-land shipping is specifically observed within marine ports surroundings. Because of their complex nature, the investments in inland shipping infrastructure would also be helpful in solving the current problems of water management. Inland waterways in Poland guaran-tee neither an adequate level of flood protection, nor the water needs fulfillment of do-mestic economy. When it comes to water reserves, Poland is one of the most deficient countries in Europe. Thus there is a need to invest in inland waterways in Poland.

  12. Confessional and catechetical nature of religious education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mąkosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at bringing to light a presentation of the nature of religious education in Poland. This study will therefore present a brief historical outline of religious upbringing in Poland, its current organisational regulations and the principles of religious education in schools. In our summary, we will present the level of effectiveness of religious education in Poland, and we will also explore the discussion on the reformation of religious education in Poland which is being worked upon.

  13. O mundo americano na produção escrita inglesa: séculos XVI, XVII e XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Martins de Lima

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A apreciação do Novo Mundo por letrados ingleses, irlandeses e escoceses pode ser pontuada a partir da segunda metade do século XVI. A compreensão acerca dessa temática é um dos eixos deste artigo, que pretende avaliar as nuances da produção escrita em língua inglesa entre os séculos XVI, XVII e XVIII, com destaque para a formulação de histórias filosóficas da América. Buscamos, em linhas gerais, avaliar de que forma o cenário americano foi descrito por autores que, em diferentes momentos, se indagaram sobre o lugar da América na historiografia inglesa.

  14. POLAND AND TRANSATLANTIC SECURITY - AN ENDURING ATLANTICIST?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Longhurst

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 1990’s Poland pursued a security policy steered by Atlanticism and a close bond with the United States. Atlanticism shaped Warsaw’s choices on all key security issues during the past decade, but became particularly apparent after 9/11 when Poland lent its full support to the US-led war on terror. Whilst membership in the EU will affect the priorities and conduct of Polish security policy, it is argued here that the deep-seated nature of Atlanticism in Polish strategic culture , together with the broader implications of enlargement upon the EU’s foreign policy ambitions will ensure that Poland will remain a keen Atlanticist in the New Europe.

  15. Economic costs of electricity production in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeldman, M.; Solinski, J.

    1994-02-01

    This study presents a methodology for the calculation of the economic costs of the production of electricity. This methodology is applied to assess electricity production cost in Poland by type of power station for the years 1995 and 2000. In addition, an overview is presented of the methods used by the OECD countries, particularly in the Netherlands. The main conclusions of the study are: 1) the real economic costs to generate electricity in Poland are about two times higher compared with the traditional book-keeping data; 2) the investment costs will become the most important cost component in the near future; and 3) there are considerables differences in production cost per kWh for the different types of power plants in Poland. 4 appendices, 14 refs

  16. Poland wants to thwart Russian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaux, Aurelie

    2013-01-01

    The Polish authorities are doing everything in their power to block Nord Stream 2, the Russian natural gas pipeline project that will double (by 2019) Nord Stream 1 through the Baltic Sea. Gazprom's Nord Stream 2 (in which European companies such as Engie (France), Uniper and Wintershall (Germany), OMV (Austria) and Shell are involved) will poses a risk, according to Poland, to the gas supply of central European countries (and notably Ukraine). Poland also intends to stop all its gas imports from Russia after 2022 (end of the Yamal contract): the country is therefore developing its capacity to increase its own natural gas production and has just inaugurated a liquefied natural gas terminal on the Baltic Sea. A gas pipeline is also in project, that will link Norway to Poland. For power generation, the nuclear energy option is also studied

  17. History of pediatric neurology in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinborn, Barbara; Józwiak, Sergiusz

    2010-02-01

    This review presents the past and the present of pediatric neurology in Poland. Pediatric neurology has its roots in Polish general neurology represented by many outstanding scientists. The founder of Polish school of neurology at the end of 19th century was Edward Flatau, known as the author of Flatau's law. The most famous Polish neurologist was Joseph Babiński, recognized for the first description of pathological plantar reflex. First Polish publication related to child neurology was Brudziński's report on a new meningeal symptom (the flexion of lower limbs during passive neck flexion with pain in neck). Contemporary child neurology in Poland was created by Professor Zofia Majewska after the Second World War. Now 10 academic centers of child neurology exist in Poland fulfilling educational, scientific, and therapeutic roles. Polish Society of Child Neurology was established in 1991 and now there are about 580 members, including 300 child neurologists.

  18. Approaches to Sustainable Development in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrzewa, Karina; ); Piasecki, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The sustainable development principle was introduced into the legal system of Poland when the Constitution of the Polish Republic was adopted in 1997. Paradoxically, in Poland - one of the few countries in the world which have introduced the concept of sustainable development at the level of the Constitution, it is difficult to find a reference to it in the political debate. The national sustainable development strategy Poland 2025 has met no response among society and today it seems to be hardly remembered by anybody. An average citizen does not know the concept of sustainable development, or has a vague notion of it, often identifying it exclusively with environmental protection. Solving social problems (the labour market, education, health protection, equality of the sexes, etc.) is not associated with sustainable development whatsoever, and neither is engagement into achieving these development targets on the global scale

  19. Reflexiones en torno a una conciliación: arquitectura en el territorio peruano en el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Barriga Tello

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ante la experiencia con el patrimonio arquitectónico peruano en el sigloXVI, la administración española enfrentó dificultades con las quedebió competir con ventaja. Algunos aspectos de nuestra arquitecturareligiosa coincidían con sus tradiciones, pero otras de manera ninguna;finalmente hubo consenso. Este artículo es una reflexión acerca de lasmotivaciones y las consecuencias de este resultado.

  20. Chernobyl 90Sr in bilberries from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Vajda, N.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a detailed survey on the contamination of Polish forests 90 Sr activity concentrations were determined in bilberries. Elevated 90 Sr levels were found in several samples from north-eastern Poland. The calculated maximum 90 Sr surface contamination was 2 kBq*m -2 . The correlation between 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in bilberries was good for two sets of samples originating from two geographical areas of Poland indicating the local differences in radionuclide depositions from Chernobyl fallout. (author)

  1. Histoire d’un non-objet historiographique : le cas Louis xvi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Chery

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bien que la Révolution française ait suscité l’intérêt des chercheurs du monde entier, Louis xvi fait figure de parent pauvre des études universitaires. Même si c’est à son corps défendant, il en est tout de même l’un des principaux protagonistes et la Révolution s’est aussi construite en interrogeant le rôle et la place du roi. Cette situation a eu pour conséquence de conserver vivace la légende dorée que le roi s’est construite en exerçant un contrôle sur son image dès le début de son règne. Elle l’assimile à un nouvel Henri iv, profondément concerné par les maux de ses sujets. Malgré les attaques de la Révolution, cette image continue à exercer une influence considérable sur les biographes de Louis xvi et les historiens de la Révolution.Si la Restauration en a fait un usage sans surprise, elle a, de manière plus étonnante, séduit jusqu’à Jaurès avant de souffrir du discrédit dans lequel sombre le royalisme en choisissant l’antisémitisme au xxe siècle. Néanmoins, c’est aujourd’hui par le détour de l’historiographie anglo-saxonne qu’elle fait sa réapparition et commence seulement à être questionnée.Although the French Revolution has aroused interest of international researchers, Louis xvi is widely neglected by the academic studies. Even if reluctantly, he is yet one of the main protagonists and it is also by questioning the role and the place of the king that the Revolution took its shape.This led to the consequence that the golden legend the king constructed by controlling his image from the beginning of his reign is still very lively today. In it, he is presented as a new Henri iv, deeply concerned by the misfortunes of his subjects. In spite of the attacks of the Revolution, this image still considerably influences Louis xvi’s biographers and the historians of the Revolution.If the Restoration made a not surprising good use of it, it more astonishingly seduced Jaur

  2. Naos, clima y glaciares en el Estrecho de Magallanes durante el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto, María del Rosario

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es lograr una aproximación al clima y a los fenómenos de glaciación ocurridos en el Estrecho de Magallanes durante el siglo XVI y parte del XVII a través de registros históricos. Se complementan los resultados obtenidos por investigadores de otras disciplinas paleoclimáticas en el área, verificándose si las fuentes históricas corroboran las conclusiones de esos autores, quienes postulan un intervalo muy frío entre 1520 y 1670. Para realizar esta investigación se utilizaron los “diarios o relaciones de navegación” de los primeros marinos españoles que pasaron por el Estrecho, recopilados en su mayor parte en Archivos históricos españoles. A través de la técnica del análisis de contenido se verificó la estabilidad en el vocabulario referido al clima y los glaciares a lo largo de esas centurias y se calificó los eventos de acuerdo a su magnitud. Se determinaron diversas categorías de las cuales se han seleccionado precipitaciones sólidas y líquidas, temperatura, dirección del viento y ocurrencia de tormentas para analizar en este trabajo. Se estudió especialmente la presencia de témpanos en el Estrecho y las descripciones de los glaciares fueguinos y del sur de la Patagonia chilena como indicadores de bajas temperaturas. Se concluye que existen referencias directas a la presencia de témpanos proveniente de glaciares en el Estrecho, sólo en la segunda mitad del siglo XVI. El avance de los hielos supondría una acentuación de las condiciones de frío durante esa centuria, lo que puede ser corroborado por los datos de los navíos que consignan temperaturas estivales frías y muy frías en la vertiente pacífica. Estos datos coincidirían con los resultados de R. Villalba en cuanto a que el intervalo 1520 a 1670 fue uno de los más fríos de la Pequeña Edad Glaciar.

  3. Militares en el Mundo Urbano Fronterizo Castellano (siglos XVI-XVII Soldiers within the frontier urban communities of Castile (XVI-XVII centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana TRUCHUElO GARCÍA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudian diversos espacios urbanos fronterizos y costeros que albergaban presidios reales en Castilla en los siglos XVI y XVII. Se valoran las prácticas de gobierno que relacionaron, por una parte, a los vecinos, sujetos a la jurisdicción de los alcaldes y el corregidor, y, por otra, a los soldados, beneficiados por el fuero militar. Muchas de las discordias estuvieron causadas por las competencias de jurisdicción entre los distintos poderes, por el aumento de atribuciones de los militares en los contextos bélicos, por el control ejercido por los militares en las milicias concejiles y por la participación de los soldados en las instituciones de gobierno de la ciudad. Este estudio nos permite comprender el proceso de definición de una identidad particular en las ciudades fronterizas, sustentada en la exclusión de la comunidad de todo elemento que intentara segregarse del marco de acción de las autoridades urbanas y de la jurisdicción ordinaria.From different viewpoints, this article analyzes urban frontier coastal spaces in early modern Castile (16th and 17th centuries. The central focus is on the government practices that had to deal with quite different affairs, but mainly on arbitration of conflicts between urban neighbors and soldiers. The first were under the main magistrate so-called Corregidor jurisdiction, helped in this task by alcaldes (a special variety of mayors. The soldiers had specific military jurisdiction apart from that ordinary for the neighborhood. Many disputes were jurisdictional conflicts due to military special competences in war contexts, when the army widened its powers to control council regiments (milicias concejiles, and also to deal with the military participation in urban in institutions and government. These problems analysis points out the features that create a particular urban-frontier identity, based on the definition of urban community with the exclusion of individuals, groups and

  4. Illegality of international population movements in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolski, M

    2000-01-01

    Until the beginning of the 1990s Poland did not receive foreign migrants. Thereafter, the situation changed dramatically. A large part of the inflow proved to be illegal migrants, many of whom were in transit to Western Europe. Although these movements gradually declined in the second half of the decade, some became increasingly identified with relatively sophisticated smuggling of people. Foreigners smuggled from the South to the West, together with the international criminal networks assisting them, became typical of the migratory movements of people in Central and Eastern Europe during the 1990s. This article seeks to describe illegal migration from the perspective of Poland, a country often perceived as a major transit area in the smuggling of persons to Western Europe. The conclusions draw on the findings of several surveys recently carried out in Poland. Basic concepts related to illegal migration are defined and juxtaposed, and various myths and stereotypes concerning it that most often stem from the paucity of empirical evidence are examined. Finally, the trends observed in Poland are interpreted within the larger context of contemporary European migration.

  5. [Poland: cholera to typhus, 1831-1950].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinska, M A

    1999-12-01

    In this article devoted to Poland's direct and indirect role in the elaboration of contemporary international health structures and to her reputation as an epidemic reservoir of Europe, we consider how Poland came to be perceived as the cordon sanitaire of the West. Traditionally seen as upholding Western values, in the 19th and 20th centuries the country became increasingly associated with "Eastern plagues"-cholera and then typhus-coming from Russia and which could spread to the rest of Europe if Poland did not manage to contain them. When Poland was reconstituted as a nation-state in 1918, the new country won international recognition through her successful attempts to contain a typhus epidemic sweeping westwards from Russia. The Polish government convened the first European, League sponsored, health conference following the First World War. A Polish doctor, L. RAJCHMAN, was chosen to head up the League of Nations Health Organisation (forerunner of the WHO) and later (1946) founded UNICEF. Finally, we examine the key issue of exanthematous typhus in both world wars, exemplifying how a disease can come to be "ideologized", in this case by Nazi Germany. Typhus was the pretext used- in the name of "public health"-for segregating Polish citizens of Jewish origin and even killing them. Paradoxically, typhus was in the process of being eradicated when the war began and German policy of mass resettlements, sequestration, and starvation only spurred the epidemic they supposedly wished to control.

  6. Fruits contamination in Poland after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubik, M.; Michalczuk, L.; Dzieciol, U.; Bem, H.; Kusmierek, E.

    1996-01-01

    The content of Cs 137, Cs 134 and Ru 106 have been measured in samples of different fruits, mushrooms and honey taken from many farms selected at whole territory of Poland. The research has been carried out during the period of 1986-1991. The soils contamination in farms and forests area has been also done. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Control of rabbit myxomatosis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, J; Mizak, B; Chrobocińska, M

    1994-09-01

    The authors present an epizootiological analysis of myxomatosis in Poland. The biological, physical and chemical properties of virus strains used for the production and control of 'Myxovac M' vaccine are discussed. The long-term stability, safety and efficacy of the vaccine are demonstrated. Laboratory experiments were confirmed in large-scale field observations.

  8. Rare and new Laboulbeniales from Poland. X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a consecutive paper in the series concerning Polish Laboulbeniales, several species new for Poland are reported. Similarly as in the earlier papers of this series, all specimens were found by the author (if not otherwise indicated. The specimens are kept in the author's collection at the Mycology Laboratory of the Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.

  9. Post-accession economic development of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold ORŁOWSKI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the economic performance of Poland in the post-accession period. Poland joined the EU in 2004, after a long and difficult economic transition. The whole post-accession period could be divided into two sub-periods: the pre-crisis period of 2004-07, and the turbulent period of 2008-11. During the pre-crisis period, Poland recorded a fast growth, with a built-up of macroeconomic disequilibria. During the turbulent period, the economy was dealing successfully with the global financial crisis. The growth slowed down and the disequilibria were reduced. The paper discusses the growth patterns in the both sub-periods and tries to explain the factors that contributed to the good economic performance during the financial crisis. The astonishingly good economic growth results cannot be attributed to a single factor, but to a combination of many factors contributing at the same time. However, Poland has many valuable assets that may help in dealing with the further economic turbulences.

  10. Agrocybe putaminum (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, New for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halama Marek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agrocybe putaminum (Maire Singer, a species hitherto unknown in Poland, is reported from two localities in the southwestern part of the country, with descriptions and illustrations of the morphological characters of the newly collected basidiomata. The delimitation of A. putaminum is briefly discussed, and information on the ecology of the fungus and its world distribution is provided.

  11. Species diversity of Trichoderma in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen species of Trichoderma were identified from among 118 strains originating from different regions and ecological niches in Poland. This low number indicates low species diversity of Trichoderma in this Central European region. Using the ITS1-ITS2 regions, 64 strains were positively identified...

  12. Soil fauna research in Poland: earthworms (Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pączka Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are the foundation of ecosystem services. Of particular notice is zooedaphone, often underestimated and basically unknown to the general public. The present review summarizes the current state of knowledge related to earthworms occurring in natural and anthropogenically altered habitats in Poland, in the context of the requirement for protection of soil biodiversity.

  13. Determinants of all cause mortality in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genowska, Agnieszka; Jamiołkowski, Jacek; Szpak, Andrzej; Pajak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate quantitatively the relationship between demographic characteristics, socio-economic status and medical care resources with all cause mortality in Poland. Ecological study was performed using data for the population of 66 subregions of Poland, obtained from the Central Statistical Office of Poland. The information on the determinants of health and all cause mortality covered the period from 1st January 2005 to 31st December 2010. Results for the repeated measures were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations GEE model. In the model 16 independent variables describing health determinants were used, including 6 demographic variables, 6 socio-economic variables, 4 medical care variables. The dependent variable, was age standardized all cause mortality rate. There was a large variation in all cause mortality, demographic features, socio-economic characteristics, and medical care resources by subregion. All cause mortality showed weak associations with demographic features, among which only the increased divorce rate was associated with higher mortality rate. Increased education level, salaries, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, local government expenditures per capita and the number of non-governmental organizations per 10 thousand population was associated with decrease in all cause mortality. The increase of unemployment rate was related with a decrease of all cause mortality. Beneficial relationship between employment of medical staff and mortality was observed. Variation in mortality from all causes in Poland was explained partly by variation in socio-economic determinants and health care resources.

  14. Wind energy market study Eastern Europe. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.

    1994-04-01

    The main objective of the THERMIE Associated Measure WE05 is to study market conditions and estimate the market for wind power in Eastern Europe. This report describes the results of a study of the conditions in Poland, which has been concentrated on the following areas: wind energy potential in Poland; data concerning the present structure of the power production system including costs; payback prices, subsidies, etc. with relation to renewable energy sources, especially wind power; information on existing wine turbines and their production in Poland; possibilities for co-production of wind turbines by Polish and EC factories, and rules and legislation pertaining to the establishment of wind turbines and to power production by wind, eg regulations related to grid connection, safety and environment. According to existing data there are possibilities for using the wind potential in certain parts of poland. The wind data have to be improved if particular sites are considered for wind parks. The current official plans concerning the energy system have taken renewable sources into consideration, including wind power that is estimated to contribute ∼ 1 GWh by 2005-2010. Wind turbines may be connected to the public grid with due regard to the strength of the line. Presently, the owner has to pay all the costs, however, new rules are under consideration. The conditions for the connection and operation of wind turbines have to be discussed with the particular utility on an an-hoc basis. (EG)

  15. Museums in Cultural Tourism in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Krakowiak, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the museums, their potential and their significance for cultural tourism in Poland. Its aims are achieved through a presentation of registered national museums, ‘monuments of history’, museum buildings and the cultural activities undertaken by these institutions

  16. Assessment of atmosphere degradation step in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrzypski, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents characterization of the state of air pollution in Poland. It describes the size of emission and the size of concentration of dust and SO 2 and NO x pollution. It compares ascertained size of pollution the permissible concentration. It calls special attention to spatial differentiation of state of air pollution. (author). 26 refs

  17. Montes y bosques de Orihuela en los siglos XVI y XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ojeda Nieto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los montes y los bosques de la época Moderna son poco conocidos. Escasean los documentos, y cuando los hay se fijan en las talas y abusos cometidos por los vecinos o en las preocupaciones -normativas concejiles- de buena utilización de la leña y la madera. La Orihuela foral, siglos XVI y XVII, gozaba de una amplia extensión de terrenos comunales donde el pastoreo convivía con el aprovechamiento silvícola. El presente estudio marca los límites del monte, concretamente del arbolado, al tiempo que cuantifica, como propuesta, los distintos espacios que configuraban el paisaje del Bajo Segura: huerta, boalares, redondas y realengo. Normas y leyes que reglamentaban cortes y talas, así como los malos usos del bosque -carboneo e incendios-, son también analizados para entender el proceso de deforestación y su control a lo largo de las citadas centurias.

  18. La «Renovatio Urbis» : poder, ciudad y universidad en el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Gómez López

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de renovación del concepto de Estado iniciado por los Reyes Católicos a finales del siglo xv, encontró en los medios institucionales el instrumento perfecto para dirigir y difundir sus nuevos principios doctrinales y poner en práctica sus programas de acción política. Las universidades, convertidas en instituciones puestas al servicio de la expresión del poder, encontraron a partir de entonces y a lo largo de todo el siglo xvi, un gran auge. Esta circunstancia se produce una vez que se toma conciencia desde el poder del valor que posee la educación como instrumento de acción política a partir del cual poder asegurar, como ha señalado J.A. Maravall, «la transmisión de los saberes que importan para la acción de gobierno», y en consecuencia, promover la renovación del Estado y de la sociedad

  19. La producción de armas blancas en Bilbao durante el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dueñas Beraiz, Germán

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available They are few notices published about swords manufacture in Spain during the 16th century. One of the most unknown productions centers is the city of Bilbao, wich developed an important production of arms in part destined to its export to the British Islands. This article studies some documents, it is specialy interesting an unpublished document about the litigation hold up in 1569 between Bilbao swordsmiths and the «Corregidor» from Bilbao. Thanks of them it has been posible to compile names, marks and information about the activity of this craftsmen.

    Son escasas las noticias que poseemos sobre las zonas donde se fabricaban espadas en España. Uno de los centros más desconocidos es el de la ciudad de Bilbao, que desarrolló durante todo el siglo XVI, una importante producción de armas en parte destinadas a su exportación a las Islas Británicas. Gracias a una serie de documentos, entre los que figura uno inédito que recoge el pleito que los espaderos de Bilbao mantuvieron en 1569 con el Corregidor de Vizcaya, se han podido recoger algunos nombres y datos que permiten conocer más sobre la actividad de estos artesanos.

  20. The Arian controversy in the Homilies of the Patriarch Photios (Homilies XV and XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afinogenov Dmitrii

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In his two homilies dedicated to the Arian controversy (the only surviving of the original five Photios uses different methods to actualize the matter for the broad Byzantine public, mainly in connection with the patriarch’s main concern during his fi rst tenure: the polemics against Iconoclasm. The Arianism was chosen as a purely logical juxtaposition to the latter, where the real gradual progress of iconoclast tendencies is compared to a theoretical construction of Arianism which has little to do with the actual developments in the IVth century. The comparison of the Iconoclast heresiarch John the Grammarian to Arius is chiefly aimed at justifying the permanent deposition of Iconoclast priests even in case of repentance, declared by the Patriarch Nikephoros in 815 and carried out by Methodios in 843. The triadological considerations in the Homily XVI do not in fact pertain to anti- fi lioque polemics, but rather represent a traditional Eastern conception. This, as well as the intense and negative attention to the Council of Sardica suggest the date 861, when Photios had to argue against the applicability of this council’s 10th canon to his promotion to patriarch from a layman.

  1. Rotational patient setup errors in IGRT with XVI system in Elekta Synergy and their clinical relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhusudhana Sresty, N.V.N.; Muralidhar, K.R.; Raju, A.K.; Sha, R.L.; Ramanjappa

    2008-01-01

    The goal of Image Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) is to improve the accuracy of treatment delivery. In this technique, it is possible to get volumetric images of patient anatomy before delivery of treatment.XVI( release 3.5) system in Elekta Synergy linear accelerator (Elekta,Crawley,UK) has the potential to ensure that, the relative positions of the target volume is same as in the treatment plan. It involves acquiring planar images produced by a kilo Voltage cone beam rotating about the patient in the treatment position. After 3 dimensional match between reference and localization images, the system gives rotational errors also along with translational shifts. One can easily perform translational shifts with treatment couch. But rotational shifts cannot be performed. Most of the studies dealt with translational shifts only. Few studies reported regarding rotational errors. It is found that in the treatment of elongated targets, even small rotational errors can show difference in results. The main objectives of this study is 1) To verify the magnitude of rotational errors in different clinical sites observed and to compare with the other reports. 2) To find its clinical relevance 3) To find difference in rotational shift results with improper selection of kV collimator

  2. Reacomodos de población en Tzintzuntzan durante el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Martínez Aguilar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Las congregaciones o reducciones de pueblos de indios se tienen bien documentados para numerosos pueblos de la Nueva España. En el caso específico de Tzintzuntzan se ha dudado si en realidad este proceso se llevó a cabo, pues no se ha encontrado el acta de su congregación. Después de analizar distintos manuscritos coloniales, crónicas, estudios previos, tradición oral, así como la traza urbana de la ciudad, se deduce que Tzintzuntzan tuvo al menos dos momentos de reorganización urbano-social. El primero que se llevó a cabo en la década de 1530 con la reubicación del convento y una parte de la población que estaba asentada en las laderas del cerro Tariácuri. El segundo debió llevarse a cabo a finales del siglo xvi o principios del xvii, con el traslado de varios de sus barrios sujetos hacia la cabecera.

  3. Un libelo antijudío en la literatura popular impresa del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Pérez, María

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article there is edited and studied an anti-Jewish blood libel preserved in a Spanish poetic chapbook («pliego suelto» of the 16th century and attributed to the blind traditional poet («ciego coplero» Francisco González de Figueroa. Thanks to a tracking of diverse medieval and contemporary sources, Hispanic and foreign, related to the accusations of ritual murder against Jews, we have verified that this narration is a more link of a long chain of anti-Jewish blood libels arisen in Europe, which had a wide and extensive diffusion for several centuries.En este artículo se edita y estudia un libelo antijudío conservado en un pliego suelto poético del siglo XVI y atribuido al ciego coplero Francisco González de Figueroa. Gracias a un rastreo de diversas fuentes medievales y coetáneas, hispánicas y extranjeras, relacionadas con las acusaciones de crímenes rituales contra los judíos, hemos comprobado que esta narración es un eslabón más de una larga cadena de libelos de sangre antijudíos surgidos en Europa, que tuvieron una amplia y dilatada difusión durante varios siglos.

  4. La educación para la paz: Una asignatura pendiente. Las aportaciones de Benedicto XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El mensaje de Benedicto XVI para la XLV Jornada Mundial de la Paz, titulado "Educar a los jóvenes en la justicia y la paz", ha puesto sobre la mesa la pregunta de si es posible evitar las guerras y cuáles serían los instrumentos más eficaces para ello. Uno de los principales pilares que ayudan a sostener la estabilidad del sistema internacional es la educación, entendida, por un lado, como un proceso por el cual se van adquiriendo conocimientos y destrezas para el desempeño de las funciones propias en el mercado laboral, y también, por otro lado, como un proceso de asimilación, por parte de las nuevas generaciones, de unos valores y de unos criterios que les ayuden a la construcción de un orden social más justo y, por ende, más estable.

  5. Dental stigmata and enamel thickness in a probable case of congenital syphilis from XVI century Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauc, Tomislav; Fornai, Cinzia; Premužić, Zrinka; Vodanović, Marin; Weber, Gerhard W; Mašić, Boris; Rajić Šikanjić, Petra

    2015-10-01

    To analyse the dental remains of an individual with signs of congenital syphilis by using macroscopic observation, CBCT and micro-CT images, and the analysis of the enamel thickness. Anthropological analysis of human skeletal remains from the 16th century archaeological site Park Grič in Zagreb, Croatia discovered a female, 17-20 years old at the time of death, with dental signs supportive of congenital syphilis: mulberry molars and canine defects, as well as non-specific hypoplastic changes on incisors. The focus of the analysis was on three aspects: gross morphology, hypoplastic defects of the molars, canines and incisors, as well as enamel thickness of the upper first and second molars. The observed morphology of the first molars corresponds to the typical aspect of mulberry molars, while that of the canines is characterised by hypomineralisation. Hypoplastic grooves were observed on the incisal edges of all incisors. The enamel of the first molars is underdeveloped while in the second molars a thick-enamelled condition is observed. Our observations for the dental and skeletal evidence are supportive to a diagnosis of congenital syphilis for this specimen from XVI century Croatia. The use of CT imaging helped documenting the diagnostic features and quantifying the effect of the dental stigmata on first molars. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. La esperanza de vida en la ciudad de México (siglos XVI al XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Márquez Morfín

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Se contrastan los diferentes escenarios demográficos construidos a partir del análisis de varias series osteológicas procedentes de la ciudad de México cuya temporalidad corresponde a los siglos xvii al xix, conformada por criollos, mestizos e indígenas; y otra procedente de un área rural fechada en el siglo xvi, en Xochimilco, de composición eminentemente indígena. La técnica paleodemográfica permite obtener perfiles demográficos específicos para cada serie que se comparan y discuten con la información histórica disponible para la ciudad de México. Los resultados de las series urbanas y la rural, describen poblaciones con bajas esperanzas de vida, escasa sobrevivencia hacia las edades adultas y una alta mortalidad infantil producto de las condiciones sanitarias, de la pobreza y de la violencia, teniendo como telón de fondo grandes cambios sociales y económicos, además de crisis demográficas epidémicas y hambre.

  7. Sujeto e ideología en el relato ejemplar (Calila e Dimna, Cap. XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Funes

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se propone describir con cierto detalle el modo en que un texto ejemplar de la Edad Medía castellana "trabaja" ideológicamente. Para ello se analiza el capítulo XVI del Calda e Dimna, traducción alfonsí del árabe Kalila wa Dimna realizada entre 1251 y 1261, poniendo de relieve el tipo de subjetividad que el texto propone a su público para que, una vez asumido, pueda leerse el texto y situarse en el mundo. Al mismo tiempo, utilizando el cuadrado semiótico según la reformulación de Jameson, se despliega el haz de relaciones significativas que conforman el texto como dispositivo ideológico. La peculiar ubicación de la nobleza y de la naciente burguesía en el orden social diseñado por el texto, junto con la promoción de la figura regia por encima de la estructura estamental, revelan la filiación estrictamente alfonsí del sustento ideológico del Calila e Dimna.

  8. Militares en el Mundo Urbano Fronterizo Castellano (siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana TRUCHUElO GARCÍA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudian diversos espacios urbanos fronterizos y costeros que albergaban presidios reales en Castilla en los siglos XVI y XVII. Se valoran las prácticas de gobierno que relacionaron, por una parte, a los vecinos, sujetos a la jurisdicción de los alcaldes y el corregidor, y, por otra, a los soldados, beneficiados por el fuero militar. Muchas de las discordias estuvieron causadas por las competencias de jurisdicción entre los distintos poderes, por el aumento de atribuciones de los militares en los contextos bélicos, por el control ejercido por los militares en las milicias concejiles y por la participación de los soldados en las instituciones de gobierno de la ciudad. Este estudio nos permite comprender el proceso de definición de una identidad particular en las ciudades fronterizas, sustentada en la exclusión de la comunidad de todo elemento que intentara segregarse del marco de acción de las autoridades urbanas y de la jurisdicción ordinaria.

  9. OLDTURKISHMEDICINE(XIV. - XVI. CENTURIESPROCEDURES FORMEASURINGAND DIMENSIONS ESKİ TÜRK TIBBINDA (XIV. - XVI. YÜZYILLAR ÖLÇÜLER VE ÖLÇME USULLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürkan GÜMÜŞATAM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkishhistory of science, and with it the language ofsciencehas advancedthe course ofTurkishXIV.-XV.centurymedicalbooksterms of the datacontainsrichdata. Theimportanceof scientificworkswrittenin thiscenturyTurkishphysiciansin the works ofthe eraby puttingadministratorsin favor ofTurkish,complied withrequests. In this way,Turkishas the language ofsciencehas grown. Since theTurkishworks ofwritingfromamong those wholivedcenturiesphysicianshaveindicated. Centuries,written inplain languageratherthanthe worksnextpostin the works ofthe erathatthe presence ofdifferenttypes offace, observethe waysof their usage. The presence oftherelevanttermsofthesedimensionsandscalesare also available. The names given tounitsof measure, scales, and their useof suchwords inthe relevant departmentsin terms ofreachingasource ofpharmaceuticalproductions. The majority ofdetectionand usesthese termsfromArabicand Persianformedthe subject ofthisreview. The datasetwasselectedsixmedicalbook. As a result,Turkish,Arabicand Persianas well asinclusionof measurementunitsby using thedrawingsinthe waysof expressionis the resulthad been reached. Türk bilim tarihi ve onunla birlikte gelişme göstermiş Türk bilim dilinin seyri XIV.-XVI. yüzyıl tıp kitaplarındaki veriler bakımından zengin bulgular içerir. İlmî eserlerin Türkçe yazılmasına önem gösterilen bu dönemde hekimler Türkçeden yana tavır koyarak devrin yöneticilerinin isteklerine uymuşlardır. Bu sayede Türkçe bilim dili olarak gelişme göstermiştir. Eserlerini Türkçe yazmaktan yana olanlar arasında belirtilen yüzyıllar arasında yaşamış hekimler de vardır. Sonraki yüzyılllarda yazılmış eserlere nazaran oldukça yalın bir dille kaleme alınmış devrin eserlerinde değişik türden söz varlığıyla karşılaşmakta, bunların kullanım yollarını gözlenebilmektedir. Bu söz varlığı arasında ölçüler ve ölçeklerle ilgili terimler de bulunur. Ölçü birimlerine verilen adlar,

  10. PRESENT STATUS OF MEDICAL EDUCATION IN POLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SELZER, A

    1965-04-01

    In the past few years medical education in Poland has undergone considerable change, particularly at the graduate and postgraduate levels, and has shown increasing Western influences. On the negative side, a physician who was trained in pre-war Poland and is now in the United States, noted mass production of physicians with modest clinical facilities and the preponderance of didactic lecturing over semi-individual instruction-conditions rather characteristic of most European medical schools. On the positive side were well-informed, up-to-date faculties and the thoughtful planning and organization of graduate and postgraduate medical education. The overall impression was a favorable one, but the system of schooling and of evaluation of students' work made it possible for indifferent students to progress to licensure.

  11. Policy of air protection in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaczun, Z.M.

    1995-01-01

    The changed political situation and recognition of the acute destruction of the natural environment in Poland have caused a series of actions aimed at preventing further deterioration of Polish environment. One of the most important events which took place in the last few years was the enactment by the Polish Parliament in May 1991 of the Act on the National Ecological Policy. The basic assumption of the new environmental policy is a declaration that sustainable development will in future direct economic development in Poland. The aim of the presented paper is to introduce existing policy of air protection and instruments which have been implemented to protect the air. Special attention is paid to legislation instruments, introduction and enforcement of proper economic mechanisms strengthening air protection and foreign policy aiming at increasing foreign assistance for this objective. Pollutants involved include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and particulates from industry and coal-fired power plants. 9 refs

  12. Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wójcik-Jurkiewicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland The paper addresses the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR reporting. The concept of CSR reporting is increasingly being discussed among practitioners and academics. The main objective of the paper is to investigate the trends of CSR reporting in Poland and to try to implement them in WIG 30 companies. The research confirmed the existing information chaos in these disclosures of socially responsible issues in various reports. An analysis of domestic and foreign literature has been performed which pointed to the multidimensionality of actions taken by companies in the context of CSR reporting. The research points to the need to apply standards regarding the disclosure of non-financial information in the form of reports for public limited companies.

  13. Distribution of Vulpia species (Poaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Frey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of four species of the genus Vulpia [V. myuros (L. C.C. Gmel., V. bromoides (L. S.F. Gray, V. ciliata Dumort. and V. geniculata (L. Link] reported in Poland has been studied. Currently, V. myuros and especially V. bromoides are very rare species, and their greatest concentration can be found only in the Lower Silesia region. The number of their localities decreased after 1950 and it seems resonable to include both species in the "red list" of threatened plants in Poland: V. myuros in the EN category, V. bromoides in the CR category. V. ciliata and V. geniculata are very rare ephemerophytes and their localities not confirmed during ca 60 years are of historical interest only.

  14. Marketing of organic products in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuboń Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an outline of the issue concerning formulation of a marketing strategy and the possibility of using the knowledge on consumers' preferences for organic development of farms and their products on the example of southern Poland. The paper analyses the distribution process of organic food in the aspect of developing innovative marketing strategies. The studies were performed in 50 organic farms and on the example of 100 respondents from the region of southern Poland. In the opinion of the surveyed representatives of the organic food producers, a competitive advantage of their offer depends the most on the health values, brand, reputation, and taste. Moreover, information on products and the form and place of their sale are significant. The analysis shows that the knowledge is the most eagerly obtained from the Internet. Thus, producers should publish their profiles and pages on social media and business portals.

  15. Conventos femeninos en el urbanismo de Canarias (siglos XVI-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastián López García

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Los  monasterios femeninos poseyeron una desigual presencia en el archipiélago canario, dado que sólo hubo fundaciones en tres de las siete islas, repartidos en nueve poblaciones, con un total de quince inmuebles hasta el siglo XIX. Las fundaciones más antiguas datan del siglo XVI, ya que debe recordarse que la incorporación de Canarias a la Corona de Castilla se produjo a lo largo de la centuria anterior. En cuanto a las órdenes, las más numerosas fueron las franciscanas (clarisas y concepcionistas con seis monasterios, a las que siguen las dominicas o catalinas y las bernardas, con cuatro, cada una, mientras las agustinas recoletas sólo poseyeron uno. La mayoría se pueden considerar urbanos o semiurbanos por el carácter de la ciudad o villa donde se emplazan, ocupando casi siempre las zonas más céntricas. Esta misma posición en la trama fue un factor decisivo en el momento de la desamortización, cuyas medidas provocaron la desaparición de la mayoría de los edificios, pasando los solares a ser ocupados por espacios libres (plazas y jardines, edificios público de nueva planta (ayuntamientos, teatros o construcciones privadas. Sólo permanecen abiertos en la actualidad las Catalinas y Claras de La Laguna y las Concepcionistas de Garachico, todos en Tenerife.Female monasteries in the urbanism of the Canary lslands (c. XVI-XIX The presence of nunneries in the Canary Archipelago was uneven. The fifteen buildings that appear up to the Nineteenth Century are distributed in only nine towns, and three of the seven islands. The earliest foundations date back to the Sixteenth century, as the Canaries were conquered by the Crown of Castilla only in the previous Century. The “Franciscanas (Clarisas an Concepcionistas” with six monasteries,was the most numerous Order, followed by "Dominicas or Catalinas", and the "Bernardas" with four each, and finally the "Agustinas Recoletas" with only one. The majority can be considered urban or semi

  16. Church unions and their consequences in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orthodox Christians in Poland have faced numerous attempts to be forced into union with the Roman Catholic Church, ranging from the thirteenth to the twentieth century. The first attempt at a union between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church took place as early as the mid-thirteenth century. Another attempt at forcing the Orthodox Church into union with Rome took place during the reign of Ladislaŭ II Yagiello. The problem of church union returned in the reign of Alexander the Yagiellonian. When Ivan III rejected all projects for bringing the Florence such a union into practice, discussion on church union disappeared until the end of the sixteenth century. The mission of the papal legate, Father Antonio Possevino, to Ivan IV, had been intended to draw Moscow into the union, and its failure caused the papacy to concentrate its efforts on the Orthodox Church in Poland. The Ruthenian bishops’ obedience to the Pope was officially announced on the 8 October 1596. The decisions of the Uniate-Catholic synod were met with numerous protests from the Orthodox clergy and nobility. The larger part of the clergy and the faithful, together with bishops remained in the Orthodox camp. Despite the failure of the Brest Synod in fully uniting Orthodox and Roman churches, new union projects concerning the Orthodox Church in Poland continued to arise prior to the end of 18th century. The Vatican’s interest in the Orthodox Church in Central Europe was renewed at the end of the First World War. On April 1st, 1917, the Pope created the Congregation for the Oriental Churches which was responsibile for all issues relating to the activities of all the Eastern denominations. Despite aims at unification, attempts at church union have had a negative influence on the relations between the Roman Catholic and Polish Orthodox Church in contemporary Poland. The result of centuries of attempts at unification under the Pope has been fragmentation and division.

  17. Perspectives of the antipsoriatic heliotherapy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyścin, J W; Narbutt, J; Lesiak, A; Jarosławski, J; Sobolewski, P S; Rajewska-Więch, B; Szkop, A; Wink, J; Czerwińska, A

    2014-11-01

    Statistical analysis of the daily course of exposures to TL-01 tube radiation for 93 psoriatic patients from the Medical University of Łódź during 20-day phototherapy shows that the dose of 1 J/cm(2) represents a unit of single exposure necessary for psoriasis healing. This value is converted to the antipsoriatic effective dose of 317.9 J/m(2) using the TL-01 lamp irradiance spectrum and the antipsoriatic action spectrum. It is proposed that the daily exposure of 317.9 J/m(2) serves as the standard antipsoriatic dose (SAPD) providing a link between the cabinet and the out-door exposures and it could be used for planning heliotherapy in Poland. A model is proposed to calculate ambient antipsoriatic doses for 3 h exposures around the local noon (9 am-12 am GMT) based on satellite measurements of ozone and cloud characteristics. The model constants are determined by a comparison with pertaining antipsoriatic doses measured by the Brewer spectrophotometer in central Poland. It is found that 3 h exposures to solar radiation in the period 15 May-15 September provides the mean (2005-2013) doses in the range 2.7-3.1 SAPD over Poland. Thus, heliotherapy could be treated as an alternative to the cabinet phototherapy for almost 4 months. It seems that the most effective site for antipsoriatic heliotherapy is the south/east part of Poland (the Bieszczady Mountains). The heliotherapy could be carried out in existing national health centers equipped with the standard easy-to-use biometers for on-line monitoring of UV level and controlling duration of sunbathing to avoid erythema risks. It is even possible to control the antipsoriatic heliotherapy by a patient himself, using low-cost hand-held instruments measuring UV index. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hildenbrandia rivularis (Rhodophyta in central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis has been noted for the first time in central Poland near the Lodz agglomeration. Until now, this alga was recorded only in mountain and Polish Lowland areas. The wide range of habitat conditions influencing the occurrence for this protected species has been determined in the spring niche. The possible threat to habitat where H. rivularis occurs, is connected with construction and exploitation of the A2 highway.

  19. Development of Social Building Societies in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Białek-Jaworska

    2004-01-01

    The article describes a genesis of Social Building Societies in Poland starting from National Housing Fund through Workers Housing Estates Society in 1934.1939, announcement of cheap building system in New Housing Order in 1993 to Barbara Blida's and Irena Herbst's legislative initiative leading to establish Social Building Societies in 1995. According to International Permanent Social Building Committee social housing consists in supply houses with fixed minimum standard of comfort and equip...

  20. LITERATURE REVIEW ON SOCIAL DIALOGUE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Otreba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article depicts the most important aspects of social dialogue in Poland: definitions and dimensions of the term, basic research questions, dialogue partners and factors influencing the quality of social dialogue. The potential of subsequent research issues are advocated: institutionalized forms and bottom-up models of social dialogue, public policies aiming at enhancement of the analyzed process. Moreover, the social dialogue can be treated as a public policy itself.

  1. Hildenbrandia rivularis (Rhodophyta) in central Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek; Maciej Ziułkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis has been noted for the first time in central Poland near the Lodz agglomeration. Until now, this alga was recorded only in mountain and Polish Lowland areas. The wide range of habitat conditions influencing the occurrence for this protected species has been determined in the spring niche. The possible threat to habitat where H. rivularis occurs, is connected with construction and exploitation of the A2 highway.

  2. Multicultural Leadership Strategies : case: Company X, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Khanh Ye Le, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims at studying multicultural leadership strategies which are used by the team leaders in Company X, Poland. Furthermore, this thesis examines how these strategies are implemented in daily management to prevent cultural conflicts. The study used deductive approach with the assistance of qualitative research method. Secondary data was collected from reliable books, articles and Internet while primary data was collected through observations and interviews. The literature f...

  3. Lyme disease in Poland in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in Poland. Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete can occur in the whole country, which, according to ECDC, should be considered as an endemic area. Borrelia strains are transmitted to humans and certain other animals by Ixodes (1). Human infection is caused by saliva or tick vomit. Reservoir spirochete are numerous species of animals, mainly rodents. Lyme disease, due to its multifocal character, rich symptomatology and diagnostic problems, is a serious challenge for clinicians and epidemiologists The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2015 in comparison to the previous years The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2015” (2) Despite observed in recent years the tendency to growth of number of cases, in 2015 was marked by growth inhibition incidence of Lyme disease.In 2015, 13 625 cases were registered in Poland, ie by 0.7% less than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country was 35.4 per 100 000 population - the highest was recorded in the Podlaskie voivodeship - 96.3 per 100 000 inhabitants. In 2015, 1905 (14%) people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease In 2015, for the first time in a few years, the growth rate of Lyme disease has been stopped. Registered 0.7% less cases than in the previous year. There is still a need for bringing awareness of the need for diagnostic laboratory testing according to recommendations, which will improve the accuracy of the diagnosis

  4. Pharmaceutical Distribution Market Channels in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Woś

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution on the pharmaceutical market in Poland is interesting and the most difficult sphere to manage. Numerous varied and specialized companies operating on the market cause that the processes of choosing middlemen in distribution channels are very complex. The hereby article presents the role and location of the companies operating within distribution channels on the pharmaceutical market. It draws attention to the development of non-pharmacy and non-wholesale sales channels.

  5. Cacao y encomienda en la Alcaldía Mayor de Sonsonate, siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tous, Meritxell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the importance of cocoa in the Alcaldía Mayor of Sonsonate, particularly in the Izalco region, during the last pre-Columbian period and also its exploitation during the XVIth century. It is demonstrated that, during the first half of these century, despite of the development of the encomienda system, the natives significantly controlled the production and exchange of cocoa, and also the property of the land. Nevertheless, during the second half of this century, the increase of cocoa production induced serious perturbations in the Indian communities because of the demographic collapse, the usurpation of the lands and the ladinoization processes.

    Este estudio analiza la importancia del cacao en la Alcaldía Mayor de Sonsonate, especialmente en la región de los Izalcos, durante el último periodo prehispánico así como su explotación en el XVI. Se demuestra que, durante la primera mitad de este siglo, a pesar del desarrollo de la encomienda, la población indígena controló, en buena medida, la producción y el intercambio del cacao, así como la propiedad de la tierra. También se pone de manifiesto que, a partir de la segunda mitad de este mismo siglo, el incremento de la producción cacaotera provocó daños irreversibles en las comunidades indígenas debido al más que notable descenso demográfico, a la usurpación de sus tierras y a los procesos de ladinización.

  6. Los esclavos y la inquisición (sigloXVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis CORTÉS LÓPEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El negro, como libre o como esclavo, fue un componente más de la sociedad española del siglo XVI. Como miembro de la misma estuvo sometido al control de las instituciones religiosas y políticas y, si era esclavo, fue un simple objeto de la voluntad de sus dueños. La Inquisición también le persiguió, y aunque éste no tenía una personalidad jurídica definida, fue considerado como persona con una formación religiosa adecuada y, por eso, juzgado por los responsables inquisitoriales. Hacemos aquí una primera aproximación en esta peculiar relación e insistimos en que los procesos inquisitoriales son también una fuente útil para estudiar ciertos aspectos y circunstancias de la vida del negro en aquella época.ABSTRACT: The Negro, as a free man or as slave, was an additional component in Spanish society during the 16th century. As member of this society he was subjected to the control of the political and religious institutions and if he was a slave, he was simply at the disposal of his master's will. The Inquisition also persecuted him and although he didn't have an officially recognized status, he was considered to be as person with a suitable religious grounding and was therefore judged accordingly by those in charge of the Inquisition. Here we approach this peculiar relationship for the first time and we emphasize that the inquisitorial trials are also an useful source enabling us to study certain aspects and circumstances in the Negro's life at that time.

  7. Italia en la Monarquía Hispánica (siglos XVI - XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel RIVERO RODRÍGUEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La victoria de la Casa de Habsburgo en las guerras de Italia (1494-1559 abrió un periodo de paz y seguridad en Italia. En el pasado, fueron muchos los historiadores que dibujaron un panorama sombrío de este periodo, que abarcó los siglos XVI al XVIII. Fueron dos siglos descritos como un tiempo oscuro que sucedió a la brillantez del Renacimiento. Despotismo, Contrarreforma e intolerancia reemplazaron a la libertad, reformismo y tolerancia preexistentes. Su responsable fue la dominación española. Hoy, esa vieja interpretación está siendo revisada por una nueva generación de historiadores que describen el periodo en otros términos. El dominio español es contemplado como un condominio, un dominio dual o coparticipado entre la Corte española y las Cortes italianas o, mejor dicho, entre las élites españolas e italianas. Esta perspectiva explica el sistema español tanto para comprender su éxito como su hundimiento.ABSTRACT: The victory of the Habsburg Army in the Italian Wars (1494-1559 opened a time of peace and security in Italy. Many historians draw a negative panorama of this new period from sixteenth to early eighteenth centuries. So, these two centuries, were traditionally described as a Dark Age before the splendid time of the Renaissance. Despotism, Counterreformation and Intolerance replace Liberty, Reform and Tolerance. The Spanish dominion was responsible of this falling back. Today this old interpretation is revised by new generations of historians that describe the period in other terms. The Spanish dominion is sawn in a different way, as condominium, dual control or ownership between the Spanish Court and the Italian Courts, between Spanish and Italian elites. This point of view explains the Spanish System, his success and his breakdown.

  8. Lizardo Seiner Lizarrága. Estudios de Historia Medioambiental. Perú, siglos XVI-XX

    OpenAIRE

    O'Phelan Godoy, Scarlett

    2014-01-01

    El libro de Lizardo Seiner Lizárraga, Estudios de historia medioambiental. Perú, siglos XVI-XX explora una temática que hasta hace poco era solo marginalmente tratada dentro de la perspectiva histórica. Indagar sobre la historia del medio ambiente en la larga duración es, por lo tanto, un mérito incuestionable del trabajo realizado por Seiner. El libro en cuestión abre con un ensayo sobre el tema de los desastres naturales y su impacto sobre el medio ambiente. Así, haciendo uso de fuentes pri...

  9. Racismo/sexismo epistémico, universidades occidentalizadas y los cuatro genocidios/ epistemicidios del largo siglo XVI

    OpenAIRE

    RAMÓN GROSFOGUEL

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo analiza el racismo/sexismo epistémico fundacional a las estructuras de conocimiento de la universidad occidentalizada. El artículo plantea que el privilegio epistémico del hombre occidental en las estructuras de conocimiento de las universidades occidentalizadas es el resultado de cuatro genocidios/epistemicidios en el largo siglo XVI (contra la población de origen judío y musulmán en la conquista de Al-Andalus, contra los pueblos indígenas en la conquista del continente america...

  10. Racismo/sexismo epistémico, universidades occidentalizadas y los cuatro genocidios/epistemicidios del largo siglo XVI

    OpenAIRE

    Grosfoguel, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo analiza el racismo/sexismo epistémico fundacional a las estructuras de conocimiento de la universidad occidentalizada. El artículo plantea que el privilegio epistémico del hombre occidental en las estructuras de conocimiento de las universidades occidentalizadas es el resultado de cuatro genocidios/epistemicidios en el largo siglo XVI (contra la población de origen judío y musulmán en la conquista de Al-Andalus, contra los pueblos indígenas en la conquista del continente...

  11. Las entradas de cristianos en Berbería (siglos XV-XVI): relaciones pacíficas y violentas

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Rodríguez, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    Esta contribución intenta dar cuenta, de forma sintética, de las relaciones desarrolladas entre España y el norte de África entre los siglos XV y XVI. Tales relaciones adopataron tanto formas pacíficas como conflictivas. La principal tesis que subyace en este trabjo es que, por ecnima del revestimiento ideológico-religioso, que parace como un apartado justificador del enfrentamiento entre cristianos y musulmanes afines de la Edad Media y comienzos de la Edad Moderna, los contactos entre unos ...

  12. Antecedentes históricos del arte de nadar en España (siglo XVI-1807)

    OpenAIRE

    Torrebadella i Flix, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    A partir de las primeros tratados que durante el siglo XVI recuperan en Europa la natación como ejercicio higiénico y gimnástico, en el caso concreto de España, revisamos las diferentes aportaciones bibliográficas y las noticias aparecidas en la prensa que se ocuparon del “arte de nadar” hasta principios del siglo XIX. Con ello se pretende colaborar, a través de las fuentes documentales primarias, a (re)construir los primeros pasos y antecedentes de la natación en España. De la inspección y h...

  13. Un problema médico y terminológico (sífilis en el siglo XVI)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Ibáñez, María Jesús

    2009-01-01

    En el umbral del siglo XVI, muy poco antes de finalizar la centuria anterior, se describe una afección hasta entonces, parece, desconocida, de síntomas alarmantes y graves consecuencias. En contra de lo esperado y deseado no parece haber literatura médica sobre ella, las auctoritates no se pronunciaron a este respecto y nada dejaron apuntado sobre cómo tratarla. Como en otros casos a lo largo de este período los hombres del momento, en este caso los médicos, deben afrontar un reto importante ...

  14. THE ASSESSMENT AND USE OF INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ANDRYKIEWICZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of Integrated Product Policy in Poland in the light of the European activities. It analyses the EU laws within this scope. It assesses the progress of LCA implementation, ecolabelling, ecotaxes, EMAS and green public procurement in Poland. It explains the reasons of slow IPP implementation in Polish organisations. It mainly refers to the distribution and promotion of ecolabelling, based on empirical research in Germany and Poland.

  15. Employment in Poland 2007: Security on flexible labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Bukowski, Maciej; Lewandowski, Piotr; Koloch, Grzegorz; Baranowska, Anna; Magda, Iga; Szydlowski, Arkadiusz; Bober, Magda; Bieliński, Jacek; Zawistowski, Julian; Sarzalska, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    This Report is a third in the series Employment in Poland. It consists of four Parts, devoted to empirical analysis of the impact of macroeconomic shocks on EU New Member States labour markets‘ in 1996-2006; utilization of flexible forms of employment on Polish labor market, determinants of wages and wage inequalities in Poland; effectiveness of ALMP in Poland, respectively. In Part I, we present how the cyclical upturn propagated on Polish labour market in 2003-2007 and how the performan...

  16. Poland-Mobius syndrome in an infant girl

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mazrou, Khalid A.; Al-Ghonaim, Yazeed A.; Al-Fayez, Abdulrhman I.

    2009-01-01

    Mobius syndrome is a rare condition of unclear origin, characterized by a unilateral or bilateral congenital facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction, which is frequently associated with limb anomalies. Poland described a condition in which there was unilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly. The combination of Poland-Mobius syndrome is rare, with an estimated prevalence 1:500 000. We describe a case of Poland-Mobius syndrome in association with conge...

  17. Batrachospermum atrum (Rhodophyta – first record in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Wojciech A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives new data on the occurrence of Batrachospermum atrum (Hudson Harvey, a freshwater Rhodophyta species rare in Poland. It was found growing on stony bottom in a small stream in northwestern Poland; at this site it was associated mainly with Potamogeton nodosus Poir., green algae Cladophora glomerata (L. Kützing and Mougeotia sp. Its occurrence in Poland and some ecological data are discussed, and original photographs of the plant and its habitat are presented.

  18. Funding Innovation in Poland through Crowdfunding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozioł-Nadolna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Funding innovative projects is one of the most serious problems faced by business owners in Poland. Therefore, due to the difficulties of obtaining external sources of financing, crowdfunding may constitute a new source of fundraising for innovative ventures. Therefore, crowdfunding – as a way of raising capital for projects – is the subject of the discussion in this article. The research aim of the article is to identify and evaluate crowdfunding platforms as well as the innovative projects carried out by these platforms in Poland in 2014-2016. The first part characterizes crowdfunding as a source of funding innovation and presents the nature of crowdfunding, its characteristics and models. The empirical part is based on inductive-deductive inference, desk research, i.e. the analysis of crowdfunding market in Poland in two research periods and a case study analysis. The article shows the results of the research on the Polish crowdfunding market in 2014-2016. The author also presents a case study of funding innovation on the Kickstarter.com platform by a Polish company Sher.ly.

  19. Moebius-Poland syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostapha Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Moebius es una sintomatología poco frecuente en la que los pares craneales sexto y séptimo están involucrados. Esta implicación resulta en parálisis facial. Se han descrito unos 500 casos en la literatura médica mundial y algunos de ellos han recibido tratamiento quirúrgico. Además el síndrome ha recibido otros nombres, tales como aplasia congénita nuclear, aplasia nuclear infantil, parálisis congénita oculofacial y diplejía facial. El síndrome de Poland es otra anomalía congénita muy poco frecuente de la pared torácica, caracterizado por ausencia unilateral parcial o total del músculo pectoral mayor y braquisindactilia ipsilateral. Sin embargo, el síndrome de Moebius-Poland es más raro, ya que el primer caso fue reportado recientemente en el año 2007 por Diego López de Lara et al. En este artículo se presentará este caso poco frecuente, que es una combinación entre ambos síndromes Moebius y Poland en un paciente masculino de tres meses de edad.

  20. CHP plant Legionowo Poland - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    In 1997, a new Energy Law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy planning is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law of 1997, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for the Energy Supply Plans in these municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continues/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the Combined Cycle type should be investigated. The present report is the final Master Plan based on the following reports: Master Plan for Legionowo - Status Report; Master Plan for Legionowo - Hydraulic Analysis; CHP Plant Legionowo Poland - CHP Feasibility Analysis. The final Master Plan describes the status in the DH Company in Legionowo, possible improvements and an investment plan for the selected scenario. (BA)

  1. System for analysing sickness absenteeism in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z

    1997-01-01

    The National System of Sickness Absenteeism Statistics has been functioning in Poland since 1977, as the part of the national health statistics. The system is based on a 15-percent random sample of copies of certificates of temporary incapacity for work issued by all health care units and authorised private medical practitioners. A certificate of temporary incapacity for work is received by every insured employee who is compelled to stop working due to sickness, accident, or due to the necessity to care for a sick member of his/her family. The certificate is required on the first day of sickness. Analyses of disease- and accident-related sickness absenteeism carried out each year in Poland within the statistical system lead to the main conclusions: 1. Diseases of the musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous systems accounting, when combined, for 1/3 of the total sickness absenteeism, are a major health problem of the working population in Poland. During the past five years, incapacity for work caused by these diseases in males increased 2.5 times. 2. Circulatory diseases, and arterial hypertension and ischaemic heart disease in particular (41% and 27% of sickness days, respectively), create an essential health problem among males at productive age, especially, in the 40 and older age group. Absenteeism due to these diseases has increased in males more than two times.

  2. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radioactive contamination of the forests of southern Poland and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska, H.; Kozak, K.; Mietelski, J.W.; Barszcz, J.; Greszta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data of caesium and ruthenium radioactivity in chosen parts of forest ecosystems in Finland and Southern Poland are presented and compared. Measurements were performed with a low-background gamma-rays spectrometer with the Ge(Li) detector. The maximum caesium 137 activity in litter from Poland is 2.5 kBq, in that from Finland 3.9 kBq, in spruce needles it is 0.4 kBq (Poland), 0.9 kBq (Finland) and in fern leaves it is as high as 15.9 kBq per kg of dry mass in one sample from Poland. (author)

  4. Additions to the biota of lichenized fungi of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Flakus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New records of five lichenized fungi from Poland are provided. Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, Lecanora quercicola, Rhizocarpon superficiale and Strigula ziziphi are new to Poland. Of these, Strigula ziziphi is reported also as new to Central Europe and Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta as new to the Carpathians. Additionally, Thelenella muscorum var. octospora is recorded from its second locality in Poland as new to the Polish Carpathians. Hypostictic acid chemosyndrome has been noticed for the first time in European (Poland and South American (Bolivia populations of Rhizocarpon superficiale.

  5. Poland-Mobius syndrome in an infant girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mazrou, Khalid A; Al-Ghonaim, Yazeed A; Al-Fayez, Abdulrhman I

    2009-01-01

    Mobius syndrome is a rare condition of unclear origin, characterized by a unilateral or bilateral congenital facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction, which is frequently associated with limb anomalies . Poland described a condition in which there was unilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly. The combination of Poland-Mobius syndrome is rare, with an estimated prevalence 1:500 000. We describe a case of Poland-Mobius syndrome in association with congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility. To our knowldge, this is the first report of such an association between Poland-Mobius syndrome and congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility.

  6. Pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) inhabiting Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, I; Giżejewska, A; Giżejewski, Z; Kołodziejska-Lesisz, J; Kluciński, W

    2017-09-26

    Adiaspiromycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by saprophytic fungi Emmonsia spp. (type Ascomycota) occurring especially in small free-living mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of histopathological lesions asscociated with adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver inhabiting Poland. In order to evaluate the presence of natural adiaspiromycosis we systematically investigated beaver populations from north-eastern Poland for adiaspores in the lungs. This study reveals for the first time the presence of pulmonary adiaspiromycosis of Eurasian beaver in Poland. As far as we know, there is no published data regarding pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in human patients in Poland.

  7. Complejidad Organizativa y Desarrollo Contable de los Pósitos en España, Siglos XVI-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Gómez Díaz

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo estriba en la caracterización como organización empresarial de uno de los instrumentos financieros más importantes en España desde el siglo XVI: los Pósitos. Éstas instituciones locales funcionaron como Bancos de préstamo en simiente durante más de cuatro siglos. La identificación de las diferentes prácticas contables en dichas instituciones nos llevan a analizar el rol de la legislación contable, tanto por la influencia en su supervivencia como por su posterior declive y final desaparición. The aim of this paper is to characterize one o/ the most important financial institutions in the Spanish economy since XVI century. These were the Positos. These local institution functions as banks that gave their loans in seeds. The identification o/ the different accounting practices affords us an opportunity to analyse the role o/ the accounting regulation during its existence, later decline and final disappearance.

  8. Municipio y mercado en el Aragón Moderno : el abasto de pescado en Zaragoza (siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Mateos Royo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio relativo a la política desarrollada por el Concejo de Zaragoza sobre el comercio de pescado durante los siglos XVI y XVII. La prosperidad económica de la ciudad y del municipio permitieron crear durante el siglo xvi condiciones favorables para asegurar a los habitantes de Zaragoza un suministro suficiente a un precio asequible. Sin embargo, el declive económico y el creciente endeudamiento municipal forzarán durante el siglo xvii a aumentar los impuestos sobre las transacciones y reducir la protección al consumidor.This paper studies municipal politics carried out by the Zaragoza city council concerning the first trade during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Economic prosperity in the city and council allowed to create during the sixteenth century favourable conditions in order to get a sufficient supply and a reasonable price for the population. However, economic decline and raising municipal indebtedness during the seventeenth century led to an increase of market taxation and a reduction of consumers' protection.

  9. Choquequirao en el siglo XVI: etnohistoria e implicaciones arqueológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Choquequirao au XVIe siècle : ethnohistoire et implications archéologiques Résumé: À travers l’étude de divers documents d’archives, ce travail reconstitue l’histoire coloniale du site archéologique de Choquequirao. Ce site, qui faisait tout d’abord partie d’une encomienda octroyée à Hernando Pizarro, devient partie intégrale de la réduction de Cachora, à la fin du XVIe siècle, avec les anciens villages de Sayhuite et Urco. Cet article démontre aussi que durant plus de 80 ans, les Espagnols ont concédé aux mêmes familles les charges de cacique de ces villages. Ces nouvelles données concernant l’histoire de Choquequirao amènent à se poser de nouvelles questions dans le domaine de l’archéologie. Este trabajo, a través del análisis de varias fuentes manuscritas, reconstituye la historia colonial del sitio arqueológico de Choquequirao. En primera instancia encomienda de Hernando Pizarro, este sitio fue reducido a fines del siglo XVI en el pueblo de Cachora, junto con los pueblos de Sayhuite y Urco. Este artículo demuestra también que los españoles concedieron el cargo de cacique de estos pueblos a las mismas familias durante más de 80 años. Estos nuevos conocimientos sobre la historia de Choquequirao llevan a plantear nuevas preguntas a la arqueología Choquequirao in the 16th century: ethnohistory and archaeological implications Abstract: Through the study of various archive documents, this work reconstructs the colonial history of the archaeological site of Choquequirao. This site, which first formed part of a Hernando Pizarro’s holding, was reduced together with the old villages of Sayhuite and Urcp to the locality of Cachora at the end of the 16th century. This article also shows that during more than 80 years, the Spaniards conceded the office of cacique of these villages to the same families. These new data concerning the history of Choquequirao bring to raise new questions for archaeology.

  10. 20 CFR 404.535 - How much will we withhold from your title VIII and title XVI benefits to recover a title II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How much will we withhold from your title... Officer § 404.535 How much will we withhold from your title VIII and title XVI benefits to recover a title II overpayment? (a) If past-due benefits are payable to you, we will withhold the lesser of the...

  11. La recepción de los libros de caballerías en elsiglo XVI: a propósito de los lectores en el Quijote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Aguilar Perdomo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available éxito tuvo entre el público oyente y lector durante el siglo XVI.Se conservan numerosos testimonios, tanto literarios como documentales,que indican que su lectura era habitual en distintas clasesde la sociedad española de la época. El Quijote ofrece a lo

  12. Algunos dibujos de la primera arquitectura de Nueva España: mapas, planos y proyectos de arquitectura del siglo XVI

    OpenAIRE

    Moya Olmedo, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Moya Olmedo, P. (2014). Algunos dibujos de la primera arquitectura de Nueva España: mapas, planos y proyectos de arquitectura del siglo XVI. P+C: proyecto y ciudad: revista de temas de arquitectura (5), 75-88. ISSN 2172-9220 (ISOC; LATINDEX; DIALNET; RESH; DICE; MIAR)

  13. A new record of Typha shuttleworthii (Typhaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobis Marcin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new locality of Typha shuttleworthii W.D.J. Koch & Sond. in Poland. The species was found in wet roadside ditch in Kryg village near Gorlice (ATPOL grid square EG09. The distribution map of the species in Poland is provided.

  14. Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Chęciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

  15. Rinodina degeliana: a corticolous lichen species overlooked in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kubiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New localities of Rinodina degeliana in Poland are described. The morphology, chemistry, distribution and ecology of the species are discussed and characters that help to differentiate R. degaliana from similar lichens are presented. The species is relatively frequent in lime-hornbeam forests of northern and central Poland.

  16. Dimensions of health among the elderly in Poland and Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knurowski, T.; Lazic, D.; van Dijk, J.P.; Geckova, Andrea; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the WHO definition of health, we aimed at exploring the model of health and identifying the most important dimensions of health among the elderly in two Central European countries: Poland and Croatia. Randomly chosen elderly aged 65-85 from Krakow (Poland) and from Zagreb and some

  17. [Medical student curriculum in psychiatry in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1999-01-01

    The author describes present medical student curricula in psychiatry in Polish medical schools based on the questionnaire sent to all the lecturers of the subject in Poland. The questionnaire contained questions concerning the schedule of lectures, seminars and classes (the list of topics) as well as the number of hours of the forms of activities like interpersonal training, discussion groups, internship, etc. We also asked on which year of studies the course in psychiatry took place. The questionnaire included our request to describe the level of integration of psychiatry and other pre-clinical and clinical subjects as well as to enclose a recommended reading list (handbooks and other items of literature). The last question dealt with the problem of assessment of lectures and classes by students. The results of the questionnaire reveal great differences in the curricula of psychiatry in various schools in Poland. The differences lie both in the courses and the number of hours devoted to teaching psychiatry (in most schools it was 120 hours or less). In 7 schools students learn psychiatry in the 6th i.e. the last year of their studies. In 2 schools lectures in psychiatry are given in the th year. In Kraków and Gdańsk the courses in psychiatry consist of 150 and 160 hours respectively. The author proposes unification of the curricula in psychiatry concerning both the number of hours of classes and lectures, and topics as well as introducing the diagnostic and classifying criteria ICD-10 (WHO) since Poland is going to join EU.

  18. THE E-HEALTH SYSTEMS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław PÓLKOWSKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Information Technologies are disruptive technologies that have caused major changes in health system in Poland. Current digital economy is driven by modern information and new IT tools, which offer hospitals, doctors and patient access to any type of information, regardless of its form of existence, storage type or geographical location. These tools encourage the development of new activities, health services. The purpose of this article is to analyze the the current state of development of e-services in Poland in the context of nowadays health system. In the first part of the paper, the authors present various programmes, which enable the access to the medical services and patients’ data online. The next part of the paper is devoted to examining the technical aspects of the said programmes and presenting their advantages as well as the areas which might be improved.The last part of the work will be focused on the websites of the selected health institutions. According to the authors, WWW services provide much information on how the process of computer systems are being implemented, what data the services include and the capacity of the equipment as well as the software, human resources and the knowledge in this sphere. Moreover this section highlights the latest trends in e-health with particular emphasis on aspects such as the use of private and public cloud computer and t heir integration with web sites of health institutions. This study brings its contribution to the understanding of the change of health system in Poland behavior by using a new perspective e-health systems and IT tools above by doctors, officers and patients.

  19. Coal and its perspectives in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1993-01-01

    The seminar held in Warsaw by the CIFOPE from 23 to 25 november 1992 was centered around the restructuring of the coal industry and its implications for the Polish economy in the context of the current deep-running economic reforms. Partly based on French experience, this seminar shed some light on long-term problems for Poland like the kind of industrial policy that will be needed to avoid desertification problems, the need for price reform in the pursuit of profitability, and the networks and financial aids needed to restructure on such a large scale, considering that coal is a key sector in the Polish economy

  20. Poland petroleum refinery sludge lagoon demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Area have been working together to develop mutually beneficial, cost-effective environmental remediation technologies such as the demonstration of bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization, treatability study, and a risk assessment study, a remediation strategy was devised. The waste material was composed primarily of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application as used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern

  1. Chara strigosa A. Braun (Characeae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Hutorowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chara strigosa is reported from several lakes in Poland. The finds were published by Izabella Dąmbska in 1966, but have not been recognised internationally, presumably because Dąmbska's article was published in a local paper in Polish. We give a short description of Charetum strigosa first described by Dąmbska. One of the lakes with C. strigosa is reported with luxuriant growth of a blue-green bacteria common in water blooms. There is a need to survey these lakes in order to prevent an increasing eutrophication.

  2. Auriculariopsis albomellea (Agaricales, Schizophyllaceae new for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the taxonomy, ecology, general distribution and threatened status of Auriculariopsis albomellea Bondartsev Kotl. (Basidiomycetes. In Europe it is known only from Czech Republic, France, Sweden and Ukraine, in Africa from Canary Islands, in North America from Canada and United States. In Poland the fungus was found for the first time in NE part of the country, in a pine forest, on dead twigs of Pinus sylvestris. Habitat and distribution of this saprobic fungus in Africa, Europe and North America are described, list of synonyms and important references are cited, Polish name is proposed.

  3. Market of venison meat in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    GÓRECKA JUSTYNA

    2012-01-01

    In the Polish Hunting Association (an organization of hunting) associated more than one hundred thousand hunters. Only in 2009/2010 was shot more than 41 thousand deers, more than 162 thousand roe deers and more than 196 thousand wild boars. By shooting such quantity the wildlife animals was generated approximately 12-14 thousand tons of venison meat. The market prices of game meat in Poland are on a relatively high level, which translates into a limited interest this product in retail. Avera...

  4. El valle de Jayanca y el reino de los Mochica, siglos XV y XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available On peut dire que la Sierra et la Côte Nord restent inconnues pour la culture péruvienne. Les chroniqueurs et historiens des XVIe, XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles ont délaissé cette région, attirés par les monuments et les richesses fabuleuses du Cuzco. Cependant, s'il y a absence quasi totale de chroniques sur les Tallán, Mochica et Chimus, il est certain qu'il existe d'autres moyens pour connaître leurs cultures matérielles et spirituelles, tels que les 'visites' et autres documents. C'est ainsi que l'on arrive à découvrir aujourd'hui les peuples protohistoriques et historiques qui ont vécu dans ce qui est actuellement le département de Lambayeque, la province de Pacasmayo et la vallée du Chicama, siège du royaume inconnu des Mochica qui se développa entre les XIIIe et XVIIe siècles sous une forme très différente de la culture archéologique et préhistorique de Moche. On démontre ici que rattacher à la 'Culture Mochica' les créatures des superbes vases-portraits est aussi faux que de rattacher à la 'Culture Aymara' les fondateurs de Chavin. En effet, les Mochica formèrent une société protohistorique et historique dont l'origine remonte au début du XIIIe siècle et qui a persisté jusqu'au milieu du XVIIe siècle. C'est ainsi que nous publions pour la première fois la 'visite' à Jayanca en 1540, écrite par Sébastian de la Gama. La sierra y costa norte, etnohistóricamente se puede decir que es casi tierra incógnita en la cultura peruana. Los cronistas e historiadores de los siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII prácticamente las marginaron atraídos por las grandezas monumentales y riquezas fabulosas del Cuzco. Sin embargo, si bien hay ausencia casi total de crónicas sobre los Tallán, Mochica y Chimor, lo cierto es que existen otros instrumentos que permiten adentrarnos en sus culturas materiales y espirituales, como por ejemplo las visitas y otros documentos. Justo, gracias a ellos podemos descubrir hoy que los pueblos protohist

  5. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat. The main source of data for this study are statistical reports included in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014” and “Immunizations in Poland in 2014” (NIPH-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2015) and the data contained in the articles of „Epidemiological chronicle” presented in the Data on deaths are based on the statement of the Department for Demographic Research and Labour Market CSO presenting numbers of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2014, and in the previous years. Upper respiratory tract infection classified as “suspected flu and the flu season” in the since many years are the largest position among the diseases subject to disease surveillance. In the last decade, particularly large increase in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection was reported in the flu season 2013., when the increase in comparison to the median of years 2008-2012 amounted to 189.8%. In 2014. Number of reported cases was 3 137 056 which represented a nonsignificant decrease of 0.8% compared with the previous year. However, compared to the median of the years 2008-2012 it was an increase of 187.4%. Better then based on calendar year is a picture obtained by examining the incidence of seasonal periods in the annual, but counted from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. In such a setup, in the 2012/2013 season were recorded 3 025 258 of cases, and in the season

  6. Selected aspects of environmental protection in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obarska-Pempkowaik, Hanna; Bolt, Adam

    2001-01-01

    Environmental deterioration in Poland particularly in 1970's, was a result of an incorrect investment policy and indifferent attitude to the principles of the preservation of nature. Water resources, as part of the environment were affected accordingly. Shortage in water resources is caused by deterioration activity of the industrial, the progressing urban development, overconsumption caused by low prices of water and low status the legislation connected with the natural environment. The European integration processes going on make it necessary to adapt the Polish standards and technological solutions in the sphere of the environmental protection to the standards required by the European Union. The destroyed natural environment cannot secure living at a relatively high standard. Hence the concept of ecological safety based on the conviction that there is no high quality J. life without a high quality of the surrounding environment' has more followers. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the nature and scope of water pollution in Poland with an emphasis on current threats to water quality, with achievements in last decade and background of other European countries. (Original)

  7. Development of optical sciences in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Research and technical communities for optics, photonics and optoelectronics is grouped in this country in several organizations and institutions. These are: Photonics Society of Poland (PSP), Polish Committee of Optoelectronics of SEP, Photonics Section of KEiT PAN, Laser Club at WAT, and Optics Section of PTF. Each of these communities keeps slightly different specificity. PSP publishes a quarterly journal Photonics Letters of Poland, stimulates international cooperation, and organizes conferences during Industrial Fairs on Innovativeness. PKOpto SEP organizes didactic diploma competitions in optoelectronics. KEiT PAN takes patronage over national conferences in laser technology, optical fiber technology and communications, and photonics applications. SO-PTF has recently taken a decision to organize a cyclic event "Polish Optical Conference". The third edition of this conference PKO'2013 was held in Sandomierz on 30.06-04.07.2013. The conference scientific and technical topics include: quantum and nonlinear optics, photon physics, optic and technology of lasers and other sources of coherent radiation, optoelectronics, optical integrated circuits, optical fibers, medical optics, instrumental optics, optical spectroscopy, optical metrology, new optical materials, applications of optics, teaching in optics. This paper reviews chosen works presented during the III Polish Optical Conference (PKO'2013), representing the research efforts at different national institutions.

  8. Energy policies of Poland: 1994 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This survey, conducted in co-operation with the Polish Government as a follow-up to the 1990 IEA Survey of Energy Policies of Poland, is intended to support Polish authorities responsible for designing measures and setting targets for energy policy. Another purpose is to report on progress made since 1990 in adapting the Polish energy sector to the requirements of a market economy. The survey documents and analyses recent developments in energy supply and demand, the energy pricing situation as of late 1994, Poland's energy supply security, the structure of the energy industries and the evolving relationship between the Government, public enterprises and private companies in the energy sector. It also looks at developments and initiatives in energy end-use efficiency and outlines the considerable environmental problems caused by energy production and use. The analysis points to areas where there is a need for further measures, comments on the Government's present policies and makes recommendations for the future. (authors). 41 figs., 51 tabs

  9. Combating illegal nuclear traffic - Poland's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smagala, G.

    1998-01-01

    International non-proliferation efforts have been taken to reduce the risk related to nuclear materials and radioactive sources. The physical security of nuclear facilities to prevent acts of sabotage or terrorism and to protect nuclear materials against loss or seizure is an essential element of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Iraq case and the end of the Cold War have influenced the development of co-operation and openness in many countries. Poland due to: - its geolocation, - a growing number of post Chernobyl contamination transports and - high risk to become a transit country in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources, initiated deployment of the fixed installation instruments at the border check-points. Since the end of 1990 to now 103 such devices have been installed. Broader involvement in combating illicit nuclear trafficking of Border Guards, Customs Services, Police and Intelligence Security has been noticed. Paper presents Poland's experience in implementing national prevention measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risk and in detecting capabilities against illicit nuclear traffic. (author)

  10. Selected Determinants of Mezzanine Financing in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Golej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A very significant form of company activity determining its development and even survival is innovation activity. Raising capital for the implementation of innovation is an important but not the only factor in the introduction of innovation. Characteristics of innovation, and in particular the risk of failure, make for a significant difficulty in obtaining external financing, particularly from third parties, which is an obstacle to their development and implementation. The subject of discussion in the article is the hybrid formula mezzanine type of financing innovative projects implemented both in start-up companies and in already well established companies. The purpose of the article is to discuss the possibilities and to perform an analysis of the practices followed by mezzanine funds in Poland in respect to the innovation activities of Polish companies. Research presented in the article was conducted on the basis of information on investments performed by mezzanine funds in Poland. Of particular importance for the innovativeness of the economy is to have companies from the SME sector, and therefore we also carried out research in this group. Innovations are often initiated in special purpose companies, start-up, etc., that operate in the SME sector. Therefore, the financing of innovation cannot be ignored as a thread of innovation in SMEs. The study involved interviews in several companies in the sector. The study concerned the possibilities of financing innovation involving mezzanine, knowledge of hybrid forms of financing, preparedness for hybrid financing. Studies are not representative, but are rather sounding a view to clarify any further research. Hypothesis: mezzanine financing, utilizing its specific benefits, is increasingly used to finance the gap in the financing of innovation, in particular special purpose companies in the SME sector. So the hypothesis raises two strands of research. The first concerned the financing of innovation

  11. XVI. Yüzyıl Türkiyesi’nde Ahi Adlı Zaviyelerin Dağılışı The Distrubution Of Akhi Lodges in XVI. Century Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker YİĞİT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Akhism, is an organization which has political, social andeconomic aspects, has been encountered the traces since XIII. Centuryin Turkey. Akhism has quite different perspectives (in terms of itsorigin, its socio-economic and social impacts, etc. and has subjected toseveral studies. Akhism may be perceived as an artisan organization,however; it is an important organization that has undertaken crucialactive roles in such as the execution of Turkization of Anatolia, openingsettlements from the desolate places and establishment of newresidential units. Indeed, (Ahi's settlements provide evidence for thissituation in XVI. century,especially by giving their names toneighbourhoods in urban areas; and to the villages, hamlets, farmsand uplands in rural areas. Akhi lodges are the venues in which theAkhi maintain their effectiveness in rural and urban areas. The Akhidervish lodges, the social organization (association created by thetradesmen and artisans together in order to provide mystical solidaritybetween the members of that culture, are the establishment which givedirections to social and economic life in the erea. The Akhi dervishlodges are one of the cultural centers in terms of both offering a widetraining services where there is no madrasa instiutution and alsohosting shelters where people come from outsides of villages or cities.The Akhi lodges provide the formation of inhabited by having animportant role in the establishment and development of the settlementsin cities and rural areas. Therefore, this study includes Akhism lodges,which have conducted their effectiveness in both urban and rural areas,and covers the distribution of XVI. century Turkey Akhism lodges.Akhi lodges, which can be encountered in almost every part of Anatolia,are deeply affecting institutions with their activities and events, haveundertaken active roles in that period of social, political and economiclife of Anatolia since Turkization of Anatolia. It is quite crucial in

  12. La industria textil y su regulación en el siglo XVI: caso particular de Toledo = The textile industry and its regulation in the XVI century: Toledo, a particular case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángela Jiménez Montañés

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl sector al que correspondió el mayor protagonismo dentro de la industria europea moderna fue, sin lugar a dudas, el textil. Ello no representaba, en realidad, novedad alguna, pues la industria medieval se desarrolló precisamente en función primordialmente de la fabricación de tejidos. El vestido, al tiempo que una necesidad inmediata, resulta expresión visual de distinción social, aún más que la decoración de la vivienda. Por ello la industria textil creció a expensas tanto de la necesidad como del lujo. Uno de los grandes cambios que se producen en este tipo de industria durante todo el siglo XV y se consolida en el XVI se centra en las relaciones de producción, en la utilización de mano de obra campesina y la consolidación del ciclo de producción artesano rural. La mano de obra rural comienza a trabajar por su cuenta o en dependencia del empresario-productor de la ciudad. Si bien, la profunda transformación de la industria textil tendrá lugar en el siglo XVIII, con la revolución industrial.La transformación de la industria textil del siglo XVI propició la expansión de una nueva figura en el ámbito mercantil, que se denomina mercader-empresario, y por tanto, del sistema doméstico de producción conocido como Verlagssystem. Este nuevo sistema implicará modificaciones de factores claves para el desarrollo de las futuras sociedades mercantiles como pueden ser: el capital, la utilización de la materia prima y su proceso de transformación, la formación de los costes de producción y comercialización, la obtención de beneficios y su distribución, la concentración del capital y la generación de rentes. En definitiva, la creación de una nueva clase social, la burguesía. Este trabajo se centra en la industria sedera de la ciudad de Toledo en el siglo XVI.AbstractThe textile sector, was the greater protagonist, without doubt, within the modern European industry. It did not represent, in fact, newness some

  13. Challenges for developing national climate services – Poland and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution discusses the challenges for developing national climate services in two countries with high fossil fuel production – Poland (coal and Norway (oil and gas. Both countries, Poland and Norway, have highly developed weather services, but largely differ on climate services. Since empirical and dynamical downscaling of climate models started in Norway over 20 years ago and meteorological and hydrological institutions in Oslo and Bergen have been collaborating on tailoring and disseminating downscaled climate projections to the Norwegian society, climate services are now well developed in Norway. The Norwegian Centre for Climate Services (NCCS was established in 2011. In contrast, climate services in Poland, in the international understanding, do not exist. Actually, Poland is not an exception, as compared to other Central and Eastern European countries, many of which neither have their national climate services, nor are really interested in European climate services disseminated via common EU initiatives. It is worth posing a question – can Poland learn from Norway as regards climate services? This contribution is based on results of the CHASE-PL (Climate change impact assessment for selected sectors in Poland project, carried out in the framework of the Polish – Norwegian Research Programme. The information generated within the Polish-Norwegian CHASE-PL project that is being broadly disseminated in Poland can be considered as a substitute for information delivered in other countries by climate services.

  14. El arte del bordado en Navarra en los siglos XVI y XVII: Andrés de Salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andueza Pérez, Alicia

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Given its classification as a decorative art, and its perception as mere artisanal work, scarce attention has been given to embroidery. Nevertheless, fortunately, in recent years there has been a resurgence of studies on this theme. This article, following these new trends, attempts to clarify certain aspects of this activity in the Navarre region during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    Dada su condición de arte decorativa, y su consideración como una labor meramente artesanal, la atención que se le ha prestado al bordado es escasa. Por suerte, en los últimos años estamos asistiendo a un resurgir de los estudios sobre el tema. Este artículo, siguiendo estas nuevas tendencias, pretende esclarecer algunos aspectos sobre esta actividad en la Navarra de los siglos XVI y XVII.

  15. El clero y el delito de proposiciones en Zacatecas: los errores manifestados en los sermones, siglos XVI y XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Quiñones Flores

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El delito de proposiciones consistía en las expresiones que refl ejaban puntos contrarios con la doctrina de la Iglesia católica. Por ello, pertenecía a la jurisdicción del Santo Ofi cio, que recibió denuncias incluso contra el clero por cometer esta transgresión, sobre todo durante los sermones, por lo que se cree que causaban confusión entre los oyentes. Pero ¿realmente provocaban escándalo entre la población o solo entre los eclesiásticos?, ¿acaso se trataba de errores de entendimiento por la poca instrucción de los predicadores?, o ¿se usaba el púlpito para expresar los confl ictos de la Iglesia? A estas preguntas se les dará respuesta en este texto, que se ubica en Zacatecas en los siglos XVI y XVII.

  16. Las dehesas maestrales de La Serena (siglos XV-XVI: cartografía de un paisaje social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Quijada, Luis Vicente

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article a cartography of the mastership dehesas of the military order of Alcantara in La Serena (Badajoz in the 15th and 18th centuries is presented. It has been carried out through the study of historical toponymy from several 16th and 18th-century documents and their contrast with modern cartography (MTN25 and MTN50. Together with a methodology for the development of landscape analysis based on the use of GIS, we submit an estimation of the whole dehesas surface (108,511.87 ha and their sheep stocking rate average (0.28 UGM for the analyzed period. The results retrieved question the livestock orientation of these spaces as a consequence of soil deficiencies. Instead of this, the article concludes that dehesas landscape is related to the jurisdictional model developed in the Estates of the Military Order of Alcantara during the Middle Ages.Presentamos en este artículo una cartografía del espacio ocupado por las dehesas maestrales de la Orden de Alcántara en La Serena (Badajoz durante los siglos XV-XVIII. La misma ha sido elaborada a partir del vaciado de la toponimia histórica procedente de diversas fuentes de los siglos XVI y XVIII y su posterior contraste con las series cartográficas actuales (MTN25 y MTN50. Junto a una metodología para el desarrollo de estudios del paisaje basada en el uso de SIG, ofrecemos una estimación de la superficie total de las dehesas (108.511,87 ha y del promedio de sus densidades ganaderas (0,28 UGM/ha durante la primera mitad del siglo XVI. Los resultados obtenidos permiten cuestionar la orientación ganadera de estas dehesas como consecuencia directa de la pobreza de los suelos. En su lugar proponemos que el adehesamiento guarda relación con el modelo jurisdiccional desarrollado en el maestrazgo de Alcántara durante la Edad Media. [fr] Cet article présente une cartographie de l’espace occupé par les dehesas du maître de l’Ordre d’Alcantara dans La Serena (Badajoz pendant les XV3 et XVIII

  17. X-ray fluorescence analysis of yellow pigments in altarpieces by Valencian artists of the XV and XVI centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, J.L.; Roldan, C.; Ardid, M.; Navarro, E.

    1999-01-01

    XRF analysis has allowed a quick and precise detection and identification of the inorganic elements that compose the yellow pigments in altarpieces of the XV and XVI centuries painted by the Valencian artists Miguel Alcaniz, Vicente Macip, Juan de Juanes, Hernando Yanez de la Almedina and Hernando Llanos. The analyses have been carried out with an XRF portable system that consists of a tube of X-rays and detectors of Si(Li) and cadmium zinc telluride. This system has enabled a non-aggressive and non-destructive analysis of many pieces at the Museo de Bellas Artes of Valencia (Spain). Among the yellow pigments we have identified a pigment composed by lead and tin oxides named lead-tin yellow (Pb 2 SnO 4 ), frequently used in European paintings from the XIV century until the first half of the XVIII century. This fact demonstrates the influence of elements and pictorial techniques from Europe to the region of Valencia

  18. El «cursus honorum» de los letrados aragoneses en los siglos XVI y XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarna JARQUE MARTÍNEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La monarquía de los Austrias, como es de sobra conocido, topó con enormes dificultades en el gobierno de los estados de la Corona de Aragón. Los fueros y libertades de los distintos territorios impedían un ejercicio efectivo de la autoridad real y ello fue particularmente acusado en los casos del principado catalán y del reino aragonés. Por lo que a Aragón se refiere, el esquema de la modernidad podría resumirse del modo siguiente: frente a un siglo XVI en que el reino puso todo tipo de trabas al ejercicio de la autoridad real, en la centuria del seiscientos la monarquía había vencido cualquier resistencia y podía gobernar con la aquiescencia de la clase dirigente aragonesa.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA analysis on remains of a putative son of Louis XVI, King of France and Marie-Antoinette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehaes, E; Decorte, R; Peneau, A; Petrie, J H; Boiry, P A; Gilissen, A; Moisan, J P; Van den Berghe, H; Pascal, O; Cassiman, J J

    1998-01-01

    Carl Wilhelm Naundorff was buried in 1845 in Delft as Louis Charles, Duc de Normandie, 'Louis XVII'. However, the son of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette-Louis XVII--officially died in the Temple of Paris in 1795. In order to resolve the identity of Naundorff, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences of his remains were compared with the sequences obtained from the hairs of two sisters of Marie-Antoinette, Marie-Antoinette herself, and with the sequences obtained from DNA samples of two living maternal relatives. The mtDNA sequence of a bone sample from Naundorff showed two nucleotide differences from the sequences of the three sisters and four differences from the sequences of living maternal relatives. Based on this evidence it becomes very unlikely that Naundroff is the son of Marie-Antoinette.

  20. His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

  1. La remuneración y el control del servicio cultual en la Iglesia de Toledo (S. XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Villaluenga de Gracia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es examinar el sistema de remuneración del clero en la catedral de Toledo en el siglo XVI. Su cabildo mantenía un sistema basado en las enseñanzas bíblicas y la normativa conciliar. Existía así una relación directa entre la remuneración de los sacerdotes y su misión de culto. Esto permitió establecer un salario justo en función a la presencia de los beneficiados a los oficios divinos y a las horas canónicas. Además, el cabildo garantizaba la correcta ejecución de este sistema retributivo a través de importantes mecanismos de control, apuntando de forma rigurosa las ausencias o irregularidades en el culto, que eran penalizadas a cuenta de su asignación y repartidas entre los beneficiarios cumplidores.The purpose of this articte is to explore the system of remuneration to priest on the cathedral of Toledo in the XVI century. Its chapter kept a system based on the biblical preaching and the canons of the ecclesiastical councils. There was thus a plug between the remuneration of the priest and their mission of cult to God. The belief system was a key factor to set an exact salary that was based on the presence of prebendaries at the divine offices and the canonical hours. Furthermore, the chapter kept an effective control system to report about the absences or irregular behaviour in the cult that were penalized. Then, on based to this information, it was set the salary. The fines were distributed to the prebenderies that fulfilled their obligations.

  2. KEABSAHAN ALAT BUKTI ELEKTRONIK PASCA PUTUSAN MAHKAMAH KONSTITUSI NO.20/PUU-XVI/2016 DALAM PRESPEKTIF CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    erma lisnawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a state of law that upholds of human rights. In the state of law, there is a human rights protection by the state including the privacy of rights. It is referred judicial review of Act No. 11 of 2008 on Information and Electronic Transactions, of Article 5 Paragraph (2. To protect the privacy of recording and wiretapping conducted illegally. The Constitutional Court has been issued a ruling of the Constitutional Court No.20/PUU-XVI/2016 which imposes limits on how electronic evidence retrieval and also who is allowed to submit as an evidence in court. The court ruling was appropriate given the absence of norms regulating the procedures for the acquisition and delivery of electronic evidence. In a special lex such as criminal acts Corruption, Money Laundering and Terrorism Crime and Crime and Electronic Information only governs the kinds of electronic evidence alone, as well as the Code of Criminal Law. Indonesia adalah Negara hukum yang menjunjung tinggi hak asasi manusia. dalam Negara hukum, ada perlindungan hak asasi manusia oleh Negara, termasuk hak pribadi. Undang-undang Nomor 11 tahun 2008 tentang Informasi dan Transaksi Elektrokni, Pasal 5 Ayat (2 telah diajukan judisial review pada Mahkamah Konstitusi. Mahkamah Konstitusi telah mengeluarkan putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi Nomor 20/PUU-XVI/2016, yang memberikan batasan tentang cara pengambilan alat bukti elektronik yang diperkenankan untuk diajukan dalam proses persidangan. Hal ini, sudah tepat mengingat tidak adanya norma yang mengatur tentang cara perolehan alat bukti elektronik dan siapa yang berhak mengajukan alat bukti elektronik tersebut ke pengadilan. Dalam beberapa undang-undang khusus pedoman tentang alat bukti elektronik hanya mengatur mengenai tindak pidana khusus saja seperti pada Tindak Pidana Korupsi, Tindak Pidana Pencucian Uang, Tindak Pidana Terorisme dan Tindak Pidana Informasi dan Transaksi Elektronik.

  3. Una nueva pieza de artilleria de galeras del siglo XVI: el esmeril bastardo «matacapitanes»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fondevila Silva, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at the analysis of an unknown piece of maritime artillery dated at the second half of the XVIth century. This piece, out of any inventory record, was located within one of the Archive-Museum chambers in the Don Álvaro Bazán Palace at El Viso del Marqués, Ciudad Real province, central Spain. The specimen is a bastard esmeril here so-called «matacapitanes» («killer of captains» because it seems precisely designed to be used against the bullet-proof armour of enemy officers. By means of manuscripts and impressed documents, an approach and discussion on the typology and classification of the XVIth century´s maritime artillery is also presented.

    Trabajo de investigación que presenta y analiza una pieza desconocida de artillería naval de la segunda mitad del siglo XVI, localizada sin inventariar en una de las salas del Archivo-Museo «Don Álvaro de Bazán» del Palacio de El Viso del Marqués en Ciudad Real (España. Se trata de un esmeril bastardo que hemos bautizado como «matacapitanes », por ser un modelo diseñado para optimizar su empleo contra los oficiales enemigos protegidos con armaduras a prueba de balas de arcabuz. Además, se realiza una aproximación al estudio de la tipología y clasificación de la artillería naval del siglo XVI a través de los documentos, tanto manuscritos como impresos, de esa época.

  4. The provincial administration of the Ottoman Empire in the XVI century on the ground of the kanunname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kovalchuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The title of the article is ‘The provincial administration of the Ottoman empire in the XVI century on the ground of the kanunname’. The purpose of the article is to characterize the structure of the provincial administration of the Ottoman Empire in the XVI century on the ground of the sultans’ kanunname. The administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire has been studied in the article: the largest ottoman provinces - eyalets were divided into two types: timarli, in which the system of sanjaks, ottoman law, timar system were established; and salyaneli, where timar system was absent, all taxes were gathered and distributed to local needs; the second administrative-military territorial units were sanjaks, the subdivisions of sanjak were kazas and kadiluks, then – nahiyes. Moreover, outside this system there were various types of vassal and tributary states. The governance of such large territory, control over the execution of orders, establishment of relations between different groups of multi-ethnic population of the empire, which lived mostly not in the metropolitan area, but in the provinces, needed the constant functioning of local authorities. The main task of the provincial administration was to organize and to strengthen the communications between the province and the center. Special attention has been given to the description of the place and role, rights and duties of beylerbey, sanjakbey, qadi (judge, defterdar and other local managers at the system of the Ottoman provincial administration. In conclusion it is necessary to point out that the system of local authorities was formed by representatives of the military-administrative (sipahi-timarli, sanjakbey, beylerbey, the Grand Vizier, judicial (qadis (judges, kazaskers, sheikh-ul-Islam and financial (defterdars branches of the Ottoman government. Legal prohibitions and mutual cooperation supported sustainable balance between these executive power branches.

  5. Municipio y mercado en el Aragón moderno : el abasto de carne en Zaragoza (siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Mateos Royo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio relativo a la política desarrollada por el Concejo de Zaragoza sobre el mercado de carne durante los siglos XVI y XVII. La prosperidad económica del reino de Aragón, la ciudad y municipio de Zaragoza durante el siglo XVI permitieron aumentar el control público sobre las transacciones de carne para asegurar a la población un suministro suficiente, así como sustentar la demanda local. Sin embargo, el declive económico del reino de Aragón y el creciente endeudamiento municipal durante el siglo XVII obligaron a reducir la presencia pública en el mercado y la defensa de la demanda local en el mercado de carne. El reajuste de la política municipal promovió la paulatina integración del mercado aragonés, proceso que continuó en el siglo XVIII para afianzarse durante la crisis final del Antiguo Régimen.This paper studies municipal politics carried out by the Zaragoza city council concerning the meat market during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Economic prosperity in the kingdom of Aragón, Zaragoza city and council during the sixteenth century allowed to increase public control of meat transactions in order to supply efficiently the population, as well as to support local demand. However, economic decline of the kingdom and raising municipal indebtedness during the seventeenth century led to reduce public intervention and support of local demand on the meat market. Readjustment of municipal politics gradually promoted the integration of the market in Aragón. This process continued during the eighteenth century and became firmly established during the final crisis of the "Ancien Régime".

  6. Nuclear power component in foresight on energy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczurek, J.; Chwaszczewski, S.; Czerski, P.; Luszcz, M.

    2007-01-01

    On behalf of Ministry of Science and Higher Education, the first technology foresight study on future developments in the energy sector is being conducted in Poland. The study aimed to identify energy-related technologies, scenarios, and a mix of energy sources and infrastructure developments that will ensure security of energy supply for Poland. This paper provides a short description of the methodology applied as well as preliminary results and findings of all subtasks of the foresight study referring to the perspective of nuclear power option in Poland, embracing a time horizon of 24 years. (author)

  7. New Localities of Rare Liverworts in the Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staniaszek-Kik Monika

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports new localities of four liverwort species, i.e., Fossombronia foveolata Lindb., Gymnocolea inflata (Huds. Dumort., Leiomylia anomala (Hook. J.J. Engel & Braggins and Odontoschisma denudatum (Mart. Dumort., found in Central Poland. The new sites are situated in peat bog habitats and swamp forest in the depression cone of lignite opencast mine near Bełchatów in Central Poland. All of the reported species are very rare and have only few localities in Central Poland.

  8. New and rare species of anamorphic fungi for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characters of and disease symptoms caused by five fungal species parasitizing on plants of the Słowiński National Park and the Drawieński National Park (both located in north-western Poland are presented. Of the species, Ramularia celastri and Ascochyta irpina are new for Poland, and Ascochyta geraniicola, Phyllosticta caricis and Septoriella junci have earlier rarely been found in this country. Moreover, the latter three fungi were found on plants so far not reported in the literature to be their hosts. Finally, the known distribution of the fungi characterized in both Poland and the other regions of the world is presented.

  9. [Dysentery and amoebiasis in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Dysentery as infective and contagious disease is registered by all EU and EFTA countries only as shigellosis according to etiological classification of the infectious diseases. The cases are also registered by ECDC. According to ECDC Report for 2006-2008 the incidence rate in Poland Sanitary Stations, send to the National Register of Infectious Diseases, evaluated, calculated and published by Department of Epidemiology National Institute of Public Health (NIZP-PZH) in Annual Bulletin "Infections and Intoxications in Poland in 2010", Warsaw NIZP-PZH and GIS (Chief Sanitary Inspectorate ) 2010. Laboratory data were collected as reports from all Regional Sanitary Laboratories send to NIZP-PZH Department of Bacteriology, data from epidemiological investigation of outbreaks including data from identification of Shigella strains obtained from the Reference Laboratory for Gram-negative Bacilli of NIZP-PZH Bacteriology Department. In 2010 thirty cases of shigellosis were registered (incidence was 0.08/100 000 inhabitants) the same number of cases and incidence was observed in 2009, nearly the same in 2008 - 33 cases (incidence 0.09). The numbers were lower than the median in 2004-2008 (64 cases, incidence 0.17/100 000). According to laboratory reports in all 16 Regional Sanitary Stations only 14 persons were Shigella positive, in spite that more than 600 000 were examined: 10 persons were infected by S. sonnei, 4 by S. flexneri. Only one strain of S. sonnei was isolated from a patient with diarrhea. It was in the Regional Sanitary Station laboratory of the małopolskie voievodeshaft. No one strain of S. boydii or S. dysenteriae was isolated. Most of the dysentery cases were examined by other laboratories than laboratories of sanitary epidemiological service. The obligation of private payment for bacteriological examination of suspected cases is one of reason that patient is treated with antibacterial drugs without determination of etiological agent of the infection. It

  10. The quality of drinking water in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An analysis of the drinking water quality and the degree of access to water supply and sewerage system in Poland was conducted. Materials and methods. Method of analysis of secondary statistical data was applied, mostly based on data available in the materials of the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw, the Waterworks Polish Chamber of Commerce in Bydgoszcz and the National Water Management in Warsaw. Result and discussion. 60 % of Poles do not trust to drink water without prior boiling. Water flowing from the taps, although widely available, is judged to be polluted, with too much fluorine or not having the appropriate consumer values (colour, smell and taste. The current water treatment systems can however improve them, although such a treatment, i.e. mainly through chlorination of water, deteriorates its quality in relation to pure natural water. The result is that fewer and fewer Poles drink water directly from the tap. They also less and less use tap water to cook food for which the bottled water is trusted more. Reason for that is that society does not trust the safety of the water supplied by the municipal water companies. The question thus is: Are they right? Tap water in Poland meets all standards since it is constantly monitored by the water companies and all relevant health services. Tap water supplied through the water supply system can be used without prior boiling. Studies have shown that only the operating parameters of water, suc h as taste, odour and hardness, are not satisfactory everywhere, different in each city, and sometimes in different districts of cities, often waking thoughts among users about its inappropriateness. The lowered water value can be easily improved at home through the use of filters. In conclusion, due to constant monitoring and investment in upgrading treatment processes, the quality of tap water has improved significantly in the last years. Conclusion. The results first allow assessing the

  11. CHP plant Legionowo Poland. Description of the electricity market in Poland/CHP-feasibility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    In 1997, a new energy law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for the Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for energy supply plans in the three municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the combined cycle type should be investigated. The present report describes the electricity market in Poland, the market in which a CHP plant in Legionowo will have to operate. Furthermore the report presents the results of the feasibility analysis carried out for a new CHP plant in Legionowo. (BA)

  12. Comparing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Poland and Denmark for Road Construction in Relation to Wildlife and Nature Protection : Report for Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Adrados, L. C.; Briggs, L

    Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A. DANCEE M124/031-0212......Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A. DANCEE M124/031-0212...

  13. INVENTORY IN POLAND - CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kemp

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Poland poddavalsya inventory changes. His origins are taking beginning in late and early vosemnadtsatoho devyatnadtsatoho century, when Polish state zahvatchyky sozdaly The first kadastrovыe otchetы. Austria, Prussia and Russia sozdalytry kadastrovыe system, three yspolzuyuschye system recovery country yzmerenyya.Vo TIME 1918 - 1939 Manuscript kadastrovыe bыly oriented work on the creation edynoy nalohovoy system for vsey territory of the country. After the war bыly zavershenы work. Modernization of the cadastre prodolzhalas in the direction Increase the accuracy and quality of data. At present Time Inventory Accounting vkljuchaet buildings, premises and plots zemelnыh, as well tesno svjazana with zemelnыm registers / ypotekoy. Information, soderzhaschayasya in Nam, everybody yspolzuetsya participants in the control nedvyzhymostyu (surveyors, otsenschykamy, brokers and upravlyayuschymy nedvyzhymostyu, courts and admynystratyvnыmy authorities zanymayuschyhsya territorial-prostranstvennыm Planning. Polskoy origins cadastral area. The first records of kadastrovыh measurement bыly sdelanы 4.5 million. Years ago. Poland was once zaklyuchalas Business surveyor in oblahorazhyvanyy. At the end trynadtsatoho century bыla Created rank post of High - korolevskyy podkamernыy, tasks kotorogo All selskohozyaystvennыe and lesnыe uhodya bыly ohvachenы oblastyu pochvovedenyya, classification of land osushchestvljaetsja edynoobrazno for vsey country on grounds ofytsyalnoy classes tablytsы land. THIS classification talk at kachestve and soil fertility. Class is determined on a 6-point scale (8 to pahotnыh land. This allows us to Compare Quality of land in any point of the country. By law dolzhna bыt yspolzovana in the Economic Planning and spatial statistics population in sudebnom and administrative razbyratelstve. All ofysы ymeyut access for cadastre data bases online free. Chastnyya Faces and company mogut Require info sobstvennoy REAL

  14. Poland: biomedical ethics in a socialist state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Zbigniew

    1987-06-01

    In one of a Hastings Center Report series of four country reports, a professor of ethics discusses the Polish approach to ethical issues in health care. Szawarski begins by outlining five factors that influence the practice of medicine in Poland: a socialist form of government, the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, an ongoing economic crisis, the legacy of the Nazi death camps, and a lack of formal instruction in biomedical ethics. He then discusses three current ethical concerns of physicians, patients, and the public: regulation of physician conduct, abortion, and in vitro fertilization. There is little formal public debate of the issues, however, and physicians seem committed to upholding traditional medical codes of ethics without analyzing underlying moral principles and justifications.

  15. PRISON EDUCATION IN POLAND: SPECIFICS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Becker-Pestka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems presented in the text refer to the education of convicts in Poland. It has been based on current Polish legal regulations, statistical data and specialist literature. The problems which refer to the education of convicts in Poland are regulated by the Act of 6th June 1997, the Executive Penal Code, the Act on the Education System and executive acts to the above-mentioned regulations. The current situation in the labour market requires people to acquire education and to improve their qualifications. People without education, who are excluded from the access to professional development and in-service training, find themselves in an extremely difficult situation. The lack of qualification and vocational skills usually leads to exclusion from the labour market. People who serve their sentences in prisons find themselves in a particularly difficult situation, because their lack of education may push them back into crime. A very positive tendency that may be observed in Poland is a growing demand for prison education. Convicts may acquire knowledge and raise their qualifications at various levels and in various fields. They may follow the curricula at the level of a primary or secondary school; they may pass their Matura certificate and, after the consent of relevant authorities, they can continue their education at the university level. Convicts may also learn a new profession, change their professional qualifications or acquire new additional skills during specialist courses. The qualifications acquired in this way shall meet current demand in the labour market, and convicts may find employment after they leave prisons. Education allows them to improve their self-esteem and self-reliance, to catch up with any deficiencies and to work on their self-discipline. At the same time, education offers opportunities to expand knowledge, to return to the society and to the labour market. It is important for convicts to obtain opportunities for

  16. CERN accelerator school: Introductory course in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    For the first time since the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) was set up, the 'Introduction to Accelerator Physics' course was held in Zakopane, Poland. This course was organised together with the National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw, and the AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, and was held from 1-13 October 2006 at the foot of the Tatra Mountains. The course was very well attended with 113 participants representing 26 different nationalities. Although most of the participants originated from Europe, some students came from countries as far away as Canada, China, India and North America. The intensive programme comprised 35 lectures, 3 seminars given by local Polish lecturers, 5 tutorials where the students were split into four groups, a poster session where students could present their own work and 7 hours of guided and private study. The participants appreciated these study periods, which encouraged collaboration and knowledge-sharing in solving problems and gave them the opportunity to get t...

  17. Rheumatology training in Poland vs. United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lazarewicz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When evaluating the quality of Rheumatology specialty training, it can be useful to explore similarities and differences between countries. In this article we compare the training in the UK and Poland. The two training programmes are similar in length and in the competencies that must be achieved, although they do have significant differences in the way the training is structured. The UK-based system is more out-patient based, which can be advantageous, as after completion of training the doctor is more confident in treating common rheumatological problems. On the other hand, having exposure to paediatric rheumatology and orthopaedics like one has in Polish-based training, despite a short placement time, is definitely beneficial for the trainee in gaining all-round knowledge. In conclusion, each system has its merits and can be further enhanced by observing how junior doctors are sub-speciality trained in different countries.

  18. Distribution of some lichenicolous fungi in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen species of lichenicolous fungi collected in 129 localities in Poland in the years 1968 and 1970-2003 are reported in the paper. They are as follows: Athelia arachnoidea (Berk. Jülich, Tremella cladoniae Diederich et M.S. Chrst., T. hypogymniae Diederich et M.S. Chris., T. lichecola Diederich, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis D. Hawksw., Polycoccum superficiale D. Hawksw. et Miądlikowska, Nectria lecanodes Ces., Pronectria erythrinella (Nyl. Lowen, Cortocifraga fuckelii (Rehm D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., C. peltigerae (Nyl. D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., Libertiella malmedyensis Speg. et Roum., Lichenoconium erodens M.S. Christ. et D. Hawksw., L. lecanorae (Jaap D. Hawksw., L. pyxidatae (Oudem. Petrak et Sydow, Vouauxiella lichenicola (Lindsay Petrak et Sydow, Bispora christiansenii D. Hawksw., Illosporium carneum Fr., Karsteniomyces peltigerae (P. Karst. D. Hawksw. and Taeniolella beschiana Diederich.

  19. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Mid-2016 Poland revamped its national support scheme for electricity from renewable energy sources, started to phase out a certificates-backed renewable electricity quota scheme, and put in place a feed-in tariff/feed-in premium (FiT/FiP) system in place with the support levels being determined by approved tender bids. Furthermore, a fiscal and soft loan instrument is used for supplementary support. Three subsidy instruments and a soft loan instrument are deployed for the promotion of renewable heat. Renewable energy in transport is promoted through a bio-fuels quota scheme

  20. Mycorrhiza of Dryopteris carthusiana in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliusz Unrug

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The research on mycorrhiza of Dryopteris carthusiana from natural sites and those contaminated by heavy metals (Niepołomice Forest, both on lowlands and mountainous areas in Poland, was carried out. Mycorrhizal colonization of Arum-type was higher in ferns growing on tree stumps than in specimens developing directly on the soil. Additionally, an increase in mycorrhiza intensity and arbuscular richness with the rising ground humidity was observed. In comparison to natural sites, mycorrhizas from the areas contaminated by heavy metals were much less developed and the roots were often infected by parasites. Two morphotypes of mycorrhizal fungi have been described The most common was a fine endophyte (Glomales.

  1. FINANCING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES INVESTMENT IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Piotr Gwizdała

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, as in other European Union countries, the project finance structure is used to finance investments in the field of energy. This method investment financing is often used in the world. The upward trend inhibition in recent periods has been due to the global financial crisis and financial instability in the euro zone. On account of the necessity to develop the energy infrastructure associated with renewable sources, the considerable strengthening in the use of project finance techniques can be expected. The particular progression may be observed in the case of public-private partnership (ppp, where public investments are carried out by private companies. Companies, in case of investment realization in the field of ppp, almost always use project finance, because it is a beneficial way to separate the risks associated with an investment from the balance sheet of the compa-ny.

  2. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P.

    2017-01-01

    This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe. This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015. References to epidemiological situation in other countries are limited to situations that may affect current or potential occurrence of the disease in Poland. The main source of epidemiological information for this summary is the data from the reports of the State Sanitary Inspection included in the annual bulletins “Infectious Diseases and Poisonings in Poland in 2015” and “Vaccination in Poland in 2015” (1, 2). The epidemiological situation of particular diseases is further elaborated in the Epidemiological Chronicle of the same issue of the Epidemiological Review. Data on deaths are based on the presentation of the Demographic and Labor Market Department of the Central Statistical Office on deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2015 and earlier. For a long time, the most common diseases among epidemiological surveillance it is upper respiratory tract infections classified as “influenza and suspected influenza”. In 2015, the number of cases was 3,843,438 (9 994,7 / 100,000). As to compare with the 2014’s incidence, this was an increase of 22.6%. In 2015, incidence of intestinal infections with etiology of salmonella increased by 2.8% compared to the previous year, but compared to the median of 2009-2013 was 2.5% lower. A serious epidemiological problem is a strong upward trend in nosocomial infections including infections caused by

  3. OZONE CONCENTRATION ATTRIBUTABLE PREMATURE DEATH IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere (troposphere, strong photochemical oxidant, is not directly emitted to the atmosphere but formed through a series of complex reactions. Ozone concentrations depends on ozone precursors air contamination (mainly nitrogen dioxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds and meteorological conditions (temperature and solar radiation. The main sectors emitted ozone precursors are road transport, power and heat generation plants, household (heating, industry, and petrol storage and distribution. Ozone and some of its precursors are also transported long distances in the atmosphere and are therefore considered a transboundary problem. As a result, the ozone concentrations are often low in busy urban areas and higher in suburban and rural areas. Nowadays, instead of particulate matter, ozone is one of the most widespread global air pollution problems. In and around urban areas, relatively large gradients of ozone can be observed. Because of its high reactivity in elevated concentrations ozone causes serious health problems and damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Main ill-health endpoints as a results of ozone concentrations can be characterised as an effect of pulmonary and cardiovascular system, time morbidity and mortality series, development of atherosclerosis and asthma and finally reduction in life expectancy. The associations with increased daily mortality due to ozone concentrations are confirmed by many researches and epidemiological studies. Estimation of the level selected ill-health endpoints (mortality in total and due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes as a result of the short-term ozone exposure in Poland was the main aim of the project. Final results have been done based on estimation method elaborated by WHO, ozone measurements from National Air Quality Monitoring System and statistical information such as mortality rate and populations. All analysis have been done in

  4. Calibration procedures for mammography dosemeters in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwiazdowska, B.; Ulkowski, P.; Tolwinski, J.; Bulski, W.

    2002-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent tumour in women and the effectiveness of the treatment depends dramatically on the early detection of the disease. That is the reason why in Poland the mammography control examinations are strongly supported by the Centre of Oncology. In Poland there are over 400 mammography units which account for about 300,000 examinations per year. An investigation performed by the Medical Physics Department of the Centre of Oncology in Warsaw at about 100 mammography facilities proved that in most cases the doses absorbed by the patients could be reduced without decrease of image quality. This is one of the reasons why the Polish Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) dealing mainly with calibration of radiotherapy dosemeters is extending its activities and therefore new facilities and equipment adapted for calibration of mammographic dosemeters have been installed. The mammography dosimetry calibration equipment is permanently installed in the same laboratory room where the radiotherapy dosemeters are calibrated. A base of a mammography unit no longer in clinical use, together with its movable system has been adapted to handle ionization chamber holders. An X-ray tube with a 50 kV high frequency generator was also installed. The tube, a Varian type OEG-50-2, (designed for laboratory applications) with molybdenum anode of an anode angle 23,7 deg. and with a large focus, effective size approximately 5 mm 2 , has an inherent filtration of 0,25 mm beryllium. It is installed in a housing with 2mm lead shielding; a cone shaped beam is formed by a system of three collimators

  5. MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF BANKRUPTCY OF ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to analyse the phenomenon of enterprises’ bankruptcy in Poland in 2004-2013 and attempt to build regression models defining the relationship between the number of bankrupted companies and selected macroeconomic parameters of the national economy. The analysis is based on Coface Poland reports presenting the phenomenon of bankruptcy in Poland of branches, provinces, legal forms of companies and types of bankruptcy proceedings. Studies have shown that the greatest risk of bankruptcy refers to metals production and fabricated metal products enterprises, manufacture of food products and beverages, wholesale trade, construction, micro and small enterprises, enterprises under the age of 10 years and companies from Mazovia region, Silesia and Lower Silesia. The estimated parameters of the regression models showed that the number of bankruptcies in Poland is strongly determined i.a. by the number of registered companies, GDP growth, dynamics of changes in fixed capital formation and changes in foreign exchange rates.

  6. The large superpredators' teeth from Middle Triassic of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmik, Dawid; Brachaniec, Tomasz

    2013-09-01

    An unusual large teeth, finding from time to time in marine sediments of Muschelkalk, Silesia, Poland indicate the superpredators occurrence. According to size and morphological features the teeth are similar to archosaurs or giant marine reptiles.

  7. Civil Military Relations and Defense Reform in Poland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomaszycki, Marek

    2006-01-01

    .... From the beginning, these changes in the European order included security problems. This paper describes changes in the national security of Poland since 1989 with a focus on the Polish Armed Forces (PAF...

  8. Privatization and Corporate Governance in Poland: Problems and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Kozarzewski

    2006-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the problems of the impact of privatization on corporate governance formation in Poland. It discusses the dilemmas of choosing a model for privatization and corporate governance, legal background, mechanisms of corporate governance formation depending on a privatization method applied, and the evolution of these structures in the course of systemic transformation in Poland. The Author comes to the conclusion that the processes of privatization and corporate governance ...

  9. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Paska

    2015-01-01

    One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland), NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA), ...

  10. Cooperative business models in steel enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sroka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of cooperative business models in steel enterprises in Poland. The starting point is the presentation of the concept of business models, which is defined as a way of doing business based on cooperation between enterprises. This paper presents two collaborative business models, namely outsourcing and alliance networks, comparing the theoretical assumptions with the results of research carried out in steel enterprises in Poland.

  11. Test of the Bank Lending Channel: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu HSING

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the bank lending channel for Poland based on a simultaneousequation model consisting of demand for and supply of bank loans. The three-stage least squares method is employed in empirical work. This paper finds support for a bank lending channel for Poland. Expansionary monetary policy through a lower money market rate or open market purchase of government bonds to increase bank reserves/deposits would increase bank loan supply.

  12. Estimation of weights for the Monetary Conditions Index in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Toroj

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we follow the econometric approach to assess relative importance of real interest rate and real exchange rate for the monetary conditions in Poland, quantified as weights for Monetary Conditions Index (MCI). We consider both single- and multiple-equation specifications proposed in the literature with an application to Poland. Although MCI is nowadays broadly considered a rather obsolete indicator in monetary policy conduct, we argue that the econometric framework used for this ...

  13. Do Cooperative Banks Really Serve Agricultural Sector in Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Zawojska, Aldona; Siudek, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the potential of cooperative banks for serving agricultural sector in Poland and to identify the areas with the most development potential. We discuss the transformation process in the cooperative banking system under market economy, and in particular investigate importance of cooperative banks for farms' financing on the basis of our survey of banks. Moreover, the role of cooperative banks in transmission of Government policy supporting farm sector in Poland...

  14. Materials of conference: Hydrogeological Problems of South-West Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogeological problems of South-west Poland is the collection of conference papers held in Szklarska Poreba on 20-22 June 1996. The materials have been gathered in three topical groups: water quality problems in hydrological cycle, regional hydrogeology of South-west Poland, theoretical problems and research methods in hydrogeology. More of performed articles have a interdisciplinary character taking into account the precipitation and surface water quality and their influence on ground water features

  15. Puccinia scillae (Uredinales, a new species for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ruszkiewicz-Michalska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a rust species new for Poland, that affects the ornamental plant Scilla siberica Haw. The distribution of the fungus and its host plants, both introduced and native in Europe, have been investigated. The data from neighbouring countries indicate that the parasite has been probably overlooked in Poland till now. There is a possibility, however, that the species is currently spreading in central and north-eastern Europe.

  16. Soft restructuring process in metallurgical enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the range and outcomes of soft restructuring in metallurgical enterprises in Poland. The term ‘soft restructuring’ applies to changes in metallurgical enterprises’ employment policy during the period of political transformation in Poland. Steelworks performance under the market economy conditions demanded introducing changes in staff resources. Changes referred both to the staff structure as well as employees’ skills and gradual engaging of the staff in building the steelworks’ competitive advantage.

  17. Riforme economiche e lotte politiche nel Giappone medievale. Il governo delle attività economiche durante le guerre civili del XVI secolo

    OpenAIRE

    Gresti Maurizio

    1999-01-01

    XVI century Japan ended a long period of transition: finally a new and stable institutional framework emerged under the Tokugawa "shogun". For a very long time the Imperial court, confined in Kyoto, had played an almost symbolic rule, while the power was in the hands of military governments (bakufu). However bakufu were increasingly unable to control local developments and in the provinces a new class of powerful landlords ("daimyo") was gaining autonomy in military, judicial, administrative ...

  18. El vigía de la costa: funcionario olvidado de la historia de Yucatán, siglos XVI al XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Victoria Ojeda

    2015-09-01

    This article presents an official who worked on the beaches of Yucatan, whose presence in regional history goes from colonial to independent times (XVI century-1867. Its role had not been studied in Hispanic America. In this research we give you to know the legal and illegal affairs that the watchtower (vigía performed in his job and waht that employment had implied.

  19. Évora, Algumas Etapas Fundamentais na Evolução da Cidade até ao Século XVI

    OpenAIRE

    Simplício, Maria

    2006-01-01

    O presente artigo pretende sistematizar as etapas fundamentais da evolução urbana da cidade de Évora desde a sua fundação, em época pré-romana, até ao século XVI, durante o qual a cidade alcançou a sua época de maior riqueza e importância política, económica, cultural e artística.

  20. PRODUCEREA ŞI COMERCIALIZAREA BĂUTURILOR ALCOOLICE ÎN ORAŞELE DIN RZECZPOSPOLITA ŞI ŢARA MOLDOVEI (SEC.XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae DUDNICENCO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Articolul vizează producerea, comercializarea şi consumul băuturilor alcoolice în oraşele din Rzeczpospolita (a berii, a votcii, a miedului şi din Ţara Moldovei (a vinului, a rachiului, a berii, a brăgii în sec. XVI-XVII. Se investighează mo­dul de producere, comercializare, precum şi taxele care se percepeau pentru băuturile alcoolice în oraşele din teri­toriul dat. Producerea băuturilor alcoolice aducea venituri mari economiei oraşelor din spaţiul indicat supra.PRODUCTION AND COMMERCIALISATION OF ALCOHOLIC DRINKS IN RZECZPOSPOLITA AND MOLDOVA PRINCIPALITY CITIES (XVI-XVII C.The article targeting the production, marketing and consumption of alcoholic drinks in the cities from Rzeczpospolita (beer, vodka, mead and from Moldova (wine, spirits, beer, braga in the XVI-XVII c. It have been investigated the mode of production, sell and taxes at which were subjected the alcoholic drinks in the cities on that territory. Production of alcoholic drinks brought substantial revenues to the economy of the cities from the indicated area.

  1. The impact of extreme weather conditions on the life of settlers in the Central Russia in X - XVI centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Irina; Nizovtsev, Viacheslav; Erman, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    resulted in crop damage and famine. From the XIV century the little Ice Age began. Year average temperature becomes lower by 1.4°C and summer temperature - by 2-3°C. In the XIV century the chronicles mentioned a total of 100 extreme natural phenomena, as a result of which Russia experienced more than 37 years of famine. The climate was particularly variable in late XIV - early XV century and XVI - XVII centuries, when there were years of particularly cold winters and increased humidity (due to winter precipitation). The duration of the crop growing season was reduced by three weeks. At the beginning of the XVII century spruce became dominant in the spruce-deciduous forests and co-dominant in deciduous forests. There was a transfer of settlements and agricultural land to interfluve areas and higher river valleys. The determining factors were demographic, socio-economic and historical factors, but the role of natural factors cannot be overlooked. The end of the XVI century was marked by the most severe political and economic crisis in the Russian State (oprichnina (political and administrative apparatus established by Ivan IV) and Livonian Wars by Ivan IV), which, combined with deteriorating environmental conditions (increased humidity of the climate, the average annual temperature drop) caused massive desolation of the lands. Many hundreds of villages turned into wasteland. In this period the Moscow land was reported as a "wild desert, covered with shrubs, bogs and imbanks", there were also memories of the past navigation on small rivers, data on mills on the streams. The climate deterioration caused the agrarian revolution in Russia in XIV-XVI centuries. Slash-and-burn and shifting cultivation was replaced by plow farming system (two- and three-field), which was more adapted to the harsh climatic conditions. The work is performed under project № 17-05-00662of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research

  2. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teresinska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bozena; Krolicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Miroslaw

    2014-01-01

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular

  3. Two steps back: Poland's new abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, W

    1993-06-01

    After the fall of Communism in Poland, the Catholic church exerted pressure to increase its influence in public life. One way in which this pressure has manifested itself has been in the passing of a restrictive abortion bill which was signed into law on February 15, 1993. Abortion had been legalized in Poland in 1956 and was used as a means of birth control because of a lack of availability and use of contraceptives. The number of abortions performed was variously reported as 60,000 - 300,000/year. In 1990, the Ministry of Health imposed restrictions on abortions at publicly funded hospitals, and 3 deaths were reported from self-induced abortions. In 1 year (1989-90), the number of induced abortions at 1 hospital dropped from 71 to 19, while the number of self-induced abortions increased from 48 to 85. Further restrictions were introduced in May 1992 as part of the "Ethical Code for Physicians," which allows abortions only in cases where the mother's life or health is in danger or in cases or rape. This code brought abortions to a halt at publicly funded hospitals and doubled or even tripled the cost of private abortions. Women have been refused abortions in tragic and life=threatening situations since the code was adopted. When an outright anti family planning bill was drafted in November 1992, the Polish citizenry collected 1,300,000 signatures to force a referendum. The referendum was not held, but the bill was defeated. The amended bill which passed allows abortions in publicly funded hospitals only when the mother's life or health is in danger and in cases of rape, incest, or incurable deformity of the fetus. The implications of this law remain unclear, since its language is strange and vague. The reproductive rights of Polish women face a further threat because the Catholic church is working to limit the availability of contraceptive methods which they deem to be "early abortives." On the other side of the issue, the Federation for Women and Planned

  4. Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening program in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawien, A; Formankiewicz, B; Derezinski, T; Migdalski, A; Brazis, P; Woda, L

    Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is currently recommended by several vascular societies. In countries where it has been introduced the prevalence of AAAs differed greatly and was mainly related to cigarette smoking. The screening program also had an enormous impact on the decrease of AAA ruptures and reduced mortality rate. These facts have led to the introduction of the first screening program for AAAs in Poland. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of AAAs among men aged 60 years and older undergoing ultrasound examination of the abdominal aorta. A single ultrasonography of the abdomen was performed to assess the aorta from the renal arteries to the bifurcation and the diameter of the aorta was measured at its widest point. The cut-off value for determining an aortic aneurysm was set at a diameter of ≥ 30 mm. All ultrasonography measurements were performed by physicians in outpatient departments throughout the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Province. Additionally, each subject had to fill out a questionnaire with demographic data, smoking habits, existing comorbidities and familial occurrence of AAAs. The study was conducted from October 2009 to November 2011. The abdominal aorta ultrasound examinations were carried out in 1556 men aged 60 years and older. The prevalence of AAA in the study population was 6.0 % (94 out of 1556). The average age of the men was 69 years (SD 6 years, range 60-92 years). In the study population 55 % of the men smoked or had smoked and 3 % were aware of the presence of AAAs in family members. There were three risk factors significantly associated with the presence of AAAs: age (p < 0.05), smoking (72.3 % vs 53.9 %, p = 0.004) and family history of AAAs (9.6 % vs 2.7 %, p = 0.017). The prevalence of AAAs among men in Poland is higher than in other European countries and the USA. The screening program for AAAs is an easy and reliable method for detecting early stages of the disease and

  5. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresinska, Anna [Institute of Cardiology, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Birkenfeld, Bozena [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Szczecin (Poland); Krolicki, Leszek [Warsaw Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Dziuk, Miroslaw [Military Institute of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-10-15

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes

  6. Nuclear Physics in Poland 1996-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, R.; Dobaczewski, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Palacz, M.; Styczen, J.

    2007-12-01

    This Report is a result of the Polish Nuclear Physics Network (PNPN) action having as objective the mapping study of the basic and applied research in this domain in Poland. In the often employed slang it constitutes one of the '' deliverables '' of the EWON (East-West Outreach) Network, operating within the I3- (Integrated Infrastructure Initiative) EURONS, one of the Nuclear Physics projects in the Six Framework Programme (FP6). However, although prepared within the nuclear structure EURONS framework, this mapping study also reports on the activities in the hadron physics in Poland (organized in the FP6 within a second Nuclear Physics project I3-Hadron Physics) as well as in Nuclear Theory and Applications of Nuclear Physics. The Report contains references to activities and published papers from the last ten years: 1996 - 2006. In some cases also slightly older data are included, if necessary, for the completeness of the reported subjects. The Report is organized as follows. After the information on Polish Nuclear Physics Network (a part of the EWON Network), a few overview papers describe the main domains of the PNPN scientific activity. The contents of these papers were previously presented during the NuPECC meeting, held in Krakow June 9, 2006. A number (89) of more detailed contributions (together with appropriate references) emanating from various research groups follows the review articles. Some of the contributions provide concise summaries of wide research activities. Other authors preferred to report separately or individually on narrower topics. Most of the presented activities were conducted within the international collaborations. However, the adopted policy was that only Polish researchers are indicated as authors of the contributions, whereas the international collaborations are reflected by (all) authors of cited publications. The Polish Nuclear Physics Long-Range Plan prepared recently by the Nuclear Physics Committee of the National Atomic Energy

  7. Rutas de circulación e intercambio de sal en la provincia de Tunja, segunda mitad del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Ofelia Acuña Rodriguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A través de este texto se pretende dar a conocer cómo las rutas de circulación de sal en la Provincia de Tunja contribuyeron a configurar un gran espacio económico, que integró a las provincias de Santa Fe, Pamplona y Tunja en el Nuevo Reino de Granada, durante el siglo XVI. Se partió de una reflexión historiográfica relacionada con la circulación y el comercio de la sal, los medios de transporte y las rutas usadas por los indígenas y los españoles; a partir de las cuales se consolidó un espacio económico mediado por la producción y distribución de la sal, que convirtió a la provincia de Tunja en un eje articulador de relaciones entre los sitios productores de sal en la provincia de Santa Fe y los consumidores de las provincias de Tunja y Pamplona. Esta articulación regional facilitó tanto la circulación de productos de distintos pisos térmicos, como la integración de un amplio territorio colonial. Esto debido a que la localización de Tunja como lugar de paso y conexión entre las Provincias de Santafé, Pamplona y los Llanos de San Juan, hizo de esta ciudad y sus términos un atractivo para el asentamiento hispano, a la vez que generó, durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVI, la posibilidad para que se organizaran en toda la Provincia de Tunja, sitios de aposento, venta y reventa de productos importados de España y productos de la tierra, para el sustento y abastecimiento de las necesidades básicas, y de esta forma sacar provecho de las producciones locales como la sal, el hayo, el algodón, las mantas y otros productos.

  8. Hidalgos del Ribeiro de Avia: la casa de Candendo en San Miguel de Lebosende (Leiro, siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Palmeiro, Iago

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the first results of our investigations concerning the Gonzalez Candendo family, native to San Miguel de Lebosende, council of Leiro. Its history goes back to the late sixteenth century and ends in the early eighteenth, with its union to a secondary branch of Quiroga Garza family. To this end, we will base our analysis on two main points: the genealogy and heritage, essential mainstays to understand the origin and socio-economic development of its members. Our aim is to provide a small contribution to the understanding of this social group in the rural area of Ourense and, by extension, in the inland Galicia.El propósito de este artículo es dar a conocer los primeros resultados de nuestras investigaciones al respecto de la familia González Candendo, oriunda de San Miguel de Lebosende, ayuntamiento de Leiro. Su historia se remonta hasta finales del siglo XVI y concluye en los inicios del XVIII, con su unión a una rama secundaria de los Garza Quiroga de Tor. A tal efecto, basaremos nuestro análisis en dos puntos principales: la genealogía y el patrimonio, pilares fundamentales para comprender el origen y la evolución socio-económica de sus miembros. Con ello pretendemos brindar una pequeña contribución al conocimiento de este grupo social en el área rural orensana y, por extensión, en la Galicia interior. [gl] O propósito deste artigo é dar a coñecer os primeiros resultados das nosas investigacións respecto da familia González Candendo, oriúnda de San Miguel de Lebosende, concello de Leiro. A súa historia remóntase até finais do século XVI e conclúe nos inicios do XVIII, coa súa unión a unha rama secundaria dos Garza Quiroga de Tor. Con tal obxecto, basearemos a nosa análise en dous puntos principais: a xenealoxía e o patrimonio, alicerces fundamentais para comprender a orixe e a evolución socioeconómica dos seus membros. Con iso pretendemos brindar unha pequena contribuci

  9. Chinese Tourists in Cracow, Poland: Their Profile, Expectations, and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkiewicz Paulina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In 2012, China became the largest spender in international tourism, benefiting many destinations worldwide. Even if for Poland it is not an important source market yet, the Polish authorities have undertaken some marketing activities in China. The main aim of the paper is to explore the profile, motivations, and perceptions of the Chinese tourists visiting Cracow. The secondary aim is to check the effectiveness of the marketing efforts dedicated to the Chinese market undertaken by Poland since 2010. Material and methods. Data for the study (n = 100 were collected using a paper survey in English carried out among mainland Chinese tourists in Cracow in 2015. Results. The Chinese usually visit Poland for the first time, often in transit. They are prompted by the information found online and by word of mouth. Their main reasons to come are tradition, culture, historical sites, landscapes, and low costs. These expectations are well fulfilled, and the tourists′ overall satisfaction is very high. The Chinese find Poland to be different from other Western European countries. For them, Poland is a remarkable, traditional, safe, and developing country. Yet, their knowledge about the destination is limited. The main problem encountered is the language barrier, both online and once on site. The marketing efforts undertaken by Poland in the Chinese market have had weak and ambivalent effects. Conclusions. In order to attract Chinese tourists, there is a need to intensify expenditure not only on promotion (mainly online but also on the removal of language-based communication problems. There is also scope for expanding the tourist offer dedicated to Chinese tourists - both in Poland and in cooperation with other Central European countries.

  10. Liandratite from Karkonosze pegmatites, Sudetes, Southwestern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyszczak, Witold

    2018-06-01

    The chemical composition of liandratite, U6+(Nb,Ta)2O8, was determined from material collected in Niobium, Yttrium, Fluorine type (NYF) pegmatites of the Karkonosze intrusion (Sudetes, SW Poland). Liandratite occurs mainly as rims, up to 40 µm thick, and fracture infillings in fergusonite-(Y) and other Nb-Ta-Ti minerals. Its formation was related to the fluid-driven alteration of primary minerals by three potential mechanisms: (i) direct replacement of a primary mineral by liandratite; (ii) breakdown of the primary mineral to liandratite and a product with the composition of minerals of the pyrochlore group; (iii) multistage alteration, which involved: removal of A-site cations (mostly Y + REE with the exception of U4+) and formation of phases with the composition of pyrochlore group minerals; then crystallization of U-, Bi-, Pb-rich pyrochlores and their replacement by liandratite. The chemical compositions of liandratite formed by the breakdown of different primary minerals are also different, mainly in their U, Ti and Nb contents. Excess Ti, relative to the U6+Nb2O8 end-member, is incorporated into the structure together with additional U. The Ti content of liandratite, and partially through this the U content, are dependent on the nature of the precursor mineral.

  11. Radioactive Contamination of Agricultural Products in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muszynski, W.; Grabowski, D.; Rubel, B.; Kurowski, W.; Swietochowska, J.; Smagala, G.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological contamination of the environment is caused by nuclear activities on the globe: nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The transfer of radionuclides to the organism via ingestion is one of the sources of doses obtained by people. To assess the doses received by humans the intake of isotopes with daily diet was defined. The concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs was determined. The network of Service for Measurement of Radioactive Contamination systematically controls all kinds of important agricultural products such as milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals and forest products: mushrooms, blueberries etc. Measurement stations involved in food monitoring act within Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations, Veterinary Hygiene Units and Chemical-Agricultural Stations. All activities are co-ordinated by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The level of activity of caesium isotopes has regularly been monitored in collected samples originating from different administrative districts of Poland. Since 1994 the 134 Cs concentration has been below the detection limit. The activity of 137 Cs has been measured to determine long-term effect of the accident on the contamination of milk, meat and other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  12. Development trends in mining technologies. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1983-01-01

    Research programs on underground black coal mining in Poland are discussed. It is assumed that no major technology changes will take place by the year 2000. Second generation of mining technologies will be used after the year 2000. The following technologies of the second generation are discussed: in-situ gasification, chemical coal disintegration, manless hydraulic mining with hydraulic transport. Research programs on technologies of the second generation should guarantee their commercial and economic use by the year 2000. The following targets for research programs aimed at increasing productivity, reducing mining cost, reducing labor and increasing safety in mining, covering the next 2 decades are comparatively evaluated: increasing advance rate of longwall faces, increasing machine time of integrated face systems by at least 20%, improving design of powered supports for eliminating rock falls, development of heavy-duty face systems for longwall mining with hydraulic stowing, development of face systems for mining thick coal seams on their whole thickness, slice mining thick coal seams with artificial roofs, bidirectional longwall mining by shearer loaders, use of more elastic and reliable mining systems.

  13. External quality audits in radiotherapy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulski, W.; Rostkowska, J.; Kania, M.; Gwiazdowska, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Medical Physics Department of the Centre of Oncology in Warsaw is a continuation of the Radiation Measurements Laboratory created in 1937, following the suggestions of Marie Curie, the founder of the Institute. The present SSDL is a member of the WHO/IAEA international network and is periodically audited by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The SSDL is in charge of the calibration of all radiotherapy dosimeters in Poland, and it also co-ordinates all activities carried out in radiotherapy quality assurance programmes nation-wide. The External Audit Group (EAG) was set-up according to the recommendations of the IAEA, as a part of the SSDL. The EAG is in charge of the management of the project and organization of the TLD measurements. The SSDL takes the responsibilities of the metrological aspects of the programme. The results of the efforts, aimed at the development of a quality audit programme and methodology in radiotherapy, are presented

  14. Thallium in mineral resources extracted in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojakowska I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thallium concentrations in primary mineral commodities extracted in Poland and processed in high temperatures were determined by ICP-MS method. Samples of hard and brown coal, copper-silver and zinclead ores, argillaceous and calcareous rocks of different genesis and age were analyzed. The highest thallium concentrations occur in the zinc-lead ores, the average content being of 52.1 mg/kg. The copper ores contain in average 1.4 mg/kg of thallium. Hard coals from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin display higher thallium content than those exploited in the Lublin Coal Basin. Brown coals from Turow deposit distinguish by much higher values, 0.7 mg/kg Tl, than those from huge Bełchatów and smaller Konin-Turek region deposits. Average thallium concentrations in clays used for ceramic materials are lower than 1 mg/kg, except of Mio-Pliocene Slowiany deposit. The average content of thallium in the studied limestone and dolomite raw materials for cement, lime, and metallurgical flux, and refractories is very low in comparison to the average amounts in the world carbonate rocks.

  15. Science popularization and European citizenship in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Piotr Szubiakowski

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea to link European citizenship and science education is surely new and uncommon in Poland, but we think, as SEDEC project, that can enrich both the panorama of science popularization outside and inside school system. I checked carefully curricula for every stage of school education looking for the topics concerning the developing of the European citizenship. I found that they are usually connected to the history, geography and some activities developing of the knowledge about generally defined citizenship. The spare topics connected directly to the science are present especially in grammar school curriculum. They may be divided into three groups: exploiting the common heritage, common object of interest and scientific community respectively. In that paper I would like to show how the activities in each of the group may influence the EU citizenship developing process. I am going to emphasize the good choice of science as a context or a medium for EU citizenship education. It may be an important point especially in Central Europe. Additionally I would like to present some auxiliary events that are enable through the external educational resources such as museum and planetarium.

  16. The Development of Explosive Metalworking in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babul W.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The author coordinated the research in Poland by the collaboration with civil and military scientific and research centres. In result they elaborated detonation process of spraying coats designed and constructed stands equipped with detonative devices, they also elaborated the techniques of basic coating parameter measurement and built devices for commercial and scientific services. In the research the author's achievements within the range of explosive welding have been used. The experience of the scientific teams was very effective. It was observed that many phenomena that take place in the processes of detonative layer coating and explosive welding are the same. In order to obtain a required connection the plastic strain of the connected material surfaces has to be achieved and cumulative flows have to be formed. There are a similar range of the connecting process conditions and the mechanisms of plastic strain. The highest connection strength is obtained when an intermediate zone is formed. The zone has to be composed of the two connected materials. The intermediate layer is formed as a result of mechanical alloying of the materials due to large plastic strain. The plastic strain leads to forming meta-stable phases that have properties of pseudo solid solution, chemical compounds, intermetallic phases and fragmentation corresponding to nanomaterials and amorphous states.

  17. Poland: A Dark Side of Church Cultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szocik Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultural policy of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland is incorporated into state-run cultural policies. The organs of public authority enforce the objectives of Church regardless of Church’s actual ability to influence the society. It should be pointed out that the secularization of religion in Poland is frequently misinterpreted and usually equated with its deprivatization. It is worth mentioning that Catholicism is the dominant religion of the country and the Roman Catholic Church has hold a special position in Poland and play a major role in the country’s social and political life. In practice, however, Polish society appears to be religiously indifferent. This paper proves that the official, state-run cultural policy in Poland is based on favoritism of the Roman Catholic Church, regardless of Church’s actual ability to wield influence on society. Thus, there is a variety of implicit and explicit cultural policies implemented by the authorities to support Church. This work also aims at addressing the question of social attitudes to women, especially the one concerning the UN and EU law embracing women’s rights, until recently still not implemented in Poland. This paper further explores some peculiarities of this topic as an example of a specific outcome of Church cultural policy and its impact on both the past and present-day society.

  18. La revocación de disposiciones testamentarias en codicilos valencianos de los siglos XV y XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Piqueras Juan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta en este artículo la investigación realizada sobre un tipo concreto de documentos de aplicación práctica del derecho relacionados con las sucesiones mortis causa, los codicilos. Sobre la base de un grupo de 30 codicilos valencianos de los siglos XV y primeros años del XVI, se sistematiza la orientación de las diversas modificaciones que estos documentos introdujeron sobre testamentos anteriores, de forma que es accesible la valoración de las cuestiones que resultaron de mayor interés para los testadores, apareciendo resultados que sugieren la idea de predominio de una mentalidad práctica por encima de las cuestiones directamente relacionadas con el mundo espiritual.Our research focuses on a particular type of document, the codicil, which involves a practical legal application of inheritance upon death. We use a group of thirty Valencian codicils of the fifteenth and earl ysixteenth centuries in order to categorize the manifold modifications that these documents introduced in previous wills. The result is a more accessible assessment of the issues that were of most interest to the testers, which leads one to suggest the idea of a practical mind-set prevailing over issues directly related to the spiritual realm.

  19. La Biblioteca Universitaria de Salamanca en el siglo XVI: entre tradición y renovación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de la MANO GONZÁLEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Con el Humanismo surgió una nueva idea del saber que dio lugar también a una nueva concepción de las bibliotecas. A lo largo del siglo XVI esta concepción se concretará en nuevas clasificaciones del saber, en tratados sobre la historia, funciones y organización de las bibliotecas, en nuevas soluciones arquitectónicas y de instalaciones. Presentamos el ejemplo de la biblioteca de la Universidad de Salamanca, que a mediados de la centuria emprendió el camino hacia la modernización. Sin embargo, los avatares que jalonaron su trayectoria, desde su construcción física e intelectual hasta su funcionamiento interno, pasando por los procesos de recolocación y ordenamiento de los libros, le impidieron alcanzarla en plenitud.ABSTRACT: Humanism brought a new idea about knowledge that made appear a new library concept. Along sixteenth century this concept will origin new knowledge classifications, treatise about library history, functions and organization, new architectural and installations solutions We present Salamanca University Library case which, around the middle of the century, began the way to its modernization. However, the difficulties that it found on this way, from its physical and conceptual building, to its internal functioning, through books placing and classification process, hindered it to get completely its new image.

  20. Scientific approach to the specific liturgical features in the pontificate of Pope Benedict XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Caban

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Artykuł dotyczy pontyfikatu papieża Benedykta XVI i jego wkładu w dziedzinie liturgii. Zwraca uwagę na różne fakty rozwijające się w duchu autentyczności i wierności względem liturgii rzymskokatolickiej, na możliwości liturgicznej formy rytów, na nowe motu proprio i na użycie języka łacińskiego w liturgii zachodniej. Artykuł pragnie dać obraz pontyfikatu obecnego papieża w relacji do duszpasterskiej posługi w parafiach. Chce ukazać, że liturgia w jej różnorodności nie jest nigdy krokiem wstecz, ale przejawem autentyczności i wierności względem orędzia Chrystusa.

  1. Moscow Autocracy of XVI - XVII Centuries: Eastern ‘’Despotism’’ or an Early Modern European Monarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilij A. Zajcev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems related to the peculiarities of the Russian state political and legal development during the early New Time (XVI-XVII centuries in a comparative-historical aspect against the background of similar processes taking place in neighboring European states. The authors come to the conclusion that, despite certain, dictated by objective reasons (first of all, the conditions for the emergence and subsequent development, there are more common features than the differences between the processes of the political and legal sphere development in Russia and Western Europe. The fact that this community escaped from the view of researchers is related, in the authors' opinion, to the fact that foreign observers, describing the political system of an early Russian state, dealt only with an outer shell, while its internal contents remained if not a secret, then, in any case, a mystery for them. They were not admitted to the Russian political cuisine, and therefore the details of Russian political and legal institution functioning remained unavailable to them.

  2. Defensa a la antigua y a la moderna en el Reino de Valencia durante el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Arciniega García

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aporta documentación inédita sobre diversas obras de defensa llevadas a cabo en el Reino de Valencia durante el siglo XVI. Las noticias, interesantes por si solas, quedan insertas en un panorama amplio que permite entender la diversidad de sistemas defensivos como un medio de adaptación a las necesidades y los medios, rechazando el prejuicio que interpreta la pervivencia de la tradición exclusivamente como un rasgo arcaico. Además se incide en la labor de ingenieros, militares y cargos de la administración en las realizaciones defensivas.This article provides us with unpublished documentation about several defensive works carried out during the Kingdom of Valencia, in the XVIth Century. The information, interesting by itself, is inserted in a wide outlook that allows to understand the diversity of defensive systems as a way of adapting to necessities and resources and rejects the prejudice that interprets the survival of tradition only as an archaic feature. Futhermore, in the defensive works, the labour of engineers, soldiers and responsables of Administration is being emphasized.

  3. Racismo/sexismo epistémico, universidades occidentalizadas y los cuatro genocidios/ epistemicidios del largo siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMÓN GROSFOGUEL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el racismo/sexismo epistémico fundacional a las estructuras de conocimiento de la universidad occidentalizada. El artículo plantea que el privilegio epistémico del hombre occidental en las estructuras de conocimiento de las universidades occidentalizadas es el resultado de cuatro genocidios/epistemicidios en el largo siglo XVI (contra la población de origen judío y musulmán en la conquista de Al-Andalus, contra los pueblos indígenas en la conquista del continente americano, contra los africanosraptados y esclavizados en el continente americano y contra las mujeres quemadas vivas bajo acusaciones de brujería en Europa. El artículo plantea que el argumento de Dussel de que la condición de posibilidad del «yo pienso, luego existo» (ego cogito cartesiano de mediados del siglo XVII son los 150 años de «yo conquisto, luego existo» (ego conquiro está mediada históricamente por el genocidio/epistemicidio del «yo extermino, luego existo» (ego extermino. El «yo extermino» como mediación socio-histórica estructual entre el «yo pienso» y el «yo conquisto».

  4. El adulterio y la violencia femenina en algunos pliegos sueltos poéticos del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Pérez, María

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the depiction of adultery and female violence in poetic chapbooks of the 16th century. By going over several cases we will show that adulterous women perform all kinds of atrocities and killings to enjoy her lover freely. Occasionally she will murder her husband, but also anyone who comes between their relationship. The image we get, then, is that of a lustful, cruel and dangerous woman, according to the mentality of the time.El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el tratamiento del adulterio y la violencia femenina en pliegos sueltos poéticos del siglo XVI. Mediante un recorrido por varios casos veremos cómo la mujer adúltera comete todo tipo de atrocidades y asesinatos para gozar libremente de su amante. En ocasiones asesinará al marido, pero también a todos aquellos que se interpongan en su relación. Se nos presenta así la imagen de una mujer libidinosa, cruel y peligrosa, de acuerdo con la concepción y la mentalidad de la época.

  5. Poland's Services Trade with the European Union During the Preaccession Period

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Mongiało

    2004-01-01

    The fact that, since 1 May 2004, Poland has the status of European Union member involves certain consequences for Poland's competitiveness in the international services trade market. What competitive position will Poland finally occupy among the EU countries in the postaccession period will to a large extent depend on Poland's present position in the services trade with the EU countries. So, the paper tries to present, on the basis of the most recent available statistical data published by th...

  6. Expert views from Poland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Põlluste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Home care (HC is placed between the health and social welfare systems, and the clients of HC mostly need health services. Along with other providers, family doctors (FDs are usually involved in the provision of care. Objectives. This paper aims to describe and compare the involvement of HC providers to elderly and disabled persons in Poland and Estonia. Material and methods . This study is part of the international project EURHOMA P (Mapping Professional Home Care in Europe. Data was collected in 2008–2010. Experts from different areas of health and social care were queried by using a questionnaire containing structured case narratives, which were hypothetical descriptions of the situations of elderly or disabled persons living at home and in need of care. Results. There are a number of HC services, e.g. nursing, medical and social, available in both countries. The application for HC is mostly made by the patient or a close family member; the point of entry to HC can differ and depends on the client’s primary problem. FDs, together with social workers, play an important role in the provision of HC services in both countries. However, due to a shortage of round-the-clock professional services at a client’s home, families are also expected to play a large role in providing HC . Conclusions . Health care professionals, mainly those working in primary health care, play a remarkable role in access to and provision of HC services. Nevertheless, responsibility for 24-hour care lies, to a large extent, with the client’s immediate family. This situation seems to be typical in Eastern European countries.

  7. Pedestrian Safety in Road Traffic in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Mackun, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Every third road accident in Poland involves a pedestrian as a participant or, most of the time, a casualty. Pedestrian accidents are usually the result of complex situations and the outcome of a number of factors related to driver and pedestrian behaviour and road infrastructure. Safety depends largely on how well the traffic condition is perceived and on visibility in traffic. The paper presents the results of analyses of methodologies for systematic studies of pedestrian behaviour and pedestrian-driver relations. The effects of the location of the site, type of cross-section and other selected parameters on pedestrian and driver behaviour are demonstrated. The analyses showed that pedestrians are most often put at risk by too long pedestrian crossings, vehicles going too fast around pedestrian crossings, lack of proper sight distance and poorly lit or unlit pedestrian crossings. The reason for such defective infrastructure is that planners, designers, contractors and maintenance services are not receiving any support from design, marking and maintenance regulations for pedestrian traffic. In addition, the Road Traffic Law is not restrictive enough when it comes to drivers’ obligations towards pedestrian safety. Polish design regulations allow long pedestrian crossings up to four lanes in one direction or three lanes in two directions irrespective of traffic control and speed limits. Pedestrian crossings should be kept at a maximum of three lanes. There is nothing in the design regulations about the required driver-pedestrian sight distance. Neither does the Road Traffic Law help engineers with that. It is legal to park vehicles within 10 m of a pedestrian crossing which does not guarantee the necessary sight distance. Drivers must be able to see a pedestrian waiting or stepping onto the crossing from a distance that will help them come to a stop safely. It is safer to follow the principle of providing adequate pedestrian sight distance. Recommendations for

  8. Water Quality and Management Changes Over the History of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalinska, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Poland is one of the countries distinguished by a long and colorful past. Undergoing numerous turbulent socio-economic changes forced by the course of history, Poland is now one of the member states of the European Union. Experiencing low water quantity and high contamination levels in surface waters, Poland is following other EU countries in the effort to reach a "good" water status. Herein are presented impacts of changes in Polish history on water legislation, management, and research, as well as explanations for the perceptible split between engineering and scientific approaches to the aquatic issues. Drawbacks caused by unsatisfactory state research funding for the sciences and division of the water related contemporary scientific interests are also discussed.

  9. Geographical distribution of 90Sr contamination in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaca, P.; Mietelski, J.W.; Skwarzec, B.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents results on determination of 90 Sr in bilberry and cowberry leaves (Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and the use of these plants as bio-monitors of radiostrontium contamination in Poland. Radiostrontium was determined by mean of liquid scintillation spectrometry preceded by radiochemical separation using Sr-resin and 85 Sr tracer. The approximate map of 90 Sr contamination of Poland is presented. The activity ratio between 90 Sr and obtained earlier data for 137 Cs in the same samples is discussed. The enhancement of radiostrontium content observed in northeastern Poland seems to be the trace of hot-particles fallout from initial Chernobyl cloud, which passed over Polish territory toward Scandinavia. (orig.)

  10. THE TRADE POSITION OF POLAND IN THE ICT SERVICES SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Talar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes analysis and assessment of trade in the ICT services performance of Poland. This study is looked at the trade position, essentially on the basis of the share in the world ICT services exports, revealed comparative advantage (RCA, and trade coverage ratio. It also identifies trends of the world trade in the ICT services. The statistics are derived from the basis of UNCTAD and Eurostat. International trade in the ICT ser-vices sector has specific characteristics and the interpretation of results of this trade is to take account of the particular nature of the ICT services. Poland is currently not revealed comparative advantage in the ICT services exports, but has had positive balance. Practically all trade indicators for Poland show very strong growth, which indicate a significant improvement in its ICT services trade position.

  11. Extreme Precipitation in Poland in the Years 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, Miroslawa

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of extreme precipitation, including the dominant trends, were analysed for eight stations located in different parts of Poland for the period 1951-2010. Five indices enabling the assessment of the intensity and frequency of both extremely dry and wet conditions were applied. The indices included the number of days with precipitation ≥10mm·d-1 (R10), maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD), maximum 5-day precipitation total (R5d), simple daily intensity index (SDII), and the fraction of annual total precipitation due to events exceeding the 95th percentile calculated for the period 1961-1990. Annual trends were calculated using standard linear regression method, while the fit of the model was assessed with the F-test at the 95% confidence level. The analysed changes in extreme precipitation showed mixed patterns. A significant positive trend in the number of days with precipitation ≥10mm·d-1 (R10) was observed in central Poland, while a significant negative one, in south-eastern Poland. Based on the analysis of maximum 5-day precipitation totals (R5d), statistically significant positive trends in north-western, western and eastern parts of the country were detected, while the negative trends were found in the central and northeastern parts. Daily precipitation, expressed as single daily intensity index (SDII), increased over time in northern and central Poland. In southern Poland, the variation of SDII index showed non-significant negative tendencies. Finally, the fraction of annual total precipitation due to the events exceeding the 1961-1990 95th percentile increased at one station only, namely, in Warsaw. The indicator which refers to dry conditions, i.e. maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) displayed negative trends throughout the surveyed area, with the exception of Szczecin that is a representative of north-western Poland.

  12. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland, NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA, and WEC (World Energy Council. Deficiencies and the lack of a unified national system for collecting and processing electric power equipment unavailability data are also indicated.

  13. Challenges of coal conversion for decarbonized energy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciazko, Marek; Jalosinski, Krzysztof; Majchrzak, Henryk; Michalski, Mieczyslaw; Tymowski, Henryk; Witos, Tadeusz; Wroblewska, Elzbieta

    2010-09-15

    Carbon dioxide is considered to be the main challenge for the coal-based power generation as well as for any other industrial application of coal. Poland's energy sector is primarily based on coal combustion that covers almost 90% of demand. Future development of that sector depends on the restriction on value of carbon dioxide emission or trading allowances. There are two main technological approaches to development of new coal based generation capacity, namely: gasification and pre-combustion capture; supercritical combustion and post-combustion capture. The current situation in development of three this type projects in Poland is presented.

  14. ESO Science Outreach Network in Poland during 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czart, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    ESON Poland works since 2010. One of the main tasks of the ESO Science Outreach Network (ESON) is translation of various materials at ESO website, as well as contacts with journalists. We support also science festivals, conferences, contests, exhibitions, astronomy camps and workshops and other educational and outreach activities. During 2011-2013 we supported events like ESO Astronomy Camp 2013, ESO Industry Days in Warsaw, Warsaw Science Festival, Torun Festival of Science and Art, international astronomy olympiad held in Poland and many others. Among big tasks there was also translation of over 60 ESOcast movies.

  15. The integration of Poland into the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    FAUCOMPRET, Erik; KONINGS, Jozef

    2001-01-01

    Poland was among the first Eastern European countries to apply for membership of the European Union. In view of Poland’s tragic history and the economic liberalisation that has taken place since 1989, we believe that the EU should adopt a generous approach toward its application. Unfortunately it looks as if the EU wants Poland to conform with all its laws before it can join. Our research suggests that the EU should pursue an open trade, labour and investment policy. Poland’s membership will ...

  16. Viral hepatitis as an occupational disease in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2011-07-01

    In medical terms, occupational diseases are defined as health disorders specifically associated with the working environment of people and their occupational activity. From the medical and legal perspectives, the vast majority of European countries consider particular diseases to be of occupational origin if they are mentioned in the current list of occupational diseases and caused by exposure to factors in the working environment that are harmful to health. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of cases of viral hepatitis certified as an occupational disease in Poland during 1979-2009. This article presents the medical, economic, and legal aspects of the epidemiology of hepatitis as an occupational disease in Poland. Publically available statistical data on certified occupational diseases in Poland and data contained in individual "occupational disease diagnosis cards" (based on data used in Poland statistical form), regarding certified cases of hepatitis among health care professionals, which were collected by the Department of Occupational Hygiene of the Polish Public Health Service, were analyzed in this study. In Poland, the highest number of cases of hepatitis certified as an occupational disease was observed in 1987. A gradual reduction in the number of cases of hepatitis as an occupational disease has been noted since then. Currently, hepatitis C as an occupational disease is certified more frequently than hepatitis B. In Poland, the number of women with hepatitis certified as an occupational disease is higher than that of men. However, among health care professionals, particularly nurses, this difference is insignificant because women outnumber the men. The existence of such a situation is due to the significant quantitative predominance of women over men among medical personnel, especially among nurses. Immunization of health care professionals against the hepatitis B virus (HBV), introduced in Poland in 1988, was an important factor

  17. Technical and Economic Aspects of Low Emission Reduction in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikuć, M.; Łasiński, K.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the problem of excessive air pollution in Poland caused mainly by low emission. The emission arises in result of heating flats by means of old and energetically inefficient heating installations. In Poland and Bulgaria the inhaled air is of the worst quality out of all EU countries. The paper presents economic and technical problems related to low emission occurring during the combustion of solid fuels in local boiler houses. Furthermore, the most significant economic issues, connected with the reduction of low emission are discussed, as well as technological possibilities of efficient reduction of the amount of pollution in the atmosphere. Conclusions are presented at the end of the article.

  18. An overview of occupational voice disorders in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational voice disorders make the most frequently certified category of occupational diseases in Poland, making up approximately 20% of all cases. This study presents the current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of occupational voice disorders. It stresses the importance of the evaluation of vocal loading by means of objective measurements. Furthermore, this study discusses the medico-legal aspects of the procedure of certifying occupational voice disorders in Poland. The paper also describes the preventive programs addressed particularly to teachers, including multidisciplinary and holistic management of occupational dysphonia. Their role in the improvement of occupational safety and health (OSH arrangement for vocally demanding professions is emphasized.

  19. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki) in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came int...

  20. THE XVI. CENTURY POET SHERÎFÎ’S WORK CALLED SHEVÂHİDÜ’SH-SHÜHEDÂ / XVI. ASIR SAİRLERİNDEN EĞİRDİRLİ SERÎFÎ’NİN SEVÂHİDÜ’S-SÜHEDÂ’SI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sadık YAZAR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, which XVI. century poet Sherîfî’swork called Shevâhidü’sh-shühedâ, that can be a newexample of the maktel (elegy genre, was presented; firstlyI gave brief information about Serîfî and his works. I alsolooked at the maktel (elegy genre’s development and itsexamples in the classical Turkish literature –formbegining to end of the XVI. century- briefly. In the last part of the artcile I compared Sherîfî’s Shevâhidü’shshühedâwith the Fuzûlî’s –the famous XVI. centuryTurkish poet- Hadîqatü’s-sü’edâ and after this compare itwas understood that Sherîfî has benefited from Fuzûlî’swork at the degree of plagiarism. After all these, it wasunderstood that Sherîfî’s Shevâhidü’sh-shühedâ has nomuch value of the originalty.

  1. Road Infrastructure Safety Management in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Kustra, Wojciech; Michalski, Lech; Gaca, Stanislaw

    2017-10-01

    The objective of road safety infrastructure management is to ensure that when roads are planned, designed, built and used road risks can be identified, assessed and mitigated. Road transport safety is significantly less developed than that of rail, water and air transport. The average individual risk of being a fatality in relation to the distance covered is thirty times higher in road transport that in the other modes. This is mainly because the different modes have a different approach to safety management and to the use of risk management methods and tools. In recent years Poland has had one of the European Union’s highest road death numbers. In 2016 there were 3026 fatalities on Polish roads with 40,766 injuries. Protecting road users from the risk of injury and death should be given top priority. While Poland’s national and regional road safety programmes address this problem and are instrumental in systematically reducing the number of casualties, the effects are far from the expectations. Modern approaches to safety focus on three integrated elements: infrastructure measures, safety management and safety culture. Due to its complexity, the process of road safety management requires modern tools to help with identifying road user risks, assess and evaluate the safety of road infrastructure and select effective measures to improve road safety. One possible tool for tackling this problem is the risk-based method for road infrastructure safety management. European Union Directive 2008/96/EC regulates and proposes a list of tools for managing road infrastructure safety. Road safety tools look at two criteria: the life cycle of a road structure and the process of risk management. Risk can be minimized through the application of the proposed interventions during design process as reasonable. The proposed methods of risk management bring together two stages: risk assessment and risk response occurring within the analyzed road structure (road network, road

  2. Fluorescent halite from Bochnia salt mine, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluś, Edyta; Głąbińska, Dobrochna; Puławska, Aleksandra; Flasza, Michał; Manecki, Maciej

    2016-04-01

    The photoluminescence of selected halite crystals from Bochnia Salt Mine (Bochnia, Poland) were discovered in 2014. This is a result of contemporary precipitation from percolating waters. In most cases the fluorescence is observed in whole crystals or in zones of crystals. Only clear parts of transparent crystals are orange-red fluorescent in short UV light (320 nm). Chemical microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy SEM/EDS indicates that this is activated by Mn and Pb. The concentration of Mn is similar in fluorescent and inactive salt and equals to 0.13 - 0.27 wt.%. The concentration of Pb, however, averages to 3.8 wt.% in fluorescent parts reaching only 1.9 wt.% elsewhere. There is no difference in the unit cell parameters determined by powder X-ray diffraction. The percolating waters contain some Mn (ca. 3.9 ppm) but the concentration of Pb is below the detection limits. The experiments of precipitation of halite from the solutions containing various concentrations of Mn and Pb were performed to simulate this fenomenon using solutions containing: 1 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.8 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.6 mg Mn/L; and 0 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L. The results indicate that fluorescence is apparent when halite forms from solutions containing more than 0.8 mg Mn/L and more than 1 mg Pb/L. The presence of lead as co-activator is necessary requirement: Mn alone does not activate the fluorescence of halite. This is in accordance with the results of previous work (Murata et al., 1946; Sidike et al., 2002). Rock salt in the mine does not show fluorescence at all. Fluorescence of contemporary salt in Bochnia salt mine is a result of mining activity and slight, sporadic contamination with traces of Mn and Pb. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319. Murata K. J., Smith R. L., 1946. Manganese and lead as coactivators of red fluorescence in halite, American Mineralogist, Volume 31, pages 527

  3. Eventos El Niño y lluvias anormales en la Costa del Perú: siglos XVI-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available ÉVÉNEMENTS EL NIÑO ET PLUIES ANORMALES SUR LA COTE DU PEROU, XVI - XIX SIECLES. L’établissement d’une chronologie des manifestations du phénomène “El Niño” au cours des siècles derniers revêt une grande importance pour les chercheurs qui étudient ce type d’altération presque périodique du climat du globe terrestre. C’est pour cela qu’ont été rassemblés ici les principaux textes historiques qui mentionnent des pluies anormales et les inondations de la côte nord du Pérou entre 1532 et 1891. Un tableau synoptique résume les dates disponibles sur les pluies et les inondations de la côte nord du Pérou et comprend une critique des sources historiques ainsi qu’un essai de classification des anomalies climatiques. L’analyse des sources présentées ici conduit les auteurs à mettre en doute la reconstitution de l’avènement, ou de l’intensité, de certains évènements El Niño telles qu’elles ont été proposées par certains auteurs (Quinn et al., 1987. El establecimiento de una cronología de las ocurrencias del fenómeno El Niño en los últimos siglos tiene mucha trascendencia para los investigadores que estudian este tipo de alteración casi periódica del clima del globo terráqueo. Para tal fin, se junta aquí los principales textos históricos que mencionan lluvias anormales y anomalías meteorológicas ocurridas en el Perú entre 1532 y 1891. Un cuadro sinóptico resume los datos disponibles sobre las lluvias e inundaciones de la costa norte del Perú, e incluye una crítica de las fuentes históricas así como un intento de clasificación de las anomalías climáticas. El análisis de estas fuentes aquí presentadas lleva los autores a poner en duda la reconstitución de la ocurrencia y de la intensidad de algunos eventos El Niño tal como fueron propuestas por autores anteriores (Quinn et al., 1987. EL NIÑO PHENOMENA AND UNUSUAL PRECIPITATIONS IN COASTAL PERU, XVI-XIXTH CENTURIES. The establishment of a

  4. Painters in the Splendor of Tunja: Naming Unrecognized Artists to Bring them out of Anonymity (XVI and XVII centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Liliana Vargas Murcia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tunja has stood out as one of the riches cities of New Kingdom of Granada, regarding the presence of painting in the last decades of the XVI century and the first half of the XVIIth. Its painters were of importance not only in this city but in the rest of the Province as well, with the churches and museums of Boyacá containing images that were essential elements in the indoctrination of indigenous communities. Civil mural works of art in Tunja have been an object of study mostly for their interpretation, and less regarding the identities of their makers. As far as easel painting, Angelino Medoro eclipsed the names of other artists who contributed to making Tunja one the the most representative cities of the Mannerism and Renaissance of Hispanic America. This article presents the names of some of the active painters of this period, their lives and production, seeking the recognition of these characters, whose names have been brought out of anonymity in the latest years. The starting point for the information search was the research of Magdalena Corradine Mora on the inhabitants of Tunja in the first decades of the XVII century, and the search for information in the Boyacá Regional Historical Archive. In calling attention upon these artists, we hope that, in the future, the identification of their works may be initiated as well as the research, conservation and dissemination of these works, due to the fact that this heritage is not always in ideal conditions, nor is it perceived and valued as is deserved.

  5. Background of standardization and regulation of training and use of pharmaceutical regular resource potential in XI–XVI centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Ponomarenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of creation the system of training and retraining, determining the specific role and significance of the pharmaceutical manpower from the XVI century to the present day, the discussions about their state-public organizing and permanent improvements scheme, including the system of pharmaceutical postgraduate education in accordance with the requirements of the European Union (EU are held. The purpose of the work lies in the fact that noopharmaceutical modern (non-pharmaceutical opinion and assessment of historical events, traditions, their survival, national ethical mindset in the pharmaceutical business are extrapolated for the future reform of the sector in line with EU requirements. And on the stage of review of the conceptual characteristics of primary, medium and distant prospects, the positive experience is taken into account, rejecting the already proven negative position in reforming the pharmaceutical sector in the health sector according to European modern requirements. Materials and methods. Historical literary and official sources, archival materials have been used. Modern Pharmacy memories of veterans “Figures in pharmacy” have been used. Results. Personnel policy contributes to fight against corruption and mafia in pharmacy. This way legal and regulatory policy will accelerate the destruction of pharmaceutical, pseudo productive and alcohol-drug mafia. Regulatory policy in the pharmaceutical sector will normalize events, which will provide state control quality of drugs - implementation of EU rules, attractiveness and interest of foreign manufacturers to the pharmaceutical sector of Ukraine [20-30], including the preparation of qualified pharmacists (bachelors, masters, other professionals of pharmacy and industrial pharmacy. Conclusions. The main stages of development of the property (material and human resources to provide medical treatment and patients have been detected. The basic steps of transformation

  6. Pioneirismo bibliográfico em um polímeta do séc. XVI: Conrad Gesner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Vieira de Freitas Araújo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A Bibliografia é uma disciplina constituída por interfaces teóricas e práticas que, desde sua origem, têm fundamentado o tratamento documental. Possui uma longa história, cuja eminência está nas contribuições do cientista, erudito e bibliógrafo suíço, Conrad Gesner (1516-1565, e na sua obra Bibliotheca Universalis.Objetivo: 1 identificar as interfaces da Bibliografia, em particular a bibliotecária e material; 2 recuperar elementos constitutivos da cultura bibliográfica; 3 delinear o perfil biobibliográfico de Conrad Gesner; 4 identificar, de forma sumária, aspectos bibliográficos de Bibliotheca Universalis, do ponto de vista descritivo e semântico e 5 discutir seu sentido como dispositivo de mediação e memória bibliográfica.Metodologia: Revisão de literatura a partir da perspectiva histórica.Resultados: Gesner é um dos mais notáveis cientistas do período moderno, além de ser considerado o “pai da Bibliografia” e fundador da disciplina bibliográfica. Com Bibliotheca Universalis, delineou as práticas bibliográficas da Europa Moderna.Conclusões: Bibliotheca Universalis é mais do que um produto cultural e documentário: arrola aspectos da cultura manuscrita e impressa e traz implicitamente uma profunda reflexão descritiva e semântica sobre os documentos e os saberes. Tais aspectos não só contribuem à configuração histórica e conceitual da Bibliografia enquanto disciplina, mas, sobretudo, evidenciam o pioneirismo bibliográfico do polímeta do Séc. XVI.

  7. Municipio y mercado en el Aragón moderno : el abasto de trigo en Zaragoza (siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Mateos Royo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio relativo a la política desarrollada por el Concejo de Zaragoza sobre el comercio de cereal durante los siglos XVI y XVII. La prosperidad económica del reino de Aragón, la ciudad y municipio de Zaragoza durante el siglo XVI permitieron aumentar el control público sobre el mercado de cereal para asegurar a la población un suministro suficiente, así como sustentar la demanda local. Sin embargo, el declive económico del reino de Aragón y el creciente endeudamiento municipal durante el siglo XVII obligaron a reducir la intervención y defensa pública de la demanda local en el mercado de cereal. El reajuste de la política municipal promovió la paulatina integración del mercado aragonés, proceso que continuó en el siglo XVIII para afianzarse durante la crisis final del Antiguo Régimen.This paper studies municipal politics carried out by the Zaragoza city council concerning the cereal trade during tfie sixteenthi and seventeenth centuries. Economic prosperity in the kingdom of Aragón, Zaragoza city and council during the sixteenth century allowed to increase public control of cereal transactions in order to supply efficiently the population, as well as to support local demand. However, economic decline of the kingdom and raising municipal indebtedness during the seventeenth century led to reduce public intervention and support of local demand on the cereal market. Readjustment of municipal politics gradually prometed the integration of the market in Aragón. This process continued during the eighteenth century and became firmly established during the final crisis of the «Ancien Régime».

  8. Especulaciones lingüísticas sobre el hebreo en la España del siglo XVI y principios del XVII

    OpenAIRE

    Perea Siller, Francisco Javier

    2003-01-01

    Las especulaciones en torno a la lengua hebrea durante el siglo XVI y principios del XVII en España arrojan luz sobre algunos temas principales de la reflexión lingüística de la época: el origen del lenguaje y la identidad de la lengua primitiva, el carácter motivado o arbitrario de las lenguas, el parentesco entre las lenguas primitivas y actuales, y el problema de la lengua más antigua de España. Se han tratado estos temas, dividiendo la tesis en dos partes: la primera analiza las discusion...

  9. Bilis humano como ofrenda al Rey: Las costumbres de Champa a finales del siglo XVI según los documentos españoles y chinos

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Chung Lee, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    El reino de Champa, llamado Linyi en lengua china antigua, prosperó por su ubicación dentro de las rutas de comercio de China y el sureste de Asia. Con el crecimiento de Vietnam durante el siglo XV su poder disminuyó y la gente se retiró al norte del Río Mekong para resistir los ataques de las fuerzas de Cochinchina. Como resultado, es poco lo que puede encontrarse sobre la historia de Champa en obras referidas al sureste de Asia a partir del siglo XVI. Sin embargo, el reino de Champa mant...

  10. La desamortización en la institución parroquial. La Parroquia de San Sebastian, Villa de Agüimes. Siglos XVI-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candelaria Castro Pérez

    2016-12-01

    Evidenciándose una interconexión entre la Iglesia y el Estado y consecuentemente un acercamiento entre la Contabilidad Privada y la Contabilidad Pública. Con el propósito de analizar el efecto de estas medidas, tomadas por el Estado para desmantelar la economía eclesiástica, estudiamos los registros contables (Cuentas de fábrica pertenecientes a la parroquia de San Sebastián en la Villa de Agüimes, en la isla de Gran Canaria, durante los siglos XVI-XIX.

  11. Geant4 simulation of the Elekta XVI kV CBCT unit for accurate description of potential late toxicity effects of image-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochu, F M; Burnet, N G; Jena, R; Plaistow, R; Thomas, S J; Parker, M A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the modelisation of the Elekta XVI Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) machine components with Geant4 and its validation against calibration data taken for two commonly used machine setups. Preliminary dose maps of simulated CBCTs coming from this modelisation work are presented. This study is the first step of a research project, GHOST, aiming to improve the understanding of late toxicity risk in external beam radiotherapy patients by simulating dose depositions integrated from different sources (imaging, treatment beam) over the entire treatment plan. The second cancer risk will then be derived from different models relating irradiation dose and second cancer risk. (paper)

  12. Pinturas, espacios y realidades complejas: un breve acercamiento a tres versiones indígenas del territorio novohispano de finales del siglo XVI y principios del XVII

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Amparan, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Durante el Virreinato, las sociedades indígenas vivieron un reordenamiento territorial que las alejó de sus antiguos asentamientos para ser congregadas en “pueblos de indios”, de acuerdo con los patrones de asentamiento impuestos por los conquistadores. La nueva organización generó conflictos por la tierra y por el espacio que quedaron plasmados en las pinturas de finales del siglo XVI y principios del XVII, elaboradas por un tlacuiloque. En ellas podemos apreciar la manera en que los indios ...

  13. Los orígenes y desarrollo de la pesca española en Terranova y Groenlandia (siglos XVI-XVII)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-de-Rubín-y-Feigl, J. (Juan)

    2007-01-01

    Se describen los altibajos en las pesquerías de Terranova y las incursiones en aguas de Groenlandia-Noruega y Brasil (1625), en un cambiante y conflictivo escenario internacional. La lucha por el dominio del mar llevó a períodos de violentas agresiones en los caladeros del Atlántico Norte, influyendo en el libre acceso de los pescadores españoles durante los siglos XVI y XVII. En las costas españolas, tanto en las de la metrópoli como en las ultramarinas, se sucedieron largos períodos de esca...

  14. La dote matrimonial a finales del siglo xvi: el caso de la provincia de pamplona en el nuevo reino de granada (1574-1630)

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa, Jorge Augusto

    2010-01-01

    Una de las prácticas más llamativas en el estudio del sistema de matrimonios de la sociedad colonial neogranadina durante los siglos XVI y XVII es la costumbre, arraigada sobre todo en las clases altas, de entregar las novias a sus maridos acompañadas de una serie de bienes. Esta costumbre, conocida como la "Dote", no era un legado exclusivamente español, ya que se dio en regiones como la China, la India y la Europa mediterránea desde tiempos muy remotos hasta bien entrada la época moderna. I...

  15. Religião e política: o pensamento antimaquiavelista espanhol dos séculos XVI E XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Estevão dos Reis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a relação entre religião e política no pensamento antimaquiavelista espanhol de fins do século XVI e primeira metade do século XVII. Frente à razão de Estado defendida por Nicolau Maquiavel, que qualificam como errônea e falsa, os escritores políticos espanhóis propõem o que chamam de verdadeira razão de Estado, baseada em princípios cristãos.

  16. Adult Learning Development in Poland in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiarska-Khomenko, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a retrospective analysis of adult learning development in Poland in the 20th century. Based on the study and analysis of historical and pedagogical literature, normative documents of the official bodies of Polish government, the periodical press of the 20th century, several stages of adult learning development, in the…

  17. The State of Development of Digital Libraries in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Miroslaw; Catlow, John; Lewandowski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of development of Polish digital libraries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the establishment of the first digital library in Poland, the creation of the Wielkopolska Digital Library and other regional digital libraries. The organisational and technological solutions used…

  18. An updated distribution of Solidago × niederederi (Asteraceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pliszko Artur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an updated map of the distribution of Solidago ×niederederi, a natural hybrid between S. canadensis and S. virgaurea, in Poland is presented using the ATPOL cartogram method. A compiled list of 55 localities of the hybrid within 40 cartogram units (10-km squares is provided and its negative impact on S. virgaurea is highlighted.

  19. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Developing low carbon policies for road transport in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.; Rahman, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of work done for the World Bank to develop low carbon policies for road transport in Poland. Here, we outline the development of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, develop a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario based on social-economic-, infrastructure-, car market, vehicle

  1. New evidence of Ursus minims from the territory of Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagner, Jan; Lipecki, G.; Krawczyk, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2008), s. 78-80 ISSN 0038-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0184 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Ursus minimus * Pliocene * dentition * Rebielice Królewskie (Poland) Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  2. Absconditella fossarum and A. sphagnorum (Lichenes, Stictidaceae in NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Ceynowa-Giełdon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents Absconditella fossarum, a species new to Poland, found on sands in the Noteć river valley and A. sphagnorum from the new stands found on peated shore of pure, forest lakes in the Tuchola Forest (Bory Tucholskie region.

  3. Mniaecia jungermanniae and Puttea margaritella (lichenized Ascomycota found in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Czarnota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two hepaticolous fungi, Mniaecia jungermanniae and Puttea margaritella rarely recorded in Europe have recently been found in Polish Western Carpathians. Both species are also reported here for the first time from Poland. Notes on their taxonomy, ecology and distribution are provided.

  4. Facilities of Early Rehabilitation after Stroke in Poland 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Jozef A.; Langhorne, Peter; Larsen, Torben; Mehlich, Krzysztof; Szczygiel, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the contemporary facilities for early post-stroke rehabilitation in Poland. The main research questions were as follows: what is the availability of inpatient rehabilitation for post-stroke patients in neurological departments and in rehabilitation departments? The growing costs of healthcare are encouraging…

  5. Hypoxylon terricola Miller a new species for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Truszkowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxylon terricola Milter, known from a single collection in Michigan in USA and three sites in Southern France, has been found in Poland; isolated from the soil under Dactylis glomerata L. culture and from the dishwater of the roots of D. glomerata L. groving in the vicinity of the spruce (Picea abies (L. K a r s t mountainers forest.

  6. Gender Relations, Education and Social Change in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Peggy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the following issues in Poland: formal gender equality during state Socialism; public provision of child care; the domestic division of labor; women's educational careers; women's labor market position; gender inequalities in social consciousness; separation between public and private domains; and transition from a society to civil…

  7. The Institutional Implications of the Unfair Terms Directive in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I focus on the institutional implications of the EU Unfair Terms Directive (93/13) in Poland in the broader context of the welfare state model prevalent in that post-socialist EU Member State. I depart from the assumption that there is, in principle, a link between the intensity of the

  8. Distribution of Chara braunii Gmellin 1826 (Charophyta in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Urbaniak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and ecology of Chara braunii Gmellin 1826 in Poland is described, based on herbaria collections, literature data and own investigations. Maps showing the distribution of Ch. braunii are presented, as well as a list of localities with brief descriptions of the habitats. Additionally, some remarks on the distribution limit in the northern hemisphere are given.

  9. Molecular characterization of Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus from Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubowska, A.K.; Oers, van M.M.; Ziemnicka, J.; Lipa, J.J.; Vlak, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), is an important pest insect in Europe, Asia, and Africa. We have genetically characterized and classified a nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from A. segetum larvae in Poland (AgseNPV-P). The restriction pattern of AgseNPV-P was distinct from an

  10. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Appendices to feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contain Energy Law, Act of 10 April 1997 and also more specific details from the feasibility study for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora, Poland. (EHS)

  11. Traffic safety developments in Poland : a research note.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    2001-01-01

    Recently there has been an increased interest in traffic safety in Poland. There is a feeling that the rapid growth of traffic should be accompanied by additional efforts to improve traffic safety, in order to stop the corresponding increase in fatalities and serious accidents. To set realistic

  12. The impact of remittances outflows on the economy of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    LASTOVETSKA ROKSOLANA ORESTIVNA

    2015-01-01

    The impact of remittances outflows on the economy of Poland is analyzed in the article. Based on historical data the vector autoregression model (VAR) was built to examine the effects of the sharp rise in the volume of remittances outflows. The model results are presented for the next macroeconomic indicators: GDP, inflation, interest rate and exchange rate.

  13. The Rights and Duties of Family in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation Mondiale Pour l'Education Prescolaire, Warsaw (Poland).

    This paper presented at the 1977 meeting of the World Organization of Preschool Education (OMEP), reviews legal acts concerning the family in Poland; specifically the family law, the custodial law, and the matrimonial property law. Subjects discussed include: (1) legal protection of the family; (2) social protection of the family; (3) principles…

  14. Professional Training of Specialists in International Marketing in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Polish experience in training specialists in international marketing in the context of globalization and integration processes has been studied. A range of theoretical resources, namely Market Entry Strategy for Poland; the articles dedicated to international marketing and economy development (W. Grzegorczyk, M. Viachevskyi, M. Urbanetst); program…

  15. Undergraduate Medical Education in Poland: Variations on the Soviet Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missett, James R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Poland has centralized academic and administrative control over the medical academies, combined the training of medical students with that of dental and pharmacy students, equalized admission ratios for men and women, and provided relatively generous stipends for its medical students. (Editor/PG)

  16. A DECADE OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN POLAND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipska, Iga; McAuslane, James Neil; Leufkens, Bert; Hövels, Anke

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to illustrate and provide a better understanding of the role of health technology assessment (HTA) processes in decision making for drug reimbursement in Poland and how this approach could be considered by other countries of limited resources. METHODS: We

  17. Equity Block Transfers in Transition Economies : Evidence from Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojanowski, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Paper investigates valuation effects of share block transfers and employs agency theory to explain the determinants of block premia. A sample of transactions from Poland is used to measure benefits and costs of ownership concentration. Block premia are found to be substantially lower than in

  18. PPP projects in transport and telecommunications in Poland and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna TOMOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper informs about public – private partnerships projects in transport and telecommunications in Poland and Slovakia, describing various modes of capital entry. The PPI database of the World Bank is used. Advantages of PPP schemes are discussed for further development of infrastructure sectors.

  19. Factors associated with active aging in Finland, Poland, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jaime; Martin, Steven; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Garin, Noe; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Miret, Marta; Moneta, Victoria; Olaya, Beatriz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-08-01

    Continuous population aging has raised international policy interest in promoting active aging (AA). AA theoretical models have been defined from a biomedical or a psychosocial perspective. These models may be expanded including components suggested by lay individuals. This paper aims to study the correlates of AA in three European countries, namely, Spain, Poland, and Finland using four different definitions of AA. The EU COURAGE in Europe project was a cross-sectional general adult population survey conducted in a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of Finland, Poland, and Spain. Participants (10,800) lived in the community. This analysis focuses on individuals aged 50 years old and over (7,987). Four definitions (two biomedical, one psychosocial, and a complete definition including biomedical, psychosocial, and external variables) of AA were analyzed. Differences in AA were found for country, age, education, and occupation. Finland scored consistently the highest in AA followed by Spain and Poland. Younger age was associated with higher AA. Higher education and occupation was associated with AA. Being married or cohabiting was associated with better AA compared to being widowed or separated in most definitions. Gender and urbanicity were not associated with AA, with few exceptions. Men scored higher in AA only in Spain, whereas there was no gender association in the other two countries. Being widowed was only associated with lower AA in Poland and not being married was associated with lower AA in Poland and Finland but not Spain. Associations with education, marital status, and occupation suggest that these factors are the most important components of AA. These association patterns, however, seem to vary across the three countries. Actions to promote AA in these countries may be addressed at reducing inequalities in occupation and education or directly tackling the components of AA lacking in each country.

  20. The steps to forming a joint venture IPP in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Z.; Colligan, M.J.

    1998-07-01

    Poland represents the largest market in Central Europe with 38 million people and an installed electrical generating capacity of about 32 gigawatts. Since 1989, when the process of governmental restructuring along free market principals began, the allure to IPP developers has been evident, but is of yet unrealized. The natural model for IPP development in Poland would seem to be joint ventures with Polish generating companies. These enterprises already have sites, franchises, and a going business to contribute to a joint company. There are a number of reasons why so few deals have been concluded in Poland to date, and a number of barriers still exist that tend to hamper the realization of project finance funded power joint ventures. But, these barriers are not insurmountable. Overcoming them in the context of a joint venture relationship with a domestic partner requires patience, work, and an ability to bridge the gaps between the realities of working in a post-Communist environment and the practicalities of structuring projects that can be financed in the international capital markets. The new Energy Law in Poland establishes a framework for a viable private sector power generation business. But the enabling regulations are yet to be published or approved. There is still effective political risk on account of the uncertainty this creates. Pressure is mounting on the Polish Government, especially due to its expressed interest in joining the EU, to get the power sector to operate on private sector terms, if not in private hands. The trends are pointing in the direction of increased market driven policies and practices. The conclusion is that, despite the delays of the past, independent power projects will start to happen in Poland on a joint venture basis, with increasing frequency in the next years.

  1. High energy physics in Poland: the first 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    High energy physics in Poland started in 1933 when Stanislaw Ziemecki and Konstanty Narkiewicz-Jodko performed measurements of the latitude effect for cosmic rays. Subsequently, experiments with cosmic rays were carried out in balloon flights in a deep salt mine. Other Polish pioneers in this field were Ignacy Adamczewski, Czeslaw Bialobrzeski, Marian Miesowicz, Szczepan Szczeniowski and Jan Wesolowski. The ambitious 'Star of Poland' project of a stratospheric balloon flight to study cosmic rays up to an altitude of 30000 meters was not successful, first because of the fire accident and then of the outbreak of World War II. The destruction of laboratories during the war has slowed down the development of high energy physics in Poland by at least twelve years. However, in the late forties Marian Miesowicz started important cosmic ray studies in Cracow. In 1952 research using nuclear emulsions was initiated in Warsaw by Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski. Two years later Marian Miesowicz and Jerzy Gierula began similar research in Cracow. In the late fifties Aleksander Zawadzki in Lodz started comprehensive studies of extensive air showers. Already in 1963 the number of experimental and theoretical papers on high energy physics published in Poland exceeded 100. Strong experimental and theoretical groups have been established in Cracow, Lodz and Warsaw. To supplement research with emulsions and bubble chambers the construction of electronic detectors for on-line experiments has been instituted. Thus, in the early eighties Polish high energy physicists were ready to participate in large projects such as DELPHI at LEP and ZEUS and H1 at HERA. The discovery of hypernuclei by Danysz and Pniewski in 1952 may be regarded as the most important achievement of physics in post-war Poland. (author). 108 refs, 26 figs, 1 tab

  2. Local energy policies in Poland and the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Both the Czech Republic and Poland as former Communist countries, are transforming their economies from central planning to a free market. This applies equally to energy planning and because they are starting from the same point, they have come up with very comparable solutions despite strong cultural differences, so that the parallels are striking. This study analyzes the energy management in local authorities in Poland and the Czech Republic with the objective of better: identifying the current situation, identifying the opportunities for action both now and in an extended European Union, identifying the constraints that may hinder full integration of East European municipalities in European Union programmes, improve the integration of municipalities in the countries concerned in pan-European networks of municipalities interested in energy issues. The study reviews the powers and responsibilities of local authorities in the energy field and the institutional framework within which local authorities work. There are now 16 directly elected regional authorities in Poland and the local authorities have been restructured into two levels, the Powiad and the Gmina. Similarly, in the Czech Republic 14 elected regional authorities have been established. This document brings together 2 reports: the final report and the study report about the energy policies in Poland and in the Czech republic: structure of local government, general and institutional aspects, national political organisation, national administrative organisation, municipal role in production and distribution, regulation and planning, energy issues, energy management policies, specific aspects at local level etc... The conclusions from two review seminars (Jablonec nad Nison (Czech republic), 25-26 January 2001, and Bielsko Biala (Poland), 22-23 February 2001) and some fact files on 4 large Czech towns and 4 large Polish towns complete the study. (J.S.)

  3. Tuberculosis in homeless persons in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria; Kuś, Jan; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Siemion-Szcześniak, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    The fall in rates of tuberculosis (TB) in many countries has been accompanied by the concentration of cases in the social risk groups including homeless persons. Comparison of TB features in homeless persons and in non-homeless patients. TB cases reported to National TB Register in Poland in whom information about the social status was available (the data about the social status were collected obligatorily in the years 2004-2013 only) were analysed. The results of DSTs were obtained from laboratory records and were available for the cases reported since 2010. Treatment outcome after 12 months was analysed for the cases registered between 2004-2012. The significance (Si) of the differences in proportions was assessed with chi-square test. Phomeless persons (HP) and 72,989 other patients (OP) with TB were included. In the group of HP, there was a greater proportion of males in comparison with OP (90.5% vs. 66.3%) (Si). The mean age of HP was 49.8 years (SD±10.9); of OP-52.9 years (SD±17.5) (Si). 16.6% of HP and 10.4% of OP were previously treated for TB (Si). The previous treatment was adequate in 62.2% of HP and in 85.8% of OP (Si). Pulmonary TB was in 98.0%, extrapulmonary TB in 2.0% of HP and, respectively, in 92.5% and 7.5% of OP (Si). Pulmonary TB was confirmed by culture in 76.3% of HP and in 64.5% of OP (Si). Sputum smears were positive in 70.7% of HP and in 62.5% of OP (Si). Caseous pneumonia occurred in 2.7% of homeless subjects and in 1.1% of OP (Si); infiltrative TB in 95.5% of HP and in 97.5% of OP (Si). Resistance to isoniazid was observed in 2.9% of HP and in 3.1% of OP; to rifampicin in 0.0% of HP and in 0.2% of OP; to isoniazid and rifampicin in 0.4% of HP and in 0.8% of OP. These differences were not Si. Treatment success rate among HP was 44.1%; default rate 24.8%; 4.0% of HP died from tuberculosis; 3.2% died from other causes; 5.2% were transferred and their outcomes were unknown; 0.4% were still on treatment; 0.4% had treatment failure; in 17

  4. Producción local, abastecimiento urbano y regulación municipal : el marco legal del vino en Bilbao (S. XIV-XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rivera Medina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo pretendemos analizar la política intervencionista del Ayuntamiento de Bilbao, entre los siglos XIV y XVI, sobre el cultivo, producción y comercialización de vinos, tanto locales como foráneos, en un momento de transición: el paso de la Baja Edad Media al comienzo de la Modernidad. Intentaremos, igualmente, demostrar cómo el Ayuntamiento, máxima expresión del poder local, regula los distintos ámbitos de la viticultura, con el fin de proteger la producción local frente a la competencia de los vinos foráneos, con el propósito de lograr el abastecimiento de la Villa.The present article analyzes the interventionist politics of the City council of Bilbao, among the XIV and XVI centuries, on the cultivation, production and commercialization of wines, so much local as foreign, in a transition moment: the pass from the Late Middle Ages to the beginning of the Modern period. We will attempt, equally, to demonstrate how the City council, maximum expression of the local power, regulates the different environments of the viticulture, with the purpose of protecting the local production in front of the competition of the foreign wines, with the purpose of achieving the supply of the Villa.

  5. Wavelengths, classifications, and ionization energies in the isoelectronic sequences from Yb II and Yb III through Bi XV and Bi XVI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, V.; Sugar, J.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral observations are reported for transitions to the ground term and first excited term of the one-electron configurations in the 4f/sup 14/5p 6 nl isoelectronic sequence from Yb II through Bi XV. Resonance lines are reported for the isoelectronic sequence Yb III through Bi XVI in which the ground state is 4f/sup 14/5p 6 1 S 0 and the upper levels are the J = 1 levels of the 4f/sup 13/5p 6 nd, 4f/sup 14/5p 5 nd, and 4f/sup 14/5p 5 ns configurations. The wavelengths fall in the range 70--3700 A. The spectra were produced by means of sliding and triggered spark discharges and photographed with 10.7 m normal and grazing incidence spectrographs. The data in the Yb III sequence demonstrate the crossing of binding energies of the 4f and 5p shells at W VII. Rydberg series terms were found in a sufficient number of cases to provide extrapolation curves through Bi XV and Bi XVI. These data enabled us to calculate ionization energies for each of these ions with an uncertainty of approx.1% or better

  6. Muscovy and the Crimea in the Historical Destinies of the Peoples of the North Caucasus in the second half of the XVI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Kudryavtsev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the XVI century Moscow state, defeating Kazan (1552 and Astrakhan (1556 khanate, came to the Caspian sea to the North Caucasus, where he encountered opposition from two very strong opponents: Turkey and the Crimean khanate. The Ottoman Empire, which included Northern Caspian and the Caucasus in the number of its geopolitical interests, sought power and diplomatic means to subdue the mountain and nomadic population, their power and actively opposed their rapprochement with Russia. One of the main performers and conductors of Turkish policy in the region were dependent vassal of Turkey, the Crimean khanate. The peoples of the North Caucasus, first of all Nogai, the Kabardians and the representatives of several other Circassian tribes, seen in Moscow state protection from the expansive aspirations of the Crimea and Turkey and actively supported the Russian fortification construction and anticrime military operations of the Russian North Caucasus. Military and diplomatic successes of the Russian state in the North Caucasus and the Caspian sea in the second half of the XVI century contributed to the development of international Eastern trade along the Volga-Caspian route and the strengthening of the authority of Moscow in the region and in the international arena.

  7. Comparative dose evaluations between XVI and OBI cone beam CT systems using Gafchromic XRQA2 film and nanoDot optical stimulated luminescence dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaddui, Tawfik; Cui Yunfeng; Galvin, James; Yu Yan; Xiao Ying

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of energy (kVp) and filters (no filter, half Bowtie, and full Bowtie) on the dose response curves of the Gafchromic XRQA2 film and nanoDot optical stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) in CBCT dose fields. To measure surface and internal doses received during x-ray volume imager (XVI) (Version R4.5) and on board imager (OBI) (Version 1.5) CBCT imaging protocols using these two types of dosimeters. Methods: Gafchromic XRQA2 film and nanoDot OSLD dose response curves were generated at different kV imaging settings used by XVI (software version R4.5) and OBI (software version 1.5) CBCT systems. The settings for the XVI system were: 100 kVp/F0 (no filter), 120 kVp/F0, and 120 kVp/F1 (Bowtie filter), and for the OBI system were: 100 kVp/full fan, 125 kVp/full fan, and 125 kVp/half fan. XRQA2 film was calibrated in air to air kerma levels between 0 and 11 cGy and scanned using reflection scanning mode with the Epson Expression 10000 XL flat-bed document scanner. NanoDot OSLDs were calibrated on phantom to surface dose levels between 0 and 14 cGy and read using the inLight TM MicroStar reader. Both dosimeters were used to measure in field surface and internal doses in a male Alderson Rando Phantom. Results: Dose response curves of XRQA2 film and nanoDot OSLDs at different XVI and OBI CBCT settings were reported. For XVI system, the surface dose ranged between 0.02 cGy in head region during fast head and neck scan and 4.99 cGy in the chest region during symmetry scan. On the other hand, the internal dose ranged between 0.02 cGy in the head region during fast head and neck scan and 3.17 cGy in the chest region during chest M20 scan. The average (internal and external) dose ranged between 0.05 cGy in the head region during fast head and neck scan and 2.41 cGy in the chest region during chest M20 scan. For OBI system, the surface dose ranged between 0.19 cGy in head region during head scan and 4.55 cGy in the pelvis region during spot

  8. A propósito de Imprenta y lecturas en la Baeza del siglo XVI. (Salamanca, Semyr, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valero Moreno, Juan Miguel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing in Baeza, as technological point and its bibliographic production (1550-1599, catalogued, described and interpreted by Pedro M. Cátedra establish an outstanding point of view over the spiritual and intellectual context determined by the Counter-reformation. In this special laboratory of XVIth century spiritual life it become to a complementary analysis of pedagogical institutions (the University of Baeza, of course, and the world of printing, in its local specifically, and its national and international connection and position through the reflection about the catalogue and the material circumstances of biacense printing. The differences and affinities of the spiritual programmes and lecture represented by Juan de Ávila are outlined, also the evolution of printing in Baeza, and the conformation of a new poetic of spiritual references to a diverse and changing variety of public and the tension that new texts hold out between demand and spiritual control, orthodoxy and heterodoxy, opening and closure.La imprenta en Baeza, como enclave tecnológico, y su producción bibliográfica (1550-1599, catalogada, descrita e interpretada por Pedro M. Cátedra, constituye un observatorio privilegiado, aunque angular, en el contexto espiritual e intelectual condicionado por la Contrarreforma. En ese especial laboratorio de la espiritualidad del siglo XVI se llega a un análisis complementario de las instituciones pedagógicas (la Universidad biacense, por supuesto, y el mundo del libro y el de la imprenta, en su especificidad local, pero sobre todo en su conexión y posición nacional e internacional, a través de la reflexión sobre el catálogo y los condicionantes materiales de la imprenta biacense. Se subrayan las diferencias y afinidades de los programas espirituales y de lectura representados por Juan de Ávila y la evolución de la imprenta en Baeza, así como la conformación de una nueva poética del texto espiritual impulsada por la

  9. Chile como un “Flandes indiano” en las crónicas de los siglos XVI y XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Baraibar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La idea de un nuevo Flandes o de un segundo Flandes o simplemente de otro Flandes apareció en diferentes momentos en el territorio de la Monarquía Hispánica referida a Aragón, Cataluña o Messina. El recuerdo de la guerra pervivió en el imaginario colectivo español más allá del final del conflicto, cuando Flandes era ya un aliado de la Corona española frente a Francia. Cuando en el desarrollo de la conquista de las Indias Occidentales Chile se convierte en el gran problema militar con motivo de la resistencia de los indígenas de la Araucanía, la idea de un segundo Flandes aparecerá también en tierras americanas. Este trabajo pretende mostrar el proceso y los contextos en que Flandes se hizo presente en el discurso que se elaboró sobre el Reino de Chile en las crónicas de los siglos XVI y XVII, hasta que Diego de Rosales acuñara el término “Flandes indiano”. The idea of a new Flanders or of a second or simply of another one appeared in different moments in the territory of Hispanic Monarchy referred to Aragón, Catalonia or Messina. The memory of this war survived in the Spanish collective imaginary even long after the end of the conflict, when Flanders was an ally of the Spanish Crown against France. When Chile becomes the great military problem due to native resistance to conquest, the idea of a second Flanders will turn up in America. This article tries to show the process and contexts in which Flanders becomes visible in the discourse elaborated around the kingdom of Chile in the chronicles of 16th and 17th Centuries, until Diego de Rosales, the first writer to use the term “Indian Flanders”.

  10. José María Díez Borque, dir., Álvaro Bustos Táuler and Elena Di Pinto Revuelta, eds., Hacia el gracioso: Comicidad en el teatro español del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of José María Díez Borque, dir., Álvaro Bustos Táuler and Elena Di Pinto Revuelta, eds., Hacia el gracioso: Comicidad en el teatro español del siglo XVI, Visor Libros, Madrid, 2014, 236 pp. ISBN: 9788498951547.

  11. Komu było dedykowane dzieło Gwagnina Sarmatiae Europeae descripto? - rozwiązanie zagadki znanego polonicum XVI w.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wilgosiewicz - Skutecka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the problem of the original addressee of the dedication inscribed in the book entitled Sarmatiae Europeae descriptio by A. Gwagnin (Alessandro Guagnini. A unique copy of the book published in 1574 found by the author in Bibliothćque Mazarine in Paris has shed light on the question posed in the title. Gwagnin’s work was originally dedicated to Henry of Valois and it was only after the well-know string of historical events and his notorious flight from Poland (as he secretly left Poland to ascend the French throne that the dedication was changed, on the initiative of the publisher, to that of Stephen Batory of Poland. This discovery changes the dating of the book adopted hitherto in available monographs and bibliographies.

  12. Physical Investment Financing: The Cases of Poland and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żak Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present and compare the major sources of financing of physical investments in Poland and Latvia and to attempt to identify their determinants. The subject of the diagnosis is the corporate sector in Poland and i Latvia in the years 2005-2015.The article uses methodology, developed by C. Mayer, J. Corbett and T. Jenkinson, that is based on the net sources of finance. The financial data analysed in the article come from the capital and financial accounts, constituting the element of the integrated system of national accounts. Assuming that in a given period of time, the sources of finance (revenue are equal to their use (expenditure, it is possible to estimate the structure of financing of physical investments in the corporate sector. The practical dimension of the analysis should be viewed as an indication for identifying changes in the area of financing of physical investments in enterprises in the two countries.

  13. Facilities of Early Rehabilitation post Stroke in Poland 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opara, Jozef; Langhorne, Peter; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Rationale -The aim of this work was to survey the contemporary facilities for early poststroke rehabilitation in Poland. The main research questions were: what is the availability of inpatient rehabilitation for post-stroke patients in neurological departments and in rehabilitation departments......? Aims - Growing costs of health care are encouraging healthcare planners to look for new organizational solutions of services which could enable rehabilitation as early as possible after disease onset. Early post-stroke rehabilitation consists of many elements that provide for early onset rehabilitation...... and its continuation after discharge from stroke unit. Participants - Two questionnaires evaluating neurorehabilitation of people who underwent stroke was designed and distributed: first to 221 neurological wards and second to 154 rehabilitation departments in Poland. Design - We asked about delay before...

  14. Possible consequences of severe accidents at the Lubiatowo site, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Petra; Philipp, Anne; Hofman, Radek; Gufler, Klaus; Sholly, Steven

    2014-05-01

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is under consideration in Poland. One of the sites under discussion is near Lubiatowo, located on the cost of the Baltic Sea northwest of Gdansk. An assessment of possible environmental consequences is carried out for 88 real meteorological cases with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. Based on literature research, three reactor designs (ABWR, EPR, AP 1000) were identified as being under discussion in Poland. For each of the designs, a set of accident scenarios was evaluated and two source terms per reactor design were selected for analysis. One of the selected source terms was a relatively large release while the second one was a severe accident with an intact containment. Considered endpoints of the calculations are ground contamination with Cs-137 and time-integrated concentrations of I-131 in air as well as committed doses. They are evaluated on a grid of ca. 3 km mesh size covering eastern Central Europe.

  15. Beyond convergence: Poland and Turkey en route to high income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Raiser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts the policy reform experiences of Poland and Turkey en route to high income. For both countries, globalization has presented unprecedented opportunities to catch up, unleased by integration into European and global markets and the establishment of macroeconomic discipline. These opportunities were reinforced by the creation of economic institutions to strengthen competition and support private entrepreneurship, catalyzed by the convergence process with the European Union. Both Poland and Turkey have shown resilience following the 2008 global crisis, but continued success will require renewed structural reform measures. Dealing with the challenging of aging while at the same time finding a way to sustain productivity growth through greater domestic innovation is shaping Poland’s policy agenda. Turkey's structural and demographic potential as well as its strategic location between the markets of Europe and Asia offers attractive value proposition to investors, which could be further enhanced with improvements in business regulations and economic governance.

  16. Tax wedge in Croatia, Austria, Hungary, Poland and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Onorato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the tax burden on labour income in Croatia, Austria, Greece, Hungary and Poland in 2013. The Taxing Wages methodology has been applied to hypothetical units across a range of gross wages in order to calculate net average tax wedge, net average tax rate, as well as other relevant indicators. When it comes to single workers without children, the smallest tax wedge for workers earning less than the average gross wage was found in Croatia, while Poland had the smallest tax wedge for above-average wages. Due to a progressive PIT system, the tax wedge for a single worker in Croatia reaches 50% at 400% of the average gross wage, equalling that of Austria, Greece and Hungary. Tax wedges for couples with two children show a similar trend.

  17. Morphometric comparison of pumpkinseed (Centrarchidae populations in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zięba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of morphometric differentiation between two populations of pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus inhabiting distinctively different habitats in north-west Poland was examined. Fish were collected at sites that differ in water temperature and hydrology – an ambient temperature, urban pond vs an artificially-heated drainage channel, respectively. In principal component analysis, the first and second components, which accounted for 40% and 11 %, respectively, of the variability between the habitat types, revealed that the observed differences were related to head and body dimensions, with specimens from the heated site having generally larger heads, higher bodies, and longer anterior components. Larger body size is normally associated with greater survival in unnatural and highly variable environments. This study was funded by the National Science Centre, Poland (decision No DEC-2011/01/D/NZ8/01807.

  18. The consequences of price differentiation for regional development in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Przekota

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Each region in Poland has a different economic potential due to its own specific features. Taking account of the specific nature of individual regions is important for the management of the country as a whole and of its particular regions. Existing disparities in the economic development may lead to many negative phenomena, such as internal migration or regional marginalization. Excessive price and income inequalities may weaken economic growth throughout the country. It is important for the coherence of the whole country that the disparities between regions are not too big. The study determines the consequences of price differentiation for regional development in Poland. The analysis was conducted using the coefficient of variation, correlation coefficient, regression coefficient and medium pace. The regions differ in terms of development, dynamic growth and wages. However, prices are much less diverse.

  19. Radioecological analysis of the north-eastern region of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalewski, M.; Mnich, Z.; Kapala, J.; Karpinska, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of natural radioactivity of K-40, Ra-226 and Th-232 in building material as well as radon concentrations and dose rates in houses and outdoors. The mean absorbed rate in air outdoors from natural gamma radiation was found to be 40.2 nGyh -1 . Doses inside houses made from particular materials were (nGyh -1 ): brick - 102, prefabricate - 89, wood - 88. The mean equivalent per one statistical inhabitant of ''Poland Green Lungs'' is 1.61 mSv/year. The doses absorbed by the population in the north-eastern region of Poland from natural sources of ionizing radiation are lower than the population-weighted world averages. (author)

  20. Poland - seaborne bulk trade hampered by rising transport costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beechener, J

    1991-12-01

    The article considers trade development in major dry bulk commodities, coal, cement, iron ore and grains. Aspects covered for coal are production and exports. All coal mines in Poland are state owned. Coal production has fallen from an annual output in excess of 190 mta in the late 1980s, to under 150 mt in 1990. Output for 1991 is forecast at around 142 mt. Exports have also declined from 36 mtce in the late 1980s to an estimated 20 mt in 1991. Various factors are cited for the changing fortunes of Poland's coal industry but the most significant is the introduction of market forces to a previously centrally planned economy. Topics discussed for coal include: restructuring the coal industry for privatisation; eliminating subsidies; and export destinations. 5 tabs., 6 photos.

  1. The sex reform movement and eugenics in interwar Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawin, Magdalena

    2008-06-01

    This paper focuses on the relations between a liberal group of sex reformers, consisting of writers and literary critics, and physicians from the Polish Eugenics Society in interwar Poland. It illustrates the paradoxes of the mutual co-operation between these two groups during the 1930s and analyses the reason why compulsory sterilisation was rejected by politicians. From the early 1930s two movements began to forge an alliance in Poland: the sexual reform movement which advocated freedom of the individual, and eugenics, which called for limiting the freedom of the individual for the collective good. This paper draws attention to several issues which emerged as part of this collaboration: population politics, the relationship between reformers, eugenicists and state institutions, and the question of how both movements--eugenics and sexual reform--perceived the question of sexuality, birth control and abortion. It will also focus on those aspects of their thinking that led to mutual co-operation.

  2. DIFFERENTIATION OF WELFARE OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN POLAND IN 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Hanusik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research in focus was the material welfare of households. In particular, there were analysed the level and differentiation of the welfare of rural households in 2012, after more than twenty years of developing of market economy in Poland. In addition, there was examined the relationship between income, consumer spending and household equipment and the level and differentiation of measures of the welfare distinguished by the criterion of the main sources of income of households groups. In the study both econometrical and statistical analysis was used. The study was based on primarily source of information coming from the panel study of household budgets conducted by the Central Statistical Office, as well as the data contained in the statistical yearbooks of the Republic of Poland.

  3. Participative environmental management and social capital in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunka, Agnieszka; De Groot, Wouter T

    2011-01-01

    with a ubiquitous top-down approach taken by institutional decision-makers. The paper addresses this problem from the perspective of social capital theory. A study of administrative culture and decision-making processes shows the way decisions are currently made. We also propose a way to achieve more participative......Eastern European countries, such as Poland, are often used as exemplary in social capital studies. Upon entering the European Union, the low social capital level in Poland posed problems with implementing new regulations, particularly in the environmental policy field. Environmental issues often...... present a high degree of complexity – and European legislation requires multi-stakeholder involvement in decision-making processes. Thus, the dilemma: on the one hand, there is a demand to engage and consult many actors; on the other hand, low social capital contributes to an administrative culture...

  4. Distribution of Azolla filiculoides Lam. (Azollaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szczęśniak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Azolla filiculoides has been an ephemeral plant in Poland since the end of the 20th century. In the last 15 years this species appeared in 5 locations in south-west Poland. Habitat and plants of two populations became destroyed, three other still exist. A. filiculoides occurs in eutrophic or even polluted water where it forms dense mats, up to 10 cm thick. It stays sterile and propagates only in a vegetative manner. Frost resistance of Lower Silesia populations is higher than reported so far; fern may winter and rebuild the population after frost reaching 22oC. Size of the populations is changeable during the vegetation season. A. filiculoides occurs in water habitats and plant communities in which it substitutes Lemna minor.

  5. Microbeam X-ray analysis in Poland - past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusinski, J

    2010-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the development of electron beam X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) in Poland. Since the introduction by Prof. Bojarski of EMPA over 45 years ago, tremendous advances in methodologies and in instrumentation have been made in order to improve the precision of quantitative compositional analysis, spatial resolution and analytical sensitivity. This was possible due to the activity of Applied Crystallography Committee at the Polish Academy of Sciences, as well as the groups of researches working in the Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy (Gliwice), the Technical University of Warsaw, the Silesian Technical University (Katowice), the AGH-University of Sciences and Technology (Krakow), and the Institute of Materials Science and Metallurgy Polish Academy of Sciences (Krakow). Based on the research examples realized by these teams, conferences, seminars and congresses organized, as well as books and academic textbooks issued, the evolution of electron beam X-ray microanalysis in Poland is demonstrated.

  6. Multifunctionality of Organic Farming: Case Study from Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śpiewak Ruta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to answer the question whether organic farming, which is developing in some parts of Poland, can be considered as a form of multifunctional farming and contribute so to non-commodity functions and the process of change in a particular territory of given areas. The analyses are based on data obtained from 2013 of several points in the south of Poland representing a cluster of organic market oriented farmers. The results show that namely market organic farming may serve as multifunctional one, but only under certain conditions and for a specific type of farming. Through specific functions, organic farming facilitates the changes, primarily on a local scale. The existence of a strong integrated organic farming sector might influences development and change, resulting in not only the improvement of economic welfare of organic farmers, but also of whole local communities, strengthening the bonds amongst them, mobilising the social resources.

  7. Masculist Groups in Poland: Aids of Mainstream Antifeminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wojnicka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the role masculist groups currently play in fostering resistance to feminist-influenced efforts to advance the autonomy and equality of women in Poland, where the strong influence of the Polish Catholic Church continues to shape attitudes and actions in professional, governmental and civil society spheres. The paper argues that Polish public discourse since 1989 has been strongly dominated by antifeminist rhetoric advanced by masculist groups. This rhetoric is not only used in the media and in political discourse; it also influences legislation and thus hinders efforts to secure a satisfactory level of equality for women, evidenced in struggles over abortion reform, the Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women, and the trivialisation of rape. The findings of the paper are based on qualitative social research on men’s social movements in Poland between 2009 and 2012 and on qualitative media discourse analysis of articles published between 2009 and 2014.

  8. Big Words, Little Results: the Chinese Investments in Poland from the Political Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Lubina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2017 statistics showed that Chinese Foreign Direct Investments (FDI in Poland for 2016 amounted to a more than half of all Chinese FDI in Poland for the 2000–2016. Yet the overall amount of Chinese FDI remains modest in comparison with Western Europe or even with Hungary. Despite much proclaimed Sino-Polish rapprochement in 2015–2016 and high hopes for OBOR/BRI initiative in Poland, cooperation with China has not been a breakthrough for Poland in terms of economic results. There have not been ground-breaking Sino-Polish projects and Polish government’s desire to strengthen ties with China loosened in late 2016/early 2017 (though it may revive now.There are several reasons for that, from the perception of Poland as non-attractive for majority Chinese investments, via lack of overall Polish strategy of attracting these investors to discrepancies of economic interests between Poland and China.

  9. Regions of pollution with particulate matter in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawicki Kacper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the temporal and spatial variability of particulate matter concentration in Poland in the calendar winter season (December-February. The basis for the study were the hourly and daily values of particulate matter PM10 concentration from the period 2005/06 – 2014/15, obtained from 33 air pollution monitoring stations. In Poland, the obligation to monitor the concentration of the finer fraction of particles smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter was introduced only in 2010. Consequently, data on PM2.5 concentration refer to a shorter period, i.e. 2009/10 – 2014/15, and were obtained from 23 stations. Using the cluster analysis (k-means method, three regions of comparable variability of particulate matter concentration were delineated. The largest region, i.e. Region I, comprises the northern and eastern central area of Poland, and its southern boundary is along the line Gorzów Wlkp-Bydgoszcz-Konin-Łódź-Kielce-Lublin. Markedly smaller Region II is located to the south of Region I. By far the smallest area was designated to Region III which covers the south west area of Poland. The delineated regions show a marked variability in terms of mean concentration of both PM fractions in winter (PM10: region I - 33 µg·m-3, region II - 55 µg·m-3, region III - 83 µg·m-3; PM2,5: region I - 35 µg·m-3, region II - 50 µg·m-3, region III - 60 µg·m-3 and, in the case of PM10, the frequency of excessive daily limit value.

  10. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY OF OLDER PEOPLE IN POLAND – SELECTED ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Różański, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to the issues of educational activity of the elderly in Poland. Defining the term “old age” and drawing attention to the issue of human adaptation to old age were the starting points of the discussion. Next, the most important issues concerning the activity of seniors were raised. Further discussed were the conditions and objectives of the educational activity of older people. An attention was also drawn to the role of institutions, promoting education and culture, in ...

  11. Music in Nazi-Occupied Poland between 1939 and 1945

    OpenAIRE

    Naliwajek-Mazurek Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The paper is a survey of research on music in territories of occupied Poland conducted by the author in recent years, as well as a review of selected existing literature on this topic. A case study illustrates a principal thesis of this essay according to which music was used by the German Nazis in the General Government as a key elements of propaganda and in appropriation of conquered territories as both physical and symbolic spaces.

  12. Music in Nazi-Occupied Poland between 1939 and 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naliwajek-Mazurek Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a survey of research on music in territories of occupied Poland conducted by the author in recent years, as well as a review of selected existing literature on this topic. A case study illustrates a principal thesis of this essay according to which music was used by the German Nazis in the General Government as a key elements of propaganda and in appropriation of conquered territories as both physical and symbolic spaces.

  13. Assessment of cyanobacteria impact on bathing water quality in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of bathing water is of key importance for bathers’ health, mainly due to the fact, that each year millions of people use bathing sites as places for recreation and sport activities. Most of the bathing sites are of adequate quality of water, but still there are cases of health risk because bathing water is polluted. One of the main health risk factor in bathing water are cyanobacteria and their blooms. Cyanobacteria are microorganisms of morphological features of bacteria and algae. They live in colonies, which in large quantities show up as streaks, dense foam on the water surface. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of cyanobacteria blooms on health regarding bathing water quality in Poland. Materials and methods: Assessment covered all bathing sites in Poland supervised by Polish National Sanitary Inspection (PIS in the period from 2007 to 2009. The base was data collected during bathing water monitoring conducted by PIS and their formal decisions of bathing bans introduced in response to revealed bathing water pollution. Results and discussion: The results of assessment indicate, that about one-fourth of all bathing bans in Poland was due to cyanobacteria blooms. Conclusions: Every fifth bathing sites located on artificial lake or water reservoir and every tenth on the sea bathing sites were polluted. Average period of bathing ban due to cyanobacteria blooms in Poland varies. Relatively the shortest bathing bans were observed on the sea bathing sites (no longer than one week on average. Much longer were bathing bans on lakes and artificial lakes (one month on average.

  14. Radon-enriched spring waters in the South of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, B.; Hetman, A.; Dorda, J.; Zipper, W.

    2001-01-01

    A method for determination of 222 Rn in natural water samples which involves a Wallac 1414 Win Spectral α/β liquid scintillation counter is described. Samples were collected from springs in health resorts in the Sudety Mountains in Poland. Half of the studied water samples were radon enriched with an activity concentration higher then 74 Bq/l. Seasonal variations of 222 Rn in these waters are under investigation. The method introduced is very convenient and elegant for radon activity measurements.

  15. Professional Training Of Specialists In International Marketing In Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowski Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Polish experience in training specialists in international marketing in the context of globalization and integration processes has been studied. A range of theoretical resources, namely Market Entry Strategy for Poland; the articles dedicated to international marketing and economy development (W. Grzegorczyk, M. Viachevskyi, M. Urbanetst); program specifications and structures at Polish universities, namely University of Lodz and Collegium Civitas, have been analyzed. It has been defined that...

  16. Hepatotoxic cyanobacterial blooms in lakes of northern Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mankiewicz, J.; Komárková, Jaroslava; Izydorczyk, K.; Jurczak, T.; Tarczynska, M.; Zalewski, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2005), s. 499-506 ISSN 1520-4081 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6017004 Grant - others:MIDI-CHIP(PL) EVK2-CT1999-00026, EVK2-2002-00546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : cyanobacteria * cyanotoxins * N-Poland lakes * recreational water * PPIA * HPLC Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.215, year: 2005

  17. Volvariella surrecta - a new species in the mycoflora of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Celka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first record of Volvariella surrecta (Knapp Sing. (Pluteaceae in Poland. Its fruit bodies were found on 20 October 2000 in an oak-hornbeam wood in the southern part of Pomań. The parasitic V. surrecta grew on decaying sporophores of Lepista nebularis and Melanoleuca brevipes. The article also describes the macroscopic and microscpic characteristics of the discovered specimens.

  18. Emigration preferences and plans among medical students in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski-Siuda Krzysztof

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migration and ethical recruitment of health care workers is receiving increased attention worldwide. Europe’s aging population is creating new opportunities for medical doctors for finding employment in other countries, particularly those of a better standard of living. Methods We conducted a survey among 1214 medical students in five out of eleven universities in Poland with medical schools in October 2008. A series of statistical tests was applied to analyse the characteristics of potential migrants. Projections were obtained using statistical analyses: descriptive, multifactorial logistic regression and other statistical methods . Results We can forecast that 26–36% of Polish medical students will emigrate over the next few years; 62% of respondents estimated the likelihood of emigration at 50%. Students in their penultimate year of study declared a stronger desire to migrate than those in the final year. At the same time, many students were optimistic about career opportunities in Poland. Also noted among students were: the decline in interest in leaving among final year students, their moderate elaboration of departure plans, and their generally optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland. Conclusions The majority of Polish students see the emigration as a serious alternative to the continuation of their professional training. This trend can pose a serious threat to the Polish health care system, however the observed decline of the interest in leaving among final year students, the moderate involvement in concrete departure plans and the optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland suggest that the actual scale of brain drain of young Polish doctors due to emigration will be more limited than previously feared.

  19. Environmental aspects of hard coal mines closure in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaber, M.; Krogulski, K.; Gawlik, L.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental problems that arise during the closure processes of hard coal mines in Poland are undertaken in the paper. The problems of changes in water balance in rock mass are described with a stress put on underground water management. Regulation concerning ground reclamation and utilisation and removal of existing heat and power plants which after the mines closure will continue to supply surrounding consumers are stressed and the possible solutions are shown. 13 refs

  20. Erysiphales of the Drawski Landscape Park (NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues the presentation of results of a 3-year investigation on the occurrence of fungi of the order Erysiphales in the Drawski Landscape Park (north-western Poland. The list of occurrence of members of Erysiphales presented includes 31 next species and 15 species found on plants not mentioned in the previous paper. Additionally, the occurrence of the powdery mildew fungi in 12 permanent plots with nine plant associations was presented and compared.

  1. MONETARY POLICY RULE FOR POLAND – RESULTS FOR VARIOUS SPECIFACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Pawel Baranowski

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse monetary policy rules for Poland. We estimate models based on the proposition of Taylor, augmented with interest rate smoothing. We deal with the case of instantaneous as well as forward-looking relationship between interest rate and inflation. In the latter case, the proposition of data-rich reaction function was also considered. The evidence show that Polish monetary authority reaction to inflation is strong, contrary to the output gap. In addition, we fou...

  2. Implementing inflation targeting regimes: The case of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschalk, Jan; Moore, David

    1999-01-01

    This paper assesses the prospects for the new Polish monetary policy strategy of inflation targeting. Regarding the general requirements for implementing an inflation targeting strategy it appears that Poland has made sufficient progress in reducing fiscal dominance and hardening budget constraints. The paper also finds that the exchange rate has played a dominant role as a policy instrument, with the linkages between the short-term interest rate and inflation remaining unclear. Given this un...

  3. Imagining Nuclear Future in Socialist Poland. Plans and Dreams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůželová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2017), s. 35-54 ISSN 0023-589X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04902S Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Poland * Czechoslovakia * nuclear energy Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  4. Regions of pollution with particulate matter in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawicki, Kacper; Czarnecka, Małgorzata; Nidzgorska-Lencewicz, Jadwiga

    2018-01-01

    The study presents the temporal and spatial variability of particulate matter concentration in Poland in the calendar winter season (December-February). The basis for the study were the hourly and daily values of particulate matter PM10 concentration from the period 2005/06 - 2014/15, obtained from 33 air pollution monitoring stations. In Poland, the obligation to monitor the concentration of the finer fraction of particles smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter was introduced only in 2010. Consequently, data on PM2.5 concentration refer to a shorter period, i.e. 2009/10 - 2014/15, and were obtained from 23 stations. Using the cluster analysis (k-means method), three regions of comparable variability of particulate matter concentration were delineated. The largest region, i.e. Region I, comprises the northern and eastern central area of Poland, and its southern boundary is along the line Gorzów Wlkp-Bydgoszcz-Konin-Łódź-Kielce-Lublin. Markedly smaller Region II is located to the south of Region I. By far the smallest area was designated to Region III which covers the south west area of Poland. The delineated regions show a marked variability in terms of mean concentration of both PM fractions in winter (PM10: region I - 33 µg·m-3, region II - 55 µg·m-3, region III - 83 µg·m-3; PM2,5: region I - 35 µg·m-3, region II - 50 µg·m-3, region III - 60 µg·m-3) and, in the case of PM10, the frequency of excessive daily limit value.

  5. A DECADE OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN POLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipska, Iga; McAuslane, Neil; Leufkens, Hubert; Hövels, Anke

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to illustrate and provide a better understanding of the role of health technology assessment (HTA) processes in decision making for drug reimbursement in Poland and how this approach could be considered by other countries of limited resources. We analyzed the evolution of the HTA system and processes in Poland over the past decade and current developments based on publicly available information. The role of HTA in drug-reimbursement process in Poland has increased substantially over the recent decade, starting in 2005 with the formation the Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System (AOTMiT). The key success factors in this development were effective capacity building based on the use of international expertise, the implementation of transparent criteria into the drug reimbursement processes, and the selective approach to the adoption of innovative medicines based on the cost-effectiveness threshold among other criteria. While Poland is regarded as a leader in Central and Eastern Europe, there is room for improvement, especially with regard to the quality of HTA processes and the consistency of HTA guidelines with reimbursement law. In the "pragmatic" HTA model use by AOTMiT, the pharmaceutical company is responsible for the preparation of a reimbursement dossier of good quality in line with HTA guidelines while the assessment team in AOTMiT is responsible for critical review of that dossier. Adoption of this model may be considered by other countries with limited resources to balance differing priorities and ensure transparent and objective access to medicines for patients who need them.

  6. Market Report : The high-voltage transmission market in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    In order to meet the accession requirements for membership to the European Union, Poland is currently restructuring its energy sector, and the initiative to privatise the electric power industry to full competition by 2005 is on course. This report describes the opportunities for foreign investors and suppliers of electrical equipment and services, particularly at this time when power demand is growing, the power grid infrastructure is ageing and obsolete components must be replaced. The total installed capacity in Poland is about 33,000 megawatts. This includes all installations of power plants and combined heat and power plants. An investment of $23 billion is anticipated by 2010 in order to modernize the electricity power industry and to meet the growing energy demand. Polski Siece Elektroenergetyczne, S.A. (PSE) is the state-owned company which controls Poland's high-voltage transmission grid. It operates a 220 kilovolt and 40 kV grid and holds the monopoly on acquiring and transmitting electricity in the country. Poland maintains grid interconnections with several other European countries and is looking to expand its network. Opportunities for Canadian suppliers lie in the areas of high-voltage power transmission equipment and services. Other opportunities lie in commercial prospects in sales of equipment and services. The report includes a section on international competition, and the Canadian position for both private- and public-sector companies. A section on market logistics describes distribution channels, market-entry considerations, import regulations, and export credit risks. A list of key contacts and support services is included with this report. refs., tabs.

  7. SMALL HYDRO PLANTS IN LAND USE SYSTEM PLANNING IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bernatek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower plants are present in the land use system planning in Poland. At the national level the important role of spatial planning in the development of renewable energy was highlighted, included small hydroplants. However, it seems that at the regional level this demand has not been realized. The necessity of developing small hydroplants as a renewable energy was highlighted, but negative environmental impact was not indicated. At local level legal instrument of small hydropower plants is specified.

  8. Attitudes towards conscientious objection among community pharmacists in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Piecuch, Anna; Gryka, Malwina; Kozłowska-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Background The European Council Resolution 1763 (2010), “The right to conscientious objection in lawful medical care”, provoked a discussion among Polish pharmacists on the necessity for granting them the right to refuse to dispense medicinal products which invoke conscientious objection. Objective To explore attitudes of Polish pharmacists towards the conscience clause. Setting Pharmacies with public e-mail addresses in various parts of Poland (Lower Silesia Province, Mazovia Province, Kuyav...

  9. First record of Stenopelmus rufinasus Gyllenhal, 1835 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanat Marek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Stenopelmus rufinasus, a North American weevil introduced to Europe along with the invasive aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides, has been recorded from Poland for the first time. Its locality is a natural oxbow lake of the River Odra in Wrocław, the only city in Poland where A. filiculoides has been repeatedly recorded over the last dozen years. The diagnostic characters of this weevil species, its biology, current distribution in Europe and its prospects in Poland are discussed.

  10. The Politics and Policy of U.S. Bases in Poland: A Political-Military Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    After its short-lived existence in the years 1918 -1939, Poland once more fell victim to the machinations of its powerful neighbors. The German and...Polish sovereignty on November 11, 1918 , Poland enjoyed its independence for period of 21 years.22 The new Poland was integrated within the French...Czech Republic as well as adding additional SM-3 interceptor site in Romania and an additional radar site in Turkey.81 However, “By wishing to avoid

  11. Social attitudes towards atomic energy in Poland in the period of 1989-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, S.

    1996-01-01

    The public opinion on the atomic energy and its future development in Poland have been discussed on the base of four inquiring actions results carried out in Poland in 1989, 1991, 1994 and 1996. The general conclusion was that public acceptance for nuclear power generation in Poland was rather low however the attitudes towards the subject differed very much between groups of people with selected features being investigated e.g. age, sex, education. 4 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Environmental regulatory reform in Poland: lessons for industrializing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, H.S.; Angel, D. [Clark University, Worcester, MA (USA). George Perkins Marsh Institute

    2000-09-01

    This paper examines the environmental regulatory reform in Poland during the 1990s and uses the findings to consider the extent to which elements of successful regulatory systems are transferable across national boundaries. Drawing on five case studies of privatized firms, a mailed questionnaire, and policy and institutional analysis, it investigates how Poland developed an effective system for managing industrial pollution while also achieving considerable socioeconomic progress. The fundamental legitimacy of the regulators and regulatory process, the availability of information about firms and regulatory intents, and the capacity for case-specific decision-making are among the key explanatory factors. The study also shows how in Poland a good 'fit' between regulatory institutions and policies on one hand and their social context on the other hand has evolved, and how it contributes to the effectiveness of the regulatory system. Industrializing economies can indeed simultaneously pursue environmental protection and socioeconomic welfare, but elements of a proven regulatory system cannot be automatically adopted among countries and cultures. Learning from each other's experience must be sensitive to the cultural and institutional context of each regulatory system. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Geographical analysis of the Uredinales flora of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the Polish flora of the order Uredinales is based on a simultaneously published descriptive elaboration (M a j e w s k i 1977, ms. The information on the Uredinales flora of Poland has been compared as far as possible with the data obtained from the analysis of the flora of sever al other countries in Europe with a different type of vegetations. In a chapter devoted to the statistics of the flora of Polish rust fungi the number of genera and species of these fungi in Poland is discussed, as well as their life cycles and host plants. The distribution of Uredinales in Poland is analysed on the basis of the A r w i d s s o n - D u r r i e u classification modified by the author, and particular attention is paid to the depedence of the range of the fungus on its life cycle and the occurrence of the host. Changes in the flora a result of its synantropization are also considered. The Polish Uredinales are divided into several groups on the basis of range, and example of their distribution involving historical factors are discussed.

  14. Monetary policy change of the Central bank of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraś Ireneusz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Bank of Poland is an institution which, in conjunction with the government is responsible for the implementation of country’s economic policy reinforces its democratic character. Provisions of its operation are governed by the Constitution of The Republic of Poland and by the Act on the National Bank of Poland. To this end, the objective of the present research is to analyse the proposed amendments in the Act on the NBP. The latter concerns the amendment procedures, term of office and the rotations and numbers of Monetary Policy Council. The remaining part of the analyses is dedicated to the issue of dismissal of a MPC’s member in conjunction with the prohibition of occupying other positions, the adoption of the NBP’s financial statements and the separation of instruments of monetary policy’s instruments for stability of domestic financial system. Introduced changes in the proposed draft reduce the independence of the NBP while making it more subject to the Cabinet. Following the result of further consultations on the draft of Act on the NBP, provisions which reduce the independence of the NBP shall be partially removed.

  15. Sustainable Rural Development Policy in Poland – Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosiej Józef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses issues of sustainable development in rural areas in Poland from the perspective of natural resources management. Sustainable development of rural areas is the way of managing which links economic, social and ethical principles with ecological safety. This may be reached by proper management, directed on cautious usage of ecosystems’ self-controlling mechanisms, with the progress of science and technology. Agriculture in Poland is one of the most important sectors from an economic perspective and its importance is greater in Poland than in other countries in the EU. It has an influence not only on the social and economic situation of the rural population, but also on the natural environment, structure of landscape and biodiversity. From ecological point of view, functions of rural areas are not only being a place for production of food, resources for industry and green energy, but also supplying environmental goods such as protection of biodiversity and influencing air and water quality as well as landscape. The author presents ways to reduce the pressure of agricultural activities on water resources in the region, catchment and farm scale

  16. REPORTING OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN SMES SECTOR IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kotowska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Poland and worldwide, corporate social responsibility has a growing interest of managers, business institutions, investors and the government. Thus, it becomes progressively determinant of corporate governance and priority in building a comprehensive development strategy. CSR is used by large companies. However, this does not mean that SMEs sector companies operate less responsible than large one. Each enterprise, regardless of size, operates in a specific social surroundings and market environment, which are affected by different groups of stakeholders. They may affect enterprise reinforcing effect on - contribute to its success or failure. It is therefore important that the managers should be able to identify social groups in the enterprise and its environment and respect their claims, needs, rights and expectations. The aim of this paper is to show the application of CSR by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland and the manner of result presentation. This article lists tools of corporate social responsibility, examples of practices and research results in the SMEs sector in Poland.

  17. Present state of the telecommunications market in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Andrzej

    2003-10-01

    This statement shortly describes the changes in the telecommunication market that have taken place in the last 12 years, during the socio-economical transformation in Poland. It concerns economical, legal and technical problems related to the development of the telecommunications in Poland based on the principles of the market economy. Especially it is related to the commercialization of this sector, what has been a result of the changes of the principal law ruling the national economy including changes ot the telecommunication law. Changes of the law enabled the creation of the commercial company Polish Telecom and opened the way to the privatization of this company. Due to the changed law the way to the step-by-step liberalization and de-monopolization process has been also opened in Poland. It has caused fully digital modernization of telecommunication network, introduction new services such as cellular communications and Internet services, as well as rapid development of the market, what has expressed in multiplication of number of subscribers of stationary telephony, creation of the big cellular market and new increasing Internet market. The statemnet also refers to present difficulties in development of this market and as well as to the prospects for the future developments.

  18. The Roman Catholic parish in Poland as the local community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariański Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Roman Catholic Church a parish is the smallest legal unit and it is the milieu for religious, social, and cultural activities for a group of people joined together in a geographical area. The purpose of this article is a sociological study examining the Catholic parish in Poland as a local community. Today a parish along with its community is exposed to social change and to myriad forces characteristic of the postmodern culture. In Poland two opposite forces characterize the life of a parish community: on the one side, secularization and individualization, and on the other side, socialization and evangelization. The subjective dimension of a local community, which is related to identification of people with a local parish, along with social bonds with the parish as a local community, are discussed in the first two sections of the article. In subsequent sections some issues related to common activities, membership in movements, religious communities, and Catholic associations within the parish will be presented. While the agency of people in the parish community is theoretically acknowledged, it is still not fully implemented. The discussion is based on the data obtained from major public opinion institutes in Poland.

  19. Nuclear Poland? The second approach after 20 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, L.; Gołębiewski, T.; Fornalski, K.W.; Gadja, D.

    2015-07-01

    Poland’s plan for reorganization of its energy mix is to construct several nuclear reactors (2 NPPs with number of units depending on reactor type) of total capacity 6000 MW. It is assumed that energy from NPPs will provide up to 19% of the electricity production in Poland after 2035. Currently there is no nuclear power plant in operation. The previous nuclear programme was canceled in 1990. Almost 20 years later Polish government has undertaken second attempt to construct first NPP by adoption of The Polish Nuclear Power Program in January 2014. Since that moment were started intensive preparations to implement many legal regulations related to future nuclear industry in Poland e.g. Atomic Law amendment. In the same year the Owner’s Engineer was chosen by the main investor PGE S.A. Following “nuclear” a lot of Polish Universities launched studies connected with the subject to ensure employees for deployment and sustaining of nuclear technologies in Poland. This paper describes the rationale staying behind the government decision, present situation of Polish energy market and current work status. (Author)

  20. First steps of Poland in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, J.

    2010-01-01

    Poland appears as a new-comer in the domain of nuclear power but in fact previous projects of nuclear power plants existed but were abruptly stopped in the afterwards of Chernobyl. Today almost 90% of the electricity produced in Poland comes from the combustion of coal and lignite. In january 2009 the Polish government decided to include nuclear power in the energy mix with an aim of a 15% share of the electricity production in 2030 and with the first nuclear plant operating in 2020. The path toward this aim is marked out as following. 2009-2010: drawing up of the legal frame, creation of the nuclear safety authority, drawing up of the list of potential sites, and launching of the public debate. 2011-2013: selection of the first site, of the pool of investors, of the reactor technology and the signature of the contract for the first plant. 2014-2015: obtention of the administrative agreements, elaboration of the technical project. 2016-2020: construction of the plant. The polish public opinion favours nuclear energy and there is a kind of competition between different regions to home nuclear power plants. In 2010 Poland signed various collaboration agreements with the Usa, France and South-Korea. Polish authorities are studying the pros and cons of the EPR (EDF - Areva), ABWR (GE/Hitachi) and AP1000 (Westinghouse) reactors. (A.C.)

  1. Characteristics of large thermal energy storage systems in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzchowski, Ryszard

    2017-11-01

    In District Heating Systems (DHS) there are significant fluctuations in demand for heat by consumers during both the heating and the summer seasons. These variations are considered primarily in the 24-hour time horizon. These problems are aggravated further if the DHS is supplied by a CHP plant, because fluctuations in heat demand adversely affect to a significant degree the stable production of electricity at high overall efficiency. Therefore, introducing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) would be highly recommended on these grounds alone. The characteristics of Large (i.e. over 10 000 m3) TES in operation in Poland are presented. Information is given regarding new projects (currently in design or construction) that apply TES technology in DHS in Poland. The paper looks at the methodology used in Poland to select the TES system for a particular DHS, i.e., procedure for calculating capacity of the TES tank and the system to prevent water stored in the tank from absorbing oxygen from atmospheric air. Implementation of TES in DHS is treated as a recommended technology in the Polish District Heating sector. This technology offers great opportunities to improve the operating conditions of DHS, cutting energy production costs and emissions of pollutants to the atmosphere.

  2. Men and Women Wage Differences in Spain and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Matuszewska-Janica

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Men and women wage differences is a widely discuss topic in the literature. Some authors point the fact that size of gender wage gap (GPG is not the same across wage distribution. GPG ratio is accelerating at the top of it. Thus, the main goal of presented study is to analyse impact of outliers (top earners on the values of GPG ratio and results of its decomposition. In addition we compare outcomes obtained for Spain and Poland. Elimination outliers from the sample will reduce values of men and women wage gap ratios not only in unadjusted form but in adjusted form as well. Study is based upon the Eurostat’s Structure of Earnings Survey (SES individual data in respect of 2014. In the paper we discuss results of Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition (in extension proposed by Oaxaca and Ransom obtained for Spain and Poland. Obtained results indicated two points above all. Firstly, although unadjusted GPG ratios for Spain and Poland differ significantly, the adjusted GPG ratios are at the same level (about 15%. Such situation shows the real men and women wage differences are at the same level in both countries. This is an additional indication that women situation on Polish labour market in similar to the Spanish one. Secondly, after elimination of outliers the values of GPG measures (in adjusted and unadjusted form decreased, as was expected. These falls came to approximately 3 p.p. It can be considered as significant change.

  3. SOCIAL MEDIA IN POLAND – GREAT POTENTIAL UTILIZED BY FEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael SEDKOWSKI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social media are very popular around the world. More and more people adopt this method of communication, as it brings instant and effective ways to stay in touch with ones relatives, coworkers, brands and products. Poland is no exception, as all major brands of the social sphere have decided to prepare localized versions of their product for the Polish market. One could say that Poland is following the global trends very accurately as Facebook has dominated the market and pushed out the indigenous services Brands and corporation utilize the medium to get in touch with their consumers. On the other side, there are public institutions like universities, local governments , that should be interested in getting in touch with people, as reaching out to one’s potential customers has never been easier. This is happening, but on a very small scale and many attempts fail. In this paper, Author explores the possible reasons behind the situation and attempts to form a prognosis for the market of social media in Poland.

  4. Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium caprae strains isolated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska-Wędzina, Monika; Kozińska, Monika; Orłowska, Blanka; Weiner, Marcin; Szulowski, Krzysztof; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Anusz, Krzysztof; Smith, Noel H

    2018-03-10

    Bovine tuberculosis (bovine TB, bTB) is caused by bovine bacilli: Mycobacterium bovis and M caprae The studies conducted in Poland, in the National Bovine Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory in the Department of Microbiology of the National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy, show that animal tuberculosis in Poland is also caused by M caprae We here describe the identification and genotypic assessment of 52 isolates of M caprae obtained from Polish cattle and wild animals over the last five years. We show that strains isolated from bison have significant genotypic diversity and are distinct compared with the genotypes of strains isolated from cattle. Similarly, isolates from cattle herds can be highly genotypically variable. Formal designation of the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is controversial in Poland; there is a gap in veterinary legislation with regard to bTB and no explicit mention of M caprae causing tuberculosis in animal. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

    2007-07-01

    The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

  6. British auditors in Poland in the interwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Cieślik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of historical research on the operation of British accounting firm Whin-ney, Murray & Co in Poland before World War II. Based on our findings this was the only foreign ac-counting firm active in Poland at that time. Following their clients, British accounting firms expanded their operations abroad at the turn of the 19th century. During the 1920s and 1930s the number of audit assignments on the European continent increased rapidly, which necessitated the establishment of branches (offices in major European cities and industrial districts. Whinney, Murray & Co set up an office in Warsaw in 1932 taking into account its convenient location as a base for undertaking audit assignments throughout the Eastern European region. The Warsaw office concentrated initially on inter-national clients active in Poland but was also engaged in audits of Polish power plants and participated as financial advisor in the electrification program of Polish railways with involvement of British investors. Whinney, Murray & Co contributed to the development of Polish-British economic cooperation before World War II. Its representative was one of the founders of the Polish-British Chamber of Commerce established in Warsaw in 1933.

  7. AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS IN POLAND – AN ATTEMPT TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Śpiewak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural organizations play an important role in political decision-making at the local, national, and EU levels. However, it is diffi cult to estimate to what extent the size of public transfers to the Polish countryside is a direct eff ect of these organizations’ activity. The same question applies to farming privileges, which are much more numerous than those for other social groups in rural areas. One of the reasons for this stems from the fact that agricultural organizations in Poland have rarely been examined. The aim of this article is therefore to obtain a structured picture of agricultural organizations in Poland and to search for relations between their legal forms and statutory goals. The main types distinguished here include farmers’ trade unions, employers’ organizations, agribusiness organizations (agribusiness federations and unions, and associations. Taking into consideration the number of members and the thrust of activities, including impact on agricultural policy, the most important agricultural organizations in Poland seem to be the trade unions and agribusiness organizations. The substantive diff erence between them lies in their stated goals. Trade unions primarily indicate goals of a social nature. Federations of agribusiness organizations strive to support their members and promote policy changes, while agribusiness organizations work for the development of specialized farms.

  8. Statement on the first research on digital startups in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Skala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to present the results of the first study of Polish startups’ ecosystem as the first stage of a larger study of digital economy landscape in Poland. The first estimate of the number of Polish startups amounts to 2400 entities. The publication presents the first survey Polish startups that marks the beginning of cyclical studies on enterprises belonging to the digital economy in Poland. The study was conducted among 423 entities using an in-house questionnaire prepared based on the author’s own knowledge. Results are discussed. Startups most often consider themselves software producers who follow the SaaS model and operate in the following industries: mobile apps, e-commerce and Internet services. Nearly one in three startups achieve 50% annual revenue growth, while in one-fifth such growth exceeds 100%. Almost two thirds of Polish startups are financed exclusively from own funds. It is necessary to repeat and deepen the study in order to determining the significance of the digital industry in the economy of Poland and the CEE region. The originality of this work lies in taking this subject for the first time in Polish literature and in elaborating the proposition of a “startup” term’s definition.

  9. The influence of educational research on education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoń, Wincenty

    1981-06-01

    There is no need nowadays to convince people that modern education cannot function properly without the help of scientific research, and especially of pedagogical research. It is true that there still appear many pedagogical works `inflated by wind', as Comenius expressed it more than three hundred years ago, and these publications may even acquire a temporary popularity. But the general trend towards the development of pedagogy as a discipline based on research has been established for quite some time and is constantly gaining strength in the developed countries. Concurrently, pedagogical disciplines have had increasing influence on the development of education. The question of how these disciplines have developed in Poland and how they have influenced the educational system calls for a broader review, such as to allow one to draw conclusions on how to harmonise more effectively the domain of educational research with that of education. Such a review is the aim of the present paper. The following issues are considered: the functions of educational research, the kinds of educational investigations conducted in Poland, ways of disseminating their findings, and the organisation of research in Poland. The paper ends with a discussion of some of the more important conclusions reached.

  10. DIRECTION OF INVESTMENTS AND SOURCES OF FUNDING ON HOTEL MARKET IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Semmerling

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hotel market in Poland is related to trends on touristic market. This sector is developing dynamically, in Poland as in the whole world. In the years 2001-2014 numbers of hotels in Poland increased double. Most of new hotels are 4 and 5 stars. Important for new objects is building conference centres and SPA, which makes touristic season longer. Main source of finances hotel investments in Poland are own sources and EU funds. Crucial importance is the franchise. Forecasts for hotel market are really great. Till 2017 the count of tourists, who take advantage of hotels, should still increase.

  11. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  12. THE HISTORY AND THE PRESENT OF THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE XVI – XVIII CENTURIES ON THE TERRITORY OF DNIPROPETROVSK IN THE EYES OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LYSENKO G. I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Statement of the problem. With the enactment of the Law of Ukraine "About the condemnation of the Communist and national socialist (Nazi totalitarian regimes in Ukraine and the prohibition of propaganda of their symbolism", by minimum historical counting, about 800 localities of which at least 24 cities including Dnipropetrovs’k need to be renamed. But the views of residents of the city are divided: some support to keep the old name of the city, changing its semantic load, and there are a lot of people willing to rename the city in Sicheslav, Dniproslav, Kodak and the like. Now it is important to know the opinion of young people in the city and region who create their future and that of their children. The analysis of the research. The history of the settlements of the XVI – XVIII centuries on the territory of the future Katerynoslav (Dnipropetrovs’k became the subject of study of many scientists since the nineteenth century. In the years of independence more and more historians declare the necessity of the revision of the chronology of the history of our city, taking into account the earlier settlements, which undoubtedly influenced both the development of the region and the future provincial city. The purpose of this article is to determine the degree of influence of the settlements of the XVI – XVIII centuries on later (including modern history of Katerynoslav (Dnipropetrovs’k in the minds of the youth of the city. Conclusion. The analysis of the settlements of the XVI-XVIII centuries testifies to the active urban processes that took place in our region in the Cossack-Hetman days. This important stage in the history of our city enriches us, its current inhabitants, with facts about the distant past which we should not only remember and pass on to our descendants, but also recover through the reconstruction of the defining architectural features. The results of a survey among students to determine their views regarding the

  13. SU-E-J-50: An Evaluation of the Stability of Image Quality Parameters of the Elekta XVI and IView Imaging Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, D; Papanikolaou, N; Gutierrez, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Quality assurance of the image quality for image guided localization systems is crucial to ensure accurate visualization and localization of target volumes. In this study, the long term stability of selected image parameters was assessed and evaluated for CBCT mode, planar radiographic kV mode and MV mode. Methods and Materials: The CATPHAN, QckV-1 and QC-3 phantoms were used to evaluate the image quality parameters. The planar radiographic images were analyzed in PIPSpro™ with spatial resolution (f30, f40, f50) being recorded. For XVI CBCT, Head and Neck Small20 (S20) and Pelvis Medium20 (M20) standard acquisition modes were evaluated for Uniformity, Noise, Spatial Resolution and HU constancy. Dose and kVp for the XVI were recorded using the Unfors RaySafe Xi system with the R/F Low Detector for the kV planar radiographic mode. Results A total of 20 and 10 measurements were acquired for the planar radiographic and CBCT systems respectively over a two month period. Values were normalized to the mean and the standard deviations (STD) were recorded. For the planar radiographic spatial resolution, the STD for f30, f40, f50 were 0.004, 0.002, 0.002 and 0.005, 0.007, 0.008 for the kV and MV, respectively. The average recorded dose for kV was 38.7±2.7 μGy. The STD of the evaluated metrics for the S20 acquisition were: 0.444(f30), 0.067(f40), 0.062(f50), 0.018(Water/poly-HU constancy), 0.028(uniformity) and 0.106(noise). The standard deviations for the M20 acquisition were: 0.108(f30), 0.073(f40), 0.091(f50), 0.008(Water/poly-HU constancy), 0.005(uniformity) and 0.005(noise). Using these, tolerances can be reported as a warning and action threshold of 1σ and 2σ. Conclusion A study was performed to assess the stability of the basic image quality parameters recommended by TG-142 for the Elekta XVI and iView imaging systems. Consistent imaging and dosimetric properties over the evaluated time frame were noted. This work was funded in part by the Cancer

  14. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came into being on an initiative of doctor De La Roch, who was a German surgeon of a French origin. However, as early as 1844, the idea of absenteeism raised an interest of catholic clergymen of Greater Poland with high ranking clergy such as Rev. Leon Michał Przyłuski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Rev. Jan Kanty Dąbrowski, Archbishop of Posen, and later on Archbishops Rev. Mieczysław Halka Ledóchowski and Rev. Florian Oksza Stablewski. They were fascinated with activities of Rev. Jan Nepomucen Fick, Parish Priest of Piekary Śląskie and several other priests on whose initiative a lot of church brotherhoods of so called holy continence were set up in Upper Silesia as early as the first half-year of 1844. It was due to Bishop Dąbrowski that 100 000 people took vows of absenteeism in 1844–1845, becoming members of brotherhoods of absenteeism. In turn, it was an initiative of Archbishop Przyłuski that Jesuit missionaries – Rev. Karol Bołoz Antoniewicz, Rev. Teofil Baczyński and Rev. Kamil Praszałowicz, arrived in Greater Poland from Galicia in 1852 to promote the idea of absenteeism. Starting from 1848, they were helping Silesian clergymen to spread absenteeism. Clergymen of Greater Poland were also active in secular absenteeism associations. They became involved in the workings of the Association for the Promotion of Absenteeism that was set up by Zygmunt Celichowski in Kórnik in 1887, and especially in the Jutrzenka Absenteeism Association

  15. Herpetological Notes XIV - XVI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1937-01-01

    At the request of Dr K. P. Schmidt, Chicago, I recently examined the types of Psammophis antillensis Schl. This species as originally described was a composite, and it is, therefore, necessary to select a lectotype to restrict the name antillensis to one of the species involved. The difficulty is

  16. Frontera, ciudad y plaza pública americana del siglo XVI: escritura, violencia y statu quo deseado en cronistas españoles de la conquista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Félix Bolaños

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El dominio colonial sobre el Nuevo Mundo se inició a través de prácticas ampliamente ceremoniales -poniendo cruces, estandartes, banderas y escudos de armas- marchando en procesiones, recogiendo tierra, midiendo las estrellas, trazando mapas, expresando algunas palabras especiales, o permaneciendo en silencio. Aunque la fuerza militar aseguró efectivamente su poder sobre el Nuevo Mundo, los europeos de los siglos XVI y XVII también creyeron en su derecho a dominar. Y se crearon esos derechos para sí mismos por medio de la exposición simbólica de palabras y gestos significativos, unas veces antes, otras después o simultáneamente con la conquista militar.

  17. Relations city - village in Trasmiera and Eastern zone of Cantabria: lineages, kinfolk and clienteles under the dominion of the Constables (XIV-XVI centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Osvaldo Pereyra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the dynamic that acquired the relationships of aristocratic power in the lordship of the House of Velasco, hereditary Constables of the kingdom of Castile, based on the form taken by the intricate network of agents and service administrators manor located on level of the villages and towns that are part of the eastern Cantabria between the XIV and XVI, establishing for it the diverse mechanisms of solidarity, dependence and submission using for the Lord to exercise jurisdiction and control power through this set of plural communities and men. We intend to study the process of building the manor to a dynamic image that will provide depth and dimension and at the same time to understand the constitution of political domination, not only as an imposition from the top down, but also as a rearticulation and continuous negotiations involving both the Lord family and customers and the communities that are nested within their power

  18. Uposażenie i działalność gospodarcza klasztoru kanoników regularnych w Trzemesznie do początku XVI wieku

    OpenAIRE

    Dorszewski, Przemysław

    2013-01-01

    Zasadniczym celem niniejszej dysertacji było przedstawienie rozwoju uposażenia i działalności gospodarczej w dobrach klasztoru kanoników regularnych w Trzemesznie od czasów fundacji do początku XVI wieku. Na pierwszym planie ukazano majątek ziemski oraz źródła dochodów, które stanowiły materialną podstawę i służyły zabezpieczeniu długiej żywotności każdej placówki klasztornej w średniowieczu. Przedstawienie rozwoju uposażenia doprowadziło do ustalenia jego faz rozwojowych (określenie uposażen...

  19. Essays on Zarathustra and Zoroastrianism. Translated and Edited by Prods Oktor Skjaervøm, Costa Mesa, Mazda Publishers Inc., 2000, XVI-131 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Rédaction,

    2010-01-01

    Après l’avant-propos de l’éditeur s’expliquant sur sa traduction (XI-XII) et la préface de l’auteur situant chacune des parties du livre (XIII-XVI), on trouvera les documents suivants, réunis dans l’ouvrage : Pp. 1-24 : « Characters of Ancient Mazdaism » (1987), 1ère édition dans History and Anthropology, 3 (1987), pp. 239-262. Pp. 25-30 : « Achaemenid Religion : Preliminary Questions ». Traduction de « Questions préalables », in : Jean Kellens, éd., La religion iranienne à l’époque achéménid...

  20. Characterization of hidden defects of an original XVI century painting on wood by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry survey on a wooden painting)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, G.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry, a non-contact and nondestructive optical diagnostic technique, was employed for evaluating the conservation state of a XVI century painting on wood. The whole structure alterations, induced by the laboratory temperature and relative humidity variations, were evaluated. Long-term analysis, by sequential recording and subsequent off-line processing of the fringes progression, was carried out. Local flaws and hidden detachments of pictorial layers from the support, which could not be recognized by traditional art-restorer survey methods, were also easily revealed. In such a case, a simple measurement approach was utilized, with the aim to get a user-friendly method for art conservators. The results demonstrate that the interferometry method can largely improve the traditional art conservation survey techniques.

  1. La dote matrimonial a finales del siglo XVI: el caso de la provincia de Pamplona en el Nuevo Reino de Granada (1574-1630

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto Gamboa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las prácticas más llamativas en el estudio del sistema de matrimonios de la sociedad colonial neogranadina durante los siglos XVI y XVII es la costumbre, arraigada sobre todo en las clases altas, de entregar las novias a sus maridos acompañadas de una serie de bienes. Esta costumbre, conocida como la "Dote", no era un legado exclusivamente español, ya que se dio en regiones como la China, la India y la Europa mediterránea desde tiempos muy remotos hasta bien entrada la época moderna. Incluso en algunas comunidades campesinas de estos países se sigue practicando hasta el día de hoy esta costumbre, cuya forma ha cambiado poco a través de los siglos.

  2. Paisaje forestal y representación social en Castilla (siglos XIV-XVI. Los montes de San Salvador de Oña (Burgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco REYES TÉLLEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este artículo es tratar de analizar la representación social del paisaje forestal perteneciente al señorío del monasterio de San Salvador de Oña (Burgos, durante los siglos XIV-XVI, a partir de las descripciones que se realizan del mismo en la documentación judicial relacionada con pleitos, pesquisas, etc. por el uso y aprovechamiento de los bosques y montes, para procurar conocer cuál era la construcción simbólica de esos paisajes de los distintos agentes sociales, e intentar valorar si esa forma de aproximarnos al territorio nos puede aportar nuevos enfoques o posibilidades de interpretación en el estudio de esa realidad.

  3. El color como parte de la estrategia de persuasión política: El caso de los XVI Juegos Panamericanos, Guadalajara 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Valdez-Zepeda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo los autores analizan el uso del color en las estrategias de persuasión política que utilizan los partidos y los candidatos durante los procesos electorales. También se describe la utilización que los principales partidos políticos de México hacen de los colores para lograr un posicionamiento y una diferenciación política. Específicamente, se indaga sobre el uso del color en los XVI Juegos Panamericanos celebrados en Guadalajara en octubre del 2011. Por ejemplo, se señala que el azul fue el color preponderante en la decoración de las instalaciones deportivas, los hoteles de la ciudad, los automóviles oficiales y en la publicidad del evento, lo que formaba parte de una estrategia ante las próximas elecciones federales del 2012.

  4. Pesca y trabajo en el reino de Toledo. La cuenca alta y media del Tajo en los siglos XII al XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Quiñones, Julián

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This work treats about the professions related with the fishing in the Kingdom of Toledo, in the high and middle course of river Tagus, from XII-XVIth centuries. Along these pages we have seen many different kind of people, public servants, great merchants, workers of the fisheries, involved in the fishing, trading and delivering of fish in this time. So with this article, we break with the idea which identified the fishing only with fishing men and boats showing how the medieval society was interested in every economic activity which produced profits.



    Este trabajo trata acerca de las profesiones relacionadas con la pesca en el Reino de Toledo, en la cuenca alta y media del río Tajo, de los siglos XII al XVI. A lo largo de estas páginas hemos visto muchos tipos diferentes de personas, oficiales públicos, grandes mercaderes, trabajadores de las pesquerías, envueltos en la captura, comercio y distribución del pescado. Con este artículo, queremos romper con la idea que identifica la pesca sólo con los pescadores y los barcos, mostrando como la sociedad medieval se interesaba en cualquier actividad económica que produjese beneficios.

  5. Evaluating the accuracy of the XVI dual registration tool compared with manual soft tissue matching to localise tumour volumes for post-prostatectomy patients receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Amelia; Brown, Elizabeth; Pryor, David; Lehman, Margot; Owen, Rebecca; Bernard, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Cone beam computerised tomography (CBCT) enables soft tissue visualisation to optimise matching in the post-prostatectomy setting, but is associated with inter-observer variability. This study assessed the accuracy and consistency of automated soft tissue localisation using XVI's dual registration tool (DRT). Sixty CBCT images from ten post-prostatectomy patients were matched using: (i) the DRT and (ii) manual soft tissue registration by six radiation therapists (RTs). Shifts in the three Cartesian planes were recorded. The accuracy of the match was determined by comparing shifts to matches performed by two genitourinary radiation oncologists (ROs). A Bland–Altman method was used to assess the 95% levels of agreement (LoA). A clinical threshold of 3 mm was used to define equivalence between methods of matching. The 95% LoA between DRT-ROs in the superior/inferior, left/right and anterior/posterior directions were −2.21 to +3.18 mm, −0.77 to +0.84 mm, and −1.52 to +4.12 mm, respectively. The 95% LoA between RTs-ROs in the superior/inferior, left/right and anterior/posterior directions were −1.89 to +1.86 mm, −0.71 to +0.62 mm and −2.8 to +3.43 mm, respectively. Five DRT CBCT matches (8.33%) were outside the 3-mm threshold, all in the setting of bladder underfilling or rectal gas. The mean time for manual matching was 82 versus 65 s for DRT. XVI's DRT is comparable with RTs manually matching soft tissue on CBCT. The DRT can minimise RT inter-observer variability; however, involuntary bladder and rectal filling can influence the tools accuracy, highlighting the need for RT evaluation of the DRT match.

  6. Comparing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Poland and Denmark for Road Construction in Relation to Wildlife and Nature Protection : Synopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Briggs, L; Elmeros, M.

    Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A.......Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A....

  7. Hepatitis E virus IgG seroprevalence in HIV patients and blood donors, west-central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Bura

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Wielkopolska Region in west-central Poland is an area hyperendemic for HEV infection. In this part of Poland, the exposure of HIV-positive persons to this virus is not greater than that of healthy blood donors.

  8. Development integration via real and technological convergence. Experience of Poland and conclusions for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał G. Woźniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes main achievements, losses and gains during the first decade of Poland's membership in the EU, while also aiming at development of suggestions for the Polish economic policy in the years to come, as well as draws conclusions for Ukraine, which has now elected the strategy of international economic cooperation. The first part of the paper presents an empirical analysis of Poland's both real and technological convergence with the developed EU countries. These data show that since 1994, as the process of Poland integration with the EU commenced, our country significantly reduced the income and technology gap as compared to the EU. During the financial crisis, Poland 'felt' better than most European countries. In the second part of the paper we attempt to answer the question as to the current conditions of Polish economy development. It is demonstrated that Poland's economic success was due to multiple factors such as endogenous and exogenous, historical and those derived from present events. However, it can be assumed that integration with the EU has been an important positive factor in development of Poland during recent 20 years. Great importance was also vested in the implementation of economic reforms in Poland as well as in policy of the government, although not faultless. The last section of the paper identifies problems now faced by the EU and individual member states, including Poland as regards future years till 2020

  9. A Stochastic Frontier Analysis of Output Level and Growth in Poland and Western Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osiewalski, J.; Koop, G.; Steel, M.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper uses Bayesian stochastic frontier methods to measure the productivity gap between Poland and Western countries that existed before the beginning of the main Polish economic reform. Using data for 20 Western economies, Poland and Yugoslavia (1980-1990) we estimate a translog stochastic

  10. Ownership, intra-industry trade and factor intensities: the case of Poland 1993-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between intra-industry trade (IIT) for foreign, private domestic and public domestic companies in Poland and the size of multinational activity measured by the stock of FDI. Using a unique database on imports and exports from companies in Poland 1993...

  11. Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

  12. Additional effective dose equivalent for adults and children in Poland as the result of mushroom consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska, H.; Kozak, K.; Mietelski, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data of caesium radioactivity in samples of various mushrooms collected all over Poland from 1986 to 1989 are presented. Nearly 80 samples from Poland and a few samples from Austria and USSR were analysed. The effective dose equivalents for adults and children caused by the consumption of one mass unit of dried mushrooms for each sample were estimated. (author)

  13. Ground deposition of long-lived gamma emitters in Poland from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolas, K.; Kubala, M.; Sciezor, T.

    1986-12-01

    Activity composition was measured for the soil contaminated with the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Soil samples were collected at various areas of Poland. A map showing the 137 Cs deposit distribution was drawn for the most contaminated southern part of Poland. 9 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  14. Poland’s Role in European and World System of States 1979-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    idCategory=34&idsub=180&id=10887&t=US+anti- missile+defense%3A+The+view+from+Poland [Accessed October 29, 2007]. 174 Tabassum Zakaria and Chris Borowski...files/bueros/china/04642.pdf [Accessed April 14, 2008]. Zakaria, Tabassum and Borowski, Chris. “Poland says U.S. shield a ‘foregone conclusion

  15. Resurrected Pigs, Dyed Foxes and Beloved Cows: Religious Diversity and Nostalgia for Socialism in Rural Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasieka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my paper is to discuss the phenomenon of nostalgia for socialism in rural Poland. More precisely, I discuss how experiences of rurality and diverse religious beliefs intertwine with nostalgia. Depicting the memories of socialism, shared with me by the inhabitants of a multi-religious rural commune in Southern Poland, I aim to…

  16. Trends in coal use - global, EU and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwała, Wojciech; Wyrwa, Artur; Olkuski, Tadeusz

    2017-11-01

    That aim of this paper is to compare trends in global, European use of coal with tendencies in Poland, one of heavy coal dependent countries. Polish power generation is unique among OECD countries, the share of both hard coal and lignite in power generation reaches 81% [1]. Climate policy of European Union is to phase out intensive greenhouse gases sectors, thus to transform Polish power generation into less carbon intensive. Although such policy is generally accepted in Poland, the paste and practically proposed regulation that excludes coal generation from capacity mechanisms, is considered as threat to energy security. Coal is the base for generation for one simple reason, abundant in European scale hard coal reserves and significant capacities in lignite. Natural gas reserves allow to supply about 1/3 of consumption, but prices and supplies dependent hitherto on contracts with GAZPROM did not allow to develop significant generation capacities. Renewable resources are limited, there is not much possibilities for hydro, wind and solar. Poland is also one of the countries of poor air quality, traditional coal based space heating systems plus obsolete car fleet generate vast emissions, especially during the winter. Only recently this became top priority of environmental authorities. This situation is subject to transformation, government, managers are aware that the role of coal needs to be decreased, but there are two main questions, the paste of transformation and the future energy mix. The paper attempts to answer the question whether the expected changes in Polish energy mix are comparable or differ from the global and European tendencies.

  17. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland [Polish version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans for developing electricity and gas cross-border links will also contribute to regional security of supply. In addition, the government has announced an ambitious nuclear programme by 2030, envisaging the first unit to enter operation by 2022. Other achievements include energy intensity improvements, an increased share of renewables and a stronger focus on energy research and development (R&D). Despite these positive developments, there is room for improving Poland’s energy strategy. First, a more integrated energy and climate policy is needed to put Poland firmly on a low-carbon path while enhancing energy security. Second, energy policy could put more emphasis on promoting competition to make the energy markets more efficient. Decarbonising Poland’s power sector will be a particularly significant challenge requiring huge investments. Coal accounts for 55% of Polish primary energy supply and 92% of electricity generation, raising significant climate change and environmental challenges. To this end, Poland’s efforts to improve energy efficiency and to diversify the country’s energy mix are praiseworthy and should be pursued. The government’s attention to R&D on clean coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) is also encouraging. The government could put more focus on the positive role that gas can play in decarbonising the electricity mix, especially if Poland’s potential resources of unconventional gas are confirmed. To tap these resources, it will be vital to put the necessary legal and regulatory framework in place. This in-depth review analyses the energy challenges facing Poland and provides sectoral critiques and

  18. Foodborne infections and intoxications in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrek, Joanna; Baumann-Popczyk, Anna; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of foodborne infections and intoxications in Poland in 2012. The evaluation was based on analysis of information from reports of epidemiological investigations in foodborne outbreaks, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology, NIZP-PZH annual bulletins (Czarkowski MP et al. "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland", 2006-2012. Warsaw, NIPH-NIH and CSI). In Poland in 2012 there was observed decrease in the number of infections intoxications both of bacterial and viral origin. It was recorded only one case of trichinellosis. There were reported 491 outbreaks of foodborne poisonings or infections included 5 774 people, among them 718 children 1-14 years old. Out of them 1 364 people were hospitalized. Unlike last year, the predominant etiological agent in those outbreaks were zoonotic Salmonella serotypes which caused 38.1% outbreaks and 26.7% outbreak cases. The viruses have caused 27.1% of outbreaks and 36.2% of cases. In 23.8% of outbreaks etiological agent has not been established. Most often the settings of an outbreak was a private household - 236 outbreaks and a hospital (84 outbreaks). As in previous years, the most common vehicle of infection were foods prepared with milk and eggs -11.8% of outbreaks and egg dishes - 9.0%. In 57.6% of oubreaks vehicle of infection has not been established. Among outbreaks reported in 2012, there were 4 which involved more than 100 people. In 163 outbreaks of food items had been tested and in 33% of them the results were positive. The increasing negative results of bacteriological examinations of food items, suggested necessity to start testing food contamination with viruses.

  19. [Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Poland in 2008-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałużewski, Stanisław; Rastawicki, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common causative agent of tracheobronchitis and atypical pneumonia, mainly in children and adolescents. The infections are often seen as epidemics occurring in autumn-winter seasons at intervals of 4-7 years. Epidemiological studies showed that M. pneumoniae is responsible for 30% to 40% of all cases of bacterial respiratory infections in Poland. The aim of the study was estimate the seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae in Poland in 2008-2013 in comparing to results obtained in other European countries. The results of diagnostic serological tests (ELISA) in particular immunoglobulin classes for infection with M. pneumoniae performed in 16.825 persons were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were mostly children at the preschool and school age with clinical symptoms of respiratory tract infection. The data were obtained from Bacteriology Department of National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw and from 13 Sanitary and Epidemiological Stations through the country which send quarterly or monthly reports. The serological results showed that in autumn-winter seasons of 2011-2012 the "early antibodies" (IgA and/or IgM) for M. pneumoniae were twice more often diagnosed in sera of patients with respiratory tract infection than in analogous seasons of 2008-2010. The antibodies were detected in 34% and 42% of patients, respectively in third quarter of 2011 and 2012. Epidemic increase of M. pneumoniae infections in Poland in autumn-winter seasons of 2011-2012 was mainly observed due to diagnosis of the IgA and/or IgM antibodies in serological tests.

  20. Diversity of Babesia in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welc-Falęciak, R; Bajer, A; Paziewska-Harris, A; Baumann-Popczyk, A; Siński, E

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to estimate Babesia prevalence in the most common species of tick in Poland, Ixodes ricinus, in two recreational areas (Urwitałt in the Mazury Lake District and Bielański Forest in Warsaw), and (2) to evaluate the molecular diversity of Babesia isolates in questing I. ricinus in Poland. Questing ticks were collected from vegetation in forest areas in Urwitałt near Mikołajki and in Bielański Forest (Warsaw). Purified genomic DNA was used with specific primers to amplify a fragment of the Babesia spp. 18S rRNA gene. Tick-drag indices for I. ricinus were high in both study areas, reaching somewhat higher values in Urwitałt than in Bielański Forest. The overall prevalence of Babesia spp. in examined ticks was 1.6%. In Urwitałt, two strains of B. microti were identified using rRNA sequences: the enzootic Munich strain and an isolate close to the zoonotic Jena strain. The proportion of infections due to these two strains in questing ticks reversed over a six-year period. During 3 years of study in Bielański Forest, all Babesia isolates obtained from I. ricinus were identical to Babesia sp. EU1 (B. venatorum), previously recognized as an agent of human babesiosis. This study has confirmed the presence of enzoonotic and zoonotic Babesia species/strains in the abundant human-biting tick I. ricinus in recreational areas in Poland. It has also shown that the distribution of different genotypes has changed over time, however the reasons for these fluctuations still remain to be investigated.

  1. Regional development of districts in the Lesser Poland Voivodship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Salamaga

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Regional development includes qualitative changes in economy (e.g. in production, investments, employment as well as qualitative changes (regarding the structure of economy and society, changes in the environment. The research of regional development is important and necessary in order to make appropriate decisions at the regional and local level. The main purpose of the article is comparative analysis of districts in the Lesser Poland Voivodship in the area of economic, social and ecological development. Scientific aim: The scientific aims of paper are verifying the hypothesis concerning eco-development and forecasting the level of regional development in districts of Lesser Poland Voivodship. Methodology/methods: In the research of regional development the quality index of economic, social and ecological development has been proposed which has been calculated on the basis of a certain aggregation of the results of the Principal Component Analysis made on the correlation matrix of standardised variables being the components of the index. Forecasts of the regional development level in districts were calculated with the use of different econometric models as linear model, exponential model, or power model. Findings: The findings prove that the Lesser Poland Voivodship is characterised by considerable disproportions in regional development. The most favourable conditions for economic and social development are in the districts with large city agglomerations as well as extensive municipality infrastructure and transport infrastructure. The presented results demonstrate that the majority of districts have not exhibited a constant tendency to changes in the positions in successive ranking lists in terms of the economic, social and ecological development. The positions occupied by most districts are generally stable and have not changed considerably in the examined period. Conclusions: The research has confirmed the negative

  2. Human Alveolar Echinococcosis in Poland: 1990–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahorski, Wacław L.; Knap, Józef P.; Pawłowski, Zbigniew S.; Krawczyk, Marek; Polański, Jerzy; Stefaniak, Jerzy; Patkowski, Waldemar; Szostakowska, Beata; Pietkiewicz, Halina; Grzeszczuk, Anna; Felczak-Korzybska, Iwona; Gołąb, Elżbieta; Wnukowska, Natalia; Paul, Małgorzata; Kacprzak, Elżbieta; Sokolewicz-Bobrowska, Elżbieta; Niścigorska-Olsen, Jolanta; Czyrznikowska, Aleksandra; Chomicz, Lidia; Cielecka, Danuta; Myjak, Przemysław

    2013-01-01

    Background Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis infections is a dangerous old disease in the Northern Hemisphere. The aim of the paper was to collect and analyze data on human AE in Poland in the last two decades. Methodology/Principal Findings The sources of data were both the cases officially registered and detected by an active field and laboratory surveillance. The cases were verified by clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory criteria. Altogether 121 human cases of AE were detected. Among these 83 (68,6%) cases were classified as confirmed, 16 as probable and 22 as possible. During the two decades a continuous increase in detection rate was noticed. The cases were 6–82 years old at the time of diagnosis (mean - 47.7 years). Sex ratio M/F was 0.86/1.0. The AE was fatal in 23 (19%) patients (mean age at death - 54.1 years). Family agglomeration of AE was found in 4 foci, involving 9 patients. Seventy six of the cases were diagnosed in an advanced stage of disease. In all cases the liver was the primary location of AE. In 30 (24.8%) patients a spread to other organs was observed. Ninety four of the patients were treated with albendazole. In 73 (60%) patients a surgical operation was performed, including 15 liver transplantations. Conclusions/Significance The studies confirmed that AE is an emerging disease in Poland, which is the fourth country in Europe with over 120 cases detected. The results also indicate the need of a wider national programme for implementation of screening in the highest AE risk areas (north-eastern Poland) with an effort to increase the public awareness of the possibility of contracting E. multilocularis, and above all, training of the primary care physicians in the recognition of the risk of AE to allow for an early detection of this dangerous disease. PMID:23301116

  3. O Papa precisa do marxismo? Bento XVI e a incompatibilidade entre a fé cristã e a fé marxista (Does Pope need of Marxism? Benedict XVI and the incompatibility between the Christian faith and the Marxist faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Albino Assunção

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O marxismo aparece insistentemente na teologia e no magistério de Joseph Ratzinger-Bento XVI como um inimigo permanente ao qual o cristianismo deve se contrapor, sem possibilidades de conciliação entre ambos. Mas qual concepção subjaz essa rejeição tão peremptória, tão decidida? Para alcançarmos a resposta a tal questão, aprofundamos a visão de Joseph Ratzinger a partir de alguns de seus escritos teológicos (anteriores ao pontificado e, em seguida, nas suas três encíclicas, o ponto alto de seu magistério papal (Deus caritas est, Spe salvi e Caritas in veritate. Defendemos que a crítica de Bento XVI, antes de ser exclusivamente teológica (ou doutrinária, é filosófica, baseada na racionalidade e não na fé professada pela Igreja, que lhe permite tratar o marxismo não simplesmente como um programa político que vai contra alguns valores cristãos, mas como uma escatologia judaico-cristã secularizada, um messianismo político, portanto, como uma religião, como uma fé, que nega e esvazia o núcleo essencial da fé cristã. E aqui está a raiz da sua oposição. Palavras-chave: Marxismo. Bento XVI. Messianismo. Escatologia política.   Abstract: Marxism appears repeatedly in Pope Benedict’s theology and teaching as a permanent enemy that Christianity must oppose without any possibilities of conciliation between them. However, what underlies this decisive rejection? To answer this question we look further into Joseph Ratzinger’s perspective starting with some of his theological writings (before the pontificate followed by three of his encyclicals, the high point of his papal teaching (Deus caritas est, Spe salvi e Caritas in veritate. We argue that Benedict XVI's criticism, prior to being purely theological (or doctrinal, is philosophical, based on rationality and not in the faith professed by the Church, allowing him to treat marxism not simply as a political program that goes against some Christian values

  4. Nucleonic gauges in Poland and new approach to their calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanski, P.

    2000-01-01

    The current status of manufacturing and application of radioisotope gauges in Poland is presented. Metrological performance of the gauges is briefly described and their expected future prospects on the market of the industrial measuring instruments are discussed. Progress in electronic engineering and common use of the microprocessor systems in the radioisotope gauges made possible application of the sophisticated methods of signal processing and data treatment, as for example statistical multivariate analysis. Some examples of the multivariate calibration of nucleonic gauges are presented. Application of the partial least square regression (PLS) and artificial neural network (ANN) for calibration of the gauges has been shown. (author)

  5. Prerequisites and Effects of CRM Systems Use in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchnowska, Dorota; Wrycza, Stanislaw

    It has been demonstrated in numerous studies that CRM implementation is beneficial in terms of higher revenues and lower costs (Aberdeen Group 2004: Thompson 2004) However, many potential CRM users in Poland are discouraged by high implementation costs and a high proportion of abortive implementations. Managers complain about lack of best practices that might convince them about the advisability of their strategy. The high failure rate in CRM implementation (Hellweg 2002) is often the result of the fact that the firms responsible for implementation lack an adequate and proven methodology.

  6. by shale gas producers in USA and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Galimska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is analysis and comparison of the standards used for preparation of financial statementsby enterprises looking for and extracting shale gas in Poland and in the USA. The author reviewsthe different accounting regulations underlying financial reporting of companies operating in this field.Nowadays, globalization and constant development of financial markets cause intensified expectations ofshareholders regarding the attributes of financial statements. The author points out the high level of specializationand comprehensiveness of American regulations. In contrast, international accounting standardsaddress only the initial phase of the process of alternative hydrocarbons extraction, which results ina lack of financial reports’ consistency and decline of investors’ interest.

  7. Legal aspects of business development and innovation in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Grzegorz Żak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of this article the basic concepts related to the topic issues are presented. The article focuses on the rationale and ideas of creating entrepreneurship and innovation. On the one hand the work’s aim is to show the basic legal instruments which allow to conduct business in Poland, and to demonstrate the role of state bodies in the promotion of entrepreneurship. However, on the other hand the aim of this work is to show the legal instruments connected with competition and encourage entrepreneurs’ innovativeness, taking into account the current needs and trends occurring on the market.

  8. The Aeronautical Monument from Michałowice, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif RUS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After World War I Romania was sized with contradictory feelings: on the one hand: a general euphoria, stimulating many ambitions, on the other hand, the fear that everything that had been obtained through the sacrifice of half a million Romanian soldiers could have been lost.The insecurity of its borders and the fear of the revisionist forces counterattack determined Romania to conclude a treaty of alliance with Poland (March 3, 1921, then to join the countries that were part of the Little Entente (Czechoslovakia, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. It was followed by France, terrified by its inability to stop the expansion of Germany.

  9. Engineering production education in e-learning example in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rosak-Szyrocka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It can be observed that the modern world which is subjected to a variety of changes, in particular socio-economic and civilizational ones, known commonly as the so called information revolution creates the need for intense search for new, more effective educational models. All the changes are linked to the formation of network society, information society and knowledge-based economy, which are termed differently in science. The paper discusses research conducted among 698 students of Czestochowa University of Technology and Wroclaw University of Technology in Poland. The aim of the following work is to indicate main problem areas and provide solutions to them.

  10. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logi...

  11. Assessment of acrylamide level in food stuffs in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Mojska, H.; Gielecinska, I.; Marecka, D.; Szponar, L.; Swiderska, K.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess acrylamide content in 159 samples of nine groups of food products randomly collected in Poland in 2004-2007. The analysis was performed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) using Finnigan GCQ instrument. Deuterium-labelled (d3 labelled) acrylamide was used as internal standard. The highest level of acrylamide was observed in potato crisps and crackers: (904 and 859ug/kg, respectively). The lowest level was found in oat flakes (23ug/kg) a...

  12. Dynamic International Competitiveness of Transition Economies: The Case of Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows that the reform on the structures of the Polish economy has had an impressively fast effect on the numbers of different products this country exports to Western countries. The time path may well be described by a logistic curve. The change in the exports of this country may...... therefore be characterised by a widening, instead of a deepening in specialisation. The paper introduces a new empirical methodology to evaluate the dynamic changes in export activities of a country. The result of this new methodology is that quality competition is becoming increasingly important for Poland...

  13. Invasive vascular plant species of limnocrenic karst springs in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spałek, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in Poland. Among them, the most important for preservation of biodiversity of flora are limnocrenic karst springs. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbance of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearance of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to appear numerous invasive plant species. They are: Acorus calamus, Echinocystis lobata, Elodea canadensis, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Fielworks were conducted in 2010-2014.

  14. Hymenochaete carpatica from Częstochowa Upland (S Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Krieglsteiner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hymenochaete carpatica has been found in 1994 in Czętochowa Upland, "Parkowre" nature reserve, in Wiercica river valley situated on calcareous area, 290-310 m above see level, on fissured bark of Acer pseudoplatanus. This contribution corresponds to the paper by Chlebicki (2003 who has recently discovered scveral localities of H. carpatica in Sudetes and Carpathians. Both papers present a set of sites of H. carpatica reported hitherto from Poland, and contribute to the knowledge on its distribution in Europe.

  15. The gender pay gap in informal employment in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Rokicka, Magdalena; Ruzik, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the gender pay gap in the formal and informal labour markets in Poland. The authors verify the hypothesis of the existence of a gender pay gap in informal work and compare this gap with the one observed in the formal (registered) labour market. Various analyses of available data show that size and characteristics of gender pay gap differ depending on the level of earnings. The inequality of earnings among unregistered women and men is more pronounced at the b...

  16. CERN accelerator school: an introductory course in Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    For the first time since the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) was set up, the â€ワIntroduction to Accelerator Physics” course was held in Zakopane, Poland.  This course was organised together with the National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw and the AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow and was held from 1-13 October 2006 at the foot of the Tatra Mountains. The course was very well attended with 113 participants representing 26 different nationalities. Although most of the participants originated from Europe, some students came from countries as far away as Canada, China, India and North America.

  17. Local innovation systems in Poland - the beginning of the road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziemianowicz Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Local innovation systems (LIS constitute a relatively new term as usually the discussion about the systemic approach to innovation has focused on the level of countries, and most of all - regions. In this article an attempt was made to assess Polish municipalities from the perspective of their potential for development of local innovative systems. The performed factor analysis allowed characterization of five types of institution networks which may impact creation and development of LIS. The study was completed with case studies in selected voivodeship cities as centres of the highest concentration of institutions usually building local innovation systems, three of which were capitals of the poorest regions in Poland.

  18. Greening of Industry in the Baltic States and Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2003-01-01

    The industries in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland struggle to adapt to European standards of energy and environment. The Norwegian Energy Efficiency Group (NEEG) is establishing a network for the food processing industries in these four countries. The goal is to make this sector more energy efficient and friendly to the environment before the countries join the EU in 2004. The four countries have defined five strategic goals for the industry: (1) Improved environment, (2) Energy efficiency, (3) Reduced consumption of natural resources, (4) Production of ''safe food'' and (5) Competitive power on the EU market and at home

  19. The Bologna Process in Portugal and Poland: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tomé

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the consequences of the introduction of the EU directed Bologna Process in Portuguese and Polish Universities. Specifically, we study how the Bologna Process has impacted in the employment situations of graduates in Portugal and Poland. Concerning methodology, we use available official data on the implementation of the Bologna Process in Poland and Portugal. We have found that the investment in Higher Education (HE stalled in both countries in the years since the implementation of the Bologna Process due to massive budgetary restrictions. Nevertheless, the stock of HE graduates increased massively, seemingly because the authorities thought that the free market should lead the HE market in the two countries. Employment prospects, unemployment prospects and wages of graduates continued to be much higher than those of non-graduates. But an unexpected divide appeared between graduates and Masters/PhDs, with important social consequences. While the first “saved” themselves and prospered going into high skilled jobs, the later had to endure minimum wage and underskilled occupations. The low payment for these youngsters was also justified because the supply of HE with Bologna increased but the demand by companies did not match. In fact, both Portugal and Poland have stronger needs in the demand side of the market than in the supply side. Finally, both markets continue to be essentially public and the experiences of privatization did not succeed to much. In terms of social implications, the Bologna Process faces in both countries the massive and decisive challenge of eliminating youth unemployment and emigration but this can only be done with the cooperation of companies that should create high paid and high skilled jobs. Only when this occurs the Bologna Process will achieve its ultimate goal of transforming Portugal and Poland in high skilled equibriuns. Let us hope it happens, for the good of the two countries and particularly for the

  20. New records of Lobaria amplissima (Lobariaceae, Ascomycota in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zalewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current knowledge on the occurrence of Lobaria amplissima, a very rare old-growth forest lichen in Poland, is discussed. Both previous and new localities are presented. The Białowieża Forest, from which L. amplissima is reported, is a refuge site of L. amplissima in the lowland forests of Central Europe. The most important data on the ecology and the general distribution of the species are given. Diagnostic characters related to the morphology, anatomy and chemistry of L. amplissima differentiating it from similar species are described.

  1. Directions in the development of business tourism in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Abram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Business tourism in Poland has been developing since the 1990s, when the political regime changed. It is one of the many areas that has been subject to change after the historic year of 1989. However, it gained greater importance in the 21st century. Special attention was to this type of tourism and the product, as, compared to typical tourism oriented towards sightseeing and leisure, business tourists spend more money on travel, as well as in the destination itself, they are the target market for many business entities, and business travel movement takes place throughout the year, fending off the effects of seasonality.

  2. Curvularia trifolii a new for Poland pathogen of gladiolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesław Zamorski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new for Poland gladiolus disease is described. Microscopic data as well as pathogenicity tests proved that the fungus Curvularia trifolii f.sp. gladioli is the caused of this disease. Among 17 gladiolus cultivars the most susceptible were: 'Aldebaran', 'Benares' and 'Lovely Melody' while the cultivars 'Oscar' and 'Decisio' showed the lowest susceptibility to the pathogen, In laboratory tests fungicides containing fenarimol PMC, vinclozolin and captafol were highly toxic for the fungus Curvularia trifolii f. sp. gladioli. Other fungicides such as thiuram and captan showed only a slight effectiveness, while chlorothalonil and carbendazim were not at all toxic for the studied fungus.

  3. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Ewelina Gaszyńska; Justyna Klepacz-Szewczyk; Elżbieta Trafalska; Anna Garus-Pakowska; Franciszek Szatko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Det...

  4. Mapping Health Needs to Support Health System Management in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecki, Tomasz; Romaniuk, Piotr; Woźniak-Holecka, Joanna; Szromek, Adam R.; Syrkiewicz-Świtała, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    In Poland, following the example of other EU countries, the first maps of health needs prepared by the Ministry of Health were presented in 2016. The maps constitute a foundation for rational decision-making in the management of health care resources, being potentially useful for all actors in health system. This refers in particular to the institutions responsible for distribution of funds and contracting health service, but also for decision-makers, who determine the scope of funds to be utilized in the health system, or the structure of benefits provided to patients. Service providers are also addressees of the maps, to give them a basis for planning future activities. The article presents a structured assessment of the current state of affairs, based on recent experience and sets out likely directions for the development of health needs in mapping in Poland in the future. We discuss the criticism addressed toward maps by representatives of various groups acting in health care. It includes the lack of recognition of some of the key health needs, or wrong emphases, where much more attention is paid to the recognition of current resources in the health system, instead of making prognoses regarding the future developments of health needs. Nonetheless, we find that this instrument is potentially of high usability, in case of elimination of the existing weaknesses. PMID:29662876

  5. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1998. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1997. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 33% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 13 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1998. (author)

  6. Marketing Program Standardization: The Experience of TNCs in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Sagan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the rate of standardization of marketing programs in transnational corporations in the consumer goods market in Poland, which currently is one of the fastest growing markets in the world. An important research objective was to observe how Polish consumers adopt the marketing patterns and related lifestyles from countries of Western Europe and the USA. The empirical tests and data, collected in a sample survey of 35 transnational corporations and their 140 products, and using varied methods of statistical inference, allowed to formulate the following conclusions. The analyzed TNC’s adopted a clear standardization strategy in the Polish market. Among the analyzed products, 2/3 of them have been entirely transferred from foreign markets into the Polish market. A detailed analysis has indicated that the standardization rate of product and its items in the FMCG market in Poland is high and very high, and significantly higher than the pricing and advertising strategy standardization rates. The product standardization rate in the Polish market has been slightly higher than the rate in the developed countries, yet the pricing standardization has been significantly lower. The standardization of advertising strategies showed similar features.

  7. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.; Wilgos, J.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1997. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1996. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 35% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose equivalent, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 13 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1997. (author)

  8. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.; Wilgos, J.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1996. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1995. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 40% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose equivalent, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 14 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1996. (author)

  9. Economic Effects of Migration from Poland to the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering that large numbers of the EU-8 immigrants was a strong argument for the Brexit, the objective of this paper is to assess some economic effects of migration from Poland to the UK for both countries. Intensive emigration of the Poles to the UK since 2004 negatively affected Poland’s economic growth in the long run, but it also reduced tensions at the labour market by decreasing the unemployment rate. On the other hand, the increase in Polish immigrants in the UK did not significantly affect economic growth and unemployment rate in the destination country in the short run in the period 2004-2015. A significance influence was observed only in the long run, when the UK economic growth decreased, but the pressures on the labour market significantly reduced. From these empirical findings, some policy recommendations are required for both countries: for Poland, migration policies to promote the return of migrants and more efficient utilization of labour force, while for the UK – shaping a more flexible labour market.

  10. actors of Success and Failure for International Retailers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florance Feldmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article provides an understanding of international retailers’ successes and failures when expanding in the Polish market. Accordingly, the objectives of this article were to define and identify what are the critical factors of success and failures of international retailers’ strategies while expanding in the Polish market according to the retailers themselves. Methodology: Adopting an interpretative research approach, this article elaborates a multiple explanatory case study design to discover how existing theory on internationalization compared to how internationalization is experienced and conceptualized by practitioners in their natural contexts. Findings: Twenty cases were studied among which were found four successful retailers and two who had failed. Coding of categories highlighted five critical success factors and five critical failure factors. Pricing strategy, necessity of adapting operations to local market, learning by doing, e-commerce and early entry timing appeared as factors of success or at least as “facilitating factors.” Choosing the inappropriate entry method, underestimating competition, developing the retail network and retail environment at a slow pace and not giving enough means of abnegation led to failures in Poland. Originality: This article contributes to filling two main gaps identified in the literature review. Many different theoretical approaches exist but no conclusive framework has emerged. Besides, most concepts were developed and tested on western European countries and nothing proved adequate to the specific retail landscape of eastern Europeans countries such as Poland.

  11. Tax System in Poland – Progressive or Regressive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Tomkiewicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyse the impact of the Polish fiscal regime on the general revenue of the country, and specifically to establish whether the cumulative tax burden borne by Polish households is progressive or regressive.Methodology: On the basis of Eurostat and OECD data, the author has analysed fiscal regimes in EU Member States and in OECD countries. The tax burden of households within different income groups has also been examined pursuant to applicable fiscal laws and data pertaining to the revenue and expenditure of households published by the Central Statistical Office (CSO.Conclusions: The fiscal regime in Poland is regressive; that is, the relative fiscal burden decreases as the taxpayer’s income increases.Research Implications: The article contributes to the on-going discussion on social cohesion, in particular with respect to economic policy instruments aimed at the redistribution of income within the economy.Originality: The author presents an analysis of data pertaining to fiscal policies in EU Member States and OECD countries and assesses the impact of the legal environment (fiscal regime and social security system in Poland on income distribution within the economy. The impact of the total tax burden (direct and indirect taxes, social security contributions on the economic situation of households from different income groups has been calculated using an original formula.

  12. Attempt of the evaluation of the food security in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Batko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The food security belongs to the group of needs which are perceptible by the man. It can be analyzed at the household, national, regional and global levels. In our times it is contending with different threats resulting among others from the population increase in the world, demand for the food, reducing aquatic resources, climate change, soaring prices and wasting food products. According to the FAO about 805 million people are undernourished. The study focused on determining the physical, economic availability and appropriate food quality on the Polish market from 2011 to 2013. The conducted examinations shows that Poland was self‑sufficient in supplying agri-food commodity, food expenditure of households remained stable and least failings stated in national and EU food available on our territory. The value engineering of the Global Index Food Security in 2014 was allowed to say that Poland is among a thirty of the best states ensuring the appropriate availability, the accessibility and the food quality in the country.

  13. Local economic development policy in Poland: Determinants and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wiktor Sienkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to define nature, basis, and the effects of the economic development policy conducted by local governments in Poland. The analyses carried out are designed to define the role of local authorities in the management of economic development in the area. Furthermore, the purpose of this article is to analyse instruments for supporting economic development, which can be potentially used by local governments in Poland. The realization of this objective is possible by using descriptive methods based on a review of literature and the various types of documents and analysis on the policy of both the economic development and activities of local government, which implement this policy. The method of system analysis is also partially used in the article, and some results of surveys conducted among Polish and foreign investors and entrepreneurs in 2011 are presented. The article assumes that in spite of having a number of instruments, both formal and material, for encouraging economic development and business development, most local governments narrowly assess the current state of entrepreneurship and development trends, and perform an insufficient analysis of the potential of their area. Secondly, the formulated goals of economic development are not very innovative, ambitious or concrete. Furthermore, they do not arise directly from the analysis of the micro and macro-environment that affects the position and development of local government. Key words:

  14. Emissions of mercury from the power sector in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zysk, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Pluta, M. [AGH University of Science & Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Energy & Fuels

    2011-01-15

    Poland belongs to the European Union countries with the highest mercury emissions. This is mainly related to coal combustion. This paper presents estimates of mercury emissions from power sector in Poland. In this work, the bottom-up approach was applied and over 160 emission point sources were analysed. For each, the characteristics of the whole technological chain starting from fuel quality, boiler type as well as emission controls were taken into account. Our results show that emissions of mercury from brown coal power plants in 2005 were nearly four times greater than those of hard coal power plants. These estimates differ significantly from national statistics and some possible reasons are discussed. For the first time total mercury emissions from the Polish power sector were differentiated into its main atmospheric forms: gaseous elemental (GEM), reactive gaseous (RGM) and particulate-bound mercury. Information on emission source location and the likely vertical distribution of mercury emissions, which can be used in modelling of atmospheric dispersion of mercury is also provided.

  15. Emissions of mercury from the power sector in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśk, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Pluta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Poland belongs to the European Union countries with the highest mercury emissions. This is mainly related to coal combustion. This paper presents estimates of mercury emissions from power sector in Poland. In this work, the bottom-up approach was applied and over 160 emission point sources were analysed. For each, the characteristics of the whole technological chain starting from fuel quality, boiler type as well as emission controls were taken into account. Our results show that emissions of mercury from brown coal power plants in 2005 were nearly four times greater than those of hard coal power plants. These estimates differ significantly from national statistics and some possible reasons are discussed. For the first time total mercury emissions from the Polish power sector were differentiated into its main atmospheric forms: gaseous elemental (GEM), reactive gaseous (RGM) and particulate-bound mercury. Information on emission source location and the likely vertical distribution of mercury emissions, which can be used in modelling of atmospheric dispersion of mercury is also provided.

  16. Health policy programs realised in Poland in 2016-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowska, Patrycja; Królak, Anna; Giermaziak, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    Health Policy Program (Program Polityki Zdrowotnej – PPZ) is a state policy tool for engaging local government units into the mechanism of granting provision of health services. Authors show areas in which self-governments most often took preventive health care actions and describe legislative changes in the Act on provision of health services. The aim of the article is to quantitative and qualitative statement of PPZ prepared in Poland in 2016 and 2017, as well as presenting changing legal situation in the scope of evaluation of these projects. Authors use descriptive method, presenting changes of legal status. The article includes data available in the Bulletin of Public Information by The Agency for Health Technology Assessment. 590 programs were analyzed (239 from 2016 and 351 from 2017). In 2016 – 67% of submitted programs were given a positive opinion and in 2017 – 71%. The most of positively evaluated PPZ submitted by local government units (53% in 2016; 47% in 2017) referred to prevention of infectious diseases by vaccines. On the basis of analyses conducted, significant differences were observed in the implementation of the PPZ in various regions of Poland. In the recent years a big improvement in the quality of planned self-government health programs is observed. It is suggested that due to the regulation defining the model of the health policy program and the model of the final report, this trend will continue.

  17. Feasibility study for bottled gas and LPG in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    With a total population of ca. 40 million, Poland has an annual consumption of liquefied petroleum gas amounting to 180,000 tons, used by 2.5 million bottled-gas consumers. The consumer pattern is expected to change, with an increasing market for gas for industrial purposes and for heating. Distribution systems will also change to include tank installations in many sizes and transport with large tank lorries. LPG is estimated to be competitive with other forms of energy, and the market is expected to increase to up to ca. 500,000 tons per year. Restricting factors are shortage of supply and lack of approved applications, transport equipment and tank facilities. A list of existing bottle gas companies and evaluation of the technical facilities in the Polish Oil and Gas Company in Gydnia are included. Bottled gas is currently distributed under normal conditions and, market prices for LPG have remained stable in Poland. Detailed studies of the current distribution network in the Suwalki area are given. It should be possible to extend the existing distribution network. A proposal for the establishment of standard tank installations and the gas supply for the town of Augustow is presented. Considerable investments will have to be made in terminals, tank plants and transport equipment, and international oil companies are expected to play an important role in this market. The European Bank for Restructuring and Development could possibly contribute to the financing of the pipe network. (AB)

  18. Molecular analysis of Phytophthora species found in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oszako Tomasz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens of Phytophthora genus are common not only in forest nurseries and stands, but also in water courses. Species of Phytophthora spread with plants for plantings (and soil attached to them and with water courses as well, attacking the plants growing in riparian ecosystems. Several specialized organisms damaging only one tree species were identified like P. alni on alders or P. quercina on oaks. Some Phytophthora species can develop on several hosts like P. plurivora and P. cactorum on oaks, beeches, alders, ashes and horse chestnuts. Other oomycetes like P. gallica species was found for the first time in Poland in water used for plant watering in forest nursery. Species P. lacustris and P. gonapodyides were found in superficial water. Phytophthora species P. polonica was identified in the declining alder stands for the first time in the world, and P. taxon hungarica and P. megasperma were found in the rhizosphere of seriously damaged ash stands for the first time in Poland. The most often isolated species were P. plurivora (clade 2 with frequency 37% and P. lacustris with frequency 33% (clade 6. The best represented clade 6 revealed the occurrence of 6 species: P. gonapodyides, P. lacustris, P. megasperma, P. sp. raspberry, P. taxon hungarica and P. taxon oak soil.

  19. Innovations in Tourism Policy: the Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek W. Kozak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness depends to a large extent on innovation. This is true about tourism also. This article focuses on the differences in innovations implemented in the field of tourism policy. The main aim of this article is to evaluate the differences in innovations in tourism policy. The key hypothesis suggests that in the countries undergoing the process of transformation, introduction of innovations is difficult and depends to a large extent on the capability to adopt the new post-industrial tourism paradigm. Poland serves here only as an exemplification of this phenomenon. An additional hypothesis suggests that public policy employs in practice more often “goal substitution” (instead of complex and demanding goals; for instance modernization or renovation instead of urban regeneration or culture or tourism, whereas the business sector is more product-oriented (in line with the new post-industrial paradigm. The article analyses public 2007-2013 strategies (and, to some extent, projects for 2014-2020, but first of all it compares the implementation of the strategy within the operational programs and in private sector activities. Finally, referring to Poland as part of the European Union, the paper proposes that new EU regulations may bring a change in non-product approach to tourism development policy.

  20. Hepatitis E virus antibody prevalence in wildlife in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larska, M; Krzysiak, M K; Jabłoński, A; Kęsik, J; Bednarski, M; Rola, J

    2015-03-01

    Hepatitis E is an important public health problem mostly in developing but occasionally also in industrialized countries. Domestic and wildlife animals are considered reservoirs of the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Since no information on the prevalence of autochthonous HEV infections in human and animal in Poland is available, the aim of the study was to investigate the HEV seroprevalence of different wildlife species as potential virus reservoirs in the country. No HEV antibodies were found in any of the sera collected from the red deer (Cervus elaphus), European bison (Bison bonasus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), elk (Alces alces), fallow deer (Dama dama), sika deer (Cervus nippon), Tatra chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica) or brown bear (Ursus arctos). HEV-specific antibodies were detected in 44.4% (95% CI 38.3-50.7) serum samples originated only from wild boars. The percentage of seropositive wild boars differed significantly between the provinces and was positively correlated with the wild boar density and rurality of the area. This study showed that HEV circulates among wild boar population in Poland, and this species should be considered as an important reservoir of the virus. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.