... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R3-R-2012-N283; FXRS1265030000-134-FF03R06000] Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge, IN; Glacial Ridge National Wildlife Refuge, MN; Northern Tallgrass Prairie National Wildlife Refuge, MN; Whittlesey Creek National Wildlife Refuge, WI AGENCY: Fish...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-R-2010-N078; 60138-1261-6CCP-S3] Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, MT AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability: Draft comprehensive conservation plan and draft...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-R-2010-N215; 60138-1261-6CCP-S3] Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Montana AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior (DOI). ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-R-2011-N228;1265-0000-10137-S3] Ke[amacr]lia Pond National Wildlife Refuge and Kakahai`a National Wildlife Refuge, Maui County, HI; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plans and Findings of No Significant Impact for the Environmental Assessments AGENCY...
Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for Ottawa NWR describes the inventory program’s relation to Refuge objectives and outlines the program’s policies and administration....
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-R-2010-N169; 80230-1265-0000-S3] Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge and Coachella Valley National Wildlife Refuge), Imperial and Riverside Counties, CA Correction Notice...
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — National Wildlife Refuges are federal lands managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The primary source for boundary information is the USFWS Realty...
Montag, Jessica M.; Stinchfield, Holly M.
The Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge in eastern Maine is currently developing a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) that will guide Refuge management over the next 15 years. Workbooks were provided to local residents as part of the scoping process in order to get feedback on current and future management issues from the public. The workbooks asked questions regarding residents' use of the Refuge, conservation problems and issues in the region, the acceptability of Refuge management actions, and the importance of, satisfaction with, and acceptability of various activities allowed on the Refuge. The focus of this report is to present the results of the completed workbooks. Because of the small number of returned workbooks, it is not possible to generalize these findings to the broader public, nor is it possible to determine if respondents represent the average user. However, the results do provide an idea of possible conflicts and important issues that the Refuge may have to address in the future. The permitted uses of the Refuge are one possible conflict area. Many respondents were supportive of consumptive recreation (hunting, fishing, and trapping), but a few were adamantly opposed to these sorts of activities on the Refuge. Another issue that received several comments was motorized recreation. While some people felt strongly that ATVs and snowmobiles should be allowed, others felt just as strongly that motorized recreation of any type should not be allowed in the Refuge. Many in the sample were also very concerned about Refuge development and its effects on the human and natural environments. Issues mentioned include the loss of access to private land for consumptive recreation, concern about fish and wildlife habitat degradation, and water quality.
Sexton, Natalie R.; Burkardt, Nina; Swann, Margaret Earlene; Stewart, Susan C.
The National Wildlife Refuge System, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), is the largest system of public lands in the world dedicated to wildlife conservation. There are over 545 national wildlife refuges nationwide, encompassing 95 million acres. As part of the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997, each refuge is developing 15-year comprehensive conservation plans (CCPs). Each CCP describes a vision and desired future condition for the refuge and outlines goals, objectives, and management strategies for each refuge's habitat and visitor service programs. The CCP process for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) in Davis, West Virginia was initiated in 2006. This planning process provides a unique opportunity for public input and involvement. Public involvement is an important part of the CCP process. Participation by parties with a stake in the resource (stakeholders) has the potential to increase understanding and support and reduce conflicts. Additionally, meaningful public participation in a decision process may increase trust and provide satisfaction in terms of both process and outcome for management and the public. Public meetings are a common way to obtain input from community members, visitors, and potential visitors. An 'Issues Workbook' is another tool the FWS uses to obtain public input and participation early in the planning process. Sometimes, however, these traditional methods do not capture the full range of perspectives that exist. A stakeholder evaluation is a way to more fully understand community preferences and opinions related to key topics in refuge planning. It can also help refuge staff understand how changes in management affect individuals in terms of their preference for services and experiences. Secondarily, a process such as this can address 'social goals' such as fostering trust in regulating agencies and reducing conflict among stakeholders. As part of the CCP planning effort at Canaan
Sexton, Natalie R.; Stewart, Susan C.; Koontz, Lynne; Ponds, Phadrea; Walters, Katherine D.
This study was commissioned by the Northeast Region of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in support of the Comprehensive Conservation Planning at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge (Prime Hook NWR or Refuge). The National Wildlife Refuge Improvement Act of 1997 (Public Law 105-57, USC668dd) mandates a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) for every refuge in the system. A refuge CCP outlines goals, objectives, and management strategies for all refuge programs over the next 15 years, while providing opportunities for compatible, wildlifedependent public uses. The plan evaluates refuge wildlife, habitat, land protection, and visitor service priorities during the planning process.
Roelle, James E.; Hamilton, David B.
Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge-Prairie Learning Center (Walnut Creek or the Refuge) is one of the newest additions to the National Wildlife Refuge System, which consists of over 480 units throughout the United States operated by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (the Service). Located about 20 miles east of Des Moines, Iowa, the Refuge has an approved acquisition boundary containing 8,654 acres (Figure 1). Acquisition is from willing sellers only, and to date the Service has purchased approximately 5,000 acres. The acquisition boundary encompasses about 43% of the watershed of Walnut Creek, which bisects the Refuge and drains into the Des Moines River to the southeast. Approximately 25%-30% of the Walnut Creek watershed is downstream of the Refuge. As authorized by Congress in 1990, the purposes of the Refuge are to (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1992): • restore native tallgrass pairie, wetland, and woodland habitats for breeding and migratory waterfowl and resident wildlife; • serve as a major environmental education center providing opportunities for study; • provide outdoor recreation benefits to the public; and • provide assistance to local landowners to improve their lands for wildlife habitat. To implement these purposes authorized by Congress, the Refuge has established the goal of recreating as nearly as possible the natural communities that existed at the time of settlement by Euro-Americans (circa 1840). Current land use is largely agricultural, including 69% cropland, 17% grazed pasture, and 7.5% grassland (dominantly brome) enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program). About 1,395 acres of relict native communities also exist on the Refuge, including prairie (725 acres), oak savanna and woodland (450 acres), and riparian or wetland areas (220 acres). Some of these relicts are highly restorable; others contain only a few prairie plants in a matrix of brome and will be more difficult to restore. When the
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May we allow economic uses on national wildlife refuges? 29.1 Section 29.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT General Rules...
... message. Fax: Attn: Kelly Chase, (509) 546-8303. U.S. Mail: Kelly Chase, Refuge Manager, Columbia National... The National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C. 668dd-668ee), (Refuge... National Wildlife Refuge System, consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management...
Koontz, Lynne; Lambert, Heather
The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP). The CCP must describe the desired future conditions of a Refuge and provide long range guidance and management direction to achieve Refuge purposes. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), located along the James River in east central North Dakota, is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the CCP. The CCP for Arrowwood NWR must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed Refuge management strategies.
Andersson, Kent; Davis, Craig A.; Harris, Grant; Haukos, David A.
Within the U.S. portion of the Central Flyway, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages waterfowl on numerous individual units (i.e., Refuges) within the National Wildlife Refuge System. Presently, the extent of waterfowl use that Refuges receive and the contribution of Refuges to waterfowl populations (i.e., the proportion of the Central Flyway population registered at each Refuge) remain unassessed. Such an evaluation would help determine to what extent Refuges support waterfowl relative to stated targets, aid in identifying species requiring management attention, inform management targets, and improve fiscal efficiencies. Using historic monitoring data (1954–2008), we performed this assessment for 23 Refuges in Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska during migration and wintering months (October–March). We examined six dabbling ducks and two diving ducks, plus all dabbling ducks and all diving ducks across two periods (long-term [all data] and short-term [last 10 October–March periods]). Individual Refuge use was represented by the sum of monthly duck count averages for October–March. We used two indices of Refuge contribution: peak contribution and January contribution. Peak contribution was the highest monthly count average for each October–March period divided by the indexed population total for the Central Flyway in the corresponding year; January contribution used the January count average divided by the corresponding population index. Generally, Refuges in Kansas, Nebraska, and New Mexico recorded most use and contribution for mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Refuges along the Texas Gulf Coast recorded most use and contribution for other dabbling ducks, with Laguna Atascosa and Aransas (including Matagorda Island) recording most use for diving ducks. The long-term total January contribution of the assessed Refuges to ducks wintering in the Central Flyway was greatest for green-winged teal Anas creccawith 35%; 12–15% for American
The bibliography contains citations concerning the dual use of wetland areas as both water treatment systems and wildlife refuges. The ability of salt marshes, tidal flats, marshlands, and bogs to absorb and filter natural and synthetic wastes is examined. Topics include the effects of individual pollutants; environmental factors; species diversity; the cleansing ability of wetland areas; and the handling of sewage, industrial and municipal wastes, agricultural runoff, accidental spills, and flooding. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)
...: Kelly Chase, Refuge Manager, (509) 488-2668 (phone); [email protected] (email). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... Columbia NWR in accordance with the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C... National Wildlife Refuge System, consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management...
Koontz, Lynne; Lambert, Heather
The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP). The CCP must describe the desired future conditions of a Refuge and provide long range guidance and management direction to achieve Refuge purposes. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), located 27 miles northeast of Aberdeen, South Dakota, is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the CCP. The CCP for Sand Lake NWR must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed Refuge management strategies.
This report provides an assessment of historic and current visitation, infrastructure, and transportation conditions at the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge and surrounding areas in southwest Oklahoma. The study defines transportation-related goals ...
... River National Wildlife Refuge, Prince George County, VA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... (the refuge, NWR), which is located in Prince George County, Virginia. We provide this notice in... River NWR, in Prince George County, Virginia. This notice complies with our CCP policy to advise other...
...-FF02R06000] Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Austin and Colorado Counties, TX... (EA) for Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge, NWR), located approximately 60... Prairie Chicken NWR draft CCP and EA'' in the subject line of the message. Fax: Attn: Monica Kimbrough...
Friend, M.; Godfrey, P.J.; Kaynor, E.R.; Pelczarski, S.
Wildlife health concerns associated with disposal of sewage effluent in wetlands are of three primary types: (1) introduction of pathogens, (2) introduction of pollutants that adversely impact on host body defense mechanisms, and (3) changes in the physical and chemical properties of wetlands that favor the development and maintenance of disease problems. Unlike the situation with human health concerns, introduction of pathogens is not the major concern regarding wildlife health. Instead, the focus of attention needs to be directed at environmental changes likely to take place as a result of effluent discharges into different types of wetlands. Unless these changes are adequately addressed from a disease perspective, marshes utilized for sewage disposal could become disease incubators and wildlife death traps. This result would be unfortunate because the backlash would likely negate the potentially beneficial aspects of the use of sewage wastewater for the creation of new wetlands and have a severe impact on progress being made towards evaluation of the compatibility of wildlife and sewage effluents.
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-R-2012-N171; 1265-0000-10137-S3] Rose... Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (NWR/refuge) for public review and comment. In the Draft CCP/EA, [email protected] . Include ``Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge Draft CCP/EA'' in the subject line of the...
Ensminger, J.T.; Easterly, C.E.; Ketelle, R.H.; Quarles, H.; Wade, M.C.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), at the request of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, evaluated the water production capacity of an artesian well in the San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona. Water from the well initially flows into a pond containing three federally threatened or endangered fish species, and water from this pond feeds an adjacent pond/wetland containing an endangered plant species.
This report provides an overview of the historic and current visitation, infrastructure, and transportation conditions related to Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge and the surrounding areas in Chatham, MA. The study defines transportation-related goal...
... wildlife refuge. The purpose for developing a CCP is to provide refuge managers with a 15-year plan for achieving refuge purposes and contributing toward the mission of the National Wildlife Refuge System... landing will be added to the Dog Island facility. The addition of key positions, such as a law enforcement...
Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during 2006. The report begins with information about the year’s...
Markon, Carl J.; Kirk, William
Digital land cover and terrain data of the Selawik National Wildlife Refuge were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation Systems Alaska Field Office for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. These and other environmental data were incorporated into a Fish and Wildlife Service geographic information system to prepare a comprehensive conservation plan and an environmental impact statement for the refuge and to assist in research and management of the refuge.
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R3-R-2012-N069; FXRS1265030000S3-123-FF03R06000] Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN AGENCY: Fish and... plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge, NWR) for...
... Ellis, Project Leader, O`ahu National Wildlife Refuge Complex, 66-590 Kamehameha Highway, Room 2C, Hale...`ahu National Wildlife Refuge Complex, 66-590 Kamehameha Highway, Room 2C, Hale`iwa, HI 96712. The...
... Wildlife Refuge Complex, 66-590 Kamehameha Highway, Room 2C, Hale`iwa, HI 96712. In-Person Viewing or Pickup: O`ahu National Wildlife Refuge Complex, 66-590 Kamehameha Highway, Room 2C, Hale`iwa, HI 96712...
Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Vishy, Chad J.; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Finger, Susan E.; Higgins, Michael J.; Kilbride, Kevin
National Wildlife Refuges may have impaired water quality resulting from historic and current land uses, upstream sources, and aerial pollutant deposition. National Wildlife Refuge staff have limited time available to identify and evaluate potential water quality issues. As a result, water quality–related issues may not be resolved until a problem has already arisen. The National Wildlife Refuge System Water Quality Information System (WQIS) is a relational database developed for use by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service staff to identify existing water quality issues on refuges in the United States. The WQIS database relies on a geospatial overlay analysis of data layers for ownership, streams and water quality. The WQIS provides summary statistics of 303(d) impaired waters and total maximum daily loads for the National Wildlife Refuge System at the national, regional, and refuge level. The WQIS allows U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service staff to be proactive in addressing water quality issues by identifying and understanding the current extent and nature of 303(d) impaired waters and subsequent total maximum daily loads. Water quality data are updated bi-annually, making it necessary to refresh the WQIS to maintain up-to-date information. This manual outlines the steps necessary to update the data and reports in the WQIS.
... July 5, 2010. An open house style meeting will be held during the comment period to receive comments... 7563 to serve as a refuge and breeding ground for migratory birds and other wildlife. The Refuge...
The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Complex, consisting of some of the newer properties in the National Wildlife Refuge System, is a work in progress. Offering unique assets to surrounding communities, these lands promise to become some of the premier urban wildlife refuges in the country. At the heart of the refuge complex is the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge: 16,000 acres of shortgrass and mixed-grass prairie that is home to bison, bald eagles, migratory songbirds, prairie dogs, and much more—all within the Denver Metropolitan area.This comprehensive conservation plan will be the first in the country designed to begin implementing the Refuge System’s new Urban Refuge Initiative. To accomplish this, we analyzed a wide range of options on how best to support up to one million visitors per year without compromising our principal purposes to protect and preserve fish and wildlife and their habitats. We are fortunate to have inherited a great deal of infrastructure from the U.S. Army, but we are also constrained by the current condition and layout of these facilities. Some of this infrastructure may be acting as barriers to the public—a condition inconsistent with the purposes of the refuge. Accordingly, we have developed a goal to increase and improve suitable access to the refuge, develop sustainable transportation options, and provide more connections among the units of the refuge complex. This increased access will enable people from all walks of life to visit the refuge. The vision we have developed for the refuge complex calls for the restoration of the refuge’s historical habitats, and the reconnection of people with the natural lands of the refuge and of the region at large using a network consisting of multimodal trails, a far-reaching light-rail system, and the Denver International Airport. This refuge is well positioned to leverage and catalyze early investments to create world-class wildlife habitat and a
This colorful image of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and the Beaufort Sea was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera on August 16, 2000, during Terra orbit 3532. The swirling patterns apparent on the Beaufort Sea are small ice floes driven by turbulent water patterns, or eddies, caused by the interactions of water masses of differing salinity and temperature. By this time of year, all of the seasonal ice which surrounds the north coast of Alaska in winter has broken up, although the perennial pack ice remains further north. The morphology of the perennial ice pack's edge varies in response to the prevailing wind. If the wind is blowing strongly toward the perennial pack (that is, to the north), the ice edge will be more compact. In this image the ice edge is diffuse, and the patterns reflected by the ice floes indicate fairly calm weather.The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (often abbreviated to ANWR) was established by President Eisenhower in 1960, and is the largest wildlife refuge in the United States. Animals of the Refuge include the 130,000-member Porcupine caribou herd, 180 species of birds from four continents, wolves, wolverine, polar and grizzly bears, muskoxen, foxes, and over 40 species of coastal and freshwater fish. Although most of ANWR was designated as wilderness in 1980, the area along the coastal plain was set aside so that the oil and gas reserves beneath the tundra could be studied. Drilling remains a topic of contention, and an energy bill allowing North Slope oil development to extend onto the coastal plain of the Refuge was approved by the US House of Representatives on August 2, 2001.The Refuge encompasses an impressive variety of arctic and subarctic ecosystems, including coastal lagoons, barrier islands, arctic tundra, and mountainous terrain. Of all these, the arctic tundra is the landscape judged most important for wildlife. From the coast inland to an average of 30-60 kilometers
... from climate change. Fourth, infrastructure associated with access corridors from the proposed exchange... statement (EIS) for a Proposed Land Exchange in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge (NWR, Refuge). We... this notice, we finalize the EIS process for a Proposed Land Exchange in the Yukon Flats NWR. In...
...] Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges, Klamath..., Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges (Refuges) located in Klamath County, Oregon, and..., Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake Refuges located in Klamath County, Oregon, and Siskiyou and...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-R-2010-N084; 10137-1265-0000] Bear...) documents for Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR, Refuge), 7 miles south of Montpelier, Idaho, the... information by any of the following methods: [[Page 35830
Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Allstadt, Andrew J.; Bateman, Brooke L.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Vavrus, Stephen J.; Radeloff, Volker C.
Climate change is a major challenge for managers of protected areas world-wide, and managers need information about future climate conditions within protected areas. Prior studies of climate change effects in protected areas have largely focused on average climatic conditions. However, extreme weather may have stronger effects on wildlife populations and habitats than changes in averages. Our goal was to quantify future changes in the frequency of extreme heat, drought, and false springs, during the avian breeding season, in 415 National Wildlife Refuges in the conterminous United States. We analyzed spatially detailed data on extreme weather frequencies during the historical period (1950–2005) and under different scenarios of future climate change by mid- and late-21st century. We found that all wildlife refuges will likely experience substantial changes in the frequencies of extreme weather, but the types of projected changes differed among refuges. Extreme heat is projected to increase dramatically in all wildlife refuges, whereas changes in droughts and false springs are projected to increase or decrease on a regional basis. Half of all wildlife refuges are projected to see increases in frequency (> 20% higher than the current rate) in at least two types of weather extremes by mid-century. Wildlife refuges in the Southwest and Pacific Southwest are projected to exhibit the fastest rates of change, and may deserve extra attention. Climate change adaptation strategies in protected areas, such as the U.S. wildlife refuges, may need to seriously consider future changes in extreme weather, including the considerable spatial variation of these changes.
...-FF03R06000] Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge, Jasper County, IA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and... the Environmental Assessment (EA) for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge, NWR). In this final... . Include ``Neal Smith Final CCP'' in the subject line of the message. U.S. Mail: Neal Smith National...
... impacts on the human environment, which we included in the draft CCP/EA. The CCP will guide us in managing... plan for achieving refuge purposes and contributing toward the mission of the National Wildlife Refuge... implemented primarily by partners, such as TTOR. Priority public uses, such as wildlife observation...
...] Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, Cold Bay, Alaska AGENCY: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior..., we will hold public scoping meetings in King Cove, Cold Bay, Sand Point, and Nelson Lagoon in Alaska... Aleutian arc chain of volcanoes. Landforms include mountains, active volcanoes, U-shaped valleys, glacial...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legal Description of the Coastal Plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska I Appendix I to Part 37 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R3-R-2012-N119; FXRS1265030000S3-123-FF03R06000] Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge, Jasper County, IA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... 399, 9981 Pacific Street, Prairie City, IA 50228. In-Person Drop Off: You may drop off comments during...
Eugene Czuhai; Charles T. Cushwa
Information concerning the effects of prescribed burning on wildlife habitat in the Atlantic Piedmont is meager. Much information on this topic was in unpublished quarterly reports written by Piedmont Wildlife Refuge managers. This information has been summarized and presented chronologically.
...] Elizabeth Hartwell Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge, Fairfax County, VA, and Featherstone National... comprehensive conservation plan and the environmental assessment (CCP/EA) for Elizabeth Hartwell Mason Neck (Mason Neck) National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and Featherstone NWR for a 45-day public review and comment...
... engaged in public sport fishing on a wildlife refuge area: (a) Each person shall secure and possess the... and use of the wildlife refuge area. (e) Each person must comply with the provisions of any refuge.... In addition, refuge-specific sport fishing regulations appear in §§ 32.20 through 32.72. [58 FR 5064...
... public meetings. You can obtain the schedule from the refuge manager or planning team leader (see FOR... INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Stroeh, Project Leader, Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge, 2591 Whitehall Neck... establishment. Farming is still considered a viable wildlife management tool, but the role of the farming...
...: Dianna Ellis, Refuge Manager, Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge, 287 Westside Road, Bonners Ferry, ID..., wildlife observation and photography, and environmental education and interpretation. We will review and... safety. Allowing big game and upland game (grouse) hunting on the 295 acres of timber on the west side of...
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is revising the long-range plan for Alaskaâs Togiak National Wildlife Refuge, over half of which is designated as the Togiak Wilderness Area. Many of the planning issues are social rather than biological, involving public use and its effects on Refuge resources and opportunities. Planners, managers, and stakeholders are finding...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-R-2010-N160; 1265-0000-10137-S3] Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and... Kamehameha Highway, Room 2C, Hale`iwa, HI 96712. Alternatively, you may fax comments to the refuge at (808...
B. Czech; S. Covington; T. M. Crimmins; J. A. Ericson; C. Flather; M. Gale; K. Gerst; M. Higgins; M. Kaib; E. Marino; T. Moran; J. Morton; N. Niemuth; H. Peckett; D. Savignano; L. Saperstein; S. Skorupa; E. Wagener; B. Wilen; B. Wolfe
This document originated in 2008 as a collaborative project of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the University of Maryland's Graduate Program in Sustainable Development and Conservation Biology. The original title was A Primer on Climate Change for the National Wildlife Refuge System. The Primer has evolved into Planning for Climate Change on the...
Matthew L. Bowser; John M. Morton
The primary purpose of the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge (KENWR) is to "conserve fish and wildlife populations in their natural diversity," where "fish and wildlife" explicitly includes arthropods. To this end, we developed a Long Term Ecological Monitoring Program (LTEMP), a collaborative effort with the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA)...
David N. Bengston; David P. Fan; Roger Kaye
This study examined the national public's values and interests related to the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Computer content analysis was used to analyze more than 23,000 media stories about the refuge from 1995 through 2007. Ten main categories of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge values and interests emerged from the analysis, reflecting a diversity of values,...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What payment do we require for use and occupancy of national wildlife refuge lands? 29.21-7 Section 29.21-7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM...
...-FF08R00000] Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes National Wildlife Refuge, San Luis Obispo County, CA: Intent To Prepare a...) for the Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes National Wildlife Refuge located in San Luis Obispo County of... (Refuge) in San Luis Obispo County, California. This notice complies with our CCP policy to (1) advise...
...-FF04R02000] Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge; West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana; Notice of Intent To... comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and associated National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents for Cat... NEPA documents for Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge NWR, West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana, in a...
....S. Mail: Oregon Coast National Wildlife Refuge Complex, 2127 SE Marine Science Drive, Newport, OR... W. Lowe, Project Leader, Oregon Coast National Wildlife Refuge Complex, 2127 SE Marine Science Drive... Service would also remodel the north bay of the maintenance shop to accommodate two offices: one for...
...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the availability of the Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Environmental Assessment (EA) for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Goals and objectives in the CCP describe how the agency intends to manage the refuge over the next 15 years.
Herman, C.M.; Barrow, J.H.; Tarshis, I.B.
A history is given of the Seney National Wildlife Refuge and the losses of goslings of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) recorded since inception of the refuge in 1935. Since 1960, when more reliable data became available, losses have been extensive every 4 years. Gosling deaths are attributed to the infection with Leucocytozoon simondi. The blackfly (Simulium innocens) is considered to be the prime vector in the transmission of this blood parasite to goslings.
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R3-R-2012-N259; FXRS1265030000-134-FF03R06000] Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive... significant impact (FONSI) for the environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R5-R-2009-N202; BAC-4311-K9-S3] Eastern... the environmental assessment (EA) for Eastern Neck National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). In this final CCP.... Agency Web Site: Download a copy of the document(s) at http://www.fws.gov/northeast/planning/Eastern...
... that dredge-spoil islands provide benefits for wildlife. Julia Butler Hansen Refuge Alternative 1 Under... safety purposes, studying potential wilderness lands, developing a bicycling and hiking trail, installing...
Brinson, Ayeisha A.; Benson, Delwin E.
The issues affecting natural resource management, the society in which natural resource management occurs, natural resource agency personnel, and the publics they serve have changed in recent decades. Previous studies of Refuge professionals in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) have revealed that employees lack strong commitment to the current organizational structure, were frustrated with the lack of communication within the agency and felt there was a need for strong leadership (PEER 1998, 1999). These results prompted the authors to have further questions about refuge management in the Fish and Wildlife Service. What do employees value about their agency? Is there a difference in values between refuge managers and biologists and if so, what are those differences and what influences those differences?
...-FF04R02000] Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge; West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and associated National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents for Cat... our process for developing a CCP for Cat Island NWR, West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana. This notice...
Koontz, Lynne; Sexton, Natalie; Donovan, Ryan
The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan must describe the desired future conditions of a refuge and provide long-range guidance and management direction to achieve refuge purposes. The Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge (refuge) is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the refuge must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed refuge management strategies. The purpose of this study was to assess the regional economic implications associated with draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan management strategies. Special interest groups and local residents often criticize a change in refuge management, especially if there is a perceived negative impact to the local economy. Having objective data on economic impacts may show that these fears are overstated. Quite often, the extent of economic benefits a refuge provides to a local community is not fully recognized, yet at the same time the effects of negative changes is overstated. Spending associated with refuge recreational activities, such as wildlife viewing and hunting, can generate considerable tourist activity for surrounding communities. Additionally, refuge personnel typically spend considerable amounts of money purchasing supplies in local stores, repairing equipment and purchasing fuel at the local service stations, and reside and spend their salaries in the local community. For refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan planning, a regional economic assessment provides a means of estimating how current management (no action alternative) and proposed management activities (alternatives) could affect the local economy. This type of analysis provides two critical pieces of
Wieben, Christine M.; Chepiga, Mary M.
The Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge (hereafter Forsythe refuge or the refuge) is situated along the central New Jersey coast and provides a mixture of freshwater and saltwater habitats for numerous bird, wildlife, and plant species. Little data and information were previously available regarding the freshwater dynamics that support the refuge’s ecosystems. In cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of the hydrologic resources and processes in the refuge and surrounding areas to provide baseline information for evaluating restoration projects and future changes in the hydrologic system associated with climate change and other anthropogenic stressors.During spring 2015, water levels were measured at groundwater and surface-water sites in and near the Forsythe refuge. These water-level measurements, along with surface-water elevations obtained from digital elevation models, were used to construct water-table-elevation and depth-to-water maps of the refuge and surrounding areas. Water-table elevations in the refuge ranged from sea level to approximately 65 feet above sea level; in most of the refuge, the water-table elevation was within 3 feet of sea level. The water-table-elevation map indicates that the direction of shallow groundwater flow at the regional scale is generally from west to east (much of it from the northwest to the southeast), and groundwater moves downgradient from the uplands toward major groundwater discharge areas consisting of coastal streams and wetlands. The depth to water is estimated to be less than 2 feet for approximately 86 percent of the refuge, which coincides closely with the percentage of wetland area in the refuge. Depth to water in excess of 20 feet below land surface is limited to higher elevation areas of the refuge.Streamflow data collected at continuous-record streamgages and partial-record stations within the Mullica-Toms Basin were summarized
...] Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges, Kern, San Luis Obispo, Tulare... Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) located in Kern, San Luis Obispo, Tulare, and Ventura counties of California. We... developing a CCP for Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge NWRs in Kern, San Luis Obispo, Tulare, and...
Koontz, Lynne; Sexton, Natalie; Ishizaki, Asuka; Ritten, John
The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP). The CCP must describe the desired future conditions of a refuge and provide long-range guidance and management direction to achieve refuge purposes. Charles M. Russell (CMR) National Wildlife Refuge, located in north-central Montana, is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the CCP. The CCP for the Refuge must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed refuge-management strategies. For refuge CCP planning, an economic analysis provides a means of estimating how current management (No Action Alternative) and proposed management activities (Alternatives) affect the local economy. This type of analysis provides two critical pieces of information: (1) it illustrates a refuge’s contribution to the local community; and (2) it can help in determining whether economic effects are or are not a real concern in choosing among management alternatives. It is important to note that the economic value of a refuge encompasses more than just the impacts on the regional economy. Refuges also provide substantial nonmarket values (values for items not exchanged in established markets) such as maintaining endangered species, preserving wetlands, educating future generations, and adding stability to the ecosystem (Carver and Caudill, 2007). However, quantifying these types of nonmarket values is beyond the scope of this study. This report first presents a description of the local community and economy near the Refuge. Next, the methods used to conduct a regional economic impact analysis are described. An analysis of the final CCP management strategies that could affect stakeholders and residents and the local economy is then presented. The refuge management activities of economic concern in this analysis are:
Full Text Available The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points, while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points. The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR.
Morris, Charles C.; Robb, Joseph R.; McCoy, William
Abstract The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points), while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points). The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR. PMID:25632261
Department of the Interior — The 9,337-acre Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge is located in the Town of Milford, Maine. Along the refuge’s southern boundary is the former Town of Milford...
Ellison, Laura E.
Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is located in the northeast corner of Utah along the Green River and is part of the Upper Colorado River System and the Colorado Plateau. The Colorado Plateau is home to 19 species of bats, some of which are quite rare. Of those 19 species, a few have a more southern range and would not be expected to be found at Ouray NWR, but it is unknown what species occur at Ouray NWR or their relative abundance. The assumption is that Ouray NWR provides excellent habitat for bats, since the riparian habitat consists of a healthy population of cottonwoods with plenty of older, large trees and snags that would provide foraging and roosting habitat for bats. The more than 4,000 acres of wetland habitat, along with the associated insect population resulting from the wetland habitat, would provide ideal foraging habitat for bats. The overall objective of this project is to conduct a baseline inventory of bat species occurring on the refuge using mist nets and passive acoustic monitoring.
... hiking, hunting, and fishing. Background The CCP Process The National Wildlife Refuge System... activities, such as wildlife observation, photography, hiking, snowmobiling, and hunting, would continue to... management (if warranted) to [[Page 66058
John R. Sauer; Jennifer Casey; Harold Laskowski; Jan D. Taylor; Jane Fallon
National Wildlife Refuges must manage habitats to support a variety of species that often have conflicting needs. To make reasonable management decisions, managers must know what species are priorities for their refuges and the relative importance of the species. Unfortunately, species priorities are often set regionally, but refuges must develop local priorities that...
... Noonday Rock. In 1969 the Refuge was expanded to include the South Farallon Islands and is still managed... eradicate nonnative mice from the South Farallon Islands, part of the Farallon National Wildlife Refuge off... eradicate nonnative house mice (Mus musculus) from the South Farallon Islands. The purpose of this project...
Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.; Augspurger, T.
Runoff of leachate from East Lake and Dare County Construction and Demolition Debris landfills has the potential to impact wildlife resources at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge, Dare and Hyde Counties, North Carolina. Sediment quality of samples collected in August 2000 at 14 locations down-gradient from the landfills was assessed by measuring metal and organic contaminants in the sediments, chronic toxicity of solid-phase sediment (28-d static-renewal exposures; survival and growth as test endpoints) and acute toxicity of sediment porewater (96-h static exposures) to Hyalella azteca (Crustacea: Amphipoda). In addition, contaminant bioaccumulation from 4 sediments was determined using 28-d exposures of Lumbriculus variegatus (freshwater oligochaete). Although survival was not impaired, length of H. azteca was significantly reduced in sediments from 5 locations. Pore water from 4 locations was acutely toxic to H. azteca. Metals and a few polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were bioaccumulated by L. variegatus from the sediments. Several metals and PAHs exceeded sediment quality guidelines, and metals in porewater from several sites exceeded water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic wildlife. Runoff of leachate from the landfills has reduced sediment quality and has the potential to adversely affect wildlife resources at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge.
Hagar, Joan C.; Manning, Tom; Barnett, Jenny
Bats are diverse and abundant in many ecosystems worldwide. They perform important ecosystem functions, particularly by consuming large quantities of insects (Cleveland and others, 2006; Jones and others, 2009; Kuhn and others, 2011). The importance of bats to biodiversity and to ecosystem integrity has been overlooked in many regions, largely because the challenges of detecting and studying these small, nocturnal mammals have rendered a paucity of information on matters as basic as species distribution and natural history attributes. Recently, concern for bats has arisen in response to recognition of large-scale threats, such as white-nosed syndrome (WNS; Turner and others, 2009; Frick and others, 2010) and mortality at wind energy facilities (Arnett and others, 2008), factors that are causing unprecedented population declines of bats (Boyles and others, 2011). WNS is a fungal disease that has killed more than 1 million cave-hibernating bats in eastern North America since being discovered in New York State in 2006 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012). WNS has spread rapidly from northeastern U.S., and as of August 2012 has been confirmed as far west as eastern Missouri(U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013). Given the rapid spread of WNS, there is concern that the disease may soon affect western bat populations. Hibernating bats are particularly vulnerable to the effects of WNS (Blehert and others, 2009). Refuges in eastern Washington, including the Mid-Columbia River National Wildlife Refuge Complex (MCRNWRC) and Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge, support many potential hibernacula. Sixteen species of bats potentially occur on these refuges, including one federally listed species of concern (Townsend’s big-eared bat [Corynorhinus townsendii]; see table 1 for scientific names of bats), and 12 species that are of conservation concern in Washington and Oregon (table 1). However, little is known about bats on these refuges because few surveys have been
A black-necked stilt waits near its nesting mate nest in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Stilts usually produce three or four brown-spotted buff eggs in a shallow depression lined with grass or shell fragments. In the nesting season they are particularly agressive. Stilts are identified by a distinct head pattern of black and white, very long red legs, and straight, very thin bill. Their habitat is salt marshes and shallow coastal bays from Delaware and northern South America in the East, and freshwater marshes from Oregon and Saskatchewan to the Gulf Coast. The 92,000-acre wildlife refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.
... wildlife and habitat diversity and the minimization of human impacts on these resources. In general... and lack of a comprehensive habitat management plan; and (8) insufficient resources to address refuge... (Native Wildlife and Habitat Diversity) Alternative B would expand or initiate our management activities...
Post van der Burg, Max; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Eash, Josh D.; Knutsen, Gregory A.
Sedimentation has been identified as an important stressor across a range of wetland systems. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has the responsibility of maintaining wetlands within its National Wildlife Refuge System for use by migratory waterbirds and other wildlife. Many of these wetlands could be negatively affected by accelerated rates of sedimentation, especially those located in agricultural parts of the landscape. In this report we document the results of a decision analysis project designed to help U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service staff at the Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (herein referred to as the Refuge) determine a strategy for managing and mitigating the negative effects of sediment loading within Refuge wetlands. The Refuge’s largest wetland, Agassiz Pool, has accumulated so much sediment that it has become dominated by hybrid cattail (Typha × glauca), and the ability of the staff to control water levels in the Agassiz Pool has been substantially reduced. This project consisted of a workshop with Refuge staff, local and regional stakeholders, and several technical and scientific experts. At the workshop we established Refuge management and stakeholder objectives, a range of possible management strategies, and assessed the consequences of those strategies. After deliberating a range of actions, the staff chose to consider the following three strategies: (1) an inexpensive strategy, which largely focused on using outreach to reduce external sediment inputs to the Refuge; (2) the most expensive option, which built on the first option and relied on additional infrastructure changes to the Refuge to increase management capacity; and (3) a strategy that was less expensive than strategy 2 and relied mostly on existing infrastructure to improve management capacity. Despite the fact that our assessments were qualitative, Refuge staff decided they had enough information to select the third strategy. Following our qualitative assessment, we discussed
Bell, Barbara [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Spotila, James R [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Congdon, Justin [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Drawer E., Aiken, SC (United States)
The John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge is subject to pollution from multiple sources. We studied development of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) embryos from the refuge from 2000 through 2003. Mean annual deformity rate of pooled painted turtle clutches over four years ranged from 45 to 71%, while that of snapping turtle clutches ranged from 13 to 19%. Lethal deformities were more common than minor or moderate deformities in embryos of both species. Adult painted turtles had a higher deformity rate than adult snapping turtles. Snapping turtles at JHNWR had high levels of PAH contamination in their fat. This suggests that PAHs are involved in the high level of deformities. Other contaminants may also play a role. Although the refuge offers many advantages to resident turtle populations, pollution appears to place a developmental burden on the life history of these turtles. - This paper presents findings on the prevalence of developmental abnormalities in turtles at a national wildlife refuge that have direct relevance to studies on the effects of contamination on development and morphology of vertebrates.
Bell, Barbara; Spotila, James R.; Congdon, Justin
The John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge is subject to pollution from multiple sources. We studied development of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) embryos from the refuge from 2000 through 2003. Mean annual deformity rate of pooled painted turtle clutches over four years ranged from 45 to 71%, while that of snapping turtle clutches ranged from 13 to 19%. Lethal deformities were more common than minor or moderate deformities in embryos of both species. Adult painted turtles had a higher deformity rate than adult snapping turtles. Snapping turtles at JHNWR had high levels of PAH contamination in their fat. This suggests that PAHs are involved in the high level of deformities. Other contaminants may also play a role. Although the refuge offers many advantages to resident turtle populations, pollution appears to place a developmental burden on the life history of these turtles. - This paper presents findings on the prevalence of developmental abnormalities in turtles at a national wildlife refuge that have direct relevance to studies on the effects of contamination on development and morphology of vertebrates
Brad Griffith; J. Michael Scott; Robert Adamcik; Daniel Ashe; Brian Czech; Robert Fischman; Patrick Gonzalez; Joshua Lawler; A. David McGuire; Anna. Pidgorna
Since its establishment in 1903, the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) has grown to 635 units and 37 Wetland Management Districts in the United States and its territories. These units provide the seasonal habitats necessary for migratory waterfowl and other species to complete their annual life cycles. Habitat conversion and fragmentation, invasive species,...
...-acre refuge is managed to restore the longleaf pine/wiregrass ecosystem for the benefit of the red... wildlife observation, hiking, and fishing also are popular. We announce our decision and the availability... mobility-impaired persons, outdoor recreation (e.g., bicycling, hiking, jogging, walking, mountain biking...
... World War II outpost. The Izembek Wilderness covers most of the refuge and includes pristine streams... wildlife.'' Eighty-four thousand, two hundred acres of this national wildlife range, including Izembek... bird staging habitats in the world. In recognition of that, in 2001 it was designated as a Globally...
... for the benefit of the red- cockaded woodpecker (RCW) and other endangered species, provide habitat... hunting, although wildlife observation, hiking, and fishing are also popular. The refuge contains 30 small...
Joshua Timock; Christopher Vaughan
Population sizes of six mammal species were estimated using the King method during the late dry season (March) of 1996 in the Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Costa Rica. The white-faced monkey (Cebus capucinus), coati (Nasua narica) and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) with 148, 46, and 8 sighted individuals, respectively, demonstrated the largest populations in the refuge. The Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), tamandua anteater (Tamandua mexicana), and varie...
... purposes and goals and contributing to the mission of the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS). CCPs... management alternatives to address these issues; help achieve refuge goals, objectives, and purposes; and... and reduce conflicts between users (e.g., not opening Prime Hook Creek to hunting). We will continue...
Department of the Interior — The early accounts of an active grassland management program at Erie National Wildlife Refuge dates back to 1977. This report is an attempt to document the refuge’s...
The hydrologic effects of proposed impoundments in Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge were found to be insignificant with respect to both ground- and surface-water flow patterns and water quality. Monitoring of water levels in 23 observation wells and of discharge in the St. Francis River during 1980 and 1981 has shown that ground water in the surf icial aquifer responds quickly to areal recharge and subsequently discharges to the St. Francis River. The impoundment of surface water in the refuge was not found to affect water levels in the refuge significantly. The impoundments may affect ground-water-flow systems beneath and adjacent to the impoundments. Quality of ground and surface water was found to be similar except ground water contained higher concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen than surface water. Phytoplankton removed dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen from surface water. The effects of impoundments on water quality are expected to be minor.
Johnson, Fred A.; Eaton, Mitchell; McMahon, Gerard; Raye Nilius,; Mike Bryant,; Dave Case,; Martin, Julien; Wood, Nathan J.; Laura Taylor,
National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the United States play an important role in the adaptation of social-ecological systems to climate change, land-use change, and other global-change processes. Coastal refuges are already experiencing threats from sea-level rise and other change processes that are largely beyond their ability to influence, while at the same time facing tighter budgets and reduced staff. We engaged in workshops with NWR managers along the U.S. Atlantic coast to understand the problems they face from global-change processes and began a multidisciplinary collaboration to use decision science to help address them. We are applying a values-focused approach to base management decisions on the resource objectives of land managers, as well as those of stakeholders who may benefit from the goods and services produced by a refuge. Two insights that emerged from our workshops were a conspicuous mismatch between the scale at which management can influence outcomes and the scale of environmental processes, and the need to consider objectives related to ecosystem goods and services that traditionally have not been explicitly considered by refuges (e.g., protection from storm surge). The broadening of objectives complicates the decision-making process, but also provides opportunities for collaboration with stakeholders who may have agendas different from those of the refuge, as well as an opportunity for addressing problems across scales. From a practical perspective, we recognized the need to (1) efficiently allocate limited staff time and budgets for short-term management of existing programs and resources under the current refuge design and (2) develop long-term priorities for acquiring or protecting new land/habitat to supplement or replace the existing refuge footprint and thus sustain refuge values as the system evolves over time. Structuring the decision-making problem in this manner facilitated a better understanding of the issues of scale and suggested
Fred A. Johnson
Full Text Available National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs in the United States play an important role in the adaptation of social-ecological systems to climate change, land-use change, and other global-change processes. Coastal refuges are already experiencing threats from sea-level rise and other change processes that are largely beyond their ability to influence, while at the same time facing tighter budgets and reduced staff. We engaged in workshops with NWR managers along the U.S. Atlantic coast to understand the problems they face from global-change processes and began a multidisciplinary collaboration to use decision science to help address them. We are applying a values-focused approach to base management decisions on the resource objectives of land managers, as well as those of stakeholders who may benefit from the goods and services produced by a refuge. Two insights that emerged from our workshops were a conspicuous mismatch between the scale at which management can influence outcomes and the scale of environmental processes, and the need to consider objectives related to ecosystem goods and services that traditionally have not been explicitly considered by refuges (e.g., protection from storm surge. The broadening of objectives complicates the decision-making process, but also provides opportunities for collaboration with stakeholders who may have agendas different from those of the refuge, as well as an opportunity for addressing problems across scales. From a practical perspective, we recognized the need to (1 efficiently allocate limited staff time and budgets for short-term management of existing programs and resources under the current refuge design and (2 develop long-term priorities for acquiring or protecting new land/habitat to supplement or replace the existing refuge footprint and thus sustain refuge values as the system evolves over time. Structuring the decision-making problem in this manner facilitated a better understanding of the issues of
..., Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge, 287 Westside Road, Bonners Ferry, ID 83805. Web site: http://www.fws.gov..., wildlife observation and photography, and environmental education and interpretation. We will review and... the auto tour route to provide for safety. Big game and upland game (grouse) hunting would be allowed...
... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to the... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING General Provisions...
...] Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai`i County, HI; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...; Hilo, HI 96720. Alternatively, you may fax comments to the refuge at (808) 443-2304, or e-mail them to... attend two open house meetings. The meetings were held March 3 and 4, 2009, in Hilo, HI, and Captain Cook...
Department of the Interior — A large-scale lake study on Interior Alaska National Wildlife Refuges (NWR) was undertaken from 1984–1986. Six NWRs were surveyed (Innoko, Kanuti, Koyukuk, Nowitna,...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R5-R-2011-N043; BAC-4311-K9-S3] Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Middlesex County, CT; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and... headquarters located in Middlesex County, CT. This notice complies with our CCP policy to: (1) Advise other...
Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Gleason, Robert A.
Accelerated sedimentation of reservoirs and riverine impoundments is a major concern throughout the United States. Sediments not only fill impoundments and reduce their effective life span, but they can reduce water quality by increasing turbidity and introducing harmful chemical constituents such as heavy metals, toxic elements, and nutrients. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service national wildlife refuges in the north-central part of the United States have documented high amounts of sediment accretion in some wetlands that could negatively affect important aquatic habitats for migratory birds and other wetland-dependent wildlife. Therefore, information pertaining to sediment accumulation in refuge impoundments potentially is important to guide conservation planning, including future management actions of individual impoundments. Lands comprising Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuges, collectively known as the Souris River Basin refuges, encompass reaches of the Des Lacs and Souris Rivers of northwestern North Dakota. The riverine impoundments of the Souris River Basin refuges are vulnerable to sedimentation because of the construction of in-stream dams that interrupt and slow river flows and because of post-European settlement land-use changes that have increased the potential for soil erosion and transport to rivers. Information regarding sediments does not exist for these refuges, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel have expressed interest in assessing refuge impoundments to support refuge management decisions. Sediment cores and surface sediment samples were collected from impoundments within Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuges during 2004–05. Cores were used to estimate sediment accretion rates using radioisotope (cesium-137 [137Cs], lead-210 [210Pb]) dating techniques. Sediment cores and surface samples were analyzed for a suite of elements and agrichemicals, respectively. Examination of
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R2-R-2009-N274] [22570-1261-0000-K2] Limiting Mountain Lion Predation on Desert Bighorn Sheep on Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Yuma and La Paz Counties, AZ AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of the final...
Fleming, W.J.; Atkeson, T.Z.
A DDT manufacturing plant that operated on the Redstone Arsenal near Huntsville, Alabama discharged DDT-Iaden effluent from 1947 to 1970 into a creek on Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge. Seven to 9 years after the plant closed, high DDT, DDE, and DDD levels were reported in soils, river sediments, and fish in the area. Eleven of 27 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) collected on the Refuge during February 1979 had carcass DDE residues that exceeded levels associated with eggshell thinning. DDE residues in a smaller number of mallards exceeded levels associated with egg breakage, poor hatchability, and abnormal hehavior and poor survival of offspring. Several avian species have disappeared from the Refuge since 1950, probably due to both industrial discharges of DDT from the plant and insecticidal use of DDT in the area. The contamination still presents a threat to herons, waterfowl, and raptors including occasional wintering or migrant eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and probably many other avian species. A maternity colony of endangered gray bats (Myotis grisescens) is also threatened by this contamination.
Jeffrey J. Brooks; Robert Massengale
This study evaluates the quality of planning objectives for visitor services as written in Comprehensive Conservation Plans for the National Wildlife Refuge System of the United States. Planners in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service are predominantly writing public use objectives that address wildlife recreation and education. Results indicate that planners are writing...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R4-R-2011-N053; 40136-1265-0000-S3] St... conservation plan and environmental assessment (Draft CCP/EA) for St. Johns National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in... Complex, P.O. Box 2683, Titusville, FL 32781, or via e-mail at [email protected] , or St. Johns CCP...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R4-R-2010-N277; 40136-1265-0000-S3] Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge, Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and... draft comprehensive conservation plan and environmental assessment (Draft CCP/EA) for Cabo Rojo National...
Moore, C.T.; Lonsdorf, E.V.; Knutson, M.G.; Laskowski, H.P.; Lor, S.K.
Adaptive management is an approach to recurrent decision making in which uncertainty about the decision is reduced over time through comparison of outcomes predicted by competing models against observed values of those outcomes. The National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is a large land management program charged with making natural resource management decisions, which often are made under considerable uncertainty, severe operational constraints, and conditions that limit ability to precisely carry out actions as intended. The NWRS presents outstanding opportunities for the application of adaptive management, but also difficult challenges. We describe two cooperative programs between the Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Geological Survey to implement adaptive management at scales ranging from small, single refuge applications to large, multi-refuge, multi-region projects. Our experience to date suggests three important attributes common to successful implementation: a vigorous multi-partner collaboration, practical and informative decision framework components, and a sustained commitment to the process. Administrators in both agencies should consider these attributes when developing programs to promote the use and acceptance of adaptive management in the NWRS. ?? 2010 .
Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David
The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S.Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.
... recreation including non-motorized boating, walking, hiking, jogging, and bicycling; (7) research and... associated benefits. Authority This notice is published under the authority of the National Wildlife Refuge...
... business hours at the Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge headquarters located at 4567 Wildfowl Lane... habitats and has created and modified wetlands. Riverfront forest includes early succession tree species...
Conrads, Paul; Roehl, Edwin A.
The Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) was established in 1951 through a license agreement between the South Florida Water Management District and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as part of the Migratory Bird Conservation Act. Under the license agreement, the State of Florida owns the land of the Refuge and the USFWS manages the land. Fifty-seven miles of levees and borrow canals surround the Refuge. Water in the canals surrounding the marsh is controlled by inflows and outflows through control structures. The transport of canal water with higher specific conductance and nutrient concentrations to the interior marsh has the potential to alter critical ecosystem functions of the marsh.
... National Wildlife Refuge Complex, P.O. Box 111, Lakeview, OR 97630. Fax: (541) 947-4414. In-person viewing... Refuge encompasses 575,000 acres of sagebrush-steppe habitat located in a remote area of northwest Nevada... management would continue, with the following key enhancements. Native habitat conditions would improve, by...
Department of the Interior — The Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1998 on the site of the former Loring Air Force Base (LAFB), a cold‐war era Strategic Air Command facility....
Nimick, David A.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Fields, Vanessa
Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge is an important area for waterfowl production and migratory stopover in west-central Montana. Eight wetland units covering about 5,600 acres are the essential features of the refuge. Water availability for the wetland units can be uncertain owing to the large natural variations in precipitation and runoff and the high cost of pumping supplemental water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, has developed a digital model for planning water management. The model can simulate strategies for water transfers among the eight wetland units and account for variability in runoff and pumped water. This report describes this digital model, which uses a water-accounting spreadsheet to track inputs and outputs to each of the wetland units of Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Inputs to the model include (1) monthly values for precipitation, pumped water, runoff, and evaporation; (2) water-level/capacity data for each wetland unit; and (3) the pan-evaporation coefficient. Outputs include monthly water volume and flooded surface area for each unit for as many as 5 consecutive years. The digital model was calibrated by comparing simulated and historical measured water volumes for specific test years.
.... 715d). The refuge consists of more than 10,800 acres within the rural townships of Alabama and Shelby... forests, grasslands, and wet meadows. These areas serve the habitat needs of both migratory and resident... addition to outlining broad management direction on conserving wildlife and their habitats, CCPs identify...
Steigenvald Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR, refuge) was established as a result of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) transferring ownership of the Stevenson tract located in the historic Steigerwald Lake site to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS, Service) for the mitigation of the fish and wildlife losses associated with the construction of a second powerhouse at the Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River and relocation of the town of North Bonneville (Public Law 98-396). The construction project was completed in 1983 and resulted in the loss of approximately 577 acres of habitat on the Washington shore of the Columbia River (USFWS, 1982). The COE determined that acquisition and development of the Steigenvald Lake area, along with other on-site project management actions, would meet their legal obligation to mitigate for these impacts (USCOE, 1985). Mitigation requirements included restoration and enhancement of this property to increase overall habitat diversity and productivity. From 1994 to 1999, 317 acres of additional lands, consisting of four tracts of contiguous land, were added to the original refuge with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds provided through the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement. These tracts comprised Straub (191 acres), James (90 acres), Burlington Northern (27 acres), and Bliss (9 acres). Refer to Figure 1. Under this Agreement, BPA budgeted $2,730,000 to the Service for 'the protection, mitigation, and enhancement of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River or its tributaries' in the state of Washington (BPA, 1993). Lands acquired for mitigation resulting from BPA actions are evaluated using the habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) methodology, which quantifies how many Habitat Units (HUs) are to be credited to BPA. HUs or credits gained lessen BPA's debt, which was formally tabulated in the Federal Columbia
... meetings. You may obtain the schedule from the planning team leader or project leader (see addresses). You... public about the mission of the National Wildlife Refuge System and the role of Little River NWR in...
Hamilton, Christopher M.; Baumann, Matthias; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Helmers, David P.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Radeloff, Volker C.
ContextHousing growth can alter suitability of matrix habitats around protected areas, strongly affecting movements of organisms and, consequently, threatening connectivity of protected area networks.ObjectivesOur goal was to quantify distribution and growth of housing around the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System. This is important information for conservation planning, particularly given promotion of habitat connectivity as a climate change adaptation measure.MethodsWe quantified housing growth from 1940 to 2000 and projected future growth to 2030 within three distances from refuges, identifying very low housing density open space, “opportunity areas” (contiguous areas with habitat corridors within these opportunity areas in 2000.ResultsOur results indicated that the number and area of open space opportunity areas generally decreased with increasing distance from refuges and with the passage of time. Furthermore, total area in habitat corridors was much lower than in opportunity areas. In addition, the number of corridors sometimes exceeded number of opportunity areas as a result of habitat fragmentation, indicating corridors are likely vulnerable to land use change. Finally, regional differences were strong and indicated some refuges may have experienced so much housing growth already that they are effectively too isolated to adapt to climate change, while others may require extensive habitat restoration work.ConclusionsWildlife refuges are increasingly isolated by residential housing development, potentially constraining the movement of wildlife and, therefore, their ability to adapt to a changing climate.
The planned widening of U.S. Highway 17 along the east boundary of Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (GDSNWR) and a lack of knowledge about the refugeâ s bear population created the need to identify potential sites for wildlife crossings and estimate the size of the refugeâ s bear population. I collected black bear hair in order to collect DNA samples to estimate population size, density, and sex ratio, and determine road crossing locations for black bears (Ursus americanus) in G...
... Plan and Environmental Impact Statement; Two Ponds National Wildlife Refuge, Arvada, CO; Comprehensive... prepare a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Rocky..., including more than 120 species of birds, coyote and red fox, muskrat, raccoon, and beaver, deer, several...
... National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) for public review and comment. In the Draft CCP/ EA, we describe the... photography, and environmental education and interpretation. We will review and update the CCP at least every... plants, particularly the endangered yellow-shouldered blackbird; increasing the level of environmental...
A floristics inventory was conducted to identify and photograph the vascular plants occurring at Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Texas, from March 2011 to March 2012 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This research resulted in the identification of 511 taxa of vascular plants representing 111 families and 317 genera. Despite the degree of development of the refuge at the time it was transferred to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, plant diversity was high. Of the 511 species identified in this study, 346 species are new records for Harrison County, and 3 species are new discoveries for Texas. Caddo Lake NWR is primarily forested with 55 tree species and 35 shrub species identified in this study. Of the species identified, 289 are associated with wetlands having a wetland classification of facultative or wetter, possibly reflecting the proximity of Caddo Lake to the refuge and the three streams that intersect the refuge. Sixty-two of the species found on the refuge are introduced. Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) is one of the more common invasive tree species on the refuge and is actively controlled by refuge staff. Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense), sacred bamboo (Nandina domestica), and King’s Ranch bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica) are present on the refuge and have the potential to become invasive. More than 10,000 photographs were taken of the plants found on the refuge in an effort to document general appearance and capture diagnostic characters of each plant species. Photographs were also taken of many of the animals and landscapes encountered during the project. Select images of each of the plants and animals are included in the collection of more than 1,600 photographs (all photographs by Larry Allain).
Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Johnson, Kevin M.; Hoffman, David J.
Elevated mercury concentrations in water were reported in the prairie wetlands at Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, ND. In order to determine whether wildlife associated with these wetlands was exposed to and then accumulated higher mercury concentrations than wildlife living near more permanent wetlands (e.g. lakes), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings were collected from nests near seasonal wetlands, semi-permanent wetlands, and lakes. Mercury concentrations in eggs collected near seasonal wetlands were higher than those collected near semi-permanent wetlands or lakes. In contrast, mercury concentrations in nestling livers did not differ among wetland types. Mercury and other element concentrations in tree swallow eggs and nestlings collected from all wetlands were low. As suspected from these low concentrations, mercury concentrations in sample eggs were not a significant factor explaining the hatching success of the remaining eggs in each clutch. - Mercury concentrations in tree swallows nesting in the prairie wetlands at Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge were not elevated
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-R-2011-N253: FXRS12650800000S3-112-FF08R00000] Hopper Mountain, Bitter Creek, and Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuges, Ventura, Kern, San Luis... acres, primarily in Kern County and extending into San Luis Obispo and Ventura Counties. Blue Ridge NWR...
... ground and winter sanctuary for native birds. It was also intended to be a refuge for other wildlife..., grasslands, and forests to increase native plant diversity; and the facilitation of new research and...
Griffith, Brad; Scott, J. Michael; Adamcik, Robert S.; Ashe, Daniel; Czech, Brian; Fischman, Robert; Gonzalez, Patrick; Lawler, Joshua J.; McGuire, A. David; Pidgorna, Anna
Since its establishment in 1903, the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) has grown to 635 units and 37 Wetland Management Districts in the United States and its territories. These units provide the seasonal habitats necessary for migratory waterfowl and other species to complete their annual life cycles. Habitat conversion and fragmentation, invasive species, pollution, and competition for water have stressed refuges for decades, but the interaction of climate change with these stressors presents the most recent, pervasive, and complex conservation challenge to the NWRS. Geographic isolation and small unit size compound the challenges of climate change, but a combined emphasis on species that refuges were established to conserve and on maintaining biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health provides the NWRS with substantial latitude to respond. Individual symptoms of climate change can be addressed at the refuge level, but the strategic response requires system-wide planning. A dynamic vision of the NWRS in a changing climate, an explicit national strategic plan to implement that vision, and an assessment of representation, redundancy, size, and total number of units in relation to conservation targets are the first steps toward adaptation. This adaptation must begin immediately and be built on more closely integrated research and management. Rigorous projections of possible futures are required to facilitate adaptation to change. Furthermore, the effective conservation footprint of the NWRS must be increased through land acquisition, creative partnerships, and educational programs in order for the NWRS to meet its legal mandate to maintain the biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health of the system and the species and ecosystems that it supports.
...] Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and.../docs/HI-PI/docsjcpearl.htm . Email: [email protected] . Include ``Pearl Harbor final CCP'' in...`iwa, HI 96712. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Ellis, Project Leader, (808) 637-6330...
A white pelican and several small egrets rest on the bank of a pond in in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. White pelicans inhabit marshy lakes and along the Pacific and Texas coasts. They winter from Florida and southern California south to Panama, chiefly in coastal lagoons. They are frequently seen flying in long lines, flapping and sailing in unison, but also ride rising air currents to soar gracefully in circles. The range of the egret includes southern and eastern states, Mexico, Central and South America, and the West Indies. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.
... possible to benefit refuge wildlife. Under Alternative C, we will expand management of wood storks and..., hiking, and bicycling. Bicycling that does not support appropriate and compatible uses, such as mountain...
Smith, Douglas G.; Wagner, Chad R.
A one-dimensional step-backwater model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pee Dee National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina, to provide a means for predicting flood-plain inundation. The model was developed for selected reaches of the Pee Dee River, Brown Creek, and Rocky River, using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) software. Multiple cross sections were defined on each modeled stream, and hydrologic data were collected between August 2011 and August 2013 at selected locations on the Pee Dee River and on its tributaries Brown Creek, Rocky River, and Thoroughfare Creek. Cross-section, stage, and flow data were used to develop the model and simulate water-surface profiles at 1.0-foot increments at the USGS streamgage Pee Dee River at Pee Dee Refuge near Ansonville, N.C. The profiles were produced for 31 selected water levels that ranged from approximately 193.0 feet to 223.0 feet in elevation at the Pee Dee River at Pee Dee Refuge streamgage.
Chordas, Stephen W.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chapman, Eric G.
The dipteran fauna of Arkansas is generally poorly known. A previous study of the Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, the largest refuge in Arkansas, reported only 12 diptera taxa out of 219 taxa collected (Chordas et al., 1996). Most of the dipterans from this study were identified only to the family level. The family Chironomidae is a large, diverse group and was predicted to be much more diverse in the refuge than indicated by previous studies. In this study, Chironomidae were targeted, with other aquatic or semiaquatic dipterans also retained, in collections designed to better define the dipteran fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge. Adult dipterans were collected from 22 sites within the refuge using sweep-nets, two types of blacklight traps, and lighted fan traps in June of 2001. Specimens from previous studies were retrieved and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 4,917 specimens representing 122 taxa was collected. The 122 taxa were comprised of the following: two chaoborids, 83 chironomids, 15 culicids, nine tabanids, and 13 tipulids. Of these, 46 species are new state records for Arkansas. Nine undescribed species of chironomids were collected, and eight species records represent significant range extensions.
...] Elizabeth Hartwell Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge, Fairfax County, VA, and Featherstone National... plan (CCP) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for Elizabeth Hartwell Mason Neck (Mason Neck...: Download a copy of the document at http://www.fws.gov/northeast/planning/MasonNeck_Featherstone/ccphome...
Thodal, Carl E.
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected data on water and bottom-sediment chemistry to be used to evaluate a new water rights acquisition program designed to enhance wetland habitat in Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge and in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, Nevada. The area supports habitat critical to the feeding and resting of migratory birds travelling the Pacific Flyway. Information about how water rights acquisitions may affect the quality of water delivered to the wetlands is needed by stakeholders and Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge managers in order to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach to wetlands management. A network of six sites on waterways that deliver the majority of water to Refuge wetlands was established to monitor the quality of streamflow and bottom sediment. Each site was visited every 4 to 6 weeks and selected water-quality field parameters were measured when flowing water was present. Water samples were collected at varying frequencies and analyzed for major ions, silica, and organic carbon, and for selected species of nitrogen and phosphorus, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, and other trace organic compounds. Bottom-sediment samples were collected for analysis of selected trace elements.Dissolved-solids concentrations exceeded the recommended criterion for protection of aquatic life (500 milligrams per liter) in 33 of 62 filtered water samples. The maximum arsenic criterion (340 micrograms per liter) was exceeded twice and the continuous criterion was exceeded seven times. Criteria protecting aquatic life from continuous exposure to aluminum, cadmium, lead, and mercury (87, 0.72, 2.5, and 0.77 micrograms per liter, respectively) were exceeded only once in filtered samples (27, 40, 32, and 36 samples, respectively). Mercury was the only trace element analyzed in bottom-sediment samples to exceed the published probable effect concentration (1,060 micrograms per kilogram).
P.L. Weaver; J.J. Schwagerl
Secondary forest succession and tree planting are contributing to the recovery of the Cabo Rojo refuge (Headquarters and Salinas tracts) and Laguna Cartagena refuge (Lagoon and Tinaja tracts) of the Fish and Wildlife Service in southwestern Puerto Rico. About 80 species, mainly natives, have been planted on 44 ha during the past 25 y in an effort to reduce the threat...
Hamilton, Christopher M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Pidgeon, Anna M.
Land-use change around protected areas limits their ability to conserve biodiversity by altering ecological processes such as natural hydrologic and disturbance regimes, facilitating species invasions, and interfering with dispersal of organisms. This paper informs USA National Wildlife Refuge System conservation planning by predicting future land-use change on lands within 25 km distance of 461 refuges in the USA using an econometric model. The model contained two differing policy scenarios, namely a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario and a ‘pro-agriculture’ scenario. Regardless of scenario, by 2051, forest cover and urban land use were predicted to increase around refuges, while the extent of range and pasture was predicted to decrease; cropland use decreased under the business-as-usual scenario, but increased under the pro-agriculture scenario. Increasing agricultural land value under the pro-agriculture scenario slowed an expected increase in forest around refuges, and doubled the rate of range and pasture loss. Intensity of land-use change on lands surrounding refuges differed by regions. Regional differences among scenarios revealed that an understanding of regional and local land-use dynamics and management options was an essential requirement to effectively manage these conserved lands. Such knowledge is particularly important given the predicted need to adapt to a changing global climate.
Kunz, Bethany K.; Little, Edward E.
Controlling fugitive dust while protecting natural resources is a challenge faced by all managers of unpaved roads. Unfortunately, road managers choosing between dust control products often have little objective environmental information to aid their decisions. To address this information gap, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collaborated on a field test of three dust control products with the objectives of (a) evaluating product performance under real-world conditions, (b) verifying the environmental safety of products identified as practically nontoxic in laboratory tests, and (c) testing the feasibility of several environmental monitoring techniques for use in dust control tests. In cooperation with refuge staff and product vendors, three products (one magnesium chloride plus binder, one cellulose, and one synthetic fluid plus binder) were applied in July 2012 to replicated road sections at the Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge in Texas. These sections were monitored periodically for 12 months after application. Product performance was assessed by mobile-mounted particulate-matter meters measuring production of fugitive dust and by observations of road conditions. Environmental safety was evaluated through on-site biological observations and leaching tests with samples of treated aggregate. All products reduced dust and improved surface condition during those 12 months. Planned environmental measurements were not always compatible with day-to-day refuge management actions; this incompatibility highlighted the need for flexible biological monitoring plans. As one of the first field tests of dust suppressants that explicitly incorporated biological endpoints, this effort provides valuable information for improving field tests and for developing laboratory or semifield alternatives.
Gilmer, David S.; Yee, Julie L.; Mauser, David M.; Hainline, James M.
The Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) complex, located in northeastern California and southern Oregon, is situated on a major Pacific Flyway migration corridor connecting waterfowl breeding grounds in the north with major wintering grounds in California and Mexico. The complex comprises five waterfowl refuges including Lower Klamath NWR, Tule Lake NWR, Upper Klamath NWR, Klamath Marsh NWR, and Clear Lake NWR, and one bald eagle refuge, Bear Valley NWR. Lower Klamath and Tule Lake NWRs are the largest refuges in the complex; historically, they supported some of the greatest autumn and spring concentrations of migrating waterfowl in North America. Starting in 1953, standardized waterfowl surveys from small aircraft have been conducted in autumn through spring. This report summarizes waterfowl migration activity (i.e., abundance, species composition, distribution on refuges, and chronology) over four time periods—the long-term (1953-2001), early (1953-76), recent (1977-2001), and the most recent (1998-2001)—to describe changing patterns of migration on Klamath Basin refuges from autumn 1953 to spring 2001.Over the long term, waterfowl abundance (birds per day) on the refuge complex averaged about 1.0 million in autumn and about 360,000 in spring. A record peak count of 5.8 million waterfowl was recorded September 24-25, 1958. Average abundance of autumn staging waterfowl for the refuge complex, after reaching record levels in the 1950s and early 1960s, began a decline that lasted until the 1980s. A gradual recovery occurred during the 1990s, but autumn abundance has not recovered to pre-1970 levels. In contrast to autumn, average spring abundance was generally lower in the early decades but has gradually increased through the 1990s, particularly on Lower Klamath NWR.Dabbling ducks represented an average of 68% of all waterfowl in autumn and 55% in spring for the long term. Northern pintail (Anas acuta) was dominant, representing 62% of all dabblers in
...'' (16 U.S.C. 715d). The refuge consists of more than 10,800 acres within the rural townships of Alabama... bounded by forests, grasslands, and wet meadows. These areas serve the habitat needs of both migratory and... habitats, CCPs identify wildlife-dependent recreational opportunities available to the public, including...
... intermingled with hundreds of lakes. Boreal forests are home to moose, wolves, black and brown bears, lynx... FXRS12650700000] 123 Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Soldotna, AK; Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the... . Send your comments or requests for information by any one of the following methods: Email: fw7_kenai...
... and brown bears, lynx, snowshoe hares, and numerous species of Neotropical birds, such as olive-sided... FXRS12650700000 123] Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Soldotna, AK; Environmental Impact Statement for the Shadura...: EMail: fw7_kenai[email protected] ; Fax: Attn: Peter Wikoff, (907) 786-3976; U.S. Mail: Peter Wikoff...
...) (40 CFR 1506.6(b)) requirements. We completed a thorough analysis of impacts on the human environment... foundation for the CCP. Background The National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C... these, we developed and evaluated the following alternatives. C--Optimal habitat A--No-Action B...
... citizens. We would also focus on playing a more regional role in conservation efforts. Public Availability... environmental education, and to afford visitors an opportunity to study wildlife in its natural habitat. The... rubriventris). The refuge offers unique opportunities for environmental education and interpretation in an...
... benefit of important fish and wildlife resources. The Refuge is a premiere bird watching destination with... of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742(a)(4), as amended); and ``for the benefit of the United States Fish and... miles of hike/bike positions (Outdoor facility expansions trails; one auto tour Recreation Planner and...
Davis, Donald D.; Orendovici, Teodora
During 1993-1996 and 2001-2003, we evaluated the percentage of plants (incidence) exhibiting ozone-induced foliar symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge located along the Atlantic Ocean coast of New Jersey, USA. Incidence varied among plant species and years. Bioindicator plants most sensitive to ozone, across all years, included native common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and wild grape (Vitis spp.), as well as introduced tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Less sensitive bioindicators included Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and winged sumac (Rhus coppolina). Black cherry (Prunus serotina) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) were least sensitive. The greatest incidence of ozone symptoms, across all plant species, occurred in 1996, followed by 2001 > 1995 > 1994 > 1993 > 2003 > 2002. A model was developed that showed a statistically significant relationship between incidence of ozone symptoms and the following parameters: plant species, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and the interaction of W126 x N100 measures of ambient ozone. - Vegetation in a National Wildlife Refuge containing a Class I wilderness area exhibits foliar symptoms from ambient ozone
Davis, Donald D. [Department of Plant Pathology, Ecology Program, Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Orendovici, Teodora [Department of Plant Pathology, Ecology Program, Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States)
During 1993-1996 and 2001-2003, we evaluated the percentage of plants (incidence) exhibiting ozone-induced foliar symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge located along the Atlantic Ocean coast of New Jersey, USA. Incidence varied among plant species and years. Bioindicator plants most sensitive to ozone, across all years, included native common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and wild grape (Vitis spp.), as well as introduced tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Less sensitive bioindicators included Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and winged sumac (Rhus coppolina). Black cherry (Prunus serotina) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) were least sensitive. The greatest incidence of ozone symptoms, across all plant species, occurred in 1996, followed by 2001 > 1995 > 1994 > 1993 > 2003 > 2002. A model was developed that showed a statistically significant relationship between incidence of ozone symptoms and the following parameters: plant species, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and the interaction of W126 x N100 measures of ambient ozone. - Vegetation in a National Wildlife Refuge containing a Class I wilderness area exhibits foliar symptoms from ambient ozone.
... operation, (6) camping, (7) commercial guiding for wildlife observation and photography, (8) commercial video and photography, (9) commercial waterfowl guiding, (10) commercial fishing, (11) cooperative... services throughout the refuge. Over the life of the CCP, this management action will balance an enhanced...
S. A. Drury; P. J. Grissom
We conducted this investigation in response to criticisms that the current Alaska Interagency Fire Management Plans are allowing too much of the landscape in interior Alaska to burn annually. To address this issue, we analyzed fire history patterns within the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, interior Alaska. We dated 40 fires on 27 landscape points within the...
Michael A. Zarull
Full Text Available In 2001, the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge was established based on the principles of conservation and sustainability. The refuge has grown from 49.1 ha in 2001 to over 2,300 ha in 2010. Agreement on a compelling vision for a sustainable future was necessary to rally stakeholders and move them forward together. Project examples include: lake sturgeon and common tern restoration; soft shoreline engineering; ecotourism; sustainable redevelopment of a brownfield; and indicator reporting. Key success factors include: a consensus long-term vision; a multi-stakeholder process that achieves cooperative learning; strong coupling of monitoring/research programs with management; implementing actions consistent with adaptive management; measuring and celebrating successes; quantifying benefits; building capacity; and developing the next generation of sustainability practitioners and entrepreneurs.
Reese, Ronald S.
Much of the surface water that flows into the Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge (FPNWR) probably exits southward through Fakahatchee Strand as it did prior to development, because culverts and bridges constructed along I-75 allow overland flow to continue southward within the strand. During the dry season and periods of low water levels, however, much of the flow is diverted westward by the I-75 Canal into Merritt Canal at the southwestern corner of the FPNWR. Substantial drainage of groundwater from the FPNWR into the I-75 Canal is indicated by (1) greater surface-water outflows than inflows in the FPNWR, (2) flows that increase to the west along the I-75 Canal, and (3) correlation of rapid groundwater-level declines at sites close to the I-75 Canal with rapid declines in canal surface-water levels due to operation of a control structure in the Merritt Canal. This drainage of groundwater probably occurs through permeable limestone exposed in the I-75 Canal bank below a cap rock layer. Compared to predevelopment conditions, the time currently required to drain ponded water in some areas of the refuge should be less because of accelerated groundwater discharge into the I-75 Canal caused by the lowering of water levels in the canal during the peak of the wet season extending into the early dry season. This drainage probably reduces the duration of the hydroperiod in these wetlands from the wet season into the dry season, possibly reducing or limiting the extent or vitality of wildlife and plant community habitats.
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Taking of fish and wildlife. 36.32 Section 36.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Other Refuge Uses § 36.32...
Department of the Interior — When President Theodore Roosevelt made Florida's tiny Pelican Island a refuge for birds in 1903, he wrote the ¬first chapter of a great American conservation success...
Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Banko, Paul C.
This report describes the results of a pilot forest bird survey and a consequent forest bird monitoring protocol that was developed for the O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. The pilot survey was conducted to inform aspects of the monitoring protocol and to provide a baseline with which to compare future surveys on the Refuge. The protocol was developed in an adaptive management framework to track bird distribution and abundance and to meet the strategic habitat conservation requirements of the Refuge. Funding for this research was provided through a Science Support Partnership grant sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).
Allard, Donna; Smith, maureen; Schmidt, Peter
Located in the northern Willamette River basin, Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) was established in 1992 with an approved acquisition boundary to accommodate willing sellers with potentially restorable holdings within the Tualatin River floodplain. The Refuge's floodplain of seasonal and emergent wetlands, Oregon ash riparian hardwood, riparian shrub, coniferous forest, and Garry oak communities are representative of remnant plant communities historically common in the Willamette River valley and offer an opportunity to compensate for wildlife habitat losses associated with the Willamette River basin federal hydroelectric projects. The purchase of the Oleson Units as additions to the Refuge using Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds will partially mitigate for wildlife habitat and target species losses incurred as a result of construction and inundation activities at Dexter and Detroit Dams. Lands acquired for mitigation of Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) impacts to wildlife are evaluated using the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) methodology, which quantifies how many Habitat Units (HUs) are to be credited to BPA. HUs or credits gained lessen BPA's debt, which was formally tabulated in the FCRPS Loss Assessments and adopted as part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Fish and Wildlife Program as a BPA obligation (NWPCC, 1994 and 2000). There are two basic management scenarios to consider for this evaluation: (1) Habitats can be managed without restoration activities to benefit wildlife populations, or (2) Habitats can be restored using a number of techniques to improve habitat values more quickly. Without restoration, upland and wetland areas may be periodically mowed and disced to prevent invasion of exotic vegetation, volunteer trees and shrubs may grow to expand forested areas, and cooperative farming may be employed to provide forage for migrating and wintering waterfowl. Abandoned cropland
Department of the Interior — In 2014, Quivira National Wildlife Refuge developed a partnership with Fort Hays State University’s Department of Biological Sciences to address goals indicated by a...
Heimann, David C.; Richards, Joseph M.
The Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge (hereafter referred to as the Refuge), located on the Missouri River floodplain in northwest Missouri, was established in 1935 to provide habitat for migratory birds and wildlife. Results of 1937 and 1964 topographic surveys indicate that sedimenta-tion, primarily from Squaw Creek and Davis Creek inflows, had substantially reduced Refuge pool volumes and depths. A study was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, to quantify and spatially analyze historic rates of sedimentation in the Refuge and determine the surface elevations, depths, and pool capacities for selected managed pools from a 2002 survey.The 1937 to 1964 mean total sediment depo-sition, in the area corresponding to the 2002 sur-veyed pool area (about 4,900 acres), was 1.26 ft (feet), or 0.047 ft/yr (foot per year). Mean annual rates of deposition, by pool, from 1937 to 1964 varied from 0.016 to 0.083 ft/yr. From 1964 to 2002, the mean total sediment deposition in the 2002 surveyed pools was 0.753 ft, or 0.020 ft/yr. Therefore, the mean rate of sediment-depth accu-mulation from 1964 to 2002 was about 42 percent of the mean 1937 to 1964 rate, or a 58 percent reduction. Mean annual rates of deposition by pool from 1964 to 2002 varied from 0.010 to 0.049 ft/yr. Despite a substantial reduction in the average sediment accumulation rate for the Refuge, 5 of the 15 separate pools for which annual rates were calculated for both periods showed a small increase in the deposition rates of up to 0.008 ft/yr. Sediment deposits have resulted in a sub-stantial cumulative loss of volume in the Refuge pools since 1937. The 1937 to 2002 total sediment volume deposited in the 2002 surveyed pool area was about 9,900 acre-ft (acre-feet), or 152 acre-ft/yr (acre-feet per year). The volume of sediment deposited from 1937 to 1964 for these pools was about 6,200 acre-ft, or 230 acre-ft/yr. The volume deposited from 1964 to 2002
Parthum, Bryan M.; Pindilli, Emily J.; Hogan, Dianna
The Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) National Wildlife Refuge delivers multiple ecosystem services, including air quality and human health via fire mitigation. Our analysis estimates benefits of this service through its potential to reduce catastrophic wildfire related impacts on the health of nearby human populations. We used a combination of high-frequency satellite data, ground sensors, and air quality indices to determine periods of public exposure to dense emissions from a wildfire within the GDS. We examined emergency department (ED) visitation in seven Virginia counties during these periods, applied measures of cumulative Relative Risk to derive the effects of wildfire smoke exposure on ED visitation rates, and estimated economic losses using regional Cost of Illness values established within the US Environmental Protection Agency BenMAP framework. Our results estimated the value of one avoided catastrophic wildfire in the refuge to be \\$3.69 million (2015 USD), or \\$306 per hectare of burn. Reducing the frequency or severity of extensive, deep burning peatland wildfire events has additional benefits not included in this estimate, including avoided costs related to fire suppression during a burn, carbon dioxide emissions, impacts to wildlife, and negative outcomes associated with recreation and regional tourism. We suggest the societal value of the public health benefits alone provides a significant incentive for refuge mangers to implement strategies that will reduce the severity of catastrophic wildfires.
Frederic W. Adrian
Prescribed burning is essential on Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. Not only is it needed to manage the volatile fuels, but also to manage the complex system of fire maintained habitats found here. Fire management on the Refuge presents unique challenges. In addition to the restraints to prescribed burning that are common to many prescribed burning programs,...
Evelyn S. Wenk; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker
Upland forest in the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge is characterized by a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) canopy with a variable understory and ground-layer species composition. The system was historically maintained by fire and has been managed with prescribed fire in recent decades. A management goal is to reduce turkey oak (...
Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.
Designation of Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge as a Class I Air Quality Area (given the highest level of protection possible from air pollutants under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977) affords mandatory protection of the Refuge's airshed through the permit-review process for planned developments. Rainfall is the major source of water to the swamp, and potential impacts from developments to the airshed are high. To meet management needs for baseline information, chemical contributions from atmospheric deposition and partitioning of anions and cations, with emphasis on mercury and lead, in the various matrices of the Swamp were determined between July 1993 and April 1995. Chemistry of rainfall was determined on an event basis from one site located at Refuge Headquarters. Field samples of surface water, pore water, floc and sediment were collected from four locations on the Refuge: Chesser Prairie, Chase Prairie, Durden Prairie, and the Narrows. A sediment core sample was collected from the Refuge interior at Bluff Lake for aging of mercury deposition. Rainfall was acidic (pH 4.8) with sulfate concentrations averaging 1.2 mg/L and nitrate averaging 0.8 mg/L. Lead in rainfall averaged 1 ?g/L and total and methylmercury concentrations were 11.7 ng/L and 0.025 ng/L, respectively. The drought of 1993 followed by heavy rains during the fall and winter caused a temporary alteration in the cycling and availability of trace-elements within the different matrices of the Swamp. Surface water was acidic (pH 3.8 to 4.1), dilute (specific conductance 35-60 ?S/cm), and highly organic (DOC 35-50 mg/L). Sediment and floc were also highly organic (>90%). Total mercury averaged 3.6 ng/L in surface water, 9.0 ng/L in pore water and about 170 ng/g in floc and sediments. Mercury bioaccumulated in the biota of the Refuge: fish fillets (Centrarchus macropterus, Esox niger, Lepomus gulosus and Amia calva) had >2 ?g/g dry weight, alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) >4 ?g/g dry
Susan L. Earnst; Jennifer A. Ballard; David S. Dobkin
Cattle were removed from the high desert riparian habitats of Hart Mountain and Sheldon National Wildlife Refuges in 1990. This study compares songbird abundance in 2000-2001 to that in 1991-1993 on 69 permanent plots. Of the 51 species for which detections were sufficient to calculate changes in abundance, 71 percent (36/51) exhibited a positive trend and 76 percent (...
... by 2020 to reduce the sedimentation rate of Bear River water diversions and to better exclude carp... sedimentation rate of Bear River water diversions and better exclude carp from Refuge wetlands. As in... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-R-2012-N095; 1265-0000-10137-S3] Bear...
Howard, Rebecca J.; Michot, Thomas C.; Allain, Larry
Shifts in plant community composition and structure can affect the quality of habitat for wildlife species. Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge in southwestern Louisiana was established in 1937 with a primary goal of providing habitat for wintering waterfowl species. A large freshwater impoundment constructed on the refuge to improve waterfowl habitat value was completed in 1943. About 10 years after construction was completed, staff at the refuge became concerned that emergent vegetation cover was increasing in the impoundment over time while open water areas, which are critical as foraging and resting areas for waterfowl, were decreasing. To document vegetation change over time, we collected information on plant community species composition for comparison to similar data collected in 1973. A total of 84 sampling plots was established in 2006 within the impoundment to coincide as closely as possible to plots sampled in the earlier study. Plant species composition and cover were recorded at each plot in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Change between sampling events separated by more than three decades was determined by comparing the frequency of occurrence of 20 species identified in 1973 to their frequency in 2006 and 2007. Interannual variation was determined by comparing plot data between 2006 and 2007. In plots dominated by emergent vegetation, it was found that Bacopa caroliniana, Eleocharis equisetoides, Leersia hexandra, Panicum hemitomon, and Sagittaria lancifolia were significantly less frequent in 2006 and 2007 than in 1973. The frequency of Brasenia schreberi, Cabomba caroliniana, Nitella gracilis, and Nymphoides aquatica was significantly lower in 2006 and 2007 than in 1973 in plots dominated by floating-leaved plants, submersed plants, or open water. In 2007, Hydrocotyle sp. and Sacciolepis striata were more frequent than in 1973 in emergent vegetation plots, and Utricularia sp. was more frequent in submersed or open-water plots. We documented
Quinn, Nigel W.T.
San Luis National Wildlife Refuge Complex to meetReclamation s obligations for Level 4 water supply under the CentralValley Project Improvement Act. Hydrogeological assessment of the EastBear Creek Unit of the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge was conductedusing a combination of field investigations and a survey of availableliterature from past US Geological Survey Reports and reports by localgeological consultants. Conservative safe yield estimates made using theavailable data show that the East Bear Creek Unit may have sufficientgroundwater resources in the shallow groundwater aquifer to meet aboutbetween 25 percent and 52 percent of its current Level II and between 17percent and 35 percent of its level IV water supply needs. The rate ofsurface and lateral recharge to the Unit and the design of the well fieldand the layout and capacity of pumped wells will decide both thepercentage of annual needs that the shallow aquifer can supply andwhether this yield is sustainable without affecting long-term aquiferquality. In order to further investigate the merits of pumping the nearsurface aquifer, which appears to have reasonable water quality for usewithin the East Bear Creek Unit -- monitoring of the potential sources ofaquifer recharge and the installation of a pilot shallow well would bewarranted. Simple monitoring stations could be installed both upstreamand downstream of both the San Joaquin River and Bear Creek and beinstrumented to measureriver stage, flow and electrical conductivity.Ideally this would be done in conjunction with a shallow pilot well,pumped to supply a portion of the Unit's needs for the wetland inundationperiod.
Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josephine R.; Stromayer, Karl A.K.; Jordan, Brandon M.; Ennis, Mike J.; Woolington, Dennis W.
The project report describes a two year experiment to control wetland drainage to the San Joaquin River of California from the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge using a decision support system for real-time water quality management. This system required the installation and operation of one inlet and three drainage flow and water quality monitoring stations which allowed a simnple mass balance model to be developed of the seasonally managed wetlands in the study area. Remote sensing meth...
Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Orazio, Carl E.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Shaver, David K.; Papoulias, Diana M.
Palmyra Atoll, once a WWII U.S. Navy air station, is now a U.S. National Wildlife Refuge with nearly 50 km2 of coral reef and 275 ha of emergent lands with forests of Pisonia grandistrees and colonies of several bird species. Due to the known elemental and organic contamination from chemicals associated with aviation, power generation and transmission, waste management, and other air station activities, a screening survey to map elemental concentrations was conducted. A map of 1944 Navy facilities was georeferenced and identifiable features were digitized. These data informed a targeted survey of 25 elements in soils and sediment at locations known or suspected to be contaminated, using a hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. At dozens of locations, concentrations of elements exceeded established soil and marine sediment thresholds for adverse ecological effects. Results were compiled into a publically available geospatial dataset to inform potential remediation and habitat restoration activities.
Hamilton, David B.; Auble, Gregor T.; Farmer, Adrian H.; Roelle, James E.
The Garrison Diversion Unit (GDU) of the Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin program was authorized in 1965, with the purpose of diverting Missouri River water to the James River for irrigation, municipal and industrial water supply, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and flood control. The project was reauthorized in 1986, with the specification that comprehensive studies be conducted to address a variety of issues. One of these ongoing studies addresses potential impacts of GDU construction and operation on lands of the National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) system, including Arrowwood and Sand Lake Refuges (the Refuges) on the James River. A number of concerns at these Refuges have been identified; the primary concerns addressed in this report include increased winter return flows, which would limit control of rough fish; increased turbidity during project construction, which would decrease production of sago pondweed; and increased water level fluctuations in the late spring and early summer, which would destroy the nests of some over-water nesting birds. The facilitated workshop described in this report was conducted February 18-20, 1987, under the joint sponsorship of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the North Dakota Game and Fish Department. The primary objectives of the workshop were to evaluate the feasibility of using simulation modeling techniques to estimate GDU impacts on Arrowwood and Sand Lake Refuges and to suggest enhancements to the James River Refuge monitoring program. The workshop was structured around the formulation of four submodels: a Hydrology and Water Quality submodel to simulate changes in Refuge pool elevations, turnover rates, and water quality parameters (e.g., total dissolved solids, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, water temperature, pesticides) due to GDU construction and operation; a Vegetation submodel to simulate concomitant changes in wetland communities (e.g., sago pondweed, wet meadows, deep
... refuge-specific sport fishing regulations? 32.6 Section 32.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... sport fishing regulations? (a) Refuge-specific fishing regulations are issued only at the time of or after the opening of a wildlife refuge area to sport fishing. (b) Refuge-specific fishing regulations...
Vandeberg, Gregory S; Dixon, Cami S; Vose, Brian; Fisher, Mark R
Runoff from concentrated animal feeding operations and croplands in the Upper Devils Lake Basin (Towner and Ramsey Counties), North Dakota, has the potential to impact the water quality and wildlife of the Lake Alice National Wildlife Refuge. Water samples were collected at eight locations upstream and downstream of the refuge, beginning in June 2007 through March 2011, to identify the spatial distribution of water quality parameters and assess the potential impacts from the upstream land use practices. Geographic Information Systems, statistical analysis, and regulatory standards were used to differentiate between sample locations, and identify potential impacts to water quality for the refuge based on 20 chemical constituents. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences between sample locations based on boron, calcium, Escherichia coli, phosphorus, aluminum, manganese, and nickel. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis of these constituents identified four distinct water quality groupings in the study area. Furthermore, this study found a significant positive correlation between the nutrient measures of nitrate-nitrite and total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and the percentage of concentrated animal feeding operation nutrient management areas using the non-parametric Spearman rho method. Significant correlations were also noted between total organic carbon and nearness to concentrated animal feeding operations. Finally, dissolved oxygen, pH, sulfate, E. coli, total phosphorus, nitrate-nitrite, and aluminum exceeded state of North Dakota and/or US Environmental Protection Agency water quality standards and/or guidelines. Elevated concentrations of phosphorus, nitrate-nitrite, and E. coli from upstream sources likely have the greatest potential impact on the Lake Alice Refuge.
This report summarizes research conducted along US Highway 64 (US 64) and US Highway 264 (US 264) in Alligator : River National Wildlife Refuge (ARNWR), Dare County, NC regarding the proposed expansion of US 64. The study site : included the areas ad...
... and publication of the opening of a wildlife refuge area to migratory game bird, upland game or big game hunting. (b) Refuge-specific hunting regulations may contain the following items: (1) Wildlife... FISHING General Provisions § 32.3 What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closure to subsistence uses of fish and wildlife. 36.16 Section 36.16 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES...
...., C.11., and C.12., and adding paragraph C.20. under Harris Neck National Wildlife Refuge; c. Revising... prohibit the use of trail or game cameras. * * * * * Harris Neck National Wildlife Refuge * * * * * C. Big.... Revising paragraph C.6., adding paragraph C.12, revising the introductory text of paragraph D., and...
Full Text Available Evaluation of habitat sustainability indexes is essential in wildlife management and conservation of rare species. Suitable habitats are required in wildlife managements and conservation also, they increase reproduction and survival rate of species. In this study in order to mapping habitat sustainability and recognizing habitat requirements of Iranian Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus, field data from Dare Anjir wildlife refuge were collected since autumn 2009 until summer 2011. Ecological Niche Factor Analysis approach has been used to develop habitat suitability model. In this method primary maps of habitat variables including elevation, slope, aspect, vegetation cover, distance from water sources and environmental monitoring stations have been produced by Idrisi and Biomapper software and imported in Biomapper. The output scores obtained from the analysis showed that Iranian cheetah tends to mountain areas where has more topographical features for camouflage in order to hunting, and northern aspects which have more humidity, denser vegetation cover and more preys . Our result showed that the Iranian cheetah has medium niche width and prefer marginal habitats.
... climate change, focusing on the resiliency of plants to adapt to climate change. The Service would... prescriptive livestock grazing program when current grazing permits become available due to a change in ranch... Refuge as a result of climate. Natural and constructed water sources would be allowed for livestock use...
Perry, Matthew C.
This report, based on a symposium held on October 13, 2011, at the National Wildlife Visitor Center at the Patuxent Research Refuge in Laurel, MD, documents the history of the Patuxent Research Refuge and the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, collectively known as Patuxent. The symposium was one of the many activities occurring at that time to celebrate the 75th anniversary of the creation of the Patuxent Research Refuge in 1936. The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center is located at the refuge, and the research center director, Dr. Gregory J. Smith, with great enthusiasm, personally supervised all aspects of the celebration. The symposium was coordinated by Dr. Matthew C. Perry, the editor of this report, with Dr. Smith’s strong support. The refuge and the research center have been essentially synonymous for the almost 80 years of their history.
... miles west of Honolulu, Hawaii, and 1,500 miles south of Tokyo, Japan. The Refuge is comprised of three...)) requirements. We completed a thorough analysis of impacts on the human environment, which we included in the... conjunction with barrier construction, the Refuge will initiate an intensive program to reduce non-native pest...
Hydrogeology of, simulation of groundwater flow in, and potential effects of sea-level rise on the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the vicinity of Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey
Fiore, Alex R.; Voronin, Lois M.; Wieben, Christine M.
The Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge encompasses more than 47,000 acres of New Jersey coastal habitats, including salt marshes, freshwater wetlands, tidal wetlands, barrier beaches, woodlands, and swamps. The refuge is along the Atlantic Flyway and provides breeding habitat for fish, migratory birds, and other wildlife species. The refuge area may be threatened by global climate change, including sea-level rise (SLR).The Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system underlies the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge. Groundwater is an important source of freshwater flow into the refuge, but information about the interaction of surface water and groundwater in the refuge area and the potential effects of SLR on the underlying aquifer system is limited. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), conducted a hydrologic assessment of the refuge in New Jersey and developed a groundwater flow model to improve understanding of the geohydrology of the refuge area and to serve as a tool to evaluate changes in groundwater-level altitudes that may result from a rise in sea level.Groundwater flow simulations completed for this study include a calibrated baseline simulation that represents 2005–15 hydraulic conditions and three SLR scenarios―20, 40, and 60 centimeters (cm) (0.656, 1.312, and 1.968 feet, respectively). Results of the three SLR simulations indicate that the water table in the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the refuge area will rise, resulting in increased discharge of fresh groundwater to freshwater wetlands and streams. As sea level rises, simulated groundwater discharge to the salt marsh, bay, and ocean is projected to decrease. Flow from the salt marsh, bay, and ocean to the overlying surface water is projected to increase as sea level rises.The simulated movement of the freshwater-seawater interface as sea level rises depends on the hydraulic-head gradient. In the center of the
We evaluated the effectiveness of existing turtle fences through collecting and analyzing turtle mortality data along U.S. Hwy 83, in and around Valentine National Wildlife Refuge, Nebraska, USA. We also investigated the level of connectivity for tur...
...) calls for us, in cooperation with the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, to develop and implement a... associated facilities (outhouse, meat cache). Tent camping is unrestricted on most of the Refuge. Camping in...
Andersson, Kent; Davis, Craig A.; Harris, Grant; Haukos, David A.
Within the U.S. portion of the Central Flyway, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages waterfowl on numerous individual units (i.e., Refuges) within the National Wildlife Refuge System. Presently, the extent of waterfowl use that Refuges receive and the contribution of Refuges to waterfowl populations (i.e., the proportion of the Central Flyway population registered at each Refuge) remain unassessed. Such an evaluation would help determine to what extent Refuges support waterfowl relative to stated targets, aid in identifying species requiring management attention, inform management targets, and improve fiscal efficiencies. Using historic monitoring data (1954–2008), we performed this assessment for 23 Refuges in Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska during migration and wintering months (October–March). We examined six dabbling ducks and two diving ducks, plus all dabbling ducks and all diving ducks across two periods (long-term [all data] and short-term [last 10 October–March periods]). Individual Refuge use was represented by the sum of monthly duck count averages for October–March. We used two indices of Refuge contribution: peak contribution and January contribution. Peak contribution was the highest monthly count average for each October–March period divided by the indexed population total for the Central Flyway in the corresponding year; January contribution used the January count average divided by the corresponding population index. Generally, Refuges in Kansas, Nebraska, and New Mexico recorded most use and contribution for mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Refuges along the Texas Gulf Coast recorded most use and contribution for other dabbling ducks, with Laguna Atascosa and Aransas (including Matagorda Island) recording most use for diving ducks. The long-term total January contribution of the assessed Refuges to ducks wintering in the Central Flyway was greatest for green-winged teal Anas creccawith 35%; 12–15% for American
Pearce, John M.; Flint, Paul L.; Atwood, Todd C.; Douglas, David C.; Adams, Layne G.; Johnson, Heather E.; Arthur, Stephen M.; Latty, Christopher J.
We summarize recent (2002–17) publicly available information from studies within the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge as well as terrestrial and coastal ecosystems elsewhere on the Arctic Coastal Plain that are relevant to the 1002 Area. This report provides an update on earlier research summaries on caribou (Rangifer tarandus), forage quality and quantity, polar bears (Ursus maritimus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), and snow geese (Chen caerulescens). We also provide information on new research related to climate, migratory birds, permafrost, coastal erosion, coastal lagoons, fish, water resources, and potential effects of industrial disturbance on wildlife. From this literature review, we noted evidence for change in the status of some wildlife and their habitats, and the lack of change for others. In the 1002 Area, muskox numbers have decreased and the Porcupine Caribou Herd has exhibited variation in use of the area during the calving season. Polar bears are now more common on shore in summer and fall because of declines in sea ice in the Beaufort Sea. In a study spanning 25 years, there were no significant changes in vegetation quality and quantity, soil conditions, or permafrost thaw in the coastal plain of the 1002 Area. Based on studies from the central Arctic Coastal Plain, there are persistent and emerging uncertainties about the long-term effects of energy development for caribou. In contrast, recent studies that examined direct and indirect effects of industrial activities and infrastructure on birds in the central Arctic Coastal Plain found little effect for the species and disturbances examined, except for the possibility of increased predator activity near human developments.
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sale of wildlife specimens. 31.12 Section 31.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDLIFE SPECIES MANAGEMENT Terms and Conditions of Wildlife...
Full Text Available Population sizes of six mammal species were estimated using the King method during the late dry season (March of 1996 in the Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Costa Rica. The white-faced monkey (Cebus capucinus, coati (Nasua narica and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus with 148, 46, and 8 sighted individuals, respectively, demonstrated the largest populations in the refuge. The Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi, tamandua anteater (Tamandua mexicana, and variegated squirrel (Sciurus variegatoides were also included in the census. Population densities are calculated, habitat types are describes, and habitat use and activity periods are discussed.Se estimó el tamaño poblacional de seis especies de mamíferos, usando el método de King, durante la estación seca tardía (marzo de 1996 en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre de Punta Leona, Costa Rica. El mono carablanca (Cebus capucinus, el pizote (Nasua narica y el armadillo de 9 bandas (Dasypus novecinctus presentaron las poblaciones más grandes en el refugio, con 148, 46, y 8 observaciones respectivamente. El mono araña centroamericano (Ateles geoffroyi, el tamandúa hormiguero (Tamandua mexicana y la ardilla (Sciurus variegatoides también se tomaron en cuenta durante el censo. Además se calculan las densidades poblacionales, se describen los tipos de hábitat y se discute el uso de estos, así como los periodos de actividad de las especies encontradas.
.../or sport fishing? 32.7 Section 32.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Provisions § 32.7 What refuge units are open to hunting and/or sport fishing? Refuge units open to hunting and/or sport fishing in accordance with the provisions of subpart A of this part and §§ 32.20-32.72...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of surplus wildlife populations. 31.1 Section 31.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDLIFE SPECIES MANAGEMENT Surplus...
... refuge for, American elk and other big game animals'' (44 Stat. 1246, 16 USC 673a). These purposes apply..., fishing, wildlife observation and photography, and environmental education and interpretation. We will... Refuge The National Elk Refuge was established in 1912 as a ``winter game (elk) reserve'' (37 Stat. 293...
Department of the Interior — The Baseline Inventory Team recommends that each refuge have available abiotic “data layers” for topography, aerial photography, hydrography, soils, boundaries, and...
Franson, J. Christian; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Collins, Gail H.; Dusek, Robert J.
We screened 1,397 feral horses (Equus caballus) on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States, for IgM and IgG against flavivirus during 2004–2006, 2008, and 2009. Positive serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). One animal was positive for antibody against WNV in 2004, but all others tested in 2004–2006 were negative. In 2008 and 2009, we found evidence of increasing seropositive horses with age, whereas seroprevalence of WNV decreased from 19% in 2008 to 7.2% in 2009. No horses were positive for antibody against SLEV. Being unvaccinated, feral horses can be useful for WNV surveillance.
Kunz, Bethany K.; Hinck, Jo E.; Calfee, Robin D.; Linder, Greg L.; Little, Edward E.
IntroductionCrab Orchard Lake in southern Illinois is one of the largest and most popular recreational lakes in the state. Construction of the nearly 7,000-acre reservoir in the late 1930s created employment opportunities through the Works Progress Administration, and the lake itself was intended to supply water, control flooding, and provide recreational opportunities for local communities (Stall, 1954). In 1942, the Department of War appropriated or purchased more than 20,000 acres of land around Crab Orchard Lake and constructed the Illinois Ordnance Plant, which manufactured bombs and anti-tank mines during World War II. After the war, an Act of Congress transferred the property to the U.S. Department of the Interior. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge was established on August 5, 1947, for the joint purposes of wildlife conservation, agriculture, recreation, and industry. Production of explosives continued, but new industries also moved onsite. More than 200 tenants have held leases with Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge and have operated a variety of manufacturing plants (electrical components, plated metal parts, ink, machined parts, painted products, and boats) on-site. Soils, water, and sediments in several areas of the refuge were contaminated with hazardous substances from handling and disposal methods that are no longer acceptable environmental practice (for example, direct discharge to surface water, use of unlined landfills).Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination at the refuge was identified in the 1970s, and a PCB-based fish-consumption advisory has been in effect since 1988 for Crab Orchard Lake. The present advisory covers common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus); see Illinois Department of Public Health (2017). Some of the most contaminated areas of the refuge were actively remediated, and natural ecosystem recovery processes are expected to further reduce residual PCB concentrations in the lake. The U
Ponds, Phadrea D.; Brinson, Ayeisha A.; Benson, Delwin
The following summary consists of revised excerpts from the thesis study that was conducted in 2000-2002 by Ayeisha Brinson, Colorado State University (Brinson, 2002). The purpose of this report is to provide the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) with additional finding related to sources of job satisfaction. Because this is a report of additional findings from a length study, the information in this report is condensed and represented without references from the original research. The literature review, methodology, and discussion from the original thesis are not presented in this report. Any questions concerning the thesis should be directed to Ayeisha Brinson, who may be reached by e-mail. The purpose of the report is to examine differences and similarities between National Wildlife Refuge managers and biologists on a selection of independent variable related to job satisfaction occupation status (being either a manager or a biologist): are managers more satisfied with their jobs than biologist? If so, what are the components of that satisfaction? What are the sources of dissatisfaction? a?|
Arias Garcia, Andrea; Chinea, J Danilo
Seed dispersal is a fundamental process in plant ecology and is of critical importance for the restoration of tropical communities. The lands of the Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR), formerly under agriculture, were abandoned in the 1970s and colonized mainly by non-native tree species of degraded pastures. Here we described the seed rain under the most common native and non-native trees in the refuge in an attempt to determine if focal tree geographic origin (native versus non-native) influences seed dispersal. For this, seed rain was sampled for one year under the canopies of four native and four non-native tree species common in this refuge using 40 seed traps. No significant differences were found for the abundance of seeds, or their diversity, dispersing under native versus non-native focal tree species, nor under the different tree species. A significantly different seed species composition was observed reaching native versus non-native focal species. However, this last result could be more easily explained as a function of distance of the closest adults of the two most abundantly dispersed plant species to the seed traps than as a function of the geographic origin of the focal species. We suggest to continue the practice of planting native tree species, not only as a way to restore the community to a condition similar to the original one, but also to reduce the distances needed for effective dispersal.
..., upland game hunting, big game hunting, and sport fishing for the 2011-2012 season. Inadvertently, this...-0038; 93270-1265-0000-4A] RIN 1018-AX54 2011-2012 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations... our regulations concerning hunting and sport fishing programs at national wildlife refuges...
Tangen, Brian A.; Gleason, Robert A.; Stamm, John F.
Many wetland impoundments managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) National Wildlife Refuge System throughout the northern Great Plains rely on rivers as a primary water source. A large number of these impoundments currently are being stressed from changes in water supplies and quality, and these problems are forecast to worsen because of projected changes to climate and land use. For example, many managed wetlands in arid regions have become degraded owing to the long-term accumulation of salts and increased salinity associated with evapotranspiration. A primary goal of the USFWS is to provide aquatic habitats for a diversity of waterbirds; thus, wetland managers would benefit from a tool that facilitates evaluation of wetland habitat quality in response to current and anticipated impacts of altered hydrology and salt balances caused by factors such as climate change, water availability, and management actions. A spreadsheet model that simulates the overall water and salinity balance (WSB model) of managed wetland impoundments is presented. The WSB model depicts various habitat metrics, such as water depth, salinity, and surface areas (inundated, dry), which can be used to evaluate alternative management actions under various water-availability and climate scenarios. The WSB model uses widely available spreadsheet software, is relatively simple to use, relies on widely available inputs, and is readily adaptable to specific locations. The WSB model was validated using data from three National Wildlife Refuges with direct and indirect connections to water resources associated with rivers, and common data limitations are highlighted. The WSB model also was used to conduct simulations based on hypothetical climate and management scenarios to demonstrate the utility of the model for evaluating alternative management strategies and climate futures. The WSB model worked well across a range of National Wildlife Refuges and could be a valuable tool for USFWS
Tavernia, Brian G.; Stanton, John D.; Lyons, James E.
Mattamuskeet National Wildlife Refuge (MNWR) offers a mix of open water, marsh, forest, and cropland habitats on 20,307 hectares in coastal North Carolina. In 1934, Federal legislation (Executive Order 6924) established MNWR to benefit wintering waterfowl and other migratory bird species. On an annual basis, the refuge staff decide how to manage 14 impoundments to benefit not only waterfowl during the nonbreeding season, but also shorebirds during fall and spring migration. In making these decisions, the challenge is to select a portfolio, or collection, of management actions for the impoundments that optimizes use by the three groups of birds while respecting budget constraints. In this study, a decision support tool was developed for these annual management decisions.Within the decision framework, there are three different management objectives: shorebird-use days during fall and spring migrations, and waterfowl-use days during the nonbreeding season. Sixteen potential management actions were identified for impoundments; each action represents a combination of hydroperiod and vegetation manipulation. Example hydroperiods include semi-permanent and seasonal drawdowns, and vegetation manipulations include mechanical-chemical treatment, burning, disking, and no action. Expert elicitation was used to build a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model that predicts shorebird- and waterfowl-use days for each potential management action. The BBN was parameterized for a representative impoundment, MI-9, and predictions were re-scaled for this impoundment to predict outcomes at other impoundments on the basis of size. Parameter estimates in the BBN model can be updated using observations from ongoing monitoring that is part of the Integrated Waterbird Management and Monitoring (IWMM) program.The optimal portfolio of management actions depends on the importance, that is, weights, assigned to the three objectives, as well as the budget. Five scenarios with a variety of objective
Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Stamm, John F.
Long-term accumulation of salts in wetlands at Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Mont., has raised concern among wetland managers that increasing salinity may threaten plant and invertebrate communities that provide important habitat and food resources for migratory waterfowl. Currently, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is evaluating various water management strategies to help maintain suitable ranges of salinity to sustain plant and invertebrate resources of importance to wildlife. To support this evaluation, the USFWS requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provide information on salinity ranges of water and soil for common plants and invertebrates on Bowdoin NWR lands. To address this need, we conducted a search of the literature on occurrences of plants and invertebrates in relation to salinity and pH of the water and soil. The compiled literature was used to (1) provide a general overview of salinity concepts, (2) document published tolerances and adaptations of biota to salinity, (3) develop databases that the USFWS can use to summarize the range of reported salinity values associated with plant and invertebrate taxa, and (4) perform database summaries that describe reported salinity ranges associated with plants and invertebrates at Bowdoin NWR. The purpose of this report is to synthesize information to facilitate a better understanding of the ecological relations between salinity and flora and fauna when developing wetland management strategies. A primary focus of this report is to provide information to help evaluate and address salinity issues at Bowdoin NWR; however, the accompanying databases, as well as concepts and information discussed, are applicable to other areas or refuges. The accompanying databases include salinity values reported for 411 plant taxa and 330 invertebrate taxa. The databases are available in Microsoft Excel version 2007 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5098/downloads/databases_21april2009.xls) and contain
... observation, wildlife photography, auto touring, birding, hiking, boating/canoeing, visitor center, special...: Visitors to national wildlife refuges. Respondent's Obligation: Required to obtain or retain a benefit...
Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josephine R.; Stromayer, Karl A.K.; Jordan, Brandon M.; Ennis, Mike J.; Woolington,Dennis W.
The project report describes a two year experiment to control wetland drainage to the San Joaquin River of California from the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge using a decision support system for real-time water quality management. This system required the installation and operation of one inlet and three drainage flow and water quality monitoring stations which allowed a simple mass balance model to be developed of the seasonally managed wetlands in the study area. Remote sensing methods were developed to document long-term trends in wetland moist soil vegetation and soil salinity in response to management options such as delaying the initiation of seasonal wetland drainage. These environmental management tools provide wetland managers with some of the tools necessary to improve salinity conditions in the San Joaquin River and improve compliance with State mandated salinity objectives without inflicting long-term harm on the wild fowl habitat resource.
Marcot, Bruce G.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; DeGange, Anthony R.
During July 16–18, 2013, low-level photography flights were conducted (with a Cessna 185 with floats and a Cessna 206 with tundra tires) over the five administrative units of the National Park Service Arctic Network (Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, Kobuk Valley National Park, and Noatak National Preserve) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Selawik National Wildlife Refuge in northwest Alaska, to provide images of current conditions and prevalence of land-cover types as a baseline for measuring future change, and to complement the existing grid-based sample photography of the region. Total flight time was 17 hours, 46 minutes, and total flight distance was 2,590 kilometers, at a mean altitude of about 300 meters above ground level. A total of 19,167 photographs were taken from five digital camera systems: 1. A Drift® HD-170 (focal length 5.00 mm);
A comparison of mercury burdens between St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge and St. Andrew Bay, Florida: Evaluation of fish body burdens and physiological responses in largemouth bass, spotted seatrout, striped mullet, and sunfish
Huge, D.H.; Rauschenberger, R.H.; Wieser, F.M.; Hemming, J.M.
Musculature from the dorsal region of 130 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), 140 sunfish (Lepomis sp.), 41 spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) and 67 striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) were collected from five estuarine and five freshwater sites within the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge and two estuarine and two freshwater sites from St. Andrew Bay, Florida, United States of America. Musculature was analyzed for total mercury content, sagittal otoliths were removed for age determination and physiological responses were measured. Largemouth bass and sunfish from the refuge had higher mercury concentrations in musculature than those from the bay. Male spotted seatrout, male striped mullet, male and female sunfish and female largemouth bass had mercury burdens positively correlated with length. The majority of all four species of fish from both study areas contained mercury levels below 1.5 part per million, the limit for safe consumption recommended the Florida Department of Health. In comparison, a significant percentage of largemouth bass and sunfish from several sampled sites, most notably Otter Lake and Lake Renfroe within St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, had mercury levels consistent with the health department's guidelines of 'limited consumption' or 'no consumption guidelines.'
Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Pinkney, A.E.; Guy, C.P.; Major, A.M.; Munney, K.; Mierzykowski, S.; Lingenfelser, S.; Secord, A.; Patnode, K.; Kubiak, T.J.; Stern, C.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Walsh, Heather L.; Sperry, Adam J.
Intersex as the manifestation of testicular oocytes (TO) in male gonochoristic fishes has been used as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Here we evaluated largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) form 19 National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. inhabiting waters on or near NWR lands for evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption. Waterbodies sampled included rivers, lakes, impoundments, ponds, and reservoirs. Here we focus on evidence of endocrine disruption in male bass evidenced by gonad histopathology including intersex or abnormal plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations. During the fall seasons of 2008–2010, we collected male smallmouth bass (n=118) from 12 sites and largemouth bass (n=173) from 27 sites. Intersex in male smallmouth bass was observed at all sites and ranged from 60% to 100%; in male largemouth bass the range was 0–100%. Estrogenicity, as measured using a bioluminescent yeast reporter, was detected above the probable no effects concentration (0.73 ng/L) in ambient water samples from 79% of the NWR sites. Additionally, the presence of androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor ligands were noted as measured via novel nuclear receptor translocation assays. Mean plasma Vtg was elevated (>0.2 mg/ml) in male smallmouth bass at four sites and in male largemouth bass at one site. This is the first reconnaissance survey of this scope conducted on US National Wildlife Refuges. The baseline data collected here provide a necessary benchmark for future monitoring and justify more comprehensive NWR-specific studies.
Iwanowicz, L R; Blazer, V S; Pinkney, A E; Guy, C P; Major, A M; Munney, K; Mierzykowski, S; Lingenfelser, S; Secord, A; Patnode, K; Kubiak, T J; Stern, C; Hahn, C M; Iwanowicz, D D; Walsh, H L; Sperry, A
Intersex as the manifestation of testicular oocytes (TO) in male gonochoristic fishes has been used as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Here we evaluated largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) form 19 National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. inhabiting waters on or near NWR lands for evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption. Waterbodies sampled included rivers, lakes, impoundments, ponds, and reservoirs. Here we focus on evidence of endocrine disruption in male bass evidenced by gonad histopathology including intersex or abnormal plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations. During the fall seasons of 2008-2010, we collected male smallmouth bass (n=118) from 12 sites and largemouth bass (n=173) from 27 sites. Intersex in male smallmouth bass was observed at all sites and ranged from 60% to 100%; in male largemouth bass the range was 0-100%. Estrogenicity, as measured using a bioluminescent yeast reporter, was detected above the probable no effects concentration (0.73ng/L) in ambient water samples from 79% of the NWR sites. Additionally, the presence of androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor ligands were noted as measured via novel nuclear receptor translocation assays. Mean plasma Vtg was elevated (>0.2mg/ml) in male smallmouth bass at four sites and in male largemouth bass at one site. This is the first reconnaissance survey of this scope conducted on US National Wildlife Refuges. The baseline data collected here provide a necessary benchmark for future monitoring and justify more comprehensive NWR-specific studies. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ganju, Neil K.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Brennand, Patrick; Derby, R. Kyle; Brooks, Thomas W.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Martini, Marinna A.; Borden, Jonathan; Baldwin, Sandra M.
Suspended-sediment transport is a critical element governing the geomorphology of tidal marshes. Marshes rely on both organic material and inorganic sediment deposition to maintain their elevation relative to sea level. In wetlands near the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Maryland, portions of the salt marsh have been subsiding relative to sea level since the early 20th century. Other portions of the marsh have been successful at maintaining elevation. The U.S. Geological Survey performed observational deployments to measure suspended-sediment concentration in the tidal channels in order to understand the magnitude of suspended-sediment concentrations, the sediment-transport mechanisms, and differences between two marsh areas, one that subsided and one that maintained elevation. We deployed optical turbidity sensors and acoustic velocity meters at multiple sites over two periods in 2011. This report presents the time-series of oceanographic data collected during those field studies, including velocity, depth, turbidity, salinity, water temperature, and pH.
Braunisch, Veronika; Patthey, Patrick; Arlettaz, Raphaël
10%, while there was a > 10% probability of human-wildlife encounters on 67% of the remaining area of suitable wintering habitat. Only 23% of the wintering habitat was thus free of anthropogenic disturbance. By identifying zones of potential conflict, while rating its relative intensity, our model provides a powerful tool to delineate and prioritize areas where wildlife winter refuges and visitor steering measures should be implemented.
... provide refuge managers with a 15-year plan for achieving refuge purposes and contributing toward the... photography, environmental education and interpretation. We intend to review and update the CCP at least every... for new research projects that would benefit Refuge resources and Refuge management. Alternative C...
.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carl Melberg, Planning Team Leader, (978) 443-4661 extension 32..., issues, concerns, ideas, and suggestions for the future management of Massasoit NWR. You may also send... comments, issues, concerns, ideas, and suggestions about refuge management. When we schedule formal comment...
Tangen, Brian A.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Gleason, Robert A.; Rabenberg, Michael J.; Dahl, Charles F.; Ell, Mike J.
ong Lake National Wildlife Refuge, located in south-central North Dakota, is an important habitat for numerous migratory birds and waterfowl, including several threatened or endangered species. The refuge is distinguished by Long Lake, which is approximately 65 square kilometers and consists of four primary water management units. Water levels in the Long Lake units are maintained by low-level dikes and water-control structures, which after construction during the 1930s increased the water-storage capacity of Long Lake and reduced the frequency and volume of flushing flows downstream. The altered water regime, along with the negative precipitation:evaporation ratio of the region, may be contributing to the accumulation of water-borne chemical constituents such as salts, trace metals, and other constituents, which at certain threshold concentrations may impair aquatic plant, invertebrate, and bird communities of the refuge. The refuge’s comprehensive conservation planning process identified the need for water-quality monitoring to assess current (2013) conditions, establish comparative baselines, evaluate changes over time (trends), and support adaptive management of the wetland units. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and North Dakota Department of Health began a water-quality monitoring program at Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge to address these needs. Biweekly water-quality samples were collected for ions, trace metals, and nutrients; and in situ sensors and data loggers were installed for the continuous measurement of specific conductance and water depth. Long Lake was characterized primarily by sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate ions. Overall results for total alkalinity and hardness were 580 and 329 milligrams per liter, respectively; thus, Long Lake is considered alkaline and classified as very hard. The mean pH and sodium adsorption ratio for Long Lake were 8.8 and 10, respectively. Total dissolved solids concentrations
... and new infestations of Russian olive. Larger infestations of invasive species such as crested... treated annually with an emphasis on preventing further encroachment of crested wheatgrass and Russian..., archery-only, big game hunt at Bowdoin Refuge. The refuge complex would serve as a conservation learning...
... wilderness, and accomplish refuge purposes in a way that preserves wilderness character. Our policies on... Forest, Palmyra Atoll, Pearl Harbor, Rose Atoll, and Wake Atoll. These refuges are located in Hawai'i... preserves wilderness character in accordance with (1) the Refuges' respective CCPs; (2) regulations on...
Clark, J.D.; Eastridge, R.; Hooker, M.J.
We live-trapped American black bears (Ursus americanus) and sampled DNA from hair at White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas, USA, to estimate annual population size (N), growth (λ), and density. We estimated N and λ with open population models, based on live-trapping data collected from 1998 through 2006, and robust design models for genotyped hair samples collected from 2004 through 2007. Population growth was weakly negative (i.e., 95% CI included 1.0) for males (0.901, 95% CI = 0.645–1.156) and strongly negative (i.e., 95% CI excluded 1.0) for females (0.846, 95% CI = 0.711–0.981), based on live-trapping data, with N from 1999 to 2006 ranging from 94.1 (95% CI = 70.3–137.1) to 45.2 (95% CI = 27.1–109.3), respectively, for males and from 151.4 (95% CI = 127.6–185.8) to 47.1 (95% CI = 24.4–140.4), respectively, for females. Likewise, mean annual λ based on hair-sampling data was weakly negative for males (0.742, 95% CI = 0.043–1.441) and strongly negative for females (0.782, 95% CI = 0.661–0.903), with abundance estimates from 2004 to 2007 ranging from 29.1 (95% CI = 21.2–65.8) to 11.9 (95% CI = 11.0–26.9), respectively, for males and from 54.4 (95% CI = 44.3–77.1) to 27.4 (95% CI = 24.9–36.6), respectively, for females. We attribute the decline in the number of females in this isolated population to a decrease in survival caused by a past translocation program and by hunting adjacent to the refuge. We suggest that managers restructure the quota-based harvest limits until these growth rates recover.
Scoppettone, G. Gary
The Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge staff focuses on improving habitat for the highest incidence of endemic species for an area of its size in the continental United States. Attempts are being made to restore habitat to some semblance of its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition, and to provide habitat conditions to which native plant and animal species have evolved. Unfortunately, restoring the Ash Meadows’ Oases to its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition is almost impossible. First, there are constraints on water manipulation because there are private holdings within the refuge boundary; second, there has been at least one species extinction—the Ash Meadows pool fish (Empetrichthys merriami). It is also quite possible that thermal endemic invertebrate species were lost before ever being described. Perhaps the primary obstacle to restoring Ash Meadows to its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed conditions is the presence of invasive species. However, invasive species, such as red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarki) and western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), are a primary driving force in restoring Ash Meadows’ spring systems, because under certain habitat conditions they can all but replace native species. Returning Ash Meadows’ physical landscape to some semblance of its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition through natural processes may take decades. Meanwhile, the natural dissolution of concrete and earthen irrigation channels threatens to allow cattail marshes to flourish instead of spring-brooks immediately downstream of spring discharge. This successional stage favors non-native crayfish and mosquitofish over the native Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis). Thus, restoration is needed to control non-natives and to promote native species, and without such intervention the probability of native fish reduction or loss, is anticipated. The four studies in this report are intended to provide information for restoring native fish habitat and
... alcoholic beverages while hunting on the refuge (see Sec. 32.2(j)). 15. We prohibit target practice or any... Wildlife Associated Recreation to identify expenditures for food and lodging, transportation, and other...
... established ``as a refuge and breeding grounds for birds,'' by Executive Order No. 7784 on December 31, 1937... opportunities for the future of the Refuge. In January 2003, we held seven open-house-style meetings at the...
David S Jachowski
Full Text Available Physiological stress responses allow individuals to adapt to changes in their status or surroundings, but chronic exposure to stressors could have detrimental effects. Increased stress hormone secretion leads to short-term escape behavior; however, no studies have assessed the potential of longer-term escape behavior, when individuals are in a chronic physiological state. Such refuge behavior is likely to take two forms, where an individual or population restricts its space use patterns spatially (spatial refuge hypothesis, or alters its use of space temporally (temporal refuge hypothesis. We tested the spatial and temporal refuge hypotheses by comparing space use patterns among three African elephant populations maintaining different fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM concentrations. In support of the spatial refuge hypothesis, the elephant population that maintained elevated FGM concentrations (iSimangaliso used 20% less of its reserve than did an elephant population with lower FGM concentrations (Pilanesberg in a reserve of similar size, and 43% less than elephants in the smaller Phinda reserve. We found mixed support for the temporal refuge hypothesis; home range sizes in the iSimangaliso population did not differ by day compared to nighttime, but elephants used areas within their home ranges differently between day and night. Elephants in all three reserves generally selected forest and woodland habitats over grasslands, but elephants in iSimangaliso selected exotic forest plantations over native habitat types. Our findings suggest that chronic stress is associated with restricted space use and altered habitat preferences that resemble a facultative refuge behavioral response. Elephants can maintain elevated FGM levels for ≥ 6 years following translocation, during which they exhibit refuge behavior that is likely a result of human disturbance and habitat conditions. Wildlife managers planning to translocate animals, or to initiate other
... evaluate and install interpretive signage at partner sites. A key refuge administration activity would be... satellite refuges. We would work with the partners to evaluate and install interpretive signage at partner... satellite refuges. We would work with the partners to evaluate and install interpretive signage at partner...
... INFORMATION CONTACT: Carl Melberg, Planning Team Leader, 978-443-4661, extension 32 (phone); northeastplanning... comments and considered and incorporated them in numerous ways. The CCP planning team consisted of Service... continue its passive management role and minimal presence on the refuge. The remote location of the refuge...
... inviolate sanctuary for migratory birds. This refuge is bisected throughout its length by the Bear River and... them in numerous ways. Comments we received cover topics such as invasive plant control on refuge lands... invasive and partnerships invasive plants aquatic species to control through throughout Bear invasive...
... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carl Melberg, Planning Team Leader, (978) 443-4661 extension 32 (phone) or..., ideas, and suggestions for the future management of Mashpee NWR. You may also send comments anytime..., issues, concerns, ideas, and suggestions about refuge management. When we schedule formal comment periods...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for artificial reefs, National Park Service properties, Wildlife Management Areas, National Wildlife Refuges, and...
Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Ganju, Neil K.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Borden, Jonathan; Martini, Marinna A.; Brosnahan, Sandra M.
Suspended-sediment transport is a critical element controlling the geomorphology of tidal wetland complexes. Wetlands rely on organic material and inorganic sediment deposition to maintain their elevation relative to sea level. The U.S. Geological Survey performed observational deployments to measure suspended-sediment concentration and water flow rates in the tidal channels of the wetlands in the Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge in Wells, Maine. The objective was to characterize the sediment-transport mechanisms that contribute to the net sediment budget of the wetland complex. We deployed a meteorological tower, optical turbidity sensors, and acoustic velocity meters at sites on Stephens Brook and the Ogunquit River between March 27 and December 9, 2013. This report presents the time-series oceanographic and atmospheric data collected during those field studies. The oceanographic parameters include water velocity, depth, turbidity, salinity, temperature, and pH. The atmospheric parameters include wind direction, speed, and gust; air temperature; air pressure; relative humidity; short wave radiation; and photosynthetically active radiation.
Carter, Jacoby; Merino, Sergio
This report provides an overview of the pilot study and description of the techniques developed for a future mitigation study of Pomacea maculata (giant applesnail) at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Mandalay National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana (MNWR). Egg mass suppression is a potential strategy for the mitigation of the invasive giant applesnail. In previous studies at Langan Municipal Park in Mobile, Alabama (LMP), and National Park Service Jean Lafitte National Park-Barataria Unit, Louisiana (JLNP), we determined that spraying food-grade oil (coconut oil or Pam™ spray) on egg masses significantly reduced egg hatching. At JLNP we also developed methods to estimate snail population size. The purpose of this pilot study was to adapt techniques developed for previous studies to the circumstances of MNWR in preparation for a larger experiment whereby we will test the effectiveness of egg mass suppression as an applesnail mitigation tool. We selected four canals that will be used as treatment and control sites for the experiment (two each). We established that an efficient way to destroy egg masses is to knock them down with a high-velocity stream of water pumped directly from the canal. The traps used at JLNP had to be modified to accommodate the greater range of water-level fluctuation at MNWR. One of the three marking methods used at JLNP was selected for use at MNWR.
...; environmental education and interpretation; research studies and scientific collection; special events that advance outdoor recreation or conservation; commercial guided services for wildlife observation... hunting, fishing, wildlife observation, wildlife photography, and environmental education and...
... disturbances to restore the biological integrity, diversity, and ecological health of the refuge. All grassland... construct two new trails, and after shrubland and grassland habitats transition to forest, we would open up...
Wockner, Gary; Boone, Randall; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.
Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and the neighboring Baca National Wildlife Refuge constitute an extraordinary setting that offers a variety of opportunities for outdoor recreation and natural resource preservation in the San Luis Valley of Colorado. Adjacent to these federal lands, the Nature Conservancy (TNC) manages the historic Medano Ranch. The total land area of these three conservation properties is roughly 121,500 hectares (ha). It is a remote and rugged area in which resource managers must balance the protection of natural resources with recreation and neighboring land uses. The management of wild ungulates in this setting presents challenges, as wild ungulates move freely across public and private landscapes.
facility will treat raw sewage discharges from Tijuana into the Tijuana River. These discharges have severely affected a National Wildlife Refuge and...partnership among government, academic, and private sector scientists to develop new medica - tions for the treatment of drug addiction. The 1992 proposal
Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Eichhorst, B.A.; Warburton, D.
Exceptionally high cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) concentrations were reported in eggs, feathers, or livers of selected waterbird species nesting at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (Agassiz) in 1994. Ten- to 15-day-old Franklin's gull (Larus pipixcan), black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), and eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) chicks were collected in 1998, 1999, and 2001 at Agassiz and analyzed for selenium (Se) and metals including Cd and Cr. Freshly laid eggs were collected in 2001 from Franklin's gull, black-crowned night-heron, eared grebe, and pied-billed grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) nests at Agassiz. Based on a multivariate analysis, the pattern of Se and metal concentrations differed among species for eggs, chick feathers, and chick livers. Low Cd and Cr concentrations were measured in eggs, chick livers, and chick feathers of all four species. Mercury concentrations in black-crowned night-heron and eared grebe eggs collected from Agassiz in 2001 were lower than concentrations reported in 1994. Se and metal concentrations, including Cd and Cr, in waterbird eggs and chicks collected at Agassiz in 1998, 1999, and 2001 were not at toxic levels. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
... Natural Landmark. The refuge was established ``* * * for use as an inviolate sanctuary, or for any other..., over 600 plant, 224 bird, 38 mammal, 23 reptile, 38 fish, and 19 amphibian species have been identified...
Engelbrecht, J.; Kavouras, I.; Campbell, D.; Campbell, S.; Kohl, S.; Shafer, D.
The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program
Ryberg, Karen R.; Hiemenz, Gregory
The Bureau of Reclamation collected water-quality samples at 16 sites on the James River and the Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge, N. Dak., as part of its refuge-monitoring program from 1987-93 and as part of an environmental impact statement commitment from 1999-2004. Climatic and hydrologic conditions varied greatly during both sampling periods. The first period was dominated by drought conditions, which abruptly changed to cooler and wetter conditions in 1992-93. During the second period, conditions were near normal to very wet and included higher inflow from the James River into the refuge. The two periods also differed in the sites sampled, seasons sampled, and properties and constituent concentrations measured. Summary statistics were reported separately for the two sampling periods for all physical properties and constituents. Nonparametric statistical tests were used to further analyze some of the water-quality data. During the first sampling period, 1987-93, specific conductance, turbidity, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, nonvolatile suspended solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate, chloride, phosphate, total phosphorus, total organic carbon, chlorophyll a, and arsenic were determined to have significantly different medians among the sites tested. During the second sampling period, 1999-2004, the medians of pH, sodium, chloride, barium, and boron varied significantly among sites. Sites sampled and period of record varied between the two sampling periods and the period of record varied among the sites. Also, some constituents analyzed during the first period (1987-93) were not analyzed during the second period (1999-2004), and winter sampling was done during the second sampling period only. This variability reduces the number of direct comparisons that can be made between the two periods. Three sites had complete periods of record for both sampling periods and were compared. Differences in variability
... wildlife, plant, and habitat conservation, while providing for wildlife-dependent recreation opportunities... established as a 32,766-acre sanctuary and breeding ground for birds and other wildlife in 1930 (Executive... Migratory Bird Conservation Act (16 U.S.C. 715d), ``for use as an inviolate sanctuary, or for any other...
... hold open house-style meetings during the comment period to receive comments and provide information on... regime would better emulate natural seasonal and long-term variability. More diverse, sustainable.... More diverse, sustainable vegetation patterns would be restored on Refuge wetlands and prairies. A...
Breton National Wildlife Refuge, the Chandeleur Islands chain in Louisiana, provides habitat and nesting areas for wildlife and is an initial barrier protecting New Orleans from storms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the University of New Orleans Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences undertook an intensive study that included (1) an analysis of island change based on historical maps and remotely sensed shoreline and topographic data; (2) a series of lidar surveys at 3- to 4-month intervals after Hurricane Katrina to determine barrier island recovery potential; (3) a discussion of sea level rise and effects on the islands; (4) an analysis of sea floor evolution and sediment dynamics in the refuge over the past 150 years; (5) an assessment of the local sediment transport and sediment resource availability based on the bathymetric and subbottom data; (6) a carefully selected core collection effort to groundtruth the geophysical data and more fully characterize the sediments composing the islands and surrounds; (7) an additional survey of the St. Bernard Shoals to assess their potential as a sand resource; and (8) a modeling study to numerically simulate the potential response of the islands to the low-intensity, intermediate, and extreme events likely to affect the refuge over the next 50 years. Results indicate that the islands have become fragmented and greatly diminished in subaerial extent over time: the southern islands retreating landward as they reorganize into subaerial features, the northern islands remaining in place. Breton Island, because maintenance of the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) outer bar channel requires dredging, is deprived of sand sufficient to sustain itself. Regional sediment transport trends indicate that large storms are extremely effective in transporting sand and controlling the shoreline development and barrier island geometry. Sand is transported north and south from a divergent zone near
... expand the knowledge base and assist in developing cooperation between interest groups. Restoration of... high-quality of life. Monitoring environmental parameters and flora and fauna will be incorporated into an integrated study to gain knowledge on the health of the refuge ecosystem. Education and outreach...
... County, Oregon. The refuge was established in 1991 with the acquisition of a 384-acre dairy farm, and has... pastures at Nestucca Bay NWR to tidal marsh, and what effect would this have on the refuge's ability to...
Hess, Steven C.; Leopold, Christina R.; Kendall, Steven J.
The Hakalau Forest Unit of the Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex has intensively managed feral pigs (Sus scrofa) and monitored feral pig presence with surveys of all managed areas since 1988. Results of all available data regarding pig management activities through 2004 were compiled and analyzed, but no further analyses had been conducted since then. The objective of this report was to analyze recent feral ungulate surveys at the Hakalau Forest Unit to determine current pig abundance and distribution. Activity indices for feral pigs, consisting of the presence of fresh or intermediate sign at 422 stations, each with approximately 20 sample plots, were compiled for years 2010–2013. A calibrated model based on the number of pigs removed from one management unit and concurrent activity surveys was applied to estimate pig abundance in other management units. Although point estimates appeared to decrease from 489.1 (±105.6) in 2010 to 407.6 (±88.0) in 2013, 95% confidence intervals overlapped, indicating no significant change in pig abundance within all management units. Nonetheless, there were significant declines in pig abundance over the four-year period within management units 1, 6, and 7. Areas where pig abundance remained high include the southern portion of Unit 2. Results of these surveys will be useful for directing management actions towards specific management units.
Lehr, M.A.; Botzler, R.G.; Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.
We studied patterns in avian cholera mortality, the presence of Pasteurella multocida in the water or sediment, and water chemistry characteristics in 10 wetlands at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex (California, USA), an area of recurrent avian cholera epizootics, during the winters of 1997 and 1998. Avian cholera outbreaks (a?Y50 dead birds) occurred on two wetlands during the winter of 1997, but no P. multocida were recovered from 390 water and 390 sediment samples from any of the 10 wetlands. No mortality events were observed on study wetlands during the winter of 1998; however, P. multocida was recovered from water and sediment samples in six of the 10 study wetlands. The pH levels were higher for wetlands experiencing outbreaks during the winter of 1997 than for nonoutbreak wetlands, and aluminum concentrations were higher in wetlands from which P. multocida were recovered during the winter of 1998. Water chemistry parameters (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and dissolved protein) previously linked with P. multocida and avian cholera mortality were not associated with the occurrence of avian cholera outbreaks or the presence of P. multocida in our study wetlands. Overall, we found no evidence to support the hypothesis that wetland characteristics facilitate the presence of P. multocida and, thereby, allow some wetlands to serve as long-term sources (reservoirs) for P. multocida.
Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas of the Milk River basin, northeastern Montana, 1986-87
Lambing, J.H.; Jones, W.E.; Sutphin, J.W.
Concentrations of trace elements, radiochemicals, and pesticides in the Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge lakes generally were not substantially larger than those in the water supplied from Dodson South Canal or in irrigation drainage. Concentrations of arsenic (47 micrograms/L), uranium (43 microg/L), and vanadium (51 microg/L) in Dry Lake Unit, and boron (1,000 microg/L) in Lake Bowdoin were notably larger than at other sites. Zinc concentrations in an irrigation drain (56 microg/L) and two shallow domestic wells (40 and 47 microg/L) were elevated relative to other sites. Concentrations of gross alpha radiation (64 picocuries/L) and gross beta radiation (71 picocuries/L) were elevated in Dry Lake Unit. Pesticides concentrations at all sites were 0.08 microg/L or less. Water use guidelines concentrations for boron, cadmium, uranium, zinc, and gross alpha radiation were slightly exceeded at several sites. In general, trace-constituent concentrations measured in the water do not indicate any potential toxicity problems in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge; however, highwater conditions in 1986 probably caused dilution of dissolved constituents compared to recent dry years. Trace element concentrations in bottom sediments of the refuge lakes were generally similar to background concentrations in the soils. The only exception was Dry Lake Unit, which had concentrations of chromium (99 micrograms/g), copper (37 microg/g), nickel (37 microg/g), vanadium (160 microg/g), and zinc (120 microg/g) that were about double the mean background concentrations. The maximum selenium concentration in bottom sediment was 0.6 microg/g. Pesticide concentrations in bottom sediments were less than analytical detection limits at all sites. With few exceptions, concentrations of trace elements and pesticides in biota generally were less than values known to produce harmful effects on growth or reproduction. (Lantz-PTT)
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What do I need to know about using cabins and related structures on Alaska National Wildlife Refuges? 36.33 Section 36.33 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE...
... white-tailed deer also benefits a large variety of wintering birds; a small herd of Roosevelt elk; river... recommendation. Refuge staff would also work with partners to ensure dredge-spoil islands provide benefits for... a bicycle and hiking trail, opening Crims and Price Islands to waterfowl hunting, closing a small...
William R. Radke
Many conservation strategies have been developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in cooperation with others to protect habitat and enhance the recovery of fish and wildlife populations in the San Bernardino Valley, which straddles Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico. Habitats along this international border have been impacted by illegal activities,...
Nilsen, Frances M.; Dorsey, Jonathan E.; Long, Stephen E.; Schock, Tracey B.; Bowden, John A.; Lowers, Russell H.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.
Seasonal variation of mercury (Hg) is not well studied in free-ranging wildlife. Atmospheric deposition patterns of Hg have been studied in detail and have been modeled for both global and specific locations with great accuracy and correlates to environment impact. However, monitoring these trends in wildlife is complicated due to local environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, humidity, pH, bacterial composition) that can affect the transformation of atmospheric Hg to the biologically available forms. Here, we utilized an abundant and healthy population of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR), FL, and assessed Hg burden in whole blood samples over a span of 7 years (2007 2014; n 174) in an effort to assess seasonal variation of total [Hg]. While the majority of this population is assumed healthy, 18 individuals with low body mass indices (BMI, defined in this study) were captured throughout the 7 year sampling period. These individual alligators exhibited [Hg] that were not consistent with the observed overall seasonal [Hg] variation, and were statistically different from the healthy population of alligators. The alligators with low BMI had elevated concentrations of Hg compared to their age/sex/season matched counterparts with normal BMI. Statistically significant differences were found between the winter and spring seasons for animals with normal BMI. The data in this report supports the conclusion that organismal total [Hg] do fluctuate directly with seasonal deposition rates as well as other seasonal environmental parameters, such as average rainfall and prevailing wind direction. This study highlights the unique environment of MINWR to permit annual assessment of apex predators, such as the American alligator, to determine detailed environmental impact of contaminants of concern.
... shape the almost 80 acres of mature upland forest to maintain the cultural legacy, encourage natural... Canada warbler and wood thrush). Natural processes would also shape the fens, vernal pools, and other... and riparian corridor along the approximately 1,750 feet of Beech Brook on the refuge for species...
Department of the Interior — A new fishing plan has been prepared to update the refuge’s public fishing program and to provide a legal framework for refuge fishing. This plan is combined with an...
Daniel J. Twedt; Scott G. Somershoe
To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after...
... articles, internet postings, and other media announcements to inform people of opportunities for input... of the message. Fax: Attention: Refuge Manager, 712-388-4808. U.S. Mail: Attention: Refuge Manager...
Slone, Daniel H.; Butler, Susan M.; Reid, James P.
Kings Bay, Florida, is one of the most important natural winter habitat locations for the federally threatened Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee). Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1983 specifically to provide protection for manatees and their critical habitat. To aid managers at the refuge and other agencies with this task, spatial analyses of local habitat use locations and travel corridors of manatees in Kings Bay during manatee season (November 15–March 31) are presented based on Global Positioning System telemetry of 41 manatees over a 12-year timespan (2006−18). Local habitat use areas and travel corridors differed spatially when Gulf of Mexico water temperatures were cold (less than or equal to 17 degrees Celsius) versus when they were warm (greater than 17 degrees Celsius). During times of cold water, manatees were found in higher concentrations in the main springs and canals throughout the eastern side of the bay, whereas when waters were warm, they were found more generally throughout the bay and into Crystal River, except for the central open part of the bay and the southwest corner.
...-time staff of five employees and various summer temporaries manage and study the refuge habitats and... majority of fishing occurring on Red Rock. In addition, the refuge is open to limited hunting of ducks..., conducting numerous studies to determine the effects and best methods of restoration, including any effects...
... Federal Recreational Lands Pass programs. The Refuge honors and offers for purchase passes associated with... listed, we encourage you to contact the Refuge and inquire about pass acceptance prior to your visit. 1... purposes. Authorities and Requirements of the REA In December 2004, the REA became law. The REA provides...
Sah, Pratha; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; Aiello, Christina M.; Hudson, Peter J.; Bansal, Shweta
For several species, refuges (such as burrows, dens, roosts, nests) are an essential resource for protection from predators and extreme environmental conditions. Refuges also serve as focal sites for social interactions, including mating, courtship, and aggression. Knowledge of refuge use patterns can therefore provide information about social structure, mating, and foraging success, as well as the robustness and health of wildlife populations, especially for species considered to be relatively solitary. In this study, we construct networks of burrow use to infer social associations in a threatened wildlife species typically considered solitary—the desert tortoise. We show that tortoise social networks are significantly different than null networks of random associations, and have moderate spatial constraints. We next use statistical models to identify major mechanisms behind individual-level variation in tortoise burrow use, popularity of burrows in desert tortoise habitat, and test for stressor-driven changes in refuge use patterns. We show that seasonal variation has a strong impact on tortoise burrow switching behavior. On the other hand, burrow age and topographical condition influence the number of tortoises visiting a burrow in desert tortoise habitat. Of three major population stressors affecting this species (translocation, drought, disease), translocation alters tortoise burrow switching behavior, with translocated animals visiting fewer unique burrows than residents. In a species that is not social, our study highlights the importance of leveraging refuge use behavior to study the presence of and mechanisms behind non-random social structure and individual-level variation. Our analysis of the impact of stressors on refuge-based social structure further emphasizes the potential of this method to detect environmental or anthropogenic disturbances.
Slone, Daniel H.; Butler, Susan M.; Reid, James P.; Haase, Catherine G.
Managers at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR) desire to update their management plan regarding the operation of select springs including Three Sisters Springs. They wish to refine existing parameters used to predict the presence of federally threatened Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee) in the springs and thereby improve their manatee management options. The U.S. Geological Survey Sirenia Project has been tracking manatees in the CRNWR area since 2006 with floating Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite-monitored telemetry tags. Analyzing movements of these tagged manatees will provide valuable insight into their habitat use patterns.A total of 136 GPS telemetry bouts were available for this project, representing 730,009 locations generated from 40 manatees tagged in the Gulf of Mexico north of Tampa, Florida. Dates from October through March were included to correspond to the times that cold ambient temperatures were expected, thus requiring a need for manatee thermoregulation and a physiologic need for warm water. Water level (tide) and water temperatures were obtained for the study from Salt River, Crystal River mouth, Bagley Cove, Kings Bay mouth, and Magnolia Spring. Polygons were drawn to subdivide the manatee locations into areas around the most-used springs (Three Sisters/Idiots Delight, House/Hunter/Jurassic, Magnolia and King), Kings Bay, Crystal/Salt Rivers and the Gulf of Mexico.Manatees were found in the Crystal or Salt Rivers or in the Gulf of Mexico when ambient temperatures were warmer (>20 °C), while they were found in or near the springs (especially Three Sisters Springs) at colder ambient water temperatures. There was a trend of manatees entering springs early in the morning and leaving in the afternoon. There was a strong association of manatee movements in and out of the Three Sisters/Idiots Delight polygon with tide cycles: manatees were more likely to enter the Three Sisters
Department of the Interior — The Refuge completed a Chronic Wasting Disease Surveillance and Management Plan (CWD Plan) in 2005. The goals of the Refuge’s CWD Plan are to: 1) minimize the impact...
... goals, objectives, and strategies that will ensure the best possible approach to wildlife, plant, and...-acre sanctuary and breeding ground for birds and other wildlife in 1930 (Executive Order 5498... Conservation Act (16 U.S.C. 715d), ``for use as an inviolate sanctuary, or for any other management propose...
Sando, Steven K.; Morgan, Timothy J.; Dutton, DeAnn M.; McCarthy, Peter M.
Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge (CMR) encompasses about 1.1 million acres (including Fort Peck Reservoir on the Missouri River) in northeastern Montana. To ensure that sufficient streamflow remains in the tributary streams to maintain the riparian corridors, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is negotiating water-rights issues with the Reserved Water Rights Compact Commission of Montana. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, conducted a study to gage, for a short period, selected streams that cross CMR, and analyze data to estimate long-term streamflow characteristics for CMR. The long-term streamflow characteristics of primary interest include the monthly and annual 90-, 80-, 50-, and 20-percent exceedance streamflows and mean streamflows (Q.90, Q.80, Q.50, Q.20, and QM, respectively), and the 1.5-, 2-, and 2.33- year peak flows (PK1.5, PK2, and PK2.33, respectively). The Regional Adjustment Relationship (RAR) was investigated for estimating the monthly and annual Q.90, Q.80, Q.50, Q.20, and QM, and the PK1.5, PK2, and PK2.33 for the short-term CMR gaging stations (hereinafter referred to as CMR stations). The RAR was determined to provide acceptable results for estimating the long-term Q.90, Q.80, Q.50, Q.20, and QM on a monthly basis for the months of March through June, and also on an annual basis. For the months of September through January, the RAR regression equations did not provide acceptable results for any long-term streamflow characteristic. For the month of February, the RAR regression equations provided acceptable results for the long-term Q.50 and QM, but poor results for the long-term Q.90, Q.80, and Q.20. For the months of July and August, the RAR provided acceptable results for the long-term Q.50, Q.20, and QM, but poor results for the long-term Q.90 and Q.80. Estimation coefficients were developed for estimating the long-term streamflow characteristics for which the RAR did not provide
... efforts focus on protecting, enhancing, and restoring Refuge habitats and water management for the benefit... miles of facilities; any addition of over 5 hiking trails, an 8- additional staff and miles of hiking...
... management activities, and we will reduce the Refuge's carbon footprint. Invasive species will be monitored...: Download the CCP and FONSI at http://www.fws.gov/pacific/planning/main/docs/wa/docsdungeness.htm . Email...
Meyers, J. Michael; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Smith, Thomas J.; Pednault-Willett, Kendra
• On 13 August 2004, the first of four hurricanes to strike Florida in Key waterbird nesting areas had >50% and sometimes 90% of their vegetation severely damaged (dead, broken tree stems, and tipped trees). The Shell Mound Trail area of JNDDNWR sustained catastrophic damage to its old growth mangrove forests. Direct storm mortality and injury to manatees in the area of the JNDDNWR Complex was probably slight as manatees may have several strategies to reduce storm mortality. Damage to seagrass beds, an important habitat for manatees, fishes and invertebrates, is believed to be limited to the breach at North Captiva Island. At this breach, refuge staff documented inundation of beds by sand and scarring by trees dragged by winds. • Because seagrass beads and manatee habitat extend beyond refuge boundaries (see p. 28), a regional approach with partner agencies to more thoroughly assess storm impacts and monitor recovery of seagrass and manatees is recommended. • Besides intensive monitoring of waterbirds and their nesting habitat (pre- and post-storm), the survey team recommends that the Mangrove Cuckoo be used as an indicator species for recovery of mangrove forests and also for monitoring songbirds at risk (this songbird is habitat-area sensitive). Black-whiskered Vireo may be another potential indicator species to monitor in mangrove forests. Monitoring for these species can be done by distance sampling on transects or by species presenceabsence from point counts. • Damaged vegetation should be monitored for recovery (permanent or long-term plots), especially where previous study plots have been established and with additional plots in mangrove forests of waterbird nesting islands and freshwater wetlands. • Potential loss of wetlands (and information for management) may be prevented by water level monitoring (3 permanent stations), locating the positions (GPS-GIS) and maintaining existing water control structures, creating a GIS map of the refuge with
McCabe, Thomas R. (USFWS, Alaska Fish and Wildlife Research Center, Fairbanks, AK (United States))
The National Wildlife Refuge system of the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is predicated on the principle of conserving and perpetuating the natural diversity and abundance of wildlife and wildlands. The prospect of petroleum development on the 1002 area of the 10,000 km[sup 2] pristine coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) has been a contentious national issue. The FWS assessed the habitat and its constituent wildlife species to determine potential impacts from this development. As part of the assessment effort, research was conducted on the 163,000 member porcupine caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herd, its primary predator at calving, brown bear (Ursus arctos), and the vegetation communities on the coastal plain. We found the traditional calving area within the 1002 area had significantly greater forage species availability and nutrient quality than areas peripheral to the 1002 area. Increased post-perinatal, predator-related mortality has been associated with the foothills and mountains adjacent to the 1002 area. Displacement of the calving caribou from the 1002 area would mean a lesser abundance of high quality forage for calving cows, and calves would be subjected to a potentially higher predation risk. These factors could have a negative impact on the population dynamics of the Porcupine herd. If petroleum development were authorized on the 1002 area of ANWR, the challenge for the FWS will be to assure that the dynamics of the tundra ecosystem are adequately understood and to conserve the abundance and diversity of natural wildlife populations and their habitat
McCabe, Thomas R.
The National Wildlife Refuge system of the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is predicated on the principle of conserving and perpetuating the natural diversity and abundance of wildlife and wildlands. The prospect of petroleum development on the 1002 area of the 10,000 km 2 pristine coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) has been a contentious national issue. The FWS assessed the habitat and its constituent wildlife species to determine potential impacts from this development. As part of the assessment effort, research was conducted on the 163,000 member porcupine caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herd, its primary predator at calving, brown bear (Ursus arctos), and the vegetation communities on the coastal plain. We found the traditional calving area within the 1002 area had significantly greater forage species availability and nutrient quality than areas peripheral to the 1002 area. Increased post-perinatal, predator-related mortality has been associated with the foothills and mountains adjacent to the 1002 area. Displacement of the calving caribou from the 1002 area would mean a lesser abundance of high quality forage for calving cows, and calves would be subjected to a potentially higher predation risk. These factors could have a negative impact on the population dynamics of the Porcupine herd. If petroleum development were authorized on the 1002 area of ANWR, the challenge for the FWS will be to assure that the dynamics of the tundra ecosystem are adequately understood and to conserve the abundance and diversity of natural wildlife populations and their habitat
... Refuge and Conservation Area in Polk, Osceola, Highlands, and Okeechobee Counties, Florida. The Service... south Florida, helping to protect and restore one of the great grassland and savanna landscapes of... Administration Act [16 U.S.C. 668dd(a)(2)], Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1534), Emergency Wetlands Resources...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Designated Critical Habitats, wildlife refuges, management areas, National Forests, National Parks, National Park...
Drexler, Judith Z.; Johnson, Heather E.; Duris, Joseph W.; Krauss, Ken W.
A soil core collected in a tidal freshwater marsh in the Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge (Georgetown, SC) exuded a particularly strong odor of cow manure upon extrusion. In order to test for manure and determine its provenance, we carried out microbial source tracking using DNA markers for Bacteroides, a noncoliform, anaerobic bacterial group that represents a broad group of the fecal population. Three core sections from 0-3 cm, 9-12 cm and 30-33 were analyzed for the presence of Bacteroides. The ages of core sediments were estimated using 210Pb and 137Cs dating. All three core sections tested positive for Bacteroides DNA markers related to cow or deer feces. Because cow manure is stockpiled, used as fertilizer, and a source of direct contamination in the Great Pee Dee River/Winyah Bay watershed, it is very likely the source of the Bacteroides that was deposited on the marsh. The mid-points of the core sections were dated as follows: 0-3 cm: 2009; 9-12 cm: 1999, and 30-33 cm: 1961. The presence of Bacteroides at different depths/ages in the soil profile indicates that soils in tidal freshwater marshes are, at the least, capable of being short-term sinks for Bacteroides and, may have the potential to be long-term sinks of stable, naturalized populations.
... guides and transporters to maintain big game hunting opportunities while reducing social conflict in the...] Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment, Selawik National Wildlife Refuge... period for the Revised Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment for Selawik National...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing management area data for Designated Critical Habitats, National Park Service properties, Wildlife Refuges, and...
Giffen, Neil R [ORNL; Evans, James W. [TWRA; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL
This document outlines a plan for management of the wildlife resources on the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation. Management includes wildlife population control through hunting, trapping, removal, and habitat manipulation; wildlife damage control; restoration of wildlife species; preservation, management, and enhancement of wildlife habitats; coordination of wildlife studies and characterization of areas; and law enforcement. Wildlife resources are divided into several categories, each with a specific set of objectives and procedures for attaining them. These objectives are management of (1) wildlife habitats to ensure that all resident wildlife species exist on the Reservation in viable numbers; (2) featured species to produce selected species in desired numbers on designated land units; (3) game species for research, education, recreation, and public safety; (4) the Three Bend Scenic and Wildlife Management Refuge Area; (5) nuisance wildlife, including nonnative species, to achieve adequate population control for the maintenance of health and safety on the Reservation; (6) sensitive species (i.e., state or federally listed as endangered, threatened, of special concern, or in need of management) through preservation and protection of both the species and habitats critical to the survival of those species; and (7) wildlife disease. Achievement of the objectives is a joint effort between the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory through agreements between TWRA and DOE and between DOE and UT-Battelle, LLC.
... for white-tailed deer opportunities through and feral hog hunts. and elk. signage, facilities, Manage... rock climbing, signage or educational rappelling, and kiosks, increased bouldering throughout visitor... signage.. Replace headquarters building, enlarge corrals, and move fence to true Refuge boundary.. Issue 6...
..., consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our... issues and relevant mandates; and is consistent with principles of sound fish and wildlife management... improved or expanded to accommodate more visitors. Current habitat management practices would continue...
... meadow. Wetlands would be managed to increase productivity and reduce water pumping costs. Invasive... changes in wetland management would improve the hunt program's quality over time. A new access point to... fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our policies. In addition to outlining...
... impact. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the availability of our final comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for the environmental..., no moist-soil impoundments and croplands, and no more road, beaver dam, or invasive species...
Department of the Interior — This evaluation report reviews the Refuge System’s twelve strategic outcome goals and provides an assessment as to how well the system is doing in accomplishing each...
Wildlife and habitat damage assessment from Hurricane Charley: recommendations for recovery of the J. N. "Ding" Darling National Wildlife Refuge Complex. [Final report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Meyers, J.M.; Langtimm, C.A.; Smith, T. J.; Pednault-Willett, K.
On 13 August 2004, the first of four hurricanes to strike Florida in 50% and sometimes 90% of their vegetation severely damaged (dead, broken tree stems, and tipped trees). Shell Mound Trail of JNDDNWR sustained catastrophic damage to its old growth mangrove forests. Direct storm mortality and injury to manatees in the area was probably slight. Because seagrass beads and manatee habitat extend beyond refuge boundaries, we recommended a regional approach with partner agencies to more thoroughly assess storm impacts and monitor recovery of seagrass and manatees. Besides intensive monitoring of waterbirds and their nesting habitat (pre- and post-storm), we recommend that the Mangrove Cuckoo be used as an indicator species for recovery of mangrove forests and also for monitoring songbirds at risk. Black-whiskered Vireo may be another potential indicator species to monitor in mangrove forests. Damaged vegetation should be monitored for recovery (permanent or long-term plots), especially where previous study plots have been established and with additional plots in mangrove forests of waterbird nesting islands and freshwater wetlands. Potential loss of wetlands may be prevented by water level monitoring, locating the positions (GPS-GIS) and maintaining existing water control structures, creating a GIS map of refuge with accurate vertical data, and monitoring and eradicating invasive plants. Invasive species, including Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) and air potato (Dioscorea bulbifora), were common in a very limited survey. As an important monitoring goal, we recommend that species presence-absence data analysis (with probability of detection) be used to determine changes in animal communities. This could be accomplished possibly with comparison to other storm-damaged and undamaged refuges in the Region. This information may be helpful to refuge managers when storms return in the future.
...-specific science, a variety of assessment and control tools may be used with the aid of partners to reduce... contact station and gift shop at Refuge Headquarters, and a seasonal contact station at the P Ranch Unit...
... that are closed to visitors year-round for the benefit of wildlife would remain the same. Public-use... observation, wildlife photography, hiking, boating (no wake allowed), jogging, horseback riding, beach use...
... the Refuge's staff at (503) 625-5944 during regular business hours to make an appointment..., and local agencies; elected officials; nongovernment organizations; businesses; learning institutions... herbicides to mimic natural disturbance cycles, limit plant succession, and suppress invasive plant species...
Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge’s 1996 annual water management program and describes plans for 1997. The main objective of...
... INFORMATION CONTACT: Tom Jasikoff, Refuge Manager, 315-568- 5987 (phone), or Lia McLaughlin, Planning Team Leader, 413-253-8575 (phone); [email protected] (email). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Introduction... (NYSDEC), and other partners for its role in the conservation of migratory birds, particularly waterfowl...
...; fishing; environmental education and interpretation; wildlife observation and photography; boating; camping (associated with big game hunts, scouts, and other youth organizations only); firewood cutting... game-management demonstration area'' to demonstrate that wildlife could be restored on worn out, eroded...
Buell, Gary R.; Gurley, Laura N.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Hunt, Alexandria M.
This report serves as metadata and a user guide for five out of six hydrologic and landscape databases developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, to describe data-collection, data-reduction, and data-analysis methods used to construct the databases and provides statistical and graphical descriptions of the databases. Six hydrologic and landscape databases were developed: (1) the Cache River and White River National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) and contributing watersheds in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, (2) the Cahaba River NWR and contributing watersheds in Alabama, (3) the Caloosahatchee and J.N. “Ding” Darling NWRs and contributing watersheds in Florida, (4) the Clarks River NWR and contributing watersheds in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi, (5) the Lower Suwannee NWR and contributing watersheds in Georgia and Florida, and (6) the Okefenokee NWR and contributing watersheds in Georgia and Florida. Each database is composed of a set of ASCII files, Microsoft Access files, and Microsoft Excel files. The databases were developed as an assessment and evaluation tool for use in examining NWR-specific hydrologic patterns and trends as related to water availability and water quality for NWR ecosystems, habitats, and target species. The databases include hydrologic time-series data, summary statistics on landscape and hydrologic time-series data, and hydroecological metrics that can be used to assess NWR hydrologic conditions and the availability of aquatic and riparian habitat. Landscape data that describe the NWR physiographic setting and the locations of hydrologic data-collection stations were compiled and mapped. Categories of landscape data include land cover, soil hydrologic characteristics, physiographic features, geographic and hydrographic boundaries, hydrographic features, and regional runoff estimates. The geographic extent of each database covers an area within which human activities, climatic
... on the importance of the habitat for wildlife, management, and access. Administrative plans would... . Alternatively, you may download the document from our Internet Site at http://southeast.fws.gov/planning under... fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our policies. In addition to outlining...
Wear, B.J.; Eastridge, R.; Clark, J.D.
We used radiotelemetry and population modeling techniques to examine factors related to population establishment of black bears (Ursus americanus) reintroduced to Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Arkansas. Our objectives were to determine whether settling (i.e., establishment of a home range at or near the release site), survival, recruitment, and population viability were related to age class of reintroduced bears, presence of cubs, time since release, or number of translocated animals. We removed 23 adult female black bears with 56 cubs from their winter dens at White River NWR and transported them 160 km to man-made den structures at Felsenthal NWR during spring 2000–2002. Total movement and average circuity of adult females decreased from 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year post-emergence (F2,14 =19.7, P bears was 0.624 (SE = 0.110, SEinterannual = 0.144), and the survival rate of their cubs was 0.750 (SE = 0.088, SEinterannual = 0.109). The homing rate (i.e., the proportion of bears that returned to White River NWR) was 13%. Annual survival for female bears that remained at the release site and survived >1-year post-release increased to 0.909 (SE = 0.097, SEinterannual=0.067; Z=3.5, P bear population at Felsenthal NWR is at or above the number after which extinction risk declines dramatically, although additional releases of bears could significantly decrease time to population reestablishment. Poaching accounted for at least 3 of the 8 adult mortalities that we documented; illegal kills could be a significant impediment to population re-establishment at Felsenthal NWR should poaching rates escalate.
... environmental safety concerns. education and interpretation presentations. Maintain interpretation on the auto... facilities that can remain open year round. Quality and Safety of Refuge Roadways Maintain current road Same... education and interpretation. We will review and update the CCP at least every 15 years in accordance with...
... emanating from the base of the Ruby Mountains provide life-sustaining water to the 39,926-acre refuge. The marsh is surrounded by 22,926 acres of meadows, grasslands, alkali playa, and shrub-steppe uplands...
... the threatened Steller's eider, threatened sea otter, threatened Steller sea lion, tundra swan, black... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R7-R-2012-N206; FXRS12650700000-134.... SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the availability of a final...
... the Service's Internet site: http://southeast.fws.gov/planning /. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms... occur based on available staffing, additional volunteers, and academic research. Wildlife-dependent.... ADDRESSES: Send comments, questions, and requests for information to: Ms. Raye Nilus, Project Leader, Cape...
Yu, Z.; Lerche, Ian
An integrated basin analysis was conducted using one- and two-dimensional quantitative dynamic models (1-D and 2-D) in the northern part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), Northeastern Alaska. Exploratory well data have been used in the reconstructions of: (1) geohistory including basement subsidence, sediment deposition, change of porosity and compaction, permeability, fluid pressure and fluid flow with time and depth; (2) thermal history including heat flux evolution with time, temperature change with time and depth, and thermal maturation history; and (3) hydrocarbon generation history including the change in the amount of hydrocarbons generated with time and depth, and determining the time and depth of peak hydrocarbon generation. 1-D and 2-D basin modeling codes were used with selected wells, and also with a 18 km section, west of ANWR, with five well controls. It is concluded that: (1) the main source rock west of ANWR area matured first about 40-30 Ma ago in the south and gradually to the north about 10-8 Ma ago on the coastal plain; (2) the modeled erosion thickness at Beli Unit-1 location, northeastern Brooks Range, was 1500-3000 m and at least 3000 m at Canning River Unit B-1; and (3) an overpressure zone within the Hue shale and the lowest part of the Canning Formation caused by rapid Tertiary deposition retained porosity, increased the temperature and speeded hydrocarbon generation in the lower part of the coastal plain.
... unless human life or property is involved. Since the purchase of the refuge, there has been minimal... continue to maintain and build relations with partners, volunteers, and the friends group as they relate to... opportunities to work with students through the Student Conservation Association and AmeriCorps programs. Even...
... Geological Survey developed a water budget model based on more than 30 years of data and selenium model based on research conducted by USGS and the University of Montana on the refuge. These models, coupled with a hydro geomorphic assessment, were used to develop and analyze the management alternatives and to...
Loges, Brian W.; Lyons, James E.; Tavernia, Brian G.
The Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge (CCNWR) in the Mississippi River flood plain of eastern Missouri provides high quality emergent marsh and moist-soil habitat benefitting both nesting marsh birds and migrating waterfowl. Staff of CCNWR manipulate water levels and vegetation in the 17 units of the CCNWR to provide conditions favorable to these two important guilds. Although both guilds include focal species at multiple planning levels and complement objectives to provide a diversity of wetland community types and water regimes, additional decision support is needed for choosing how much emergent marsh and moist-soil habitat should be provided through annual management actions.To develop decision guidance for balanced delivery of high-energy waterfowl habitat and breeding marsh bird habitat, two measureable management objectives were identified: nonbreeding Anas Linnaeus (dabbling duck) use-days and Rallus elegans (king rail) occupancy of managed units. Three different composite management actions were identified to achieve these objectives. Each composite management action is a unique combination of growing season water regime and soil disturbance. The three composite management actions are intense moist-soil management (moist-soil), intermediate moist-soil (intermediate), and perennial management, which idles soils disturbance (perennial). The two management objectives and three management options were used in a multi-criteria decision analysis to indicate resource allocations and inform annual decision making. Outcomes of the composite management actions were predicted in two ways and multi-criteria decision analysis was used with each set of predictions. First, outcomes were predicted using expert-elicitation techniques and a panel of subject matter experts. Second, empirical data from the Integrated Waterbird Management and Monitoring Initiative collected between 2010 and 2013 were used; where data were lacking, expert judgment was used. Also, a
... impact. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the availability of the Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Klamath Marsh... rails, Oregon spotted frogs, red-naped sapsuckers, pygmy nuthatches, bald eagles, beaver, and red band...
... cherished areas. In the decades to come, it should remain a place where wildlife populations, from roaming... cherished green spaces in our local communities, are truly a hallmark of our American identity. In...
... environmental education and interpretation. The Refuge engaged a diverse stakeholder base during the CCP process... opportunities for guided kayak and canoe tours on Malheur Lake. A stronger emphasis will be placed on modern... plants for traditional uses will expand. Monitoring and inventory of archaeological resources and...
... all three moist soil units into Brazoria NWR and refuges. farming rotation at eliminate farming at... partnerships and to moist soil units structures. purchase of water during drought rights; expand periods; and... release natural but diversify the (Fauna). hogs. Baiting and predators to control types of management...
... complete the removal of all invasive animal species. We will also develop and implement a plan for..., if necessary, efforts to remove invasive species. The number of vegetation plots and frequency of... safety of the refuge regarding the removal of unexploded ordnance. CCP Alternatives, Including Our...
... would strive to achieve a balanced program of wildlife-dependent recreational activities and protection... the majority of staff time and funds supporting a public use program, wildlife-dependent recreation...
... Bono Salton Sea NWR was established as a 32,766-acre sanctuary and breeding ground for birds and other... authorities of the Migratory Bird Conservation Act (16 U.S.C. 715d), ``for use as an inviolate sanctuary, or...) fish or wildlife which are listed as endangered species or threatened species or (B) plants.'' The 3...
Michael Van Hulle
Full Text Available The effect of human development on six diurnal mammal species was studied using transects in the Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas, Costa Rica during the dry season months of March and April 2006. Individuals/km was recorded for each species in more developed (MD (near paved roads, buildings, construction, or deforested trees and less developed areas (LD (secondary forest. The white-faced apuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus (n = 233, coatimundi (Nasua narica (n = 46, and Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi (n = 36 demonstrated a preference for less-developed habitats. The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus (n = 4, tamandua (Tamandua mexicana (n = 2 and variegated squirrel (Sciurus variegatoides (n = 5 were observed infrequently. White-faced monkeys avoided construction areas, but received artificial food daily in developed areas. Coatimundis also received artificial foods daily and showed aggression towards guests. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 441-449. Epub 2009 June 30.Se estudiaron seis especies de mamíferos mediante transectos durante la estación seca tardía (marzo y abril de 1996 en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre de Punta Leona, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Se registró la cantidad de animales por km en lugares con mucho efecto humano (cerca del caminos pavimentados, edificios, construcción, y deforestación y lugares con menos efecto. El mono carablanca (Cebus capucinus (n = 233, el pizote (Nasua narica (n = 46, y el mono araña centroamericano (Ateles geoffroyi (n = 36 prefirieron lugares con menos efecto. Se observó pocos armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus (n = 4, osos hormigueros (Tamandua mexicana (n = 2, y ardillas (Sciurus variegatoides (n = 5. Los monos carablancas y pizotes aceptan alimentos artificiales y los pizotes fueron agresivos con los turistas. Los carablancas evitan los lugares con construcciones y los caminos pavimentados.
... goals and objectives that will ensure the best possible approach to wildlife, plant, and habitat..., as ``preserves and breeding grounds for native birds'' and ``for use as an inviolate sanctuary, or... a variety of wildlife and plant species. Aquatic habitats and open water serve as resting and...
... island history and ecosystem as they relate to the coastal environment, and management style..., totaling 1,625 acres in six counties. The 12,490-acre refuge boundary includes two islands--St. Vincent (12... objectives will continue as long as we have sufficient staff to support the program. In addition to the...
Susannah B. Lerman; Nancy F. Sonti
Urban wildlife contributes to the vibrancy of our cities, adds value to the places we live and allows urban residents to connect with nature without driving hours to a protected reserve. Land and water conservation projects have the potential to serve as a refuge for species impacted by urbanization, and in so doing, strengthening the connection between the growing...
Xie, Zhixiao; Liu, Zhongwei; Jones, John W.; Higer, Aaron L.; Telis, Pamela A.
The hydrologic regime is a critical limiting factor in the delicate ecosystem of the greater Everglades freshwater wetlands in south Florida that has been severely altered by management activities in the past several decades. "Getting the water right" is regarded as the key to successful restoration of this unique wetland ecosystem. An essential component to represent and model its hydrologic regime, specifically water depth, is an accurate ground Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) supplies important hydrologic data, and its products (including a ground DEM) have been well received by scientists and resource managers involved in Everglades restoration. This study improves the EDEN DEMs of the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, also known as Water Conservation Area 1 (WCA1), by adopting a landscape unit (LU) based interpolation approach. The study first filtered the input elevation data based on newly available vegetation data, and then created a separate geostatistical model (universal kriging) for each LU. The resultant DEMs have encouraging cross-validation and validation results, especially since the validation is based on an independent elevation dataset (derived by subtracting water depth measurements from EDEN water surface elevations). The DEM product of this study will directly benefit hydrologic and ecological studies as well as restoration efforts. The study will also be valuable for a broad range of wetland studies.
... mandated activities for protection of federally listed species. Control of nuisance wildlife populations... and gun, with the exception of a small tract adjacent to the Levee Trail. Turkeys, rabbits, squirrels... aggressive control measures initiated. Habitat management would include converting 125 acres from...
... impact. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the availability of our final comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for the environmental..., including upland mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland hardwood, and tupelo gum swamp forests. Creeks, beaver...
Bender, L.C.; Weisenberger, M.E.
Understanding the determinants of population size and performance for desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) is critical to develop effective recovery and management strategies. In arid environments, plant communities and consequently herbivore populations are strongly dependent upon precipitation, which is highly variable seasonally and annually. We conducted a retrospective exploratory analysis of desert bighorn sheep population dynamics on San Andres National Wildlife Refuge (SANWR), New Mexico, 1941-1976, by modeling sheep population size as a function of previous population sizes and precipitation. Population size and trend of desert bighorn were best and well described (R 2=0.89) by a model that included only total annual precipitation as a covariate. Models incorporating density-dependence, delayed density-dependence, and combinations of density and precipitation were less informative than the model containing precipitation alone (??AlCc=8.5-22.5). Lamb:female ratios were positively related to precipitation (current year: F1,34=7.09, P=0.012; previous year: F1,33=3.37, P=0.075) but were unrelated to population size (current year. F1,34=0.04, P=0.843; previous year: F1,33 =0.14, P=0.715). Instantaneous population rate of increase (r) was related to population size (F1,33=5.55; P=0.025). Precipitation limited populations of desert bighorn sheep on SANWR primarily in a density-independent manner by affecting production or survival of lambs, likely through influences on forage quantity and quality. Habitat evaluations and recovery plans for desert bighorn sheep need to consider fundamental influences on desert bighorn populations such as precipitation and food, rather than focus solely on proximate issues such as security cover, predation, and disease. Moreover, the concept of carrying capacity for desert bighorn sheep may need re-evaluation in respect to highly variable (CV =35.6%) localized precipitation patterns. On SANWR carrying capacity for desert
.... Mail: Andy Hofmann, Project Leader, Eastern Virginia Rivers NWR Complex, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 1030, 335 Wilna Road, Warsaw, VA 22572. Fax: Attention: Andy Hofmann, 804-333-1470. In-Person Viewing or Pickup: Call Andy Hofmann, Project Leader, at 804-333-1470 extension 112 during regular...
Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Vermejo Project area and the Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge, Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, 1993
Bartolino, J.R.; Garrabrant, L.A.; Wilson, Mark; Lusk, J.D.
Based on findings of limited studies during 1989-92, a reconnaissance investigation was conducted in 1993 to assess the effects of the Vermejo Irrigation Project on water quality in the area of the project, including the Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge. This project was part of a U.S. Department of the Interior National Irrigation Water-Quality Program to determine whether irrigation drainage has caused or has the potential to cause significant harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife and whether irrigation drainage may adversely affect the suitability of water for other beneficial uses. For this study, samples of water, sediment, and biota were collected from 16 sites in and around the Vermejo Irrigation Project prior to, during the latter part of, and after the 1993 irrigation season (April, August-September, and November, respectively). No inorganic constituents exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. The State of New Mexico standard of 750 micrograms per liter for boron in irrigation water was exceeded at three sites (five samples), though none exceeded the livestock water standard of 5,000 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the State of New Mexico chronic standard of 2 micrograms per liter for wildlife and fisheries water in at least eight samples from five sites. Bottom-sediment samples were collected and analyzed for trace elements and compared to concentrations of trace elements in soils of the Western United States. Concentrations of three trace elements at eight sites exceeded the upper values of the expected 95-percent ranges for Western U.S. soils. These included molybdenum at one site, selenium at seven sites, and uranium at four sites. Cadmium and copper concentrations exceeded the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program 85th percentile in fish from six sites. Average concentrations of selenium in adult brine flies (33.7 mg/g dry weight) were elevated above concentrations in other
Indian Trail Refuge, Dent County, Missouri. J. Wildi . Manage. 15(3):332-333. (14,91) 219. Christisen, D.M. 1955. Yield of seed by oaks in the Missouri...implications. J. Wildl. Manage. 26(2):164- 172. (14,17) 297. Korschgen, L.J. 1966. Foods and nutrition of ruffed grouse in Missouri. J. Wildi . Manage...Wildlife 443. Wight, H.M., and C.H. Conaway. 1961. Weather influences on the onset of breeding in Missouri cottontails. J. Wildi . Manage. 25:87-89. (67) 444
... boundaries would be based on importance of the habitat for target management species. We would offer....fws.gov planning under ``Draft Documents.'' Comments on the Draft CCP/EA may be submitted to the above..., advancement, management, conservation, and protection of fish and wildlife resources. Approximately 74 percent...
... endangered species. This restorative process may exceed the 15-year life of the CCP for some habitats. Once... would work with partners to incorporate these messages in information distributed by them. We would... through the Merritt Island Wildlife Association, Pelican Island Preservation Society, and Friends of the...
... and objectives that will ensure the best possible approach to wildlife, plant, and habitat... inviolate sanctuary, or for any other management purpose, for migratory birds.'' 16 U.S.C. 715d (Migratory... to prevent the introduction and dispersal of invasive plants and animals and facilitate their removal...
Lucia S Krupp
Full Text Available Seagrass beds are highly productive and valuable habitats, which fulfill a key role in coastal ecosystems. Spatial distribution, biomass, density, productivity and leaf dynamics of the dominant seagrass species Thalassia testudinum were studied at five locations in the Gandoca-Manzanillo National Wildlife Refuge, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, from November 2005 until March 2006. Seagrass beds within the study area cover approximately 16 ha. Spatial and temporal differences in ecological seagrass parameters were examined along gradients of riverine inputs and related to a range of environmental parameters (depth, grain size distribution, nutrient concentrations, salinity and temperature. Average canopy cover and above-ground biomass of T. testudinum inversely correlated with depth, but did not vary significantly between study sites when compared along depth ranges. Considerable spatio-temporal variations in shoot densities, areal productivity and leaf sizes seem to be related to riverine inputs and wave energy. It appeared that T. testudinum at exposed sites respond to increased environmental disturbance related to the offset of the rainy season with clonal recruitment, whereby shoot densities increase and average leaf sizes are reduced. Lower shoot densities and greater leaf sizes, in contrast, are characteristic for locations with rather consistent environmental conditions, where seagrasses are sheltered. T. testudinum in the refuge has higher shoot densities but shorter leaves and lower productivity compared to sites in 15 other Caribbean countries. The seagrass beds appear to be in a relatively healthy state, however, observations of temporal increased stocks of filamentous epiphytes and macroalgae indicate temporal environmental stress in the system. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 187-201. Epub 2009 November 30.Las praderas de pastos marinos son sitios altamente productivos y hábitats valiosos en los ecosistemas costeros. Se estudió los
.... Water level manipulation is used to improve wetland habitats and invasive and non-native plant species... nonnative plants that are causing habitat losses and fragmentation would be controlled or eradicated...-led. A sanctuary area would be created for waterfowl on the east side of the Bowdoin National Wildlife...
Hess, Steven C.; Hu, Darcy; Loh, Rhonda; Banko, Paul C.; Conner, L.M.; Smith, M.D.
Some of the most isolated islands in the Pacific Ocean are home to US National Parks and Wildlife Refuges. These islands are known for flora and fauna that occur nowhere else, but also for invasive species and other factors which have resulted in the disproportionate extinction of native species. The control of invasive mammals is the single most expensive natural resource management activity essential for restoring ecological integrity to parks in the Hawaiian Islands, American Samoa, and the islands of Guam and Saipan. Science-based applications supporting management efforts have been shaped by longstanding collaborative federal research programs over the past four decades. Consequently, feral goats (Capra hircus) have been removed from >690 km2 in National Parks, and feral pigs (Sus scrofa) have been removed from >367 km2 of federal lands of Hawai‘i, bringing about the gradual recovery of forest ecosystems. The exclusion of other non-native ungulates and invasive mammals is now being undertaken with more sophisticated control techniques and fences. New fence designs are now capable of excluding feral cats (Felis catus) from large areas to protect endangered native waterfowl and nesting seabirds. Rodenticides which have been tested and registered for hand and aerial broadcast in Hawai‘i have been used to eradicate rats from small offshore islands to protect nesting seabirds and are now being applied to montane environments of larger islands to protect forest birds. Forward-looking infrared radar (FLIR) is also being applied to locate wild ungulates which were more recently introduced to some islands. All invasive mammals have been eradicated from some remote small islands, and it may soon be possible to manage areas on larger islands to be free of invasive mammals at least during seasonally important periods for native species.
... suggestions for the future management of Prime Hook NWR. We previously published a notice of intent on October... challenging to wildlife managers and biologists. Mosquitoes are a part of the natural environment and a food...
Hamilton, David B.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.
Malheur Lake is the largest freshwater marsh in the western contiguous United States and is one of the main management units of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in southeastern Oregon. The marsh provides excellent waterfowl production habitat as well as vital migration habitats for birds in the Pacific flyway. Water shortages have typically been a problem in this semiarid area; however, record snowfalls and cool summers have recently caused Malheur Lake to rise to its highest level in recorded history. This has resulted in the loss of approximately 57,000 acres of important wildlife habitat as well as extensive flooding of local ranches, roads, and railroad lines. Because of the importance of the Refuge, any water management plan for the Malheur-Harney Lakes Basin needs to consider the impact of management alternatives on the hydrology of Malheur Lake. The facilitated modeling workshop described in this report was conducted January 14-18, 1985, under the joint sponsorship of the Portland Ecological Services Field Office and the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Region 1, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). The Portland Field Office is responsible for FWS reporting requirements on Federal water resource projects while the Refuge staff has management responsibility for much of the land affected by high water levels in the Malheur-Harney Lakes Basin. The primary objective of the workshop was to begin gathering and analyzing information concerning potential fish and wildlife impacts, needs, and opportunities associated with proposed U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) flood control alternatives for Malheur Lake. The workshop was structured around the formulation of a computer model that would simulate the hydrologic effects of the various alternatives and any concommitant changes in vegetation communities and wildlife use patterns. The simulation model is composed of three connected submodels. The Hydrology submodel calculates changes in lake volume, elevation
Michelle Moorman; Tom Augspurger
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has partnered with U.S. Geological Survey to establishÂ 2 continuous water-quality monitoring stations at Lake Mattamuskeet. Stations on the eastÂ and west side of the lake measure water level, clarity, dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature,Â salinity, and conductivity.
Pavey, Chris R; Addison, Jane; Brandle, Rob; Dickman, Chris R; McDonald, Peter J; Moseby, Katherine E; Young, Lauren I
Irruptive population dynamics are characteristic of a wide range of fauna in the world's arid (dryland) regions. Recent evidence indicates that regional persistence of irruptive species, particularly small mammals, during the extensive dry periods of unpredictable length that occur between resource pulses in drylands occurs as a result of the presence of refuge habitats or refuge patches into which populations contract during dry (bust) periods. These small dry-period populations act as a source of animals when recolonisation of the surrounding habitat occurs during and after subsequent resource pulses (booms). The refuges used by irruptive dryland fauna differ in temporal and spatial scale from the refugia to which species contract in response to changing climate. Refuges of dryland fauna operate over timescales of months and years, whereas refugia operate on timescales of millennia over which evolutionary divergence may occur. Protection and management of refuge patches and refuge habitats should be a priority for the conservation of dryland-dwelling fauna. This urgency is driven by recognition that disturbance to refuges can lead to the extinction of local populations and, if disturbance is widespread, entire species. Despite the apparent significance of dryland refuges for conservation management, these sites remain poorly understood ecologically. Here, we synthesise available information on the refuges of dryland-dwelling fauna, using Australian mammals as a case study to provide focus, and document a research agenda for increasing this knowledge base. We develop a typology of refuges that recognises two main types of refuge: fixed and shifting. We outline a suite of models of fixed refuges on the basis of stability in occupancy between and within successive bust phases of population cycles. To illustrate the breadth of refuge types we provide case studies of refuge use in three species of dryland mammal: plains mouse (Pseudomys australis), central rock
... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... Agency's Request for Information (RFI) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension...), MSHA published a Request for Information on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI...
..., Recreation, and Tourism; Jena Band of Choctaw Indians; National Park Service; Audubon Society; Friends of the... wildlife viewing and photography opportunities by implementing blinds, a swamp trail boardwalk, and...
Crespo, Andre L B; Pan, Zaiqi; Crain, Philip R; Thompson, Stephen D; Pilcher, Clinton D; Sethi, Amit
Abstract In this review, we evaluate the intentional mixing or blending of insecticidal seed with refuge seed for managing resistance by insects to insecticidal corn (Zea mays). We first describe the pest biology and farming practices that will contribute to weighing trade-offs between using block refuges and blended refuges. Case studies are presented to demonstrate how the trade-offs will differ in different systems. We compare biological aspects of several abstract models to guide the reader through the history of modeling, which has played a key role in the promotion or denigration of blending in various scientific debates about insect resistance management for insecticidal crops. We conclude that the use of blended refuge should be considered on a case-by-case basis after evaluation of insect biology, environment, and farmer behavior. For Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, Ostrinia nubilalis, and Helicoverpa zea in the United States, blended refuge provides similar, if not longer, delays in the evolution of resistance compared to separate block refuges. PMID:29220481
..., wildlife observation and photography, and environmental education and interpretation. We will review and... Sunkhaze Meadows NWR and Carlton Pond WPA. We will conduct the environmental review of this project and..., including American woodcock, red-winged blackbird, and bobolink. The Sandy Stream Unit is mainly comprised...
... nesting, migrating, and wintering birds, including grebes, herons, ibis, ducks, geese, hawks, eagles... movement of water, is a complex issue that needs to be addressed. The Service is also proposing to study... sustainability of America's land, water, wildlife and cultural resources. The study would analyze the potential...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water skiing. 27.33 Section 27.33 Wildlife... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.33 Water skiing. When water skiing is permitted upon national wildlife refuge waters, the public will be notified under...
... an area for the ``conservation, management, and restoration of the fish, wildlife, and plant... ``for use as an inviolate sanctuary, or for any other management purpose, for migratory birds'' 16 U.S.C...
... Freedom of Information Act by a private citizen or organization, the Service may provide copies of such... of compatible wildlife-dependent recreation. Approximately 15,000 people visit the WPAs of the... habitat degradation or loss on private lands. Karl E. Mundt NWR was established in 1974, under the...
... migratory birds and other wild life * * *'' and ``* * * for use as an inviolate sanctuary, or for any other... on meadow habitats. Plant litter, which becomes detrimental to some wildlife species needs over time..., which include nearly all areas not on the main roads, would remain closed in order to provide sanctuary...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority. 34.2 Section 34.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.2 Authority. (a) The Act of October 17...
Thorne, Karen M.; Takekawa, John Y.; Elliott-Fisk, Deborah L.
Coastal areas are high-risk zones subject to the impacts of global climate change, with significant increases in the frequencies of extreme weather and storm events, and sea-level rise forecast by 2100. These physical processes are expected to alter estuaries, resulting in loss of intertidal wetlands and their component wildlife species. In particular, impacts to salt marshes and their wildlife will vary both temporally and spatially and may be irreversible and severe. Synergistic effects caused by combining stressors with anthropogenic land-use patterns could create areas of significant biodiversity loss and extinction, especially in urbanized estuaries that are already heavily degraded. In this paper, we discuss current ideas, challenges, and concerns regarding the maintenance of salt marshes and their resident wildlife in light of future climate conditions. We suggest that many salt marsh habitats are already impaired and are located where upslope transgression is restricted, resulting in reduction and loss of these habitats in the future. In addition, we conclude that increased inundation frequency and water depth will have negative impacts on the demography of small or isolated wildlife meta-populations as well as their community interactions. We illustrate our points with a case study on the Pacific Coast of North America at San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge in California, an area that supports endangered wildlife species reliant on salt marshes for all aspects of their life histories.
... Section 230.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION... Impacts on Special Aquatic Sites § 230.40 Sanctuaries and refuges. (a) Sanctuaries and refuges consist of...; (2) Create unplanned, easy and incompatible human access to remote aquatic areas; (3) Create the need...
Pfaller, Joseph B; Gil, Michael A
The capacity for resource monopolization by individuals often dictates the size and composition of animal groups, and ultimately, the adoption of mating strategies. For refuge-dwelling animals, the ability (or inability) of individuals to monopolize refuges should depend on the relative size of the refuge. In theory, groups should be larger and more inclusive when refuges are large, and smaller and more exclusive when refuges are small, regardless of refuge type. We test this prediction by comparing the size and composition of groups of oceanic crabs (Planes minutus) living on plastic flotsam and loggerhead sea turtles. We found that (i) surface area of refuges (barnacle colonies on flotsam and supracaudal space on turtles) is a better predictor of crab number than total surface area and (ii) flotsam and turtles with similar refuge surface area host a similar number (1-2) and composition (adult male-female pairs) of crabs. These results indicate that group size and composition of refuge-dwelling animals are modulated by refuge size and the capacity for refuge monopolization. Moreover, these results suggest that sea turtle symbiosis facilitates social monogamy in oceanic crabs, providing insights into how symbiosis can promote specific mating strategies. © 2016 The Author(s).
Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne
The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.
Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)
The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fires. 27.95 Section 27.95 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.95 Fires. On all national wildlife refuges persons are prohibited from the following: (a) Setting on fire or causing to be set on fire any...
... document, we describe goals and objectives, management direction, and alternatives to manage the Refuge for..., diverse wildlife, and a wealth of habitats give this unspoiled wildlife refuge high cultural-heritage... fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our policies. We will review and update...
... locations; develop shoreline fishing locations; and provide some additional environmental education programs... Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... availability of our final Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public safety. 25.71 Section 25.71... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Safety Regulations § 25.71 Public safety. Persons using national wildlife refuges shall comply with the safety requirements which are established under...
Singh, Punya; Ellard, Colin G
According to prospect-refuge theory, humans prefer environments that afford protection from threat (refuge), but also provide large fields of view (prospect). Prospect-refuge theory in the past has traditionally only been applied to humans, but many of the same contingencies governing spatial preference ought to also hold true in animals. The focus of this study was to examine if this phenomena also occurs in animals. Gerbils were placed in an arena containing three dome shaped refuges that varied in prospect-refuge levels. A simulated predator was released during the trial to examine how contextual factors may influence the degree of prospect and refuge preferred. The results indicate a preference for the enclosed refuge at stimulus onset even though this was not reflective of what happened prior to predator release. The results suggest spatial preferences in animals are influenced by prospect-refuge considerations in certain contexts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
J. W. Keifer
The purpose of this calculation is to identify the initial design requirements for refuge stations, including the client requirements, standards, codes, laws, and regulations, general discipline design criteria, and design basis events and hazards. The scope of this document is for the specific task of designing and constructing refuge stations in the Enhanced Characterization Repository Block (ECRB) subsurface openings as necessary personnel safety enhancements to the current construction, maintenance and testing operations. This document is for the construction at the Exploratory Site Facility (ESF). The criteria is not intended to be incorporated into the proposed repository design and does not support Site Recommendation or License Application efforts. This calculation is prepared in accordance with N-3.12Q as a field support calculation and was prepared using the ''Technical Work Plan for Test Facilities Design FY01 Work Activities'' (TWP) (CRWMS M and O 2000b)
... that will ensure the best possible approach to wildlife, plant, and habitat conservation, while... established in 1996 for the following purposes. For use as an inviolate sanctuary, or for any other management...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surplus range animals. 30.1 Section 30.1... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.1 Surplus range animals. Range animals on fenced wildlife refuge areas, including buffalo and longhorn cattle, determined...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of feral animals. 30.12... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Feral Animals § 30.12 Disposition of feral animals. Feral animals taken on wildlife refuge areas may be disposed of by sale on the...
Full Text Available Le voyageur de nulle part, un exilé dénommé Alfred, élit domicile au dernier sous-sol de l’aéroport Charles de Gaulle où il entasse des valises pleines de liasses de papiers et de journaux. Car Alfred écrit tout autant qu’il fait écrire les journalistes intrigués par son personnage, et l’intrication de son écriture et de celle des journalistes lui bâtit progressivement un refuge : refuge mental de mots et refuge physique de papiers entassés, comme autant de protections face à une société qui disloque la vie des humains au point que leur unique refuge ne soit plus que de papier, et leurs livres des mots sur des feuillets volatiles.
IntroductionTerrestrial and aquatic ecosystems provide valuable services to humans and are a source of clean water, energy, raw materials, and productive soils. The Nation’s food supply is more secure because of wildlife. For example, native pollinators enhance agricultural crops, and insect-eating bats provide pest control services worth billions of dollars to farmers annually. Fish and wildlife are also vital to a vibrant outdoor recreation and tourism industry. Recreational activities, such as hunting, shooting, boating, and angling, generated \\$1.1 billion in excise taxes paid to State wildlife agencies in 2017. National parks, wildlife refuges, and monuments accounted for $35 billion in economic output and 318,000 jobs nationwide in 2016. Additional economic benefits are generated from the use and enjoyment of wildlife in State-owned lands and waters.Although the United States is rich in natural resources, human activity continues to place new pressures on fish and wildlife and the habitats they rely on. The United States became the world’s top producer of petroleum and natural gas products in 2012, surpassing Russia’s natural gas production levels in 2009 and Saudi Arabia’s petroleum production in 2013. The U.S. Energy Information Administration projects that the demand for liquid fuel, natural gas, and renewable energy will show strong growth in the next 20 years. Wind energy has demonstrated consistent growth since 2007 with now more than 53,000 wind turbines contributing to power grids in 41 States, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Solar energy has seen rapid growth since 2013 and made up nearly one-third of the total electricity generation additions in 2016. Yet as our Nation works to advance energy security and sustain wildlife, some conflicts have surfaced. Impacts of an expanding energy infrastructure include fragmentation and loss of habitat as well as mortality of birds, bats, fish, and other animals from interactions with energy generation facilities
... education and interpretation, and conservation projects); commercial harvesting of sea salt; wildlife... Act. Comments We made copies of the Draft CCP/EA available for a 30-day public review and comment... engineering equipment operators, park ranger (environmental education), volunteer coordinator, GIS specialist...
... 16936. 2748 Oct. 1, 1947 Illinois Honshoe Lake, Alexander County 3 CFR, 1947 Supp. 12 FR 6521. Sept. 9... Wildlife Regudge 21 FR 6513. 2370 Oct. 16, 1939 Virginia Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge 3 CFR, Cum. Supp... .......do Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge 27 FR 104; 27 FR 858. Aug. 21, 1963 .......do Mackay Island...
Xu, Jin; Li, Shuwen
Sewage treatment is of great significance to enhance environmental quality, consolidate pollution prevention and ecological protection, and ensure sustainable economic and social development in high altitude region. However, there are numerous difficulties in sewage treatment due to the alpine climate, the relatively low economic development level, and the backward operation and management styles, etc. In this study, the characteristics of influent quality in the sewage treatment plant in Lhasa are investigated by analysing the influent BOD5/COD and BOD5/TN, comparing key indexes recorded from 2014 to 2016 with the hinterland. Results show that the concentration of influent COD, BOD5, NH3-N and SS in the Lhasa sewage treatment plant, in which the sewage belongs to low-concentration urban sewage, is smaller than that in the domestic sewage treatment plants in the mainland. The concentration ratio of BOD5/COD and BOD5/TN is below 0.4 and 4, which indicates that the biodegradation is poor and the carbon sources are in bad demand. The consequences obtained play a vital role in the design, operation and management of sewage treatment plants in high altitude region.
... Lake NWR, with enhancements to improve access. Hunting of waterfowl, small game, upland game birds, big..., including opportunities for hunting, fishing, wildlife observation and photography, and environmental... feasibility of, and make recommendations on, techniques to exclude carp and non-native game fish within the...
Decker, Daniel J; Schuler, Krysten; Forstchen, Ann B; Wild, Margaret A; Siemer, William F
A significant development in wildlife management is the mounting concern of wildlife professionals and the public about wildlife health and diseases. Concurrently, the wildlife profession is reexamining implications of managing wildlife populations as a public trust and the concomitant obligation to ensure the quality (i.e., health) and sustainability of wildlife. It is an opportune time to emphasize the importance of wildlife health, specifically to advocate for comprehensive and consistent integration of wildlife health in wildlife management. We summarize application of public trust ideas in wildlife population management in the US. We argue that wildlife health is essential to fulfilling public trust administration responsibilities with respect to wildlife, due to the central responsibility of trustees for ensuring the well-being of wildlife species (i.e., the core resources of the trust). Because both health of wildlife and risk perceptions regarding threats posed by wildlife disease to humans and domestic animals are issues of growing concern, managing wildlife disease and risk communication vis-à-vis wildlife health is critical to wildlife trust administration. We conclude that wildlife health professionals play a critical role in protecting the wildlife trust and that current conditions provide opportunities for important contributions by wildlife health professionals in wildlife management.
Creel, Michael; Loomis, John
The recreational benefits from providing increased quantities of water to wildlife and fisheries habitats is estimated using linked multinomial logit site selection models and count data trip frequency models. The study encompasses waterfowl hunting, fishing and wildlife viewing at 14 recreational resources in the San Joaquin Valley, including the National Wildlife Refuges, the State Wildlife Management Areas, and six river destinations. The economic benefits of increasing water supplies to wildlife refuges were also examined by using the estimated models to predict changing patterns of site selection and overall participation due to increases in water allocations. Estimates of the dollar value per acre foot of water are calculated for increases in water to refuges. The resulting model is a flexible and useful tool for estimating the economic benefits of alternative water allocation policies for wildlife habitat and rivers.
... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... Agency's Request for Information (RFI) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period had been scheduled to close on October 7, 2013...
..., POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.102... manatee refuge or a manatee sanctuary; Manatee refuge means an area in which the Director has determined...
Berry, Laurence E; Driscoll, Don A; Stein, John A; Blanchard, Wade; Banks, Sam C; Bradstock, Ross A; Lindenmayer, David B
The increasing frequency of large, high-severity fires threatens the survival of old-growth specialist fauna in fire-prone forests. Within topographically diverse montane forests, areas that experience less severe or fewer fires compared with those prevailing in the landscape may present unique resource opportunities enabling old-growth specialist fauna to survive. Statistical landscape models that identify the extent and distribution of potential fire refuges may assist land managers to incorporate these areas into relevant biodiversity conservation strategies. We used a case study in an Australian wet montane forest to establish how predictive fire simulation models can be interpreted as management tools to identify potential fire refuges. We examined the relationship between the probability of fire refuge occurrence as predicted by an existing fire refuge model and fire severity experienced during a large wildfire. We also examined the extent to which local fire severity was influenced by fire severity in the surrounding landscape. We used a combination of statistical approaches, including generalized linear modeling, variogram analysis, and receiver operating characteristics and area under the curve analysis (ROC AUC). We found that the amount of unburned habitat and the factors influencing the retention and location of fire refuges varied with fire conditions. Under extreme fire conditions, the distribution of fire refuges was limited to only extremely sheltered, fire-resistant regions of the landscape. During extreme fire conditions, fire severity patterns were largely determined by stochastic factors that could not be predicted by the model. When fire conditions were moderate, physical landscape properties appeared to mediate fire severity distribution. Our study demonstrates that land managers can employ predictive landscape fire models to identify the broader climatic and spatial domain within which fire refuges are likely to be present. It is essential
Hao, Xiaoli; Guo, Chenxin; Lin, Yaolin; Wang, Haiqiao; Liu, Heqing
Movable refuge chambers are a new kind of rescue device for underground mining, which is believed to have a potential positive impact on reducing the rate of fatalities. It is likely to be hot and humid inside a movable refuge chamber due to the metabolism of trapped miners, heat generated by equipment and heat transferred from outside. To investigate the heat stress experienced by miners trapped in a movable refuge chamber, the predicted heat strain (PHS) model was used to simulate the heat transfer process between the person and the thermal environment. The variations of heat stress with the temperature and humidity inside the refuge chamber were analyzed. The effects of air temperature outside the refuge chamber and the overall heat transfer coefficient of the refuge chamber shell on the heat stress inside the refuge chamber was also investigated. The relationship between the limit of exposure duration and the air temperature and humidity was numerically analyzed to determine the upper limits of temperature and humidity inside a refuge chamber. Air temperature of 32 °C and relative humidity of 70% are recommended as the design standard for internal thermal environment control of movable refuge chambers.
Full Text Available Movable refuge chambers are a new kind of rescue device for underground mining, which is believed to have a potential positive impact on reducing the rate of fatalities. It is likely to be hot and humid inside a movable refuge chamber due to the metabolism of trapped miners, heat generated by equipment and heat transferred from outside. To investigate the heat stress experienced by miners trapped in a movable refuge chamber, the predicted heat strain (PHS model was used to simulate the heat transfer process between the person and the thermal environment. The variations of heat stress with the temperature and humidity inside the refuge chamber were analyzed. The effects of air temperature outside the refuge chamber and the overall heat transfer coefficient of the refuge chamber shell on the heat stress inside the refuge chamber was also investigated. The relationship between the limit of exposure duration and the air temperature and humidity was numerically analyzed to determine the upper limits of temperature and humidity inside a refuge chamber. Air temperature of 32 °C and relative humidity of 70% are recommended as the design standard for internal thermal environment control of movable refuge chambers.
Feinberg, Joseph Grim
-, February 15 (2016), s. 1-8 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : refugee crisis * neoliberalism * extreme right Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://www.criticatac.ro/lefteast/an-austere-place-of-refuge/
Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.; Ohlendorf, H.M.
Selected rice fields on the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex were aerially sprayed one time during May or June 1982 with either ethyl (0.11 kg Al/ha) or methyl (0.84 kg AI/ha) parathion for control of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. No sick or dead vertebrate wildlife were found or adjacent to the treated rice fields after spraying. Specimens of the following birds and mammals were assayed for brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity to determine exposure to either form of parathion; house mouse, Mus musculus; black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; American coot, Fulica americana; and red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Both mice and pheasants from methyl parathion-treated fields had overall mean ChE activities that were significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited compared with controls, and 7, 40, 54 and 57% of individual blackbirds, pheasant, mice, and coots, respectively, had inhibited brain ChE activities (i.e., less than -2 SD of control mean). Although no overall species effect was detected for ethyl parathoid treatment, pheasants (43%), coots (33%), and mice (37%) had significantly inhibited brain ChE activities. Neither of the parathion treatment appeared acutely hazardous to wildlife in or adjacent to rice fields, but sufficient information on potential hazards was obtained to warrant caution in use of these chemicals, especially methyl parathion, in rice fields.
... Administration 30 CFR Parts 7 and 75 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal... Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Limited reopening of the... for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals...
Full Text Available The paper presents the compositional analysis of sewage supplied to and discharged from the wastewater treatment plant in Kolbuszowa Dolna in the Subcarpathian region. The analysis was based on three basic indicators of sewage pollution (BOD5, CODCr, total suspended solids and two biogenic indicators (total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The composition of sewage was studied in the years 2010–2015. Basic descriptive statistics for the values of the analyzed indicators of sewage pollution were summarized and the obtained results were interpreted. The study showed that the sewage was susceptible to biological treatment. Descriptive statistics for the relationship between the following indicators were presented: CODCr/BOD5, BOD5/Ntot, BOD5/Ptot. The collected results indicate high variability of the composition of sewage entering the studied facility. The coefficients of variation for the values of basic indicators (BOD5, CODCr, total suspended solids in the raw sewage were similar and amounted to Wn = 0.45 while for total nitrogen it was Wn = 0.33 and for total phosphorus Wn = 0.40. The analysis of the collected material showed that sewage entering the treatment plant was readily biodegradable. On the other hand, the treated sewage was characterized by low values of the analyzed indicators, much below the permissible values provided by the water permit. The raw sewage was divided into five groups depending on the concentration of each pollution indicator. The number of raw sewage samples was determined for each group of the analyzed pollution indicator concentrations.
Quispe, Reinaldo; Mazón, Marina; Rodríguez-Berrío, Alexander
The use of non-crop plants to provide the resources that herbivorous crop pests’ natural enemies need is being increasingly incorporated into integrated pest management programs. We evaluated insect functional groups found on three refuges consisting of five different plant species each, planted next to a maize crop in Lima, Peru, to investigate which refuge favoured natural control of herbivores considered as pests of maize in Peru, and which refuge plant traits were more attractive to those desirable enemies. Insects occurring in all the plants, including the maize crop itself, were sampled weekly during the crop growing cycle, from February to June 2011. All individuals collected were identified and classified into three functional groups: herbivores, parasitoids, and predators. Refuges were compared based on their effectiveness in enhancing the populations of predator and parasitoid insects of the crop enemies. Refuges A and B were the most effective, showing the highest richness and abundance of both predators and parasitoids, including several insect species that are reported to attack the main insect pests of maize (Spodoptera frugiperda and Rhopalosiphum maidis), as well as other species that serve as alternative hosts of these natural enemies. PMID:28718835
Yang, Shan-Shan; Pang, Ji-Wei; Jin, Xiao-Man; Wu, Zhong-Yang; Yang, Xiao-Yin; Guo, Wan-Qian; Zhao, Zhi-Qing; Ren, Nan-Qi
Out-dated technical equipment, occlusive information communication, inadequate sanitation, low management level and some irrational distribution structures in the existing sewage plants bring about lower sewage treatment efficiency and poorer water quality, thereby permanently harming human health and severely damaging the environment. With the rapid development of scientific-technological progress and the vigorous support of the entire international community, the existing sewage plants call for more and more intelligent operation and management in the future. This review for the first time proposes the novel concept of the “smart” sewage plant, and gives a through interpretation of its special functions and attributes. We envision that the future smart sewage plant will became an “ambient intelligence” in all aspects in the sewage plants.
Redpath, Stephen Mark; Bhatia, Saloni; Young, Juliette
Conflicts between people over wildlife are widespread and damaging to both the wildlife and people involved. Such issues are often termed human–wildlife conflicts. We argue that this term is misleading and may exacerbate the problems and hinder resolution. A review of 100 recent articles on human–wildlife conflicts reveals that 97 were between conservation and other human activities, particularly those associated with livelihoods. We suggest that we should distinguish between human–wildlife i...
... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Introduction and General... or family consumption; for barter or sharing for personal or family consumption; and, for customary..., or adoption, or any person living within the household on a permanent basis; and (2) Barter means the...
Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine
Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips
Akins, Andrea L; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.
Historically, Lake Superior supported one of the largest and most diverse Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes, but Lake Trout stocks collapsed due to excessive fishery exploitation and predation by Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus. Lake Trout stocking, Sea Lamprey control, and fishery regulations, including a refuge encompassing Gull Island Shoal (Apostle Islands region), were used to enable recovery of Lake Trout stocks that used this historically important spawning shoal. Our objective was to determine whether future sustainability of Lake Trout stocks will depend on the presence of the Gull Island Shoal Refuge. We constructed a stochastic age-structured simulation model to assess the effect of maintaining the refuge as a harvest management tool versus removing the refuge. In general, median abundances of age-4, age-4 and older (age-4+), and age-8+ fish collapsed at lower instantaneous fishing mortality rates (F) when the refuge was removed than when the refuge was maintained. With the refuge in place, the F that resulted in collapse depended on the rate of movement into and out of the refuge. Too many fish stayed in the refuge when movement was low (0–2%), and too many fish became vulnerable to fishing when movement was high (≥22%); thus, the refuge was more effective at intermediate rates of movement (10–11%). With the refuge in place, extinction did not occur at any simulated level of F, whereas refuge removal led to extinction at all combinations of commercial F and recreational F. Our results indicate that the Lake Trout population would be sustained by the refuge at all simulated F-values, whereas removal of the refuge would risk population collapse at much lower F (0.700–0.744). Therefore, the Gull Island Shoal Refuge is needed to sustain the Lake Trout population in eastern Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior.
Young, Suzanne; Nayak, Bina; Sun, Shan; Badgley, Brian D.; Rohr, Jason R.
ABSTRACT Sewage spills can release antibiotic-resistant bacteria into surface waters, contributing to environmental reservoirs and potentially impacting human health. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are nosocomial pathogens that have been detected in environmental habitats, including soil, water, and beach sands, as well as wildlife feces. However, VRE harboring vanA genes that confer high-level resistance have infrequently been found outside clinical settings in the United States. This study found culturable Enterococcus faecium harboring the vanA gene in water and sediment for up to 3 days after a sewage spill, and the quantitative PCR (qPCR) signal for vanA persisted for an additional week. Culturable levels of enterococci in water exceeded recreational water guidelines for 2 weeks following the spill, declining about five orders of magnitude in sediments and two orders of magnitude in the water column over 6 weeks. Analysis of bacterial taxa via 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed changes in community structure through time following the sewage spill in sediment and water. The spread of opportunistic pathogens harboring high-level vancomycin resistance genes beyond hospitals and into the broader community and associated habitats is a potential threat to public health, requiring further studies that examine the persistence, occurrence, and survival of VRE in different environmental matrices. IMPORTANCE Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are harmful bacteria that are resistant to the powerful antibiotic vancomycin, which is used as a last resort against many infections. This study followed the release of VRE in a major sewage spill and their persistence over time. Such events can act as a means of spreading vancomycin-resistant bacteria in the environment, which can eventually impact human health. PMID:27422829
Stamps, Arthur E
This article presents four new studies on the efficacy of predictions based on prospect and refuge theory and summarizes the results over eight studies. New data covered 49 participants and 36 environments. The eight studies included in the summary covered 144 participants and 80 widely diverse environments (Japanese Tatami rooms, Western rooms, porch, meadow, neighborhood commercial, shopping mall, vacation landscapes). Data were available for hypotheses about five factors: prospect, refuge, light, venue, and spatial transition. Efficacy was represented by correlations for the levels of the factors with responses of preference or comfort. Overall, venue was the most efficacious factor (r = .42, 95% CI = .14, .64). Efficacies for the other factors were very near zero. It is suggested that a considerable amount of additional formal inquiry be conducted before assuming the utility of prospect and refuge theory.
... Section 36.37 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... compensation to persons who visit a refuge, including such services as providing food, accommodations... equal and are not additive. (2) In selecting persons to provide any type of visitor service for refuges...
Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Misuri, Lorenza; Lanciotti, Eudes; Sweetman, Andy; Laschi, Serena; Palchetti, Ilaria
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sewage sludge samples collected from eight Italian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) between June 2009 and March 2010. Total PBDE concentrations ranged from 158.3 to 9427 ng g −1 dw, while deca-BDE (BDE-209) (concentrations ranging from 130.6 to 9411 ng g −1 dw) dominated the congener profile in all the samples, contributing between 77% and 99.8% of total PBDE. The suitability of using a magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) to analyse PBDEs in sewage sludge was also tested. The ELISA results, expressed as BDE-47 equivalents, were well correlated with those obtained by GC–NCI–MS, with correlation coefficients (r 2 ) of 0.899 and 0.959, depending on the extraction procedure adopted. The risk assessment of PBDEs in sewage sludge addressed to land application was calculated. PEC soil values compared to the relative PNEC soil for penta and deca-BDE suggests that there is a low risk to the soil environment. - Highlights: ► PBDEs in sewage sludge were determined in eight Italian WWTPs for the first time. ► PBDEs concentrations showed differences between the eight investigated WWTPs. ► Deca-BDE (BDE-209) was the dominant congener in all samples. ► The suitability of using ELISA method to analyse PBDEs in sewage sludge was tested. ► The risk assessment of using sewage sludge for land application was evaluated. - Determination of PBDEs in sewage sludge by GC–NCI–MS and ELISA test and risk assessment when sewage sludge is used for land application.
Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Guldin, James M.
To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after prescribed harvests, we assessed regeneration in 41 canopy gaps and 4 large (>0.5-ha) patch cut openings that resulted from treatments and in 21 natural canopy gaps on 2 unharvested control stands. Mean gap area of anthropogenic gaps (582 m²) was greater than that of natural gaps (262 m²). Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and red oaks (Quercus nigra, Q. nuttallii, and Q. phellos) were common in anthropogenic gaps, whereas elms (Ulmus spp.) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) were numerous in natural gaps. We recommend harvest prescriptions include gaps with diameter >25 m, because the proportion of shade-intolerant regeneration increased with gap area up to 500 m². The proportion of shade-intolerant definitive gap fillers (individuals likely to occupy the canopy) increased with gap area: 35 percent in natural gaps, 54 percent in anthropogenic gaps, and 84 percent in patch cuts. Sweetgum, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and red oaks were common definitive gap fillers.
Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.; Ohlendorf, H.M.
Selected rice fields on the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex were aerially sprayed one time during May or June 1982 with either ethyl (0.11 kg Al/ha) or methyl (0.84 kg AI/ha) parathion for control of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. No sick or dead vertebrate wildlife were found or adjacent to the treated rice fields after spraying. Specimens of the following birds and mammals were assayed for brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity to determine exposure to either form of parathion; house mouse, Mus musculus; black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; American coot, Fulica americana; and red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Both mice and pheasants from methyl parathion-treated fields had overall mean ChE activities that were significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited compared with controls, and 7, 40, 54 and 57% of individual blackbirds, pheasant, mice, and coots, respectively, had inhibited brain ChE activities (i.e., less than -2 SD of control mean). Although no overall species effect was detected for ethyl parathoid treatment, pheasants (43%), coots (33%), and mice (37%) had significantly inhibited brain ChE activities. Neither of the parathion treatment appeared acutely hazardous to wildlife in or adjacent to rice fields, but sufficient information on potential hazards was obtained to warrant caution in use of these chemicals, especially methyl parathion, in rice fields.
Ramaiah, N.; Rodrigues, V.; Alwares, E.; Rodrigues, C.; Baksh, R.; Jayan, S.; Mohandass, C.
estuaries, Goa, India are described in this chapter. Raw sewage disposal into the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries has been a common practice in the history of the estuaries. With increasing population, the amount of sewage dumped in the estuary has also...
Results of elemental analyses of water and waterborne sediment samples from areas of Alaska proposed for the Chukchi Imuruk National Reserve, Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, and Cape Krusenstern National Monument
Sharp, R.R. Jr.
During July--August 1976, waters and sediments were collected from streams and lakes over an area of 100,000 km 2 around Kotzebue, Alaska, as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance. The work provides multielement results for 949 waters and 886 sediments from 979 locations. Of these, 492 waters and 452 sediments are from 517 locations in the proposed Chukchi Imuruk Reserve; 447 waters and 423 sediments are from 451 locations in the proposed Selawik Wildlife Refuge; and 10 waters and 11 sediments are from 11 locations in the proposed Cape Krusenstern Monument. The field data, with concentrations of 13 elements in the waters and 43 in the sediments, are presented, and the sample locations are shown on accompanying plates. The waters were analyzed for uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting and calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, titanium, and zinc by plasma-source emission spectrography. The sediment samples were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting, beryllium and lithium by arc-source emission spectrography, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, niobium, silver, tin, and tungsten by x-ray fluorescence, and aluminum, antimony, barium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, rubidium, samarium, scandium, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, thorium, titanium, vanadium, ytterbium, and zinc by neutron activation. Uranium to thorium ratios in each sediment are also provided
Takahashi, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Takehiko; Sudo, Masaaki; Andow, David A
The evolution of resistance against pesticides is an important problem of modern agriculture. The high-dose/refuge strategy, which divides the landscape into treated and nontreated (refuge) patches, has proven effective at delaying resistance evolution. However, theoretical understanding is still incomplete, especially for combinations of limited dispersal and partially recessive resistance. We reformulate a two-patch model based on the Comins model and derive a simple quadratic approximation to analyze the effects of limited dispersal, refuge size, and dominance for high efficacy treatments on the rate of evolution. When a small but substantial number of heterozygotes can survive in the treated patch, a larger refuge always reduces the rate of resistance evolution. However, when dominance is small enough, the evolutionary dynamics in the refuge population, which is indirectly driven by migrants from the treated patch, mainly describes the resistance evolution in the landscape. In this case, for small refuges, increasing the refuge size will increase the rate of resistance evolution. Our analysis distils major driving forces from the model, and can provide a framework for understanding directional selection in source-sink environments. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Adriana Sicuto de Oliveira
Full Text Available The increase of domestic animals kept in shelters highlights the need to ensure animal welfare. Environmental enrichment can improve animal welfare in many ways, such as encouraging captive animals to use all the space available to them. The effects of physical environmental enrichment on the spatial distribution and behavioral repertoire of 35 neutered domestic cats housed communally were analyzed. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats’ welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. The frequencies of active and especially inactive behaviors also increased in the enriched condition. In a test with vertical environmental enrichment, the animals showed an increased length of stay in refuges located at a height of 0.5 m compared to those on the ground (0.0 m. However, the entry frequency was higher in refuges at 0.0 m. Both horizontal and vertical environmental enrichment increased the use of available space, demonstrating that box refuges as enrichment are effective in providing a refuge when at a height, or a place to explore at ground level. We suggest it enhances the welfare of cats in communally housed shelters. This information adds to the body of evidence relating to cat enrichment and can be useful in designing cat housing in veterinary clinics, research laboratories, shelters and domestic homes.
Pikaar, Ilje; Rozendal, René A; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo
Periodic caustic dosage is a commonly used method by the water industry to elevate pH levels and deactivate sewer biofilms responsible for hydrogen sulfide generation. Caustic (NaOH) can be generated in-situ from sewage using a divided electrochemical cell, which avoids the need for transport, handling and storage of concentrated caustic solutions. In this study, we investigated the impact of caustic strength in the cathode compartment and the impact of sodium concentration in sewage on the Coulombic efficiency (CE) for caustic generation. The CE was found to be independent of the caustic strength produced in the range of up to ~3 wt%. Results showed that a caustic solution of ~3 wt% could be produced directly from sewage at a CE of up to 75 ± 0.5%. The sodium concentration in sewage had a significant impact on the CE for caustic generation as well as on the energy requirements of the system, with a higher sodium concentration leading to a higher CE and lower energy consumption. The proton, calcium, magnesium and ammonium concentrations in sewage affected the CE for caustic generation, especially at low sodium concentrations. Economical assessment based on the experimental results indicated that sulfide control in sewers using electrochemically-generated caustic from sewage is an economically attractive strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Emsens, W.J.; Suselbeek, L.; Hirsch, B.T.; Kays, R.; Winkelhagen, A.J.S.; Jansen, P.A.
Animals that rely on refuges for safety can theoretically increase their foraging area without simultaneously increasing predation risk and travel costs by using more refuges. The key prediction of this theory, a negative correlation between food abundance, home range size and the number of refuges
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...
Laghari, A.; Chandio, S.N.; Khushawar, M.Y.; Laghari, M.Y.
Water samples of sewage effluents were collected from sewage collection points located at Latifabad units 9-11, Husainabad and Qasimabad sewage pumping stations. The sewage is pumped towards Southern Sewage treatment plant (SSTP) or is used for agricultural purposes. The water samples from SSTP were also collected and analyzed for pH, conducively, salinity, alkalinity, chlorides, hardness, total, volatile and fixed residues, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen and phosphorous contents. Variation in the results between sewage water and effluents were noted. (author)
...: Visitors to national wildlife refuges. Respondent's Obligation: Required to obtain or retain a benefit... (hunting, fishing, wildlife observation, wildlife photography, auto touring, birding, hiking, boating...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage retention...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair market value appraisals. 34.7 Section... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.7 Fair market value... procedures in order to estimate the fair market value of each area as a whole. The evaluation will be...
With the rapid development of industry, the constituents of sewage have been becoming complicated, and the treating effect of ordinary methods on standard sewage treatment have decreased evidently. Effective application of radiation in the disposal of sewage with some examples is presented, especially the better effect when radiation combined with ordinary methods. (author)
The disinfection of sewage sludge by irradiation has been discussed very intensively in the last few months. Powerful electron accelerators are now available and the main features of the irradiation of sewage sludge with fast electrons are discussed and the design parameters of such installations described. AEG-Telefunken is building an irradiation plant with a 1.5 MeV, 25 mA electron accelerator, to study the main features of electron irradiation of sewage sludge. (author)
Sewage sludges are the by-product generated during the treatment process of waste water, and they are conformed by a solid phase which origin is the accumulation of pollutant materials which has been added to water during natural and anthropogenic activities. Its handling is one of the most serious problems faced by water treatment plants which involve the production, gathering, transportation, re utilization and final disposal of sewage sludges. The main purpose of this project is to perform a technical evaluation of the process of sewage sludge irradiation for its possible application as a choice for treatment and final disposal. Irradiation with gammas from Cobalt-60 shows effectiveness in disinfestation of sewage sludges, since they reduce six times the microbial population with a 7 KGy dose. In like manners with doses of 10 KGy is possible to bring down in 70 % the concentration of organic compounds, as well as to eliminate the presence of 6 to 22 organic compounds on samples of sewage sludges. The whole content of this work is presented in six sections: Introduction, Antecedents, Methodology, Conclusions, Suggestions and Bibliography. (Author)
Popa, K.; Cecal, A.; Craciun, I.
The invention relates to the sewage treatment, in particular to the sewage biological treatmen from radioactive waste, namely from uranium. The process dor sewage biological treatment from uranium includes cultivation in the sewage of the aquatic plants Lemna minor and Spirulina platensis. The plants cultivation is carried out in two stages. In the first stage for cultivation is used Lemna minor in the second stage - Spirulina platensis . After finishing the plant cultivation it is carried out separation of their biomass. The result of the invention consists in increasing the uranyl ions by the biomass of plants cultivated in the sewage
Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru; Craciun, Iftimie Ionel; Rudic, Valeriu; Gulea, Aurelian; Cepoi, Liliana
The invention relates to the sewage treatment, in particular to the sewage biological treatment from radioactive waste, namely from uranium. The process for sewage biological treatment from uranium includes cultivation in the sewage of the aquatic plants Lemna minor and Spirulina platensis. The plant cultivation is carried out in two stages. In the first stage for cultivation is used Lemna minor and in the second stage - Spirulina platensis. After finishing the plant cultivation it is carried out separation of their biomass. The result of the invention consists in increasing the uranyl ions accumulation by the biomass of plants cultivated in the sewage.
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The ``Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans'' (Refuge...
Zuccarino-Crowe , Chiara M.; Taylor, William W.; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.
Lake trout refuges in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior are analogous to the concept of marine protected areas. These refuges, established specifically for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and closed to most forms of recreational and commercial fishing, were implicated as one of several management actions leading to successful rehabilitation of Lake Superior lake trout. To investigate the potential significance of Gull Island Shoal and Devils Island Shoal refuges for populations of not only lake trout but also other fish species, relative abundances of lake trout, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and cisco (Coregonus artedi) were compared between areas sampled inside versus outside of refuge boundaries. During 1982–2010, lake trout relative abundance was higher and increased faster inside the refuges, where lake trout fishing was prohibited, than outside the refuges. Over the same period, lake whitefish relative abundance increased faster inside than outside the refuges. Both evaluations provided clear evidence that refuges protected these species. In contrast, trends in relative abundance of cisco, a prey item of lake trout, did not differ significantly between areas inside and outside the refuges. This result did not suggest indirect or cascading refuge effects due to changes in predator levels. Overall, this study highlights the potential of species-specific refuges to benefit other fish species beyond those that were the refuges' original target. Improved understanding of refuge effects on multiple species of Great Lakes fishes can be valuable for developing rationales for refuge establishment and predicting associated fish community-level effects.
Combined impacts of Black-crowned Night-Heron predation/disturbance and various management activities on Roseate Tern productivity in 2003, and testing of a video surveillance system for recording the diurnal and nocturnal behavior of terns and night-herons at Falkner Island, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Connecticut, in 2004: Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Westbrook, Connecticut and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 5 Regional Office, Hadley, Massachusetts
Spendelow, J.A.; Kuter, M.
Falkner Island (FICT), a unit of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (SBMNWR) since 1985, is located in Long Island Sound 5 km south of Guilford, CT. For more than three decades it has been the site of the only large breeding colony in Connecticut of the federally endangered Northwest Atlantic population of Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) and the state's largest colony of Common Terns (S. hirundo). Both species have been studied at this site since 1978 as part of the Falkner Island Tern Project (FITP), and since 1987 also as part of a regional Cooperative Roseate Tern Metapopulation Dynamics and Ecology Project (CRTMP), both coordinated by Dr. Jeffrey A. Spendelow of the U.S. Geological Survey's Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (USGS-PWRC). From 1997-2002 the Roseate Tern breeding population at this site declined by more than 50% from about 150 to about 70 nesting pairs, mostly as a result of the nocturnal predation and disturbance of tern chicks and eggs by Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax). Here we report the results of research done with the goal of improving management of nocturnal predators and developing new practices/structures to reduce losses of tern eggs and chicks so as to prevent the abandonment of this site by Roseate Terns. Notification of release of the USGS 'Quick Response Funds' (QRF) that were to be used to support the part of this study entitled 'Nocturnal behavior/interactions of endangered Roseate Terns and Black-crowned Night-Herons', and final approval of the Study Plan for this research did not occur until after the breeding season in 2003 was well underway. As a result, some work will need to be completed during the 2004 field season. There are two major objectives of this study. The first is to collect basic information (a) on the nocturnal behavior and interactions of Roseate (and Common) Terns with predatory Black-crowned Night-Herons, and (b) on how the behavior of the
Full Text Available The sewage sludge disposal and cultivation methods consist in storage, agricultural use, compost production, biogas production or heat treatment. The sewage sludge production in municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in year 2013 in Poland amounted to 540.3 thousand Mg d.m. The sewage sludge for agricultural or natural use must satisfy chemical, sanitary and environmental safety requirements. The heavy metal content, including the mercury content, determines the sewage sludge disposal method. Mercury has a high chemical activity and biological form compounds with different properties. The properties of the mercury present in sewage sludge or composts, its potential bioavailability depend on its physicochemical forms. Different forms of mercury, which are found in soil and sediments and sewage sludge, may be determined using various techniques sequential extraction. In order to assess the bioavailability the analysis of fractional of mercury in samples of sewage sludge and composts was made. For this purpose the analytical procedure based on a four sequential extraction process was applied. Mercury fractions were classified as exchangeable (EX, base soluble (BS, acids soluble (AS and oxidizable (OX. This article presents the research results on the mercury compounds contents in sewage sludge subjected to drying process, combustion and in composted sewage sludge. During drying and combustion process of the sewage sludge, mercury transforms into volatile forms that could be emitted into the atmosphere. The mercury fractionation in composted sewage sludge proved that mercury in compost occurs mainly in an organic fraction and in a residual fraction that are scarce in the environment.
Full Text Available Organic and inorganic contaminants in sewage sludge may cause their presence also in the by-products formed during gasification processes. Thus, this paper presents multidirectional chemical instrumental activation analyses of dried sewage sludge as well as both solid (ash, char coal and liquid (tar by-products formed during sewage gasification in a fixed bed reactor which was carried out to assess the extent of that phenomenon. Significant differences were observed in the type of contaminants present in the solid and liquid by-products from the dried sewage sludge gasification. Except for heavy metals, the characteristics of the contaminants in the by-products, irrespective of their form (solid and liquid, were different from those initially determined in the sewage sludge. It has been found that gasification promotes the migration of certain valuable inorganic compounds from sewage sludge into solid by-products which might be recovered. On the other hand, the liquid by-products resulting from sewage sludge gasification require a separate process for their treatment or disposal due to their considerable loading with toxic and hazardous organic compounds (phenols and their derivatives.
The sewage sludge disposal and cultivation methods consist in storage, agricultural use, compost production, biogas production or heat treatment. The sewage sludge production in municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in year 2013 in Poland amounted to 540.3 thousand Mg d.m. The sewage sludge for agricultural or natural use must satisfy chemical, sanitary and environmental safety requirements. The heavy metal content, including the mercury content, determines the sewage sludge disposal metho...
Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi
A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.
Talat, B.; Ahsan-Ullah
The growth of mega-cities in recent times has brought to the fore a large number of issues with respect environmental conditions such as development of slum areas, poor localities, solid waste disposal, management of sewage system, lack of open spaces and health facilities. One of the major issues effecting environment proper disposal of sewage and development of sewage system including recycling of sewage water and its use. The heavy pressure of population calls for adequate provision of sewage disposal in the new areas and remodeling of systems in the old areas of the cities to ensure a pollution-free environment. Recycling of sewage and prevention of sewage discharge into natural water channels and the sea has to be undertaken on urgent bases. The paper seeks to outline the present status of sewage system of the city of Karachi, the problems involved and the proposals for management and development of the system compatible with the need and requirement of mega-city population. (author)
Trevisan, Rafael; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício; Dolores, Euler S; Mattos, Jacó J; Piazza, Clei E; Sasaki, Sílvio T; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C; Bícego, Márcia C; Dos Reis, Isis M M; Zacchi, Flávia L; Othero, Bárbara N M; Bastolla, Camila L V; Mello, Danielle F; Fraga, Ana Paula M; Wendt, Nestor; Toledo-Silva, Guilherme; Razzera, Guilherme; Dafre, Alcir L; de Melo, Cláudio M R; Bianchini, Adalto; Marques, Maria R F; Bainy, Afonso C D
Urban sewage is a concerning issue worldwide, threatening both wildlife and human health. The present study investigated protein oxidation in mangrove oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) exposed to seawater from Balneário Camboriú, an important tourist destination in Brazil that is affected by urban sewage. Oysters were exposed for 24 h to seawater collected close to the Camboriú River (CAM1) or 1 km away (CAM2). Seawater from an aquaculture laboratory was used as a reference. Local sewage input was marked by higher levels of coliforms, nitrogen, and phosphorus in seawater, as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), and fecal steroid in sediments at CAM1. Exposure of oysters to CAM1 caused marked bioaccumulation of LABs and decreased PAH and PCB concentrations after exposure to both CAM1 and CAM2. Protein thiol oxidation in gills, digestive gland, and hemolymph was evaluated. Lower levels of reduced protein thiols were detected in hemolymph from CAM1, and actin, segon, and dominin were identified as targets of protein thiol oxidation. Dominin susceptibility to oxidation was confirmed in vitro by exposure to peroxides and hypochlorous acid, and 2 cysteine residues were identified as potential sites of oxidation. Overall, these data indicate that urban sewage contamination in local waters has a toxic potential and that protein thiol oxidation in hemolymph could be a useful biomarker of oxidative stress in bivalves exposed to contaminants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1833-1845. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage collection system. 35.925-13... Sewage collection system. That, if the project involves sewage collection system work, such work (a) is... existing or planned capacity to adequately treat such collected sewage. Replacement or major rehabilitation...
Woodward, Andrea; Hollar, Kathy
Refuges, Contribute to the implementation of the State Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategies, and Help achieve the objectives of the National Fish Habitat Partnerships and regionally based bird conservation plans (for example, North American Waterfowl Management Plan, U.S. Pacific Island Shorebird Conservation Plans, Intermountain West Regional Shorebird Plan, etc.). The Partners Program accomplishes these priorities by: Developing and maintaining strong partnerships, and delivering on-the-ground habitat restoration projects designed to reestablish habitat function and restore natural processes; Addressing key habitat limiting factors for declining species; Providing corridors for wildlife and decrease impediments to native fish and wildlife migration; and Enhancing native plant communities by reducing invasive species and improving native species composition. The Coastal Program is a voluntary fish and wildlife conservation program that focuses on watershed-scale, long-term collaborative resource planning and on-the-ground restoration projects in high-priority coastal areas. The Coastal Program conducts planning and restoration work on private, State, and Federal lands, and partnerships with other agencies-Native American Tribes, citizens, and organizations are emphasized. Coastal Program goals include restoring and protecting coastal habitat, providing technical and cost-sharing assistance where appropriate, supporting community-based restoration, collecting and developing information on the status of and threats to fish and wildlife, and using outreach to promote stewardship of coastal resources. The diversity of habitats and partners in Region 1 present many opportunities for conducting restoration projects. Faced with this abundance of opportunity, the Partners Program and Coastal Program must ensure that limited staffing and project dollars are allocated to benefit the highest priority resources and achieve the highest quality results for Federal trust
In the Geiselbullach sewage treatment plant near Munich, sewage irradiation by a 60 Co source is being investigated on a technical scale. 145 m 3 of sewage sludge are irradiated per day and then used as field fertilizer. (orig./HBR) [de
Koizumi, Itsuro; Kanazawa, Yukiyo; Tanaka, Yuuki
Fishermen often anecdotally report an unexpected increase of fish caught in small tributary streams during floods, presumably due to refuge-seeking behavior from the main stem. From a population perspective, this implies the significance of refuge habitats and connectivity for population viability against natural disturbances. Despite the plausibility, however, surprisingly few studies have examined the tributary refuge hypothesis, mainly due to the difficulty in field survey during floods. Here, we made use of a large-scale controlled flood to assess whether fishes move into tributaries during flooding in the main stem. A planned water release from the Satsunai River Dam located on Hokkaido Island in Japan rapidly increased the main stem discharge by more than 20-fold. Before, during, and after flooding censuses in four tributaries provided evidence of the refuge-seeking behavior of fishes from the main stem. For example, more than 10 Dolly Varden char, a salmonid fish, were caught in a tributary during the flood, even though almost no individuals were captured before or after the flood. The fish responded immediately to the flooding, suggesting the need for studies during disturbances. In addition, the likelihood of refuge movements varied among tributaries, suggesting the importance of local environmental differences between tributary and the main stem habitats. This is the first study to experimentally confirm the tributary refuge hypothesis, and underscores the roles of habitat diversity and connectivity during disturbances, even though some habitats are not used during normal conditions.
Transient electromagnetic soundings in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, near the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and the Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge (field seasons 2007, 2009, and 2011)
Fitterman, David V.
Transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings were made in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, to map the location of a blue clay unit as well as to investigate the presence of suspected faults. A total of 147 soundings were made near and in Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, and an additional 6 soundings were made near Hansen Bluff on the eastern edge of the Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge. The blue clay is a significant hydrologic feature in the area that separates an unconfined surface aquifer from a deeper confined aquifer. Knowledge of its location is important to regional hydrological models. Previous analysis of well logs has shown that the blue clay has a resistivity of 10 ohm-meters or less, which is in contrast to the higher resistivity of sand, gravel, and other clay units found in the area, making it a very good target for TEM soundings. The top of the blue clay was found to have considerable relief, suggesting the possibility of deformation of the clay during or after deposition. Because of rift activity, deformation is to be expected. Of the TEM profiles made across faults identified by aeromagnetic data, some showed resistivity variations and (or) subsurface elevation relief of resistivity units, suggestive of faulting. Such patterns were not associated with all suspected faults. The Hansen Bluff profile showed variations in resistivity and depth to conductor that coincide with a scarp between the highlands to the east and the floodplain of the Rio Grande to the west.
Lv, Dongyu; Fan, Meng; Kang, Yun; Blanco, Krystal
This paper considers a significant problem in biological control of algae issue in ecological environment. A four-dimensional dynamic model is carefully formulated to characterize the interactions among phytoplankton, submerged macrophyte, zooplankton, and general fish class in a lake ecosystem. The predation relationship is modeled by Beddington-DeAngelis functional responses derived from the classical Holling time budget arguments. Qualitative analyses of the global dynamics show that the system can generate very rich dynamics with potentially 10 different equilibria and several bistable scenarios. We perform analysis on the existence and local stability of equilibria and explore the refuge effect of macrophyte on the zooplankton with numerical simulations on aquatic ecosystems. We also discuss effective methods of biological control used to restrain the increase of phytoplankton. Our study shows the proposed model could have rich and complex dynamics including but not limited to bistable and chaotic phenomenon. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that both the refuge constant and the density of the macrophytes are two key factors where refuge effects take place. In addition, the intraspecific competition between the macrophyte and the phytoplankton can also affect the macrophyte's refuge effect. Our analytical and simulation results suggest that macrophytes provide structure and shelter against predation for zooplankton such that it could restore the zooplankton population, and that planting macrophyte properly might achieve the purpose of controlling algae growth.
... refuge each day (see §§ 27.93 and 27.94 of this chapter). B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.26 Connecticut. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing and are...
Pirsing, A. [Siemens AG, Anlagentechnik/Wasserwirtschaft (ATD TD ISA 6), Karlsruhe (Germany)
Neural networks are a new instrument in process automation. Contrary to conventional methods, they can dispense with theoretical models. This independence from mathematical models is one of their most important advantages. The article describes how typical sewage parameters can be measured on-line by means of neural networks. On-line measurement of parameters of pollution, for instance COD in sewage, permits new automatic control strategies for the operation of a sewage treatment plant, aiming at the reduction of pollutant freights with simultaneous minimization of operating cost. (orig./SR)
Stefaniuk, Magdalena; Oleszczuk, Patryk
Due to an increased content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently found in sewage sludges, it is necessary to find solutions that will reduce the environmental hazard associated with their presence. The aim of this study was to determine changes of total and freely dissolved concentration of PAHs in sewage sludge-biochar-amended soil. Two different sewage sludges and biochars with varying properties were tested. Biochars (BC) were produced from biogas residues at 400 °C or 600 °C and from willow at 600 °C. The freely dissolved PAH concentration was determined by means of passive sampling using polyoxymethylene (POM). Total and freely dissolved PAH concentration was monitored at the beginning of the experiment and after 90 days of aging of the sewage sludge with the biochar and soil. Apart from chemical evaluation, the effect of biochar addition on the toxicity of the tested materials on bacteria - Vibrio fischeri (Microtox ® ), plants - Lepidium sativum (Phytotestkit F, Phytotoxkit F), and Collembola - Folsomia candida (Collembolan test) was evaluated. The addition of biochar to the sewage sludges decreased the content of C free PAHs. A reduction from 11 to 43% of sewage sludge toxicity or positive effects on plants expressed by root growth stimulation from 6 to 25% to the control was also found. The range of reduction of C free PAHs and toxicity was dependent on the type of biochar. After 90 days of incubation of the biochars with the sewage sludge in the soil, C free PAHs and toxicity were found to further decrease compared to the soil with sewage sludge alone. The obtained results show that the addition of biochar to sewage sludges may significantly reduce the risk associated with their environmental use both in terms of PAH content and toxicity of the materials tested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Claudia Bruna Rizzardini
Full Text Available Activated sludge is now one of the most widely used biological processes for the treatment of wastewaters from medium to large populations. It produces high amounts of sewage sludge that can be managed and perceived in two main ways: as a waste it is discharged in landfill, as a fertilizer it is disposed in agriculture with direct application to soil or subjected to anaerobic digestion and composting. Other solutions, such as incineration or production of concrete, bricks and asphalt play a secondary role in terms of their degree of diffusion. The agronomical value of domestic sewage sludge is a proved question, which may be hidden by the presence of several pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds and pathogens. In this way, the sustainability of sewage sludge agricultural disposal requires a value judgment based on knowledge and evaluation of the level of pollution of both sewage sludge and soil. The article analyzed a typical Italian case study, a water management system of small communities, applying the criteria of evaluation of the last official document of European Union about sewage sludge land application, the “Working Document on Sludge (3rd draft, 2000”. The report brought out good sewage sludge from small wastewater treatment plants and soils quality suggesting a sustainable application.
Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m 3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which it is designed when tested in accordance...
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the building and immediate premises shall be...
Full text: Intensive development of power, chemical, oil, machine-building and other industries results in increase of industrial toxic emissions. Local pollutions as a result of emissions of the industrial enterprises in many cases surpass the maximum permissible sanitary norms. E.g. works connected to an oil recovery, have led to pollution of huge territories of the Azerbaijan Republic, including Caspian Sea. Development of scientific bases of optimization of operating practices of industrial sewage treatment will allow to liquidate the harmful impurities. It is necessary for preservation of the environment to increase the clearing and sewage quality degree. During modeling a real process of sewage treatment from polluting impurities we need to build more and more complex models. It demands in return the application of applied mathematics methods for process of clearing of liquids. General theory and technology of sewage treatment, in particular, from heavy metals, radioactive nuclides now are absent. Achievement of an object provides for solution of the following problems: a) Research of laws of influence of various technological and physical and chemical parameters on efficiency of waste treatment from heavy metals and radioactive nuclides; b) Development of the effective reagents, allowing to remove from sewage cations of toxic heavy metals and radioactive nuclides; c) Construction of statistical models of an experimental material on clearing concrete sewage; d) Modeling of searches of optimum modes of sewage treatment processes from heavy metals ions; e) Development of optimum processes of sewage treatment from toxic heavy metals ions. The mentioned above problems are scantily studied both in experimental, and in the theoretical point of view. Expected scientific novelty of the offered project can be made in the following: Technological modes of carrying out of deep clearing processes of real sewage from toxic impurities, in particular from heavy metals ions
Ivanova, O.E.; Bogdanov, M.V.; Kazantseva, V.A.; Gabrilevskaia, L.N.; Kodkind, G.K.H.
The study of ozone inactivation of enteroviruses in sewage showed the presence in sewage of suspensions of organic origin and bacterial flora to influence the rate of inactivation. The inactivation rate of poliomyelitis virus in sewage free from organic suspension and bacterial flora was significantly higher than that in sewage containing such suspension and bacterial flora. The inactivation rate of enteroviruses was found not to depend upon the protein and salt composition and pH of sewage or strain appurtenance of viruses. The inactivation rate of enteroviruses directly depended upon the dose of ozone and time of contact with it. Differences in the resistance of different types of poliomyelitis virus, ECHO and Coxsackie viruses to the effect of ozone are likely exist. These differences are manifested within the range of relatively small doses of ozone. E. coli is more resistant to ozone than entero-viruses. The results of laboratory studies were used to choose the regimen of sanitation of urban sewage to be used in technological cycles of industrial enterprises.
...-specific permits, at Fish and Wildlife Service Regional and Washington, DC Offices, and at other locations....55 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... the holder on the front. ...
Steen, Kim Arild; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Karstoft, Henrik
This report contains a progress report for the ph.d. project titled “Wildlife Communication”. The project focuses on investigating how signal processing and pattern recognition can be used to improve wildlife management in agriculture. Wildlife management systems used today experience habituation...
Newton, Ryan J.; McLellan, Sandra L.; Dila, Deborah K.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Eren, A. Murat
ABSTRACT Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome. PMID:25714718
... designated a World Biosphere Reserve by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization... the National Park Service and the FWS, Assateague Island supports a growing tourism economy in the... Herbert H. Bateman Educational and Administrative Center, a green facility that opened in 2003, is the...
Beurer, P.; Geering, F.
The 'proper' course for the disposal of sewage sludge is a topic that has continually sparked intense discussion for years. New legal regulations have developed which have significantly changed the disposal structure. Nevertheless, the consumer market of agriculture products has an increasing influence on sewage sludge recycling possibilities. In this report, the changes in sewage sludge disposal within the last ten years and the expected development is pointed out. On account of legal guidelines and of political market influences, the thermal recycling of sewage sludge is considered as the future solution, which should, however, be adapted according to marginal situations. (author)
Full Text Available Background The extent of social behaviour among reptiles is underappreciated. Two types of aggregations are recognized in lizards: ecological and social, i.e., related to the attraction to a site or to animals of the same species, respectively. As most lizards are territorial, aggregations increase the probability of aggressive interactions among individuals, a density-dependent behaviour. Methods After some spurious observations of aggregation behaviour in the endemic Cabo Verde nocturnal gecko Tarentola substituta, we conducted a field-based study in order to thoroughly characterize it. We sampled 48 transects and 40 10 × 10 m quadrats on São Vicente Island to describe the incidence, size and composition of aggregations and to study the effect of gecko and refuge density, plus refuge quality, on refuge sharing. We hypothesize that when density of animals and scarcity of high-quality refuges is higher, lizards have increased probability of aggregating. We also predict a consistent pattern of size and composition of groups (male–female pairs, only one adult male per group throughout the year if there is a selected behaviour to avoid agonistic interactions, and low thermal advantage to aggregating individuals. Results We present one of the first evidences of aggregation for Phyllodactylidae geckos. We found that T. substituta forms aggregations around 30–40% of the time, and that refuges are almost always shared by a female-male pair, sometimes with a juvenile, probably a mechanism to avoid aggressive interactions. We also observed that refuge sharing is dependent on refuge quality, as medium–large (thermally more stable and positively selected rocks are shared much more frequently than small ones, but independent of adult sizes. Refuge sharing is also directly related to the density of geckos and inversely related to the density of high-quality refuges. We found no relation between body temperatures of geckos and refuge sharing when
Vasconcelos, Raquel; Rocha, Sara; Santos, Xavier
The extent of social behaviour among reptiles is underappreciated. Two types of aggregations are recognized in lizards: ecological and social, i.e., related to the attraction to a site or to animals of the same species, respectively. As most lizards are territorial, aggregations increase the probability of aggressive interactions among individuals, a density-dependent behaviour. After some spurious observations of aggregation behaviour in the endemic Cabo Verde nocturnal gecko Tarentola substituta, we conducted a field-based study in order to thoroughly characterize it. We sampled 48 transects and 40 10 × 10 m quadrats on São Vicente Island to describe the incidence, size and composition of aggregations and to study the effect of gecko and refuge density, plus refuge quality, on refuge sharing. We hypothesize that when density of animals and scarcity of high-quality refuges is higher, lizards have increased probability of aggregating. We also predict a consistent pattern of size and composition of groups (male-female pairs, only one adult male per group) throughout the year if there is a selected behaviour to avoid agonistic interactions, and low thermal advantage to aggregating individuals. We present one of the first evidences of aggregation for Phyllodactylidae geckos. We found that T. substituta forms aggregations around 30-40% of the time, and that refuges are almost always shared by a female-male pair, sometimes with a juvenile, probably a mechanism to avoid aggressive interactions. We also observed that refuge sharing is dependent on refuge quality, as medium-large (thermally more stable and positively selected) rocks are shared much more frequently than small ones, but independent of adult sizes. Refuge sharing is also directly related to the density of geckos and inversely related to the density of high-quality refuges. We found no relation between body temperatures of geckos and refuge sharing when controlling the effect of rock/air temperature
Ghosh, Joydev; Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup
Highlights: • The effects of interplay between prey refugia and additional food are reported. • Hopf bifurcation conditions are derived analytically. • Existence of unique limit cycle is shown analytically. • Predator extinction may be possible at very high prey refuge ecological systems. - Abstract: The impacts of additional food for predator on the dynamics of a prey-predator model with prey refuge are investigated. The equilibrium points and their stability behaviours are determined. Hopf bifurcation conditions are derived analytically. Most significantly, existence conditions for unique stable limit cycle in the phase plane are shown analytically. The analytical results are in well agreement with the numerical simulation results. Effects of variation of refuge level as well as the variation of quality and quantity of additional food on the dynamics are reported with the help of bifurcation diagrams. It is found that high quality and high quantity of additional food supports oscillatory coexistence of species. It is observed that predator extinction possibility in high prey refuge ecological systems may be removed by supplying additional food to predator population. The reported theoretical results may be useful to conservation biologist for species conservation in real world ecological systems.
Newton, Ryan J; McLellan, Sandra L; Dila, Deborah K; Vineis, Joseph H; Morrison, Hilary G; Eren, A Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L
Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome. The gut microbiota serves important functions in healthy humans. Numerous projects aim to define a healthy gut microbiome and its association with health states. However
Rosiak, J.; Perkowski, J.; Pekala, W.
Influence of irradiation on organisms appearing in farm sewage has been discussed. Practical examples of employing the radiation to sterilization of municipal wastes and liquid sewage from the industrial swine farms have been presented. (author)
Blanco, Guillermo; Lemus, Jesús A; Grande, Javier
The spread of pathogens in the environment due to human activities (pathogen pollution) may be involved in the emergence of many diseases in humans, livestock and wildlife. When manure from medicated livestock and urban effluents is spread onto agricultural land, both residues of antibiotics and bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance may be introduced into the environment. The transmission of bacterial resistance from livestock and humans to wildlife remains poorly understood even while wild animals may act as reservoirs of resistance that may be amplified and spread in the environment. We determined bacterial resistance to antibiotics in wildlife using the red-billed chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax as a potential bioindicator of soil health, and evaluated the role of agricultural manuring with waste of different origins in the acquisition and characteristics of such resistance. Agricultural manure was found to harbor high levels of bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics. Choughs from areas where manure landspreading is a common agricultural practice harbor a high bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics, resembling the resistance profile found in the waste (pig slurry and sewage sludge) used in each area. The transfer of bacterial resistance to wildlife should be considered as an important risk for environmental health when agricultural manuring involves fecal material containing multiresistant enteric bacteria including pathogens from livestock operations and urban areas. The assessment of bacterial resistance in wild animals may be valuable for the monitoring of environmental health and for the management of emergent infectious diseases influenced by the impact of different human activities in the environment.
Lutz, T J; Bissert, P T; Homce, G T; Yonkey, J A
Underground refuge alternatives require an air source to supply breathable air to the occupants. This requires pressure relief valves to prevent unsafe pressures from building up within the refuge alternative. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) mandates that pressure relief valves prevent pressure from exceeding 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure when a fan or compressor is used for the air supply. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) tested a variety of pressure relief valves using an instrumented test fixture consisting of data acquisition equipment, a centrifugal blower, ductwork and various sensors to determine if the subject pressure relief valves meet the MSHA requirement. Relief pressures and flow characteristics, including opening pressure and flow rate, were measured for five different pressure relief valves under a variety of conditions. The subject pressure relief valves included two off-the-shelf modified check valves, two check valves used in MSHA-approved built-in-place refuge alternatives, and a commercially available valve that was designed for a steel refuge alternative and is currently being used in some built-in-place refuge alternatives. The test results showed relief pressures ranging from 0.20 to 1.53 kPa (0.03 to 0.22 psi) and flow rates up to 19.3 m 3 /min (683 scfm). As tested, some of the pressure relief valves did not meet the 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi) relief specification.
Neilson, Edward L., Jr.; Benson, Delwin E.
The National 4-H Wildlife Invitational is a competitive event to teach youth about the fundamentals of wildlife management. Youth learn that management for wildlife means management of wildlife habitat and providing for the needs of wildlife. This handbook provides information about wildlife habitat management concepts in both urban and rural…
Salmon populations require river networks that provide water temperature regimes sufficient to support a diversity of salmonid life histories across space and time. The importance of cold water refuges for migrating adult salmon and steelhead may seem intuitive, and refuges are c...
A study on dewatering properties of radiosterilized sewage sludge of different type and origin was carried out. For comparison, also heat-treated (pasteurized) sludge was investigated. The specific filtration resistance of irradiated sewage sludge was lowered in all types of sludge examined. In general, pasteurization increased this parameter. The settling properties of irradiated digested sewage sludge was slightly improved, mainly in the first hours after treatment. Microbial effects may mask the real sedimentation relations especcially in aerobically stabilized sludges. A pasteurization treatment of sewage sludge caused an increased content of soluble substances and suspended particles in the supernatant water. The supernatant water from irradiated sludge showed a smaller increase
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat in veterinary medicine and human healthcare. Resistance genes can spread from animals, through the food-chain, and back to humans. Sewage sludge may act as the link back from humans to animals. The main aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE in treated sewage sludge, in a Swedish waste water treatment plant (WWTP, and to compare VRE isolates from sewage sludge with isolates from humans and chickens. Methods During a four month long study, sewage sludge was collected weekly and cultured for VRE. The VRE isolates from sewage sludge were analysed and compared to each other and to human and chicken VRE isolates by biochemical typing (PhenePlate, PFGE and antibiograms. Results Biochemical typing (PhenePlate-FS and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE revealed prevalence of specific VRE strains in sewage sludge for up to 16 weeks. No connection was found between the VRE strains isolated from sludge, chickens and humans, indicating that human VRE did not originate from Swedish chicken. Conclusion This study demonstrated widespread occurrence of VRE in sewage sludge in the studied WWTP. This implies a risk of antimicrobial resistance being spread to new farms and to the society via the environment if the sewage sludge is used on arable land.
McCaslin, B.D.; O'Connor, G.A.; Sivinski, J.S.
One of the cheapest and generally most convenient methods of disposing of sewage sludge is by land application. The greatest risks of land application are potential contamination of the environment by heavy metals, other toxicants, and pathogens. Irradiation of sewage sludge has been shown to have little or no effect on sludge elements available to plants, and can remove the potential pathogen problem. Work at New Mexico State University has shown that, with little risk, gamma-irradiated sewage sludge can be used to great advantage for crop production, especially on highly calcareous soils low in heavy metals essential for plant growth
Wear, Stephanie L; Thurber, Rebecca Vega
Coral reefs are in decline worldwide, and land-derived sources of pollution, including sewage, are a major force driving that deterioration. This review presents evidence that sewage discharge occurs in waters surrounding at least 104 of 112 reef geographies. Studies often refer to sewage as a single stressor. However, we show that it is more accurately characterized as a multiple stressor. Many of the individual agents found within sewage, specifically freshwater, inorganic nutrients, pathogens, endocrine disrupters, suspended solids, sediments, and heavy metals, can severely impair coral growth and/or reproduction. These components of sewage may interact with each other to create as-yet poorly understood synergisms (e.g., nutrients facilitate pathogen growth), and escalate impacts of other, non-sewage-based stressors. Surprisingly few published studies have examined impacts of sewage in the field, but those that have suggest negative effects on coral reefs. Because sewage discharge proximal to sensitive coral reefs is widespread across the tropics, it is imperative for coral reef-focused institutions to increase investment in threat-abatement strategies for mitigating sewage pollution. © 2015 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.
This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank
... Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D.... [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. We allow hunting of white-tailed deer on designated areas of the refuge in... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.54 Ohio...
An investigation of evapotranspiration, vegetation quantity and composition, and depth to the water table below the land surface was made at three sites in two fallowed agricultural lots on the 15,800-hectare Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge in northern California during the 2000 growing season. All three sites had been farmed during 1999, but were not irrigated since the 1999 growing season. Vegetation at the lot C1B and lot 6 stubble sites included weedy species and small grain plants. The lot 6 cover crop site supported a crop of cereal rye that had been planted during the previous winter. Percentage of coverage by live vegetation ranged from 0 to 43.2 percent at the lot C1B site, from approximately 0 to 63.2 percent at the lot 6 stubble site, and it was estimated to range from 0 to greater than 90 percent at the lot 6 cover crop site. Evapotranspiration was measured using the Bowen ratio energy balance technique and it was estimated using a model that was based on the Priestley-Taylor equation and a model that was based on reference evapotranspiration with grass as the reference crop. Total evapotranspiration during May to October varied little among the three evapotranspiration measurement sites, although the timing of evapotranspiration losses did vary among the sites. Total evapotranspiration from the lot C1B site was 426 millimeters, total evapotranspiration from the lot 6 stubble site was 444 millimeters, and total evapotranspiration from the lot 6 cover crop site was 435 millimeters. The months of May to July accounted for approximately 78 percent of the total evapotranspiration from the lot C1B site, approximately 63 percent of the evapotranspiration from the lot 6 stubble site, and approximately 86 percent of the total evapotranspiration from the lot 6 cover crop site. Estimated growing season precipitation accounted for 16 percent of the growing-season evapotranspiration at the lot C1B site and for 17 percent of the growing-season evapotranspiration
Suess, A.; Rosopulo, A.; Borchert, H.; Beck, Th.; Bauchhenss, J.; Schurmann, G.
Since hygienization of sewage sludge will be important for an agricultural application it is necessary to study the effect of differently treated sewage sludge on plants and soil. In bean and maize experiments in 1973 and 1974 it was found that the treatment of sewage sludge is less important than soil properties and water capacity. Analysis on the efficiency of nutrients, minor elements and heavy metals from differently treated sewage sludge to plants were performed. Microbiological greenhouse studies indicated that there is a distinct tendency for different reactions, that irradiated sewage sludge gives a slightly better effect than untreated sludge, while the heat-treated sewage sludge indicates always a decrease, especially with the increase of applied amounts (respiration, protease and nitrification). In the field experiments there were almost no differences between untreated and irradiated sewage sludge, whereas there was always a smaller microbial activity after application of heat-treated sewage sludge. Studies on soil fauna (especially on Collemboles and Oribatidae) in the field trials indicate the influences of abiotic factors on the different locations. Besides these influences there was a decrease in the number of Collemboles and mites (in comparison with a normal fertilized plot) on the plots with 800 m 3 /ha treated sewage sludge. There was a remarkably large decrease in the plots with irradiated sewage sludge after an application of 800 m 3 /ha. Depending on the soil type, physical and chemical studies indicated an increase in the effective field capacity after the application of sewage sludge, and sometimes the best effects occurred with irradiated sewage sludge. Relative high aggregate values were observed (6-2, 6-5 mm diameter) in the plots with irradiated sewage sludge. (author)
... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.36... bartering of permits. This permit is nontransferable. iv. You may place decoys out Saturday morning at the...
Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Neal, Benjamin P.; Price, Nichole N.; Conklin, Eric; Pollock, Amanda
In 2007, a phase shift from corals to corallimorpharians (CM) centered around a shipwreck was documented at Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands. Subsequent surveys revealed CM to be overgrowing the reef benthos, including corals and coralline algae, potentially placing coral ecosystems in the atoll at risk. This prompted the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the lead management agency of the atoll, to remove the shipwreck. Subsequent surveys showed reductions in CM around the ship impact site. We explain patterns of spread of the CM in terms of both life history and local currents and show with a pilot study that pulverized bleach may be an effective tool to eradicate CM on a local scale. If applied strategically, particularly in heavily infested (> 66% cover) areas, active intervention such as this could be an effective management tool to reduce CM impact on localized areas and decrease colonization rate of remaining reefs. This is the first documentation of the response of an invasive cnidarian to shipwreck removal. While this was a singular event in Palmyra, the spatial and temporal patterns of this invasion and the eradications lessons described herein, are useful for anticipating and controlling similar situations elsewhere.
Full Text Available In order to study the optimal operating condition of the sewage treatment material PVFM(polyvinyl formal, the mechanical blowing method and the chemical foaming method are adopted. Single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments are conducted to study the factors including the amount of raw materials, reaction time and reaction temperature influencing the preparation of the material PVFM. The material is characterized by SEM. The properties of the material are explored through the contrastive experiments of sewage treatment. The results show that when PVA mass concentration is 9% (50 mL, cellulose content is 0.4 g, sulfuric acid content is 6 mL, formaldehyde content is 6 mL, SDS content is 0.4 g, carbonate calcium content is 0.8 g, reaction temperature is 30 ℃, the dripping time of sulfuric acid is 9 minutes, the dripping time of formaldehyde is 4 minutes, and the curing time is 8 hours, the material has good physical and chemical property, and the results of the contrastive experiments of sewage treatment show that PVFM has good removal effects on both COD and NH4+-N in simulated sewage. The sewage treatment material PVFM with good properties can be obtained by the mechanical blowing method and the chemical foaming method.
... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.107 Facilitating enforcement. Water vehicles operating in manatee sanctuary or refuge...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 27.96 Section 27.96 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.96 Advertising. Except as...
Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P. K.; Sasmal, S.K.
a predator-prey system with prey refuge and additional food for predator apart from the focal prey in the presence of diffusion. Our main aim is to study the interactive effects of prey refuge and additional food on the system dynamics and especially on the controllability of prey (pest). Different types......Additional food for predators has been considered as one of the best established techniques in integrated pest management and biological conservation programs. In natural systems, there are several other factors, e.g., prey refuge, affect the success of pest control. In this paper, we analyze...... of Turing patterns such as stripes, spots, holes, and mixtures of them are obtained. It is found that the supply of additional food to the predator is unable to control the prey (pest) population when prey refuge is high. Moreover, when both prey refuge and additional food are low, spatial distribution...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terracing uses existing bottom sediments to form terraces or ridges at marsh elevation and the intertidal zone is planted with marsh vegetation. This study examined...
Cadwell, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.
This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the wildlife resources of the Site. Wildlife populations inhabiting the Hanford Site are monitored in order to measure the status and condition of the populations and assess effects of Hanford operations.
Cadwell, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.
This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the wildlife resources of the Site. Wildlife populations inhabiting the Hanford Site are monitored in order to measure the status and condition of the populations and assess effects of Hanford operations
Shirasaki, Makoto; Hisaoka, Natsuki
Radioactive substances were discharged over a wide range from the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company. As a result, in sewer system, especially in the combined sewer system that jointly collects rainwater and sewage, radioactive substances accumulated on the surface of urban areas were transferred together with rainwater to sewage plants and accumulated there. In the process of further treatment, radioactive substances were transferred to and concentrated in sewage sludge, and a high concentration of radioactive substances were detected in incineration ash. For this reason, some sewage plants still continuously store dewatered sludge, incinerator ash, etc. This paper introduces the current state of waste treatment from the published data from each local government in Tohoku and Kanto districts. As for the sewer, which is essential as a lifeline, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, together with the Japan Sewage Works Association, established 'Investigative Commission on Radioactive Substance Countermeasures in Sewerage System.' This group grasped the damage situation due to radioactive substances, and summarized the measures to be taken by sewage managers, such as the storage method for sewage sludge containing radioactive substances as well as the method for the volume reduction of sewage sludge. (O.A.)
Chen, Zhihua; Hu, Mian; Cui, Baihui; Liu, Shiming; Guo, Dabin; Xiao, Bo
The effects of bioleaching on sewage sludge pyrolysis were studied. Sewage sludge was treated by bioleaching with solid concentrations of 6% (w/v), 8% (w/v), 10% (w/v). Results showed that bioleaching treatment could modify the physicochemical properties of sewage sludge and enhance the metals removal. The optimum removal efficiencies of heavy metals were achieved with solid concentration of 6% (w/v) bioleaching treatment: Cu, 73.08%; Zn, 78.67%; Pb, 24.65%; Cd, 79.46%. The characterization results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the bioleached sewage sludge with a 6% (w/v) solid concentration treatment was the easiest to decompose. Pyrolytic experiments of bioleached sewage sludge were performed in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor. Results indicated that bioleaching treatment greatly influenced the product yields and gas composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Beurer, P.; Geering, F.
This article presents a review of the state-of-the-art in the disposal of the sewage sludge that is left over after treatment of wastewater. Also, developments over the past ten years both in market structures and in legislation are discussed and future developments are reviewed. On account of legislation and political influences on the market, the thermal exploitation of sewage sludge is looked at in depth. The ecological and economic aspects of sewage sludge disposal are examined and the costs of different methods of sewage sludge treatment are compared. Various methods of disposal including dumping, composting, incineration in cement ovens, coal-fired power stations and waste incineration facilities are discussed, as is burning in special sludge incineration plant. A prognosis is made on the development of sewage sludge quantities for Germany, Switzerland and Austria over the next years
The fate of selected substances during sewage treatment was investigated in the Marburg/Cappel sewage plant. The following parameters were measured: Concentrations of the metal ions of Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ca and Zn; pH; conductivity; extinctions at 254 and 436 nm; phosphate, chloride and solids concentrations in the sample. Heavy metals (in solution and in bands) were eliminated in the following order: Cr(97%) > Pb(96%) > Cu(84%) > Zn(80%) > Ni(72%) > Cd(61%). Further, the effects of EDTA on the bonded and dissolved metal ions of iron(III), zinc(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) were investigated in a sewage sample. Resolution of bonded metals was observed only in the case of zinc. (orig.) [de
Arceneaux, J. C.; Meselhe, E. A.; Habib, E.; Waldon, M. G.
The Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge overlays an area termed Water Conservation Area 1 (WCA-1, a 143,000 acre (58,000 ha) freshwater wetland. It is a remnant of the northern Everglades in Palm Beach County, Florida, USA. Sheetflow that naturally would flow across the Refuge wetlands was disrupted in the 1950s and early 1960s by construction of stormwater pumps, and levees with associated borrow canals which hydraulically isolated the Refuge from its watershed. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS) concludes that changes in the water quantity, timing, and quality have caused negative impacts to the Refuge ecosystem. It is a top priority of the Refuge to ensure appropriate management that will produce maximum benefits for fish and wildlife, while meeting flood control and water supply needs. Models can improve our understanding and support improvement in these management decisions. The development of a water budget for the Loxahatchee Refuge will provide one useful modeling tool in support of Refuge water management decisions. The water budget model reported here was developed as a double- box (2-compartment) model with a daily time step that predicts temporal variations of water level in the Refuge rim canal and interior marsh based on observed inflows, outflows, precipitation, and evapotranspiration. The water budget model was implemented using Microsoft EXCEL. The model calibration period was from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 1999; the validation period extended from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004. Statistical analyses demonstrate the utility of this simple water budget model to predict the temporal variation of water levels in both the Refuge marsh and rim canal. The Refuge water budget model is currently being applied to evaluate various water management scenarios for the Refuge. Preliminary results modeling the mass balance of water quality constituents, including chloride, total phosphorus are encouraging. Success of this
... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine... Underground Coal Mines DATES: Submit comments on or before April 2, 2012. ADDRESSES: Comments must be.... Title: Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. OMB Number: 1219-0146. Affected Public: Business...
Schneider, P.; Tiefenbrunner, F.; Dierich, M.P.; Brunner, P.
In a sewage plant with radioactive contaminated sewage an accumulation of radionuclide in the sewage sludge was to be found. The specific activities are in inverse proportion to the water content of the sewage sludge, the dehydrated sewage sludge shows the highest specific activities. These enriched radionuclides seem to be absorbed from the sludge. Yet they can be utilized by plants. This was demonstrated in experiments with Trifolium repens and Secale cereale, where the rate of absorption amounted 15-33% (inCi/kg dry weight plant:nCi/kg dry weight soil X 100) (transfer factors). This is why fertilization with radioactive contaminated sewage sludge seems to cause problems. In further experiments an extraction of radionuclides from ashed sewage sludge was shown. By acidifying the mobile phasis an increase in radioactivity in the eluated fractions was achieved. (orig./HP) [de
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gambling. 27.85 Section 27.85 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.85 Gambling. Gambling in any form, or the operation of gambling devices, for money or otherwise, on any national wildlife...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lost and found articles. 25.22 Section 25.22 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Lost and found articles. Lost articles or money found on a national wildlife refuge are to be...
Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J.
This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author)
Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J. (Nordion International Inc., Kanata, Ontario (Canada))
This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author).
Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri
This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.
Ma, Bin; Wang, Shanyun; Cao, Shenbin; Miao, Yuanyuan; Jia, Fangxu; Du, Rui; Peng, Yongzhen
Biological nitrogen removal from sewage via anammox is a promising and feasible technology to make sewage treatment energy-neutral or energy-positive. Good retention of anammox bacteria is the premise of achieving sewage treatment via anammox. Therefore the anammox metabolism and its factors were critically reviewed so as to form biofilm/granules for retaining anammox bacteria. A stable supply of nitrite for anammox bacteria is a real bottleneck for applying anammox in sewage treatment. Nitritation and partial-denitrification are two promising methods of offering nitrite. As such, the strategies for achieving nitritation in sewage treatment were summarized by reviewing the factors affecting nitrite oxidation bacteria growth. Meanwhile, the methods of achieving partial-denitrification have been developed through understanding the microorganisms related with nitrite accumulation and their factors. Furthermore, two cases of applying anammox in the mainstream sewage treatment plants were documented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goldberg, Joshua F; Hebblewhite, Mark; Bardsley, John
Refugia can affect predator-prey dynamics via movements between refuge and non-refuge areas. We examine the influence of a refuge on population dynamics in a large mammal predator-prey system. Wolves (Canis lupus) have recolonized much of their former range in North America, and as a result, ungulate prey have exploited refugia to reduce predation risk with unknown impacts on wolf-prey dynamics. We examined the influence of a refuge on elk (Cervus elaphus) and wolf population dynamics in Banff National Park. Elk occupy the Banff townsite with little predation, whereas elk in the adjoining Bow Valley experience higher wolf predation. The Banff refuge may influence Bow Valley predator-prey dynamics through source-sink movements. To test this hypothesis, we used 26 years of wolf and elk population counts and the Delayed Rejection Adaptive Metropolis Markov chain Monte Carlo method to fit five predator-prey models: 1) with no source-sink movements, 2) with elk density-dependent dispersal from the refuge to the non-refuge, 3) with elk predation risk avoidance movements from the non-refuge to the refuge, 4) with differential movement rates between refuge and non-refuge, and 5) with short-term, source-sink wolf movements. Model 1 provided the best fit of the data, as measured by Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). In the top model, Banff and Bow Valley elk had median growth rates of 0.08 and 0.03 (95% credibility intervals [CIs]: 0.027-0.186 and 0.001-0.143), respectively, Banff had a median carrying capacity of 630 elk (95% CI: 471.9-2676.9), Bow Valley elk had a median wolf encounter rate of 0.02 (95% CI: 0.013-0.030), and wolves had a median death rate of 0.23 (95% CI: 0.146-0.335) and a median conversion efficiency of 0.07 (95% CI: 0.031-0.124). We found little evidence for potential source-sink movements influencing the predator-prey dynamics of this system. This result suggests that the refuge was isolated from the non-refuge.
Vaidya, Sunil R; Tilekar, Bipin N; Walimbe, Atul M; Arankalle, Vidya A
Considering feco-oral transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the risk of the infection was assessed among sewage workers. On the basis of the close contact with sewage, the participants (n = 147) were divided into sewage workers (n = 92) and others (n = 55); none used personal protective equipment (eg, coveralls, boots, gloves) Age-matched individuals from lower socioeconomic status and without any exposure to sewage were used as controls. IgG-anti-HEV positivity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P 5 years. Multivariate regression analysis identified contact with sewage as the independent variable associated with anti-HEV positivity. Strict adherence to good working practices must take top priority for protection of these workers from sewage pathogens.
Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503
The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.
Ayotamuno, M. J.
This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…
Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian
A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow.......A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow....
Gil-Lalaguna, N.; Sánchez, J.L.; Murillo, M.B.; Atienza-Martínez, M.; Gea, G.
Thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge is an interesting option for recovering energy and/or valuable products from this waste. This work presents an energetic assessment of pyrolysis and gasification of sewage sludge, also considering the prior sewage sludge thermal drying and the gasification of the char derived from the pyrolysis stage. Experimental data obtained from pyrolysis of sewage sludge, gasification of sewage sludge and gasification of char (all of these performed in a lab-scale fluidized reactor) were used for the energetic calculations. The results show that the energy contained in the product gases from pyrolysis and char gasification is not enough to cover the high energy consumption for thermal drying of sewage sludge. Additional energy could be obtained from the calorific value of the pyrolysis liquid, but some of its properties must be improved facing towards its use as fuel. On the other hand, the energy contained in the product gas of sewage sludge gasification is enough to cover the energy demand for both the sewage sludge thermal drying and the gasification process itself. Furthermore, a theoretical study included in this work shows that the gasification efficiency is improved when the chemical equilibrium is reached in the process. - Highlights: • 4 MJ kg −1 for thermal drying of sewage sludge (SS) from 65 to 6.5 wt.% of moisture. • 0.15 MJ kg −1 for thermal decomposition of sewage sludge during fast pyrolysis. • Not enough energy in gases from SS pyrolysis and char gasification for thermal drying. • Enough energy in SS gasification gas for thermal drying and gasification process. • Gasification efficiency improves when equilibrium is reached in the process
The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in rural sewage treatment plants are not well reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to study the frequency occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a rural sewage treatment plant. This study was conducted using raw sewage as well as treated sewage from a small town sewage treatment plant in rural southeast Louisiana of USA. Results showed the presence of MRSA consistently in both raw and treated sewage. The presence of mecA gene responsible for methicillin resistance was confirmed in the raw and treated sewage water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Estuarine Research Reserves, wildlife refuges, wildlife management areas, state/regional parks, state...
Full Text Available Reilly B.K. and Y. Reilly. 2003. Auditing wildlife. Koedoe 46(2: 97–102. Pretoria. ISSN 0075-6458. Accountants and auditors are increasingly confronted with the problem of auditing wildlife populations on game ranches as their clients' asset base expands into this industry. This paper aims to provide guidelines on these actions based on case study data and research in the field of wildlife monitoring. Parties entering into dispute on numbers of animals on a property often resort to their auditors for advice. This paper tracks a method of deciding on whether or not to audit the population based on wildlife value and an initial sample count. This will act as a guideline for the accounting profession when confronted by this problem.
Suess, A.; Rosopulo, A.; Borchert, H.; Beck, T.; Bauchhenss, J.; Schurmann, G.
Since hygienization of sewage sludge will be important for an agricultural application, it is necessary to study the effect of differently treated sewage sludge to plants and soil. In bean- and maize experiments in 1973 and 1974 it was found that treatment of sewage sludge is less important than soil properties and water capacity. Analysis on the efficiency of nutrients, minor elements and heavy metals from differently treated sewage sludge to plants were performed. Microbiological greenhouse studies indicated that there is a distinct tendency for different reactions that irradiated sewage sludge gives a slightly better effect than untreated one. In the field experiments there were nearly no differences between untreated and irradiated sewage sludge. Studies on soil fauna in the performed field trials indicate influences of abiotic factors on the different locations. Besides these influences there is a decrease of the number of Collemboles and Mites on the plots with 800 m 3 /ha treated sewage sludge. There is a remarkable high decrease in the plots with irradiated sewage sludge after an application of 800 m 3 /ha. Physical and chemical studies indicated, depending on the soil type, an increase in the effective field capacity after the application of sewage sludge, while there were sometimes the best effects with irradiated sewage sludge. Relative high aggregate values were observed in the plots with irradiated sewage sludge. (orig./MG) [de
Full Text Available In many rural communities the building of sewage collection and treatment system is still current and important problem of water and wastewater management. Besides the collection of sewage in the septic tank, the solution for wastewater treatment from individual buildings without access to sewerage system is the construction of household sewage treatment plants. Construction of household sewage treatment plant poses a number of challenges for municipalities and potential investors. The existing plants should be analyzed, so that in the future the selected systems would be characterized by high performance, simple operation and reliable exploitation. In the paper, the assessment of selection criteria of adopted technical solution and the functioning of household sewage treatment plants is carried out.
The operation of sewage works is controlled in Finland by the water and health authorities. These authorities set special quality demands for the effluent from sewage treatment plants into the recipient. Also other wastes from treatment plants, mainly sludges, have special regulations and operational target values. Sewage works have to achieve the aim goals and limit values set. In order to fulfill the regulations, sewage works impose such limit values on factory wastewaters that there will be no problems at the treatment plants. Sewage works can act in two ways: - require the factory to operate in such a way that the limit values are not exceeded, - the factory pays a certain sum of money to the sewage works, which takes care of the whole problem. It can be said in general, that it is not possible to get rid of harmful substances by payment to the sewage works if the substances cause treatment problems or problems in sludge disposal. If the factory produces wastewater that contains a higher organic load, more suspended solids or a higher nutrient load than normal sanitary wastewater, the problem is most often solved by paying an extra fee to the sewage works
... fees. 25.53 Section 25.53 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Fees and Charges § 25.53 Establishment of single visit entrance fees. Entrance fees established for single visit...
Ringland, John; George, Prasanth
We describe and analyze a 'screened refuge' technique for indefinitely sustaining control of insect pests using transgenic pesticidal crops or an applied pesticide, even when resistance is not recessive. The screen is a physical barrier that restricts pest movement. In a deterministic discrete-time model of the use of this technique, we obtain asymptotic analytical formulas for the two important equilibria of the system in terms of the refuge size and the pest fitnesses, mutation rates, and mobility out of and into the refuge. One of the equilibria is stable and is the point at which the pest population is controlled. The other is a saddle whose stable manifold bounds the basin of attraction of the former: its location provides a measure of the tolerance of the control mechanism to perturbations in the resistant allele density.
Zielińska, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk
The present study investigated the sorption of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) by sewage sludges and sewage sludge-derived biochars. The organic carbon normalized distribution coefficient (log K(OC) for C(w) = 0.01 S(w)) for the sewage sludges ranged from 5.62 L kg(-1) to 5.64 L kg(-1) for PHE and from 5.72 L kg(-1) to 5.75 L kg(-1) for PYR. The conversion of sewage sludges into biochar significantly increased their sorption capacity. The value of log K(OC) for the biochars ranged from 5.54 L kg(-1) to 6.23 L kg(-1) for PHE and from 5.95 L kg(-1) to 6.52 L kg(-1) for PYR depending on temperature of pyrolysis. The dominant process was monolayer adsorption in the micropores and/or multilayer surface adsorption (in the mesopores), which was indicated by the significant correlations between log K(OC) and surface properties of biochars. PYR was sorbed better on the tested materials than PHE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that the...
Aye, L.; Yamaguchi, D. [Melbourne Univ. International Technologies Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is an attractive technology for producing fuels from biomass and waste materials. As a result of greenhouse gas emissions and issues related to local air pollutants, hydrogen production from these renewable energy resources has been gaining in popularity. Disposal of sewage sludge is another environmental problem that have led to severe regulations. Incineration has been one of the most commonly used means of sewage sludge disposal. Thermal gasification produces gaseous fuel, making it a better option over incineration. However, due to its high moisture content, this process is not feasible to make use of sewage sludge directly. In order to analyze SCWG of sewage sludge, it has been determined that equilibrium analysis is most suitable since the maximum achievable amount of hydrogen in a given reacting condition can be estimated. The equilibrium model can be divided into two types of models, namely stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric. This paper presented the results of a study that used a computer program to develop a nonstoichiometric model with the direct Gibbs free energy minimization technique. In addition, various biomass were simulated for comparisons in order to identify if sewage sludge is a potential feedstock for hydrogen production. Last, the effects of reaction pressure and temperature on product distribution were also examined. It was shown that the proposed model is capable of estimating the product distribution at equilibrium. 33 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.
Full Text Available The operators of little rural wastewater treatment plants have been interested in economic exploitation of sewage sludge in local conditions. The chance is searching simply and natural ways of processing and exploitation stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture. Manure substrate have been obtained by composting waterless sewage sludge including rest plant biomass after closing 6–8 years period of filling liquid sewage sludge to the basin. Main attention was focused on exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge and determination of influence sewage sludge on plants, intensity and course of evapotranspiration and design and setting of drying beds. On the base of determined ability of swamp plants evapotranspiration were edited suggestion solutions of design and operation sludge bed facilities in the conditions of small rural wastewater treatment plant.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for designated critical habitats, state parks, wildlife refuges, and wildlife management areas in Alabama. Vector...
Neilson, Jennifer R.; Lamb, Berton Lee; Swann, Earlene M.; Ratz, Joan; Ponds, Phadrea D.; Liverca, Joyce
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is responsible for managing the Nation’s fish and wildlife resources so that these trust resources are preserved for the present and future use and enjoyment of the citizens of the United States. The FWS achieves this mission by managing many programs. These include the national system of refuges and fish hatcheries, Fish and Wildlife Management Assistance Offices, migratory birds program, law enforcement, and working with tribal, state, and other Federal agencies to ensure protection of threatened and endangered species. Another role of the FWS is consulting with tribal, state, and other Federal agencies and private sector interests on the best conservation management practices consistent with Federal law. Each of these activities requires a workforce that is recognized for its professionalism, dedication to public service, and command of expert knowledge. Recognition for expert knowledge in fish and wildlife conservation is demonstrated, in part, when FWS personnel direct, conduct, or report research that is well-designed to answer questions of importance for natural resource management. The data reported in this document are one part of a three-part study of the status of organizational support for research in FWS, which was commissioned by the Directorate of the FWS. Funding for this study was provided by the FWS, and the Science Support Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water rights. 35.12 Section 35.12 Wildlife... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.12 Water rights... the Department of the Interior as to exemption from State water laws. ...
On sandy tidal flats at the Island of Sylt (North Sea) ephemeral mats of green algae covered wide areas in the vicinity of sewage outflows. Algae became anchored in the feeding funnels of lugworms ( Arenicola marina) and thus were able to resist displacement by tidal currents. Below the algal mats anoxic conditions extend to the sediment surface. After about one month a rough sea removed all algae. Polychaetes endured this short-term environmental deterioration, while the more sensitive Turbellaria decreased in abundance and species richness. Diatom-feeders were affected most, predators to a medium extent, and bacteria-feeders the least affected. Rare and very abundant species were more affected than moderately abundant ones. None of the turbellarian species increased in abundance and none colonized the algal mats above the sediment. In a semicontrolled experiment with daily hand-removal of drift algae from a 100-m2 plot within an extensive field of algal mats, this cleaned "island" served as a refuge to Turbellaria escaping from their algal covered habitat. Here abundance doubled relative to initial conditions and was 5-times higher than below algal mats.
M'selmi, Nadia Ammar
The high nutrient and organic matter contents of sewage sludge make it a useful soil amandment for famers. the presence of heavy metals and pathogens poses a major problem for utilisation of sladge to agriculture land. Radiation is a convenable method of sewage treatment. (author)
Müller, Beate; Scheytt, Traugott; Asbrand, Martin; de Casas, Andrea Mross
A set of human pharmaceuticals enables identification of groundwater that is influenced by sewage and provides information on the time of recharge. As the consumption rates of the investigated pharmaceuticals have changed over time, so too has the composition of the sewage. At the study area, south of Berlin (Germany), irrigation was performed as a method of wastewater clean-up at sewage irrigation farms until the early 1990s. Today, treated wastewater is discharged into the surface-water-stream Nuthegraben. Groundwater and surface-water samples were analyzed for the pharmaceutical substances clofibric acid, bezafibrate, diclofenac, carbamazepine and primidone, the main ions and organic carbon. The pharmaceutical substances were detected at concentrations up to microgram-per-liter level in groundwater and surface-water samples from the Nuthegraben Lowland area and from the former irrigation farms. Concentrations detected in groundwater are generally much lower than in surface water and there is significant variation in the distribution of pharmaceutical concentrations in groundwater. Groundwater influenced by the irrigation of sewage water shows higher primidone and clofibric-acid concentrations. Groundwater influenced by recent discharge of treated sewage water into the surface water shows high carbamazepine concentrations while concentrations of primidone and clofibric acid are low.
Moon, J.H.; Lim, J.M.; Kim, S.H.; Chung, Y.S.
The Korean government reported that in 2005, 4395 tons/day of sewage sludge were generated from sewage disposal facilities in Korea and only 11.03% of it was reused. In addition, as a direct landfill of sewage sludge was forbidden from June 2003, research for a relevant disposal technique has been increasing. In this study, the aims were to analyze the collected sewage sludge samples and to evaluate the possibility for their reuse by a comparison of the elemental contents from a sewage sludge and a cover soil. Sludge samples were collected from a sewage disposal plant in Daejeon city and the cover soil was produced by a dilution of a sewage sludge with quicklime. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed to determine the elemental contents in the samples. Twenty seven elements were analyzed and their concentrations were compared. (author)
Andrew B. Carey; John D. Gill
The increased demand for firewood threatens the habitat of many wildlife species. Dead or dying trees that commonly are cut for firewood are vital to wildlife species that nest in tree cavities. Likewise, healthy trees of many species preferred for firewood are important components of wildlife habitat. Tree species or species groups are value-rated for both firewood...
Muserere, Simon Takawira; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Nhapi, Innocent
The need for more stringent effluent discharge standards as prescribed by the Environmental Management Act 20:27 to protect the environment can be sustainably achieved with the aid of Activated Sludge Models. Thus, the researchers believe it is time to re-evaluate wastewater characteristics at Firle Sewage Treatment Works (STW) and make use of activated sludge simulators to address pollution challenges caused by the sewage plant. Therefore, this paper characterizes raw sewage and assesses settled and unsettled sewage in order to evaluate the performance of the primary treatment system and the suitability of the settled sewage for treatment by the subsequent Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) system at Firle STW. Parameters studied included COD, BOD, TKN, TP, NH3, TSS, pH and Alkalinity. Composite samples were collected over a 9-day campaign period (27 June to 6 July 2012), hourly grab samples over 24 hrs and composite samples on 6 March 2012 which were then analysed in the lab in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater to support the City of Harare 2004-2012 lab historical records. Concentrations for unsettled sewage in mg/L were COD (527 ± 32), BOD (297 ± 83) TKN (19.0 ± 2.0), TP (18 ± 3), NH3 (24.0 ± 12.9), TSS (219 ± 57), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 266 ± 36 mg/L. For settled sewage the corresponding values in mg/L were COD (522 ± 15), BOD (324 ± 102), TKN (21.0 ± 3.0), TP (19.0 ± 2.0), NH3 (25.6 ± 11.2), TSS (250 ± 66), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 271 ± 17 mg/L. The plant design values for raw sewage are COD (650 mg/L), BOD (200 mg/L), TKN (40 mg/L) and TP (11 mg/L). Thus, COD and nitrogen were within the plant design range while BOD and TP were higher. Treatability of sewage in BNR systems is often inferred from the levels of critical parameters and also the ratios of TKN/COD and COD/TP. The wastewater average settled COD/BOD, COD/TP and TKN/COD ratio were 1.7 ± 0.5, 27.1 ± 3.1 and 0.04 ± 0
Rogers, Alice; Blanchard, Julia L; Newman, Steven P; Dryden, Charlie S; Mumby, Peter J
Refuge availability and fishing alter predator-prey interactions on coral reefs, but our understanding of how they interact to drive food web dynamics, community structure and vulnerability of different trophic groups is unclear. Here, we apply a size-based ecosystem model of coral reefs, parameterized with empirical measures of structural complexity, to predict fish biomass, productivity and community structure in reef ecosystems under a broad range of refuge availability and fishing regimes. In unfished ecosystems, the expected positive correlation between reef structural complexity and biomass emerges, but a non-linear effect of predation refuges is observed for the productivity of predatory fish. Reefs with intermediate complexity have the highest predator productivity, but when refuge availability is high and prey are less available, predator growth rates decrease, with significant implications for fisheries. Specifically, as fishing intensity increases, predators in habitats with high refuge availability exhibit vulnerability to over-exploitation, resulting in communities dominated by herbivores. Our study reveals mechanisms for threshold dynamics in predators living in complex habitats and elucidates how predators can be food-limited when most of their prey are able to hide. We also highlight the importance of nutrient recycling via the detrital pathway, to support high predator biomasses on coral reefs. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.
Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.
Belhaj, Dalel; Athmouni, Khaled; Jerbi, Bouthaina; Kallel, Monem; Ayadi, Habib; Zhou, John L
The occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological assessment of selected estrogenic compounds were investigated at Tunisian urban sewage treatment plant. The influents, effluents, as well as primary, secondary and dehydrated sludge, were sampled and analyzed for the target estrogens to evaluate their fate. All target compounds were detected in both sewage and sludge with mean concentrations from 0.062 to 0.993 μg L -1 and from 11.8 to 792.9 μg kg -1 dry weight, respectively. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment processes were observed, from 6.3 % for estrone to 76.8 % for estriol. Ecotoxicological risk assessment revealed that the highest ecotoxicological risk in sewage effluent and dehydrated sludge was due to 17β-estradiol with a risk quotient (RQ) of 4.6 and 181.9, respectively, and 17α-ethinylestradiol with RQ of 9.8 and 14.85, respectively. Ecotoxicological risk after sewage discharge and sludge disposal was limited to the presence of 17β-estradiol in dehydrated-sludge amended soil with RQ of 1.38. Further control of estrogenic hormones in sewage effluent and sludge is essential before their discharge and application in order to prevent their introduction into the natural environment.
Hao, Zongdi; Yang, Benqin; Jahng, Deokjin
In this study, effects of biodrying on the characteristics of sewage sludge and the subsequent combustion behavior were investigated. 7-Day of biodrying removed 49.78% of water and 23.17% of VS initially contained in the sewage sludge and increased lower heating value (LHV) by 37.87%. Meanwhile, mass contents of C and N decreased from 36.25% and 6.12% to 32.06% and 4.82%, respectively. Surface of the biodried sewage sludge (BDSS) appeared granulated and multi-porous, which was thought to facilitate air transfer during combustion. According to thermogravimetric (TG) analysis coupled with mass spectrometer (MS) with a heating rate of 10 °C/min from 35 °C to 1000 °C, thermally-dried sewage sludge (TDSS) and BDSS lost 74.39% and 67.04% of the initial mass, respectively. In addition, combustibility index (S) of BDSS (8.67 × 10 -8 min -2 K -3 ) was higher than TDSS. TG-MS analyses also showed that less nitrogenous gases were generated from BDSS than TDSS. It was again showed that the average CO and NO concentrations in exit gas from isothermal combustion of BDSS were lower than those from TDSS, especially at low temperatures (≤800 °C). Based on these results, it was concluded that biodrying of sewage sludge was an energy-efficient water-removal method with less emission of air pollutants when BDSS was combusted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee...) Whether the area is to be a manatee sanctuary or refuge. (1) If the area is to be a manatee sanctuary, the...
Full Text Available The paper presents changes in the contents of physicochemical indices of the Sudół stream water caused by a discharge of purified municipal sewage from a small mechanical-biological treatment plant with throughput of 300 m3·d−1 and a population equivalent (p.e. – 1,250 people. The discharge of purified sewage caused a worsening of the stream water quality. Most of the studied indices values increased in water below the treatment plant. Almost a 100-fold increase in ammonium nitrogen, 17-fold increase in phosphate concentrations and 12-fold raise in BOD5 concentrations were registered. Due to high values of these indices, the water physicochemical state was below good. Statistical analysis revealed a considerable effect of the purified sewage discharge on the stream water physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in 10 indices values (BOD5, COD-Mn, EC, TDS, Cl−, Na+, K+, PO43−, N-NH4+ and N-NO2 as well as significant decline in the degree of water saturation with oxygen were noted below the sewage treatment plant. On the other hand, no statistically significant differences between the water indices values were registered between the measurement points localised 150 and 1,000 m below the purified sewage discharge. It evidences a slow process of the stream water self-purification caused by an excessive loading with pollutants originating from the purified sewage discharge.
The last remaining large remnant of softwater wetlands in the US Florida Everglades lies within the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge. However, Refuge water quality today is impacted by pumped stormwater inflows to the eutrophic and mineral-enriched 100-km c...
Karen L. Pope; Greta M. Wengert; Janet E. Foley; Donald T. Ashton; Richard G. Botzler
Ecoclub youth and supervising family members conducted citizen science to assess regional prevalence and distribution of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) among amphibians at Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) and Redwood National and State Parks (Parks), Humboldt County, California, US, May 2013 through December...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private structures. 27.92 Section 27.92... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.92 Private structures. No..., pier, dock, fence, wall, pile, anchorage, or other structure or obstruction in any national wildlife...
LI Fuzhou; ZHANG Wei
The combustion of sewage sludge and coal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis.Both differential scanning calorimetric analysis and derivative thermogravimetric profiles showed differences between combustion of sewage sludge and coal, and non-isothermal kinetics analysis method was applied to evaluate the combustion process. Based on Coats-Redfem integral method, some reaction models were tested,the mechanism and kinetics of the combustion reaction were discussed. The results show that the combustion of sewage sludge is mainly in the Iow temperature stage, meanwhile the ignition temperature and Arrhenius activation energy are lower than that of coal. The combustion of sewage sludge has the advantage over coal in some aspects, thus sewage sludge can partly replace coal used as cement industry fuel.
Silvio Romero de Melo Ferreira
Full Text Available One of the main problems faced by humanity is pollution caused by residues resulting from the production and use of goods, e.g, sewage sludge. Among the various alternatives for its disposal, the agricultural use seems promising. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydraulic conductivity and interaction of soil with sandy-silty texture, classified as Spodosols, from the Experimental Station Itapirema - IPA, in Goiana, state of Pernambuco, in mixtures with sewage sludge from the Mangueira Sewage Treatment Station, in the city of Recife, Pernambuco at rates of 25, 50 and 75 Mg ha-1. Tests were conducted to let water percolate the natural saturated soil and soil-sludge mixtures to characterize their physical, chemical, and microstructural properties as well as hydraulic conductivity. Statistical data analysis showed that the presence of sewage sludge in soils leads to an increase of the < 0.005 mm fraction, reduction in real specific weight and variation in optimum moisture content from 11.60 to 12.90 % and apparent specific dry weight from 17.10 and 17.50 kN m-3. In the sludge-soil mixture, the quartz grains were covered by sludge and filling of the empty soil macropores between grains. There were changes in the chemical characteristics of soil and effluent due to sewage sludge addition and a small decrease in hydraulic conductivity. The results indicate the possibility that soil acidity influenced the concentrations of the elements found in the leachate, showing higher levels at higher sludge doses. It can be concluded that the leaching degree of potentially toxic elements from the sewage sludge treatments does not harm the environment.
Human safety: Wildlife-vehicle collisions : Habitat connectivity: Wildlife use crossing structures : Cost-benefit analyses : Contract research : WTI-MSU and CSKT : Students and other partners at MSU and UofM
Recommendations on optimization of monitoring contaminated sewage aimed at enviromental protection agxinst radioactive contamination at minimum cost are presented. The way of selecting water sampling technique depends on water composition stability and flow rate. Depending on the type of radionuclide distribution in the sewage one can estimate minimum frequency of sampling or number of samples sufficient for assuring reliability of the conclusion on the excess or non-excess of permissible radioactive contamination levels, as well as analysis assigned accuracy. By irregular contaminated sewage-discharge and possibility of short-term releases of different form and duration, sampling should be accomplished through automatic devices of continuons or periodic operation
Vieira, D.V.; Teixeira, W.M.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da
Lack of sewage treatment and adequate sanitation conditions can contribute to the proliferation of numerous parasitic and infectious diseases in addition to water degradation. Approximately fifty types of infections can be transmitted from a sick to a healthy person through different pathways involving human excreta. Untreated sewage can contaminate water, food, hands, soil, etc. Epidemics of certain diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysenteries, etc., and countless cases of worms are responsible for high mortality rates in third world countries. In the work the different techniques of sewage treatment by disinfestation and sterilization were analyzed, highlighting the use and the advantages of the gamma radiation as well as the aspects of the radiological protection involved. The technique of sewage sterilization using gamma radiation is a method of controlling bacteria and microorganisms. It is estimated that more than 200 large irradiators are in operation worldwide, of which 5 are in Brazil, for general sterilization use. These facilities use a large amount of radioactive material, in the order of millions of Becquerel, for sterilization with high doses of radiation, which can generate lethal doses in a few minutes. These industrial facilities use Cobalt-60, being classified by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA as Category 1 of high risk, and must possess a high level of radiological protection to carry out the sterilization, standing out the defense in depth. Specific legislation on radiological protection should be drafted for safe work and avoid future radiation accidents
Boyd Sun Fatt; Johnny Cindy; Bakansing Shirley M.
Sabah is blessed with natural forest habitats and rich with floras and faunas. Amongst its’ attraction is wildlife endemism. Lok Kawi Wildlife Park was established to provide an alternative wildlife tourism destination with its inhabitants from the wildlife species of Borneo. Since its opening in 2007, multitudes of tourists have visited the park. However, there has been no study to identify the visitor’s perspective on Lok Kawi Wildlife Park as man-made wildlife tourism destination. The stud...
In view of recent events and the resulting emotional and political decisions, the issue of sewage sludge treatment and disposal in Germany. must be seen in a new light. First, a new concept for sewage sludge management must be developed as recent legislation interferes with the 'classic' strategy of utilisation in agriculture, dumping and combustion. Scientists and sewage plant owners must find new ways to implement the specifications of the Act on Recycling and Waste Management. This ATV-DVWK training course discusses subjects that may be helpful on the new path. Starting from current legislation, problems, decision criteria and cost of sewage sludge treatment are gone into. Dimensioning fundamentals for sewage treatment plants re presented, and new and established treatment methods, operational problems and pollution problems are discussed. Further subjects are recycling of useful materials from sewage sludge, co-treatment of organic materials in fermenters, and disposal concepts for small and medium-sized communities. (orig.)
Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Strange, Niels
We consider a hunting area and a wildlife reserve and answer the question: How does clever migration decision affect the social optimal and the private optimal hunting levels and population stocks? We analyze this in a model allowing for two-way migration between hunting and reserve areas, where...... the populations’ migration decisions depend on both hunting pressure and relative population densities. In the social optimum a pure stress effect on the behavior of smart wildlife exists. This implies that the population level in the wildlife reserve tends to increase and the population level in the hunting area...... and hunting levels tend to decrease. On the other hand, the effect on stock tends to reduce the population in the wildlife reserve and increase the population in the hunting area and thereby also increase hunting. In the case of the private optimum, open-access is assumed and we find that the same qualitative...
The 27 papers represent a cross-section of the subject waste management. Particular attention is paid to the following themes: waste avoidance, waste product utilization, household wastes, dumping technology, sewage sludge treatments, special wastes, seepage from hazardous waste dumps, radioactive wastes, hospital wastes, purification of flue gas from waste combustion plants, flue gas purification and heavy metals, as well as combined sewage sludge and waste product utilization. The examples given relate to plants in Germany and other European countries. 12 papers have been separately recorded in the data base. (DG) [de
Anderson, Stephen P.
Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…
Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Aziz, Nurul Sazwana A.; Hamdan, Rafidah; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri
Recently, environmental issues continually increased since expanded in industrial development and grown in population. Regarding to this activity, it will cause lack management of waste such as solid waste from wastewater treatment plant called sewage sludge. This research presents the characteristic study of sewage sludge, regardless of whether it is appropriate or not to be applied as building materials. The sewage sludge samples were collected from secondary treatment at Senggarang and Perwira under Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) treatment plant. Raw materials were tested with X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) in order to determine the composition of sewage sludge and heavy metal concentration contains in sewage sludge. From the study, it was found that sewage sludge contained high amount of Silica Oxide (SiO2) with 13.6%, Sulphur Trioxide (SO3) with 12.64% and Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) with 8.7% which is similar in clay. In addition, sewage sludge also high in Iron (Fe) with 276.2 mg/L followed by Zinc (Zn) with concentration 45.41 mg/L which sewage sludge cannot be directly disposed to landfill. Results from this study demonstrated that sewage sludge has high possibility to be reused as alternative building materials such as bricks and have compatible chemical composition with clay.
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hawaii. 32.30 Section 32.30 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL... Hawaii. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing, and are listed in...
... completed a thorough analysis of the environmental, social, and economic considerations associated with our... C--Public Use and Economic Use Emphasis, and Alternative D--Ecological Processes Emphasis. After... alternative D and in cooperation with our partners, we would use natural, dynamic, ecological processes, and...
Waltermire, Robert G.; Emmerich, Christopher U.; Mendenhall, Laura C.; Bohrer, Gil; Weinzierl, Rolf P.; McGann, Andrew J.; Lineback, Pat K.; Kern, Tim J.; Douglas, David C.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) staff in the Pacific Southwest Region and at the Hopper Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex requested technical assistance to improve their global positioning system (GPS) data acquisition, management, and archive in support of the California Condor Recovery Program. The USFWS deployed and maintained GPS units on individual Gymnogyps californianus (California condor) in support of long-term research and daily operational monitoring and management of California condors. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) obtained funding through the Science Support Program to provide coordination among project participants, provide GPS Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) transmitters for testing, and compare GSM/GPS with existing Argos satellite GPS technology. The USFWS staff worked with private companies to design, develop, and fit condors with GSM/GPS transmitters. The Movebank organization, an online database of animal tracking data, coordinated with each of these companies to automatically stream their GPS data into Movebank servers and coordinated with USFWS to improve Movebank software for managing transmitter data, including proofing/error checking of incoming GPS data. The USGS arranged to pull raw GPS data from Movebank into the USGS California Condor Management and Analysis Portal (CCMAP) (https://my.usgs.gov/ccmap) for production and dissemination of a daily map of condor movements including various automated alerts. Further, the USGS developed an automatic archiving system for pulling raw and proofed Movebank data into USGS ScienceBase to comply with the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002. This improved data management system requires minimal manual intervention resulting in more efficient data flow from GPS data capture to archive status. As a result of the project’s success, Pinnacles National Park and the Ventana Wildlife Society California condor programs became partners and adopted the same
Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta
Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with