WorldWideScience

Sample records for wildlife loss estimates

  1. Wildlife Loss Estimates and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Volume Three, Hungry Horse Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1984-10-01

    This assessment addresses the impacts to the wildlife populations and wildlife habitats due to the Hungry Horse Dam project on the South Fork of the Flathead River and previous mitigation of theses losses. In order to develop and focus mitigation efforts, it was first necessary to estimate wildlife and wildlife hatitat losses attributable to the construction and operation of the project. The purpose of this report was to document the best available information concerning the degree of impacts to target wildlife species. Indirect benefits to wildlife species not listed will be identified during the development of alternative mitigation measures. Wildlife species incurring positive impacts attributable to the project were identified.

  2. Density estimation in wildlife surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Jonathan; Droege, Sam; Geissler, Paul E.; Peterjohn, Bruce G.; Ralph, C. John

    2004-01-01

    Several authors have recently discussed the problems with using index methods to estimate trends in population size. Some have expressed the view that index methods should virtually never be used. Others have responded by defending index methods and questioning whether better alternatives exist. We suggest that index methods are often a cost-effective component of valid wildlife monitoring but that double-sampling or another procedure that corrects for bias or establishes bounds on bias is essential. The common assertion that index methods require constant detection rates for trend estimation is mathematically incorrect; the requirement is no long-term trend in detection "ratios" (index result/parameter of interest), a requirement that is probably approximately met by many well-designed index surveys. We urge that more attention be given to defining bird density rigorously and in ways useful to managers. Once this is done, 4 sources of bias in density estimates may be distinguished: coverage, closure, surplus birds, and detection rates. Distance, double-observer, and removal methods do not reduce bias due to coverage, closure, or surplus birds. These methods may yield unbiased estimates of the number of birds present at the time of the survey, but only if their required assumptions are met, which we doubt occurs very often in practice. Double-sampling, in contrast, produces unbiased density estimates if the plots are randomly selected and estimates on the intensive surveys are unbiased. More work is needed, however, to determine the feasibility of double-sampling in different populations and habitats. We believe the tension that has developed over appropriate survey methods can best be resolved through increased appreciation of the mathematical aspects of indices, especially the effects of bias, and through studies in which candidate methods are evaluated against known numbers determined through intensive surveys.

  3. Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  4. Estimated Blood Loss in Craniotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Sitohang, Diana; AM, Rachmawati; Arif, Mansyur

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Estimated blood loss is an estimation of how much blood is loss during surgery. Surgical procedure requires a preparation of blood stock, but the demand for blood often larger than the actual blood used. This predicament happens because there is no blood requirement protocol being used. This study aims to determine the estimated blood loss during craniotomy procedure and it's conformity to blood units ordered for craniotomy procedure. Methods: This study is a retrospective study...

  5. Estimating Exposure of Terrestrial Wildlife to Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a general model for exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants (Sect. 2), methods for estimating parameters of the model (Sect. 3), species specific parameters for endpoint species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Sect. 4), and a sample application (Sect. 5). Exposure can be defined as the coincidence in both space and time of a receptor and a stressor, such that the receptor and stressor come into contact and interact (Risk Assessment Forum 1992). In the context of ecological risk assessment, receptors include all endpoint species or communities identified for a site [see Suter (1989) and Suter et al. (1994) for discussions of ecological endpoints for waste sites]. In the context of waste site assessments, stressors are chemical contaminations, and the contact and interaction are uptake of the contaminant by the receptor. Without sufficient exposure of the receptor to the contaminants, there is no ecological risk. Unlike some other endpoint assemblages, terrestrial wildlife are significantly exposed to contaminants in multiple media. They may drink or swim in contaminated water, ingest contaminated food and soil, and breath contaminated air. In addition, because most wildlife are mobile, moving among and within habitats, exposure is not restricted to a single location. They may integrate contamination from several spatially discrete sources. Therefore, exposure models for terrestrial wildlife must include multiple media. This document provides models and parameters for estimating exposure of birds and mammals. Reptiles and amphibians are not considered because few data exist with which to assess exposure to these organisms. In addition, because toxicological data are scarce for both classes, evaluation of the significance of exposure estimates is problematic. However, the general exposure estimation procedure developed herein for birds and mammals is applicable to reptiles and amphibians. Exposure models must be appropriate to the

  6. Wanaket Wildlife Area Management Plan : Five-Year Plan for Protecting, Enhancing, and Mitigating Wildlife Habitat Losses for the McNary Hydroelectric Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

    2001-09-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to continue to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat at the Wanaket Wildlife Area. The Wanaket Wildlife Area was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1993. This management plan will provide an update of the original management plan approved by BPA in 1995. Wanaket will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the McNary Hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Wanaket Wildlife Area, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Wanaket Wildlife Area management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Wanaket Wildlife Area will be managed over the next five years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management. Specific project objectives are related to protection and enhancement of wildlife habitats and are expressed in terms of habitat units (HU's). Habitat units were developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP), and are designed to track habitat gains and/or losses associated with mitigation and/or development projects. Habitat Units for a given species are a product of habitat quantity (expressed in acres) and habitat quality estimates. Habitat quality estimates are developed using Habitat Suitability Indices (HSI). These indices are based on quantifiable habitat features such

  7. Wildlife Disease Loss Report San Luis NWR 1984-85

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wildlife Disease Reports (mostly focused on birds) include information on distribution and summaries of disease pickups on refuges, and sometimes necropsy results.

  8. Trends and causes of historical wetland loss, Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, southwest Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Julie C.; Morton, Robert A.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2011-01-01

    Prior U.S. Geological Survey studies (Open-File Reports 2005-1216 and 2009-1158) examined historical land- and water-area changes and estimated magnitudes of land subsidence and erosion at 10 wetland sites in the Mississippi River delta plain. The present study extends that work by analyzing interior wetland loss and relative magnitudes of subsidence and erosion at five additional wetland sites in Sabine National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in the western chenier plain. The study sites were selected because their geologic setting differed from that of the delta plain; also, although the refuge marshes had been managed partly to minimize wetland loss, interior wetland losses there were extensive. Historical aerial photography, datum-corrected marsh elevations and water depths, and sediment cores were integrated to evaluate historical land- and water-area changes at SNWR.

  9. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment Summary at Federal Hydroelectric Facilities; Willamette River Basin, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1986-02-01

    Habitat based assessments were conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin, Oregon, to determine losses or gains to wildlife and/or wildlife habitat resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the facilities. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project sites were mapped based on aerial photographs. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected areas and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the projects. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each project for each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the projects. The Willamette projects extensively altered or affected 33,407 acres of land and river in the McKenzie, Middle Fork Willamette, and Santiam river drainages. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 5184 acres of old-growth conifer forest, and 2850 acres of riparian hardwood and shrub cover types. Impacts resulting from the Willamette projects included the loss of critical winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, upland game birds, furbearers, spotted owls, pileated woodpeckers, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagles and ospreys were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected areas to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Willamette projects. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the lives of the projects. Cumulative or system-wide impacts of the Willamette projects were not quantitatively assessed.

  10. Wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes wildlife observations on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  11. Estimated public use within Togiak National Wildlife Refuge, 1984-1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the estimated public use within Togiak National Wildlife Refuge from 1984 to 1988. The majority of use is sport fishing which occurs on the...

  12. Investigations of Marsh Losses at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A large body of scientific study over the last thirty years has resulted in ever increasing appreciation of the value of marshes and other wetlands as valuable...

  13. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Green Peter-Foster Project; Middle Fork Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1986-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Green Peter-Foster Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1955, 1972, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Eleven wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Green Peter-Foster Project extensively altered or affected 7873 acres of land and river in the Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1429 acres of grass-forb vegetation, 768 acres of shrubland, and 717 acres of open conifer forest cover types. Impacts resulting from the Green Peter-Foster Project included the loss of critical winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, upland game birds, river otter, beaver, pileated woodpecker, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Green Peter-Foster Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  14. Interacting effects of wildlife loss and climate on ticks and tick-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titcomb, Georgia; Allan, Brian F; Ainsworth, Tyler; Henson, Lauren; Hedlund, Tyler; Pringle, Robert M; Palmer, Todd M; Njoroge, Laban; Campana, Michael G; Fleischer, Robert C; Mantas, John Naisikie; Young, Hillary S

    2017-09-13

    Both large-wildlife loss and climatic changes can independently influence the prevalence and distribution of zoonotic disease. Given growing evidence that wildlife loss often has stronger community-level effects in low-productivity areas, we hypothesized that these perturbations would have interactive effects on disease risk. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by measuring tick abundance and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens (Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp.) within long-term, size-selective, large-herbivore exclosures replicated across a precipitation gradient in East Africa. Total wildlife exclusion increased total tick abundance by 130% (mesic sites) to 225% (dry, low-productivity sites), demonstrating a significant interaction of defaunation and aridity on tick abundance. When differing degrees of exclusion were tested for a subset of months, total tick abundance increased from 170% (only mega-herbivores excluded) to 360% (all large wildlife excluded). Wildlife exclusion differentially affected the abundance of the three dominant tick species, and this effect varied strongly over time, likely due to differences among species in their host associations, seasonality, and other ecological characteristics. Pathogen prevalence did not differ across wildlife exclusion treatments, rainfall levels, or tick species, suggesting that exposure risk will respond to defaunation and climate change in proportion to total tick abundance. These findings demonstrate interacting effects of defaunation and aridity that increase disease risk, and they highlight the need to incorporate ecological context when predicting effects of wildlife loss on zoonotic disease dynamics. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Dexter Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Dexter Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the project. Preconstruction, post-construction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Dexter Project extensively altered or affected 4662 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 445 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Dexter Project included the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, red fox, mink, beaver, western gray squirrel, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, wood duck and nongame species. Bald eagle, osprey, and greater scaup were benefitted by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Dexter Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  16. Estimated annual economic loss from organ condemnation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimated annual economic loss from organ condemnation, decreased carcass weight and milk yield due to bovine hydatidosis ( Echinococcus granulosus ... need to mount an integrated nation-wide hydatidosis control program involving public education, canine health care, proper handling and disposal of infected organs, ...

  17. Estimation of Potential Population Level Effects of Contaminants on Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.

    2001-06-11

    The objective of this project is to provide DOE with improved methods to assess risks from contaminants to wildlife populations. The current approach for wildlife risk assessment consists of comparison of contaminant exposure estimates for individual animals to literature-derived toxicity test endpoints. These test endpoints are assumed to estimate thresholds for population-level effects. Moreover, species sensitivities to contaminants is one of several criteria to be considered when selecting assessment endpoints (EPA 1997 and 1998), yet data on the sensitivities of many birds and mammals are lacking. The uncertainties associated with this approach are considerable. First, because toxicity data are not available for most potential wildlife endpoint species, extrapolation of toxicity data from test species to the species of interest is required. There is no consensus on the most appropriate extrapolation method. Second, toxicity data are represented as statistical measures (e.g., NOAEL s or LOAELs) that provide no information on the nature or magnitude of effects. The level of effect is an artifact of the replication and dosing regime employed, and does not indicate how effects might increase with increasing exposure. Consequently, slight exceedance of a LOAEL is not distinguished from greatly exceeding it. Third, the relationship of toxic effects on individuals to effects on populations is poorly estimated by existing methods. It is assumed that if the exposure of individuals exceeds levels associated with impaired reproduction, then population level effects are likely. Uncertainty associated with this assumption is large because depending on the reproductive strategy of a given species, comparable levels of reproductive impairment may result in dramatically different population-level responses. This project included several tasks to address these problems: (1) investigation of the validity of the current allometric scaling approach for interspecies extrapolation

  18. Estimating functional connectivity of wildlife habitat and its relevance to ecological risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A.R.; Allen, C.R.; Simpson, K.A.N.

    2004-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a major threat to the viability of wildlife populations and the maintenance of biodiversity. Fragmentation relates to the sub-division of habitat intq disjunct patches. Usually coincident with fragmentation per se is loss of habitat, a reduction in the size of the remnant patches, and increasing distance between patches. Natural and anthropogenic processes leading to habitat fragmentation occur at many spatial scales, and their impacts on wildlife depend on the scales at which species interact with the landscape. The concept of functional connectivity captures this organism-based view of the relative ease of movement or degree of exchange between physically disjunct habitat patches. Functional connectivity of a given habitat arrangement for a given wildlife species depends on details of the organism's life history and behavioral ecology, but, for broad categories of species, quantities such as home range size and dispersal distance scale allometrically with body mass. These relationships can be incorporated into spatial analyses of functional connectivity, which can be quantified by indices or displayed graphically in maps. We review indices and GIS-based approaches to estimating functional connectivity, presenting examples from the literature and our own work on mammalian distributions. Such analyses can be readily incorporated within an ecological risk framework. Estimates of functional connectivity may be useful in a screening-level assessment of the impact of habitat fragmentation relative to other stressors, and may be crucial in detailed population modeling and viability analysis.

  19. 7 A GIS Estimation of Soil Loss

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    mountains dominate the northern part of the catchment, the south lowland flatly slopes to join the sea. The area slopes from the north, as high as 850 m above sea .... loam, loamy a b. map = x 5.41 mapmaximum (a.map) a c. map = x 2.25 mapmaximum (a.map). Owusu: Estimation of soil loss in the Densu basin in Ghana. 45 ...

  20. Connecting above and below: the impacts of large wildlife loss and pastoralism on savanna carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, E. S.; Young, H. S.; Young, T.; Schimel, J.

    2016-12-01

    There is widespread evidence that large wildlife species contribute to ecosystem carbon efflux; however, their influence is not incorporated into traditional carbon models. As large wildlife loss continues in the Anthropocene and in the face of climate change, it becomes increasingly important to understand the impacts of their loss on ecosystem carbon. The charismatic, threatened wildlife in central Kenya's savanna provide an ideal framework for these questions. We compared differences in carbon efflux in the presence or absence of native herbivores and/or cattle, as a proxy for wildlife loss and the interaction of pastoralism. We measured carbon dynamics in situ with a closed-chamber system and microbial respiration rates in lab by incubating sampled soil. We discovered a significant effect of herbivore presence/absence on carbon efflux: incubated soils collected from plots with cattle only exhibit greater carbon accumulation and faster initial respiration rates than soils collected from plots with native herbivores and no cattle, native herbivores and cattle, and neither native herbivores nor cattle. When measured in situ, plots with no herbivores show higher efflux than plots with only native herbivores, and plots with both. The data also suggest that grazing pressure results in successively lower efflux. The differences in these studies imply that the impacts of large wildlife loss differ on microbial respiration as an isolated mechanism in ecosystem carbon exchange, and total carbon efflux. This is most likely because in situ efflux measurements encompass environmental variables as well as soil microbial respiration. The lab data suggest that cattle as the only herbivore causes greater soil microbial efflux compared to native herbivores alone, native herbivores with cattle, or no herbivores. The in situ data show that no herbivores results in increased carbon efflux, and suggest that increasing numbers of herbivores lowers efflux.These studies demonstrate

  1. Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce Rickel

    2005-01-01

    This volume addresses the wildlife and fish of the grasslands in the Southwestern Region of the USDA Forest Service. Our intent is to provide information that will help resource specialists and decisionmakers manage wildlife populations within grassland ecosystems in the Southwestern United States. The information and analysis presented is at a Regional scale.

  2. Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the wildlife resources of the Site. Wildlife populations inhabiting the Hanford Site are monitored in order to measure the status and condition of the populations and assess effects of Hanford operations.

  3. Estimation of coho salmon escapement in the Ugashik lakes, Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 26 July to 24 September 2002, hourly counts were conducted from counting towers to estimate the escapement of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch into the Ugashik...

  4. Estimating loss of Brucella abortus antibodies from age-specific serological data in elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, J. A.; Caillaud, D.; Scurlock, B. M.; Maichak, E. J.; Edwards, W.H.; Cross, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Serological data are one of the primary sources of information for disease monitoring in wildlife. However, the duration of the seropositive status of exposed individuals is almost always unknown for many free-ranging host species. Directly estimating rates of antibody loss typically requires difficult longitudinal sampling of individuals following seroconversion. Instead, we propose a Bayesian statistical approach linking age and serological data to a mechanistic epidemiological model to infer brucellosis infection, the probability of antibody loss, and recovery rates of elk (Cervus canadensis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We found that seroprevalence declined above the age of ten, with no evidence of disease-induced mortality. The probability of antibody loss was estimated to be 0.70 per year after a five-year period of seropositivity and the basic reproduction number for brucellosis to 2.13. Our results suggest that individuals are unlikely to become re-infected because models with this mechanism were unable to reproduce a significant decline in seroprevalence in older individuals. This study highlights the possible implications of antibody loss, which could bias our estimation of critical epidemiological parameters for wildlife disease management based on serological data.

  5. Global biodiversity loss: Exaggerated versus realistic estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Briggs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 50 years, the public has been made to feel guilty about the tragedy of human-caused biodiversity loss due to the extinction of hundreds or thousands of species every year. Numerous articles and books from the scientific and popular press and publicity on the internet have contributed to a propaganda wave about our grievous loss and the beginning of a sixth mass extinction. However, within the past few years, questions have arisen about the validity of the data which led to the doom scenario. Here I show that, for the past 500 years, terrestrial animals (insects and vertebrates have been losing less than two species per year due to human causes. The majority of the extinctions have occurred on oceanic islands with little effect on continental ecology. In the marine environment, losses have also been very low. At the same time, speciation has continued to occur and biodiversity gain by this means may have equaled or even surpassed the losses. While species loss is not, so far, a global conservation problem, ongoing population declines within thousands of species that are at risk on land and in the sea constitute an extinction debt that will be paid unless those species can be rescued.

  6. Moose population estimate, trend, and distribution survey on Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, Game Management Unit 23, 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our moose population estimate for the surveyed area was calculated to be 1,864 ±1911. This included a low stratum estimate of 241, a medium stratum estimate of...

  7. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Detroit Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project, North Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Detroit/Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project (Detroit Project) on the North Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1939, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each time period were determined. Ten wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Detroit Project extensively altered or affected 6324 acres of land and river in the North Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1,608 acres of conifer forest and 620 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Detroit Project included the loss of winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, pileated woodpecker, spotted owl, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Detroit Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  8. Accuracy of blood loss estimation at caesarean delivery | Jagun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Inaccurate estimation of blood loss during caesarean delivery may be associated with inappropriate decisions in transfusing patients and this may lead to increased maternal morbidity. The study aimed at comparing the accuracy of blood loss estimation by obstetricians and anaesthetists at caesarean delivery.

  9. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Hills Creek Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Hills Creek Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1964, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Hills Creek Project extensively altered or affected 4662 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 2694 acres of old-growth forest and 207 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Hills Creek Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, black bear, cougar, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Hills Creek Project, losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  10. Efficient estimates of cochlear hearing loss parameters in individual listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Jepsen, Morten Løve; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    ) are presented and used to estimate the knee-point level and the compression ratio of the I/O function. A time-efficient paradigm based on the single-interval-up-down method (SIUD; Lecluyse and Meddis (2009)) was used. In contrast with previous studies, the present study used only on-frequency TMCs to derive...... to Jepsen and Dau (2011) IHL + OHL = HLT [dB], where HLT stands for total hearing loss. Hence having estimates of the total hearing loss and OHC loss, one can estimate the IHL. In the present study, results from forward masking experiments based on temporal masking curves (TMC; Nelson et al., 2001...

  11. Moment estimation of customer loss rates from transactional data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Daley

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Moment estimators are proposed for the arrival and customer loss rates of a many-server queueing system with a Poisson arrival process with customer loss via balking or reneging. These estimators are based on the lengths {Sj1} of the initial inter-departure intervals of the busy periods j=1,…,M observed in a dataset consisting of service starting and finishing times and encompassing both busy and idle periods of the process, and whether those busy periods are of length 1 or >1. The estimators are compared with maximum likelihood and parametric model-based estimators found previously.

  12. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment Summary at Lookout Point Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon; 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedrossian, K.L.; Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Lookout Point Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Seventeen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Lookout Point Project extensively altered or affected 6790 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 724 acres of old-growth conifer forest and 118 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Lookout Point Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, western gray squirrel, red fox, mink, beaver, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefitted by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Lookout Point Project. Loses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  13. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Cougar Dam and Reservoir Project, South Fork McKenzie River, Oregon; 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Cougar Dam and Reservoir Project on the South Fork McKenzie River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1953, 1965, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Cougar Project extensively altered or affected 3096 acres of land and river in the McKenzie River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1587 acres of old-growth conifer forest and 195 acres of riparian hardwoods. Impacts resulting from the Cougar Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, black bear, cougar, river otter, beaver, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the effected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Cougar Project. Loses or grains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  14. Estimation on the switching losses at IGBT bridges power converter

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanov, Goce; Karacinov, Ljupco; Cundev, Dobri

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In the paper estimation on the switching losses at IGBT bridge converter with the output serial resonant load is given. The converter works on frequency higher than resonant frequency and supports the work of IGBT transistors in the bridge with zero voltage turn on. In the analysis of the converter, PowerSim and SemiSiel simulation programs is used. The results to the switching losses estimated by simulation are compared with the results in a practical realized converter.

  15. Hidden Markov model for dependent mark loss and survival estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laake, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Devin S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Ternent, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Mark-recapture estimators assume no loss of marks to provide unbiased estimates of population parameters. We describe a hidden Markov model (HMM) framework that integrates a mark loss model with a Cormack–Jolly–Seber model for survival estimation. Mark loss can be estimated with single-marked animals as long as a sub-sample of animals has a permanent mark. Double-marking provides an estimate of mark loss assuming independence but dependence can be modeled with a permanently marked sub-sample. We use a log-linear approach to include covariates for mark loss and dependence which is more flexible than existing published methods for integrated models. The HMM approach is demonstrated with a dataset of black bears (Ursus americanus) with two ear tags and a subset of which were permanently marked with tattoos. The data were analyzed with and without the tattoo. Dropping the tattoos resulted in estimates of survival that were reduced by 0.005–0.035 due to tag loss dependence that could not be modeled. We also analyzed the data with and without the tattoo using a single tag. By not using.

  16. Improved ice loss estimate of the northwestern Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Wahr, J.

    2013-01-01

    We estimate ice volume change rates in the northwest Greenland drainage basin during 2003–2009 using Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data. Elevation changes are often reported to be largest near the frontal portion of outlet glaciers. To improve the volume change...... estimate, we supplement the ICESat data with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper from 2002 to 2010 and NASA's Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor from 2010. The Airborne data are mainly concentrated along the ice margin and thus have a significant impact on the estimate of the volume...... change. Our results show that adding Airborne Topographic Mapper and Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor data to the ICESat data increases the catchment-wide estimate of ice volume loss by 11%, mainly due to an improved volume loss estimate along the ice sheet margin. Furthermore, our results show...

  17. Estimation of loss caused by earthquakes and secondary technological hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Frolova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of expected loss and damage caused by earthquakes and secondary technological accidents are of primary importance for the development and implementation of preventive measure plans, as well as for emergency management just after the disaster. The paper addresses the procedures for estimations of loss caused by strong events and secondary hazards with information technology application. Examples of individual seismic risk zoning at Russian federal and regional levels are given, as well as that of scenario earthquakes consequences estimation, taking into account secondary technological hazards.

  18. Estimating Soil Loss Rates For Soil Conservation Planning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of soil erosion is pervasive in the highlands of Ethiopia. Soil conservation is thus crucial in these areas to tackle the prevailing soil erosion. This area is mainly in the steeper slope banks of tributaries where steep lands are cultivated or overgrazed. The objective of this study is to estimate the rate of soil loss in ...

  19. Optimized differential energy loss estimation for tracker detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sikler, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    The estimation of differential energy loss for charged particles in tracker detectors is studied. The robust truncated mean method can be generalized to the linear combination of the energy deposit measurements. The optimized weights in case of arithmetic and geometric means are obtained using a detailed simulation. The results show better particle separation power for both semiconductor and gaseous detectors.

  20. Estimation of postfire nutrient loss in the Florida everglades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Y; Miao, S L; Gu, B; Li, Y C

    2009-01-01

    Postfire nutrient release into ecosystem via plant ash is critical to the understanding of fire impacts on the environment. Factors determining a postfire nutrient budget are prefire nutrient content in the combustible biomass, burn temperature, and the amount of combustible biomass. Our objective was to quantitatively describe the relationships between nutrient losses (or concentrations in ash) and burning temperature in laboratory controlled combustion and to further predict nutrient losses in field fire by applying predictive models established based on laboratory data. The percentage losses of total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC), and material mass showed a significant linear correlation with a slope close to 1, indicating that TN or TC loss occurred predominantly through volatilization during combustion. Data obtained in laboratory experiments suggest that the losses of TN, TC, as well as the ratio of ash total phosphorus (TP) concentration to leaf TP concentration have strong relationships with burning temperature and these relationships can be quantitatively described by nonlinear equations. The potential use of these nonlinear models relating nutrient loss (or concentration) to temperature in predicting nutrient concentrations in field ash appear to be promising. During a prescribed fire in the northern Everglades, 73.1% of TP was estimated to be retained in ash while 26.9% was lost to the atmosphere, agreeing well with the distribution of TP during previously reported wild fires. The use of predictive models would greatly reduce the cost associated with measuring field ash nutrient concentrations.

  1. Energetic Particle Loss Estimates in W7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazerson, Samuel; Akaslompolo, Simppa; Drevlak, Micheal; Wolf, Robert; Darrow, Douglass; Gates, David; W7-X Team

    2017-10-01

    The collisionless loss of high energy H+ and D+ ions in the W7-X device are examined using the BEAMS3D code. Simulations of collisionless losses are performed for a large ensemble of particles distributed over various flux surfaces. A clear loss cone of particles is present in the distribution for all particles. These simulations are compared against slowing down simulations in which electron impact, ion impact, and pitch angle scattering are considered. Full device simulations allow tracing of particle trajectories to the first wall components. These simulations provide estimates for placement of a novel set of energetic particle detectors. Recent performance upgrades to the code are allowing simulations with > 1000 processors providing high fidelity simulations. Speedup and future works are discussed. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  2. Loss Rate Estimation in Marine Corps Officer Manpower Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (lWhen Data Etoro REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM . REPORT NUMBER. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S...119 F. LOSS AND RISK FUNCTIONS . 121 G. EVALUATION OF E(U/W) ... .. ... . 123 H. INVERSE SINE TRANSFCRM . . . . . . . . . . . 126 I. MONTHLY VERSES...Formulas and mathematical risk calculations relating to the James-Stein and empirical Bayes estimators. Cross validation procedures were utilized to

  3. Probabilistic seismic loss estimation via endurance time method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafakori, Ehsan; Pourzeynali, Saeid; Estekanchi, Homayoon E.

    2017-01-01

    Probabilistic Seismic Loss Estimation is a methodology used as a quantitative and explicit expression of the performance of buildings using terms that address the interests of both owners and insurance companies. Applying the ATC 58 approach for seismic loss assessment of buildings requires using Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA), which needs hundreds of time-consuming analyses, which in turn hinders its wide application. The Endurance Time Method (ETM) is proposed herein as part of a demand propagation prediction procedure and is shown to be an economical alternative to IDA. Various scenarios were considered to achieve this purpose and their appropriateness has been evaluated using statistical methods. The most precise and efficient scenario was validated through comparison against IDA driven response predictions of 34 code conforming benchmark structures and was proven to be sufficiently precise while offering a great deal of efficiency. The loss values were estimated by replacing IDA with the proposed ETM-based procedure in the ATC 58 procedure and it was found that these values suffer from varying inaccuracies, which were attributed to the discretized nature of damage and loss prediction functions provided by ATC 58.

  4. Estimation of Moose Abundance using the Geospatial Population Estimator combined with a Sightability Model on Togiak National Wildlife Refuge products

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Moose (Alces alces gigas) have recently expanded their range into the boundaries of Togiak National Wildlife Refuge and BLM Goodnews Block (TGK; Aderman et al....

  5. Influence of Flow Velocity on Tsunami Loss Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Song

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Inundation depth is commonly used as an intensity measure in tsunami fragility analysis. However, inundation depth cannot be taken as the sole representation of tsunami impact on structures, especially when structural damage is caused by hydrodynamic and debris impact forces that are mainly determined by flow velocity. To reflect the influence of flow velocity in addition to inundation depth in tsunami risk assessment, a tsunami loss estimation method that adopts both inundation depth and flow velocity (i.e., bivariate intensity measures in evaluating tsunami damage is developed. To consider a wide range of possible tsunami inundation scenarios, Monte Carlo-based tsunami simulations are performed using stochastic earthquake slip distributions derived from a spectral synthesis method and probabilistic scaling relationships of earthquake source parameters. By focusing on Sendai (plain coast and Onagawa (ria coast in the Miyagi Prefecture of Japan in a case study, the stochastic tsunami loss is evaluated by total economic loss and its spatial distribution at different scales. The results indicate that tsunami loss prediction is highly sensitive to modelling resolution and inclusion of flow velocity for buildings located less than 1 km from the sea for Sendai and Onagawa of Miyagi Prefecture.

  6. Global Building Inventory for Earthquake Loss Estimation and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David; Porter, Keith

    2010-01-01

    We develop a global database of building inventories using taxonomy of global building types for use in near-real-time post-earthquake loss estimation and pre-earthquake risk analysis, for the U.S. Geological Survey’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) program. The database is available for public use, subject to peer review, scrutiny, and open enhancement. On a country-by-country level, it contains estimates of the distribution of building types categorized by material, lateral force resisting system, and occupancy type (residential or nonresidential, urban or rural). The database draws on and harmonizes numerous sources: (1) UN statistics, (2) UN Habitat’s demographic and health survey (DHS) database, (3) national housing censuses, (4) the World Housing Encyclopedia and (5) other literature.

  7. Movement-based estimation and visualization of space use in 3D for wildlife ecology and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Sheppard, James; Zhu, Jun; Wei, Fu-Wen; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in digital biotelemetry technologies are enabling the collection of bigger and more accurate data on the movements of free-ranging wildlife in space and time. Although many biotelemetry devices record 3D location data with x, y, and z coordinates from tracked animals, the third z coordinate is typically not integrated into studies of animal spatial use. Disregarding the vertical component may seriously limit understanding of animal habitat use and niche separation. We present novel movement-based kernel density estimators and computer visualization tools for generating and exploring 3D home ranges based on location data. We use case studies of three wildlife species – giant panda, dugong, and California condor – to demonstrate the ecological insights and conservation management benefits provided by 3D home range estimation and visualization for terrestrial, aquatic, and avian wildlife research.

  8. Movement-based estimation and visualization of space use in 3D for wildlife ecology and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A; Sheppard, James; Zhu, Jun; Wei, Fuwen; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Fisher, Robert N

    2014-01-01

    Advances in digital biotelemetry technologies are enabling the collection of bigger and more accurate data on the movements of free-ranging wildlife in space and time. Although many biotelemetry devices record 3D location data with x, y, and z coordinates from tracked animals, the third z coordinate is typically not integrated into studies of animal spatial use. Disregarding the vertical component may seriously limit understanding of animal habitat use and niche separation. We present novel movement-based kernel density estimators and computer visualization tools for generating and exploring 3D home ranges based on location data. We use case studies of three wildlife species--giant panda, dugong, and California condor--to demonstrate the ecological insights and conservation management benefits provided by 3D home range estimation and visualization for terrestrial, aquatic, and avian wildlife research.

  9. Estimated seepage rates from selected ditches, ponds, and lakes at the Camas National Wildlife Refuge, eastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.

    2017-01-01

    The Camas National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) in eastern Idaho, established in 1937, contains wetlands, ponds, and wet meadows that are essential resting and feeding habitat for migratory birds and nesting habitat for waterfowl. Initially, natural sources of water supported these habitats. However, during the past few decades, changes in climate and surrounding land use have altered and reduced natural groundwater and surface-water inflows, resulting in a 5-meter decline in the water table and an earlier, and more frequent, occurrence of no flow in Camas Creek at the Refuge. Due to these changes in water availability, water management that includes extensive groundwater pumping is now necessary to maintain the wetlands, ponds, and wet meadows.These water management activities have proven to be inefficient and expensive, and the Refuge is seeking alternative water-management options that are more efficient and less expensive. More efficient water management at the Refuge may be possible through knowledge of the seepage rates from ditches, ponds, and lakes at the Refuge. With this knowledge, water-management efficiency may be improved by natural means through selective use of water bodies with the smallest seepage rates or through engineering efforts to minimize seepage losses from water bodies with the largest seepage rates.The U.S. Geological Survey performed field studies in 2015 and 2016 to estimate seepage rates for selected ditches, ponds, and lakes at the Refuge. Estimated seepage rates from ponds and lakes ranged over an order of magnitude, from 3.4 ± 0.2 to 103.0 ± 0.5 mm/d, with larger seepage rates calculated for Big Pond and Redhead Pond, intermediate seepage rates calculated for Two-way Pond, and smaller seepages rates calculated for the south arm of Sandhole Lake. Estimated seepage losses from two reaches of Main Diversion Ditch were 21 ± 2 and 17 ± 2 percent/km. These losses represent seepage rates of about 890 and 860 mm/d, which are one

  10. Estimated seepage rates from selected ditches, ponds, and lakes at the Camas National Wildlife Refuge, eastern Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W

    2017-12-01

    The Camas National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) in eastern Idaho, established in 1937, contains wetlands, ponds, and wet meadows that are essential resting and feeding habitat for migratory birds and nesting habitat for waterfowl. Initially, natural sources of water supported these habitats. However, during the past few decades, changes in climate and surrounding land use have altered and reduced natural groundwater and surface-water inflows, resulting in a 5-meter decline in the water table and an earlier, and more frequent, occurrence of no flow in Camas Creek at the Refuge. Due to these changes in water availability, water management that includes extensive groundwater pumping is now necessary to maintain the wetlands, ponds, and wet meadows. These water management activities have proven to be inefficient and expensive, and the Refuge is seeking alternative water-management options that are more efficient and less expensive. More efficient water management at the Refuge may be possible through knowledge of the seepage rates from ditches, ponds, and lakes at the Refuge. With this knowledge, water-management efficiency may be improved by natural means through selective use of water bodies with the smallest seepage rates or through engineering efforts to minimize seepage losses from water bodies with the largest seepage rates. The U.S. Geological Survey performed field studies in 2015 and 2016 to estimate seepage rates for selected ditches, ponds, and lakes at the Refuge. Estimated seepage rates from ponds and lakes ranged over an order of magnitude, from 3.4 ± 0.2 to 103.0 ± 0.5 mm/d, with larger seepage rates calculated for Big Pond and Redhead Pond, intermediate seepage rates calculated for Two-way Pond, and smaller seepages rates calculated for the south arm of Sandhole Lake. Estimated seepage losses from two reaches of Main Diversion Ditch were 21 ± 2 and 17 ± 2 percent/km. These losses represent seepage rates of about 890 and 860 mm/d, which are one

  11. Estimating energy losses with urine in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichert, B; Liesegang, A; Hartnack, S

    2014-08-01

    Urinary energy losses in cats have to be determined in energy balance trials as well as for the calculation of the metabolizable energy (ME) content of cat food. The aim of the present study was: first, to assess whether the energy content of cat urine quantified by bomb calorimetry differs from that quantified using GE (kJ) urine = 33 kJ × g C urine + 9 kJ × g N urine and investigate whether this difference could be attributed to influences of diets. Second, to assess whether the subtraction of 3.1 kJ/g of protein intake used for estimation of metabolizable energy content of cat foods is confirmed as usable. Data from 27 energy and protein balance trials from different studies with complete sampling of urine and faeces (29 cats in part A and 35 cats in part B) were used. Gross energy, carbon and nitrogen were determined in food, faeces and urine. Gross energy values in urine tended to be higher when determined with the formula of Hoffman and Klein compared to bomb calorimetry. The average relative difference of gross energy values between the methods was 18.8%. The mean energy loss in kJ/g of protein intake resulted in 3.7 kJ/g protein intake, which was not statistically significantly different (p = 0.12) from the tested value of 3.1 kJ/g of protein intake. In conclusion, the formula of Hoffman and Klein is not appropriate for the estimation of energy in cat urine. In balance studies, it is advisable to quantify the urinary energy content by bomb calorimetry. In the second part of the study, the protein correction factor to determine ME of 3.1 kJ/g protein intake for urinary energy losses of Kienzle et al. could be confirmed. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Evaluating simplified methods for liquefaction assessment for loss estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongar, Indranil; Rossetto, Tiziana; Giovinazzi, Sonia

    2017-06-01

    optimal thresholds. This paper also considers two models (HAZUS and EPOLLS) for estimation of the scale of liquefaction in terms of permanent ground deformation but finds that both models perform poorly, with correlations between observations and forecasts lower than 0.4 in all cases. Therefore these models potentially provide negligible additional value to loss estimation analysis outside of the regions for which they have been developed.

  13. Changing Patterns of Emerging Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife, Domestic Animals, and Humans Linked to Biodiversity Loss and Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2017-12-15

    The fundamental human threats to biodiversity including habitat destruction, globalization, and species loss have led to ecosystem disruptions altering infectious disease transmission patterns, the accumulation of toxic pollutants, and the invasion of alien species and pathogens. To top it all, the profound role of climate change on many ecological processes has affected the inability of many species to adapt to these relatively rapid changes. This special issue, "Zoonotic Disease Ecology: Effects on Humans, Domestic Animals and Wildlife," explores the complex interactions of emerging infectious diseases across taxa linked to many of these anthropogenic and environmental drivers. Selected emerging zoonoses including RNA viruses, Rift Valley fever, trypanosomiasis, Hanta virus infection, and other vector-borne diseases are discussed in detail. Also, coprophagous beetles are proposed as important vectors in the transmission and maintenance of infectious pathogens. An overview of the impacts of climate change in emerging disease ecology within the context of Brazil as a case study is provided. Animal Care and Use Committee requirements were investigated, concluding that ecology journals have low rates of explicit statements regarding the welfare and wellbing of wildlife during experimental studies. Most of the solutions to protect biodiversity and predicting and preventing the next epidemic in humans originating from wildlife are oriented towards the developed world and are less useful for biodiverse, low-income economies. We need the development of regional policies to address these issues at the local level. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Method for estimating off-axis pulse tube losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, T.; Mulcahey, T. I.; Taylor, R. P.; Spoor, P. S.; Conrad, T. J.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Some Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (PTCs) exhibit sensitivity to gravitational orientation and often exhibit significant cooling performance losses unless situated with the cold end pointing downward. Prior investigations have indicated that some coolers exhibit sensitivity while others do not; however, a reliable method of predicting the level of sensitivity during the design process has not been developed. In this study, we present a relationship that estimates an upper limit to gravitationally induced losses as a function of the dimensionless pulse tube convection number (NPTC) that can be used to ensure that a PTC would remain functional at adverse static tilt conditions. The empirical relationship is based on experimental data as well as experimentally validated 3-D computational fluid dynamics simulations that examine the effects of frequency, mass flow rate, pressure ratio, mass-pressure phase difference, hot and cold end temperatures, and static tilt angle. The validation of the computational model is based on experimental data collected from six commercial pulse tube cryocoolers. The simulation results are obtained from component-level models of the pulse tube and heat exchangers. Parameter ranges covered in component level simulations are 0-180° for tilt angle, 4-8 for length to diameter ratios, 4-80 K cold tip temperatures, -30° to +30° for mass flow to pressure phase angles, and 25-60 Hz operating frequencies. Simulation results and experimental data are aggregated to yield the relationship between inclined PTC performance and pulse tube convection numbers. The results indicate that the pulse tube convection number can be used as an order of magnitude indicator of the orientation sensitivity, but CFD simulations should be used to calculate the change in energy flow more accurately.

  15. Estimating Agricultural Losses using Flood Modeling for Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhadi Nur Atirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is the most significant natural hazard in Malaysia in terms of population affected, frequency, flood extent, flood duration and social economic damage. Flooding causes loss of lives, injuries, property damage and leave some economic damage to the country especially when it occurs in a rural area where the main income is dependent on agricultural area. This study focused on flooding in oil palm plantations, rubber plantations and fruits and vegetables area. InfoWorks ICM was used to develop a flood model to study the impact of flooding and to mitigate the floods using a retention pond. Later, Geographical Information System (GIS together with the flood model were used for the analysis on flood damage assessment and management of flood risk. The estimated total damage for three different flood event; 10 ARI, 50 ARI and 100 ARI involved millions of ringgits. In reducing the flood impact along the Selangor River, retention pond was suggested, modeled and tested. By constructing retention pond, flood extents in agricultural area were reduced significantly by 60.49% for 10 ARI, 45.39% for 50 ARI and 46.54% for 100 ARI.

  16. Use of thermal dissipation probes to estimate water loss of containerized landscape trees

    OpenAIRE

    Montague, Thayne; Kjelgren, Roger

    2006-01-01

    Granier style thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) have been used to estimate whole plant water use on a variety of tree and vine species. However, studies using TDPs and load cells (gravimetric water loss) to estimate water use of landscape tree species are rare. This research compared gravimetric water loss (extimated with load cells) of four containerized landscape tree species with water loss estimated with TDPs. Over a 66 day period, an experiment compared water loss of three established...

  17. Evaluation of the effects of loss of water for use by waterfowl and other wildlife in the Lahontan Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a two phase study of Lahontan Valley wildlife areas. The purpose of Phase I was to determine the total waterfowl use area in the Lahontan...

  18. An improved iron loss estimation for permanent magnet brushless machines

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, D

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an improved approach for predicting iron losses in permanent magnet brushless machines. The new approach is based on the fundamental concept that eddy current losses are proportional to the square of the time rate of change of flux density. Expressions are derived for predicting hysteresis and eddy current losses in the stator teeth and yoke. The so-called anomalous or excess losses, caused by the induced eddy current concentration around moving magnetic domain walls and neglected in the conventional core loss calculation, are also included in the proposed approach. In addition, the model is also capable of accounting for the stator skewing, if present. The core losses obtained from the proposed approach are compared with those measured on an existing PM motor at several operating speeds, showing very good agreement. (14 refs).

  19. Estimation of sockeye and coho salmon escapement in Mortenses Creek, Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A fixed picket weir was operated 25 June to 14 October 2003 during the third year of an ongoing investigation to evaluate and provide subsistence management...

  20. Estimation of coho salmon escapement in stream adjacent to Perryville, Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Recent runs of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in the Kametolook, Three Star, and Long Beach rivers near Perryville have declined, and residents can no longer meet...

  1. Estimation of coho salmon escapement in streams adjacent to Perryville, Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Recent runs of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in the Kametolook, Three Star, and Long Beach rivers near Perryville have declined, and residents can no longer meet...

  2. Loss and fragmentation of habitat for pastoral people and wildlife in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little of the current focus on landscape fragmentation has focused on rangelands or pastoral lands. This paper investigates the existing evidence for causes and processes of fragmentation in pastoral lands and its effects of landscapes and peoples. More conceptual work is needed on the definition of loss and fragmentation ...

  3. prediction of path loss estimate for a frequency modulation (fm)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orinya

    wave as it propagates through space. Path loss is a major component in the analysis and design ... band is chosen because majority of the radio stations being established in Nigeria operate in the FM band. 2.0 ... radio waves under real condition and proposes a path loss model in terms of the attenuation function and ...

  4. Estimation of Transformer Parameters and Loss Analysis for High Voltage Capacitor Charging Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Ouyang, Ziwei

    2013-01-01

    In a bi-directional DC-DC converter for capacitive charging application, the losses associated with the transformer makes it a critical component. In order to calculate the transformer losses, its parameters such as AC resistance, leakage inductance and self capacitance of the high voltage (HV......) winding has to be estimated accurately. This paper analyzes the following losses of bi-directional flyback converter namely switching loss, conduction loss, gate drive loss, transformer core loss, and snubber loss, etc. Iterative analysis of transformer parameters viz., AC resistance, leakage inductance...

  5. Accuracy of blood loss estimation at caesarean delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    These include gravimetric measurement, haemoglobin calorimetry, photometric techniques and volumetric assessment (Wilcox,. Hunt and Owen, 1959; Ashrat and Ramadani,. 2006). Other modalities of blood loss assessment include alterations in laboratory results (such as haemoglobin or haematocrit levels), mechanical.

  6. Beam Loss Estimates and Control for the BNL Neutrino Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Wu-Tsung; Raparia, Deepak; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Wei, Jie; Yung Lee, Yong; Zhang, S Y

    2005-01-01

    BNL plans to upgrade the AGS proton beam from the current 0.14 MW to higher than 1.0 MW for a very long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. This increase in beam power is mainly due to the faster repetition rate of the AGS by a new 1.5 GeV superconductiong linac as injector, replacing the existing booster. The requirement for low beam loss is very important both to protect the beam component, and to make the hands-on maintenance possible. In this report, the design considerations for achieving high intensity and low loss will be presented. We start by specifying the beam loss limit at every physical process followed by the proper design and parameters for realising the required goals. The process considered in this paper include the emittance growth in the linac, the H-

  7. Prediction of Path loss Estimate for a Frequency Modulation (FM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the path loss model that seeks to predict the signal strength degradation of Radio Nigeria, FM station, Makurdi which is normally a major component in the analysis and design of link budget of a telecommunication system. For the purpose of this work, Benue state was divided into four (4) routes for ease ...

  8. Estimating head and frictional losses through pipe fittings in building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By extending pipe length by equal increments, with corresponding increments in number of sanitary appliances and total water flow rates to a water distribution system of a building, fractions of the total frictional loss throu-gh pipe fittings for varying work complexities were obtained. The fractions varied from 0.342 to 0.377 as ...

  9. Using Space Syntax For Estimation Of Potential Disaster Indirect Economic Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penchev Georgi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at estimation of indirect economic losses resulting from natural disasters. Generally, these losses are defined as interruptions in economic activities and are not related to the damaged enterprises. Even limited physical damage to property and infrastructure caused by natural disaster can produce chain reaction of losses in supply chain within a certain region.

  10. Estimating extreme losses for the Florida Public Hurricane Model—part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Sneh; George, Florence; Hamid, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    Rising global temperatures are leading to an increase in the number of extreme events and losses (http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/indicators/). Accurate estimation of these extreme losses with the intention of protecting themselves against them is critical to insurance companies. In a previous paper, Gulati et al. (2014) discussed probable maximum loss (PML) estimation for the Florida Public Hurricane Loss Model (FPHLM) using parametric and nonparametric methods. In this paper, we investigate the use of semi-parametric methods to do the same. Detailed analysis of the data shows that the annual losses from FPHLM do not tend to be very heavy tailed, and therefore, neither the popular Hill's method nor the moment's estimator work well. However, Pickand's estimator with threshold around the 84th percentile provides a good fit for the extreme quantiles for the losses.

  11. Estimating Agricultural Losses using Flood Modeling for Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Muhadi Nur Atirah; Abdullah Ahmad Fikri; Vojinovic Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Flooding is the most significant natural hazard in Malaysia in terms of population affected, frequency, flood extent, flood duration and social economic damage. Flooding causes loss of lives, injuries, property damage and leave some economic damage to the country especially when it occurs in a rural area where the main income is dependent on agricultural area. This study focused on flooding in oil palm plantations, rubber plantations and fruits and vegetables area. InfoWorks ICM was used to d...

  12. Loss profit estimation using association rule mining with clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Mittal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the technique to find hidden patterns from a very large volume of historical data. Association rule is a type of data mining that correlates one set of items or events with another set of items or events. Another data mining strategy is clustering technique. This technique is used to create partitions so that all members of each set are similar according to a specified set of metrics. Both the association rule mining and clustering helps in more effective individual and group decision making for optimal inventory control. Owing to the above facts, association rules are mined from each cluster to find frequent items and then loss profit is calculated for each frequent item. Initially, the clustering algorithm is used to partition the transactional database into different clusters. Apriori, a classic data mining algorithm is utilized for mining association rules from each cluster to find frequent items. Later the loss profit is calculated for each frequent item. The obtained loss profit is used to rank frequent items in each cluster. Thus, the ranking of frequent items in each cluster using the proposed approach greatly facilitate optimal inventory control. An example is illustrated to validate the results.

  13. Introduction of a Novel Loss Data Normalization Method for Improved Estimation of Extreme Losses from Natural Catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, J. F.; Steuer, M.; Loew, P.

    2016-12-01

    Past natural catastrophes offer valuable information for present-day risk assessment. To make use of historic loss data one has to find a setting that enables comparison (over place and time) of historic events happening under today's conditions. By means of loss data normalization the influence of socio-economic development, as the fundamental driver in this context, can be eliminated and the data gives way to the deduction of risk-relevant information and allows the study of other driving factors such as influences from climate variability and climate change or changes of vulnerability. Munich Re's NatCatSERVICE database includes for each historic loss event the geographic coordinates of all locations and regions that were affected in a relevant way. These locations form the basis for what is known as the loss footprint of an event. Here we introduce a state of the art and robust method for global loss data normalization. The presented peril-specific loss footprint normalization method adjusts direct economic loss data to the influence of economic growth within each loss footprint (by using gross cell product data as proxy for local economic growth) and makes loss data comparable over time. To achieve a comparative setting for supra-regional economic differences, we categorize the normalized loss values (together with information on fatalities) based on the World Bank income groups into five catastrophe classes, from minor to catastrophic. The data treated in such way allows (a) for studying the influence of improved reporting of small scale loss events over time and (b) for application of standard (stationary) extreme value statistics (here: peaks over threshold method) to compile estimates for extreme and extrapolated loss magnitudes such as a "100 year event" on global scale. Examples of such results will be shown.

  14. Improved ice loss estimate of the northwestern Greenland ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjeldsen, K.K.; Khan, S.A.; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; van Angelen, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325922470

    2013-01-01

    We estimate ice volume change rates in the northwest Greenland drainage basin during 2003–2009 using Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data. Elevation changes are often reported to be largest near the frontal portion of outlet glaciers. To improve the volume change

  15. Sesame ( Sesamum indicum L.) yield loss estimation with common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) is the most prevalent weed for sesame in Turkey. Sesame yield decreased by the increasing densities of common cocklebur. The asymptotic weed-free yield of sesame was 1863 kg ha-1 in 2005 and 1931 kg ha-1 in 2006, while the yield was estimated to be 239 and 424 kg ...

  16. Field Loss Estimation Of A Developed Rice Stripper Harvester In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reduction in post harvest losses must inevitably start with minimizing losses during harvesting. So far, grain stripping harvester is a technology which is being developed and is becoming effective for rice and wheat harvesting. Grain losses in stripping harvester occur at the gathering/stripping operation which are shattering, stubble and lodging losses. The harvest loss estimation of rice harvesting with a self propelled grain stripper developed in Nigeria was carried out. At best machine settings, determined were critical operating parameters to obtain total minimum harvest loss estimation which was 13.5% of the total yield while the manual harvesting loss was 20.3% under the same condition. The machine setting at this combination was rotor height of 270.0 mm, peripheral rotor speed of 670.0 rpm and forward speed was 3.0 km/h which gave shattering loss as 5.5%, stubble loss was 4.9% and lodging loss was 3.1% of the total yield. It was found that planting pure seed variety will reduce stripper header losses at harvest because it will result in uniform crop height at maturity which was one of the design factors that affected the harvester performance on the field. Keywords:Estimation, field loss, stripper, rice, developed

  17. Estimates of Crustal Transmission Losses Using MLM Array Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    about the z axis, (broadside case) 31 b 2 uniform1 a liud an linea 5i8 l an -2.0, e7., Th patresrttoal symti abu hezai 31 c 10 log B 2 ,dB e5-82 0 e... algebraic , expression for the estimated covariance matrix term (i,j) is: wnere M is the number of frequency components and 4 (i,j) is the phase shift

  18. Improving volume loss estimate of the Greenland Ice Sheet between 2002-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Wahr, John

    2013-04-01

    Ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet is dominated by loss in the marginal areas. Dynamic induced ice loss and its associated ice surface lowering is often largest close to the glacier calving front and may vary from rates of tens of meters per years to a few meters per year over relatively short distances. Hence, high spatial resolution data are required to accurately estimate volume changes. We estimate ice volume change rate of the Greenland ice sheet during 2003-2009 using Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data (Zwally et al., 2011). To improve the volume change estimate we supplement ICESat data with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) during 2002-2010 (Krabill et al., 2011) and NASA's Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) during 2007-2010 (Blair and Hofton, 2010). The Airborne data are mainly concentrated along the ice margin and therefore significantly improve the estimate of the total volume change. Our results show that adding ATM and LVIS data to the ICESat data increases the estimate of catchment-wide ice volume loss in northeast and southeast Greenland by 10-20 percent. This is mainly due to increased volume loss near the margin of the GrIS. Furthermore, we provide volume loss estimates during 2002-2009 and 2009-2012. Our 2009-2012 estimate suggest enhanced volume loss at the entire southern half of the GrIS.

  19. Estimation of economic losses due to Peste de Petits Ruminants in small ruminants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a simple mathematical model to assess the losses due to peste des petits ruminants (PPR in small ruminants in India. Materials and Methods: The study was based on cases and deaths in goats and sheep due to PPR from the average combined data on ovine/caprine as published by Government of India for the last 5 years (2008-2012. All possible direct and indirect losses due to the disease, viz. mortality losses, losses due to direct reduction in milk/wool yield, losses due to reproduction failure, body weight losses, treatment costs and opportunity costs, were considered to provide estimate of annual economic losses due to PPR in sheep and goats in India. Based on cases and deaths as reported in sample survey studies, the annual economic loss was also estimated. Results: On the basis of data reported by Government of India, the study has shown average annual economic loss of Rs. 167.83 lacs, of which Rs. 125.67 lacs and Rs. 42.16 lacs respectively are due to the incidence of the disease in goats and sheep. Morbidity losses constituted the greater share of the total loss in both goats and sheep (56.99% and 61.34%, respectively. Among different components of morbidity loss, direct body weight loss was the most significant in both goats and sheep. Based on cases and deaths as reported in sample survey studies, the estimated annual economic loss due to PPR in goats and sheep is Rs. 8895.12 crores, of which Rs. 5477.48 and Rs. 3417.64 crores respectively are due to the disease in goats and sheep. Conclusion: The low economic losses as reported based on Government of India data points towards underreporting of cases and deaths due to the disease. The study thus revealed a significant loss due to PPR in small ruminants on a large scale.

  20. The impact of a and b value uncertainty on loss estimation in the reinsurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Streit

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the reinsurance industry different probabilistic models are currently used for seismic risk analysis. A credible loss estimation of the insured values depends on seismic hazard analysis and on the vulnerability functions of the given structures. Besides attenuation and local soil amplification, the earthquake occurrence model (often represented by the Gutenberg and Richter relation is a key element in the analysis. However, earthquake catalogues are usually incomplete, the time of observation is too short and the data themselves contain errors. Therefore, a and b values can only be estimated with uncertainties. The knowledge of their variation provides a valuable input for earthquake risk analysis, because they allow the probability distribution of expected losses (expressed by Average Annual Loss (AAL to be modelled. The variations of a and b have a direct effect on the estimated exceeding probability and consequently on the calculated loss level. This effect is best illustrated by exceeding probability versus loss level and AAL versus magnitude graphs. The sensitivity of average annual losses due to different a to b ratios and magnitudes is obvious. The estimation of the variation of a and b and the quantification of the sensitivity of calculated losses are fundamental for optimal earthquake risk management. Ignoring these uncertainties means that risk management decisions neglect possible variations of the earthquake loss estimations.

  1. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BROWN, RUTH E; CANNING, KARISSA L; FUNG, MICHAEL; JIANDANI, DISHAY; RIDDELL, MICHAEL C; MACPHERSON, ALISON K; KUK, JENNIFER L

    ... meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status...

  2. New Method for Estimating Landslide Losses for Major Winter Storms in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, C. J.; Perez, F. G.; Branum, D.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a prototype system for estimating the economic costs of landslides due to winter storms in California. This system uses some of the basic concepts and estimates of the value of structures from the HAZUS program developed for FEMA. Using the only relatively complete landslide loss data set that we could obtain, data gathered by the City of Los Angeles in 1978, we have developed relations between landslide susceptibility and loss ratio for private property (represented as the value of wood frame structures from HAZUS). The landslide loss ratios estimated from the Los Angeles data are calibrated using more generalized data from the 1982 storms in the San Francisco Bay area to develop relationships that can be used to estimate loss for any value of 2-day or 30-day rainfall averaged over a county. The current estimates for major storms are long projections from very small data sets, subject to very large uncertainties, so provide a very rough estimate of the landslide damage to structures and infrastructure on hill slopes. More importantly, the system can be extended and improved with additional data and used to project landslide losses in future major winter storms. The key features of this system—the landslide susceptibility map, the relationship between susceptibility and loss ratio, and the calibration of estimates against losses in past storms—can all be improved with additional data. Most importantly, this study highlights the importance of comprehensive studies of landslide damage. Detailed surveys of landslide damage following future storms that include locations and amounts of damage for all landslides within an area are critical for building a well-calibrated system to project future landslide losses. Without an investment in post-storm landslide damage surveys, it will not be possible to improve estimates of the magnitude or distribution of landslide damage, which can range up to billions of dollars.

  3. Estimation of furrow irrigation sediment loss using an artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The area irrigated by furrow irrigation in the U.S. has been steadily decreasing but still represents about 20% of the total irrigated area in the U.S. Furrow irrigation sediment loss is a major water quality issue and a method for estimating sediment loss is needed to quantify the environmental imp...

  4. Incorporation of Finite Element Analysis into Annual Energy Loss Estimation for Permanent Magnet Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Matthew Lee; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    Several methods of estimating the annual energy losses for wind turbine generators are investigated in this paper. Utilizing a high amount of transient simulations with motion is first demonstrated. Usage of a space-time transformation for prediction of iron losses is also explored. The methods...

  5. Estimation of loss due to post harvest diseases of potato in markets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storage diseases of potato at Mymensingh, Rajshahi and Dhaka town were surveyed to estimate the loss in potato due to storage diseases. In Mymensingh district, the survey revealed that 3.95, 0.91 and 0.69% of tubers were affected with soft rot, dry rot and scab, respectively. Among the cultivars, maximum loss within ...

  6. A web based application to estimate wildlife fatality: from the bias correction factors to the corrected fatality estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bispo, Regina; Huso, Manuela; Palminha, Gustavo; Som, Nicholas; Ladd, Lew; Bernardino, Joana; Marques, Tiago A.; Pestana, Dinis

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In monitoring studies at wind farms, the estimation of bird and bat mortality caused by collision has crucial importance. The estimates of annual fatalities provide information about direct impacts by particular projects, allow comparisons between research studies, enable impact trend studies, provide a basis for legislation and enable the comparison with the impacts caused by other human activities. In order to estimate the mortality rate correctly, the observed number of carcasses must be adjusted both for scavenging removal and for search efficiency. To diminish estimation bias, recent studies advise new statistical procedures regarding the scavenging correction factor (Bispo et al., 2010) and the estimator of fatality (Huso 2010). In this context, the complexity associated with the procedure may hinder its use. Consequently to help final users in applying the proposed methodologies we present an application that provides a friendly interface for the implementation of the statistical procedure in the R Environment for Statistical Computing that ultimately leads to the estimation of fatality. The user must provide the carcass persistence trial data, the searcher efficiency trial data and the gathered carcass data. From those, the application estimates the scavenging removal correction factor based on the best fitted parametric survival model (Bispo et al 2010), and the final output provides fatality estimates using the estimator proposed by Huso (2010). During the conference a laptop will be available to promote participants. hands-on contact with the software. (Author)

  7. Estimating coastal wetland gain and losses in Galveston County and Cameron County, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Clare; Mora, Miguel A; Knight, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Coastal wetlands serve many important ecological services. One of these important ecological services is their use as storm buffers. Coastal wetlands provide habitat for migratory birds and aquatic species and can improve water quality. In the late 1990s, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) published a study outlining the trends of coastal wetlands from the 1950s to early 1990s. In the present study, wetland gains and losses were calculated for Galveston County and Cameron County, Texas, USA, between 2001 and 2011. Maps from the National Land Cover Database were used to determine wetland areas for the years 2001, 2006, and 2011. ArcGIS was used to compare land cover between the study periods to determine overall wetland losses and gains. A statistical analysis was performed between wetland loss and population data to determine whether increased population density led to a higher loss of wetlands. Our analysis indicates that wetland loss is still occurring, however at a lower rate of loss (0.14%-0.18% annually) than the USFWS study predicted earlier (2.7%). In addition, the majority of wetland losses were due to conversion to upland areas. We found a positive correlation between increased population density and decreased wetland area; however, the trend was not significant. The present study shows how the majority of wetland loss in Galveston and Cameron counties is occurring as a result of increased upland areas. In addition, the present study shows that the use of online mapping systems can be used as a low-cost alternative to assess land changes when field tests are not feasible. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:120-129. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  8. 2012 mule deer and white-tailed deer census and population density estimate : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on the 2012 deer census survey at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. Census methods and survey results are discussed. A combination of census...

  9. Double-Layer Compressive Sensing Based Efficient DOA Estimation in WSAN with Block Data Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Wu, Liantao; Yu, Kai; Shao, Huajie; Wang, Zhi

    2017-07-22

    Accurate information acquisition is of vital importance for wireless sensor array network (WSAN) direction of arrival (DOA) estimation. However, due to the lossy nature of low-power wireless links, data loss, especially block data loss induced by adopting a large packet size, has a catastrophic effect on DOA estimation performance in WSAN. In this paper, we propose a double-layer compressive sensing (CS) framework to eliminate the hazards of block data loss, to achieve high accuracy and efficient DOA estimation. In addition to modeling the random packet loss during transmission as a passive CS process, an active CS procedure is introduced at each array sensor to further enhance the robustness of transmission. Furthermore, to avoid the error propagation from signal recovery to DOA estimation in conventional methods, we propose a direct DOA estimation technique under the double-layer CS framework. Leveraging a joint frequency and spatial domain sparse representation of the sensor array data, the fusion center (FC) can directly obtain the DOA estimation results according to the received data packets, skipping the phase of signal recovery. Extensive simulations demonstrate that the double-layer CS framework can eliminate the adverse effects induced by block data loss and yield a superior DOA estimation performance in WSAN.

  10. Estimating the Conditional Tail Expectation in the Case of Heavy-Tailed Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhakim Necir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The conditional tail expectation (CTE is an important actuarial risk measure and a useful tool in financial risk assessment. Under the classical assumption that the second moment of the loss variable is finite, the asymptotic normality of the nonparametric CTE estimator has already been established in the literature. The noted result, however, is not applicable when the loss variable follows any distribution with infinite second moment, which is a frequent situation in practice. With a help of extreme-value methodology, in this paper, we offer a solution to the problem by suggesting a new CTE estimator, which is applicable when losses have finite means but infinite variances.

  11. Estimating competition between wildlife and humans-a case of cormorants and coastal fisheries in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orjan Ostman

    Full Text Available Cormorants and other wildlife populations have come in real or perceived conflicts with humans over exploited fish stocks. From gut contents of cormorants, and using an extension of the Catch equation, we estimated the degree of short term competition between great cormorants and coastal fisheries in two areas along the Swedish Baltic Sea. Cormorants consumed 10 and 44%, in respective area, of the fish biomass of six fish species harvested by humans; eel, flounder, herring, perch, pike, and whitefish. On average, cormorants consumed smaller individuals than harvested in fisheries. But for perch, cod and flounder, cormorants consumed harvestable sized fish corresponding >20% of human catches. Our competition model estimated the direct decrease in fisheries catches due to cormorant predation to be 30% and perch (2-20%. When also including the indirect effects of cormorant predation on smaller fish that never reached harvestable size, the estimated decrease in fisheries catches at least doubled for perch (13-34% and pike (8-19%. Despite large uncertainties, our model indicates that cormorants may locally have a direct impact on human catches of at least flounder, and when incorporating indirect effects also on perch and pike. The study indicates that the degree of competition between cormorants and humans varies substantially between areas. We also included economical values in the model and concluded that for the commercially most important species, eel and cod, the estimated economic impact of cormorants on fisheries was low.

  12. Visual estimation versus gravimetric measurement of postpartum blood loss: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kadri, Hanan M F; Al Anazi, Bedayah K; Tamim, Hani M

    2011-06-01

    One of the major problems in international literature is how to measure postpartum blood loss with accuracy. We aimed in this research to assess the accuracy of visual estimation of postpartum blood loss (by each of two main health-care providers) compared with the gravimetric calculation method. We carried out a prospective cohort study at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 1 November 2009 and 31 December 2009. All women who were admitted to labor and delivery suite and delivered vaginally were included in the study. Postpartum blood loss was visually estimated by the attending physician and obstetrics nurse and then objectively calculated by a gravimetric machine. Comparison between the three methods of blood loss calculation was carried out. A total of 150 patients were included in this study. There was a significant difference between the gravimetric calculated blood loss and both health-care providers' estimation with a tendency to underestimate the loss by about 30%. The background and seniority of the assessing health-care provider did not affect the accuracy of the estimation. The corrected incidence of postpartum hemorrhage in Saudi Arabia was found to be 1.47%. Health-care providers tend to underestimate the volume of postpartum blood loss by about 30%. Training and continuous auditing of the diagnosis of postpartum hemorrhage is needed to avoid missing cases and thus preventing associated morbidity and mortality.

  13. An overall estimation of losses caused by diseases in the Brazilian fish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Martins, Maurício Laterça

    2017-12-01

    Parasitic and infectious diseases are common in finfish, but are difficult to accurately estimate the economic impacts on the production in a country with large dimensions like Brazil. The aim of this study was to estimate the costs caused by economic losses of finfish due to mortality by diseases in Brazil. A model for estimating the costs related to parasitic and bacterial diseases in farmed fish and an estimative of these economic impacts are presented. We used official data of production and mortality of finfish for rough estimation of economic losses. The losses herein presented are related to direct and indirect economic costs for freshwater farmed fish, which were estimated in US$ 84 million per year. Finally, it was possible to establish by the first time an estimative of overall losses in finfish production in Brazil using data available from production. Therefore, this current estimative must help researchers and policy makers to approximate the economic costs of diseases for fish farming industry, as well as for developing of public policies on the control measures of diseases and priority research lines.

  14. Comparison of sweat loss estimates for women during prolonged high-intensity running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Haymes, Emily M; Sawka, Michael N

    2002-08-01

    This study evaluated the error produced by four commonly used field estimates and two prediction equations of total body sweat loss. Eight women distance runners were studied during a 30-km treadmill run (approximately 70% .VO(2max)) in a warm (30 degrees C T(db)) and a cool (14 degrees C T(db)) environment. Total sweat loss (TSL) was determined from changes in body mass corrected for fluid intake (FI), urine losses (UL), clothing (trapped sweat, TS), CO(2)-O(2) exchange (metabolic mass loss, MML), and respiratory water loss (RWL). TSL was compared with four estimates of sweat losses (often employed in the field) from body mass changes corrected for: a) FI only (F-1); b) FI and TS (F-2); c) FI and UL (F-3); or d) FI, TS, and UL (F-4). Two prediction equations were used also for comparison to TSL values. In the warm environment, F-1, F-3, and F-4 accurately estimated (0.2-6.9%; P > 0.05) TSL, whereas F-2 produced a large error (15.3%; P equations markedly underestimated (20-22%) TSL in the warm environment and underestimated (41%) or overestimated (20%) TSL in the cool environment. TSL can be accurately estimated from changes in body mass using F-1, F-3, or F-4 methods in hot environments; however, none of the methods accurately estimated actual TSL values in a cool environment. Neither prediction equation provided accurate estimates of TSL in warm or cool conditions for women runners. These results illustrate the difficulty of accurately estimating and predicting sweat losses in the field.

  15. Ultrafast evolution and loss of CRISPRs following a host shift in a novel wildlife pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel F Delaney

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Measureable rates of genome evolution are well documented in human pathogens but are less well understood in bacterial pathogens in the wild, particularly during and after host switches. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is a pathogenic bacterium that has evolved predominantly in poultry and recently jumped to wild house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus, a common North American songbird. For the first time we characterize the genome and measure rates of genome evolution in House Finch isolates of MG, as well as in poultry outgroups. Using whole-genome sequences of 12 House Finch isolates across a 13-year serial sample and an additional four newly sequenced poultry strains, we estimate a nucleotide diversity in House Finch isolates of only ∼2% of ancestral poultry strains and a nucleotide substitution rate of 0.8-1.2×10(-5 per site per year both in poultry and in House Finches, an exceptionally fast rate rivaling some of the highest estimates reported thus far for bacteria. We also found high diversity and complete turnover of CRISPR arrays in poultry MG strains prior to the switch to the House Finch host, but after the invasion of House Finches there is progressive loss of CRISPR repeat diversity, and recruitment of novel CRISPR repeats ceases. Recent (2007 House Finch MG strains retain only ∼50% of the CRISPR repertoire founding (1994-95 strains and have lost the CRISPR-associated genes required for CRISPR function. Our results suggest that genome evolution in bacterial pathogens of wild birds can be extremely rapid and in this case is accompanied by apparent functional loss of CRISPRs.

  16. Estimation of the energy loss at the blades in rowing: common assumptions revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmijster, Mathijs; De Koning, Jos; Van Soest, A J

    2010-08-01

    In rowing, power is inevitably lost as kinetic energy is imparted to the water during push-off with the blades. Power loss is estimated from reconstructed blade kinetics and kinematics. Traditionally, it is assumed that the oar is completely rigid and that force acts strictly perpendicular to the blade. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how reconstructed blade kinematics, kinetics, and average power loss are affected by these assumptions. A calibration experiment with instrumented oars and oarlocks was performed to establish relations between measured signals and oar deformation and blade force. Next, an on-water experiment was performed with a single female world-class rower rowing at constant racing pace in an instrumented scull. Blade kinematics, kinetics, and power loss under different assumptions (rigid versus deformable oars; absence or presence of a blade force component parallel to the oar) were reconstructed. Estimated power losses at the blades are 18% higher when parallel blade force is incorporated. Incorporating oar deformation affects reconstructed blade kinematics and instantaneous power loss, but has no effect on estimation of power losses at the blades. Assumptions on oar deformation and blade force direction have implications for the reconstructed blade kinetics and kinematics. Neglecting parallel blade forces leads to a substantial underestimation of power losses at the blades.

  17. Spatial modeling for estimation of earthquakes economic loss in West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnowati, Dyah Ayu; Meilano, Irwan; Riqqi, Akhmad; Hanifa, Nuraini Rahma

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia has a high vulnerability towards earthquakes. The low adaptive capacity could make the earthquake become disaster that should be concerned. That is why risk management should be applied to reduce the impacts, such as estimating the economic loss caused by hazard. The study area of this research is West Java. The main reason of West Java being vulnerable toward earthquake is the existence of active faults. These active faults are Lembang Fault, Cimandiri Fault, Baribis Fault, and also Megathrust subduction zone. This research tries to estimates the value of earthquakes economic loss from some sources in West Java. The economic loss is calculated by using HAZUS method. The components that should be known are hazard (earthquakes), exposure (building), and the vulnerability. Spatial modeling is aimed to build the exposure data and make user get the information easier by showing the distribution map, not only in tabular data. As the result, West Java could have economic loss up to 1,925,122,301,868,140 IDR ± 364,683,058,851,703.00 IDR, which is estimated from six earthquake sources with maximum possibly magnitude. However, the estimation of economic loss value in this research is the worst case earthquakes occurrence which is probably over-estimated.

  18. Estimation of evaporative losses during storage of crude oil and petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Marina A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of crude oil and petroleum products inevitably leads to evaporative losses. Those losses are important for the industrial plants mass balances, as well as for the environmental protection. In this paper, estimation of evaporative losses was performed using software program TANKS 409d which was developed by the Agency for Environmental Protection of the United States - US EPA. Emissions were estimated for the following types of storage tanks: fixed conical roof tank, fixed dome roof tank, external floating roof tank, internal floating roof tank and domed external floating roof tank. Obtained results show quantities of evaporated losses per tone of stored liquid. Crude oil fixed roof storage tank losses are cca 0.5 kg per tone of crude oil. For floating roof, crude oil losses are 0.001 kg/t. Fuel oil (diesel fuel and heating oil have the smallest evaporation losses, which are in order of magnitude 10-3 kg/tone. Liquids with higher Reid Vapour Pressure have very high evaporative losses for tanks with fixed roof, up to 2.07 kg/tone. In case of external floating roof tank, losses are 0.32 kg/tone. The smallest losses are for internal floating roof tank and domed external floating roof tank: 0.072 and 0.044, respectively. Finally, it can be concluded that the liquid with low volatility of low BTEX amount can be stored in tanks with fixed roof. In this case, the prevailing economic aspect, because the total amount of evaporative loss does not significantly affect the environment. On the other hand, storage of volatile derivatives with high levels of BTEX is not justified from the economic point of view or from the standpoint of the environment protection.

  19. Centralized web-based loss estimation tool: INLET for disaster response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyck, C. K.; Chung, H.-C.; Cho, S.; Mio, M. Z.; Ghosh, S.; Eguchi, R. T.; Mehrotra, S.

    2006-03-01

    In the years following the 1994 Northridge earthquake, many researchers in the earthquake community focused on the development of GIS-based loss estimation tools such as HAZUS. These highly customizable programs have many users, and different results after an event can be problematic. Online IMS (Internet Map Servers) offer a centralized system where data, model updates and results cascade to all users. INLET (Internet-based Loss Estimation Tool) is the first online real-time loss estimation system available to the emergency management and response community within Southern California. In the event of a significant earthquake, Perl scripts written to respond to USGS ShakeCast notifications will call INLET routines that use USGS ShakeMaps to estimate losses within minutes after an event. INLET incorporates extensive publicly available GIS databases and uses damage functions simplified from FEMA's HAZUS (R) software. INLET currently estimates building damage, transportation impacts, and casualties. The online model simulates the effects of earthquakes, in the context of the larger RESCUE project, in order to test the integration of IT in evacuation routing. The simulation tool provides a "testbed" environment for researchers to model the effect that disaster awareness and route familiarity can have on traffic congestion and evacuation time.

  20. Comparison of three methods for estimation of exercise-related ion losses in sweat of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, J K; McCutcheon, L J; Geor, R J

    1999-10-01

    To quantify total fluid loss in sweat of Thoroughbreds during >3 hours of low-intensity exercise in controlled conditions and to calculate and compare estimated ion losses in sweat, according to 3 methods. 6 exercise-trained Thoroughbreds. Fluid and ion losses in sweat were measured in 6 horses exercising at 40% of the speed that elicited maximum oxygen consumption for 45 km. Horses were given a 15-minute rest period at the end of three 15-km exercise phases. Horses completed 2 exercise trials. Ion losses in sweat were calculated, using measurements of local sweating rate and sweat ion composition (SWT), change in net exchangeable cation content (CAT), and change in extracellular ion content (PLAS) derived from plasma total solids and ion concentrations. Measurement of SWT revealed a mean (+/- SEM) fluid loss in sweat during 45 km of exercise of 27.5 +/- 1.6 L. Total ion loss in sweat was approximately 241 g or 7.8 mol with higher sodium losses in the second and third phases of exercise compared with the first phase. Losses of sodium and potassium calculated by SWT or CAT were not significantly different from each other, whereas losses of these ions as determined by PLAS were significantly lower. Calculation of ion losses from a mean whole body sweating rate extrapolated from either local sweating rate and sweat ion composition or from change in net exchangeable cation content provide similar results, whereas ion losses determined by changes in extracellular ion content derived from plasma total solids and ion concentration results in underestimation of actual losses.

  1. Estimation of Age Using Alveolar Bone Loss: Forensic and Anthropological Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruquet, Michel; Saliba-Serre, Bérengère; Tardivo, Delphine; Foti, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize a new odontological methodological approach based on radiographic for age estimation. The study was comprised of 397 participants aged between 9 and 87 years. A clinical examination and a radiographic assessment of alveolar bone loss were performed. Direct measures of alveolar bone level were recorded using CT scans. A medical examination report was attached to the investigation file. Because of the link between alveolar bone loss and age, a model was proposed to enable simple, reliable, and quick age estimation. This work added new arguments for age estimation. This study aimed to develop a simple, standardized, and reproducible technique for age estimation of adults of actual populations in forensic medicine and ancient populations in funeral anthropology. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Wildlife Inventory Plan: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals for this Wildlife Inventory Plan for Minnesota Valley NWR are: (1) to provide as good a survey method as possible to estimate population levels of key...

  3. Estimating Sustainable Live-Coral Harvest at Kamiali Wildlife Management Area, Papua New Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Longenecker

    Full Text Available Live coral is harvested throughout the Indo-West Pacific to make lime, used in the consumption of the world's fourth-most consumed drug, betel nut. Coral harvesting is an environmental concern; however, because lime-making is one of the few sources of income in some areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG, the practice is unlikely to stop. To better manage coral harvest, we used standard fishery-yield methods to generate sustainable-harvest guidelines for corymbose Acropora species found on the reef flat and crest at Lababia, PNG. We constructed a yield curve (weight-specific net annual-dry-weight production by: 1 describing the allometric relationship between colony size and dry weight, and using that relationship to estimate the dry weight of Acropora colonies in situ; 2 estimating annual growth of Acropora colonies by estimating in situ, and describing the relationship between, colony dry weight at the beginning and end of one year; and 3 conducting belt-transect surveys to describe weight-frequencies and ultimately to predict annual weight change per square meter for each weight class. Reef habitat covers a total 2,467,550 m2 at Lababia and produces an estimated 248,397 kg/y (dry weight of corymbose Acropora, of which 203,897 kg is produced on the reef flat/crest. We conservatively estimate that 30,706.6 kg of whole, dry, corymbose, Acropora can be sustainably harvested from the reef flat/crest habitat each year provided each culled colony weighs at least 1805 g when dry (or is at least 46 cm along its major axis. Artisanal lime-makers convert 24.8% of whole-colony weight into marketable lime, thus we estimate 7615.2 g of lime can be sustainably produced annually from corymbose Acropora. This value incorporates several safety margins, and should lead to proper management of live coral harvest. Importantly, the guideline recognizes village rights to exploit its marine resources, is consistent with village needs for income, and balances an equally

  4. Production loss due to new subclinical mastitis in Dutch dairy cows estimated iwth a test-day model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halasa, T.; Nielen, M.; Roos, de S.; Hoorne, van R.; Jong, de G.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Werven, van T.; Hogeveen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Milk, fat, and protein loss due to a new subclinical mastitis case may be economically important, and the objective of this study was to estimate this loss. The loss was estimated based on test-day (TD) cow records collected over a 1-yr period from 400 randomly selected Dutch dairy herds. After

  5. Afrika Statistika ISSN 2316-090X Quadratic loss estimation of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and has a spherically ... Suppose we wish to estimate θ, by a decision rule δ(X, U) using the sum of squared-error loss ||δ(X, U) − θ||2. ... this setting, the random vectors X and U are independent then the situation becomes the same as when ...

  6. Estimates of Annual Soil Loss Rates in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasiela de Oliveira Rodrigues Medeiros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Soil is a natural resource that has been affected by human pressures beyond its renewal capacity. For this reason, large agricultural areas that were productive have been abandoned due to soil degradation, mainly caused by the erosion process. The objective of this study was to apply the Universal Soil Loss Equation to generate more recent estimates of soil loss rates for the state of São Paulo using a database with information from medium resolution (30 m. The results showed that many areas of the state have high (critical levels of soil degradation due to the predominance of consolidated human activities, especially in growing sugarcane and pasture use. The average estimated rate of soil loss is 30 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and 59 % of the area of the state (except for water bodies and urban areas had estimated rates above 12 Mg ha-1 yr-1, considered as the average tolerance limit in the literature. The average rates of soil loss in areas with annual agricultural crops, semi-perennial agricultural crops (sugarcane, and permanent agricultural crops were 118, 78, and 38 Mg ha-1 yr-1 respectively. The state of São Paulo requires attention to conservation of soil resources, since most soils led to estimates beyond the tolerance limit.

  7. Estimating adolescent risk for hearing loss based on data from a large school-based survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Vogel (Ineke); H. Verschuure (Hans); C.P.B. van der Ploeg (Catharina); J. Brug (Hans); H. Raat (Hein)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjectives. We estimated whether and to what extent a group of adolescents were at risk of developing permanent hearing loss as a result of voluntary exposure to high-volume music, and we assessed whether such exposure was associated with hearing-related symptoms. Methods. In 2007, 1512

  8. Estimating adolescent risk for hearing loss based on data from a large school-based survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, L.; Verschuure, H.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Brug, J.; Raat, H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated whether and to what extent a group of adolescents were at risk of developing permanent hearing loss as a result of voluntary exposure to high-volume music, and we assessed whether such exposure was associated with hearing-related symptoms. Methods. In 2007, 1512 adolescents

  9. Estimation of the energy loss at the blades in rowing: common assumptions revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmijster, M.J.; de Koning, J.J.; van Soest, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    In rowing, power is inevitably lost as kinetic energy is imparted to the water during push-off with the blades. Power loss is estimated from reconstructed blade kinetics and kinematics. Traditionally, it is assumed that the oar is completely rigid and that force acts strictly perpendicular to the

  10. Loss of life estimation in flood risk assessment; theory and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    The flooding of New Orleans due to hurricane Katrina in the year 2005 showed the world the catastrophic consequences of large-scale floods. This dissertation presents a method for the estimation of loss of life caused by the flooding of low-lying delta areas. It also includes a preliminary analysis

  11. Directional maximum likelihood self-estimation of the path-loss exponent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Y.; Leus, G.J.T.; Dong, Min; Zheng, Thomas Fang

    2016-01-01

    The path-loss exponent (PLE) is a key parameter in wireless propagation channels. Therefore, obtaining the knowledge of the PLE is rather significant for assisting wireless communications and networking to achieve a better performance. Most existing methods for estimating the PLE not only require

  12. Estimating the permanent loss of groundwater storage in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. G.; Knight, R.; Chen, J.; Reeves, J. A.; Zebker, H. A.; Farr, T.; Liu, Z.

    2017-03-01

    In the San Joaquin Valley, California, recent droughts starting in 2007 have increased the pumping of groundwater, leading to widespread subsidence. In the southern portion of the San Joaquin Valley, vertical subsidence as high as 85 cm has been observed between June 2007 and December 2010 using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). This study seeks to map regions where inelastic (not recoverable) deformation occurred during the study period, resulting in permanent compaction and loss of groundwater storage. We estimated the amount of permanent compaction by incorporating multiple data sets: the total deformation derived from InSAR, estimated skeletal-specific storage and hydraulic parameters, geologic information, and measured water levels during our study period. We used two approaches, one that we consider to provide an estimate of the lowest possible amount of inelastic deformation, and one that provides a more reasonable estimate. These two approaches resulted in a spatial distribution of values for the percentage of the total deformation that was inelastic, with the former estimating a spatially averaged value of 54%, and the latter a spatially averaged value of 98%. The former corresponds to the permanent loss of 4.14 × 108 m3 of groundwater storage, or roughly 5% of the volume of groundwater used over the study time period; the latter corresponds to the loss of 7.48 × 108 m3 of groundwater storage, or roughly 9% of the volume of groundwater used. This study demonstrates that a data-driven approach can be used effectively to estimate the permanent loss of groundwater storage.

  13. The South African Tuberculosis Care Cascade: Estimated Losses and Methodological Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Pren; Theron, Grant; Rangaka, Molebogeng X; Chihota, Violet N; Vaughan, Louise; Brey, Zameer O; Pillay, Yogan

    2017-11-06

    While tuberculosis incidence and mortality are declining in South Africa, meeting the goals of the End TB Strategy requires an invigorated programmatic response informed by accurate data. Enumerating the losses at each step in the care cascade enables appropriate targeting of interventions and resources. We estimated the tuberculosis burden; the number and proportion of individuals with tuberculosis who accessed tests, had tuberculosis diagnosed, initiated treatment, and successfully completed treatment for all tuberculosis cases, for those with drug-susceptible tuberculosis (including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfected cases) and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. Estimates were derived from national electronic tuberculosis register data, laboratory data, and published studies. The overall tuberculosis burden was estimated to be 532005 cases (range, 333760-764480 cases), with successful completion of treatment in 53% of cases. Losses occurred at multiple steps: 5% at test access, 13% at diagnosis, 12% at treatment initiation, and 17% at successful treatment completion. Overall losses were similar among all drug-susceptible cases and those with HIV coinfection (54% and 52%, respectively, successfully completed treatment). Losses were substantially higher among rifampicin- resistant cases, with only 22% successfully completing treatment. Although the vast majority of individuals with tuberculosis engaged the public health system, just over half were successfully treated. Urgent efforts are required to improve implementation of existing policies and protocols to close gaps in tuberculosis diagnosis, treatment initiation, and successful treatment completion.

  14. Estimating the production losses due to cystic echinococcosis in ruminants in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariözkan, Savaş; Yalçin, Cengiz

    2009-08-26

    The aim of this study was to estimate the production losses due to cystic echinococcosis (CE) in cattle, sheep and goats in Turkey. For this purpose, official records and previously published data in the literature were used. The weighted mean prevalence rates of the disease were calculated to be 7.4% in cattle, 46.3% in sheep and 10.9% in goats. The financial losses were estimated in US$ at 2008 current prices under expected (mean value), optimistic (mean value lowered by 10%), and pessimistic (mean value increased by 10%) scenarios. The production losses in an infected ruminant were estimated as US$ 139.2 (125.3-153.2, under optimistic-pessimistic scenarios) for cattle, US$ 13.7 (12.3-15.1) for sheep, and US$ 13.9 (12.5-15.3) for goats. The nation-wide annual losses due to CE were estimated as US$ 32.4 million (26.2-39.1) for cattle, US$ 54.1 million (43.8-65.5) for sheep and US$ 2.7 million (2.2-3.3) for goats. The nation-wide production losses due to CE in Turkey in 2008 were calculated as US$ 89.2 million (72.2-107.9). The results of this study may provide information to assist decisions of the policy makers in prioritising the allocation of scarce resources in controlling animal diseases in Turkey. However, alternative disease control-eradication programmes and cost-benefit analyses of them are needed for the future studies of this kind to provide better decision support in this area.

  15. Loss estimates for a Puente Hills blind-thrust earthquake in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, E.H.; Seligson, H.A.; Gupta, N.; Gupta, V.; Jordan, T.H.; Campbell, K.W.

    2005-01-01

    Based on OpenSHA and HAZUS-MH, we present loss estimates for an earthquake rupture on the recently identified Puente Hills blind-thrust fault beneath Los Angeles. Given a range of possible magnitudes and ground motion models, and presuming a full fault rupture, we estimate the total economic loss to be between $82 and $252 billion. This range is not only considerably higher than a previous estimate of $69 billion, but also implies the event would be the costliest disaster in U.S. history. The analysis has also provided the following predictions: 3,000-18,000 fatalities, 142,000-735,000 displaced households, 42,000-211,000 in need of short-term public shelter, and 30,000-99,000 tons of debris generated. Finally, we show that the choice of ground motion model can be more influential than the earthquake magnitude, and that reducing this epistemic uncertainty (e.g., via model improvement and/or rejection) could reduce the uncertainty of the loss estimates by up to a factor of two. We note that a full Puente Hills fault rupture is a rare event (once every ???3,000 years), and that other seismic sources pose significant risk as well. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  16. Annualized earthquake loss estimates for California and their sensitivity to site amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Jaiswal, Kishor; Bausch, D; Seligson, H; Wills, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Input datasets for annualized earthquake loss (AEL) estimation for California were updated recently by the scientific community, and include the National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM), site‐response model, and estimates of shear‐wave velocity. Additionally, the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s loss estimation tool, Hazus, was updated to include the most recent census and economic exposure data. These enhancements necessitated a revisit to our previous AEL estimates and a study of the sensitivity of AEL estimates subjected to alternate inputs for site amplification. The NSHM ground motions for a uniform site condition are modified to account for the effect of local near‐surface geology. The site conditions are approximated in three ways: (1) by VS30 (time‐averaged shear‐wave velocity in the upper 30 m) value obtained from a geology‐ and topography‐based map consisting of 15 VS30 groups, (2) by site classes categorized according to National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification, and (3) by a uniform NEHRP site class D. In case 1, ground motions are amplified using the Seyhan and Stewart (2014) semiempirical nonlinear amplification model. In cases 2 and 3, ground motions are amplified using the 2014 version of the NEHRP site amplification factors, which are also based on the Seyhan and Stewart model but are approximated to facilitate their use for building code applications. Estimated AELs are presented at multiple resolutions, starting with the state level assessment and followed by detailed assessments for counties, metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), and cities. AEL estimate at the state level is ∼$3.7  billion, 70% of which is contributed from Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana, San Francisco–Oakland–Fremont, and Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario MSAs. The statewide AEL estimate is insensitive to alternate assumptions of site amplification. However, we note significant differences in AEL estimates

  17. Using Expert Elicitation to Estimate the Impacts of Plastic Pollution on Marine Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallos, N. J.; Wilcox, C.; Leonard, G. H.; Rodriquez, A. G.; Hardesty, B. D.

    2016-02-01

    With the rapid increase in global plastics production and the resulting large volume of litter that enters the marine environment, determining the consequences of this debris on marine fauna and ocean health has now become a critical environmental priority, particularly for threatened and endangered species. However, there are limited data about the impacts on debris on marine species from which to draw conclusions about the population consequences of anthropogenic debris. To address this knowledge gap, information was elicited from experts on the ecological threat of entanglement, ingestion and chemical contamination for three major marine taxa: seabirds, sea turtles and marine mammals. The threat assessment focused on the most common types of litter that are found along the world's coastlines, based on data gathered during three decades of international coastal clean-up efforts. Fishing related gear, balloons and plastic bags were estimated to pose the greatest entanglement risk to marine fauna. In contrast, experts identified a broader suite of items of concern for ingestion, with plastic bags and plastic utensils ranked as the greatest threats. Entanglement and ingestion affected a similar range of taxa, although entanglement was slightly worse as it is more likely to be lethal. Contamination was scored the lowest in terms of its impact, affecting a smaller portion of the taxa and being rated as having solely non-lethal impacts. Research designed to better understand and quantify the impacts of chemical contamination on marine fauna at individual, population and species levels should be a priority for conservation biologists. This work points towards a number of opportunities for both policy-based and consumer-driven changes in plastics use that could have demonstrable affects for a range of taxa that are ecologically important and serve as indicators of marine ecosystem health. Based on threat rankings, entanglement and ingestion should be a similar priority

  18. Estimation of sockeye salmon escapement in Mortensens Creek, Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, 2006; and 2001 to 2006 run comparisons

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A fixed picket weir and underwater video monitoring station was operated on Mortensens Creek from 18 June to 16 September 2006. Sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka...

  19. Estimation of Coho Salmon escapement in the Ugashik Lakes, Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Local subsistence users have expressed concern over the lack of inseason escapement information for coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch entering the Ugashik lakes....

  20. Economic valuation of subsistence harvest of wildlife in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Christopher D; Bonds, Matthew H; Brashares, Justin S; Rasolofoniaina, B J Rodolph; Kremen, Claire

    2014-02-01

    Wildlife consumption can be viewed as an ecosystem provisioning service (the production of a material good through ecological functioning) because of wildlife's ability to persist under sustainable levels of harvest. We used the case of wildlife harvest and consumption in northeastern Madagascar to identify the distribution of these services to local households and communities to further our understanding of local reliance on natural resources. We inferred these benefits from demand curves built with data on wildlife sales transactions. On average, the value of wildlife provisioning represented 57% of annual household cash income in local communities from the Makira Natural Park and Masoala National Park, and harvested areas produced an economic return of U.S.$0.42 ha(-1) · year(-1). Variability in value of harvested wildlife was high among communities and households with an approximate 2 orders of magnitude difference in the proportional value of wildlife to household income. The imputed price of harvested wildlife and its consumption were strongly associated (p< 0.001), and increases in price led to reduced harvest for consumption. Heightened monitoring and enforcement of hunting could increase the costs of harvesting and thus elevate the price and reduce consumption of wildlife. Increased enforcement would therefore be beneficial to biodiversity conservation but could limit local people's food supply. Specifically, our results provide an estimate of the cost of offsetting economic losses to local populations from the enforcement of conservation policies. By explicitly estimating the welfare effects of consumed wildlife, our results may inform targeted interventions by public health and development specialists as they allocate sparse funds to support regions, households, or individuals most vulnerable to changes in access to wildlife. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. E-model MOS Estimate Improvement through Jitter Buffer Packet Loss Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Kovac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed article analyses dependence of MOS as a voice call quality (QoS measure estimated through ITU-T E-model under real network conditions with jitter. In this paper, a method of jitter effect is proposed. Jitter as voice packet time uncertainty appears as increased packet loss caused by jitter memory buffer under- or overflow. Jitter buffer behaviour at receiver’s side is modelled as Pareto/D/1/K system with Pareto-distributed packet interarrival times and its performance is experimentally evaluated by using statistic tools. Jitter buffer stochastic model is then incorporated into E-model in an additive manner accounting for network jitter effects via excess packet loss complementing measured network packet loss. Proposed modification of E-model input parameter adds two degrees of freedom in modelling: network jitter and jitter buffer size.

  2. Estimate of yield loss from the citrus nematode in Texas grapefruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, L W; Davis, R M

    1982-10-01

    Chemical control of the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb, has consistently increased yield of grapefruit on sour orange rootstock in Texas. In this study, data from chemical control tests conducted from 1973 to 1980 were analyzed to determine the relationship between nematode counts and grapefruit yield and fruit size. The correlation between yield and nematode counts was negative (r = -0.47) and highly significant (P tree and x = nematodes/100 cm(3) of soil. The correlation between fruit size and nematode counts was not significant because yield and fruit size were inversely related. Yield loss in an average untreated orchard was estimated to be 12.4 tons/ha. Economic loss to citrus nematode in Texas grapefruit, assuming no treatment and an average on-tree price of $60/ton, was estimated to be $13.2 million annually.

  3. Estimation of the iron loss in deep-sea permanent magnet motors considering seawater compressive stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongxiang; Wei, Yanyu; Zou, Jibin; Li, Jianjun; Qi, Wenjuan; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea permanent magnet motor equipped with fluid compensated pressure-tolerant system is compressed by the high pressure fluid both outside and inside. The induced stress distribution in stator core is significantly different from that in land type motor. Its effect on the magnetic properties of stator core is important for deep-sea motor designers but seldom reported. In this paper, the stress distribution in stator core, regarding the seawater compressive stress, is calculated by 2D finite element method (FEM). The effect of compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel sheet, that is, permeability, BH curves, and BW curves, is also measured. Then, based on the measured magnetic properties and calculated stress distribution, the stator iron loss is estimated by stress-electromagnetics-coupling FEM. At last the estimation is verified by experiment. Both the calculated and measured results show that stator iron loss increases obviously with the seawater compressive stress.

  4. Estimation of damage and human losses due to earthquakes worldwide - QLARM strategy and experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendafiloski, G.; Rosset, P.; Wyss, M.; Wiemer, S.; Bonjour, C.; Cua, G.

    2009-04-01

    Within the framework of the IMRPOVE project, we are constructing our second-generation loss estimation tool QLARM (earthQuake Loss Assessment for Response and Mitigation). At the same time, we are upgrading the input data to be used in real-time and scenario mode. The software and databases will be open to all scientific users. The estimates include: (1) total number of fatalities and injured, (2) casualties by settlement, (3) percent of buildings in five damage grades in each settlement, (4) a map showing mean damage by settlement, and (5) functionality of large medical facilities. We present here our strategy and progress so far in constructing and calibrating the new tool. The QLARM worldwide database of the elements-at-risk consists of point and discrete city models with the following parameters: (1) Soil amplification factors; (2) distribution of building stock and population into vulnerability classes of the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98); (3) most recent population numbers by settlement or district; (4) information regarding medical facilities where available. We calculate the seismic demand in terms of (a) macroseismic (seismic intensity) or (b) instrumental (PGA) parameters. Attenuation relationships predicting both parameters will be used for different regions worldwide, considering the tectonic regime and wave propagation characteristics. We estimate damage and losses using: (i) vulnerability models pertinent to EMS-98 vulnerability classes; (ii) building collapse rates pertinent to different regions worldwide; and, (iii) casualty matrices pertinent to EMS-98 vulnerability classes. We also provide approximate estimates for the functionality of large medical facilities considering their structural, non-structural damage and loss-of-function of the medical equipment and installations. We calibrate the QLARM database and the loss estimation tool using macroseismic observations and information regarding damage and human losses from past earthquakes

  5. Estimated Fresh Produce Shrink and Food Loss in U.S. Supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C. Buzby

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Data on fresh fruit and vegetable shrink in supermarkets is important to help understand where and how much shrink could potentially be reduced by supermarkets to increase their profitability. This study provides: (1 shrink estimates for 24 fresh fruits and 31 fresh vegetables in U.S. supermarkets in 2011 and 2012; and (2 retail-level food loss. For each covered commodity, supplier shipment data was aggregated from a sample of 2900 stores from one national and four regional supermarket retailers in the United States, and this sum was then compared with aggregated point-of-sale data from the same stores to estimate the amount of shrink by weight and shrink rates. The 2011–2012 average annual shrink rates for individual fresh vegetables varied from 2.2 percent for sweet corn to 62.9 percent for turnip greens and for individual fresh fruit ranged from 4.1 percent for bananas to 43.1 percent for papayas. When these shrink estimates were used in the Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data series, annual food loss for these commodities totaled 5.9 billion pounds of fresh fruit and 6.1 billion pounds of fresh vegetables. This study extends the literature by providing important information on where and how much shrink could potentially be reduced. Precise comparisons across studies are difficult. This information, combined with information on available and cost-effective technologies and practices, may help supermarkets target food loss reduction efforts though food loss will never be zero.

  6. A remote sensing method for estimating regional reservoir area and evaporative loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Gorelick, Steven M.; Zimba, Paul V.; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    Evaporation from the water surface of a reservoir can significantly affect its function of ensuring the availability and temporal stability of water supply. Current estimations of reservoir evaporative loss are dependent on water area derived from a reservoir storage-area curve. Such curves are unavailable if the reservoir is located in a data-sparse region or questionable if long-term sedimentation has changed the original elevation-area relationship. We propose a remote sensing framework to estimate reservoir evaporative loss at the regional scale. This framework uses a multispectral water index to extract reservoir area from Landsat imagery and estimate monthly evaporation volume based on pan-derived evaporative rates. The optimal index threshold is determined based on local observations and extended to unobserved locations and periods. Built on the cloud computing capacity of the Google Earth Engine, this framework can efficiently analyze satellite images at large spatiotemporal scales, where such analysis is infeasible with a single computer. Our study involves 200 major reservoirs in Texas, captured in 17,811 Landsat images over a 32-year period. The results show that these reservoirs contribute to an annual evaporative loss of 8.0 billion cubic meters, equivalent to 20% of their total active storage or 53% of total annual water use in Texas. At five coastal basins, reservoir evaporative losses exceed the minimum freshwater inflows required to sustain ecosystem health and fishery productivity of the receiving estuaries. Reservoir evaporative loss can be significant enough to counterbalance the positive effects of impounding water and to offset the contribution of water conservation and reuse practices. Our results also reveal the spatially variable performance of the multispectral water index and indicate the limitation of using scene-level cloud cover to screen satellite images. This study demonstrates the advantage of combining satellite remote sensing and

  7. Estimation of Antarctic ozone loss from ground-based total column measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttippurath, J.; Goutail, F.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Lefèvre, F.; Roscoe, H. K.; Pazmiño, A.; Feng, W.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Godin-Beekmann, S.

    2010-07-01

    The passive tracer method is used to estimate ozone loss from ground-based measurements in the Antarctic. A sensitivity study shows that the ozone depletion can be estimated within an accuracy of ~4%. The method is then applied to the ground-based observations from Arrival Heights, Belgrano, Concordia, Dumont d'Urville, Faraday, Halley, Marambio, Neumayer, Rothera, South Pole, Syowa, and Zhongshan for the diagnosis of ozone loss in the Antarctic. On average, the ten-day boxcar average of the vortex mean ozone column loss deduced from the ground-based stations was about 55±5% in 2005-2009. The ozone loss computed from the ground-based measurements is in very good agreement with those derived from satellite measurements (OMI and SCIAMACHY) and model simulations (REPROBUS and SLIMCAT), where the differences are within ±3-5%. The historical ground-based total ozone observations in October show that the depletion started in the late 1970s, reached a maximum in the early 1990s and stabilised afterwards due to saturation. There is no indication of ozone recovery yet. At southern mid-latitudes, a reduction of 20-50% is observed for a few days in October-November at the newly installed Rio Gallegos station. Similar depletion of ozone is also observed episodically during the vortex overpasses at Kerguelen in October-November and at Macquarie Island in July-August of the recent winters. This illustrates the significance of measurements at the edges of Antarctica.

  8. Visitor estimation evaluation and strategies : Developing accurate visitation estimation at two urban National Wildlife Refuges in the Mountain-Prairie Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Visitor numbers are a key metric for a variety of conservation planning and management purposes. However, challenges remain in improving accuracy of visitor...

  9. Estimating the mitigation of anthropogenic loss of phosphorus in New Zealand grassland catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, R W

    2014-01-15

    Managing phosphorus in catchments is central to improving surface water quality, but knowing how much can be mitigated from agricultural land, and at what cost relative to a natural baseline (or reference condition), is difficult to assess. The difference between median concentrations now and under reference was defined as the anthropogenic loss, while the manageable loss was defined as the median P concentration possible without costing more than 10% of farm profitability (measured as earnings before interest and tax, EBIT). Nineteen strategies to mitigate P loss were ranked according to cost (low, medium, high, very high). Using the average dairy and drystock farms in 14 grassland catchments as test cases, the potential to mitigate P loss from land to water was then modelled for different strategies, beginning with strategies within the lowest cost category from best to least effective, before applying a strategy from a more expensive category. The anthropogenic contribution to stream median FRP and TP concentrations was estimated as 44 and 69%, respectively. However, applying up to three strategies per farm theoretically enabled mitigation of FRP and TP losses sufficient to maintain aesthetic and trout fishery values to be met and at a cost target at little cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimation of power losses in a high-frequency planar transformer using a thermal camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barlik Roman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of a thermal camera for the quantitative estimation of power losses in a high frequency planar transformer (100 kHz/ 5600 VA. The methodology is based on the observation of the transient temperature rise and determination of the power losses by means of curves representing the derivative of temperature as a function of power losses dissipated in the transformer. First, the thermal calibration characteristics had to be obtained from a simple experiment, where power losses are generated by DC current in the ferrite core and windings. Next, experimental investigations focused on the determination of the transformer power losses for a short circuit and no load, with a resistive load and with the rectifier as a load were carried out. Finally, to verify the obtained results, analytical calculations based on Dowell’s and modified Steinmetz’s equations were additionally made, which showed a good convergence. The proposed method is easy to implement and can be used as an alternative to the calorimetric method which is time-consuming and requires a complicated measurement setup.

  11. Survey of coho salmon runs on the Pacific Coast of the Alaska Peninsula and Becharof National Wildlife Refuges, 1994 with estimates of escapement for two small streams in 1995 and 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objectives of this study were to describe the run timing and to evaluate methods for estimating escapement of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in small...

  12. Regional earthquake loss estimation in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Winter, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Beside storm events geophysical events cause a majority of natural hazard losses on a global scale. However, in alpine regions with a moderate earthquake risk potential like in the study area and thereupon connected consequences on the collective memory this source of risk is often neglected in contrast to gravitational and hydrological hazards processes. In this context, the comparative analysis of potential disasters and emergencies on a national level in Switzerland (Katarisk study) has shown that earthquakes are the most serious source of risk in general. In order to estimate the potential losses of earthquake events for different return periods and loss dimensions of extreme events the following study was conducted in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy). The applied methodology follows the generally accepted risk concept based on the risk components hazard, elements at risk and vulnerability, whereby risk is not defined holistically (direct, indirect, tangible and intangible) but with the risk category losses on buildings and inventory as a general risk proxy. The hazard analysis is based on a regional macroseismic scenario approach. Thereby, the settlement centre of each community (116 communities) is defined as potential epicentre. For each epicentre four different epicentral scenarios (return periods of 98, 475, 975 and 2475 years) are calculated based on the simple but approved and generally accepted attenuation law according to Sponheuer (1960). The relevant input parameters to calculate the epicentral scenarios are (i) the macroseismic intensity and (ii) the focal depth. The considered macroseismic intensities are based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Italian earthquake catalogue on a community level (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile). The relevant focal depth are considered as a mean within a defined buffer of the focal depths of the harmonized earthquake catalogues of Italy and Switzerland as well as

  13. Estimating local biodiversity change: a critique of papers claiming no net loss of local diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrew; Cardinale, Bradley J; Allington, Ginger R H; Byrnes, Jarrett; Arthur Endsley, K; Brown, Daniel G; Hooper, David U; Isbell, Forest; O'Connor, Mary I; Loreau, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Global species extinction rates are orders of magnitude above the background rate documented in the fossil record. However, recent data syntheses have found mixed evidence for patterns of net species loss at local spatial scales. For example, two recent data meta-analyses have found that species richness is decreasing in some locations and is increasing in others. When these trends are combined, these papers argued there has been no net change in species richness, and suggested this pattern is globally representative of biodiversity change at local scales. Here we reanalyze results of these data syntheses and outline why this conclusion is unfounded. First, we show the datasets collated for these syntheses are spatially biased and not representative of the spatial distribution of species richness or the distribution of many primary drivers of biodiversity change. This casts doubt that their results are representative of global patterns. Second, we argue that detecting the trend in local species richness is very difficult with short time series and can lead to biased estimates of change. Reanalyses of the data detected a signal of study duration on biodiversity change, indicating net biodiversity loss is most apparent in studies of longer duration. Third, estimates of species richness change can be biased if species gains during post-disturbance recovery are included without also including species losses that occurred during the disturbance. Net species gains or losses should be assessed with respect to common baselines or reference communities. Ultimately, we need a globally coordinated effort to monitor biodiversity so that we can estimate and attribute human impacts as causes of biodiversity change. A combination of technologies will be needed to produce regularly updated global datasets of local biodiversity change to guide future policy. At this time the conclusion that there is no net change in local species richness is not the consensus state of knowledge.

  14. Bayesian Estimation Of Shift Point In Poisson Model Under Asymmetric Loss Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    uma srivastava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with estimating  shift point which occurs in any sequence of independent observations  of Poisson model in statistical process control. This shift point occurs in the sequence when  i.e. m  life data are observed. The Bayes estimator on shift point 'm' and before and after shift process means are derived for symmetric and asymmetric loss functions under informative and non informative priors. The sensitivity analysis of Bayes estimators are carried out by simulation and numerical comparisons with  R-programming. The results shows the effectiveness of shift in sequence of Poisson disribution .

  15. Mediation analysis to estimate direct and indirect milk losses due to clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detilleux, J; Kastelic, J P; Barkema, H W

    2015-03-01

    Milk losses associated with mastitis can be attributed to either effects of pathogens per se (i.e., direct losses) or effects of the immune response triggered by intramammary infection (indirect losses). The distinction is important in terms of mastitis prevention and treatment. Regardless, the number of pathogens is often unknown (particularly in field studies), making it difficult to estimate direct losses, whereas indirect losses can be approximated by measuring the association between increased somatic cell count (SCC) and milk production. An alternative is to perform a mediation analysis in which changes in milk yield are allocated into their direct and indirect components. We applied this method on data for clinical mastitis, milk and SCC test-day recordings, results of bacteriological cultures (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and streptococci other than Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. uberis), and cow characteristics. Following a diagnosis of clinical mastitis, the cow was treated and changes (increase or decrease) in milk production before and after a diagnosis were interpreted counterfactually. On a daily basis, indirect changes, mediated by SCC increase, were significantly different from zero for all bacterial species, with a milk yield decrease (ranging among species from 4 to 33g and mediated by an increase of 1000 SCC/mL/day) before and a daily milk increase (ranging among species from 2 to 12g and mediated by a decrease of 1000 SCC/mL/day) after detection. Direct changes, not mediated by SCC, were only different from zero for coagulase-negative staphylococci before diagnosis (72g per day). We concluded that mixed structural equation models were useful to estimate direct and indirect effects of the presence of clinical mastitis on milk yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing and Testing the Automated Post-Event Earthquake Loss Estimation and Visualisation (APE-ELEV) Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Astoul, Anthony; Filliter, Christopher; Mason,Eric; Rau-Chaplin, Andrew; Shridhar, Kunal; Varghese, Blesson; Varshney, Naman

    2013-01-01

    An automated, real-time, multiple sensor data source relying and globally applicable earthquake loss model and visualiser is desirable for post-event earthquake analysis. To achieve this there is a need to support rapid data ingestion, loss estimation and integration of data from multiple data sources and rapid visualisation at multiple geographic levels. In this paper, the design and development of the Automated Post-Event Earthquake Loss Estimation and Visualisation (APE-ELEV) system for re...

  17. Bayesian Estimation of Inequality and Poverty Indices in Case of Pareto Distribution Using Different Priors under LINEX Loss Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaljit Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian estimators of Gini index and a Poverty measure are obtained in case of Pareto distribution under censored and complete setup. The said estimators are obtained using two noninformative priors, namely, uniform prior and Jeffreys’ prior, and one conjugate prior under the assumption of Linear Exponential (LINEX loss function. Using simulation techniques, the relative efficiency of proposed estimators using different priors and loss functions is obtained. The performances of the proposed estimators have been compared on the basis of their simulated risks obtained under LINEX loss function.

  18. Toward including the effect of manufacturing processes in the pre-estimated losses of the switched reluctance motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyhab El-Kharahi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of losses plays a key role in the process of building any electrical machine. How to estimate those losses while designing any machine; by obtaining the characteristic of the electrical steel from the catalogue and calculate the losses. However, this way is inaccurate since the electrical steel performs several manufacturing processes during the process of building any machine, which affects directly the magnetic property of the electrical steel and accordingly the characteristic of the electrical steel will be affected. That means the B–H curve of the steel that was obtained from the catalogue will be changed. Moreover, during loading and rotating the machine, some important changes occur to the B–H characteristic of the electrical steel such as the stress on the laminated iron. Accordingly, the pre-estimated losses are completely far from the actual losses because they were estimated based on the data of the electrical steel obtained from the catalogue. So in order to estimate the losses precisely significant factors of the manufacturing processes must be included. The paper introduces the systematic estimation of the losses including the effect of one of the manufacturing factors. Similarly, any other manufacturing factor can be included in the pre-designed losses estimations.

  19. Comparing population exposure to multiple Washington earthquake scenarios for prioritizing loss estimation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Ratliff, Jamie L.; Schelling, John; Weaver, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    Scenario-based, loss-estimation studies are useful for gauging potential societal impacts from earthquakes but can be challenging to undertake in areas with multiple scenarios and jurisdictions. We present a geospatial approach using various population data for comparing earthquake scenarios and jurisdictions to help emergency managers prioritize where to focus limited resources on data development and loss-estimation studies. Using 20 earthquake scenarios developed for the State of Washington (USA), we demonstrate how a population-exposure analysis across multiple jurisdictions based on Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) classes helps emergency managers understand and communicate where potential loss of life may be concentrated and where impacts may be more related to quality of life. Results indicate that certain well-known scenarios may directly impact the greatest number of people, whereas other, potentially lesser-known, scenarios impact fewer people but consequences could be more severe. The use of economic data to profile each jurisdiction’s workforce in earthquake hazard zones also provides additional insight on at-risk populations. This approach can serve as a first step in understanding societal impacts of earthquakes and helping practitioners to efficiently use their limited risk-reduction resources.

  20. Diseases of flue-cured tobacco in Ontario and estimates of disease losses, 1972-1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayed, S.K.; Watson, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    In Ontario the major diseases of flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) are brown root rot caused by the root lesion nematodes Pratylenchus spp; pole rot caused by Rhizopus arrhizus; weather fleck induced by air pollution; and sore-shin caused by Rhizoctiana solani. In 1972 and 1973 the average annual yield loss from these and other tobacco diseases was estimated at 3.5%, representing a farm value of $5.5 million. Annual losses from pole rot and weather fleck were estimated at 1.3% and 0.73%, respectively. Brown root rot is controlled on most farms by soil fumigation at a cost of approximately $2.2 million per annum; despite these control measures losses averaged 0.4%. Blue mold caused by Peronospora tabacina has not been noticed in Ontario since 1966. Stalk rot (rattle box) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was recorded for the first time in Canada in 1970 but has not become a problem; and Myrothecium verrucaria is reported for the first time from tobacco seedlings. A comparison between the tobacco disease patterns in Canada and North Carolina is also discussed.

  1. Capacity Estimation for On-Ramp Merging Section of Urban Expressway Based on Time Headway Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-jian Xue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating capacity of on-ramp merging section of urban expressway based on dynamics and gap acceptance theory, considering lane-changing processes and time headway loss. Survey data were collected from on-ramp merging sections of shanghai urban expressway system and showed that capacity drop of on-ramp merging section is caused by drivers’ lane-changing which may lead to unsteady speed of vehicles and so prolonged time headway compared to the minimum time headway corresponding to the maximum capacity. Three parameters (optimal time headway, time headway loss, and interference quantity of lane-changing are given and a methodology by accumulating time headway loss due to lane-changing is developed to estimate the capacity drop. Results’ comparisons between real data and microsimulation of on-ramp merging sections and sensitivity analysis show that the proposed model can produce reliable and accurate results. This study also reveals that ramp flow and the difference between the optimal speed and the lane-changing speed of fleet have a great impact on capacity drop. This study is beneficial to evaluate congestion levels, to understand complex traffic phenomena, and so to find efficient solutions.

  2. Damage and Loss Estimation for Natural Gas Networks: The Case of Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çaktı, Eser; Hancılar, Ufuk; Şeşetyan, Karin; Bıyıkoǧlu, Hikmet; Şafak, Erdal

    2017-04-01

    Natural gas networks are one of the major lifeline systems to support human, urban and industrial activities. The continuity of gas supply is critical for almost all functions of modern life. Under natural phenomena such as earthquakes and landslides the damages to the system elements may lead to explosions and fires compromising human life and damaging physical environment. Furthermore, the disruption in the gas supply puts human activities at risk and also results in economical losses. This study is concerned with the performance of one of the largest natural gas distribution systems in the world. Physical damages to Istanbul's natural gas network are estimated under the most recent probabilistic earthquake hazard models available, as well as under simulated ground motions from physics based models. Several vulnerability functions are used in modelling damages to system elements. A first-order assessment of monetary losses to Istanbul's natural gas distribution network is also attempted.

  3. Completeness of the fossil record: Estimating losses due to small body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Roger A.; Maxwell, Phillip A.; Crampton, James S.; Beu, Alan G.; Jones, Craig M.; Marshall, Bruce A.

    2006-04-01

    Size bias in the fossil record limits its use for interpreting patterns of past biodiversity and ecological change. Using comparative size frequency distributions of exceptionally good regional records of New Zealand Holocene and Cenozoic Mollusca in museum archive collections, we derive first-order estimates of the magnitude of the bias against small body size and the effect of this bias on completeness of the fossil record. Our database of 3907 fossil species represents an original living pool of 9086 species, from which ˜36% have been removed by size culling, 27% from the smallest size class (<5 mm). In contrast, non-size-related losses compose only 21% of the total. In soft rocks, the loss of small taxa can be reduced by nearly 50% through the employment of exhaustive collection and preparation techniques.

  4. Estimation of Antarctic ozone loss from ground-based total column measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kuttippurath

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The passive tracer method is used to estimate ozone loss from ground-based measurements in the Antarctic. A sensitivity study shows that the ozone depletion can be estimated within an accuracy of ~4%. The method is then applied to the ground-based observations from Arrival Heights, Belgrano, Concordia, Dumont d'Urville, Faraday, Halley, Marambio, Neumayer, Rothera, South Pole, Syowa, and Zhongshan for the diagnosis of ozone loss in the Antarctic. On average, the ten-day boxcar average of the vortex mean ozone column loss deduced from the ground-based stations was about 55±5% in 2005–2009. The ozone loss computed from the ground-based measurements is in very good agreement with those derived from satellite measurements (OMI and SCIAMACHY and model simulations (REPROBUS and SLIMCAT, where the differences are within ±3–5%.

    The historical ground-based total ozone observations in October show that the depletion started in the late 1970s, reached a maximum in the early 1990s and stabilised afterwards due to saturation. There is no indication of ozone recovery yet. At southern mid-latitudes, a reduction of 20–50% is observed for a few days in October–November at the newly installed Rio Gallegos station. Similar depletion of ozone is also observed episodically during the vortex overpasses at Kerguelen in October–November and at Macquarie Island in July–August of the recent winters. This illustrates the significance of measurements at the edges of Antarctica.

  5. Regional Estimates of Drought-Induced Tree Canopy Loss across Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes, A.; Swenson, J. J.; González-Roglich, M.; Johnson, D. M.; Domec, J. C.; Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    The severe drought of 2011 killed millions of trees across the state of Texas. Drought-induced tree-mortality can have significant impacts to carbon cycling, regional biophysics, and community composition. We quantified canopy cover loss across the state using remotely sensed imagery from before and after the drought at multiple scales. First, we classified ~200 orthophotos (1-m spatial resolution) from the National Agriculture Imagery Program, using a supervised maximum likelihood classification. Area of canopy cover loss in these classifications was highly correlated (R2 = 0.8) with ground estimates of canopy cover loss, measured in 74 plots across 15 different sites in Texas. These 1-m orthophoto classifications were then used to calibrate and validate coarser scale (30-m) Landsat imagery to create wall-to-wall tree canopy cover loss maps across the state of Texas. We quantified percent dead and live canopy within each pixel of Landsat to create continuous maps of dead and live tree cover, using two approaches: (1) a zero-inflated beta distribution model and (2) a random forest algorithm. Widespread canopy loss occurred across all the major natural systems of Texas, with the Edwards Plateau region most affected. In this region, on average, 10% of the forested area was lost due to the 2011 drought. We also identified climatic thresholds that controlled the spatial distribution of tree canopy loss across the state. However, surprisingly, there were many local hot spots of canopy loss, suggesting that not only climatic factors could explain the spatial patterns of canopy loss, but rather other factors related to soil, landscape, management, and stand density also likely played a role. As increases in extreme droughts are predicted to occur with climate change, it will become important to define methods that can detect associated drought-induced tree mortality across large regions. These maps could then be used (1) to quantify impacts to carbon cycling and regional

  6. Regional economic activity and absenteeism: a new approach to estimating the indirect costs of employee productivity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankert, Brian; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Wells, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new approach to estimating the indirect costs of health-related absenteeism. Productivity losses related to employee absenteeism have negative business implications for employers and these losses effectively deprive the business of an expected level of employee labor. The approach herein quantifies absenteeism cost using an output per labor hour-based method and extends employer-level results to the region. This new approach was applied to the employed population of 3 health insurance carriers. The economic cost of absenteeism was estimated to be $6.8 million, $0.8 million, and $0.7 million on average for the 3 employers; regional losses were roughly twice the magnitude of employer-specific losses. The new approach suggests that costs related to absenteeism for high output per labor hour industries exceed similar estimates derived from application of the human capital approach. The materially higher costs under the new approach emphasize the importance of accurately estimating productivity losses.

  7. On Assessment and Estimation of Potential Losses due to Land Subsidence in Urban Areas of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Andreas, Heri; Gumilar, Irwan; Sidiq, Teguh P.

    2016-04-01

    subsidence have also relation among each other, the accurate quantification of the potential losses caused by land subsidence in urban areas is not an easy task to accomplish. The direct losses can be easier to estimate than the indirect losses. For example, the direct losses due to land subsidence in Bandung was estimated to be at least 180 Million USD; but the indirect losses is still unknown.

  8. An Analytical Essential Switching Loss Estimation Method for Modular Multilevel Converters with Nearest Level Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhongxu; Wang, Huai; Zhang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    A novel switching power loss estimation method for modular multilevel converters (MMCs) with the nearest level modulation (NLM) is introduced in this paper. It focuses on the switching actions caused only by change of the inserted submodule (SM) number per arm, named as the essential switching...... transitions. Every essential switching action can be identified under the assumption of ideal sinusoidal arm voltage reference. The corresponding arm current value determining the switching energy can be obtained with the exclusive use of the exact time of the switching action. Effects of the modulation index...

  9. A global building inventory for earthquake loss estimation and risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, K.; Wald, D.; Porter, K.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a global database of building inventories using taxonomy of global building types for use in near-real-time post-earthquake loss estimation and pre-earthquake risk analysis, for the U.S. Geological Survey's Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) program. The database is available for public use, subject to peer review, scrutiny, and open enhancement. On a country-by-country level, it contains estimates of the distribution of building types categorized by material, lateral force resisting system, and occupancy type (residential or nonresidential, urban or rural). The database draws on and harmonizes numerous sources: (1) UN statistics, (2) UN Habitat's demographic and health survey (DHS) database, (3) national housing censuses, (4) the World Housing Encyclopedia and (5) other literature. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  10. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-22

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  11. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  12. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  13. Estimation of Material Loss due to Chemical Weathering of Some Rocks in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. de S. JAYAWARDENA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes of weathering reduce the materials from the parent rocks. The material loss due to weathering can be estimated by a fundamental method because the remaining residual materials have strong relationship with their parent rock. The objective of this basic research is to find out the weight loss with the increase of chemical weathering in Sri lankan rocks. This may be an important data to calculate sedimentation rates in the reservoirs. Irregular samples from fresh rocks and differently weathered grades of each rock were collected from different localities without disturbing the structures. Bulk density and the porosity of each sample were measured. The total number of samples was about 300 from 73 locations. The results show the decrease of bulk density and the increase of porosity and weathering. It indicates that some materials moving away and separate from the original place create voids within the same volume during the processes of chemical weathering. The total loss of material is about 18 - 29 % by weight from the fresh rock stage to highly weathered stage. Increase of porosity goes up to 38 % in highly weathered rocks.

  14. Estimation of fuel loss due to idling of vehicles at a signalized intersection in Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha Kumar, S.; Gulati, Himanshu; Arora, Shivam

    2017-11-01

    The vehicles while waiting at signalized intersections are generally found to be in idling condition, i.e., not switching off their vehicles during red times. This phenomenon of idling of vehicles during red times at signalized intersections may lead to huge economic loss as lot of fuel is consumed by vehicles when they are in idling condition. The situation may even be worse in countries like India as different vehicle types consume varying amount of fuel. Only limited studies have been reported on estimation of fuel loss due to idling of vehicles in India. In the present study, one of the busy intersections in Chennai, namely, Tidel Park Junction in Rajiv Gandhi salai was considered. Data collection was carried out in one approach road of the intersection during morning and evening peak hours on a typical working day by manually noting down the red timings of each cycle and the corresponding number of two-wheelers, three-wheelers, passenger cars, light commercial vehicles (LCV) and heavy motorized vehicles (HMV) that were in idling mode. Using the fuel consumption values of various vehicles types suggested by Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), the total fuel loss during the study period was found to be Rs. 4,93,849/-. The installation of red timers, synchronization of signals, use of non-motorized transport for short trips and public awareness are some of the measures which government need to focus to save the fuel wasted at signalized intersections in major cities of India.

  15. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie R Kirk

    Full Text Available Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined. Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1 was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices.

  16. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Emilie R; van Kessel, Chris; Horwath, William R; Linquist, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM) oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa) production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined). Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1) was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices.

  17. A new pan-tropical estimate of carbon loss in natural and managed forests in 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukavina, A.; Baccini, A.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.; Stehman, S. V.; Houghton, R. A.; Krylov, A.; Turubanova, S.; Goetz, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Clearing of tropical forests, which includes semi-permanent conversion of forests to other land uses (deforestation) and more temporary forest disturbances, is a significant source of carbon emissions. The previous estimates of tropical forest carbon loss vary among studies due to the differences in definitions, methodologies and data inputs. The best currently available satellite-derived datasets, such as a 30-m forest cover loss map by Hansen et al. (2013), may be used to produce methodologically consistent carbon loss estimates for the entire tropical region, but forest cover loss area derived from maps is biased due to classification errors. In this study we produced an unbiased estimate of forest cover loss area from a validation sample, as suggested by good practice recommendations. Stratified random sampling was implemented with forest carbon stock strata defined based on Landsat-derived tree canopy cover, height, intactness (Potapov et al., 2008) and forest cover loss (Hansen et al., 2013). The largest difference between the sample-based and Hansen et al. (2013) forest loss area estimates occurred in humid tropical Africa. This result supports the earlier finding (Tyukavina et al., 2013) that Landsat-based forest cover loss maps may significantly underestimate loss area in regions with small-scale forest dynamics while performing well in regions with large industrial forest clearing, such as Brazil and Indonesia (where differences between sample-based and map estimates were within 10%). To produce final carbon loss estimates, sample-based forest loss area estimates for each stratum were related to GLAS-lidar derived forest biomass (Baccini et al., 2012). Our sample-based results distinguish gross losses of aboveground carbon from natural forests (0.59 PgC/yr), which include primary, mature secondary forests and natural woodlands, and from managed forests (0.43 PgC/yr), which include plantations, agroforestry systems and areas of subsistence agriculture

  18. MONITORING AND ESTIMATION OF SOIL LOSSES FROM EPHEMERAL GULLY EROSION IN MEDITERRANEAN REGION USING LOW ALTITUDE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gündoğan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calculation of gullies by remote sensing images obtained from satellite or aerial platforms is often not possible because gullies in agricultural fields, defined as the temporary gullies are filled in a very short time with tillage operations. Therefore, fast and accurate estimation of sediment loss with the temporary gully erosion is of great importance. In this study, it is aimed to monitor and calculate soil losses caused by the gully erosion that occurs in agricultural areas with low altitude unmanned aerial vehicles. According to the calculation with Pix4D, gully volume was estimated to be 10.41 m3 and total loss of soil was estimated to be 14.47 Mg. The RMSE value of estimations was found to be 0.89. The results indicated that unmanned aerial vehicles could be used in predicting temporary gully erosion and losses of soil.

  19. Monitoring and Estimation of Soil Losses from Ephemeral Gully Erosion in Mediterranean Region Using Low Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündoğan, R.; Alma, V.; Dindaroğlu, T.; Günal, H.; Yakupoğlu, T.; Susam, T.; Saltalı, K.

    2017-11-01

    Calculation of gullies by remote sensing images obtained from satellite or aerial platforms is often not possible because gullies in agricultural fields, defined as the temporary gullies are filled in a very short time with tillage operations. Therefore, fast and accurate estimation of sediment loss with the temporary gully erosion is of great importance. In this study, it is aimed to monitor and calculate soil losses caused by the gully erosion that occurs in agricultural areas with low altitude unmanned aerial vehicles. According to the calculation with Pix4D, gully volume was estimated to be 10.41 m3 and total loss of soil was estimated to be 14.47 Mg. The RMSE value of estimations was found to be 0.89. The results indicated that unmanned aerial vehicles could be used in predicting temporary gully erosion and losses of soil.

  20. Spatial Data Mining for Estimating Cover Management Factor of Universal Soil Loss Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, F.; Lin, T. C.; Chiang, S. H.; Chen, W. W.

    2016-12-01

    Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is a widely used mathematical model that describes long-term soil erosion processes. Among the six different soil erosion risk factors of USLE, the cover-management factor (C-factor) is related to land-cover/land-use. The value of C-factor ranges from 0.001 to 1, so it alone might cause a thousandfold difference in a soil erosion analysis using USLE. The traditional methods for the estimation of USLE C-factor include in situ experiments, soil physical parameter models, USLE look-up tables with land use maps, and regression models between vegetation indices and C-factors. However, these methods are either difficult or too expensive to implement in large areas. In addition, the values of C-factor obtained using these methods can not be updated frequently, either. To address this issue, this research developed a spatial data mining approach to estimate the values of C-factor with assorted spatial datasets for a multi-temporal (2004 to 2008) annual soil loss analysis of a reservoir watershed in northern Taiwan. The idea is to establish the relationship between the USLE C-factor and spatial data consisting of vegetation indices and texture features extracted from satellite images, soil and geology attributes, digital elevation model, road and river distribution etc. A decision tree classifier was used to rank influential conditional attributes in the preliminary data mining. Then, factor simplification and separation were considered to optimize the model and the random forest classifier was used to analyze 9 simplified factor groups. Experimental results indicate that the overall accuracy of the data mining model is about 79% with a kappa value of 0.76. The estimated soil erosion amounts in 2004-2008 according to the data mining results are about 50.39 - 74.57 ton/ha-year after applying the sediment delivery ratio and correction coefficient. Comparing with estimations calculated with C-factors from look-up tables, the soil erosion

  1. Parks beyond parks : genuine community-based wildlife eco-tourism or just another loss of land for Maasai pastoralists in Kenya?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.E.M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996 the Kenya Wildlife Services (KWS) embarked on a "Parks beyond Parks" programme, which aimed to bring some of the benefits of wildlife tourism to the local population. Under this programme, local people were allowed to start tented camps and other tourist activities in areas bordering

  2. Estimated damage and loss scenarios for future major earthquakes in Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiani, F.; Wyss, M.

    2012-04-01

    The northernmost and biggest island of the Philippines, Luzon, is bordered both west and east by active subduction zones and, on land, the island is cut by numerous fault systems. These active systems regularly generate major earthquakes that shake the island. The largest historical earthquake was a magnitude M=8 and the last major catastrophic event was the July 16, 1990, Ms 7.8 event, that caused over 2,400 fatalities, injured over 3,500 and destroyed over 100,000 houses. Such catastrophic earthquakes will unfortunately repeat in the future and in an attempt to predict these events it has been found that for Luzon a time of increased probability (TIP) for such an earthquake exists. Considering these facts, it is of interest to evaluate the destruction and losses this event could eventually cause. We have analyzed the historical seismicity and constructed different loss scenarios. With QLARM2, a loss estimation algorithm used in real-time mode for over 10 years, we simulated the various plausible scenarios for a major earthquake (M>7) on Luzon. Results show that such an earthquake affects the majority of the island's inhabitants. As an example, for a M=7.4 earthquake, 12 km deep and 30 km from the capital city Manila, the overall maximum mean damage to be expected is 4.5 and the maximum intensity is X in the epicentral area. In terms of fatalities, QLARM2 allows to obtain first order estimates. Preliminary results suggest a conservative mean estimate of expected fatalities of 6,000, and a maximum of 18,000, values that can vary greatly, depending on location and magnitude of the future earthquake. Due to its position along the ring-of-fire and in light of our computations, Luzon will continue to be shaken by catastrophic earthquakes and should continue its effort to mitigate earthquake risk. This is particularly true for Manila, an agglomeration of over 11 million people, directly affected by the earthquake hazard.

  3. Admissible and Minimax Estimators of a Lower Bounded Scale Parameter of a Gamma Distribution under the Entropy Loss Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasr Esfahani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with admissible and minimax estimation of scale parameter θ of a gamma distribution under the entropy loss function, when it is known that θ > a for some known a > 0. An admissible minimax estimator of θ, which is the pointwise limit of a sequence of Bayes estimators, is derived. Also, the admissible estimators and the only minimax estimator of θ in the class of truncated linear estimators are obtained. Finally, the results are extended to a subclass of scale parameter exponential family and the family of transformed chi-square distributions

  4. Wildlife Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Kim Arild; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Karstoft, Henrik

    This report contains a progress report for the ph.d. project titled “Wildlife Communication”. The project focuses on investigating how signal processing and pattern recognition can be used to improve wildlife management in agriculture. Wildlife management systems used today experience habituation...... from wild animals which makes them ineffective. An intelligent wildlife management system could monitor its own effectiveness and alter its scaring strategy based on this...

  5. Wildlife Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Beth; And Others

    This pocket folder of instructional materials is designed to introduce youths aged 9 to 12 to the nature and needs of wildlife and to give children the opportunity to search for wildlife and their signs. The document includes a member's guide, a leader's guide, field record forms, and wildlife project materials. The illustrated 4-H member's guide…

  6. Seismic Site Characterizations and Earthquake Loss Estimation Analyses for K-12 Schools in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, R.; Walsh, T. J.; Hayashi, K.; Norman, D. K.; Lau, T.; Scott, S.

    2016-12-01

    Washington State has the second-highest earthquake risk in the U.S. after only California, and major earthquakes in western Washington in 1946, 1949, 1965, and 2001 killed 15 people and caused billions of dollars' worth of property damage. Washington State has not been exempt from earthquake damage to school buildings. The mission of The Washington Department of Natural Resources-Division of Geology and Earth Resources is to "reduce or eliminate risks to life and property from natural hazards." We conducted active and passive seismic surveys, and estimated shear-wave velocity (Vs) profiles, then determined NEHRP soil classifications using calculated Vs30m values at public schools in Thurston, Grays Harbor, Walla Walla, Chelan and Okanogan counties, Washington. We used active and passive seismic surveys: 1D and 2D MASW and MAM, P- and S-wave refraction, horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (H/V), and 2-Station SPAC (2ST-SPAC) surveys to measure Vs and Vp at shallow (0-70m) and Vs at greater (10 to 500 or 10 -3000 meters) depths at the sites, respectively. We then ran Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys along each seismic line to check possible horizontal subsurface variations between the survey line and the actual location of the school buildings. These survey results were then used for calculations of Vs30m to determine the NEHRP site classifications at school sites. These site classes were also used for determining soil amplification effects on the ground motions affecting structural damage estimations of the school buildings. These seismic site characterization results associated with structural engineering evaluations were then used as inputs in FEMA Hazus-Advanced Engineering Building Module (AEBM) analysis to provide estimated casualties, nonstructural, and structural losses. The final AEBM loss estimation along with the more detailed structural evaluations will help school districts assess the earthquake performance of school buildings in order to

  7. Distributed soil loss estimation system including ephemeral gully development and tillage erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. N. Vieira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new modelling system is being developed to provide spatially-distributed runoff and soil erosion predictions for conservation planning that integrates the 2D grid-based variant of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, version 2 model (RUSLER, the Ephemeral Gully Erosion Estimator (EphGEE, and the Tillage Erosion and Landscape Evolution Model (TELEM. Digital representations of the area of interest (field, farm or entire watershed are created using high-resolution topography and data retrieved from established databases of soil properties, climate, and agricultural operations. The system utilizes a library of processing tools (LibRaster to deduce surface drainage from topography, determine the location of potential ephemeral gullies, and subdivide the study area into catchments for calculations of runoff and sheet-and-rill erosion using RUSLER. EphGEE computes gully evolution based on local soil erodibility and flow and sediment transport conditions. Annual tillage-induced morphological changes are computed separately by TELEM.

  8. Leakage Detection and Estimation Algorithm for Loss Reduction in Water Piping Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem B. Adedeji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Water loss through leaking pipes constitutes a major challenge to the operational service of water utilities. In recent years, increasing concern about the financial loss and environmental pollution caused by leaking pipes has been driving the development of efficient algorithms for detecting leakage in water piping networks. Water distribution networks (WDNs are disperse in nature with numerous number of nodes and branches. Consequently, identifying the segment(s of the network and the exact leaking pipelines connected to this segment(s where higher background leakage outflow occurs is a challenging task. Background leakage concerns the outflow from small cracks or deteriorated joints. In addition, because they are diffuse flow, they are not characterised by quick pressure drop and are not detectable by measuring instruments. Consequently, they go unreported for a long period of time posing a threat to water loss volume. Most of the existing research focuses on the detection and localisation of burst type leakages which are characterised by a sudden pressure drop. In this work, an algorithm for detecting and estimating background leakage in water distribution networks is presented. The algorithm integrates a leakage model into a classical WDN hydraulic model for solving the network leakage flows. The applicability of the developed algorithm is demonstrated on two different water networks. The results of the tested networks are discussed and the solutions obtained show the benefits of the proposed algorithm. A noteworthy evidence is that the algorithm permits the detection of critical segments or pipes of the network experiencing higher leakage outflow and indicates the probable pipes of the network where pressure control can be performed. However, the possible position of pressure control elements along such critical pipes will be addressed in future work.

  9. Sound absorption coefficient in situ: an alternative for estimating soil loss factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Rosane; Meletti de Abreu, Marco Henrique; Okada, Rafael Yuri; Soares, Paulo Fernando; GranhenTavares, Célia Regina

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the sound absorption coefficient and factors of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was determined in a section of the Maringá Stream basin, Paraná State, by using erosion plots. In the field, four erosion plots were built on a reduced scale, with dimensions of 2.0×12.5m. With respect to plot coverage, one was kept with bare soil and the others contained forage grass (Brachiaria), corn and wheat crops, respectively. Planting was performed without any type of conservation practice in an area with a 9% slope. A sedimentation tank was placed at the end of each plot to collect the material transported. For the acoustic system, pink noise was used in the measurement of the proposed monitoring, for collecting information on incident and reflected sound pressure levels. In general, obtained values of soil loss confirmed that 94.3% of material exported to the basin water came from the bare soil plot, 2.8% from the corn plot, 1.8% from the wheat plot, and 1.1% from the forage grass plot. With respect to the acoustic monitoring, results indicated that at 16kHz erosion plot coverage type had a significant influence on the sound absorption coefficient. High correlation coefficients were found in estimations of the A and C factors of the USLE, confirming that the acoustic technique is feasible for the determination of soil loss directly in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Wildlife refuge staff works to curb deadly disease [Monte Vista and Alamosa National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This magazine article is on the work to reduce losses from the waterfowl disease avian cholera, on the Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge and Monte Vista National...

  11. How many tigers Panthera tigris are there in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand? An estimate using photographic capture-recapture sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcharoen, S.; Pattanavibool, A.; Karanth, K.U.; Nichols, J.D.; Kumar, N.S.

    2007-01-01

    We used capture-recapture analyses to estimate the density of a tiger Panthera tigris population in the tropical forests of Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand, from photographic capture histories of 15 distinct individuals. The closure test results (z = 0.39, P = 0.65) provided some evidence in support of the demographic closure assumption. Fit of eight plausible closed models to the data indicated more support for model Mh, which incorporates individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities. This model generated an average capture probability $\\hat p$ = 0.42 and an abundance estimate of $\\widehat{N}(\\widehat{SE}[\\widehat{N}])$ = 19 (9.65) tigers. The sampled area of $\\widehat{A}(W)(\\widehat{SE}[\\widehat{A}(W)])$ = 477.2 (58.24) km2 yielded a density estimate of $\\widehat{D}(\\widehat{SE}[\\widehat{D}])$ = 3.98 (0.51) tigers per 100 km2. Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary could therefore hold 113 tigers and the entire Western Forest Complex c. 720 tigers. Although based on field protocols that constrained us to use sub-optimal analyses, this estimated tiger density is comparable to tiger densities in Indian reserves that support moderate prey abundances. However, tiger densities in well-protected Indian reserves with high prey abundances are three times higher. If given adequate protection we believe that the Western Forest Complex of Thailand could potentially harbour >2,000 wild tigers, highlighting its importance for global tiger conservation. The monitoring approaches we recommend here would be useful for managing this tiger population.

  12. Estimating Adolescent Risk for Hearing Loss Based on Data From a Large School-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuure, Hans; van der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Brug, Johannes; Raat, Hein

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated whether and to what extent a group of adolescents were at risk of developing permanent hearing loss as a result of voluntary exposure to high-volume music, and we assessed whether such exposure was associated with hearing-related symptoms. Methods. In 2007, 1512 adolescents (aged 12–19 years) in Dutch secondary schools completed questionnaires about their music-listening behavior and whether they experienced hearing-related symptoms after listening to high-volume music. We used their self-reported data in conjunction with published average sound levels of music players, discotheques, and pop concerts to estimate their noise exposure, and we compared that exposure to our own “loosened” (i.e., less strict) version of current European safety standards for occupational noise exposure. Results. About half of the adolescents exceeded safety standards for occupational noise exposure. About one third of the respondents exceeded safety standards solely as a result of listening to MP3 players. Hearing symptoms that occurred after using an MP3 player or going to a discotheque were associated with exposure to high-volume music. Conclusions. Adolescents often exceeded current occupational safety standards for noise exposure, highlighting the need for specific safety standards for leisure-time noise exposure. PMID:20395587

  13. Estimating adolescent risk for hearing loss based on data from a large school-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ineke; Verschuure, Hans; van der Ploeg, Catharina P B; Brug, Johannes; Raat, Hein

    2010-06-01

    We estimated whether and to what extent a group of adolescents were at risk of developing permanent hearing loss as a result of voluntary exposure to high-volume music, and we assessed whether such exposure was associated with hearing-related symptoms. In 2007, 1512 adolescents (aged 12-19 years) in Dutch secondary schools completed questionnaires about their music-listening behavior and whether they experienced hearing-related symptoms after listening to high-volume music. We used their self-reported data in conjunction with published average sound levels of music players, discotheques, and pop concerts to estimate their noise exposure, and we compared that exposure to our own "loosened" (i.e., less strict) version of current European safety standards for occupational noise exposure. About half of the adolescents exceeded safety standards for occupational noise exposure. About one third of the respondents exceeded safety standards solely as a result of listening to MP3 players. Hearing symptoms that occurred after using an MP3 player or going to a discotheque were associated with exposure to high-volume music. Adolescents often exceeded current occupational safety standards for noise exposure, highlighting the need for specific safety standards for leisure-time noise exposure.

  14. Estimating the climate significance of halogen-driven ozone loss in the tropical marine troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saiz-Lopez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We have integrated observations of tropospheric ozone, very short-lived (VSL halocarbons and reactive iodine and bromine species from a wide variety of tropical data sources with the global CAM-Chem chemistry-climate model and offline radiative transfer calculations to compute the contribution of halogen chemistry to ozone loss and associated radiative impact in the tropical marine troposphere. The inclusion of tropospheric halogen chemistry in CAM-Chem leads to an annually averaged depletion of around 10% (~2.5 Dobson units of the tropical tropospheric ozone column, with largest effects in the middle to upper troposphere. This depletion contributes approximately −0.10 W m−2 to the radiative flux at the tropical tropopause. This negative flux is of similar magnitude to the ~0.33 W m−2 contribution of tropospheric ozone to present-day radiative balance as recently estimated from satellite observations. We find that the implementation of oceanic halogen sources and chemistry in climate models is an important component of the natural background ozone budget and we suggest that it needs to be considered when estimating both preindustrial ozone baseline levels and long term changes in tropospheric ozone.

  15. Probabilistic Methodology for Estimation of Number and Economic Loss (Cost) of Future Landslides in the San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, Robert A.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    The Probabilistic Landslide Assessment Cost Estimation System (PLACES) presented in this report estimates the number and economic loss (cost) of landslides during a specified future time in individual areas, and then calculates the sum of those estimates. The analytic probabilistic methodology is based upon conditional probability theory and laws of expectation and variance. The probabilistic methodology is expressed in the form of a Microsoft Excel computer spreadsheet program. Using historical records, the PLACES spreadsheet is used to estimate the number of future damaging landslides and total damage, as economic loss, from future landslides caused by rainstorms in 10 counties of the San Francisco Bay region in California. Estimates are made for any future 5-year period of time. The estimated total number of future damaging landslides for the entire 10-county region during any future 5-year period of time is about 330. Santa Cruz County has the highest estimated number of damaging landslides (about 90), whereas Napa, San Francisco, and Solano Counties have the lowest estimated number of damaging landslides (5?6 each). Estimated direct costs from future damaging landslides for the entire 10-county region for any future 5-year period are about US $76 million (year 2000 dollars). San Mateo County has the highest estimated costs ($16.62 million), and Solano County has the lowest estimated costs (about $0.90 million). Estimated direct costs are also subdivided into public and private costs.

  16. A Modified Gash Model for Estimating Rainfall Interception Loss of Forest Using Remote Sensing Observations at Regional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaokui Cui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall interception loss of forest is an important component of water balance in a forested ecosystem. The Gash analytical model has been widely used to estimate the forest interception loss at field scale. In this study, we proposed a simple model to estimate rainfall interception loss of heterogeneous forest at regional scale with several reasonable assumptions using remote sensing observations. The model is a modified Gash analytical model using easily measured parameters of forest structure from satellite data and extends the original Gash model from point-scale to the regional scale. Preliminary results, using remote sensing data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS products, field measured rainfall data, and meteorological data of the Automatic Weather Station (AWS over a picea crassifolia forest in the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin in northwestern China, showed reasonable accuracy in estimating rainfall interception loss at both the Dayekou experimental site (R2 = 0.91, RMSE = 0.34 mm∙d −1 and the Pailugou experimental site (R2 = 0.82, RMSE = 0.6 mm∙d −1, compared with ground measurements based on per unit area of forest. The interception loss map of the study area was shown to be strongly heterogeneous. The modified model has robust physics and is insensitive to the input parameters, according to the sensitivity analysis using numerical simulations. The modified model appears to be stable and easy to be applied for operational estimation of interception loss over large areas.

  17. Soil loss estimation and prioritization of sub-watersheds of Kali River basin, Karnataka, India, using RUSLE and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markose, Vipin Joseph; Jayappa, K S

    2016-04-01

    Most of the mountainous regions in tropical humid climatic zone experience severe soil loss due to natural factors. In the absence of measured data, modeling techniques play a crucial role for quantitative estimation of soil loss in such regions. The objective of this research work is to estimate soil loss and prioritize the sub-watersheds of Kali River basin using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model. Various thematic layers of RUSLE factors such as rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), topographic factor (LS), crop management factor (C), and support practice factor (P) have been prepared by using multiple spatial and non-spatial data sets. These layers are integrated in geographic information system (GIS) environment and estimated the soil loss. The results show that ∼42 % of the study area falls under low erosion risk and only 6.97 % area suffer from very high erosion risk. Based on the rate of soil loss, 165 sub-watersheds have been prioritized into four categories-very high, high, moderate, and low erosion risk. Anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, construction of dams, and rapid urbanization are the main reasons for high rate of soil loss in the study area. The soil erosion rate and prioritization maps help in implementation of a proper watershed management plan for the river basin.

  18. Parks beyond parks: genuine community-based wildlife eco-tourism or just another loss of land for Maasai pastoralists in Kenya?

    OpenAIRE

    Rutten, M.M.E.M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996 the Kenya Wildlife Services (KWS) embarked on a "Parks beyond Parks" programme, which aimed to bring some of the benefits of wildlife tourism to the local population. Under this programme, local people were allowed to start tented camps and other tourist activities in areas bordering national parks. The present paper discusses the development of a new ecotourism initiative in the Selengei region, bordering Amboseli National Park, in Kajiado District. An overview of the history of wild...

  19. Plot-scale soil loss estimation with laser scanning and photogrammetry methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Boglárka; Szabó, Judit; Jakab, Gergely; Centeri, Csaba; Szalai, Zoltán; Somogyi, Árpád; Barsi, Árpád

    2017-04-01

    Structure from Motion (SfM) is an automatic feature-matching algorithm, which nowadays is widely used tool in photogrammetry for geoscience applications. SfM method and parallel terrestrial laser scanning measurements are widespread and they can be well accomplished for quantitative soil erosion measurements as well. Therefore, our main scope was soil erosion characterization quantitatively and qualitatively, 3D visualization and morphological characterization of soil-erosion-dynamics. During the rainfall simulation, the surface had been measured and compared before and after the rainfall event by photogrammetry (SfM - Structure from Motion) and laser scanning (TLS - Terrestrial Laser Scanning) methods. The validation of the given results had been done by the caught runoff and the measured soil-loss value. During the laboratory experiment, the applied rainfall had 40 mm/h rainfall intensity. The size of the plot was 0.5 m2. The laser scanning had been implemented with Faro Focus 3D 120 S type equipment, while the SfM shooting had been carried out by 2 piece SJCAM SJ4000+ type, 12 MP resolution and 4K action cams. The photo-reconstruction had been made with Agisoft Photoscan software, while evaluation of the resulted point-cloud from laser scanning and photogrammetry had been implemented partly in CloudCompare and partly in ArcGIS. The resulted models and the calculated surface changes didn't prove to be suitable for estimating soil-loss, only for the detection of changes in the vertical surface. The laser scanning resulted a quite precise surface model, while the SfM method is affected by errors at the surface model due to other factors. The method needs more adequate technical laboratory preparation.

  20. Estimate of the direct production losses in Canadian dairy herds with subclinical Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani; VanLeeuwen, John A.; Dohoo, Ian R.; Keefe, Greg P.; Weersink, Alfons

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the annual losses from Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) for an average, MAP-seropositive, Canadian dairy herd. A partial-budget simulation model was developed with 4 components of direct production losses (decreased milk production, premature voluntary culling, mortality, and reproductive losses). Input values were obtained primarily from a national seroprevalence survey of 373 Canadian dairy farms in 8 of 10 provinces. The model took into account the variability and uncertainty of the required input values; consequently, it produced probability distributions of the estimated losses. For an average Canadian dairy herd with 12.7% of 61 cows seropositive for MAP, the mean loss was $2992 (95% C.I., $143 to $9741) annually, or $49 per cow per year. Additional culling, decreased milk production, mortality, and reproductive losses accounted for 46%, 9%, 16%, and 29% of the losses, respectively. Canadian dairy producers should use best management practices to reduce these substantial annual losses. PMID:18624066

  1. Extracting building characteristics for natural hazard loss estimation using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, K.; Spence, R.; Pomonis, A.; Gaspari, M.

    2009-04-01

    Capturing the characteristics of building exposure is one of the major challenges for loss estimation. In the past decade, the resolving power of the commercially available remotely sensed data has improved rapidly at a rate that is analogous to Moore's law. Willis Research Network is currently considering how the improved datasets can be harnessed to extract the building characteristics in the most economical way, taking into account the uncertainty inherent in the results. For loss estimation, another important aspect is to be able to assess the risk in a standardised way. A building inventory characterisation methodology using remote sensing that can be standardised at a global scale is desired. The increase in the resolving power of the remotely sensed data has provided us with more options when considering extraction strategies. However, it is inevitable that tradeoffs are made between the quality and the time required for analysis as well as the cost of data acquisition. The ultimate goal here is to investigate the most cost-effective method. As the first step, a case study using the Pylos high-resolution optical satellite images is being conducted on the town of Pylos, located on the west coast of Greece in Peloponnesos. Pylos has approximately 1000 buildings and a ground survey of most of the buildings was conducted as part of the EU funded SEAHELLARC project, which aim is to assess the earthquake vulnerability of the buildings. Subsequently, a Quickbird high-resolution optical satellite image of the entire town was obtained to explore the relationship between the physical characteristics of the buildings that can be extracted using the image and the ground survey results. Currently, the following four parameters: floorspace, height (number of storeys), age and structure type, are the focus of this study which are the key parameters for earthquake vulnerability studies. Initial results from the study suggest that there is a high correlation between the

  2. Harmonizing methods for wildlife abundance estimation and pathogen detection in Europe-a questionnaire survey on three selected host-pathogen combinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sonnenburg (Jana); M.-P. Ryser-Degiorgis; T. Kuiken (Thijs); E. Ferroglio (Ezio); R.G. Ulrich (Rainer); F.J. Conraths (Franz J.); C. Gortazar (Christian); C. Staubach (Christoph); Acevedo, P. (Pelayo); Gasca, J.M. (Javier Millán); Marco, I. (Ignasi); Prado, M.M. (Marcos Miñarro); F. Ruiz-Fons (Francisco); Agreiter, A. (Andreas); Cadamuro, A. (Andrea); Calabrese, M.S. (Maria S.); Capelli, G. (Gioia); Casulli, A. (Adriano); Cetto, E. (Ermanno); Chiari, M. (Mario); Lavazza, A. (Antonio); Orusa, R. (Riccardo); Sommavilla, G. (Gianmaria); Zamboni, U. (Umberto); A.A. Bajer (Anna A.); Lipowski, A. (Andrzej); Barlow, A. (Alex); Learmount, J. (Jane); Duff, J.P. (J. Paul); Billinis, C. (Charalambos); Boue, F. (Franck); Hars, J. (Jean); S. Rossi; de Carvalho, I.L. (Isabel Lopes); Núncio, S. (Sofia); Dekkers, L.J.M. (Leo J. M.); M. Maas; Deplazes, P. (Peter); Meier, R. (Roman); Glawischnig, W. (Walter); Steinrigl, A. (Adolf); I. Golovljova; Grunow, R. (Roland); Jacob, J. (Jens); Romig, T. (Thomas); Tomaso, H. (Herbert); Isomursu, M. (Marja); Korro, M.K. (Marja Kastriot); Linden, A. (Annick); Morozov, V. (Viacheslav); Stanko, M. (Michal); Turcinaviciene, J. (Jurga)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ The need for wildlife health surveillance as part of disease control in wildlife, domestic animals and humans on the global level is widely recognized. However, the objectives, methods and intensity of existing wildlife health surveillance programs vary greatly among

  3. Estimating fish exploitation and aquatic habitat loss across diffuse inland recreational fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kerckhove, Derrick Tupper; Minns, Charles Kenneth; Chu, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The current state of many freshwater fish stocks worldwide is largely unknown but suspected to be vulnerable to exploitation from recreational fisheries and habitat degradation. Both these factors, combined with complex ecological dynamics and the diffuse nature of inland fisheries could lead to an invisible collapse: the drastic decline in fish stocks without great public or management awareness. In this study we provide a method to address the pervasive knowledge gaps in regional rates of exploitation and habitat degradation, and demonstrate its use in one of North America's largest and most diffuse recreational freshwater fisheries (Ontario, Canada). We estimated that (1) fish stocks were highly exploited and in apparent danger of collapse in management zones close to large population centres, and (2) fish habitat was under a low but constant threat of degradation at rates comparable to deforestation in Ontario and throughout Canada. These findings confirm some commonly held, but difficult to quantify, beliefs in inland fisheries management but also provide some further insights including (1) large anthropogenic projects greater than one hectare could contribute much more to fish habitat loss on an area basis than the cumulative effect of smaller projects within one year, (2) hooking mortality from catch-and-release fisheries is likely a greater source of mortality than the harvest itself, and (3) in most northern management zones over 50% of the fisheries resources are not yet accessible to anglers. While this model primarily provides a framework to prioritize management decisions and further targeted stock assessments, we note that our regional estimates of fisheries productivity and exploitation were similar to broadscale monitoring efforts by the Province of Ontario. We discuss the policy implications from our results and extending the model to other jurisdictions and countries.

  4. Estimation of Antarctic ozone loss from ground-based total column measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. Kuttippurath; F. Goutail; J.-P. Pommereau; F. Lefèvre; H. K. Roscoe; A. Pazmiño; W. Feng; M. P. Chipperfield; S. Godin-Beekmann

    2010-01-01

    ... for the diagnosis of ozone loss in the Antarctic. On average, the ten-day boxcar average of the vortex mean ozone column loss deduced from the ground-based stations was about 55±5% in 2005-2009...

  5. Estimation of bone loss biomarkers as a diagnostic tool for peri-implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakic, Mia; Struillou, Xavier; Petkovic-Curcin, Aleksandra; Matic, Smiljana; Canullo, Luigi; Sanz, Mariano; Vojvodic, Danilo

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study are to estimate the profile of bone loss biomarkers in peri-implant tissues and to identify potential prognostic biomarkers of peri-implantitis. Peri-implant crevicular fluid samples collected from 164 participants (52 patients with peri-implantitis, 54 with mucositis, and 58 with healthy peri-implant tissues) were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to evaluate concentrations of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), soluble RANK ligand (sRANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), cathepsin-K, and sclerostin. Concentrations of RANK, sRANKL, OPG, and sclerostin were significantly increased in patients with peri-implantitis compared with patients with healthy peri-implant tissues. Comparisons between peri-implantitis and mucositis demonstrated significantly higher values of sclerostin in peri-implantitis samples. Comparisons between mucositis and healthy peri-implant tissues showed significantly increased levels of RANK and cathepsin-K in mucositis. These results are suggestive of a role of sRANKL, OPG, and sclerostin as prognostic biomarkers in peri-implantitis.

  6. A methodology for the estimation of the radiological consequences of a Loss of Coolant Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kereszturi, Andras; Brolly, Aron; Panka, Istvan; Pazmandi, Tamas; Trosztel, Istvan [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). MTA EK, Centre for Energy Research

    2017-09-15

    For calculation of the radiological consequences of Large Break Loss of Coolant (LBLOCA) events, a set of various computer codes modeling the corresponding physical processes, disciplines and their appropriate subsequent data exchange are necessary. For demonstrating the methodology applied in MTA EK, a LBLOCA event at shut down reactor state - when only limited configuration of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) is available - was selected. In this special case, fission gas release from a number of fuel pins is obtained from the analyses. This paper describes the initiating event and the corresponding thermal hydraulic calculations and the further physical processes, the necessary models and computer codes and their connections. Additionally the applied conservative assumptions and the Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty (B+U) evaluation applied for characterizing the pin power and burnup distribution in the core are presented. Also, the fuel behavior processes. Finally, the newly developed methodology to predict whether the fuel pins are getting in-hermetic or not is described and the the results of the activity transport and dose calculations are shown.

  7. Seismic microzonation of the city of Elche (Spain) for earthquake loss estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agea-Medina, Noelia; Galiana-Merino, Juan Jose; Navarro, Manuel; Molina-Palacios, Sergio; Rosa-Herranz, Julio; Soler-Llorens, Juan Luis

    2017-04-01

    Elche town is located in the SE of the Alicante province (Southeast of Spain). This part of Spain is one of the most hazardous zones from the viewpoint of the seismic hazard. The current seismic normative assigns a PGA value of 0.20g (return period of 475 years) to this city being the maximum 0.23g in the city of Jacarilla (Alicante). The urban area comprises more than 20000 buildings with an important number constructed without seismic considerations. Therefore, a correct seismic microzonation will let us to establish the shear wave velocity, predominant periods and dispersion curves needed to compute accurately the ground motions scenarios in the city for an earthquake loss estimation (ELE). We have tested several techniques: multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) and calibrated the results with geotechnical information. The dispersion curves were obtained in different wavelength ranges and finally the 1-D Vs model was computed for each final dispersion curve using an iterative process. Additionally, a map of predominant periods has been obtained for the city. The sensitivity of the results according to the used techniques and the recording instruments has been analysed and its influence when computing earthquake damage has been addressed.

  8. A Simple Estimation of Coupling Loss Factors for Two Flexible Subsystems Connected via Discrete Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple formula is proposed to estimate the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA coupling loss factors (CLFs for two flexible subsystems connected via discrete interfaces. First, the dynamic interactions between two discretely connected subsystems are described as a set of intermodal coupling stiffness terms. It is then found that if both subsystems are of high modal density and meanwhile the interface points all act independently, the intermodal dynamic couplings become dominated by only those between different subsystem mode sets. If ensemble- and frequency-averaged, the intermodal coupling stiffness terms can simply reduce to a function of the characteristic dynamic properties of each subsystem and the subsystem mass, as well as the number of interface points. The results can thus be accommodated within the theoretical frame of conventional SEA theory to yield a simple CLF formula. Meanwhile, the approach allows the weak coupling region between the two SEA subsystems to be distinguished simply and explicitly. The consistency and difference of the present technique with and from the traditional wave-based SEA solutions are discussed. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the good performance of the present technique.

  9. Localization Algorithm with On-line Path Loss Estimation and Node Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Seco-Granados

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available RSS-based localization is considered a low-complexity algorithm with respect to other range techniques such as TOA or AOA. The accuracy of RSS methods depends on the suitability of the propagation models used for the actual propagation conditions. In indoor environments, in particular, it is very difficult to obtain a good propagation model. For that reason, we present a cooperative localization algorithm that dynamically estimates the path loss exponent by using RSS measurements. Since the energy consumption is a key point in sensor networks, we propose a node selection mechanism to limit the number of neighbours of a given node that are used for positioning purposes. Moreover, the selection mechanism is also useful to discard bad links that could negatively affect the performance accuracy. As a result, we derive a practical solution tailored to the strict requirements of sensor networks interms of complexity, size and cost. We present results based on both computer simulations and real experiments with the Crossbow MICA2 motes showing that the proposed scheme offers a good trade-off in terms of position accuracy and energy efficiency.

  10. Localization algorithm with on-line path loss estimation and node selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, Albert; Vicario, José López; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    RSS-based localization is considered a low-complexity algorithm with respect to other range techniques such as TOA or AOA. The accuracy of RSS methods depends on the suitability of the propagation models used for the actual propagation conditions. In indoor environments, in particular, it is very difficult to obtain a good propagation model. For that reason, we present a cooperative localization algorithm that dynamically estimates the path loss exponent by using RSS measurements. Since the energy consumption is a key point in sensor networks, we propose a node selection mechanism to limit the number of neighbours of a given node that are used for positioning purposes. Moreover, the selection mechanism is also useful to discard bad links that could negatively affect the performance accuracy. As a result, we derive a practical solution tailored to the strict requirements of sensor networks in terms of complexity, size and cost. We present results based on both computer simulations and real experiments with the Crossbow MICA2 motes showing that the proposed scheme offers a good trade-off in terms of position accuracy and energy efficiency.

  11. A Novel Method of Statistical Line Loss Estimation for Distribution Feeders Based on Feeder Cluster and Modified XGBoost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouxiang Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of losses of distribution feeders plays a crucial guiding role for the planning, design, and operation of a distribution system. This paper proposes a novel estimation method of statistical line loss of distribution feeders using the feeder cluster technique and modified eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost algorithm that is based on the characteristic data of feeders that are collected in the smart power distribution and utilization system. In order to enhance the applicability and accuracy of the estimation model, k-medoids algorithm with weighting distance for clustering distribution feeders is proposed. Meanwhile, a variable selection method for clustering distribution feeders is discussed, considering the correlation and validity of variables. This paper next modifies the XGBoost algorithm by adding a penalty function in consideration of the effect of the theoretical value to the loss function for the estimation of statistical line loss of distribution feeders. The validity of the proposed methodology is verified by 762 distribution feeders in the Shanghai distribution system. The results show that the XGBoost method has higher accuracy than decision tree, neural network, and random forests by comparison of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE, and Absolute Percentage Error (APE indexes. In particular, the theoretical value can significantly improve the reasonability of estimated results.

  12. Influence of Agropastoral System Components on Mountain Grassland Vulnerability Estimated by Connectivity Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzia, Maite; Fillat, Federico; Pérez-Cabello, Fernando; Alados, Concepción L

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, global changes have altered the structure and properties of natural and semi-natural mountain grasslands. Those changes have contributed to grassland loss mainly through colonization by woody species at low elevations, and increases in biomass and greenness at high elevations. Nevertheless, the interactions between agropastoral components; i.e., ecological (grassland, environmental, and geolocation properties), social, and economic components, and their effects on the grasslands are still poorly understood. We estimated the vulnerability of dense grasslands in the Central Pyrenees, Spain, based on the connectivity loss (CL) among grassland patches that has occurred between the 1980s and the 2000s, as a result of i) an increase in biomass and greenness (CL-IBG), ii) woody encroachment (CL-WE), or iii) a decrease in biomass and greenness (CL-DBG). The environmental and grassland components of the agropastoral system were associated with the three processes, especially CL-IBG and CL-WE, in relation with the succession of vegetation toward climax communities, fostered by land abandonment and exacerbated by climate warming. CL-IBG occurred in pasture units that had a high proportion of dense grasslands and low current livestock pressure. CL-WE was most strongly associated with pasture units that had a high proportion of woody habitat and a large reduction in sheep and goat pressure between the 1930s and the 2000s. The economic component was correlated with the CL-WE and the CL-DBG; specifically, expensive pastures were the most productive and could maintain the highest rates of livestock grazing, which slowed down woody encroachment, but caused grassland degradation and DBG. In addition, CL-DBG was associated with geolocation of grasslands, mainly because livestock tend to graze closer to passable roads and buildings, where they cause grassland degradation. To properly manage the grasslands, an integrated management plan must be developed that

  13. Influence of Agropastoral System Components on Mountain Grassland Vulnerability Estimated by Connectivity Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Gartzia

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, global changes have altered the structure and properties of natural and semi-natural mountain grasslands. Those changes have contributed to grassland loss mainly through colonization by woody species at low elevations, and increases in biomass and greenness at high elevations. Nevertheless, the interactions between agropastoral components; i.e., ecological (grassland, environmental, and geolocation properties, social, and economic components, and their effects on the grasslands are still poorly understood. We estimated the vulnerability of dense grasslands in the Central Pyrenees, Spain, based on the connectivity loss (CL among grassland patches that has occurred between the 1980s and the 2000s, as a result of i an increase in biomass and greenness (CL-IBG, ii woody encroachment (CL-WE, or iii a decrease in biomass and greenness (CL-DBG. The environmental and grassland components of the agropastoral system were associated with the three processes, especially CL-IBG and CL-WE, in relation with the succession of vegetation toward climax communities, fostered by land abandonment and exacerbated by climate warming. CL-IBG occurred in pasture units that had a high proportion of dense grasslands and low current livestock pressure. CL-WE was most strongly associated with pasture units that had a high proportion of woody habitat and a large reduction in sheep and goat pressure between the 1930s and the 2000s. The economic component was correlated with the CL-WE and the CL-DBG; specifically, expensive pastures were the most productive and could maintain the highest rates of livestock grazing, which slowed down woody encroachment, but caused grassland degradation and DBG. In addition, CL-DBG was associated with geolocation of grasslands, mainly because livestock tend to graze closer to passable roads and buildings, where they cause grassland degradation. To properly manage the grasslands, an integrated management plan must be

  14. Hazus® estimated annualized earthquake losses for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Bausch, Doug; Rozelle, Jesse; Holub, John; McGowan, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Large earthquakes can cause social and economic disruption that can be unprecedented to any given community, and the full recovery from these impacts may or may not always be achievable. In the United States (U.S.), the 1994 M6.7 Northridge earthquake in California remains the third costliest disaster in U.S. history; and it was one of the most expensive disasters for the federal government. Internationally, earthquakes in the last decade alone have claimed tens of thousands of lives and caused hundreds of billions of dollars of economic impact throughout the globe (~90 billion U.S. dollars (USD) from 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan China, ~20 billion USD from 2010 M8.8 Maule earthquake in Chile, ~220 billion USD from 2011 M9.0 Tohoku Japan earthquake, ~25 billion USD from 2011 M6.3 Christchurch New Zealand, and ~22 billion USD from 2016 M7.0 Kumamoto Japan). Recent earthquakes show a pattern of steadily increasing damages and losses that are primarily due to three key factors: (1) significant growth in earthquake-prone urban areas, (2) vulnerability of the older building stock, including poorly engineered non-ductile concrete buildings, and (3) an increased interdependency in terms of supply and demand for the businesses that operate among different parts of the world. In the United States, earthquake risk continues to grow with increased exposure of population and development even though the earthquake hazard has remained relatively stable except for the regions of induced seismic activity. Understanding the seismic hazard requires studying earthquake characteristics and locales in which they occur, while understanding the risk requires an assessment of the potential damage from earthquake shaking to the built environment and to the welfare of people—especially in high-risk areas. Estimating the varying degree of earthquake risk throughout the United States is critical for informed decision-making on mitigation policies, priorities, strategies, and funding levels in the

  15. Recent wetland land loss due to hurricanes: improved estimates based upon multiple source images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, Christine J.; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Barras, John A.; Brock, John C.; Wang, Ping; Rosati, Julie D.; Roberts, Tiffany M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a moderate resolution 30-m fractional water map of the Chenier Plain for 2003, 2006 and 2009 by using information contained in high-resolution satellite imagery of a subset of the study area. Indices and transforms pertaining to vegetation and water were created using the high-resolution imagery, and a threshold was applied to obtain a categorical land/water map. The high-resolution data was used to train a decision-tree classifier to estimate percent water in a lower resolution (Landsat) image. Two new water indices based on the tasseled cap transformation were proposed for IKONOS imagery in wetland environments and more than 700 input parameter combinations were considered for each Landsat image classified. Final selection and thresholding of the resulting percent water maps involved over 5,000 unambiguous classified random points using corresponding 1-m resolution aerial photographs, and a statistical optimization procedure to determine the threshold at which the maximum Kappa coefficient occurs. Each selected dataset has a Kappa coefficient, percent correctly classified (PCC) water, land and total greater than 90%. An accuracy assessment using 1,000 independent random points was performed. Using the validation points, the PCC values decreased to around 90%. The time series change analysis indicated that due to Hurricane Rita, the study area lost 6.5% of marsh area, and transient changes were less than 3% for either land or water. Hurricane Ike resulted in an additional 8% land loss, although not enough time has passed to discriminate between persistent and transient changes.

  16. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T D; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious heifer were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 12 scenarios. These 12 scenarios were combinations of three herd sizes (85, 200 and 400 cows) and four management levels (very good, good, poor and very poor). Input parameters for effects of S. Dublin on production and animal health were based on literature and calibrations to mimic real life observations. Mean annual GMs per cow stall were compared between herds experiencing within-herd spread of S. Dublin and non-infected reference herds over a 10-year period. The estimated GM losses were largest in the first year after infection, and increased with poorer management and herd size, e.g. average annual GM losses were estimated to 49 euros per stall for the first year after infection, and to 8 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10 years after herd infection for a 200 cow stall herd with very good management. In contrast, a 200 cow stall herd with very poor management lost on average 326 euros per stall during the first year, and 188 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10-year period following introduction of infection. The GM losses arose from both direct losses such as reduced milk yield, dead animals, treatment costs and abortions as well as indirect losses such as reduced income from sold heifers and calves, and lower milk yield of replacement animals. Through sensitivity analyses it was found that the

  17. Indirect approach for estimation of forest degradation in non-intact dry forest: modelling biomass loss with Tweedie distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dons, Klaus; Bhattarai, Sushma; Meilby, Henrik; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Panduro, Toke Emil

    2016-12-01

    Implementation of REDD+ requires measurement and monitoring of carbon emissions from forest degradation in developing countries. Dry forests cover about 40 % of the total tropical forest area, are home to large populations, and hence often display high disturbance levels. They are susceptible to gradual but persistent degradation and monitoring needs to be low cost due to the low potential benefit from carbon accumulation per unit area. Indirect remote sensing approaches may provide estimates of subsistence wood extraction, but sampling of biomass loss produces zero-inflated continuous data that challenges conventional statistical approaches. We introduce the use of Tweedie Compound Poisson distributions from the exponential dispersion family with Generalized Linear Models (CPGLM) to predict biomass loss as a function of distance to nearest settlement in two forest areas in Tanzania. We found that distance to nearest settlement is a valid proxy variable for prediction of biomass loss from fuelwood collection (p < 0.001) and total subsistence wood extraction (p < 0.01). Biomass loss from commercial charcoal production did not follow a spatial pattern related to settlements. Distance to nearest settlement seems promising as proxy variable for estimation of subsistence wood extraction in dry forests in Tanzania. Tweedie GLM provided valid parameters from the over-dispersed continuous biomass loss data with exact zeroes, and observations with zero biomass loss were successfully included in the model parameters.

  18. Indirect approach for estimation of forest degradation in non-intact dry forest: modelling biomass loss with Tweedie distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Dons

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of REDD+ requires measurement and monitoring of carbon emissions from forest degradation in developing countries. Dry forests cover about 40 % of the total tropical forest area, are home to large populations, and hence often display high disturbance levels. They are susceptible to gradual but persistent degradation and monitoring needs to be low cost due to the low potential benefit from carbon accumulation per unit area. Indirect remote sensing approaches may provide estimates of subsistence wood extraction, but sampling of biomass loss produces zero-inflated continuous data that challenges conventional statistical approaches. We introduce the use of Tweedie Compound Poisson distributions from the exponential dispersion family with Generalized Linear Models (CPGLM to predict biomass loss as a function of distance to nearest settlement in two forest areas in Tanzania. Results We found that distance to nearest settlement is a valid proxy variable for prediction of biomass loss from fuelwood collection (p < 0.001 and total subsistence wood extraction (p < 0.01. Biomass loss from commercial charcoal production did not follow a spatial pattern related to settlements. Conclusions Distance to nearest settlement seems promising as proxy variable for estimation of subsistence wood extraction in dry forests in Tanzania. Tweedie GLM provided valid parameters from the over-dispersed continuous biomass loss data with exact zeroes, and observations with zero biomass loss were successfully included in the model parameters.

  19. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Østergaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic...... losses. This was more influential in the poorer management scenarios due to increased number of infected cows. The results can be used to inform dairy farmers of the benefits of preventing introduction and controlling spread of S. Dublin. Furthermore, they can be used in cost-benefit analyses of control...... heifer were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 12 scenarios. These 12 scenarios were combinations of three herd sizes (85, 200 and 400 cows) and four management levels (very good, good, poor and very poor). Input parameters for effects of S. Dublin on production and animal health were based...

  20. Spatial and temporal estimation of soil loss for the sustainable management of a wet semi-arid watershed cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejani, R; Rao, K V; Osman, M; Srinivasa Rao, Ch; Reddy, K Sammi; Chary, G R; Pushpanjali; Samuel, Josily

    2016-03-01

    The ungauged wet semi-arid watershed cluster, Seethagondi, lies in the Adilabad district of Telangana in India and is prone to severe erosion and water scarcity. The runoff and soil loss data at watershed, catchment, and field level are necessary for planning soil and water conservation interventions. In this study, an attempt was made to develop a spatial soil loss estimation model for Seethagondi cluster using RUSLE coupled with ARCGIS and was used to estimate the soil loss spatially and temporally. The daily rainfall data of Aphrodite for the period from 1951 to 2007 was used, and the annual rainfall varied from 508 to 1351 mm with a mean annual rainfall of 950 mm and a mean erosivity of 6789 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) year(-1). Considerable variation in land use land cover especially in crop land and fallow land was observed during normal and drought years, and corresponding variation in the erosivity, C factor, and soil loss was also noted. The mean value of C factor derived from NDVI for crop land was 0.42 and 0.22 in normal year and drought years, respectively. The topography is undulating and major portion of the cluster has slope less than 10°, and 85.3% of the cluster has soil loss below 20 t ha(-1) year(-1). The soil loss from crop land varied from 2.9 to 3.6 t ha(-1) year(-1) in low rainfall years to 31.8 to 34.7 t ha(-1) year(-1) in high rainfall years with a mean annual soil loss of 12.2 t ha(-1) year(-1). The soil loss from crop land was higher in the month of August with an annual soil loss of 13.1 and 2.9 t ha(-1) year(-1) in normal and drought year, respectively. Based on the soil loss in a normal year, the interventions recommended for 85.3% of area of the watershed includes agronomic measures such as contour cultivation, graded bunds, strip cropping, mixed cropping, crop rotations, mulching, summer plowing, vegetative bunds, agri-horticultural system, and management practices such as broad bed furrow, raised sunken beds, and harvesting available water

  1. A model for the estimation of storm losses and the identification of severe winter storms in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Klawa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A storm loss model for Germany is presented. Input data to the model are the daily maximum gust wind speeds measured at stations distributed over the country. The individual daily peak gust values are scaled with the local climatological upper 2% quantile at each station. This scaling serves to take local conditions at the stations into account, and thus permits a simple spatial interpolation of the storm field. The next step is the computation of a loss index for each storm. It is based on the excess of (scaled wind speed over the upper 2% quantile, and on population numbers in the individual districts within Germany, with the latter serving as a proxy for the spatial distribution of values that could be affected by a storm. Using wind speeds in excess of the percentile value also serves to take spatial heterogeneity of vulnerability against storms into account. The aggregated storm index gives an estimate of the severity of an individual storm. Finally, the relation between actual loss produced by a storm and the index is estimated using published annual insurance loss due to windstorm in Germany. Index values are accumulated for each year, and the relation to actual loss is computed. The average ratio for the whole reference period is eventually used. It is shown that the interannual variability of storm-related losses can be reproduced with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.96, and even individual storm damages can be estimated. Based on these evaluations we found that only 50 storms account for about 80% of insured storm losses between 1970 and 1997.

  2. Assessing Patterns of Human-Wildlife Conflicts and Compensation around a Central Indian Protected Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Krithi K.; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.; DeFries, Ruth; Ballal, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating crop and livestock loss to wildlife and improving compensation distribution are important for conservation efforts in landscapes where people and wildlife co-occur outside protected areas. The lack of rigorously collected spatial data poses a challenge to management efforts to minimize loss and mitigate conflicts. We surveyed 735 households from 347 villages in a 5154 km2 area surrounding Kanha Tiger Reserve in India. We modeled self-reported household crop and livestock loss as a function of agricultural, demographic and environmental factors, and mitigation measures. We also modeled self-reported compensation received by households as a function of demographic factors, conflict type, reporting to authorities, and wildlife species involved. Seventy-three percent of households reported crop loss and 33% livestock loss in the previous year, but less than 8% reported human injury or death. Crop loss was associated with greater number of cropping months per year and proximity to the park. Livestock loss was associated with grazing animals inside the park and proximity to the park. Among mitigation measures only use of protective physical structures were associated with reduced livestock loss. Compensation distribution was more likely for tiger related incidents, and households reporting loss and located in the buffer. Average estimated probability of crop loss was 0.93 and livestock loss was 0.60 for surveyed households. Estimated crop and livestock loss and compensation distribution were higher for households located inside the buffer. Our approach modeled conflict data to aid managers in identifying potential conflict hotspots, influential factors, and spatially maps risk probability of crop and livestock loss. This approach could help focus allocation of conservation efforts and funds directed at conflict prevention and mitigation where high densities of people and wildlife co-occur. PMID:23227173

  3. Assessing patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and compensation around a Central Indian protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Krithi K; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M; DeFries, Ruth; Ballal, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating crop and livestock loss to wildlife and improving compensation distribution are important for conservation efforts in landscapes where people and wildlife co-occur outside protected areas. The lack of rigorously collected spatial data poses a challenge to management efforts to minimize loss and mitigate conflicts. We surveyed 735 households from 347 villages in a 5154 km(2) area surrounding Kanha Tiger Reserve in India. We modeled self-reported household crop and livestock loss as a function of agricultural, demographic and environmental factors, and mitigation measures. We also modeled self-reported compensation received by households as a function of demographic factors, conflict type, reporting to authorities, and wildlife species involved. Seventy-three percent of households reported crop loss and 33% livestock loss in the previous year, but less than 8% reported human injury or death. Crop loss was associated with greater number of cropping months per year and proximity to the park. Livestock loss was associated with grazing animals inside the park and proximity to the park. Among mitigation measures only use of protective physical structures were associated with reduced livestock loss. Compensation distribution was more likely for tiger related incidents, and households reporting loss and located in the buffer. Average estimated probability of crop loss was 0.93 and livestock loss was 0.60 for surveyed households. Estimated crop and livestock loss and compensation distribution were higher for households located inside the buffer. Our approach modeled conflict data to aid managers in identifying potential conflict hotspots, influential factors, and spatially maps risk probability of crop and livestock loss. This approach could help focus allocation of conservation efforts and funds directed at conflict prevention and mitigation where high densities of people and wildlife co-occur.

  4. Assessing patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and compensation around a Central Indian protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krithi K Karanth

    Full Text Available Mitigating crop and livestock loss to wildlife and improving compensation distribution are important for conservation efforts in landscapes where people and wildlife co-occur outside protected areas. The lack of rigorously collected spatial data poses a challenge to management efforts to minimize loss and mitigate conflicts. We surveyed 735 households from 347 villages in a 5154 km(2 area surrounding Kanha Tiger Reserve in India. We modeled self-reported household crop and livestock loss as a function of agricultural, demographic and environmental factors, and mitigation measures. We also modeled self-reported compensation received by households as a function of demographic factors, conflict type, reporting to authorities, and wildlife species involved. Seventy-three percent of households reported crop loss and 33% livestock loss in the previous year, but less than 8% reported human injury or death. Crop loss was associated with greater number of cropping months per year and proximity to the park. Livestock loss was associated with grazing animals inside the park and proximity to the park. Among mitigation measures only use of protective physical structures were associated with reduced livestock loss. Compensation distribution was more likely for tiger related incidents, and households reporting loss and located in the buffer. Average estimated probability of crop loss was 0.93 and livestock loss was 0.60 for surveyed households. Estimated crop and livestock loss and compensation distribution were higher for households located inside the buffer. Our approach modeled conflict data to aid managers in identifying potential conflict hotspots, influential factors, and spatially maps risk probability of crop and livestock loss. This approach could help focus allocation of conservation efforts and funds directed at conflict prevention and mitigation where high densities of people and wildlife co-occur.

  5. Estimated Avian Nest Loss Associated with Oil and Gas Exploration and Extraction in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Van Wilgenburg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Annual mortality within bird populations can be attributed to numerous sources; however, the extent to which anthropogenic sources of mortality contribute to avian demography is largely unknown. Quantifying the relative magnitude of human-related avian mortality could inform conservation efforts, particularly if multiple sources of human-related mortality can be contrasted. The unintentional destruction of nests and their contents by industrial activities conducted during the breeding season of resident and migratory birds presumably leads to one such source of human-caused avian mortality. As part of a broader effort to quantify major sources of human-related avian mortality, we estimated the magnitude of nest loss resulting from the terrestrial oil and gas sector in Canada, including: (1 seismic exploration, (2 pipeline right-of-way clearing, (3 well pad clearing, and (4 oil sands mining within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB. We estimated nest losses as the product of estimated nest densities, the area disturbed annually, and the proportion of annual disturbance presumed to occur during the breeding season. The estimated number of nests disturbed annually by all oil and gas sectors combined ranged between 11,840 - 60,380. Interannual variation in exploration and extraction, and uncertainty in nest densities and the proportion of the disturbances occurring during the breeding season contributed to the variation. Accounting for natural mortality suggests an estimated loss of 10,200 - 41,150 (range potential recruits into the migratory bird population in a subsequent year. Although nest destruction is only one small component of the potential impacts of the oil and gas industry upon avian populations, these estimates establish a baseline for comparison with other sources of human-caused avian mortality. Models are now needed to compare nest losses against the legacy effects of oil and gas sector habitat disturbances and associated

  6. Remote sensing as a tool for watershed-wide estimation of net solar radiation and water loss to the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram, S.; Thomas, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for a study intended to develop a general remote sensing-aided cost-effective procedure to estimate watershed-wide water loss to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration and to estimate net solar radiation over the watershed. Evapotranspiration estimation employs a basic two-stage two-phase sample of three information resolution levels. Net solar radiation is taken as one of the variables at each level of evapotranspiration modeling. The input information for models requiring spatial information will be provided by Landsat digital data, environmental satellite data, ground meteorological data, ground sample unit information, and topographic data. The outputs of the sampling-estimation/data bank system will be in-place maps of evapotranspiration on a data resolution element basis, watershed-wide evapotranspiration isopleths, and estimates of watershed and subbasin total evapotranspiration with associated statistical confidence bounds. The methodology developed is being tested primarily on the Spanish Creek Watershed Plumas County, California.

  7. Canadian Estimate of Bird Mortality Due to Collisions and Direct Habitat Loss Associated with Wind Turbine Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryan. Zimmerling

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We estimated impacts on birds from the development and operation of wind turbines in Canada considering both mortality due to collisions and loss of nesting habitat. We estimated collision mortality using data from carcass searches for 43 wind farms, incorporating correction factors for scavenger removal, searcher efficiency, and carcasses that fell beyond the area searched. On average, 8.2 ± 1.4 birds (95% C.I. were killed per turbine per year at these sites, although the numbers at individual wind farms varied from 0 - 26.9 birds per turbine per year. Based on 2955 installed turbines (the number installed in Canada by December 2011, an estimated 23,300 birds (95% C.I. 20,000 - 28,300 would be killed from collisions with turbines each year. We estimated direct habitat loss based on data from 32 wind farms in Canada. On average, total habitat loss per turbine was 1.23 ha, which corresponds to an estimated total habitat loss due to wind farms nationwide of 3635 ha. Based on published estimates of nest density, this could represent habitat for ~5700 nests of all species. Assuming nearby habitats are saturated, and 2 adults displaced per nest site, effects of direct habitat loss are less than that of direct mortality. Installed wind capacity is growing rapidly, and is predicted to increase more than 10-fold over the next 10-15 years, which could lead to direct mortality of approximately 233,000 birds / year, and displacement of 57,000 pairs. Despite concerns about the impacts of biased correction factors on the accuracy of mortality estimates, these values are likely much lower than those from collisions with some other anthropogenic sources such as windows, vehicles, or towers, or habitat loss due to many other forms of development. Species composition data suggest that < 0.2% of the population of any species is currently affected by mortality or displacement from wind turbine development. Therefore, population level impacts are unlikely

  8. Auditing wildlife

    OpenAIRE

    B.K. Reilly; Y. Reillly

    2003-01-01

    Reilly B.K. and Y. Reilly. 2003. Auditing wildlife. Koedoe 46(2): 97–102. Pretoria. ISSN 0075-6458. Accountants and auditors are increasingly confronted with the problem of auditing wildlife populations on game ranches as their clients' asset base expands into this industry. This paper aims to provide guidelines on these actions based on case study data and research in the field of wildlife monitoring. Parties entering into dispute on numbers of animals on a property often resort to their au...

  9. Estimation of parasitic losses in a proposed mesoscale resonant engine: Experiment and model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preetham, B. S.; Anderson, M.; Richards, C.

    2014-02-01

    A resonant engine in which the piston-cylinder assembly is replaced by a flexible cavity is realized at the mesoscale using flexible metal bellows to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. A four stroke motoring technique is developed and measurements are performed to determine parasitic losses. A non-linear lumped parameter model is developed to evaluate the engine performance. Experimentally, the heat transfer and friction effects are separated by varying the engine speed and operating frequency. The engine energy flow diagram showing the energy distribution among various parasitic elements reveals that the friction loss in the bellows is smaller than the sliding friction loss in a typical piston-cylinder assembly.

  10. Shear-scaling-based approach for irreversible energy loss estimation in stenotic aortic flow - An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülan, Utku; Binter, Christian; Kozerke, Sebastian; Holzner, Markus

    2017-05-03

    Today, the functional and risk assessment of stenosed arteries is mostly based on ultrasound Doppler blood flow velocity measurements or catheter pressure measurements, which rely on several assumptions. Alternatively, blood velocity including turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) may be measured using MRI. The aim of the present study is to validate a TKE-based approach that relies on the fact that turbulence production is dominated by the flow's shear to determine the total irreversible energy loss from MRI scans. Three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) and phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) simulations were performed in an anatomically accurate, compliant, silicon aortic phantom. We found that measuring only the laminar viscous losses does not reflect the true losses of stenotic flows since the contribution of the turbulent losses to the total loss become more dominant for more severe stenosis types (for example, the laminar loss is 0.0094±0.0015W and the turbulent loss is 0.0361±0.0015W for the Remax=13,800 case, where Remax is the Reynolds number based on the velocity in the vena-contracta). We show that the commonly used simplified and modified Bernoulli's approaches overestimate the total loss, while the new TKE-based method proposed here, referred to as "shear scaling" approach, results in a good agreement between 3D-PTV and simulated PC-MRI (mean error is around 10%). In addition, we validated the shear scaling approach on a geometry with post-stenotic dilatation using numerical data by Casas et al. (2016). The shear scaling-based method may hence be an interesting alternative for irreversible energy loss estimation to replace traditional approaches for clinical use. We expect that our results will evoke further research, in particular patient studies for clinical implementation of the new method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimated Fresh Produce Shrink and Food Loss in U.S. Supermarkets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jean C Buzby; Jeanine T Bentley; Beth Padera; Cara Ammon; Jennifer Campuzano

    2015-01-01

    ...; and (2) retail-level food loss. For each covered commodity, supplier shipment data was aggregated from a sample of 2900 stores from one national and four regional supermarket retailers in the United States, and this sum...

  12. Financial loss estimation of bovine fasciolosis in slaughtered cattle in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishmael Festus Jaja

    2017-11-01

    The present study reveals the economic loss due to liver condemnation from Fasciola infection and provides regional baseline information regarding the prevalence of Fasciola in cattle at three abattoirs.

  13. An Open source GIS-based tool for economic loss estimation due to flood events

    OpenAIRE

    Sterlacchini, Simone; Zazzeri, Marco; Cappellini, Giacomo; Pastormerlo, Michele; Bonazzi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Two complementary GIS-based functions are designed and implemented to assess the expected degree of loss due to the occurrence of flood events. Each function processes institutional thematic layers and allows decision makers first to quantify the physical and the economic exposure of the elements at risk in a given study region and then to assess the expected degree of economic loss in relation to the flood water depth chosen for the analysis. The functions are implemented using QGIS with GRA...

  14. Effect of sampling regime on estimation of basal metabolic rate and standard evaporative water loss using flow-through respirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C E; Withers, P C

    2010-01-01

    Strict criteria have been established for measurement of basal metabolic rate and standard evaporative water loss to ensure that data can be compared intra- and interspecifically. However, data-sampling regimes vary, from essentially continuous sampling to interrupted (switching) systems with data recorded periodically at more widely spaced intervals. Here we compare one continuous and three interrupted sampling regimes to determine whether sampling regime has a significant effect on estimation of basal metabolic rate or standard evaporative water loss. Compared to continuous 20-s sampling averaged over 20 min, sampling every 6 min and averaging over 60 min overestimated basal metabolic rate and evaporative water loss, sampling every 3 min and averaging over 21 min underestimated basal metabolic rate, and sampling every 12 min and averaging over 36 min showed no difference in estimates. Increasing the period over which the minimum mean was calculated significantly increased estimates of physiological variables. Reducing the frequency of sampling from 20 s to a longer interval of 3, 6, or 12 min underestimated basal metabolic rate but not evaporative water loss. This indicates that sampling frequency per se influences estimates of basal metabolic rate and that differences are not just an artifact of differences in the period over which the mean is calculated. Sampling regime can have a highly significant influence on estimation of standard physiological variables, although the actual differences between sampling regimes were generally small (usually <5%). Although continuous sampling is the preferred sampling regime for open-flow respirometry studies, if time and cost are prohibitive, then use of an appropriate switching system will result in smaller errors than measuring individuals continuously for shorter periods.

  15. Wildlife Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  16. Reliability of student midwives' visual estimate of blood loss in the immediate postpartum period: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parayre, Inès; Rivière, Olivier; Debost-Legrand, Anne; Lémery, Didier; Vendittelli, Françoise

    2015-12-01

    In France, postpartum hemorrhage (blood loss≥500mL in the first 24h postpartum) is the leading direct obstetric cause of maternal mortality. In French practice, PPH is mainly diagnosed by a quantitative assessment of blood loss, performed by subjective methods such as visual estimates. Various studies have concluded that visual estimates are imprecise, tend to underestimate blood loss, and thus to delay diagnosis of PPH. The principal objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of visual estimates of blood loss by student midwives. The secondary objectives were to study intraobserver agreement of these assessments, to assess the accuracy of visual estimates for threshold values, and to look for a region effect. A cross-sectional multicentre study. All French midwifery schools (n=35). Volunteer French student midwives at their fifth (final) year (n=463). The online questionnaire contained 16 photographs (8 different, each presented twice) of simulated volumes of blood loss (100, 150, 200, 300, 500, 850, 1000, and 1500mL). A 50-mL reference standard for calibration accompanied each photograph. Only one answer could be selected among the 7 choices offered for each photograph. Comparisons used χ(2) and Kappa tests. The participation rate was 48.43% (463/956), and 7.408 visual estimates were collected. Estimates were accurate for 35.34% of the responses. The reproducibility rate for the visual estimates (0.17≤к≤0.48) and for the accurate visual estimates (0.11≤к≤0.55) were moderate for 4 of the 8 volumes (100, 300, 1000, and 1500mL). The percentage of accurate responses was significantly higher for volumes≤300mL than for those ≥500mL (52.94% vs. 17.17%, p<0.0001) and those ≥1000mL (52.94% vs. 18.30%, p<0.0001). The percentage of accurate responses varied between the regions (p=0.042). Despite the help of a visual aid, both the accuracy and reproducibility of the visual estimates were low. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimated tooth loss based on number of present teeth in Japanese adults using national surveys of dental disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Koichi; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Fukai, Kakuhiro; Takiguchi, Toru; Sugihara, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Oral health instruction for adults should take into account the potential effect of tooth loss, as this has been suggested to predict further tooth loss. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether further tooth loss could be predicted from the number of present teeth (PT). We employed the same method as in our previous study, this time using two national surveys of dental disease, which were deemed to represent a generational cohort. Percentiles were estimated using the cumulative frequency distribution of PT from the two surveys. The first was a survey of 704 participants aged 50-59 years conducted in 2005, and the second was a survey of 747 participants aged 56-65 years conducted in 2011. The 1st to 100th percentiles of the number of PT were calculated for both age groups. Using these percentiles and a generational cohort analysis based on the two surveys, the number of teeth lost per year could be calculated. The distribution of number of teeth lost generated a convex curve. Peak tooth loss occurred at around 12-14 PT, with 0.54 teeth being lost per year. The percentage of teeth lost (per number of PT) increased as number of PT decreased. The results confirmed that tooth loss promotes further tooth loss. These data should be made available for use in adult oral health education.

  18. Wildlife Resources and the Davis Power Project 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report identifies and evaluates fish and wildlife losses that would occur as a result of the construction of the Davis Power Project in 1973.

  19. Northwest Montana Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Protection : Advance Design : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn A.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the habitat protection process developed to mitigate for certain wildlife and wildlife habitat losses due to construction of Hungry Horse and Libby dams in northwestern Montana.

  20. Using the Digits-In-Noise Test to Estimate Age-Related Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, Arne; Nagtegaal, A Paul; Homans, Nienke C; Hofman, Albert; Baatenburg de Jong, Rob J; Goedegebure, André

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss is common in the elderly population. Timely detection and targeted counseling can lead to adequate treatment with hearing aids. The Digits-In-Noise (DIN) test was developed as a relatively simple test to assess hearing acuity. It is a potentially powerful test for the screening of large populations, including the elderly. However, until to date, no sensitivity or specificity rates for detecting hearing loss were reported in a general elderly population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the DIN test to screen for mild and moderate hearing loss in the elderly. Data of pure-tone audiometry and the DIN test were collected from 3327 adults ages above 50 (mean: 65), as part of the Rotterdam Study, a large population-based cohort study. Sensitivity and specificity of the DIN test for detecting hearing loss were calculated by comparing speech reception threshold (SRT) with pure-tone average threshold at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz (PTA0.5,1,2,4). Receiver operating characteristics were calculated for detecting >20 and >35 dB HL average hearing loss at the best ear. Hearing loss varied greatly between subjects and, as expected, increased with age. High frequencies and men were more severely affected. A strong correlation (R = 0.80, p < 0.001) was found between SRTs and PTA0.5,1,2,4. Moreover, 65% of variance in SRT could be explained by pure-tone thresholds. For detecting mild or moderate hearing loss, receiver operating characteristics showed areas under the curve of 0.86 and 0.98, respectively. This study demonstrates that the DIN test has excellent test characteristics when screening for moderate hearing loss (or more) in an elderly population. It is less suited to screen for mild hearing loss. The test is easy to complete and should be suitable for implementation as an automated self-test in hearing screening programs. Ultimately, when combined with active counseling, hearing screening could lead to higher hearing aid coverage

  1. Costs of productivity loss due to occupational cancer in Canada: estimation using claims data from Workers' Compensation Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wranik, W Dominika; Muir, Adam; Hu, Min

    2017-12-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of illness globally, yet our understanding of the financial implications of cancer caused by working conditions and environments is limited. The goal of this study is to estimate the costs of productivity losses due to occupational cancer in Canada, and to evaluate the factors associated with these costs. Two sources of data are used: (i) Individual level administrative claims data from the Workers Compensation Board of Nova Scotia; and (ii) provincial aggregated cancer claims statistics from the Association of Workers Compensation Boards of Canada. Benefits paid to claimants are based on actuarial estimates of wage-loss, but do not include medical costs that are covered by the Canadian publicly funded healthcare system. Regional claims level data are used to estimate the total and average (per claim) cost of occupational cancer to the insurance system, and to assess which characteristics of the claim/claimant influence costs. Cost estimates from one region are weighted using regional multipliers to adjust for system differences between regions, and extrapolated to estimate national costs of occupational cancer. We estimate that the total cost of occupational cancer to the Workers' Compensation system in Canada between 1996 and 2013 was $1.2 billion. The average annual cost was $68 million. The cancer being identified as asbestos related were significantly positively associated with costs, whereas the age of the claimant was significantly negatively associated with costs. The industry type/region, injury type or part of body affected by cancer were not significant cost determinants. Given the severity of the cancer burden, it is important to understand the financial implications of the disease on workers. Our study shows that productivity losses associated with cancer in the workplace are not negligible, particularly for workers exposed to asbestos.

  2. Trapped sweat in basketball uniforms and the effect on sweat loss estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Reimel, Adam J; Sopeña, Bridget C; Barnes, Kelly A; Nuccio, Ryan P; De Chavez, Peter John D; Stofan, John R; Carter, James M

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine: (1) trapped sweat (TS) in basketball uniforms and the effect on sweat loss (SL) estimates during a laboratory-based basketball simulation protocol; (2) the impact of exercise intensity, body mass, age, and SL on TS; and (3) TS during on-court training to assess the ecological validity of the laboratory-based results. Twenty-four recreational/competitive male basketball players (23 ± 10 years, 77.0 ± 16.7 kg) completed three randomized laboratory-based trials (Low, Moderate, and High intensity) consisting of 150-min intermittent exercise. Eighteen elite male players (23 ± 4 years, 92.0 ± 20.6 kg) were observed during coach-led, on-court training. Nude and clothed body mass were measured pre and postexercise to determine TS. Data are mean ± SD. There was a significant effect of intensity on SL and TS ( P  < 0.001, Low

  3. Relation between temporal envelope coding, pitch discrimination, and compression estimates in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Santurette, Sébastien; Fereczkowski, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Recent physiological studies in animals showed that noise-induced sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) increased the amplitude of envelope coding in single auditory-nerve fibers. The present study investigated whether SNHL in human listeners was associated with enhanced temporal envelope coding...... resolvability. For the unresolved conditions, all five HI listeners performed as good as or better than NH listeners with matching musical experience. Two HI listeners showed lower amplitude-modulation detection thresholds than NH listeners for low modulation rates, and one of these listeners also showed a loss......, whether this enhancement affected pitch discrimination performance, and whether loss of compression following SNHL was a potential factor in envelope coding enhancement. Envelope processing was assessed in normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners in a behavioral amplitude...

  4. Yield loss prediction models based on early estimation of weed pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Ali; Streibig, Jens Carl; Andreasen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    been proposed to predict yield loss, relative to yield in weed free environment from early measurements of weed infestation. The models are integrated in some weed management advisory systems. Generally, the recommendations from the advisory systems are applied to the whole field, but weed control...... thresholds are more relevant for site-specific weed management, because weeds are unevenly distributed in fields. Precision of prediction of yield loss is influenced by various factors such as locations, yield potential at the site, variation in competitive ability of mix stands of weed species and emergence...

  5. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Naida C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO, bioimpedance analysis (BIA and ultrasonography (US in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM and lean (LM body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals, after 10% of weight loss (T1 and after 20% of weight loss (T2. Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM; however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed.

  6. Across-frequency behavioral estimates of the contribution of inner and outer hair cell dysfunction to individualized audiometric loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, Peter T; Pérez-González, Patricia; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the multiple contributors to the audiometric loss of a hearing impaired (HI) listener at a particular frequency is becoming gradually more useful as new treatments are developed. Here, we infer the contribution of inner (IHC) and outer hair cell (OHC) dysfunction to the total audiometric loss in a sample of 68 hearing aid candidates with mild-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, and for test frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 kHz. It was assumed that the audiometric loss (HLTOTAL) at each test frequency was due to a combination of cochlear gain loss, or OHC dysfunction (HLOHC), and inefficient IHC processes (HLIHC), all of them in decibels. HLOHC and HLIHC were estimated from cochlear I/O curves inferred psychoacoustically using the temporal masking curve (TMC) method. 325 I/O curves were measured and 59% of them showed a compression threshold (CT). The analysis of these I/O curves suggests that (1) HLOHC and HLIHC account on average for 60-70 and 30-40% of HLTOTAL, respectively; (2) these percentages are roughly constant across frequencies; (3) across-listener variability is large; (4) residual cochlear gain is negatively correlated with hearing loss while residual compression is not correlated with hearing loss. Altogether, the present results support the conclusions from earlier studies and extend them to a wider range of test frequencies and hearing-loss ranges. Twenty-four percent of I/O curves were linear and suggested total cochlear gain loss. The number of linear I/O curves increased gradually with increasing frequency. The remaining 17% I/O curves suggested audiometric losses due mostly to IHC dysfunction and were more frequent at low (≤1 kHz) than at high frequencies. It is argued that in a majority of listeners, hearing loss is due to a common mechanism that concomitantly alters IHC and OHC function and that IHC processes may be more labile in the apex than in the base.

  7. Across-frequency behavioral estimates of the contribution of inner and outer hair cell dysfunction to individualized audiometric loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Johannesen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the multiple contributors to the audiometric loss of a hearing impaired listener at a particular frequency is becoming gradually more useful as new treatments are developed. Here, we infer the contribution of inner (IHC and outer hair cell (OHC dysfunction to the total audiometric loss in a sample of 68 hearing aid candidates with mild-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, and for test frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 kHz. It was assumed that the audiometric loss (HL_TOTAL at each test frequency was due to a combination of cochlear gain loss, or OHC dysfunction (HL_OHC, and inefficient IHC processes (HL_IHC, all of them in decibels. HL_OHC and HL_IHC were estimated from cochlear I/O curves inferred psychoacoustically using the temporal masking curve method. 325 I/O curves were measured and 59% of them showed a compression threshold. The analysis of these I/O curves suggests that (1 HL_OHC and HL_IHC account on average for 60-70% and 40-30% of HL_TOTAL, respectively; (2 these percentages are roughly constant across frequencies; (3 across-listener variability is large; (4 residual cochlear gain is negatively correlated with hearing loss while residual compression is not correlated with hearing loss. Altogether, the present results support the conclusions from earlier studies and extend them to a wider range of test frequencies and hearing loss ranges. 24% of I/O curves were linear and suggested total cochlear gain loss. The number of linear I/O curves increased gradually with increasing frequency. The remaining 17% I/O curves suggested audiometric losses due mostly to IHC dysfunction and were more frequent at low (≤ 1 kHz than at high frequencies. It is argued that in a majority of listeners, hearing loss is due to a common mechanism that concomitantly alters IHC and OHC function and that IHC processes may be more labile in the apex than in the base.

  8. Revised estimates of the risk of fetal loss following a prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 or trisomy 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadino, Alana; Morris, Joan K

    2017-04-01

    Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18) and Patau syndrome (trisomy 13) both have high natural fetal loss rates. The aim of this study was to provide estimates of these fetal loss rates by single gestational week of age using data from the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register. Data from all pregnancies with Edwards or Patau syndrome that were prenatally detected in England and Wales from 2004 to 2014 was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates. Pregnancies were entered into the analysis at the time of gestation at diagnosis, and were considered "under observation" until the gestation at outcome. There were 4088 prenatal diagnoses of trisomy 18 and 1471 of trisomy 13 in the analysis. For trisomy 18, 30% (95%CI: 25-34%) of viable fetuses at 12 weeks will result in a live birth and at 39 weeks gestation 67% (60-73%) will result in a live birth. For trisomy 13 the survival is 50% (41-58%) at 12 weeks and 84% (73-90%) at 39 weeks. There was no significant difference in survival between males and females when diagnosed at 12 weeks for trisomy 18 (P-value = 0.27) or trisomy 13 (P-value = 0.47). This paper provides the most precise gestational age-specific estimates currently available for the risk of fetal loss in trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 pregnancies in a general population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Wind storm loss estimations in the Canton of Vaud (Western Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Etienne

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A storm loss model that was first developed for Germany is applied to the much smaller geographic area of the canton of Vaud, in Western Switzerland. 24 major wind storms that struck the region during the period 1990–2010 are analysed, and outputs are compared to loss observations provided by an insurance company. Model inputs include population data and daily maximum wind speeds from weather stations. These measured wind speeds are regionalised in the canton of Vaud following different methods, using either basic interpolation techniques from Geographic Information Systems (GIS, or by using an existing extreme wind speed map of Switzerland whose values are used as thresholds. A third method considers the wind power, integrating wind speeds temporally over storm duration to calculate losses. Outputs show that the model leads to similar results for all methods, with Pearson's correlation and Spearman's rank coefficients of roughly 0.7. Bootstrap techniques are applied to test the model's robustness. Impacts of population growth and possible changes in storminess under conditions of climate change shifts are also examined for this region, emphasizing high shifts in economic losses related to small increases of input wind speeds.

  10. Energy expenditure in relation to flight speed: whay is the power of mass loss rate estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvist, A.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Lindström, A.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between mass loss rate and chemical power in Eying birds is analysed with regard to water and heat balance. Two models are presented: the first model is applicable to situations where heat loads are moderate, i.e. when heat balance can be achieved by regulating non-evaporative heat

  11. Population consequences of winter habitat loss in a migratory shorebird. I. Estimating model parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GOSSCUSTARD, JD; CLARKE, RT; BRIGGS, KB; Ens, B.J.; EXO, KM; SMIT, C; BEINTEMA, AJ; CALDOW, RWG; CATT, DC; CLARK, NA; DURELL, SEALD; HARRIS, MP; HULSCHER, JB; MEININGER, PL; PICOZZI, N; PRYSJONES, R; SAFRIEL, UN; WEST, AD

    1. In order to construct a model to predict the effect of winter habitat loss on the migratory population of the European subspecies of the oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus ostralegus, data on the reproductive and mortality rates collected throughout Europe over the last 60 years are reviewed.

  12. Debris flows risk analysis and direct loss estimation: the case study of Valtellina di Tirano, Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blahůt, Jan; Glade, T.; Sterlacchini, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2014), s. 288-307 ISSN 1672-6316 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Debris flows * Risk analysis * Economic losses * Central Alps * Italy Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2014

  13. Estimation of soil loss by gully erosion in Mubi, Adamawa state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six locations in Mubi, Adamawa State (Digil, Muvur, Vimtim Gella, Lamorde and Madanya) affected by gully erosion were surveyed between April, 2003 and November, 2004. Parameters related to soil erosion losses such as slope, topography, vegetation and land use were noted or measured. Photographs of the affected ...

  14. Methodology used in Cuba for estimating economic losses caused by forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos Pedro Ramos Rodríguez; Raúl González Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of economic losses caused by forest fires is a highly complex but important activity. It is complicated first by the large number of effects, in different periods, brought about in the social, economic and environmental fields. Secondly, the difficulty of assigning a market value to resources such as biodiversity or endangered species should be mentioned. It...

  15. Estimating the Frequency of Horizontal Gene Transfer Using Phylogenetic Models of Gene Gain and Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani-Dahaj, Seyed Alireza; Okasha, Mohamed; Kosakowski, Jakub; Higgs, Paul G

    2016-07-01

    We analyze patterns of gene presence and absence in a maximum likelihood framework with rate parameters for gene gain and loss. Standard methods allow independent gains and losses in different parts of a tree. While losses of the same gene are likely to be frequent, multiple gains need to be considered carefully. A gene gain could occur by horizontal transfer or by origin of a gene within the lineage being studied. If a gene is gained more than once, then at least one of these gains must be a horizontal transfer. A key parameter is the ratio of gain to loss rates, a/v We consider the limiting case known as the infinitely many genes model, where a/v tends to zero and a gene cannot be gained more than once. The infinitely many genes model is used as a null model in comparison to models that allow multiple gains. Using genome data from cyanobacteria and archaea, it is found that the likelihood is significantly improved by allowing for multiple gains, but the average a/v is very small. The fraction of genes whose presence/absence pattern is best explained by multiple gains is only 15% in the cyanobacteria and 20% and 39% in two data sets of archaea. The distribution of rates of gene loss is very broad, which explains why many genes follow a treelike pattern of vertical inheritance, despite the presence of a significant minority of genes that undergo horizontal transfer. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Wildlife Inventory Plan : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for Mingo NWR outlines procedures for monitoring the distribution, abundance, and population dynamics of the species of wildlife...

  17. Wildlife Inventory Plan : Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for Malheur NWR summarizes Refuge objectives, policies on wildlife inventory procedures, biological habitat units, physical facility...

  18. Model for Estimating Life-Cycle Costs Associated with Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-10

    hearing conservation program (HCP) and as a result of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) sustained by the sailor. Calculation of associated economic costs...entry hearing test, results in a screened population, baseline audiogram established No Basic training and advanced training Assume not noise...exposed No Assigned to high noise occupation Annual monitoring audiometry , noise exposure documented on permanent medical record Yes, Navy Sustains

  19. RF Path and Absorption Loss Estimation for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks in Different Water Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Umair Mujtaba; Shaikh, Faisal Karim; Aziz, Zuneera; Shah, Syed M Zafi S; Sheikh, Adil A; Felemban, Emad; Qaisar, Saad Bin

    2016-06-16

    Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) communication at high frequencies is extremely challenging. The intricacies presented by the underwater environment are far more compared to the terrestrial environment. The prime reason for such intricacies are the physical characteristics of the underwater environment that have a big impact on electromagnetic (EM) signals. Acoustics signals are by far the most preferred choice for underwater wireless communication. Because high frequency signals have the luxury of large bandwidth (BW) at shorter distances, high frequency EM signals cannot penetrate and propagate deep in underwater environments. The EM properties of water tend to resist their propagation and cause severe attenuation. Accordingly, there are two questions that need to be addressed for underwater environment, first what happens when high frequency EM signals operating at 2.4 GHz are used for communication, and second which factors affect the most to high frequency EM signals. To answer these questions, we present real-time experiments conducted at 2.4 GHz in terrestrial and underwater (fresh water) environments. The obtained results helped in studying the physical characteristics (i.e., EM properties, propagation and absorption loss) of underwater environments. It is observed that high frequency EM signals can propagate in fresh water at a shallow depth only and can be considered for a specific class of applications such as water sports. Furthermore, path loss, velocity of propagation, absorption loss and the rate of signal loss in different underwater environments are also calculated and presented in order to understand why EM signals cannot propagate in sea water and oceanic water environments. An optimal solk6ution for underwater communication in terms of coverage distance, bandwidth and nature of communication is presented, along with possible underwater applications of UWSNs at 2.4 GHz.

  20. RF Path and Absorption Loss Estimation for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks in Different Water Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair Mujtaba Qureshi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN communication at high frequencies is extremely challenging. The intricacies presented by the underwater environment are far more compared to the terrestrial environment. The prime reason for such intricacies are the physical characteristics of the underwater environment that have a big impact on electromagnetic (EM signals. Acoustics signals are by far the most preferred choice for underwater wireless communication. Because high frequency signals have the luxury of large bandwidth (BW at shorter distances, high frequency EM signals cannot penetrate and propagate deep in underwater environments. The EM properties of water tend to resist their propagation and cause severe attenuation. Accordingly, there are two questions that need to be addressed for underwater environment, first what happens when high frequency EM signals operating at 2.4 GHz are used for communication, and second which factors affect the most to high frequency EM signals. To answer these questions, we present real-time experiments conducted at 2.4 GHz in terrestrial and underwater (fresh water environments. The obtained results helped in studying the physical characteristics (i.e., EM properties, propagation and absorption loss of underwater environments. It is observed that high frequency EM signals can propagate in fresh water at a shallow depth only and can be considered for a specific class of applications such as water sports. Furthermore, path loss, velocity of propagation, absorption loss and the rate of signal loss in different underwater environments are also calculated and presented in order to understand why EM signals cannot propagate in sea water and oceanic water environments. An optimal solk6ution for underwater communication in terms of coverage distance, bandwidth and nature of communication is presented, along with possible underwater applications of UWSNs at 2.4 GHz.

  1. Estimating the welfare loss to households from natural disasters in developing countries: a contingent valuation study of flooding in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ståle Navrud

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural disasters have severe impacts on the health and well-being of affected households. However, we find evidence that official damage cost assessments for floods and other natural disasters in Vietnam, where households have little or no insurance, clearly underestimate the total economic damage costs of these events as they do not include the welfare loss from mortality, morbidity and reduced well-being experienced by the households affected by the floods. This should send a message to the local communities and national authorities that higher investments in flood alleviation, reduction and adaptive measures can be justified since the social benefits of these measures in terms of avoided damage costs are higher than previously thought. Methods: We pioneer the use of the contingent valuation (CV approach of willingness-to-contribute (WTC labour to a flood prevention program, as a measure of the welfare loss experienced by household due to a flooding event. In a face-to-face household survey of 706 households in the Quang Nam province in Central Vietnam, we applied this approach together with reported direct physical damage in order to shed light of the welfare loss experienced by the households. We asked about households’ WTC labour and multiplied their WTC person-days of labour by an estimate for their opportunity cost of time in order to estimate the welfare loss to households from the 2007 floods. Results: The results showed that this contingent valuation (CV approach of asking about willingness-to-pay in-kind avoided the main problems associated with applying CV in developing countries. Conclusion: Thus, the CV approach of WTC labour instead of money is promising in terms of capturing the total welfare loss of natural disasters to households, and promising in terms of further application in other developing countries and for other types of natural disasters.

  2. Estimating the welfare loss to households from natural disasters in developing countries: a contingent valuation study of flooding in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrud, Ståle; Tuan, Tran Huu; Tinh, Bui Duc

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters have severe impacts on the health and well-being of affected households. However, we find evidence that official damage cost assessments for floods and other natural disasters in Vietnam, where households have little or no insurance, clearly underestimate the total economic damage costs of these events as they do not include the welfare loss from mortality, morbidity and well-being experienced by the households affected by the floods. This should send a message to the local communities and national authorities that higher investments in flood alleviation, reduction and adaptive measures can be justified since the social benefits of these measures in terms of avoided damage costs are higher than previously thought. We pioneer the use of the contingent valuation (CV) approach of willingness-to-contribute (WTC) labour to a flood prevention program, as a measure of the welfare loss experienced by household due to a flooding event. In a face-to-face household survey of 706 households in the Quang Nam province in Central Vietnam, we applied this approach together with reported direct physical damage in order to shed light of the welfare loss experienced by the households. We asked about households' WTC labour and multiplied their WTC person-days of labour by an estimate for their opportunity cost of time in order to estimate the welfare loss to households from the 2007 floods. The results showed that this contingent valuation (CV) approach of asking about willingness-to-pay in-kind avoided the main problems associated with applying CV in developing countries. Thus, the CV approach of WTC labour instead of money is promising in terms of capturing the total welfare loss of natural disasters, and promising in terms of further application in other developing countries and for other types of natural disasters.

  3. Fuel treatment impacts on estimated wildfire carbon loss from forests in Montana, Oregon, California, and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Scott L.; Boerner, Ralph E.J.; Maghaddas, Jason J.; Maghaddas, Emily E.Y.; Collins, Brandon M.; Dow, Christopher B.; Edminster, Carl; Fiedler, Carl E.; Fry, Danny L.; Hartsough, Bruce R.; Keeley, Jon E.; Knapp, Eric E.; McIver, James D.; Skinner, Carl N.; Youngblood, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    Using forests to sequester carbon in response to anthropogenically induced climate change is being considered across the globe. A recent U.S. executive order mandated that all federal agencies account for sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases, highlighting the importance of understanding how forest carbon stocks are influenced by wildfire. This paper reports the effects of the most common forest fuel reduction treatments on carbon pools composed of live and dead biomass as well as potential wildfire emissions from six different sites in four western U.S. states. Additionally, we predict the median forest product life spans and uses of materials removed during mechanical treatments. Carbon loss from modeled wildfire-induced tree mortality was lowest in the mechanical plus prescribed fire treatments, followed by the prescribed fire-only treatments. Wildfire emissions varied from 10–80 Mg/ha and were lowest in the prescribed fire and mechanical followed by prescribed fire treatments at most sites. Mean biomass removals per site ranged from approximately 30–60 dry Mg/ha; the median lives of products in first use varied considerably (from 50 years). Our research suggests most of the benefits of increased fire resistance can be achieved with relatively small reductions in current carbon stocks. Retaining or growing larger trees also reduced the vulnerability of carbon loss from wildfire. In addition, modeled vulnerabilities to carbon losses and median forest product life spans varied considerably across our study sites, which could be used to help prioritize treatment implementation.

  4. [The estimation of weight-loss programmes and using of slimming preparations among young women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Joanna; Szuber, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the range of weight-loss programmes and behaviours associated with the use of slimming supplements observed among young women. The study in the form of questionnaire survey was carried out among 300 female students of the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin during late autumn 2009. Analysis of the responses revealed that most of the women had tried to lose weight ever during their lives, many of them within the past six months. The respondents undertook weight-loss programmes regardless of their BMI, which may imply a disturbed perception of one's own body. In order to reduce body weight, the women applied various methods, usually modified diet and use slimming preparations. Among the preparations, the women most frequently mentioned appetite inhibitors or fat burning and thermogenesis enhancers. During the use of slimming enhancers, many women also changed their dietary patterns; such alterations were not necessarily nutritionally correct, due to either lack of knowledge on the principles of proper nutrition (which apply also during a weight-loss action) or due to abandoning these rules when applying the slimming aids. The observed dietary behaviours of the women may underlie serious nutrition-related health problems when they reach their middle age, but can also result in nutritional disorders in the near future.

  5. Stroke survivors over-estimate their medication self-administration (MSA) ability, predicting memory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, A M; Galletta, Elizabeth E; Zhang, Jun; Masmela, Jenny R; Adler, Uri S

    2014-01-01

    Medication self-administration (MSA) may be cognitively challenging after stroke, but guidelines are currently lacking for identifying high-functioning stroke survivors who may have difficulty with this task. Complicating this matter, stroke survivors may not be aware of their cognitive problems (cognitive anosognosia) and may over-estimate their MSA competence. The authors wished to evaluate medication self-administration and MSA self-awareness in 24 consecutive acute stroke survivors undergoing inpatient rehabilitation, to determine if they would over-estimate their medication self-administration and if this predicted memory disorder. Stroke survivors were tested on the Hopkins Medication Schedule and also their memory, naming mood and dexterity were evaluated, comparing their performance to 17 matched controls. The anosognosia ratio indicated MSA over-estimation in stroke survivors compared with controls--no other over-estimation errors were noted relative to controls. A strong correlation was observed between over-estimation of MSA ability and verbal memory deficit, suggesting that formally assessing MSA and MSA self-awareness may help detect cognitive deficits. Assessing medication self-administration and MSA self-awareness may be useful in rehabilitation and successful community-return after stroke.

  6. Estimating hypothetical present-day insured losses for past intense hurricanes in the French Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, James; Desarthe, Jérémy; Naulin, Jean-Philippe; Garnier, Emmanuel; Liu, Ye; Moncoulon, David

    2015-04-01

    On the islands of the French Antilles, the period for which systematic meteorological measurements and historic event loss data are available is short relative to the recurrence intervals of very intense, damaging hurricanes. Additionally, the value of property at risk changes through time. As such, the recent past can only provide limited insight into potential losses from extreme storms in coming years. Here we present some research that seeks to overcome, as far as is possible, the limitations of record length in assessing the possible impacts of near-future hurricanes on insured properties. First, using the archives of the French overseas departments (which included administrative and weather reports, inventories of damage to houses, crops and trees, as well as some meteorological observations after 1950) we reconstructed the spatial patterns of hazard intensity associated with three historical events. They are: i) the 1928 Hurricane (Guadeloupe), ii) Hurricane Betsy (1956, Guadeloupe) and iii) Hurricane David (1979, Martinique). These events were selected because all were damaging, and the information available on each is rich. Then, using a recently developed catastrophe model for hurricanes affecting Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin, we simulated the hypothetical losses to insured properties that the reconstructed events might cause if they were to reoccur today. The model simulated damage due to wind, rainfall-induced flooding and storm surge flooding. These 'what if' scenarios provided an initial indication of the potential present-day exposure of the insurance industry to intense hurricanes. However, we acknowledge that historical events are unlikely to repeat exactly. We therefore extended the study by producing a stochastic event catalogue containing a large number of synthetic but plausible hurricane events. Instrumental data were used as a basis for event generation, but importantly the statistical methods we applied permit

  7. Bounding the quantum limits of precision for phase estimation with loss and thermal noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagatsos, Christos N.; Bash, Boulat A.; Guha, Saikat; Datta, Animesh

    2017-12-01

    We consider the problem of estimating an unknown but constant carrier phase modulation θ using a general, possibly entangled, n -mode optical probe through n independent and identical uses of a lossy bosonic channel with additive thermal noise. We find an upper bound to the quantum Fisher information (QFI) of estimating θ as a function of n , the mean and variance of the total number of photons NS in the n -mode probe, the transmissivity η , and mean thermal photon number per mode n¯B of the bosonic channel. Since the inverse of QFI provides a lower bound to the mean-square error (MSE) of an unbiased estimator θ ˜ of θ , our upper bound to the QFI provides a lower bound to the MSE. It already has found use in proving fundamental limits of covert sensing and could find other applications requiring bounding the fundamental limits of sensing an unknown parameter embedded in a correlated field.

  8. Estimation of streamflow gains and losses in the lower San Antonio River watershed, south-central Texas, 2006-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarraga, Joy S.; Wehmeyer, Loren L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, the Evergreen Underground Water Conservation District, and the Goliad County Groundwater Conservation District, investigated streamflow gains and losses during 2006-10 in the lower San Antonio River watershed in south-central Texas. Streamflow gains and losses were estimated using 2006-10 continuous streamflow records from 11 continuous streamflow-gaging stations, and discrete streamflow measurements made at as many as 20 locations on the San Antonio River and selected tributaries during four synoptic surveys during 2006-7. From the continuous streamflow records, the greatest streamflow gain on the lower San Antonio River occurred in the reach from Falls City, Tex., to Goliad, Tex. The greatest streamflow gain on Cibolo Creek during 2006-10 occurred in the reach from near Saint Hedwig, Tex., to Sutherland Springs, Tex. The San Antonio River between Floresville, Tex., and Falls City was the only reach that had an estimated streamflow loss during 2006-10. During all four synoptic streamflow measurement surveys, the only substantially flowing tributary reach to the main stem of the lower San Antonio River was Cibolo Creek. Along the main stem of the lower San Antonio River, verifiable gains larger than the potential measurement error were estimated in two of the four synoptic streamflow measurement surveys. These gaining reaches occurred in the two most downstream reaches of the San Antonio River between Goliad and Farm Road (FM) 2506 near Fannin, Tex., and between FM 2506 near Fannin to near McFaddin. There were verifiable gains in streamflow in Cibolo Creek, between La Vernia, Tex., and the town of Sutherland Springs during all four surveys, estimated at between 4.8 and 14 ft3/s.

  9. Population estimate and distribution of the Cheat Mountain Salamander (Plethodon nettingi) in the Southern portion of Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Cheat Mountain Salamander (Plethodon nettingi) is an endemic species native only to West Virginia. Besides being restricted to one state, Cheat Mountain...

  10. Estimation of late run sockeye and coho salmon escapement in the Clark River, a tributary to Chignik Lake, Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in the Chignik Lake system are an important species for commercial and subsistence harvest. In recent years, subsistence fishers in...

  11. Estimating gene gain and loss rates in the presence of error in genome assembly and annotation using CAFE 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mira V; Thomas, Gregg W C; Lugo-Martinez, Jose; Hahn, Matthew W

    2013-08-01

    Current sequencing methods produce large amounts of data, but genome assemblies constructed from these data are often fragmented and incomplete. Incomplete and error-filled assemblies result in many annotation errors, especially in the number of genes present in a genome. This means that methods attempting to estimate rates of gene duplication and loss often will be misled by such errors and that rates of gene family evolution will be consistently overestimated. Here, we present a method that takes these errors into account, allowing one to accurately infer rates of gene gain and loss among genomes even with low assembly and annotation quality. The method is implemented in the newest version of the software package CAFE, along with several other novel features. We demonstrate the accuracy of the method with extensive simulations and reanalyze several previously published data sets. Our results show that errors in genome annotation do lead to higher inferred rates of gene gain and loss but that CAFE 3 sufficiently accounts for these errors to provide accurate estimates of important evolutionary parameters.

  12. Estimation of Seismic Loss for a Portfolio of Buildings under Bidirectional Horizontal Ground Motions due to a Scenario Cascadia Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taojun Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake ground motions induced by a scenario event are spatially (partially correlated and (partially coherent. Simulated ground motion records can be used to carry out nonlinear inelastic time history analysis for a portfolio of buildings to estimate the seismic loss, which is advantageous as there is no need to develop and apply empirical ground motion prediction equations and the ductility demand rules, or to search the scenario-compatible recorded records at selected sites that may not exist. Further, if the structures being considered are sensitive to the orientation of the excitation, multiple-component ground motion records are needed. For the simulation of such ground motion records, previous studies have shown that correlation and coherency between any pair of ground motion components need to be incorporated. In this study, the seismic loss of a portfolio of hypothetical buildings in downtown Vancouver under bidirectional horizontal ground motions due to a scenario Cascadia event is estimated by using simulated bidirectional ground motion records that include realistic correlation and coherency characteristics. The hysteretic behaviors of the buildings are described by bidirectional Bouc–Wen model. The results show that the use of unidirectional ground motions and single-degree-of-freedom system structural model may underestimate the aggregated seismic loss.

  13. Influence of the type of fastening of multi-layered closing panels on the estimate of the sound transmission loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovadávia Aline de Jesus Ribas

    Full Text Available Abstract Industrialized closing systems appear as rational solutions in steel-structured construction. These closing systems, consisting of multi-layered panels, have been applied in projects where it is intended to obtain a high sound transmission loss without raising the cost and without using a lot of mass. However, acoustic isolation depends on several factors, including the type of connection between the panels, requiring a preliminary study of the acoustic performance of the closing system to prevent future interventions. This paper uses a simplified graphical method to evaluate the influence of the type of connection (line-line, line-punctual or punctual-punctual of industrialized closing panels on the estimation of the sound transmission loss that occurs across the wall constituted by these panels. The panels are combined, forming multi-layered closings interleaved by a layer of air, either without or with a sound-absorbing material between them. The results show that it is necessary to check the effectiveness of each type of fastening of the closing systems because, for example, for the frequency range between 500 and 2,000 Hz, the sound transmission loss of a closing system consisting of cementitious plate with glass wool and line-punctual and punctual-punctual connections exceeds in 6.25% the sound transmission loss of the same system with line-line fastening. For a system composed of expanded polystyrene with glass wool, the sound transmission loss provided by line-line fastening exceeds in 7.0% the sound transmission loss of the same closing system with line-punctual and punctual-punctual fastenings.

  14. Estimation of Arable Land Loss in Shandong Province, China based on BFAST Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid development of national economy and rise of industrialization, China has been one of the countries which has the fastest urbanization process. From 2001 to 2005, China lost over 2000 km2 fertile arable land every year because of urban expansion. Arable land area declining continuously poses a threat to China's food security. Land survey is the direct way to statistic the arable land status, which lasts long time and needs mounts of financial support. Remote sensing is a perfect way to survey land use and its dynamics at large scale. This paper aims to evaluate the detailed status of agricultural land loss of Shandong Province, China by using BFAST (Breaks for Additive Seasonal and Trend) model. First, the 30m spatial resolution global land cover products GlobeLand30 in 2000 and 2010 are used to locate pixels transforming from agricultural land to artificial cover during this period. Within a MODIS pixel (250m) area, if over half of GlobeLand30 pixels have changed from arable land to artificial cover, then the responding MODIS pixel is classified as changed area, whose phenology reflected by NDVI time series curve will also change. Then, BFAST is used to detect the break point which represents the time of change occurred using MODIS NDVI time series data. From 2002 to 2010, Shandong Province lost its 1063.03 km2 arable land in total. Arable land loss has a declining trend in each year and most loss occurred in 2002 and 2003. Spatially, cities which has higher level of economic development in central and eastern regions lost more arable land. Finally, compare this result with statistical data from China's national Bureau of Statistics, there is a strong positive relationship.

  15. Estimating the capacity for ART provision in Tanzania with the use of data on staff productivity and patient losses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hanson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: International targets for access to antiretroviral therapy (ART have over-estimated the capacity of health systems in low-income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The WHO target for number on treatment by end 2005 for Tanzania was 10 times higher than actually achieved. The target of the national Care and Treatment Plan (CTP was also not reached. We aimed at estimating the capacity for ART provision and created five scenarios for ART production given existing resource limitations. METHODS: A situation analysis including scrutiny of staff factors, such as available data on staff and patient factors including access to ART and patient losses, made us conclude that the lack of clinical staff is the main limiting factor for ART scale-up, assuming that sufficient drugs and supplies are provided by donors. We created a simple formula to estimate the number of patients on ART based on availability and productivity of clinical staff, time needed to initiate vs maintain a patient on ART and patient losses using five different scenarios with varying levels of these parameters. FINDINGS: Our scenario assuming medium productivity (40% higher than that observed in 2002 and medium loss of patients (20% in addition to 15% first-year mortality coincides with the actual reported number of patients initiated on ART up to 2008, but is considerably below the national CTP target of 90% coverage for 2009, corresponding to 420,000 on ART and 710,000 life-years saved (LY's. Our analysis suggests that a coverage of 40% or 175,000 on treatment and 350,000 LY's saved is more achievable. CONCLUSION: A comparison of our scenario estimations and actual output 2006-2008 indicates that a simple user-friendly dynamic model can estimate the capacity for ART scale-up in resource-poor settings based on identification of a limiting staff factor and information on availability of this staff and patient losses. Thus, it is possible to set more achievable targets.

  16. Multitemporal analysis of estimated soil loss for the river Mourão watershed, Paraná – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Graça

    Full Text Available The multitemporal behavior of soil loss by surface water erosion in the hydrographic basin of the river Mourão in the center-western region of the Paraná state, Brazil, is analyzed. Forecast was based on the application of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE with the data integration and estimates within an Geography Information System (GIS environment. Results had shown high mean annual rain erosivity (10,000 MJ.mm.ha–1.h–1.year–1, with great concentration in January and December. As a rule, soils have average erodibilities, exception of Dystroferric Red Latisol (low class and Dystrophic Red Argisol (high class. Although the topographic factor was high (>20, rates lower than 1 were predominant. Main land uses comprise temporal crops and pasture throughout the years. The watershed showed a natural potential for low surface erosion. When related to usage types, yearly soil loss was also low (<50 ton.ha–1.year–1, with more critical scores that reach rates higher than 150 ton.ha–1.year–1. Soil loss over the years did not provide great distinctions in distribution standards, although it becames rather intensified in some sectors, especially in the center-eastern and southwestern sections of the watershed.

  17. Demonstration of a problem in estimating sensible heat loss from the respiratory tract by thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, F G; Manson, H J; Snellen, J W; Chang, K S

    1984-07-01

    We have investigated sensible respiratory loss, which is usually taken as the product of expired volume and the temperature difference between inspired and expired air (VE X delta T). Air temperature was measured with a 0.122 mm copper-constantan thermocouple mounted in the mouthpiece of a T-piece breathing system, and expired volume with a pneumotachograph. Changing air temperature (delta T) at the mouth and expired air volume (VE) were recorded simultaneously while the subject voluntarily breathed at different tidal volumes and rates. Inspired temperatures were controlled at 12.05 degrees C, 21.80 degrees C and 25.74 degrees C at a low dewpoint temperature of 4-5 degrees C. Temperature volume "loops" were constructed using an x-y plotter. The areas of each "loop" and enclosing rectangle (VE X delta T) were measured. The difference was divided by the weight of the rectangle to give the percentage of overestimation of sensible heat loss, which ranged from 5.5 to 17.2 per cent. The error increased significantly with decreasing tidal volume and increasing respiratory rate.

  18. Variable selection for confounder control, flexible modeling and Collaborative Targeted Minimum Loss-based Estimation in causal inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Mireille E.; Lok, Judith J.; Gruber, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the appropriateness of the integration of flexible propensity score modeling (nonparametric or machine learning approaches) in semiparametric models for the estimation of a causal quantity, such as the mean outcome under treatment. We begin with an overview of some of the issues involved in knowledge-based and statistical variable selection in causal inference and the potential pitfalls of automated selection based on the fit of the propensity score. Using a simple example, we directly show the consequences of adjusting for pure causes of the exposure when using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Such variables are likely to be selected when using a naive approach to model selection for the propensity score. We describe how the method of Collaborative Targeted minimum loss-based estimation (C-TMLE; van der Laan and Gruber, 2010) capitalizes on the collaborative double robustness property of semiparametric efficient estimators to select covariates for the propensity score based on the error in the conditional outcome model. Finally, we compare several approaches to automated variable selection in low-and high-dimensional settings through a simulation study. From this simulation study, we conclude that using IPTW with flexible prediction for the propensity score can result in inferior estimation, while Targeted minimum loss-based estimation and C-TMLE may benefit from flexible prediction and remain robust to the presence of variables that are highly correlated with treatment. However, in our study, standard influence function-based methods for the variance underestimated the standard errors, resulting in poor coverage under certain data-generating scenarios. PMID:26226129

  19. Measuring the economic value of wildlife: a caution

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. H. Stevens

    1992-01-01

    Wildlife values appear to be very sensitive to whether species are evaluated separately or together, and value estimates often seem inconsistent with neoclassical economic theory. Wildlife value estimates must therefore be used with caution. Additional research about the nature of individual value structures for wildlife is needed.

  20. Improving volume loss estimates of the northwestern Greenland Ice Sheet 2002-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup

    during 2003-2009 using Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data (Zwally, 2011). Elevation changes are often reported to be largest near the frontal portion of outlet glaciers. However, due to relative large spacing between tracks, ICESat does not capture elevation change...... on all glaciers, which leads to an underestimation of the catchment-wide volume change. To improve the volume change estimate, we supplement ICESat data with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) during 2002-2010 (Krabill, 2011) and NASA’s Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS......Studies have been carried out using various methods to estimate the Greenland ice sheet mass balance. Remote sensing techniques used to determine the ice sheet volume includes airborne and satellite radar and laser methods and measurements of ice flow of outlet glaciers use InSAR satellite radar...

  1. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation and Enhancement Planning for Grand Coulee Dam, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creveling, Jennifer

    1986-08-01

    The development and operation of Grand Coulee Dam inundated approximately 70,000 acres of wildlife habitat under the jurisdictions of the Colville Confederated Tribes, the Spokane Tribe, and the State of Washington. Under the provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, this study reviews losses to wildlife and habitat, and proposes mitigation for those losses. Wildlife loss estimates were developed from information available in the literature. Habitat losses and potential habitat gains through mitigation were estimated by a modified Habitat Evaluation Procedure. The mitigation plan proposes (1) acquisition of sufficient land or management rights to land to protect Habitat Units equivalent to those lost (approximately 73,000 acres of land would be required), (2) improvement and management of those lands to obtain and perpetuate target Habitat Units, and (3) protection and enhancement of suitable habitat for bald eagles. Mitigation is presented as four actions to be implemented over a 10-year period. A monitoring program is proposed to monitor mitigation success in terms of Habitat Units and wildlife population trends.

  2. Estimating Snow Water Equivalent with Backscattering at X and Ku Band Based on Absorption Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurong Cui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Snow water equivalent (SWE is a key parameter in the Earth’s energy budget and water cycle. It has been demonstrated that SWE can be retrieved using active microwave remote sensing from space. This necessitates the development of forward models that are capable of simulating the interactions of microwaves and the snow medium. Several proposed models have described snow as a collection of sphere- or ellipsoid-shaped ice particles embedded in air, while the microstructure of snow is, in reality, more complex. Natural snow usually forms a sintered structure following mechanical and thermal metamorphism processes. In this research, the bi-continuous vector radiative transfer (bi-continuous-VRT model, which firstly constructs snow microstructure more similar to real snow and then simulates the snow backscattering signal, is used as the forward model for SWE estimation. Based on this forward model, a parameterization scheme of snow volume backscattering is proposed. A relationship between snow optical thickness and single scattering albedo at X and Ku bands is established by analyzing the database generated from the bi-continuous-VRT model. A cost function with constraints is used to solve effective albedo and optical thickness, while the absorption part of optical thickness is obtained from these two parameters. SWE is estimated after a correction for physical temperature. The estimated SWE is correlated with the measured SWE with an acceptable accuracy. Validation against two-year measurements, using the SnowScat instrument from the Nordic Snow Radar Experiment (NoSREx, shows that the estimated SWE using the presented algorithm has a root mean square error (RMSE of 16.59 mm for the winter of 2009–2010 and 19.70 mm for the winter of 2010–2011.

  3. The INCOTUR model : estimation of losses in the tourism sector in Alcudia due to a hydrocarbon spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Santos, A.; Serr, F. [Iles Balears Univ., Palma de Mallorca, Balearic Islands (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented a computer model that calculates the economic losses incurred by a hydrocarbon spill on a coastal area. In particular, it focused on the Balearic Islands in the Bay of Alcudia where the economy depends mainly on tourism. A large number of oil tankers carrying crude oil and petroleum products pass through the Balearic Sea. Any pollution resulting from a fuel spill can have a significant economic impact on both the tourism sector and the Balearic society in general. This study focused on the simulation of 18 spills of Jet A1 fuel oil, unleaded gasoline and Bunker C fuel oil. Simulations of the study area were produced with OILMAP, MIKE21, GNOME and ADIOS models which estimated the trajectories of various spills and the amount of oil washed ashore. The change in physical and chemical properties of the spilled hydrocarbons was also determined. The simulation models considered the trajectory followed by spills according to the type and amount of spill, weather conditions prevailing during the spill and the period immediately following the spill. The INCOTUR model was then used to calculate the economic losses resulting from an oil spill by considering the number of tonnes of oil washed ashore; number of days needed to organize cleanup; the percentage of tourism that will be maintained despite the effects of the spill; number of hotel beds; percentage of hotel occupancy by month; cost of package holidays; petty cash expenses; and, cost of advertising campaign for the affected area. With this data, the model can determine the number of days needed to clean and restore the coastline; monthly rate of recovery in tourism levels; and, losses in tourism sector. According to the INCOTUR model, the total losses incurred by a spill of 40,000 tonnes of Bunker C fuel, was estimated at 472 million Euros. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  4. Losses of soil carbon by converting tropical forest to plantations: erosion and decomposition estimated by δ(13) C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Damris, Muhammad; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-09-01

    Indonesia lost more tropical forest than all of Brazil in 2012, mainly driven by the rubber, oil palm, and timber industries. Nonetheless, the effects of converting forest to oil palm and rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks remain unclear. We analyzed SOC losses after lowland rainforest conversion to oil palm, intensive rubber, and extensive rubber plantations in Jambi Province on Sumatra Island. The focus was on two processes: (1) erosion and (2) decomposition of soil organic matter. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber plantations (41%). On average, converting forest to plantations led to a loss of 10 Mg C ha(-1) after about 15 years of conversion. The C content in the subsoil was similar under the forest and the plantations. We therefore assumed that a shift to higher δ(13) C values in plantation subsoil corresponds to the losses from the upper soil layer by erosion. Erosion was estimated by comparing the δ(13) C profiles in the soils under forest and under plantations. The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35 ± 8 cm) and rubber (33 ± 10 cm) plantations. The (13) C enrichment of SOC used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOC decomposition rate in the Ah horizon under oil palm plantations after forest conversion. Nonetheless, based on the lack of C input from litter, we expect further losses of SOC in oil palm plantations, which are a less sustainable land use compared to rubber plantations. We conclude that δ(13) C depth profiles may be a powerful tool to disentangle soil erosion and SOC mineralization after the conversion of natural ecosystems conversion to intensive plantations when soils show gradual increase of δ(13) C values with depth. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Indoor positioning in wireless local area networks with online path-loss parameter estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Luigi; Addesso, Paolo; Restaino, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    Location based services are gathering an even wider interest also in indoor environments and urban canyons, where satellite systems like GPS are no longer accurate. A much addressed solution for estimating the user position exploits the received signal strengths (RSS) in wireless local area networks (WLANs), which are very common nowadays. However, the performances of RSS based location systems are still unsatisfactory for many applications, due to the difficult modeling of the propagation channel, whose features are affected by severe changes. In this paper we propose a localization algorithm which takes into account the nonstationarity of the working conditions by estimating and tracking the key parameters of RSS propagation. It is based on a Sequential Monte Carlo realization of the optimal Bayesian estimation scheme, whose functioning is improved by exploiting the Rao-Blackwellization rationale. Two key statistical models for RSS characterization are deeply analyzed, by presenting effective implementations of the proposed scheme and by assessing the positioning accuracy by extensive computer experiments. Many different working conditions are analyzed by simulated data and corroborated through the validation in a real world scenario.

  6. Effect of weight loss on magnetic resonance imaging estimation of liver fat and volume in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Niraj S; Doycheva, Iliana; Peterson, Michael R; Hooker, Jonathan; Kisselva, Tatiana; Schnabl, Bernd; Seki, Ekihiro; Sirlin, Claude B; Loomba, Rohit

    2015-03-01

    Little is known about how weight loss affects magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of liver fat and volume or liver histology in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We measured changes in liver fat and liver volume associated with weight loss by using an advanced MRI method. We analyzed data collected from a previous randomized controlled trial in which 43 adult patients with biopsy-proven NASH underwent clinical evaluation, biochemical tests, and MRI and liver biopsy analyses at the start of the study and after 24 weeks. We compared data between patients who did and did not have at least 5% decrease in body mass index (BMI) during the study period. Ten of 43 patients had at least a 5% decrease in BMI during the study period. These patients had a significant decrease in liver fat, which was based on MRI proton density fat fraction estimates (18.3% ± 7.6% to 13.6% ± 13.6%, P = .03), a relative 25.5% reduction. They also had a significant decrease in liver volume (5.3%). However, no significant changes in levels of alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase were observed with weight loss. Thirty-three patients without at least 5% decrease in BMI had insignificant increases in estimated liver fat fraction and liver volume. A reduction in BMI of at least 5% is associated with significant decrease in liver fat and volume in patients with biopsy-proven NASH. These data should be considered in assessing effect size in studies of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or obesity that use MRI-estimated liver fat and volume as end points. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ESTIMATION OF ANNUAL AVERAGE SOIL LOSS, BASED ON RUSLE MODEL IN KALLAR WATERSHED, BHAVANI BASIN, TAMIL NADU, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdul Rahaman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a widespread environmental challenge faced in Kallar watershed nowadays. Erosion is defined as the movement of soil by water and wind, and it occurs in Kallar watershed under a wide range of land uses. Erosion by water can be dramatic during storm events, resulting in wash-outs and gullies. It can also be insidious, occurring as sheet and rill erosion during heavy rains. Most of the soil lost by water erosion is by the processes of sheet and rill erosion. Land degradation and subsequent soil erosion and sedimentation play a significant role in impairing water resources within sub watersheds, watersheds and basins. Using conventional methods to assess soil erosion risk is expensive and time consuming. A comprehensive methodology that integrates Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS, coupled with the use of an empirical model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation- RUSLE to assess risk, can identify and assess soil erosion potential and estimate the value of soil loss. GIS data layers including, rainfall erosivity (R, soil erodability (K, slope length and steepness (LS, cover management (C and conservation practice (P factors were computed to determine their effects on average annual soil loss in the study area. The final map of annual soil erosion shows a maximum soil loss of 398.58 t/ h-1/ y-1. Based on the result soil erosion was classified in to soil erosion severity map with five classes, very low, low, moderate, high and critical respectively. Further RUSLE factors has been broken into two categories, soil erosion susceptibility (A=RKLS, and soil erosion hazard (A=RKLSCP have been computed. It is understood that functions of C and P are factors that can be controlled and thus can greatly reduce soil loss through management and conservational measures.

  8. Estimation of Annual Average Soil Loss, Based on Rusle Model in Kallar Watershed, Bhavani Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, S. Abdul; Aruchamy, S.; Jegankumar, R.; Ajeez, S. Abdul

    2015-10-01

    Soil erosion is a widespread environmental challenge faced in Kallar watershed nowadays. Erosion is defined as the movement of soil by water and wind, and it occurs in Kallar watershed under a wide range of land uses. Erosion by water can be dramatic during storm events, resulting in wash-outs and gullies. It can also be insidious, occurring as sheet and rill erosion during heavy rains. Most of the soil lost by water erosion is by the processes of sheet and rill erosion. Land degradation and subsequent soil erosion and sedimentation play a significant role in impairing water resources within sub watersheds, watersheds and basins. Using conventional methods to assess soil erosion risk is expensive and time consuming. A comprehensive methodology that integrates Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), coupled with the use of an empirical model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation- RUSLE) to assess risk, can identify and assess soil erosion potential and estimate the value of soil loss. GIS data layers including, rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodability (K), slope length and steepness (LS), cover management (C) and conservation practice (P) factors were computed to determine their effects on average annual soil loss in the study area. The final map of annual soil erosion shows a maximum soil loss of 398.58 t/ h-1/ y-1. Based on the result soil erosion was classified in to soil erosion severity map with five classes, very low, low, moderate, high and critical respectively. Further RUSLE factors has been broken into two categories, soil erosion susceptibility (A=RKLS), and soil erosion hazard (A=RKLSCP) have been computed. It is understood that functions of C and P are factors that can be controlled and thus can greatly reduce soil loss through management and conservational measures.

  9. Pacific Remote Islands MNM: Initial Survey Instructions for Pelagic Wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The estimated millions of seabirds breeding at national wildlife refuges in the central Pacific Ocean are primarily pelagic feeders that obtain the fish and squid...

  10. Lungworm outbreaks in adult dairy cows: estimating economic losses and lessons to be learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauer, M; van Schaik, G; Saatkamp, H W; Ploeger, H W

    2011-11-05

    Two lungworm outbreaks in dairy herds were investigated in order to estimate the resulting economic costs. On the two farms, with 110 and 95 cows, total costs were estimated at €159 and €167 per cow, respectively. Overall, milk production reduced by 15 to 20 per cent during the outbreaks. Five cows died on one farm, while on the other farm seven cows died as a result of the lungworm outbreak. On one farm, 51.7 per cent of the total costs was due to reduced milk production and 33.1 per cent was due to disposal of dead animals. On the other farm, it was 36.3 and 50.9 per cent, respectively. The remaining 13 to 15 per cent of the total costs were due to extra inseminations, laboratory diagnosis and treatments. The history and development of the outbreaks are described. One lesson from these outbreaks is that recognising that potentially lungworm-naïve animals are to be introduced into the adult herd allows for timely measures (for example, vaccination) to prevent a lungworm outbreak.

  11. Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottum, Edward; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2001-03-01

    This report covers calendar year 2000 activities for the Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation project. This project, implemented by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Shoshone Bannock Tribes wildlife mitigation staff, is designed to protect, enhance and maintain wildlife habitats to mitigate construction losses for Palisades, Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon and Minidoka hydroelectric projects. Additional project information is available in the quarterly reports.

  12. Estimates of Glacier Mass Loss and Contribution to Streamflow in the Wind River Range in Wyoming: Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Jeffrey [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Piburn, Jesse [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tootle, Glenn [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Civil Construction and Environmental Engineering; Kerr, Greg [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Office of Water Programs; Oubeidillah, Abdoul [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering

    2014-09-11

    The Wind River Range is a continuous mountain range, approximately 160 km in length, in west-central Wyoming. The presence of glaciers results in meltwater contributions to streamflow during the late summer (July, August, and September: JAS) when snowmelt is decreasing; temperatures are high; precipitation is low; evaporation rates are high; and municipal, industrial, and irrigation water are at peak demands. Therefore, the quantification of glacier meltwater (e.g., volume and mass) contributions to late summer/early fall streamflow is important, given that this resource is dwindling owing to glacier recession. The current research expands upon previous research efforts and identifies two glaciated watersheds, one on the east slope (Bull Lake Creek) and one on the west slope (Green River) of the Wind River Range, in which unimpaired streamflow is available from 1966 to 2006. Glaciers were delineated within each watershed and area estimates (with error) were obtained for the years 1966, 1989, and 2006. Glacier volume (mass) loss (with error) was estimated by using empirically based volume-area scaling relationships. For 1966 to 2006, glacier mass contributions to JAS streamflow on the east slope were approximately 8%, whereas those on the west slope were approximately 2%. Furthermore, the volume-area scaling glacier mass estimates compared favorably with measured (stereo pair remote sensed data) estimates of glacier mass change for three glaciers (Teton, Middle Teton, and Teepe) in the nearby Teton Range and one glacier (Dinwoody) in the Wind River Range.

  13. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Phase I, Volume Two (A), Clark Fork Projects, Thompson Falls Dam, Operator, Montana Power Company.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn

    1984-03-27

    The Thompson Falls Dam inundated approximately 347 acres of wildlife habitat that likely included conifer forests, deciduous bottoms, mixed conifer-deciduous forests and grassland/hay meadows. Additionally, at least one island, and several gravel bars were inundated when the river was transformed into a reservoir. The loss of riparian and riverine habitat adversely affected the diverse wildlife community inhabiting the lower Clark Fork River area. Quantitative loss estimates were determined for selected target species based on best available information. The loss estimates were based on inundation of the habitat capable of supporting the target species. Whenever possible, loss estimates bounds were developed by determining ranges of impacts based on density estimates and/or acreage loss estimates. Of the twelve target species or species groups, nine were assessed as having net negative impacts. 86 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Agricultural intensification : saving space for wildlife?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudron, F.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: agricultural frontier; smallholder; intensification; semi-arid area; wildlife; conservation agriculture; cotton; Zimbabwe. Increasing agricultural production and preventing further losses in biodiversity are both legitimate objectives, but they compete strongly in the developing world.

  15. Rainwater Wildlife Area Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland cover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2}2 plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  16. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan : Executive Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.; Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation in Oregon.

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the project is to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources. The Northwest Power Act directs the NPPC to develop a program to ''protect, mitigate, and enhance'' fish and wildlife of the Columbia River and its tributaries. The overarching goals include: A Columbia River ecosystem that sustains an abundant, productive, and diverse community of fish and wildlife; Mitigation across the basin for the adverse effects to fish and wildlife caused by the development and operation of the hydrosystem; Sufficient populations of fish and wildlife for abundant opportunities for tribal trust and treaty right harvest and for non-tribal harvest; and Recovery of the fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of the hydrosystem that are listed under the Endangered Species Act.

  17. Schooling and wage income losses due to early-childhood growth faltering in developing countries: national, regional, and global estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Günther; Peet, Evan; Danaei, Goodarz; Andrews, Kathryn; McCoy, Dana Charles; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2016-07-01

    The growth of >300 million children human capital and financial losses due to growth faltering in early childhood are not available. We quantified the economic cost of growth faltering in developing countries. We combined the most recent country-level estimates of linear growth delays from the Nutrition Impact Model Study with estimates of returns to education in developing countries to estimate the impact of early-life growth faltering on educational attainment and future incomes. Primary outcomes were total years of educational attainment lost as well as the net present value of future wage earnings lost per child and birth cohort due to growth faltering in 137 developing countries. Bootstrapped standard errors were computed to account for uncertainty in modeling inputs. Our estimates suggest that early-life growth faltering in developing countries caused a total loss of 69.4 million y of educational attainment (95% CI: 41.7 million, 92.6 million y) per birth cohort. Educational attainment losses were largest in South Asia (27.6 million y; 95% CI: 20.0 million, 35.8 million y) as well as in Eastern (10.3 million y; 95% CI: 7.2 million, 12.9 million y) and Western sub-Saharan Africa (8.8 million y; 95% CI: 6.4 million, 11.5 million y). Globally, growth faltering in developing countries caused a total economic cost of $176.8 billion (95% CI: $100.9 billion, $262.6 billion)/birth cohort at nominal exchange rates, and $616.5 billion (95% CI: $365.3 billion, $898.9 billion) at purchasing power parity-adjusted exchange rates. At the regional level, economic costs were largest in South Asia ($46.6 billion; 95% CI: $33.3 billion, $61.1 billion), followed by Latin America ($44.7 billion; 95% CI: $19.2 billion, $74.6 billion) and sub-Saharan Africa ($34.2 billion; 95% CI: $24.4 billion, $45.3 billion). Our results indicate that the annual cost of early-childhood growth faltering is substantial. Further investment in scaling up effective interventions in this area is

  18. Wildlife Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.; Aldred, Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we consider how conservation has arisen as a key aspect of the reaction to human-initiated degradation and disappearance of ecosystems, wild lands. and wildlife. Concern over species extinction is given an historical perspective which shows the way in which pressure on wild and natural aspects of global ecology have changed in recent centuries. The role of conservation in the struggle to protect the environment is then analysed using underlying ethical arguments behind the econo...

  19. Axonal loss in patients with inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy as determined by motor unit number estimation and MUNIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramanathan, Sansuthan; Tankisi, Hatice; Andersen, Henning; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This study quantifies functioning axons and reinnervation by applying two methods multiple point stimulation (MPS) MUNE, and motor unit number index (MUNIX), in patients with acute- and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP, CIDP). Nineteen patients with inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (eleven AIDP and eight CIDP) were prospectively included. MPS MUNE and MUNIX examinations on the thenar muscle group by stimulating the median nerve were applied on all patients. Motor unit size was calculated as single motor unit potential (sMUP) and motor unit size index (MUSIX). The results were compared with twenty healthy subjects. In AIDP patients mean MPS MUNE (106) and MUNIX (80) were lower than control MPS MUNE (329) and MUNIX (215) (p<0.001). In CIDP patients both MPS MUNE (88) and MUNIX (67) were lower than controls (p<0.001). In CIDP patients sMUP (63) and MUSIX (90) were higher than control sMUP (35) and MUSIX (58) (p<0.05 and p<0.01). When AIDP and CIDP groups were combined the sensitivity for MPS MUNE and MUNIX were 89.5% and 68.4%, respectively. Decreased MPS MUNE and MUNIX suggest presence of axonal loss or loss of functioning axons in AIDP and CIDP. Increased motor unit size in CIDP patients indicates compensatory reinnervation. Moreover, both MPS MUNE and MUNIX can discriminate between disease versus non-disease. Estimation of the number and the average size of motor units may have clinical value for the assessment of axonal loss or loss of functioning axons in patients with AIDP and CIDP. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrating landslide and liquefaction hazard and loss estimates with existing USGS real-time earthquake information products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allstadt, Kate E.; Thompson, Eric M.; Hearne, Mike; Nowicki Jessee, M. Anna; Zhu, J.; Wald, David J.; Tanyas, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has made significant progress toward the rapid estimation of shaking and shakingrelated losses through their Did You Feel It? (DYFI), ShakeMap, ShakeCast, and PAGER products. However, quantitative estimates of the extent and severity of secondary hazards (e.g., landsliding, liquefaction) are not currently included in scenarios and real-time post-earthquake products despite their significant contributions to hazard and losses for many events worldwide. We are currently running parallel global statistical models for landslides and liquefaction developed with our collaborators in testing mode, but much work remains in order to operationalize these systems. We are expanding our efforts in this area by not only improving the existing statistical models, but also by (1) exploring more sophisticated, physics-based models where feasible; (2) incorporating uncertainties; and (3) identifying and undertaking research and product development to provide useful landslide and liquefaction estimates and their uncertainties. Although our existing models use standard predictor variables that are accessible globally or regionally, including peak ground motions, topographic slope, and distance to water bodies, we continue to explore readily available proxies for rock and soil strength as well as other susceptibility terms. This work is based on the foundation of an expanding, openly available, case-history database we are compiling along with historical ShakeMaps for each event. The expected outcome of our efforts is a robust set of real-time secondary hazards products that meet the needs of a wide variety of earthquake information users. We describe the available datasets and models, developments currently underway, and anticipated products. 

  1. Biomass burning losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia

    To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass burning events and post-burning decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional burning activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from annual region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero annual source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on annual rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher burning emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest burning events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total area of rainforest estimated annually to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.

  2. Risk-based damage potential and loss estimation of extreme flooding scenarios in the Austrian Federal Province of Tyrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huttenlau

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decades serious flooding events occurred in many parts of Europe and especially in 2005 the Austrian Federal Province of Tyrol was serious affected. These events in general and particularly the 2005 event have sensitised decision makers and the public. Beside discussions pertaining to protection goals and lessons learnt, the issue concerning potential consequences of extreme and severe flooding events has been raised. Additionally to the general interest of the public, decision makers of the insurance industry, public authorities, and responsible politicians are especially confronted with the question of possible consequences of extreme events. Answers thereof are necessary for the implementation of preventive appropriate risk management strategies. Thereby, property and liability losses reflect a large proportion of the direct tangible losses. These are of great interest for the insurance sector and can be understood as main indicators to interpret the severity of potential events. The natural scientific-technical risk analysis concept provides a predefined and structured framework to analyse the quantities of affected elements at risk, their corresponding damage potentials, and the potential losses. Generally, this risk concept framework follows the process steps hazard analysis, exposition analysis, and consequence analysis. Additionally to the conventional hazard analysis, the potential amount of endangered elements and their corresponding damage potentials were analysed and, thereupon, concrete losses were estimated. These took the specific vulnerability of the various individual elements at risk into consideration. The present flood risk analysis estimates firstly the general exposures of the risk indicators in the study area and secondly analyses the specific exposures and consequences of five extreme event scenarios. In order to precisely identify, localize, and characterize the relevant risk indicators of buildings

  3. Estimating insured residential losses from large flood scenarios on the Tone River, Japan – a data integration approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Okada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flooding on the Tone River, which drains the largest catchment area in Japan and is now home to 12 million people, poses significant risk to the Greater Tokyo Area. In April 2010, an expert panel in Japan, the Central Disaster Prevention Council, examined the potential for large-scale flooding and outlined possible mitigation measures in the Greater Tokyo Area. One of the scenarios considered closely mimics the pattern of flooding that occurred with the passage of Typhoon Kathleen in 1947 and would potentially flood some 680 000 households above floor level. Building upon that report, this study presents a Geographical Information System (GIS-based data integration approach to estimate the insurance losses for residential buildings and contents as just one component of the potential financial cost. Using a range of publicly available data – census information, location reference data, insurance market information and flood water elevation data – this analysis finds that insurance losses for residential property alone could reach approximately 1 trillion JPY (US$ 12.5 billion. Total insurance losses, including commercial and industrial lines of business, are likely to be at least double this figure with total economic costs being much greater again. The results are sensitive to the flood scenario assumed, position of levee failures, local flood depths and extents, population and building heights. The Average Recurrence Interval (ARI of the rainfall following Typhoon Kathleen has been estimated to be on the order of 200 yr; however, at this juncture it is not possible to put an ARI on the modelled loss since we cannot know the relative or joint probability of the different flooding scenarios. It is possible that more than one of these scenarios could occur simultaneously or that levee failure at one point might lower water levels downstream and avoid a failure at all other points. In addition to insurance applications, spatial analyses like

  4. Neospora caninum and Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almería, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Bovine neosporosis caused by Neospora caninum is among the main causes of abortion in cattle nowadays. At present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. Serological evidence in domestic, wild, and zoo animals indicates that many species have been exposed to this parasite. However, many aspects of the life cycle of N. caninum are unknown and the role of wildlife in the life cycle of N. caninum is still not completely elucidated. In North America, there are data consistent with a sylvatic cycle involving white tailed-deer and canids and in Australia a plausible sylvatic cycle could be occurring between wild dogs and their macropod preys. In Europe, a similar sylvatic cycle has not been established but is very likely. The present review is a comprehensive and up to date summary of the current knowledge on the sylvatic cycle of N. caninum, species affected and their geographical distribution. These findings could have important implications in both sylvatic and domestic cycles since infected wildlife may influence the prevalence of infection in cattle farms in the same areas. Wildlife will need to be taken into account in the control measures to reduce the economical losses associated with this important disease in cattle farms. PMID:27335866

  5. Flooded area characterization and losses estimation for water balance and hydrological functioning over the Niger inland delta, Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Ibrahim; Dominik, Wisser; Abdou, Ali; Ousmane, Seidou; Adama, Mariko; Abel, Afouda

    2015-04-01

    losses, due to the intense evapotranspiration, is approximately 30%. This basic analysis of in situ discharges validates this impact of the Niger Inland delta area on the discharge of the streamflow at the downstream compared to the upstream flow of the delta. For the hydrological water balance over the NID, in addition to the monthly actual evapotranspiration (AET) losses from the NID; we also estimate the approximate monthly infiltration losses, the contribution of volume of rainfall and abstracted water. The change of storage within the NID area is inferred from the hydrological balance.

  6. Nitrogen Cycle Modeling: a Mechanistic Estimate of N-losses From Agricultural Fields Over the Seasonal Time Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, F.; Gu, C.; Venterea, R.; Riley, W.; Oldenburg, C.

    2007-12-01

    rate and fertilizer amount and application depth. Under reference fertilization and irrigation practices, approximately 1.64% and 1.61% of the total applied N is lost as N-NO(g) and N-N2O(g), respectively, while losses of N-N2(g), N-NO2-, and N-NO3- where several orders of magnitude smaller. When plants grow, pulses in N losses became smoother due to nutrient and water uptake. Contrarily to predictions of non- mechanistic, coarse-scale models (e.g., CASA, CENTURY) N losses are predominantly non-linearly increasing with fertilizer and water application amount, and with fertilizer application depth, thus invoking a revision of long- term estimates of nitrogen and carbon balances at global scales

  7. Recurrent anterior shoulder instability: accuracy of estimations of glenoid bone loss with computed tomography is insufficient for therapeutic decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijsmans, Polydoor Emile [Haga Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Hague (Netherlands); Witte, Pieter Bas de [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Leiden (Netherlands); Villiers, Richard V.P. de; Kruger, Niel Ruben [Van Wageningen and Partners, Radiology Department, Somerset West (South Africa); Wolterbeek, Derk Willem; Warmerdam, Piet [Haga Hospital, Department of Radiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Beer, Joe F. de [Cape Shoulder Institute, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate the reliability of glenoid bone loss estimations based on either axial computed tomography (CT) series or single sagittal (''en face'' to glenoid) CT reconstructions, and to assess their accuracy by comparing with actual CT-based bone loss measurements, in patients with anterior glenohumeral instability. In two separate series of patients diagnosed with recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability, glenoid bone loss was estimated on axial CT series and on the most lateral sagittal (en face) glenoid view by two blinded radiologists. Additionally, in the second series of patients, glenoid defects were measured on sagittal CT reconstructions by an independent observer. In both series, larger defects were estimated when based on sagittal CT images compared to axial views. In the second series, mean measured bone loss was 11.5% (SD = 6.0) of the total original glenoid area, with estimations of 9.6% (SD = 7.2) and 7.8% (SD = 4.2) for sagittal and axial views, respectively. Correlations of defect estimations with actual measurements were fair to poor; glenoid defects tended to be underestimated, especially when based on axial views. CT-based estimations of glenoid bone defects are inaccurate. Especially for axial views, there is a high chance of glenoid defect underestimation. When using glenoid bone loss quantification in therapeutic decision-making, measuring the defect instead of estimating is strongly advised. (orig.)

  8. Recurrent anterior shoulder instability: accuracy of estimations of glenoid bone loss with computed tomography is insufficient for therapeutic decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijsmans, Polydoor Emile; de Witte, Pieter Bas; de Villiers, Richard V P; Wolterbeek, Derk Willem; Warmerdam, Piet; Kruger, Niel Ruben; de Beer, Joe F

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the reliability of glenoid bone loss estimations based on either axial computed tomography (CT) series or single sagittal ("en face" to glenoid) CT reconstructions, and to assess their accuracy by comparing with actual CT-based bone loss measurements, in patients with anterior glenohumeral instability. In two separate series of patients diagnosed with recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability, glenoid bone loss was estimated on axial CT series and on the most lateral sagittal (en face) glenoid view by two blinded radiologists. Additionally, in the second series of patients, glenoid defects were measured on sagittal CT reconstructions by an independent observer. In both series, larger defects were estimated when based on sagittal CT images compared to axial views. In the second series, mean measured bone loss was 11.5% (SD = 6.0) of the total original glenoid area, with estimations of 9.6% (SD = 7.2) and 7.8% (SD = 4.2) for sagittal and axial views, respectively. Correlations of defect estimations with actual measurements were fair to poor; glenoid defects tended to be underestimated, especially when based on axial views. CT-based estimations of glenoid bone defects are inaccurate. Especially for axial views, there is a high chance of glenoid defect underestimation. When using glenoid bone loss quantification in therapeutic decision-making, measuring the defect instead of estimating is strongly advised.

  9. Forest wildlife habitat statistics for Maine - 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brooks; Thomas S. Frieswyk; Arthur Ritter

    1986-01-01

    A statistical report on the first forest wildlife habitat survey of Maine (1982). Eighty-five tables show estimates of forest area and several attributes of forest land wildlife habitat. Data are presented at two levels: state and geographic sampling unit.

  10. Estimated Lifetime Medical and Work-Loss Costs of Emergency Department-Treated Nonfatal Injuries--United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Curtis; Haegerich, Tamara; Simon, Thomas; Zhou, Chao; Luo, Feijun

    2015-10-02

    A large number of nonfatal injuries are treated in U.S. emergency departments (EDs) every year. CDC's National Center for Health Statistics estimates that approximately 29% of all ED visits in 2010 were for injuries. To assess the economic impact of ED-treated injuries, CDC examined injury data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System--All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) for 2013, as well as injury-related lifetime medical and work-loss costs from the Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). NEISS-AIP collects data from a nationally representative sample of EDs, using specific guidelines for recording the primary diagnosis and mechanism of injury. Number of injuries, crude- and age-specific injury rates, and total lifetime work-loss costs and medical costs were calculated for ED-treated injuries, stratified by sex, age groups, and intent and mechanism of injury. ED-treated injuries were further classified as those that were subsequently hospitalized or treated and released. The rate of hospitalized injuries was 950.8 per 100,000, and the rate of treated and released injuries was 8,549.8 per 100,000. Combined medical and work-loss costs for all ED-treated injuries (both hospitalized and treated and released) were $456.9 billion, or approximately 68% of the total costs of $671 billion associated with all fatal and ED-treated injuries. The substantial economic burden associated with nonfatal injuries underscores the need for effective prevention strategies.

  11. 'Teenage Wildlife'

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Curatorial videotheque project for the exhibition 'Nothing in the World But Youth' at Turner Contemporary, Margate, 17 September 2011 – 8 January 2012\\ud Article included in exhibition catalogue for 'Nothing in the World But Youth' Turner Contemporary pp. 17-25 \\ud \\ud Accompanying catalogue Text:\\ud \\ud TEENAGE WILDLIFE\\ud “You're tearing me apart!...You say one thing, he says another, and everybody changes back again”. \\ud – James Dean as Jim Stark in Rebel Without a Cause (1955) directed b...

  12. Wildlife conservation on farmland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macdonald, David W; Feber, R. (Ruth)

    2015-01-01

    ...: Integrates more than 30 years of research by the Wildlife Conservation Research Unit at Oxford to reveal how agricultural systems and wildlife interact, presenting examples from scales varying...

  13. Minidoka Dam Wildlife Impact Assessment: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Robert C.; Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1989-03-01

    A wildlife impact assessment has been developed for the US Bureau of Reclamation's Minidoka Dam and Reservoir in south central Idaho. This assessment was conducted to fulfill requirements of the Fish and Wildlife Program. Specific objectives of this study included the following: select target wildlife species, and identify their current status and management goals; estimate the net effects on target wildlife species resulting from hydroelectric development and operation; recommend protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals for target wildlife species affected by hydroelectric development and operation; and consult and coordinate impact assessment activities with the Northwest Power Planning Council, Bonneville Power Administration, US Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee, and other entities expressing interest in the project. 62 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Comparison of 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography-Based Measurement of Glenoid Bone Loss With Arthroscopic Defect Size Estimation in Patients With Anterior Shoulder Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Neil K; Patel, Ishan; Jacobson, Jon A; Debski, Richard E; Sekiya, Jon K

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare four 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) methods of measuring glenoid bone loss with the arthroscopic estimation of glenoid bone loss. Twenty patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability underwent bilateral shoulder CT scans and were found to have glenoid bone loss. Arthroscopic estimation of glenoid bone loss was performed in all patients. Three-dimensional CT reconstruction was performed on the CT scans of each patient. The glenoid bone loss of each patient was measured using the surface area, Pico, ratio, and anteroposterior distance-from-bare area methods. The mean percent loss calculated with each method was compared with arthroscopy to determine the reliability of arthroscopy in the measurement of glenoid bone loss. The mean percent bone loss calculated with arthroscopic estimation, surface area, Pico, ratio, and anteroposterior distance-from-bare area methods was 18.13% ± 11.81%, 12.15% ± 8.50% (P = .005), 12.77% ± 8.17% (P = .002), 9.50% ± 8.74% (P shoulder instability. Level IV, case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Wildlife Inventory Plan : Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective at Shiawassee is to provide food and cover for migratory birds, with emphasis on waterfowl, during spring and fall migrations. A Wildlife...

  16. Wildlife Inventory Plan: Horicon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for Horicon NWR describes procedures for the following surveys: weekly aerial goose survey, migratory bird survey, breeding population...

  17. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for Ottawa NWR describes the inventory program’s relation to Refuge objectives and outlines the program’s policies and administration....

  18. Wildlife Inventory Plan : Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Muscatatuck NWR Wildlife Inventory Plan summarizes procedures for monitoring wood duck production, monitoring Canada goose and mallard production, and conducting...

  19. ESTIMATION OF DECREASING LOSSES OF ACTIVE POWER IN TRANSFORMERS IN SETTING BATTERY OF LOW-VOLTAGE CAPACITORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Radkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an estimation method of decreasing losses of active power in power transformers with voltage 10(6/0,4 kV after installation of devices of reactive power compensation on output side depending on voltage level, connected to capacity devices, taking into account dielectric loss in capacitors. Analysis of functional dependences was carried out. Investigation of function with a help of derivations was carried out. Points of function extremum and also its intervals of rise and fall rates were founded. This paper describes graphic investigation of obtained functional dependence, which is introduced by quartic polynominal. It is established that decreasing of losses of active power depends on technical parameters and load factor of transformer, coefficient of loading power of electricity consumers, voltage value connected to capacitor unit.Using obtained functional dependences, calculations for the main size-types of power transformers with voltage 10(6/0,4 kV serie ТМГ 11 and ТМГ12 were done. It is established that depending on technical characteristics of certain transformer, coefficient of its loading and power, there is a definite value of deviation of real voltage value from working voltage of capacitor installation when it will be observed positive technical and economical effect from installed capacitor battery unit. For taken value of loading coefficient and transformer’s power the maximum decrease of losses of active power takes place under voltage directed to capacitor unit, which is lower then nominal value. For all taken size-types of power transformers the argument of investigating function for its maximal value is out of standard permissible of voltage deviations from nominal value.These functional dependents can be used for preliminary calculations, which are needed for making decision on compensation of reactive power in electric power supply systems of industrial objects. Their consideration allows more

  20. Accounting for density reduction and structural loss in standing dead trees: Implications for forest biomass and carbon stock estimates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Grant M; Woodall, Christopher W; Smith, James E

    2011-11-24

    Standing dead trees are one component of forest ecosystem dead wood carbon (C) pools, whose national stock is estimated by the U.S. as required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Historically, standing dead tree C has been estimated as a function of live tree growing stock volume in the U.S.'s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Initiated in 1998, the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program (responsible for compiling the Nation's forest C estimates) began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees, which may now supplant previous purely model-based approaches to standing dead biomass and C stock estimation. A substantial hurdle to estimating standing dead tree biomass and C attributes is that traditional estimation procedures are based on merchantability paradigms that may not reflect density reductions or structural loss due to decomposition common in standing dead trees. The goal of this study was to incorporate standing dead tree adjustments into the current estimation procedures and assess how biomass and C stocks change at multiple spatial scales. Accounting for decay and structural loss in standing dead trees significantly decreased tree- and plot-level C stock estimates (and subsequent C stocks) by decay class and tree component. At a regional scale, incorporating adjustment factors decreased standing dead quaking aspen biomass estimates by almost 50 percent in the Lake States and Douglas-fir estimates by more than 36 percent in the Pacific Northwest. Substantial overestimates of standing dead tree biomass and C stocks occur when one does not account for density reductions or structural loss. Forest inventory estimation procedures that are descended from merchantability standards may need to be revised toward a more holistic approach to determining standing dead tree biomass and C attributes (i.e., attributes of tree biomass outside of sawlog portions). Incorporating density reductions and structural

  1. Preliminary Estimates of Loss of Juvenile Anadromous Salmonids to Predators in John Day Reservoir and Development of a Predation Model : Interim Report, 1986.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieman, Bruce E.

    1986-03-01

    We made preliminary estimates of the loss of juvenile salmonids to predation by walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum, and northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, in John Day Reservoir in 1984 and 1985 using estimates of predator abundance and daily prey consumption rates. Preliminary estimates may be biased and may be adjusted as much as 30%, but indications are that predation could account for the majority of unexplained loss of juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. Total loss was estimated at 4.1 million in 1984 and 3.3 million in 1985. Northern squawfish consumed 76% and 92% of these totals, respectively. The majority of loss occurred in mid reservoir areas, but loss in a small area, the boat-restricted zone immediately below McNary Dam, was disproportionately large. Peaks in loss in May and July corresponded with peaks in availability of salmonids. Estimated mortality from predation for April through June in 1984 and 1985 was 9% and 7% respectively, for chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and 10% and 15% for steelhead, Salmogairdneri. Mortality was variable with time but tended to increase over the period of migration. Mortality of chinook was estimated at 26% to 55% during July and August. A model of predation in John Day Reservoir is outlined. The model includes a predation submodel that can calculate loss from predator number and consumption rate; a population submodel that can relate predator abundance and population structure to recruitment, exploitation, natural mortality and growth; and a distribution submodel that can apportion predators among areas of the reservoir over time. Applications of the model are discussed for projecting expected changes in predation over time and identifying management alternatives that might limit the impact of predation.

  2. A Sample-Based Forest Monitoring Strategy Using Landsat, AVHRR and MODIS Data to Estimate Gross Forest Cover Loss in Malaysia between 1990 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Potapov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Insular Southeast Asia is a hotspot of humid tropical forest cover loss. A sample-based monitoring approach quantifying forest cover loss from Landsat imagery was implemented to estimate gross forest cover loss for two eras, 1990–2000 and 2000–2005. For each time interval, a probability sample of 18.5 km × 18.5 km blocks was selected, and pairs of Landsat images acquired per sample block were interpreted to quantify forest cover area and gross forest cover loss. Stratified random sampling was implemented for 2000–2005 with MODIS-derived forest cover loss used to define the strata. A probability proportional to x (πpx design was implemented for 1990–2000 with AVHRR-derived forest cover loss used as the x variable to increase the likelihood of including forest loss area in the sample. The estimated annual gross forest cover loss for Malaysia was 0.43 Mha/yr (SE = 0.04 during 1990–2000 and 0.64 Mha/yr (SE = 0.055 during 2000–2005. Our use of the πpx sampling design represents a first practical trial of this design for sampling satellite imagery. Although the design performed adequately in this study, a thorough comparative investigation of the πpx design relative to other sampling strategies is needed before general design recommendations can be put forth.

  3. 1994 waterfowl breeding pair survey Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The waterfowl breeding population estimate for the refuge (stratum 4) is 581,111. This estimate is down 27% from the ten year mean. Dabbler species estimates...

  4. Steady State Modelling of Three-core Wire Armoured Submarine Cables: Power losses and Ampacity Estimation based on FEM and IEC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baù, Matteo; Viafora, Nicola; Hansen, Chris Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    in a comparative study with the IEC 60287 Standard, developed in terms of power losses, loss factors and cable ampacity. Despite the model limitations, the estimated loss factors are mainly in compliance with the state of the art, verifying the widely recognized conservatism of the IEC standard. Simulation results...... confirm that the wire armour stranding is not accounted for, but also suggest that the ampacity underrating might be due to other inaccuracies in the IEC modelling indications. Overall, the difference in terms of current rating between the FEM and the IEC approach is found to be voltage dependent and more...

  5. Medical Devices; General Hospital and Personal Use Devices; Classification of the Image Processing Device for Estimation of External Blood Loss. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-20

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the image processing device for estimation of external blood loss into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the image processing device for estimation of external blood loss' classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.

  6. Wildlife health investigations: needs, challenges and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In a fast changing world with growing concerns about biodiversity loss and an increasing number of animal and human diseases emerging from wildlife, the need for effective wildlife health investigations including both surveillance and research is now widely recognized. However, procedures applicable to and knowledge acquired from studies related to domestic animal and human health can be on partly extrapolated to wildlife. This article identifies requirements and challenges inherent in wildlife health investigations, reviews important definitions and novel health investigation methods, and proposes tools and strategies for effective wildlife health surveillance programs. Impediments to wildlife health investigations are largely related to zoological, behavioral and ecological characteristics of wildlife populations and to limited access to investigation materials. These concerns should not be viewed as insurmountable but it is imperative that they are considered in study design, data analysis and result interpretation. It is particularly crucial to remember that health surveillance does not begin in the laboratory but in the fields. In this context, participatory approaches and mutual respect are essential. Furthermore, interdisciplinarity and open minds are necessary because a wide range of tools and knowledge from different fields need to be integrated in wildlife health surveillance and research. The identification of factors contributing to disease emergence requires the comparison of health and ecological data over time and among geographical regions. Finally, there is a need for the development and validation of diagnostic tests for wildlife species and for data on free-ranging population densities. Training of health professionals in wildlife diseases should also be improved. Overall, the article particularly emphasizes five needs of wildlife health investigations: communication and collaboration; use of synergies and triangulation approaches; investments

  7. Toward a modernized definition of wildlife health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Craig

    2014-07-01

    There has been, to date, little discussion about the defining features and measures of wildlife health in the literature or legislation. Much wildlife health work focuses on the detection and response to infectious or parasitic diseases; this perspective has been reinforced by the focus of the One Health initiative on wildlife as sources of emerging infections. The definition of health as "the absence of disease" lags 70 yr behind modern concepts of human health and emerging concepts of wildlife health in terms of vulnerability, resilience, and sustainability. Policies, programs, and research that focus on the integration of wildlife health with natural resource conservation, ecosystem restoration, and public health need a working definition of health that recognizes the major threats to fish and wildlife are the result of many other drivers besides pathogens and parasites, including habitat loss, globalization of trade, land-use pressure, and climate change. A modern definition of wildlife health should emphasize that 1) health is the result of interacting biologic, social, and environmental determinants that interact to affect capacity to cope with change; 2) health cannot be measured solely by what is absent but rather by characteristics of the animals and their ecosystem that affect their vulnerability and resilience; and 3) wildlife health is not a biologic state but rather a dynamic social construct based on human expectations and knowledge.

  8. Postglacial Rebound and Current Ice Loss Estimates from Space Geodesy: The New ICE-6G (VM5a) Global Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, W. R.; Argus, D.; Drummond, R.; Moore, A. W.

    2012-12-01

    We compare, on a global basis, estimates of site velocity against predictions of the newly constructed postglacial rebound model ICE-6G (VM5a). This model is fit to observations of North American postglacial rebound thereby demonstrating that the ice sheet at last glacial maximum must have been, relative to ICE-5G,thinner in southern Manitoba, thinner near Yellowknife (northwest Territories), thicker in eastern and southern Quebec, and thicker along the British Columbia-Alberta border. The GPS based estimates of site velocity that we employ are more accurate than were previously available because they are based on GPS estimates of position as a function of time determined by incorporating satellite phase center variations [Desai et al. 2011]. These GPS estimates are constraining postglacial rebound in North America and Europe more tightly than ever before. In particular, given the high density of GPS sites in North America, and the fact that the velocity of the mass center (CM) of Earth is also more tightly constrained, the new model much more strongly constrains both the lateral extent of the proglacial forebulge and the rate at which this peripheral bulge (that was emplaced peripheral to the late Pleistocence Laurentia ice sheet) is presently collapsing. This fact proves to be important to the more accurate inference of the current rate of ice loss from both Greenland and Alaska based upon the time dependent gravity observations being provided by the GRACE satellite system. In West Antarctica we have also been able to significantly revise the previously prevalent ICE-5G deglaciation history so as to enable its predictions to be optimally consistent with GPS site velocities determined by connecting campaign WAGN measurements to those provided by observations from the permanent ANET sites. Ellsworth Land (south of the Antarctic peninsula), is observed to be rising at 6 ±3 mm/yr according to our latest analyses; the Ellsworth mountains themselves are observed to be

  9. Wildlife inventory plan, Becharof National Wildlife Refuge, King Salmon, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This wildlife inventory plan for Becharof National Wildlife Refuge outlines the different projects and surveys that will help conserve fish and wildlife populations...

  10. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Wildlife Inventory Plan outlines the strategy, techniques and purpose of a wildlife inventory on the Refuge. Futhermore the...

  11. The Urban Wildlife Institute: Exploring Chicago's wildlife

    OpenAIRE

    Magle, Seth

    2016-01-01

    The Lincoln Park Zoo founded the Urban Wildlife Institute (UWI) in 2008, with the goal of conducting science to minimize conflict between humans and wildlife in cities around the world. UWI has since created a massive and unprecedented urban wildlife biodiversity monitoring network throughout the Chicagoland region. We will briefly summarize some of our findings on Chicago’s mammal, bat, arthropod, and bird populations, with special emphasis on our database of over 200,000 images of urban wil...

  12. Nevada Department of Wildlife Native Fish and Amphibians Field Trip Report: To estimate the population sizes of Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish and Ash Meadows speckled dace and also to monitor exotic species removal efforts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish population monitoring has been ongoing since the 1980s at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. This year we conducted surveys on the Ash Meadows Amargosa...

  13. Estimating and controlling chromatic aberration losses for two-junction, two-terminal devices in refractive concentrator systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); O`Neill, M.J. [ENTECH, Inc., Keller, TX (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Although previous studies have measured and calculated chromatic aberration losses and proposed methods for reducing these by modifying the optics, significant work remains to be done toward understanding how to quantity the losses and how various parameters affect this loss. This paper presents an analytical definition and calculation method for chromatic aberration losses. The effects of sheet resistance of the midlayers of the cell, total irradiance, incident spectrum, cell width, and diode quality factor are studied. A method for measuring the midlayer resistance in finished sells is described.

  14. Work productivity loss and indirect costs associated with new cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with hyperlipidemia: estimates from population-based register data in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banefelt, J; Hallberg, S; Fox, K M; Mesterton, J; Paoli, C J; Johansson, G; Levin, L-Å; Sobocki, P; Gandra, S R

    2016-12-01

    To estimate productivity loss and associated indirect costs in high-risk patients treated for hyperlipidemia who experience cardiovascular (CV) events. Retrospective population-based cohort study conducted using Swedish medical records linked to national registers. Patients were included based on prescriptions of lipid-lowering therapy between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011 and followed until 31 December 2012 for identification of CV events and estimation of work productivity loss (sick leave and disability pension) and indirect costs. Patients were stratified into two cohorts based on CV risk level: history of major cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equivalent. Propensity score matching was applied to compare patients with new events (cases) to patients without new events (controls). The incremental effect of CV events was estimated using a difference-in-differences design, comparing productivity loss among cases and controls during the year before and the year after the cases' event. The incremental effect on indirect costs was largest in the CHD risk equivalent cohort (n = 2946) at €3119 (P value indirect costs. Myocardial infarction (€3465), unstable angina (€2733) and, most notably, ischemic stroke (€6784) yielded substantial incremental cost estimates (P values Indirect costs related to work productivity losses of CV events are substantial in Swedish high-risk patients treated for hyperlipidemia and vary considerably by type of event.

  15. A Note on Bayesian Estimation of the Traffic Intensity in M/M/1 Queue and Queue Characteristics under Quadratic Loss Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanku Dey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bayes' estimators of the traffic intensity r and various queue characteristics in an M/M/1 queue have been derived under the assumptions of different priors for r and the quadratic error loss function (QELF. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the results

  16. Vital signs and estimated blood loss in patients with major trauma: testing the validity of the ATLS classification of hypovolaemic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guly, H R; Bouamra, O; Spiers, M; Dark, P; Coats, T; Lecky, F E

    2011-05-01

    The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) system classifies the severity of shock. The aim of this study is to test the validity of this classification. Admission physiology, injury and outcome variables from adult injured patients presenting to hospitals in England and Wales between 1989 and 2007 and stored on the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) database, were studied. For each patient, the blood loss was estimated and patients were divided into four groups based on the estimated blood loss corresponding to the ATLS classes of shock. The median and interquartile ranges (IQR) of the heart rate (HR) systolic blood pressure (SBP), respiratory rate (RR) and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) were calculated for each group. The median HR rose from 82 beats per minute (BPM) in estimated class 1 shock to 95 BPM in estimated class 4 shock. The median SBP fell from 135 mm Hg to 120 mm Hg. There was no significant change in RR or GCS. With increasing estimated blood loss there is a trend to increasing heart rate and a reduction in SBP but not to the degree suggested by the ATLS classification of shock. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimation of Soil loss by USLE Model using GIS and Remote Sensing techniques: A case study of Muhuri River Basin, Tripura, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a most severe environmental problem in humid sub-tropical hilly state Tripura. The present study is carried out on Muhuri river basin of Tripura state, North east India having an area of 614.54 Sq.km. In this paper, Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE model, with Geographic Information System (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS have been used to quantify the soil loss in the Muhuri river basin. Five essential parameters such as Runoff-rainfall erosivity factor (R, soil erodibility Factor (K, slope length and steepness (LS, cropping management factor (C, and support practice factor (P have been used to estimate soil loss amount in the study area. All of these layers have been prepared in GIS and RS platform (Mainly Arc GIS 10.1 using various data sources and data preparation methods. In these study DEM and LISS satellite data have been used. The daily rainfall data (2001-2010 of 6 rain gauge stations have been used to predict the R factor. Soil erodibility (K factor in Basin area ranged from 0.15 to 0.36. The spatial distribution map of soil loss of Muhuri river basin has been generated and classified into six categories according to intensity level of soil loss. The average annual predicted soil loss ranges between 0 to and 650 t/ha/y. Low soil loss areas (70 t/ha/y of soil erosion was found along the main course of Muhuri River.

  18. Dismal Swamp Wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Conceived and constructed by nature the Great Swamp is the most gigantic filtration plant ever built; and more. To protect the health of the wildlife, for which-...

  19. VT Wildlife Linkage Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Wildlife Linkage Habitat Analysis uses landscape scale data to identify or predict the location of potentially significant wildlife linkage...

  20. Wildlife inventory plan [1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1938, and presently contains 37,631 acres. The refuge marshes provide production, resting, and feeding habitat...

  1. Miscellaneous Wildlife Outputs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of species donated to ADF&G and the Alaska Zoo from Kenai National Wildlife Refuge. Animals include sockeye salmon eggs, rainbow trout eggs,...

  2. Accounting for density reduction and structural loss in standing dead trees: Implications for forest biomass and carbon stock estimates in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domke Grant M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standing dead trees are one component of forest ecosystem dead wood carbon (C pools, whose national stock is estimated by the U.S. as required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Historically, standing dead tree C has been estimated as a function of live tree growing stock volume in the U.S.'s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Initiated in 1998, the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program (responsible for compiling the Nation's forest C estimates began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees, which may now supplant previous purely model-based approaches to standing dead biomass and C stock estimation. A substantial hurdle to estimating standing dead tree biomass and C attributes is that traditional estimation procedures are based on merchantability paradigms that may not reflect density reductions or structural loss due to decomposition common in standing dead trees. The goal of this study was to incorporate standing dead tree adjustments into the current estimation procedures and assess how biomass and C stocks change at multiple spatial scales. Results Accounting for decay and structural loss in standing dead trees significantly decreased tree- and plot-level C stock estimates (and subsequent C stocks by decay class and tree component. At a regional scale, incorporating adjustment factors decreased standing dead quaking aspen biomass estimates by almost 50 percent in the Lake States and Douglas-fir estimates by more than 36 percent in the Pacific Northwest. Conclusions Substantial overestimates of standing dead tree biomass and C stocks occur when one does not account for density reductions or structural loss. Forest inventory estimation procedures that are descended from merchantability standards may need to be revised toward a more holistic approach to determining standing dead tree biomass and C attributes (i.e., attributes of tree biomass outside of sawlog

  3. Model for Estimating Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Associated With Occupational Noise Exposure in a Specified US Navy Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tufts, Jennifer; Weathersby, Paul K; Marshall, Lynne; Sachs, Felix

    2007-01-01

    This report details the initial steps in the development of a method for modeling the noise-induced hearing loss accrued by a population of Sailors exposed to high-level steady-state occupational noise...

  4. Quality criteria, expiration period and marketing loss estimations of pre-treated and cold stored mullet fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan, Ibrahim M.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of protein breakdown products and lipid autoxidation in farmed mullet fish as a function of a proposed treatments prior to chilling process at 3 °C ± 1 was carried out. Furthermore, sensory evaluation of three investigated treatments, whole mullet fish (RM-eviscerated and soaked in distilled water (WSRM-eviscerated and soaked in a solution containing 5% K-sorbate + 5% Na4P2O7 + 2% Na-citrate + 0.2% ascorbic acid (SSRM, were followed during chilling storage. Estimation of the predicted length of cold storage period as well as the marketing losses of the marketable mullet fish was also elucidated. The marketing losses of mullet fish at whole or retail market levels were also estimated by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N and trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N increased concomitantly during cold storage of differently treated mullet fish. Moreover, lipid oxidation and hydrolysis products were followed by determining peroxide value (PV, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and ratio of absorbance (A400/A450 as well as acid value (AV and free volatile fatty acids (FVFA. Mostly, these parameters show upward trend with different rates depending on the applied treatment. Soaking treatment greatly retarded fish spoilage during cold storage. As regards, SSRM samples withstand spoilage up to about 15 days compared to only 8 and 9 days for both RM and WSRM samples, respectively.

    El trabajo presenta los resultados de la evolución de productos de rotura de proteínas y de la autoxidación de lípidos del pescado mujol criado en cautividad en función de los tratamientos propuestos antes de su enfriamiento a 3 °C ± 1. Además se sigue la evolución organoléptica durante el almacenamiento en frío de tres tratamientos: pez entero sin vísceras (RM, sin vísceras sumergido en agua destilada (WSRM y sumergido en una solución conteniendo 5

  5. Theoretical investigation on the mass loss impact on asteroseismic grid-based estimates of mass, radius, and age for RGB stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, G.; Dell'Omodarme, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: We aim to perform a theoretical evaluation of the impact of the mass loss indetermination on asteroseismic grid based estimates of masses, radii, and ages of stars in the red giant branch (RGB) phase. Methods: We adopted the SCEPtER pipeline on a grid spanning the mass range [0.8; 1.8] M⊙. As observational constraints, we adopted the star effective temperatures, the metallicity [Fe/H], the average large frequency spacing Δν, and the frequency of maximum oscillation power νmax. The mass loss was modelled following a Reimers parametrization with the two different efficiencies η = 0.4 and η = 0.8. Results: In the RGB phase, the average random relative error (owing only to observational uncertainty) on mass and age estimates is about 8% and 30% respectively. The bias in mass and age estimates caused by the adoption of a wrong mass loss parameter in the recovery is minor for the vast majority of the RGB evolution. The biases get larger only after the RGB bump. In the last 2.5% of the RGB lifetime the error on the mass determination reaches 6.5% becoming larger than the random error component in this evolutionary phase. The error on the age estimate amounts to 9%, that is, equal to the random error uncertainty. These results are independent of the stellar metallicity [Fe/H] in the explored range. Conclusions: Asteroseismic-based estimates of stellar mass, radius, and age in the RGB phase can be considered mass loss independent within the range (η ∈ [0.0,0.8]) as long as the target is in an evolutionary phase preceding the RGB bump.

  6. Incorporating loss to follow-up in estimates of survival among HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa enrolled in antiretroviral therapy programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Lim, Stephen S; Murray, Christopher J L; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Salomon, Joshua A

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the survival of human immunodeficiency virus-infected adult patients enrolled in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs is complicated by short observation periods and loss to follow-up. We synthesized data from treatment cohorts in sub-Saharan Africa to estimate survival over 5 years after initiation of ART. We used data on retention, mortality, and loss to follow-up from 34 cohorts, including a total of 102,306 adult patients from 18 sub-Saharan African countries. These data were augmented by data from 13 sub-Saharan African studies tracking death rates among adult patients who were lost to follow-up (LTFU). We used a Poisson regression model to estimate survival over time, incorporating predicted mortality among LTFU patients. Across studies, the median CD4(+) cell count at ART initiation was 104 cells/mm(3), 65% of patients were female, and the median age was 37 years. Survival at 1 year and 5 years were estimated to be 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-0.94) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.36-0.86), respectively, after adjustment for loss to follow-up. The life-years gained by a patient during the 5-year period after starting ART were estimated at 2.1 (95% CI, 1.6-2.3) in the adjusted model, compared with 1.7 (95% CI, 1.1-2.0) if there was 100% mortality among LTFU patients and with 2.4 (1.7-2.7) if there was 0% mortality among LTFU patients. Accounting for loss to follow-up produces substantial changes in the estimated life-years gained during the first 5 years of ART receipt.

  7. Proposal : coyote abundance, food habits, and reproduction at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal to research coyote reproduction and diet at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge in 2005. This study will estimate the abundance of coyotes...

  8. Two Ponds Canal realignments : National Wildlife Refuge Stormwater Routing; DAC Job No. 0130.003.00

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum conveying estimations concerning improving drainage to the Two Ponds National Wildlife Refuge Property from Deere & Ault Consultants, Inc. This memo...

  9. Oregon Trust Agreement Planning Project : Potential Mitigations to the Impacts on Oregon Wildlife Resources Associated with Relevant Mainstem Columbia River and Willamette River Hydroelectric Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-10-01

    A coalition of the Oregon wildlife agencies and tribes (the Oregon Wildlife Mitigation Coalition) have forged a cooperative effort to promote wildlife mitigation from losses to Oregon wildlife resources associated with the four mainstream Columbia River and the eight Willamette River Basin hydroelectric projects. This coalition formed a Joint Advisory Committee, made up of technical representatives from all of the tribes and agencies, to develop this report. The goal was to create a list of potential mitigation opportunities by priority, and to attempt to determine the costs of mitigating the wildlife losses. The information and analysis was completed for all projects in Oregon, but was gathered separately for the Lower Columbia and Willamette Basin projects. The coalition developed a procedure to gather information on potential mitigation projects and opportunities. All tribes, agencies and interested parties were contacted in an attempt to evaluate all proposed or potential mitigation. A database was developed and minimum criteria were established for opportunities to be considered. These criteria included the location of the mitigation site within a defined area, as well as other criteria established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Costs were established for general habitats within the mitigation area, based on estimates from certified appraisers. An analysis of the cost effectiveness of various types of mitigation projects was completed. Estimates of operation and maintenance costs were also developed. The report outlines strategies for gathering mitigation potentials, evaluating them, determining their costs, and attempting to move towards their implementation.

  10. Is it reasonable to use 1 and 8 kHz anchor points in the medico-legal diagnosis and estimation of noise-induced hearing loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S; Morgan, M; Ali, U I

    2015-06-01

    In the United Kingdom, use of 1 and 8 kHz as anchor point frequencies has been recommended for the medico-legal diagnosis and estimation of noise-induced hearing loss. There appear to be four assumptions behind the use of 1 and 8 kHz anchor point approach: (i) The frequencies of 1 and 8 kHz are not damaged by noise; therefore, the measured hearing thresholds at the said frequencies solely reflect age-related hearing loss, even in the noise-exposed; (ii) The hearing thresholds at 1 and 8 kHz are a valid predictor of the likely age-related hearing loss thresholds at the other frequencies; (iii) Age and noise damage are always completely additive; (iv) Individual's susceptibility to age and noise damage is not proportionate. Doubts have been expressed in the medical circles about the legitimacy and validity of their use as anchor points. Is it reasonable to use 1 and 8 kHz anchor points in the medico-legal diagnosis and estimation of noise-induced hearing loss? Medico-legal. Literature search; Medline, Embase, Internet, and medico-legal records. Equating and comparing the assumptions in the anchor point approach with the information in medical literature. Based upon the information in medical literature, technical reports, and professional statements, the assumptions behind the use of anchor point approach cannot be reliably substantiated. 'Carte Blanche' use of 1 and 8 kHz anchor points is probably unreasonable and may well be unsafe in the medico-legal diagnosis and estimation of noise-induced hearing loss. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of significant data loss on identifying electric signals that precede rupture estimated by detrended fluctuation analysis in natural time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skordas, E S; Sarlis, N V; Varotsos, P A

    2010-09-01

    Electric field variations that appear before rupture have been recently studied by employing the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to quantify their long-range temporal correlations. These studies revealed that seismic electric signal (SES) activities exhibit a scale invariant feature with an exponent αDFA≈1 over all scales investigated (around five orders of magnitude). Here, we study what happens upon significant data loss, which is a question of primary practical importance, and show that the DFA applied to the natural time representation of the remaining data still reveals for SES activities an exponent close to 1.0, which markedly exceeds the exponent found in artificial (man-made) noises. This enables the identification of a SES activity with probability of 75% even after a significant (70%) data loss. The probability increases to 90% or larger for 50% data loss.

  12. Discriminant models to estimate the body weight loss after a six-month long diet and exercise-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J; Peinado, Ana B; Zapico, Augusto G; Calderón, Franciso J

    2016-01-01

    The main concern of the people who follow a weight loss program is the body weight loss, independently of the body composition. The aim of this study was to create a mathematical model able to discriminate the body weight change based on initial body composition variables. The study included 239 overweight and obese participants (18-50 years; Body Mass Index (BMI)>25 and weight loss, during twenty-four weeks while having 25-30% caloric restriction. Two multivariate discriminant models were performed taking into account the groups below and above the mean body weight change. The discriminant models obtained could discriminate the body weight change with a 65-70% of correct classification. BW, fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM) were shown to be the most discriminant variables for the discriminant models. People having higher FM and FFM at the beginning of an intervention will lose a greater amount of weight until the end of it.

  13. Cost of unreliability method to estimate loss of revenue based on unreliability data: Case study of Printing Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    alhilman, Judi

    2017-12-01

    In the production line process of the printing office, the reliability of the printing machine plays a very important role, if the machine fail it can disrupt production target so that the company will suffer huge financial loss. One method to calculate the financial loss cause by machine failure is use the Cost of Unreliability(COUR) method. COUR method works based on down time machine and costs associated with unreliability data. Based on the calculation of COUR method, so the sum of cost due to unreliability printing machine during active repair time and downtime is 1003,747.00.

  14. Body composition during weight loss in obese patients estimated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and by total body potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Andersen, T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the ability of DXA to measure total body composition before and after weight loss and the composition of the lost body mass. DESIGN: Cross sectional and follow-up study of body composition before and after a weight loss of 10.6 +/- 6.8 kg. SUBJECTS: 31 obese subjects...... that estimated by TBK (7.6% FFM and 92.4% FM by TBK; 11% FFM and 89% FM by DXA). CONCLUSION: DXA estimates accurately the body composition and the composition of weight loss in groups of obese subjects. However, the scan table may be too small for patients weighing more than 95 kg....... with a mean body weight of 105.2 +/- 15.2 kg at baseline, and a mean body weight of 94.6 +/- 16.5 kg at follow-up. MEASUREMENTS: Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry, total body potassium counting, and high precision scales before and after a weight loss. RESULTS: DXA and the scales...

  15. Tolerable hearing aid delays. I. Estimation of limits imposed by the auditory path alone using simulated hearing losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M A; Moore, B C

    1999-06-01

    When people who wear hearing aids speak, there are three paths by which they hear their own voices: 1) through the air and leakage around the earmold; 2) via the solid structures of their head; 3) through the air to the hearing aid microphone, and then through the aid circuitry. These paths involve different time delays. Digital processing introduces delays in path 3 from a few to several tens of milliseconds, which could lead to a range of disturbing effects. We examined one purely auditory effect, namely hearing speech through all three of these paths. Subjective disturbance was measured as a function of delay in path 3 using simulations of hearing loss and a simulated hearing aid. With increasing hearing loss, the loudness of sound heard via paths 1 and 2 decreases, and the aid user relies more on path 3. The disturbance produced by the delay then might be less perceptible. To test this idea, four different hearing losses were simulated, varying from mild to moderately severe. Each of two talkers was fitted with a closed earmold, and simultaneous above-ear and in-ear recordings were made of each talker reading prose. The above-ear signal was amplified using a simulated hearing aid with 4-channel full dynamic range compression; compression ratios and gains were selected using an algorithm based on the absolute thresholds used in the simulations of hearing loss. The resultant output was then mixed with the in-ear signal with one of five values of delay, and the combined signal was processed using the four simulations of hearing loss. The resulting stimuli simulated for normal-hearing listeners the experience of having a hearing impairment and listening through a hearing aid while talking, except that the talker's voice was not that of the listener. Twenty normally hearing subjects gave subjective ratings of the disturbance of the echo for each delay and each simulated hearing loss. Disturbance ratings generally increased monotonically with increasing delay

  16. A comparative study on methods for loss of life estimation : Applications to case studies in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Maaskant, B.; Kolen, B.; Zethof, M.; Lehman, W.P.; Needham, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, USA and other countries methods for the analysis of loss of life and evacuation associated with flooding are used in flood risk management. This paper compares the methods from the US and Netherlands in this field and considers both methodological principles as well as the

  17. Hydrological Components of a Young Loblolly Pine Plantation on a Sandy Soil with Estimates of Water Use and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah A. Abrahamson; Phillip M. Dougherty; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    1998-01-01

    Fertilizer and irrigation treatments were applied in a 7- to l0-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation on a sandy soil near Laurinburg, North Carolina. Rainfall, throughfall, stemflow, and soil water content were measured throughout the study period. Monthly interception losses ranged from 4 to 15% of rainfall. Stemflow ranged from 0.2...

  18. Multi-scale debris flow vulnerability assessment and direct loss estimation of buildings in the Eastern Italian Alps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciurean, R.L.; Hussin, H.Y.; van Westen, C.J.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Nicolet, P.; Chen, L.; Frigerio, S.; Glade, T.

    2017-01-01

    Vulnerability assessment, as a component of the consequence analysis, represents a fundamental stage in the risk assessment process because it relates the hazard intensity to the characteristics of the built environment that make it susceptible to damage and loss. The objective of this work is to

  19. Initial non-participation and loss to follow-up in a Danish youth cohort: implications for relative risk estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, T. N.; Andersen, JH; Labriola, M.

    2013-01-01

    better school abilities and came more often from homes with two adults, higher income or higher educational level. These differences increased at subsequent follow-ups. The effect of initial non-participation on the ORs was modest with most RORs being close to one. Loss to follow-up led to larger...

  20. Simultaneous event-specific estimates of transport, loss, and source rates for relativistic outer radiation belt electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Q.; Tu, W.; Ali, A. F.; Li, X.; Godinez, H. C.; Turner, D. L.; Morley, S. K.; Henderson, M. G.

    2017-03-01

    The most significant unknown regarding relativistic electrons in Earth's outer Van Allen radiation belt is the relative contribution of loss, transport, and acceleration processes within the inner magnetosphere. Detangling each individual process is critical to improve the understanding of radiation belt dynamics, but determining a single component is challenging due to sparse measurements in diverse spatial and temporal regimes. However, there are currently an unprecedented number of spacecraft taking measurements that sample different regions of the inner magnetosphere. With the increasing number of varied observational platforms, system dynamics can begin to be unraveled. In this work, we employ in situ measurements during the 13-14 January 2013 enhancement event to isolate transport, loss, and source dynamics in a one-dimensional radial diffusion model. We then validate the results by comparing them to Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations, indicating that the three terms have been accurately and individually quantified for the event. Finally, a direct comparison is performed between the model containing event-specific terms and various models containing terms parameterized by geomagnetic index. Models using a simple 3/Kp loss time scale show deviation from the event-specific model of nearly 2 orders of magnitude within 72 h of the enhancement event. However, models using alternative loss time scales closely resemble the event-specific model.

  1. Inferring Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) from observed building damage and EO-derived exposure development to develop rapid loss estimates following the April 2015 Nepal earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyck, C. K.

    2016-12-01

    The April 25th 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal occurred in an area with very few seismic stations. Ground motions were estimated primarily by Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) over a very large region, with a very high degree of uncertainty. Accordingly, initial fatality estimates and their distribution was highly uncertain, with a 65% chance of fatalities ranging from 1,000 to 100,000. With an aim to developing estimates of: 1) the number of buildings damaged by category (slight, moderate, extensive, complete), 2) fatalities and their distribution, and 3) rebuilding costs, researchers at ImageCat have developed a preliminary inferred Peak Ground Acceleration product in %g (PGA). The inferred PGA is determined by using observations of building collapse from the National Geospatial Agency and building exposure estimates derived from EO data to determine the percentage of buildings collapsed in key locations. The percentage of building collapse is adjusted for accuracy and cross referenced with composite building damage functions for 4 development patterns in Nepal: 1) sparsely populated, 2) rural, 3) dense development, and 4) urban development to yield an inferred PGA. Composite damage functions are derived from USGS Pager collapse fragility functions (Jaiswal et al., 2011) and are weighted by building type frequencies developed by ImageCat. The PGA is interpolated to yield a surface. An initial estimate of the fatalities based on ATC 13 (Rojan and Sharpe, 1985) using these PGA yields an estimate of: Extensively damaged or destroyed buildings: 225,000 to 450,000 Fatalities: 8,700 to 22,000, with a mean estimate of 15,700. The total number of displaced persons is estimated between 1 and 2 million. Rebuilding costs for building damage only are estimated to be between 2 and 3 billion USD. The inferred PGA product is recommended for use solely in loss estimation processes.

  2. Forecasting wildlife response to rapid warming in the Alaskan Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Flint, Paul L.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Koch, Joshua C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Oakley, Karen L.; Pearce, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Arctic wildlife species face a dynamic and increasingly novel environment because of climate warming and the associated increase in human activity. Both marine and terrestrial environments are undergoing rapid environmental shifts, including loss of sea ice, permafrost degradation, and altered biogeochemical fluxes. Forecasting wildlife responses to climate change can facilitate proactive decisions that balance stewardship with resource development. In this article, we discuss the primary and secondary responses to physical climate-related drivers in the Arctic, associated wildlife responses, and additional sources of complexity in forecasting wildlife population outcomes. Although the effects of warming on wildlife populations are becoming increasingly well documented in the scientific literature, clear mechanistic links are often difficult to establish. An integrated science approach and robust modeling tools are necessary to make predictions and determine resiliency to change. We provide a conceptual framework and introduce examples relevant for developing wildlife forecasts useful to management decisions.

  3. 40 CFR 230.32 - Other wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cover, travel corridors, and preferred food sources for resident and transient wildlife species... favor the introduction of undesirable plant and animal species at the expense of resident species and... are resident and transient mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. (b) Possible loss of values: The...

  4. A Technique to Estimate the Equivalent Loss Resistance of Grid-Tied Converters for Current Control Analysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.; Fernandez, Francisco Daniel Freijedo

    2015-01-01

    Rigorous analysis and design of the current control loop in voltage source converters (VSCs) requires an accurate modeling. The loop behavior can be significantly influenced by the VSC working conditions. To consider such effect, converter losses should be included in the model, which can be done...... data. The developed identification procedure is tested in the laboratory at different specifications of power level and switching frequency....

  5. U.S. Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, 2011 report of selected wildlife diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David E.; Hines, Megan K.; Russell, Robin E.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) was founded in 1975 to provide technical assistance in identifying, controlling, and preventing wildlife losses from diseases, conduct research to understand the impact of diseases on wildlife populations, and devise methods to more effectively manage these disease threats. The impetus behind the creation of the NWHC was, in part, the catastrophic loss of tens of thousands of waterfowl as a result of an outbreak of duck plague at the Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge in South Dakota during January 1973. In 1996, the NWHC, along with other Department of Interior research functions, was transferred from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), where we remain one of many entities that provide the independent science that forms the bases of the sound management of the Nation’s natural resources. Our mission is to provide national leadership to safeguard wildlife and ecosystem health through dynamic partnerships and exceptional science. The main campus of the NWHC is located in Madison, Wis., where we maintain biological safety level 3 (BSL–3) diagnostic and research facilities purposefully designed for work with wildlife species. The NWHC provides research and technical assistance on wildlife health issues to State, Federal, and international agencies. In addition, since 1992 we have maintained a field station in Hawaii, the Honolulu Field Station, which focuses on marine and terrestrial natural resources throughout the Pacific region. The NWHC conducts diagnostic investigations of unusual wildlife morbidity and mortality events nationwide to detect the presence of wildlife pathogens and determine the cause of death. This is also an important activity for detecting new, emerging and resurging diseases. The NWHC provides this crucial information on the presence of wildlife diseases to wildlife managers to support sound management decisions. The data and information generated also allows

  6. Wildlife Inventory Plan : Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan describes wildlife inventory in Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge in 1983. This plan helps achieve refuge objectives by detailing the plan, purpose, and...

  7. Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge Including Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge (Stillwater NWR) and Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (Stillwater WMA) are located in western Nevada within Churchill...

  8. Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge Including Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) and Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (SWMA) are located in western Nevada within Churchill County, approximately 70...

  9. Reelfoot and Lake Isom National Wildlife Refuges : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This wildlife inventory plan for Reelfoot and Lake Isom National Wildlife Refuges includes survey procedure forms that represent cost effective inventory of the...

  10. Rapid exposure and loss estimates for the May 12, 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake provided by the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, P.S.; Wald, D.J.; Allen, T.I.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Porter, K.A.; Hearne, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    One half-hour after the May 12th Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China earthquake, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system distributed an automatically generated alert stating that 1.2 million people were exposed to severe-to-extreme shaking (Modified Mercalli Intensity VIII or greater). It was immediately clear that a large-scale disaster had occurred. These alerts were widely distributed and referenced by the major media outlets and used by governments, scientific, and relief agencies to guide their responses. The PAGER alerts and Web pages included predictive ShakeMaps showing estimates of ground shaking, maps of population density, and a list of estimated intensities at impacted cities. Manual, revised alerts were issued in the following hours that included the dimensions of the fault rupture. Within a half-day, PAGER’s estimates of the population exposed to strong shaking levels stabilized at 5.2 million people. A coordinated research effort is underway to extend PAGER’s capability to include estimates of the number of casualties. We are pursuing loss models that will allow PAGER the flexibility to use detailed inventory and engineering results in regions where these data are available while also calculating loss estimates in regions where little is known about the type and strength of the built infrastructure. Prototype PAGER fatality estimates are currently implemented and can be manually triggered. In the hours following the Wenchuan earthquake, these models predicted fatalities in the tens of thousands.

  11. Brucellosis in terrestrial wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, J; Garin-Bastuji, B; Saegerman, C; Blasco, J M

    2013-04-01

    The epidemiological link between brucellosis in wildlife and brucellosis in livestock and people is widely recognised. When studying brucellosis in wildlife, three questions arise: (i) Is this the result of a spillover from livestock or a sustainable infection in one or more host species of wildlife? (ii) Does wildlife brucellosis represent a reservoir of Brucella strains for livestock? (iii) Is it of zoonotic concern? Despite their different host preferences, B. abortus and B. suis have been isolated from a variety of wildlife species, whereas B. melitensis is rarely reported in wildlife. The pathogenesis of Brucella spp. in wildlife reservoirs is not yet fully defined. The prevalence of brucellosis in some wildlife species is very low and thus the behaviour of individual animals, and interactions between wildlife and livestock, may be the most important drivers for transmission. Since signs of the disease are non-pathognomonic, definitive diagnosis depends on laboratory testing, including indirect tests that can be applied to blood or milk, as well as direct tests (classical bacteriology and methods based on the polymerase chain reaction [PCR]). However, serological tests cannot determine which Brucella species has induced anti-Brucella antibodies in the host. Only the isolation of Brucella spp. (or specific DNA detection by PCR) allows a definitive diagnosis, using classical or molecular techniques to identify and type specific strains. There is as yet no brucellosis vaccine that demonstrates satisfactory safety and efficacy in wildlife. Therefore, controlling brucellosis in wildlife should be based on good management practices. At present, transmission of Brucella spp. from wildlife to humans seems to be linked to the butchering of meat and dressing of infected wild or feral pig carcasses in thedeveloped world, and infected African buffalo in the developing world. In the Arctic, the traditional consumption of raw bone marrow and the internal organs of freshly

  12. A critical review of the effects of gold cyanide-bearing tailings solutions on wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, D B; Nichols, O; Possingham, H; Moore, M; Ricci, P F; Noller, B N

    2007-10-01

    Wildlife deaths associated with cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions have plagued the gold mining industries for many years, yet there is little published data showing the relationship between wildlife mortality and cyanide toxicity. A gap of knowledge exists in monitoring, understanding the causal relationships and managing risks to wildlife from cyanide-bearing waste solutions and tailings. There is a need for the gold industry to address this issue and to meet the International Cyanide Management Code (ICMC) guidelines. The perceived extent of the issue varies, with one study finding the issue inadequately monitored and wildlife deaths grossly underestimated. In Nevada, USA during 1990 and 1991, 9512 carcasses were reported of over 100 species, although there was underestimation due to reporting being voluntary. Of these, birds comprised 80-91% of vertebrate carcasses reported annually. At Northparkes, Australia in 1995, it was initially estimated that 100 bird carcasses were present by mine staff following a tailings incident; when a thorough count was conducted, 1583 bird carcasses were recorded. Eventually, 2700 bird deaths were documented over a four-month period. It is identified that avian deaths are usually undetected and significantly underestimated, leading to a perception that a risk does not exist. Few guidelines and information are available to manage the risks of cyanide to wildlife, although detoxification, habitat modification and denying wildlife access have been used effectively. Hazing techniques have proven ineffective. Apparently no literature exists that documents accurate wildlife monitoring protocols on potentially toxic cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions or any understanding on the analysis of any derived dataset. This places the onus on mining operations to document that no risk to wildlife exists. Cyanide-bearing tailings storage facilities are environmental control structures to contain tailings, a standard practice in the mining

  13. Wildlife value orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    This article examined value orientations toward wildlife among the adult general Danish public in relation to age, sex, past and present residence, education, and income, using a U.S. survey instrument on Wildlife Value Orientations (WVO). The study used an Internet-based questionnaire sent...... the general public’s WVO can be used to check against the orientation of other specific groups such as landowners and hunters. It can also prove useful for developing specific hunting and wildlife policies such as certification of wildlife managers....

  14. Estimated economic losses associated with the destruction of plants owing to Phytophthora ramorum quarantine efforts in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.L. Dart; G.A. Chastagner

    2008-01-01

    The number and retail value of plants destroyed in Washington state nurseries due to Phytophthora ramorum quarantine efforts was estimated using Emergency Action Notification forms (EANs) issued by the United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service between 2004 and 2005. Data collected from EANs indicate that...

  15. ESTIMATE OF LOSS FROM TRAINS’ SPEED LIMITS AND ABILITIES OF THEIR REDUCTION IN SPEED BY RATIONAL TRACK ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Zenchuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of directions of saving the energy and reducing the specific costs of carrying out the transportation work may be raising the maximum permissible speed of trains at the end of «bad» down-grades through improved track maintenance and timely removal of the existing warnings (temporarily speed restrictions in a certain order, taking into account the economic efficiency of these activities. The article presents methods and examples of calculations of the economic evaluation of losses due to the restrictions of train traffic speed.

  16. Marais Des Cygnes Wildlife Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This brochure is for the Marais des Cygnes Wildlife Area, managed by Kansas Department of Wildlife, Parks and Tourism, and located in the floodplain of the Marais...

  17. Estimating Squirrel Abundance From Live trapping Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A reprint of an article from the Journal of Wildlife Management entitled "Estimating Squirrel Abundance from Live Trapping Data" by Nixon, Edwards and Eberhardt. The...

  18. An Increase in Forearm Cortical Bone Size After Menopause May Influence the Estimated Bone Mineral Loss--A 28-Year Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Magnus K; Ahlborg, Henrik G; Svejme, Ola; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Rosengren, Björn E

    2016-01-01

    Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) is the most common estimate of bone mass, incorporated in the World Health Organization definition of osteoporosis. However, aBMD depends on not only the amount of mineral but also the bone size. The estimated postmenopausal decline in aBMD could because of this be influenced by changes in bone size.We measured bone mineral content (BMC; mg), aBMD (mg/cm2), and bone width (mm) by single-photon absorptiometry at the cortical site of the forearm in a population-based sample of 105 Caucasian women. We conducted 12 measurements during a 28-yr period from mean 5 yr (range: 2-9) before menopause to mean 24 yr (range: 18-28) after menopause. We calculated individual slopes for changes in the periods before menopause, 0-bone width 0.4% (-1.2, 1.9), 0.7% (0.5, 0.9), 0.1% (-0.2, 0.4), and 0.1% (-0.2, 0.4). BMC loss was similar in all periods, whereas the increase in bone width was higher in the first postmenopausal period than in the second (p=0.003) and the third (p=0.01) postmenopausal periods. Menopause is followed by a transient increase in forearm bone size that will influence the by aBMD estimated cortical loss in bone minerals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Mapping and estimating land change between 2001 and 2013 in a heterogeneous landscape in West Africa: Loss of forestlands and capacity building opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjana, Hèou Maléki; Olofsson, Pontus; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Helmschrot, Joerg; Wala, Kpérkouma; Akpagana, Koffi

    2017-12-01

    In West Africa, accurate classification of land cover and land change remains a big challenge due to the patchy and heterogeneous nature of the landscape. Limited data availability, human resources and technical capacities, further exacerbate the challenge. The result is a region that is among the more understudied areas in the world, which in turn has resulted in a lack of appropriate information required for sustainable natural resources management. The objective of this paper is to explore open source software and easy-to-implement approaches to mapping and estimation of land change that are transferrable to local institutions to increase capacity in the region, and to provide updated information on the regional land surface dynamics. To achieve these objectives, stable land cover and land change between 2001 and 2013 in the Kara River Basin in Togo and Benin were mapped by direct multitemporal classification of Landsat data by parameterization and evaluation of two machine-learning algorithms. Areas of land cover and change were estimated by application of an unbiased estimator to sample data following international guidelines. A prerequisite for all tools and methods was implementation in an open source environment, and adherence to international guidelines for reporting land surface activities. Findings include a recommendation of the Random Forests algorithm as implemented in Orfeo Toolbox, and a stratified estimation protocol - all executed in the QGIS graphical use interface. It was found that despite an estimated reforestation of 10,0727 ± 3480 ha (95% confidence interval), the combined rate of forest and savannah loss amounted to 56,271 ± 9405 ha (representing a 16% loss of the forestlands present in 2001), resulting in a rather sharp net loss of forestlands in the study area. These dynamics had not been estimated prior to this study, and the results will provide useful information for decision making pertaining to natural resources management, land

  20. An attempt to estimate the economic value of the loss of human life due to landslide and flood events in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Paola; Bianchi, Cinzia; Hussin, Haydar; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2013-04-01

    Landslide and flood events in Italy cause wide and severe damage to buildings and infrastructure, and are frequently involved in the loss of human life. The cost estimates of past natural disasters generally refer to the amount of public money used for the restoration of the direct damage, and most commonly do not account for all disaster impacts. Other cost components, including indirect losses, are difficult to quantify and, among these, the cost of human lives. The value of specific human life can be identified with the value of a statistical life (VLS), defined as the value that an individual places on a marginal change in their likelihood of death This is different from the value of an actual life. Based on information of fatal car accidents in Italy, we evaluate the cost that society suffers for the loss of life due to landslide and flood events. Using a catalogue of fatal landslide and flood events, for which information about gender and age of the fatalities is known, we determine the cost that society suffers for the loss of their life. For the purpose, we calculate the economic value in terms of the total income that the working-age population involved in the fatal events would have earned over the course of their life. For the computation, we use the pro-capita income calculated as the ratio between the GDP and the population value in Italy for each year, since 1980. Problems occur for children and retired people that we decided not to include in our estimates.

  1. Wildlife and wildlife management in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Tim; Davenport, Tim R B

    2016-08-01

    Tanzania, arguably mainland Africa's most important nation for conservation, is losing habitat and natural resources rapidly. Moving away from a charcoal energy base and developing sustainable finance mechanisms for natural forests are critical to slowing persistent deforestation. Addressing governance and capacity deficits, including law enforcement, technical skills, and funding, across parts of the wildlife sector are key to effective wildlife protection. These changes could occur in tandem with bringing new models of natural resource management into play that include capacity building, corporate payment for ecosystem services, empowering nongovernmental organizations in law enforcement, greater private-sector involvement, and novel community conservation strategies. The future of Tanzania's wildlife looks uncertain-as epitomized by the current elephant crisis-unless the country confronts issues of governance, embraces innovation, and fosters greater collaboration with the international community. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Effects of the 1976 Seney National Wildlife Refuge wildfire on wildlife and wildlife habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the summer of 1976 a wildfire burned 260 square-km on the Seney National Wildlife Refuge in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  3. Wildlife Management Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Parker River National Wildlife Refuge provided an average of 1,411,000 duck use days during the 7-year period (1954-1960), with a high of 2,270,000 use days in...

  4. Plantings for wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel B. Kirby; Claude L. Ponder; Donald J. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Grains, forages, and other vegetation can be planted to provide critical habitat for desired wildlife species or to increase habitat diversity. Plantings may be in openings created in the forest (see Note 9.11 Wildlife Openings) or along the forest edge in cultivated or pastured fields if protected from domestic livestock. The first step in determining if and what type...

  5. Massive wildlife project outlined

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — News article on the Chase Lake Prairie Project that is centered on the Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Over the next 11 years the project aims to support 1.3...

  6. Wildlife and Tamarix

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter, we present a synthesis of published literature and preliminary reports on the use of Tamarix by wildlife in riparian systems. We discuss how several groups of wildlife; specifically herpetofauna, birds, and mammals utilize or avoid Tamarix and discuss the impacts of methods for cont...

  7. Predictive potential of wildlife value orientations for acceptability of management interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.H.; Vaske, J.J.; Sijtsma, M.T.J.

    2014-01-01

    tWildlife value orientations are patterns of basic beliefs that give direction and meaning to fundamentalvalues in the context of wildlife. Wildlife value orientations can help managers estimate public eval-uations to management interventions. Their usefulness, both practically and scientifically,

  8. A novel fluorescence microscopy approach to estimate quality loss of stored fruit fillings as a result of browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropotova, Janna; Tylewicz, Urszula; Cocci, Emiliano; Romani, Santina; Dalla Rosa, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the quality deterioration of apple fillings during storage. Moreover, a potentiality of novel time-saving and non-invasive method based on fluorescence microscopy for prompt ascertainment of non-enzymatic browning initiation in fruit fillings was investigated. Apple filling samples were obtained by mixing different quantities of fruit and stabilizing agents (inulin, pectin and gellan gum), thermally processed and stored for 6-month. The preservation of antioxidant capacity (determined by DPPH method) in apple fillings was indirectly correlated with decrease in total polyphenols content that varied from 34±22 to 56±17% and concomitant accumulation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), ranging from 3.4±0.1 to 8±1mg/kg in comparison to initial apple puree values. The mean intensity of the fluorescence emission spectra of apple filling samples and initial apple puree was highly correlated (R(2)>0.95) with the HMF content, showing a good potentiality of fluorescence microscopy method to estimate non-enzymatic browning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Wildlife Inventory, Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassirer, E. Frances

    1995-06-01

    Wildlife distribution/abundance were studied at this location during 1993 and 1994 to establish the baseline as part of the wildlife mitigation agreement for construction of Dworshak reservoir. Inventory efforts were designed to (1) document distribution/abundance of 4 target species: pileated woodpecker, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, and river otter, (2) determine distribution/abundance of rare animals, and (3) determine presence and relative abundance of all other species except deer and elk. 201 wildlife species were observed during the survey period; most were residents or used the area seasonally for breeding or wintering. New distribution or breeding records were established for at least 6 species. Pileated woodpeckers were found at 35% of 134 survey points in upland forests; estimated densities were 0-0.08 birds/ha, averaging 0.02 birds/ha. Yellow warblers were found in riparian areas and shrubby draws below 3500 ft elev., and were most abundant in white alder plant communities (ave. est. densities 0.2-2. 1 birds/ha). Black-capped chickadees were found in riparian and mixed tall shrub vegetation at all elevations (ave. est. densities 0-0.7 birds/ha). River otters and suitable otter denning and foraging habitat were observed along the Snake and Salmon rivers. 15 special status animals (threatened, endangered, sensitive, state species of special concern) were observed at Craig Mt: 3 amphibians, 1 reptile, 8 birds, 3 mammals. Another 5 special status species potentially occur (not documented). Ecosystem-based wildlife management issues are identified. A monitoring plant is presented for assessing effects of mitigation activities.

  10. Loss distribution approach for operational risk capital modelling under Basel II: Combining different data sources for risk estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Shevchenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The management of operational risk in the banking industry has undergone significant changes over the last decade due to substantial changes in operational risk environment. Globalization, deregulation, the use of complex financial products and changes in information technology have resulted in exposure to new risks very different from market and credit risks. In response, Basel Committee for banking Supervision has developed a regulatory framework, referred to as Basel II, that introduced operational risk category and corresponding capital requirements. Over the past five years, major banks in most parts of the world have received accreditation under the Basel II Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA by adopting the loss distribution approach (LDA despite there being a number of unresolved methodological challenges in its implementation. Different approaches and methods are still under hot debate. In this paper, we review methods proposed in the literature for combining different data sources (internal data, external data and scenario analysis which is one of the regulatory requirement for AMA.

  11. A BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE WITH PT-SYMMETRIC DOUBLE-DELTA FUNCTION LOSS AND GAIN IN A HARMONIC TRAP: A TEST OF RIGOROUS ESTIMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Haag

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the linear and nonlinear Schrödinger equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap with PT-symmetric double-delta function loss and gain terms. We verify that the conditions for the applicability of a recent proposition by Mityagin and Siegl on singular perturbations of harmonic oscillator type self-adjoint operators are fulfilled. In both the linear and nonlinear case we calculate numerically the shifts of the unperturbed levels with quantum numbers n of up to 89 in dependence on the strength of the non-Hermiticity and compare with rigorous estimates derived by those authors. We confirm that the predicted 1/n1/2 estimate provides a valid upper bound on the shrink rate of the numerical eigenvalues. Moreover, we find that a more recent estimate of log(n/n3/2 is in excellent agreement with the numerical results. With nonlinearity the shrink rates are found to be smaller than without nonlinearity, and the rigorous estimates, derived only for the linear case, are no longer applicable.

  12. The Use of Camera Traps in Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Uçarlı

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Camera traps are increasingly used in the abundance and density estimates of wildlife species. Camera traps are very good alternative for direct observation in case, particularly, steep terrain, dense vegetation covered areas or nocturnal species. The main reason for the use of camera traps is eliminated that the economic, personnel and time loss in a continuous manner at the same time in different points. Camera traps, motion and heat sensitive, can take a photo or video according to the models. Crossover points and feeding or mating areas of the focal species are addressed as a priority camera trap set locations. The population size can be finding out by the images combined with Capture-Recapture methods. The population density came out the population size divided to effective sampling area size. Mating and breeding season, habitat choice, group structures and survival rates of the focal species can be achieved from the images. Camera traps are very useful to obtain the necessary data about the particularly mysterious species with economically in planning and conservation efforts.

  13. Hypotensive anesthesia: Comparing the effects of different drug combinations on mean arterial pressure, estimated blood loss, and surgery time in orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, James; Portnof, Jason E; Kalayeh, Mona; Hardigan, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Sevoflurane, an inhalational hypotensive anesthetic agent with a vasodilatory property, has been commonly used as a single agent to induce hypotension and effectively decrease blood loss in orthognathic surgery. However, it is common for patients to receive other hypotensive anesthetic agents in combination with sevoflurane. The purpose of our retrospective cohort study is to investigate whether administering an additional hypotensive agent has greater effect at reducing mean arterial pressure (MAP), estimated blood loss (EBL) and surgery time during orthognathic surgery. 57 subjects, aged 0-89 of both genders, who underwent orthognathic surgery were investigated in this study. Each patient's anesthesia records were reviewed to record the following variables of interest: EBL, duration of surgery, and MAP reduction in %. 41 subjects were placed in Group I and they received sevoflurane alone. 16 subjects were placed in Group II and they received sevoflurane plus a "supportive" agent. These "supportive" agents were esmolol, labetalol, metoprolol, nicardipine, and dexmedetomidine. The significant differences between two groups were assessed by using ANCOVA and p surgery time. Subjects in Group II experienced a greater reduction in MAP during surgery than subjects in Group I, 27.30% and 20.44%, respectively (p = 0.027). There was no significant difference for sex (p = 0.417) or age group (p = 0.113) in estimated blood loss, however. The mean surgery time in Group I was 1.93, 2.77, and 4.54 h with respect to LeFort, BSSO/IVRO, and double jaw surgery. Patients in Group II had a mean surgery time of 1.73, 2.07, and 5.64 h with respect to LeFort, BSSO/IVRO, and double jaw surgery. No statistically significant difference was demonstrated in surgery time between Group I vs. Group II (p > 0.05). Subjects in Group II experienced, on average, more blood loss than subjects in Group I, 355.50 ml and 238.90 ml, respectively. The use of multi-drug combination may offer

  14. Pan-European Seismic Risk Assessment: A proof of concept using the Earthquake Loss Estimation Routine (ELER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbane, Christina; Hancilar, Ufuk; Silva, Vitor; Ehrlich, Daniele; De Groeve, Tom

    2016-04-01

    One of the key objectives of the new EU civil protection mechanism is an enhanced understanding of risks the EU is facing. Developing a European perspective may create significant opportunities of successfully combining resources for the common objective of preventing and mitigating shared risks. Risk assessments and mapping represent the first step in these preventive efforts. The EU is facing an increasing number of natural disasters. Among them earthquakes are the second deadliest after extreme temperatures. A better-shared understanding of where seismic risk lies in the EU is useful to identify which regions are most at risk and where more detailed seismic risk assessments are needed. In that scope, seismic risk assessment models at a pan-European level have a great potential in obtaining an overview of the expected economic and human losses using a homogeneous quantitative approach and harmonized datasets. This study strives to demonstrate the feasibility of performing a probabilistic seismic risk assessment at a pan-European level with an open access methodology and using open datasets available across the EU. It aims also at highlighting the challenges and needs in datasets and the information gaps for a consistent seismic risk assessment at the pan-European level. The study constitutes a "proof of concept" that can complement the information provided by Member States in their National Risk Assessments. Its main contribution lies in pooling open-access data from different sources in a homogeneous format, which could serve as baseline data for performing more in depth risk assessments in Europe.

  15. Estimates of angling effort, catch, harvest and population structure of coho salmon caught and harvested by sport and subsistence fisheries at the outlet of Becharof Lake, Becharof National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska 1994 and 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Becharof Lake drainage supports fish populations that sustain subsistence and sport fisheries in-river and commercial fisheries in saltwater. The lack of...

  16. Tilting at wildlife: reconsidering human-wildlife conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Redpath, Stephen Mark; Bhatia, Saloni; Young, Juliette

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts between people over wildlife are widespread and damaging to both the wildlife and people involved. Such issues are often termed human–wildlife conflicts. We argue that this term is misleading and may exacerbate the problems and hinder resolution. A review of 100 recent articles on human–wildlife conflicts reveals that 97 were between conservation and other human activities, particularly those associated with livelihoods. We suggest that we should distinguish between human–wildlife i...

  17. Trip report: seabird colony status, Puale Bay, Becharof National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska Peninsula, Alaska, 29 July - 10 August, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A short-term field camp was established along the Pacific coast of the Becharof National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) to estimate population size and breeding phenology...

  18. Populations and reproductive success of seabirds on the Pacific coast of Becharof National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Seabirds were monitored at Puale Bay on the Pacific coast of the Becharof National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) to estimate population size, breeding phenology, and...

  19. Exploring the validity of HPQ-based presenteeism measures to estimate productivity losses in the health and education sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuffham, Paul A; Vecchio, Nerina; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2014-01-01

    Illness-related presenteeism (suboptimal work performance) may be a significant factor in worker productivity. Until now, there has been no generally accepted best method of measuring presenteeism across different industries and occupations. This study sought to validate the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ)-based measure of presenteeism across occupations and industries and assess the most appropriate method for data analysis. . Work performance was measured using the modified version of the HPQ conducted in workforce samples from the education and health workforce in Queensland, Australia (N = 30,870) during 2005 and 2006. Three approaches to data analysis of presenteeism measures were assessed using absolute performance, the ratio of own performance to others' performance, and the difference between others' and own performance. The best measure is judged by its sensitivity to changes in health indicators. . The measure that best correlated to health indicators was absolute presenteeism. For example, in the health sector, correlations between physical health status and absolute presenteeism were 4 to 5 times greater than the ratio or difference approaches, and in the education sector, these correlations were twice as large. Using this approach, the estimated cost of presenteeism in 2006 was $Aus8338 and $Aus8092 per worker per annum for the health and education sectors, respectively. . The HPQ is a valid measure of presenteeism. Transforming responses by perceived performance of peers is unnecessary as absolute presenteeism correlated best with health indicators. Absolute presenteeism was more insightful for ascertaining the cost of presenteeism.

  20. Middle to late Holocene flood activity estimated from loss on ignition of peat in the Ishikari lowland, northern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yuji; Hori, Kazuaki; Momohara, Arata

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction of the magnitude and frequency of past floods is important for assessments of flood risk. However, there have been few reconstructions of past flood activity based on long-term continuous records from a single fluvial system and thus suitable for comparison with other paleoclimate proxies. Consequently, the influence of climate change on flood activity remains unclear. Floodplain peat beds can be preserved for long periods of geologic time; they also contain both clastic sediments from overbank flooding and organic material produced in situ, both of which are important inputs for geologic reconstructions. In this study, we examined 24 cores from the Ishikari lowland, northern Japan, to find out if temporal changes of loss on ignition (LOI) of peat can provide a record of flood magnitude and frequency and to investigate the influence of regional climate change on flood activity. Our plant macrofossil analyses, the distribution of characteristic LOI depth profiles, and sedimentary facies suggest that the LOI of peat increases when the magnitude and frequency of floods decreases, which in turn suggests that temporal changes of LOI in peat might be useful as a proxy for past flood activity. Our results indicate that increases in the LOI of peat deposited near the Ishikari River at ca. 5500-5000 and 4000-3500 cal BP may correspond to weakened activities of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Furthermore, our analyses show that an increase in flood activity of the Ishikari River during 1400-1300 cal BP may be related to a decrease in ENSO activity. However, temporal changes of the LOI of peat formed near a tributary of the Ishikari River did not correlate with these climate changes. Our results suggest that the past flood activity of rivers with large watersheds reflects regional climate change, because the extensive precipitation that induces flooding of such rivers is generally associated with regional climate

  1. Estimation of human damage and economic loss of buildings for the worst-credible scenario of tsunami inundation in the city of Augusta, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    The city of Augusta is located in the southern part of the eastern coast of Sicily. Italian tsunami catalogue and paleo-tsunami surveys indicate that at least 7 events of tsunami affected the bay of Augusta in the last 4,000 years, two of which are associated with earthquakes (1169 and 1693) that destroyed the city. For these reasons Augusta has been chosen in the project ASTARTE as a test site for the study of issues related to tsunami hazard and risk. In last two years we studied hazard through the approach of the worst-case credible scenario and carried out vulnerability and damage analysis for buildings. In this work, we integrate that research, and estimate the damage to people and the economic loss of buildings due to structural damage. As regards inundation, we assume both uniform inundation levels (bath-tub hypothesis) and inundation data resulting from the worst-case scenario elaborated for the area by Armigliato et al. (2015). Human damage is calculated in three steps using the method introduced by Pagnoni et al. (2016) following the work by Terrier et al. (2012) and by Koshimura et al. (2009). First, we use census data to estimate the number of people present in each residential building affected by inundation; second, based on water column depth and building type, we evaluate the level of damage to people; third, we provide an estimate of fatalities. The economic loss is computed for two types of buildings (residential and trade-industrial) by using data on inundation and data from the real estate market. This study was funded by the EU Project ASTARTE - "Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe", Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3)

  2. Disease spread models to estimate highly uncertain emerging diseases losses for animal agriculture insurance policies: an application to the U.S. farm-raised catfish industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagmutt, Francisco J; Sempier, Stephen H; Hanson, Terril R

    2013-10-01

    Emerging diseases (ED) can have devastating effects on agriculture. Consequently, agricultural insurance for ED can develop if basic insurability criteria are met, including the capability to estimate the severity of ED outbreaks with associated uncertainty. The U.S. farm-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry was used to evaluate the feasibility of using a disease spread simulation modeling framework to estimate the potential losses from new ED for agricultural insurance purposes. Two stochastic models were used to simulate the spread of ED between and within channel catfish ponds in Mississippi (MS) under high, medium, and low disease impact scenarios. The mean (95% prediction interval (PI)) proportion of ponds infected within disease-impacted farms was 7.6% (3.8%, 22.8%), 24.5% (3.8%, 72.0%), and 45.6% (4.0%, 92.3%), and the mean (95% PI) proportion of fish mortalities in ponds affected by the disease was 9.8% (1.4%, 26.7%), 49.2% (4.7%, 60.7%), and 88.3% (85.9%, 90.5%) for the low, medium, and high impact scenarios, respectively. The farm-level mortality losses from an ED were up to 40.3% of the total farm inventory and can be used for insurance premium rate development. Disease spread modeling provides a systematic way to organize the current knowledge on the ED perils and, ultimately, use this information to help develop actuarially sound agricultural insurance policies and premiums. However, the estimates obtained will include a large amount of uncertainty driven by the stochastic nature of disease outbreaks, by the uncertainty in the frequency of future ED occurrences, and by the often sparse data available from past outbreaks. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan Executive Summary : A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-02-01

    access. During the past two years, non-Indian public concern over big game hunting issues has at times overwhelmed other issues related to the wildlife area. In 2001, the CTUIR Fish and Wildlife Committee closed the wildlife area to tribal branch antlered bull elk harvest in response to harvest data that indicated harvest rates were greater than expected. In addition, illegal harvest of mature bull elk in southeastern Washington during the 2001 season exceeded the legal tribal and nontribal harvest combined which has created a potential significant regression in the bull;cow ratio in the Blue Mountain Elk herd. CTUIR Fish and Wildlife Committee and staff and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Regional Director and staff have been coordinating regularly to develop strategies to address harvest rates and ensure protection of viable big game herds in southeastern Washington. The CTUIR Fish and Wildlife Committee and WDFW has jointly agreed to continue close coordination on this and other issues and continue working together to ensure the long-term vigor of the elk herd on the Rainwater Wildlife Area. The purpose of the project is to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources.

  4. Conforth Ranch Wildlife Mitigation Feasibility Study, McNary, Oregon : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Larry; Wright, Patrick; Giger, Richard

    1991-03-01

    The 2,860-acre Conforth Ranch near Umatilla, Oregon is being considered for acquisition and management to partially mitigate wildlife losses associated with McNary Hydroelectric Project. The Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) estimated that management for wildlife would result in habitat unit gains of 519 for meadowlark, 420 for quail, 431 for mallard, 466 for Canada goose, 405 for mink, 49 for downy woodpecker, 172 for yellow warbler, and 34 for spotted sandpiper. This amounts to a total combined gain of 2,495 habitat units -- a 110 percent increase over the existing values for these species combined of 2,274 habitat units. Current water delivery costs, estimated at $50,000 per year, are expected to increase to $125,000 per year. A survey of local interest indicated a majority of respondents favored the concept with a minority opposed. No contaminants that would preclude the Fish and Wildlife Service from agreeing to accept the property were identified. 21 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. History of the Wildlife Areas Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge, Oak Orchard Wildlife Management Area, Tonawanda Wildlife Management Area, John White Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a history of four management areas in Western New York: Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge, Oak Orchard Management Area, Tonawanda Wildlife...

  6. Applying the Land Use Portfolio Model to Estimate Natural-Hazard Loss and Risk - A Hypothetical Demonstration for Ventura County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinitz, Laura B.

    2008-01-01

    With costs of natural disasters skyrocketing and populations increasingly settling in areas vulnerable to natural hazards, society is challenged to better allocate its limited risk-reduction resources. In 2000, Congress passed the Disaster Mitigation Act, amending the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, Pub. L. 93-288, 1988; Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2002, 2008b; Disaster Mitigation Act, 2000), mandating that State, local, and tribal communities prepare natural-hazard mitigation plans to qualify for pre-disaster mitigation grants and post-disaster aid. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was assigned to coordinate and implement hazard-mitigation programs, and it published information about specific mitigation-plan requirements and the mechanisms (through the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program-HMGP) for distributing funds (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2002). FEMA requires that each community develop a mitigation strategy outlining long-term goals to reduce natural-hazard vulnerability, mitigation objectives and specific actions to reduce the impacts of natural hazards, and an implementation plan for those actions. The implementation plan should explain methods for prioritizing, implementing, and administering the actions, along with a 'cost-benefit review' justifying the prioritization. FEMA, along with the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS), supported the development of HAZUS ('Hazards U.S.'), a geospatial natural-hazards loss-estimation tool, to help communities quantify potential losses and to aid in the selection and prioritization of mitigation actions. HAZUS was expanded to a multiple-hazard version, HAZUS-MH, that combines population, building, and natural-hazard science and economic data and models to estimate physical damages, replacement costs, and business interruption for specific natural-hazard scenarios. HAZUS

  7. Occupational heat stress and associated productivity loss estimation using the PHS model (ISO 7933): a case study from workplaces in Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Karin; Kuklane, Kalev; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2014-01-01

    Background Heat stress is a major occupational problem in India that can cause adverse health effects and reduce work productivity. This paper explores this problem and its impacts in selected workplaces, including industrial, service, and agricultural sectors in Chennai, India. Design Quantitative measurements of heat stress, workload estimations, and clothing testing, and qualitative information on health impacts, productivity loss, etc., were collected. Heat strain and associated impacts on labour productivity between the seasons were assessed using the International Standard ISO 7933:2004, which applies the Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) model. Results and conclusions All workplaces surveyed had very high heat exposure in the hot season (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature x¯ =29.7), often reaching the international standard safe work values (ISO 7243:1989). Most workers had moderate to high workloads (170–220 W/m2), with some exposed to direct sun. Clothing was found to be problematic, with high insulation values in relation to the heat exposure. Females were found to be more vulnerable because of the extra insulation added from wearing a protective shirt on top of traditional clothing (0.96 clo) while working. When analysing heat strain – in terms of core temperature and dehydration – and associated productivity loss in the PHS model, the parameters showed significant impacts that affected productivity in all workplaces, apart from the laundry facility, especially during the hot season. For example, in the canteen, the core temperature limit of 38°C predicted by the model was reached in only 64 min for women. With the expected increases in temperature due to climate change, additional preventive actions have to be implemented to prevent further productivity losses and adverse health impacts. Overall, this study presented insight into using a thermo-physiological model to estimate productivity loss due to heat exposure in workplaces. This is the first time the PHS

  8. Occupational heat stress and associated productivity loss estimation using the PHS model (ISO 7933: a case study from workplaces in Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lundgren

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heat stress is a major occupational problem in India that can cause adverse health effects and reduce work productivity. This paper explores this problem and its impacts in selected workplaces, including industrial, service, and agricultural sectors in Chennai, India. Design: Quantitative measurements of heat stress, workload estimations, and clothing testing, and qualitative information on health impacts, productivity loss, etc., were collected. Heat strain and associated impacts on labour productivity between the seasons were assessed using the International Standard ISO 7933:2004, which applies the Predicted Heat Strain (PHS model. Results and conclusions: All workplaces surveyed had very high heat exposure in the hot season (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature x¯ =29.7, often reaching the international standard safe work values (ISO 7243:1989. Most workers had moderate to high workloads (170–220 W/m2, with some exposed to direct sun. Clothing was found to be problematic, with high insulation values in relation to the heat exposure. Females were found to be more vulnerable because of the extra insulation added from wearing a protective shirt on top of traditional clothing (0.96 clo while working. When analysing heat strain – in terms of core temperature and dehydration – and associated productivity loss in the PHS model, the parameters showed significant impacts that affected productivity in all workplaces, apart from the laundry facility, especially during the hot season. For example, in the canteen, the core temperature limit of 38°C predicted by the model was reached in only 64 min for women. With the expected increases in temperature due to climate change, additional preventive actions have to be implemented to prevent further productivity losses and adverse health impacts. Overall, this study presented insight into using a thermo-physiological model to estimate productivity loss due to heat exposure in workplaces. This is the

  9. Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan is intended to standardize procedures to the extent that accurate and meaningful data will be obtained and recorded on a continuing basis at Bowdoin NWR...

  10. National Wildlife Refuge System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — When President Theodore Roosevelt made Florida's tiny Pelican Island a refuge for birds in 1903, he wrote the ¬first chapter of a great American conservation success...

  11. VT Wildlife Crossing Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) WCV describes the value of the Wildlife Habitat Suitability as it approaches the state highway system. This analysis was designed to use the...

  12. Where the Wildlife Is.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingling, Phyllis S.

    1983-01-01

    A teacher of junior high hearing impaired students describes learning experiences in which wildlife (mice, garden snakes, grasshoppers, etc.) were used to develop understanding in life cycle concepts and stimulated language development. (CL)

  13. Foodborne parasites from wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund

    2015-01-01

    The majority of wild foods consumed by humans are sourced from intensively managed or semi-farmed populations. Management practices inevitably affect wildlife density and habitat characteristics, which are key elements in the transmission of parasites. We consider the risk of transmission...... of foodborne parasites to humans from wildlife maintained under natural or semi-natural conditions. A deeper understanding will be useful in counteracting foodborne parasites arising from the growing industry of novel and exotic foods....

  14. Human–wildlife interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Rosell, C. (Carlos); Llimona, F.

    2012-01-01

    The nature of wildlife management throughout the world is changing. The increase in the world’s human population has been accompanied by a rapid expansion of agricultural and urban areas and infrastructures, especially road and railway networks. Worldwide, wildlife habitats are being transformed and fragmented by human activities, and the behavior of several species has changed as a result of human activities. Some species have adapted easily to urban or peri–urban habitats and take advantage...

  15. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  16. A new method for the production of social fragility functions and the result of its use in worldwide fatality loss estimation for earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    A review of over 200 fatality models over the past 50 years for earthquake loss estimation from various authors has identified key parameters that influence fatality estimation in each of these models. These are often very specific and cannot be readily adapted globally. In the doctoral dissertation of the author, a new method is used for regression of fatalities to intensity using loss functions based not only on fatalities, but also using population models and other socioeconomic parameters created through time for every country worldwide for the period 1900-2013. A calibration of functions was undertaken from 1900-2008, and each individual quake analysed from 2009-2013 in real-time, in conjunction with www.earthquake-report.com. Using the CATDAT Damaging Earthquakes Database containing socioeconomic loss information for 7208 damaging earthquake events from 1900-2013 including disaggregation of secondary effects, fatality estimates for over 2035 events have been re-examined from 1900-2013. In addition, 99 of these events have detailed data for the individual cities and towns or have been reconstructed to create a death rate as a percentage of population. Many historical isoseismal maps and macroseismic intensity datapoint surveys collected globally, have been digitised and modelled covering around 1353 of these 2035 fatal events, to include an estimate of population, occupancy and socioeconomic climate at the time of the event at each intensity bracket. In addition, 1651 events without fatalities but causing damage have also been examined in this way. The production of socioeconomic and engineering indices such as HDI and building vulnerability has been undertaken on a country-level and state/province-level leading to a dataset allowing regressions not only using a static view of risk, but also allowing for the change in the socioeconomic climate between the earthquake events to be undertaken. This means that a year 1920 event in a country, will not simply be

  17. Tuberculosis in Tanzanian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, S; Mlengeya, T; Kazwala, R R; Michel, A; Kaare, M T; Jones, S L; Eblate, E; Shirima, G M; Packer, C

    2005-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a pathogen of growing concern in free-ranging wildlife in Africa, but little is known about the disease in Tanzanian wildlife. Here, we report the infection status of Mycobacterium bovis in a range of wildlife species sampled from protected areas in northern Tanzania. M. bovis was isolated from 11.1% (2/18) migratory wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and 11.1% (1/9) topi (Damaliscus lunatus) sampled systematically in 2000 during a meat cropping program in the Serengeti ecosystem, and from one wildebeest and one lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) killed by sport hunters adjacent to Tarangire National Park. A tuberculosis antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to screen serum samples collected from 184 Serengeti lions (Panthera leo) and 19 lions from Ngorongoro Crater sampled between 1985 and 2000. Samples from 212 ungulates collected throughout the protected area network between 1998 and 2001 also were tested by EIA. Serological assays detected antibodies to M. bovis in 4% of Serengeti lions; one positive lion was sampled in 1984. Antibodies were detected in one of 17 (6%) buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Tarangire and one of 41 (2%) wildebeest in the Serengeti. This study confirms for the first time the presence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife of northern Tanzania, but further investigation is required to assess the impact on wildlife populations and the role of different wildlife species in maintenance and transmission.

  18. Wildlife Mitigation and Restoration for Grand Coulee Dam: Blue Creek Project, Phase 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merker, Christopher

    1993-04-01

    This report is a recommendation from the Spokane Tribe to the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) for partial mitigation for the extensive wildlife and wildlife habitat losses on the Spokane Indian Reservation caused by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. NPPC`s interim wildlife goal over the next 7 years for the Columbia hydropower system, is to protect, mitigate and enhance approximately 35% basin wide of the lost habitat units. Grand Coulee Dam had the greatest habitat losses of any Dams of the Wildlife Rule.

  19. Estimating Loss to Follow-Up in HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy: The Effect of the Competing Risk of Death in Zambia and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwango, Albert; Stringer, Jeffrey; Ledergerber, Bruno; Mulenga, Lloyd; Bucher, Heiner C.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Calmy, Alexandra; Boulle, Andrew; Chintu, Namwinga; Egger, Matthias; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Loss to follow-up (LTFU) is common in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes. Mortality is a competing risk (CR) for LTFU; however, it is often overlooked in cohort analyses. We examined how the CR of death affected LTFU estimates in Zambia and Switzerland. Methods and Findings HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years who started ART 2004–2008 in observational cohorts in Zambia and Switzerland were included. We compared standard Kaplan-Meier curves with CR cumulative incidence. We calculated hazard ratios for LTFU across CD4 cell count strata using cause-specific Cox models, or Fine and Gray subdistribution models, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index and clinical stage. 89,339 patients from Zambia and 1,860 patients from Switzerland were included. 12,237 patients (13.7%) in Zambia and 129 patients (6.9%) in Switzerland were LTFU and 8,498 (9.5%) and 29 patients (1.6%), respectively, died. In Zambia, the probability of LTFU was overestimated in Kaplan-Meier curves: estimates at 3.5 years were 29.3% for patients starting ART with CD4 cells Switzerland since only few patients died. The results from Cox and Fine and Gray models were similar: in Zambia the risk of loss to follow-up and death increased with decreasing CD4 counts at the start of ART, whereas in Switzerland there was a trend in the opposite direction, with patients with higher CD4 cell counts more likely to be lost to follow-up. Conclusions In ART programmes in low-income settings the competing risk of death can substantially bias standard analyses of LTFU. The CD4 cell count and other prognostic factors may be differentially associated with LTFU in low-income and high-income settings. PMID:22205933

  20. Asteroseismology of old open clusters with Kepler: direct estimate of the integrated red giant branch mass-loss in NGC 6791 and 6819

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miglio, A.; Brogaard, Karsten Frank; Stello, D.

    2012-01-01

    Mass-loss of red giant branch (RGB) stars is still poorly determined, despite its crucial role in the chemical enrichment of galaxies. Thanks to the recent detection of solar-like oscillations in G–K giants in open clusters with Kepler, we can now directly determine stellar masses...... for a statistically significant sample of stars in the old open clusters NGC 6791 and 6819. The aim of this work is to constrain the integrated RGB mass-loss by comparing the average mass of stars in the red clump (RC) with that of stars in the low-luminosity portion of the RGB [i.e. stars with L≲L(RC)]. Stellar...... masses were determined by combining the available seismic parameters νmax and Δν with additional photometric constraints and with independent distance estimates. We measured the masses of 40 stars on the RGB and 19 in the RC of the old metal-rich cluster NGC 6791. We find that the difference between...

  1. Using non-performing loan ratios as default rates in the estimation of credit losses and macroeconomic credit risk stress testing: A case from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guray Kucukkocaoglu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, inspired by the Credit Portfolio View approach, we intend to develop an econometric credit risk model to estimate credit loss distributions of Turkish Banking System under baseline and stress macro scenarios, by substituting default rates with non-performing loan (NPL ratios. Since customer number based historical default rates are not available for the whole Turkish banking system’s credit portfolio, we used NPL ratios as dependent variable instead of default rates, a common practice for many countries where historical default rates are not available. Although, there are many problems in using NPL ratios as default rates such as underestimating portfolio losses as a result of totally non-homogeneous total credit portfolios and transferring non-performing loans to asset management companies from banks’ balance sheets, our aim is to underline and limit some ignored problems using accounting based NPL ratios as default rates in macroeconomic credit risk modeling. Developed models confirm the strong statistical relationship between systematic component of credit risk and macroeconomic variables in Turkey. Stress test results also are compatible with the past experiences

  2. Master Plan : Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge : Part III wildlife inventory plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This wildlife inventory plan for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge was designed to guide continued development of the refuge and wildlife management. Wildlife...

  3. A Strain-Based Method to Detect Tires’ Loss of Grip and Estimate Lateral Friction Coefficient from Experimental Data by Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tire Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Yunta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tires are a key sub-system of vehicles that have a big responsibility for comfort, fuel consumption and traffic safety. However, current tires are just passive rubber elements which do not contribute actively to improve the driving experience or vehicle safety. The lack of information from the tire during driving gives cause for developing an intelligent tire. Therefore, the aim of the intelligent tire is to monitor tire working conditions in real-time, providing useful information to other systems and becoming an active system. In this paper, tire tread deformation is measured to provide a strong experimental base with different experiments and test results by means of a tire fitted with sensors. Tests under different working conditions such as vertical load or slip angle have been carried out with an indoor tire test rig. The experimental data analysis shows the strong relation that exists between lateral force and the maximum tensile and compressive strain peaks when the tire is not working at the limit of grip. In the last section, an estimation system from experimental data has been developed and implemented in Simulink to show the potential of strain sensors for developing intelligent tire systems, obtaining as major results a signal to detect tire’s loss of grip and estimations of the lateral friction coefficient.

  4. Gaseous nitrogen losses from field plots grown with pea (Pisum sativum L.) or spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) estimated by 15N mass balance and acetylene inhibition techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    In a mass balance of N-15-labelled nitrate added to soil grown with pea or barley, denitrification estimates using the acetylene-inhibition technique were compared with unaccounted for N-15. During the growth season of 1989, which was drier than average, N losses due to denitrification estimated...... of the plants. Volatilization of ammonia from the aerial parts of the plants is a possible explanation of the observed loss. An estimation of denitrification relying only on the N-15 mass balance would have resulted in an overestimation of denitrification....

  5. Estimating the plasma effect-site equilibrium rate constant (Ke₀) of propofol by fitting time of loss and recovery of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Sun, Baozhu; Wang, Shuqin; Zhao, Lianying; Qi, Feng

    2013-01-01

    The present paper proposes a new approach for fitting the plasma effect-site equilibrium rate constant (Ke0) of propofol to satisfy the condition that the effect-site concentration (Ce) is equal at the time of loss of consciousness (LOC) and recovery of consciousness (ROC). Forty patients receiving intravenous anesthesia were divided into 4 groups and injected propofol 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, or 2 mg/kg at 1,200 mL/h. Durations from the start of injection to LOC and to ROC were recorded. LOC and ROC were defined as an observer's assessment of alertness and sedation scale change from 3 to 2 and from 2 to 3, respectively. Software utilizing bisection method iteration algorithms was built. Then, Ke0 satisfying the CeLOC=CeROC condition was estimated. The accuracy of the Ke0 estimated by our method was compared with the Diprifusor TCI Pump built-in Ke0 (0.26 min(-1)), and the Orchestra Workstation built-in Ke0 (1.21 min(-1)) in another group of 21 patients who were injected propofol 1.4 to 2 mg/kg. Our results show that the population Ke0 of propofol was 0.53 ± 0.18 min(-1). The regression equation for adjustment by dose (mg/kg) and age was Ke0=1.42-0.30 × dose-0.0074 × age. Only Ke0 adjusted by dose and age achieved the level of accuracy required for clinical applications. We conclude that the Ke0 estimated based on clinical signs and the two-point fitting method significantly improved the ability of CeLOC to predict CeROC. However, only the Ke0 adjusted by dose and age and not a fixed Ke0 value can meet clinical requirements of accuracy.

  6. Wildlife Inventory Plan : Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge : Wapello District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of wildlife inventories is to provide sufficient data needed to manage the refuge toward its stated objectives, and to compile population data for...

  7. [Wildlife inventory plan : Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This wildlife inventory plan describes methods for collecting migratory birds, upland birds, big game, predator, and small mammal surveys at Des Lacs National...

  8. Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Santee National Wildlife Refuge, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an unpublished report by the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study of the Parasitology College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia....

  9. Wildlife Inventory Plan Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge was established for the preservation of the waterfowl resource. The refuge is still managed principally for the benefit of ducks...

  10. Wildlife Inventory Plan Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge was established for the preservation of the waterfowl resource. The refuge is still managed principally for the benefit of ducks...

  11. Monitoring pesticides in wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustman, E.H.; Martin, W.E.; Heath, R.G.; Reichel, W.L.

    1971-01-01

    Early in the development of the wildlife monitoring program, certain criteria were recognized as being important in the selection of species of wild animals suitable for pesticide monitoring purposes. Ideally, the forms selected should be geographically well distributed, and they should be reasonably abundant and readily available for sampling. In addition, animals occurring near the top of food chains have the capacity to reflect residues in organisms occurring at lower levels in the same food chains. Based on these criteria, species chosen for monitoring include the starling (Sturnus vulgaris), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Anas rubripes), and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The black duck is substituted for the mallard in States where suitable numbers of mallards cannot be obtained. The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is held responsible for the execution of the wildlife portion of the National Pesticide Monitoring Program. The primary objective is to ascertain on a nationwide basis and independent of specific treatments the levels and trends of certain pesticidal chemicals and other pollutants in the bodies of selected forms of wildlife. The program was first described by Johnson et al. (4) in 1967. The purpose of this report is to update and redescribe the wildlife monitoring program and briefly review accomplishments.

  12. Wildlife strike risk assessment in several Italian airports: lessons from BRI and a new methodology implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Soldatini

    Full Text Available The presence of wildlife in airport areas poses substantial hazards to aviation. Wildlife aircraft collisions (hereafter wildlife strikes cause losses in terms of human lives and direct monetary losses for the aviation industry. In recent years, wildlife strikes have increased in parallel with air traffic increase and species habituation to anthropic areas. In this paper, we used an ecological approach to wildlife strike risk assessment to eight Italian international airports. The main achievement is a site-specific analysis that avoids flattening wildlife strike events on a large scale while maintaining comparable airport risk assessments. This second version of the Birdstrike Risk Index (BRI2 is a sensitive tool that provides different time scale results allowing appropriate management planning. The methodology applied has been developed in accordance with the Italian Civil Aviation Authority, which recognizes it as a national standard implemented in the advisory circular ENAC APT-01B.

  13. Fishery management plan: Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan was prepared by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge. Data was provided by the Refuge and Area Office Wildlife...

  14. Wildlife tourism in Gonarezhou National Park, southeast Zimbabwe: opportunities for wildlife viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (i) estimate wild animal abundances, distribution and species diversity and (ii) examine the opportunities for wildlife viewing in major tourist areas in the southern part of Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeast Zimbabwe. In this study, road strip counts were used.

  15. Blackwater National Wildlife Complex: Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Susquehanna National Wildlife Refuge, Martin National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  16. NORTHWOODS Wildlife Habitat Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Janine M. Benyus; Richard R. Buech

    1992-01-01

    Wildlife habitat data from seven Great Lakes National Forests were combined into a wildlife-habitat matrix named NORTHWOODS. Several electronic file formats of NORTHWOODS data base and documentation are available on floppy disks for microcomputers.

  17. Accounting for wetlands loss in a changing climate in the estimation of long-term flood risks of Devils Lake, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbin, S.; Kirilenko, A.; Zhang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Endorheic (terminal) lakes with no water outlets are sensitive indicators of changes in climate and land cover in the watershed. Regional variation in precipitation pattern in the US Northern Great Plaines lead to a long term flooding of Devils Lake (DL), ND, leading to a 10-m water level rise in just two decades, with estimated flood mitigation costs of over $1 billion. While the climate change contribution to flooding has been established, the role of large scale land conversion to agriculture has not been researched. Wetlands play a very important part in hydrological balance by storing, absorbing and slowing peak water discharge. In ND, 49 % of wetlands are drained and converted to agriculture. We investigated the role of wetlands loss in DL flooding in current and future climate. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate streamflow in all DL watershed subbasins. The model was calibrated using the 1991-2000 USGS gauge data for the first 10 years of study period and validated for the second 10 years (2001-2010), resulting in a satisfactory model performance compared against the measured water discharge in five streams in the watershed and against observed DL water level. A set of wetland loss scenarios were created based on the historical data and the Compound Topographic Index. To emulate the historical and future climate conditions, an ensemble of CMIP5 weather integrations based on IPCC AR5 RCP scenarios was downscaled with the MarkSim weather simulator. Model simulations indicate that the land use change in the DL watershed increased the impacts of climate change on hydrology by further elevating DL water level. Conversely, wetland restoration reduce the flooding and moderates risks of a potential high-impact DL overspill to the Sheyenne River watershed. Further research will concentrate on differentiation of climate change impacts under different types of land use change scenarios.

  18. Wildlife forestry: Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Wildlife forestry is management of forest resources, within sites and across landscapes, to provide sustainable, desirable habitat conditions for all forest-dependent (silvicolous) fauna while concurrently yielding economically viable, quality timber products. In practice, however, management decisions associated with wildlife forestry often reflect a desire to provide suitable habitat for rare species, species with declining populations, and exploitable (i.e., game) species. Collectively, these species are deemed priority species and they are assumed to benefit from habitat conditions that result from prescribed silvicultural management actions.

  19. A Simple Approach to Collecting Useful Wildlife Data Using Remote Camera-Traps in Undergraduate Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Remote camera-traps are commonly used to estimate the abundance, diversity, behavior and habitat use of wildlife in an inexpensive and nonintrusive manner. Because of the increasing use of remote-cameras in wildlife studies, students interested in wildlife biology should be exposed to the use of remote-cameras early in their academic careers.…

  20. Albeni Falls Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Plan, Final Report 1987.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Robert C.

    1988-08-01

    A wildlife impact assessment and mitigation plan has been developed for the US Army Corps of Engineers Albeni Falls Project in northern Idaho. The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to evaluate pre- and post-construction habitat conditions at the Albeni Falls Project. There were 6617 acres of wetlands converted to open water due to development and operation of the project. Eight evaluation species were selected with impacts expressed in numbers of Habitat Units (HU's). For a given species, one HU is equivalent to one acre of prime habitat. The Albeni Falls Project resulted in estimated losses of 5985 mallard HU's, 4699 Canada goose HU's, 3379 redhead HU's, 4508 breeding bald eagle HU's, 4365 wintering bald eagle HU's, 2286 black-capped chickadee HU's, 1680 white-tailed deer HU's, and 1756 muskrat HU's. The yellow warbler gained 71 HU's. Therefore, total target species estimated impacts were 28,587 HU's. Impacts on peregrine falcons were not quantified in terms of HU's. Projects have been proposed by an interagency team of biologists to mitigate the impacts of Albeni Falls on wildlife. The HEP was used to estimate benefits of proposed mitigation projects to target species. Through a series of proposed protection and enhancement actions, the mitigation plan will provide benefits of an estimated 28,590 target species HU's to mitigate Albeni Falls wildlife habitat values lost. 52 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. The Wildlife in Your Backyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDruff, Larry

    1979-01-01

    Urban environments often provide wildlife habitat. In addition to such open areas as parks and cemeteries, and such natural areas as may exist along rivers and streams, manmade structures may approximate habitat sought by some species and may attract wildlife. Actions to attract wildlife in the urban setting are suggested. (RE)

  2. Great Basin wildlife disease concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ Mason

    2008-01-01

    In the Great Basin, wildlife diseases have always represented a significant challenge to wildlife managers, agricultural production, and human health and safety. One of the first priorities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Fish and Wildlife Services was Congressionally directed action to eradicate vectors for zoonotic disease, particularly rabies, in...

  3. Science and Civics: Sustaining Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Environmental Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Project WILD's new high school curriculum, "Science and Civics: Sustaining Wildlife", is designed to serve as a guide for involving students in environmental action projects aimed at benefitting the local wildlife found in a community. It involves young people in decisions affecting people, wildlife, and their shared habitat in the community. The…

  4. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge and Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The major thrust of wildlife inventory on the refuges is towardscensusing waterfowl. During the spring and fall waterfowl, baldeagle and cormorant use is based...

  5. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Anaho Island National Wildlife Refuge and Fallon National Wildlife refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather conditions for the year were near normal and had no significant effect on refuge outputs or operations. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area was plagued with...

  6. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Anaho Island National Wildlife Refuge and Fallon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Fallon, Stillwater and Anaho Island National Wildlife Refuges are located in northwest Nevada and are administered by the refuge administrative office in Fallon,...

  7. Land leveling impact on surface runoff and soil losses: Estimation with coupled deterministic/stochastic models for a Québec agricultural field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Patrick; Chrétien, François; Thériault, Georges

    2017-01-01

    Land leveling impact on water quality had not received much attention for fields in humid continental climate. The objectives of this study were to isolate the impact of land leveling, performed on an agricultural field (Québec, Canada) in spring 2012, on runoff and TSS load and to make recommendations to attenuate adverse environmental impacts of land leveling, if any. A total of 66 runoff events, including 22 with total suspended sediments (TSS) load estimates, from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed. To this end, deterministic models were coupled to an adaptive Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to estimate the unknown distribution of the parameters representing the most important effects, namely land leveling, tillage, and crop cover. Simulated runoff events were generated by the hydrological model SWMM version 5 while simulated TSS loads were generated by an empirical equation based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation version 2 (RUSLE2). Thanks to the algorithm used, it was demonstrated that land leveling significantly decreased total runoff volume at least for the two following years. The impact on peak flow was mixed: land leveling significantly decreased peak flow for a typical stratiform rainfall event but the effect was unclear for a typical convective rainfall event. Based on 90% confidence interval, TSS load increased from 10 to 1000 times immediately after land leveling (spring 2012) compared to pre-land leveling events. The TSS load increase remained significant one year after land leveling, with TSS loads 5-20 times higher compared to pre-land leveling events. It would thus be recommended to grow crops with high ground coverage ratios coupled with cover crops during the year when land leveling is done. Sediment retention structures could also be installed at the beginning of the land leveling process to provide protection against the short term and delayed impact on water quality.

  8. Investigation of loss of coolant accidents in pressurised water reactors using the ''Dynamic Best-Estimate Safety Analysis'' (DYBESA) method for consideration of uncertainties in TRACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sporn, Michael; Hurtado, Antonio [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Loss of coolant accident must take into account uncertainties with potentially strong effects on the accident sequence prediction. In this paper, the use of the ''Dynamic Best-Estimate Safety Analysis'' (DYBESA) method to quantify the uncertainties in the TRACE thermal-hydraulic programme is demonstrated. For demonstration purposes, loss of coolant accidents with breaks of various types and sizes in a DN 700 reactor coolant pipe are used as an example application.

  9. Wildlife habitat fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John. Lehmkuhl

    2005-01-01

    A primary issue in forest wildlife management is habitat fragmentation and its effects on viability, which is the "bottom line" for plant and animal species of conservation concern. Population viability is the likelihood that a population will be able to maintain itself (remain viable) over a long period of time-usually 100 years or more. Though it is true...

  10. QUANTIFYING WILDLIFE ORIENTATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urban Ecology. Vol . 8 pp.209 - 228. LA HART, D.E. & TILLIS, C. R. 197 4 : Using. Wildlife to teach Environmental Values. Journal of Environ11ental Education. Vo1.6 No.1 pp.43- 48. MALONEY , M.P. & WARD, M.P. 1975: A revised scale for the Measurement of Ecological. At t i tudes and Know 1 edge . American.

  11. Estimation of Effective Transmission Loss Due to Subtropical Hydrometeor Scatters using a 3D Rain Cell Model for Centimeter and Millimeter Wave Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, J. S.; Owolawi, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of hydrometeor scattering on microwave radio communication down links continues to be of interest as the number of the ground and earth space terminals continually grows The interference resulting from the hydrometeor scattering usually leads to the reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR) at the affected terminal and at worst can even end up in total link outage. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compute the effective transmission loss due to subtropical hydrometeors on vertically polarized signals in Earth-satellite propagation paths in the Ku, Ka and V band frequencies based on the modified Capsoni 3D rain cell model. The 3D rain cell model has been adopted and modified using the subtropical log-normal distributions of raindrop sizes and introducing the equivalent path length through rain in the estimation of the attenuation instead of the usual specific attenuation in order to account for the attenuation of both wanted and unwanted paths to the receiver. The co-channels, interference at the same frequency is very prone to the higher amount of unwanted signal at the elevation considered. The importance of joint transmission is also considered.

  12. Influence of ignition process on mineral phase transformation in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash: Implications for estimating loss-on-ignition (LOI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yue; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    This research focused on the mineral phase transformation under varied ignition conditions with the objective of estimating loss-on-ignition (LOI) parameter in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash residues. LOI is commonly used to measure the volatile species, unburned carbon and moisture in the solid materials. There are criteria for LOI measurement in some research fields, while there is no standard protocol for LOI measurement in MSWI fly ash. Using thermogravimetry technique, the ignition condition candidates were proposed at 440/700/900°C for 1 and 2h. Based on X-ray diffractometry results, obvious mineral phase transformation occurred as a function of ignition temperature variation rather than ignition time. Until 440°C, only some minor phases disappeared comparing with the original state. Significant mineral phase transformations of major phases (Ca- and Cl-based minerals) occurred between 440 and 700°C. The mineral phase transformation and the occurrence of newly-formed phases were determined not only by the ignition condition but also by the content of the co-existing components. Mineral phase components rarely changed when ignition temperature rose from 700 to 900°C. Consequently, in order to prevent critical damages to the original mineralogical composition of fly ash, the lowest ignition temperature (440°C) for 2h was suggested as an ideal measurement condition of LOI in MSWI fly ash. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rainwater Wildlife Area, Watershed Management Plan, A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-03-01

    to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources. The Rainwater project is much more than a wildlife project--it is a watershed project with potential to benefit resources at the watershed scale. Goals and objectives presented in the following sections include both mitigation and non-mitigation related goals and objectives.

  14. Design of a wildlife avoidance planning system for autonomous harvesting operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis D.; Sørensen, Claus G.; Green, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting and mowing operations are among the main potential stressors affecting wildlife within agricultural landscapes, leading to large animal losses. A number of studies have been conducted on harvesting practices to address the problem of wildlife mortality, providing a number of management...

  15. Species distributions models in wildlife planning: agricultural policy and wildlife management in the great plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Joseph J.; Jorgensen, Christopher; Stuber, Erica F.; Gruber, Lutz F.; Bishop, Andrew A.; Lusk, Jeffrey J.; Zach, Eric S.; Decker, Karie L.

    2017-01-01

    We know economic and social policy has implications for ecosystems at large, but the consequences for a given geographic area or specific wildlife population are more difficult to conceptualize and communicate. Species distribution models, which extrapolate species-habitat relationships across ecological scales, are capable of predicting population changes in distribution and abundance in response to management and policy, and thus, are an ideal means for facilitating proactive management within a larger policy framework. To illustrate the capabilities of species distribution modeling in scenario planning for wildlife populations, we projected an existing distribution model for ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) onto a series of alternative future landscape scenarios for Nebraska, USA. Based on our scenarios, we qualitatively and quantitatively estimated the effects of agricultural policy decisions on pheasant populations across Nebraska, in specific management regions, and at wildlife management areas. 

  16. Ülkemizde Transfer Fiyatlandırmasının Yol Açtığı Tahmini Kurumlar Vergisi Kaybı(The Estimated Corporate Tax Loss Due To Transfer Pricing In Our Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar PEHLİVAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available States, though in order to grasp taxable income have created legal infrastructure; with the reason of lack of efficient tax audit, they have been exposed to important tax losses due to transfer pricing.The amount of tax losses due to over invoiced imports and under invoiced exports that are determined as estimation; has shown that tax audit had not been efficient in transfer pricing. In order to minimize corporate tax losses that occured due to transfer pricing, it is required to take precautionary measures oriented in increasing efficiency in tax audit

  17. Acceptability of residential development in a regional landscape: Potential effects on wildlife occupancy patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettigole, Charles A.; Donovan, Therese; Manning, Robert; Austin, John; Long, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of natural lands to developed uses may pose the single greatest human threat to global terrestrial biodiversity. Continued human growth and development over the next century will further exacerbate these effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Natural resource managers are tasked with managing wildlife as a public trust, yet often have little say in land use decisions. Generally speaking, decision makers could benefit from an understanding of what different regulations mean in terms of wildlife distribution. In a previous paper (Bettigole et al., 2013), we surveyed town residents throughout Vermont to measure how respondents feel about a range of development levels within their town boundaries. We estimated the “social carrying capacity for development” – orSKd – for 251 towns in Vermont. SKd provides an estimate of the level of developed land cover classes that town residents deem “acceptable” within their town boundaries. In this paper, we design a framework for linking the town-specific SKd estimates with the wildlife distribution patterns for three wide-ranging mammalian species: American black bear (Ursus americanus), fisher (Martes pennanti), and bobcat (Lynx rufus). We simulated landscape conditions at SKd for each town in Vermont, and then used existing occupancy models for the three target species to spatially map and compare occupancy rates in the baseline year 2000 with occupancy rates at SKd. With nearly 90% of Vermont towns willing to increase developed landcover classes within town boundaries compared to baseline levels, significant state-wide changes in occupancy rates were predicted for all three focal species. Average occupancy rates declined by −15.9% and −3.1% for black bear and bobcats, respectively. Average occupancy rates for fisher increased by 9.0%. This study provides a method for linking development standards within a town with wildlife occurrence. Across towns, the methodology spatially identifies

  18. Populations and reproductive success of seabirds on the Pacific coast of Becharof National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska Peninsula, Alaska, June- September 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Seabirds were monitored at Puale Bay on the Pacific coast of the Becharof National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) to estimate population size, breeding phenology, and...

  19. Crop damage and livestock depredation by wildlife: a case study from Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K S; Maikhuri, R K; Nautiyal, S; Saxena, K G

    2002-11-01

    The success of conserving biological resources in any Biosphere Reserve or protected area depends on the extent of support and positive attitudes and perceptions of local people have towards such establishments. Ignoring the dependence of the local people for their subsistence needs on resources of such areas leads to conflicts between protected area managers and the local inhabitants. Crop yield losses and livestock depredation were serious problems observed in most buffer zone villages of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve. In the present study 10 villages situated in the buffer zone of Nanada Devi Biosphere Reserve (1612 km2 area) in Chamoli district of Uttaranchal, India were studied during 1996-97 using a questionnaire survey of each household (419 = households; 2253 = total population in 1991; 273 ha = cultivated area). Estimates of crop yield losses were made using paired plots technique in four representative villages for each crop species. The magnitude of crop yield losses varied significantly with the distance of agricultural field from forest boundary. The total crop yield losses were high for wheat and potato in all the villages. The spatial distribution of total crop yield losses in any village indicated that they were highest in the area near to forest and least in the area near to village for all crops. Losses from areas near to forest contributed to more than 50% of total losses for each crop in all villages. However, in Lata, Peng and Tolma villages, the losses are high for kidney bean and chemmi (local variety of kidney bean) which varied between 18.5% to 30% of total losses in those villages. Potato alone represents 43.6% of total crop yield loss due to wildlife in Dronagiri village in monetary terms. Among the crops, the monetary value of yield losses are least for amaranth and highest for kidney bean. The projected total value of crop yield losses due to wildlife damage for buffer zone villages located in Garhwal Himalaya is about Rs. 538,620 (US

  20. U.S. Geological Survey—Energy and Wildlife Research Annual Report for 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mona

    2016-09-09

    Recent growth and development of renewable energy and unconventional oil and gas extraction are rapidly diversifying the energy supply of the United States. Yet, as our Nation works to advance energy security and conserve wildlife, some conflicts have surfaced. To address these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting innovative research and developing workable solutions to reduce the impacts of energy production on wildlife. USGS scientists collaborate on many studies with scientists from other Federal, State, and local government agencies; Tribal nations; academic research institutions; and nongovernmental and private organizations.The mix of fuels used for electricity generation is evolving. Solar, natural gas, and wind energy made up most electricity generation additions in 2015 and 2016. The United States now leads the world in natural gas production, with new record highs for each year from 2011 through 2015. More than 48,000 wind turbines now contribute to power grids in most States, providing about 5 percent of U.S. end-use electricity demand in an average year. The number of utility-scale solar-energy projects is growing rapidly with solar energy projected to contribute to the largest electricity generation addition in 2016.A substantial number of large energy projects have been constructed on undeveloped public lands, and more are anticipated at an increasing rate, creating new stress to wildlife. Direct impacts include collisions with wind turbines and structures at solar facilities and loss of habitat which may negatively affect sensitive species. Recent estimates suggest 250,000 to 500,000 birds die each year at wind turbine facilities. Bat fatality rates at wind turbine facilities are less certain, but may average several hundred thousand per year throughout North America. Because new projects may be located in or near sensitive wildlife habitats, ecological science plays a key role in helping to guide project siting and operational

  1. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Phase 1, Volume Two (B), Clark Fork River Projects, Cabinet Gorge and Noxon Rapids Dams, Operator, Washington Water Power Company.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn

    1984-06-01

    This report documents best available information concerning the wildlife species impacted and the degree of the impact. A target species list was developed to focus the impact assessment and to direct mitigation efforts. Many non-target species also incurred impacts but are not discussed in this report. All wildlife habitats inundated by the two reservoirs are represented by the target species. It was assumed the numerous non-target species also affected will be benefited by the mitigation measures adopted for the target species. Impacts addressed are limited to those directly attributable to the loss of habitat and displacement of wildlife populations due to the construction and operation of the two hydroelectric projects. Secondary impacts, such as the relocation of railroads and highways, and the increase of the human population, were not considered. In some cases, both positive and negative impacts were assessed; and the overall net effect was reported. The loss/gain estimates reported represent impacts considered to have occurred during one point in time except where otherwise noted. When possible, quantitative estimates were developed based on historical information from the area or on data from similar areas. Qualitative loss estimates of low, moderate, or high with supporting rationale were assessed for each species or species group.

  2. Wildlife connectivity approaches and best practices in U.S. state wildlife action plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacher, Iara; Wilkerson, Marit L

    2014-02-01

    As habitat loss and fragmentation threaten biodiversity on large geographic scales, creating and maintaining connectivity of wildlife populations is an increasingly common conservation objective. To assess the progress and success of large-scale connectivity planning, conservation researchers need a set of plans that cover large geographic areas and can be analyzed as a single data set. The state wildlife action plans (SWAPs) fulfill these requirements. We examined 50 SWAPs to determine the extent to which wildlife connectivity planning, via linkages, is emphasized nationally. We defined linkage as connective land that enables wildlife movement. For our content analysis, we identified and quantified 6 keywords and 7 content criteria that ranged in specificity and were related to linkages for wide-ranging terrestrial vertebrates and examined relations between content criteria and statewide data on focal wide-ranging species, spending, revenue, and conserved land. Our results reflect nationwide disparities in linkage conservation priorities and highlight the continued need for wildlife linkage planning. Only 30% or less of the 50 SWAPs fulfilled highly specific content criteria (e.g., identifying geographic areas for linkage placement or management). We found positive correlations between our content criteria and statewide data on percent conserved land, total focal species, and spending on parks and recreation. We supplemented our content analysis with interviews with 17 conservation professionals to gain specific information about state-specific context and future directions of linkage conservation. Based on our results, relevant literature, and interview responses, we suggest the following best practices for wildlife linkage conservation plans: collect ecologically meaningful background data; be specific; establish community-wide partnerships; and incorporate sociopolitical and socioeconomic information. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Exposure of Wildlife to the Schmallenberg Virus in France (2011-2014): Higher, Faster, Stronger (than Bluetongue)!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, S; Viarouge, C; Faure, E; Gilot-Fromont, E; Gache, K; Gibert, P; Verheyden, H; Hars, J; Klein, F; Maillard, D; Gauthier, D; Game, Y; Pozet, F; Sailleau, C; Garnier, A; Zientara, S; Bréard, E

    2017-04-01

    The Schmallenberg virus (SBV) has recently emerged in Europe, causing losses to the domestic livestock. A retrospective analysis of serodata was conducted in France for estimating seroprevalence of SBV among six wildlife species from 2011-2012 to 2013-2014, that is during the three vector seasons after the emergence of the SBV in France. Our objective was to quantify the exposure of wildlife to SBV and the potential protective effect of elevation such as previously observed for bluetongue. We also compared the spatiotemporal trends between domestic and wild animals at the level of the departments. We tested 2050 sera using competitive ELISA tests. Individual and population risk factors were further tested using general linear models among 1934 individuals. All populations but one exhibited positive results, seroprevalence up to 30% being observed for all species. The average seroprevalence did not differ between species but ranged from 0 to 90% according to the area and period, due to the dynamic pattern of infection. Seroprevalence was on average higher in the lowlands compared to areas located up to 800 m. Nevertheless, seroprevalence above 50% occurred in areas located up to 1500 m. Thus, contrary to what had been observed for bluetongue during the late 2000s in the same areas, SBV could spread to high altitudes and infect all the studied species. The spatial spread of SBV in wildlife did not fully match with SBV outbreaks reported in the domestic livestock. The mismatch was most obvious in mountainous areas where outbreaks in wildlife occurred on average one year after the peak of congenital cases in livestock. These results suggest a much larger spread and vector capacity for SBV than for bluetongue virus in natural areas. Potential consequences for wildlife dynamics are discussed. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Spatiotemporal Variation and the Role of Wildlife in Seasonal Water Quality Declines in the Chobe River, Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Tyler Fox

    Full Text Available Sustainable management of dryland river systems is often complicated by extreme variability of precipitation in time and space, especially across large catchment areas. Understanding regional water quality changes in southern African dryland rivers and wetland systems is especially important because of their high subsistence value and provision of ecosystem services essential to both public and animal health. We quantified seasonal variation of Escherichia coli (E. coli and Total Suspended Solids (TSS in the Chobe River using spatiotemporal and geostatistical modeling of water quality time series data collected along a transect spanning a mosaic of protected, urban, and developing urban land use. We found significant relationships in the dry season between E. coli concentrations and protected land use (p = 0.0009, floodplain habitat (p = 0.016, and fecal counts from elephant (p = 0.017 and other wildlife (p = 0.001. Dry season fecal loading by both elephant (p = 0.029 and other wildlife (p = 0.006 was also an important predictor of early wet season E. coli concentrations. Locations of high E. coli concentrations likewise showed close spatial agreement with estimates of wildlife biomass derived from aerial survey data. In contrast to the dry season, wet season bacterial water quality patterns were associated only with TSS (p<0.0001, suggesting storm water and sediment runoff significantly influence E. coli loads. Our data suggest that wildlife populations, and elephants in particular, can significantly modify river water quality patterns. Loss of habitat and limitation of wildlife access to perennial rivers and floodplains in water-restricted regions may increase the impact of species on surface water resources. Our findings have important implications to land use planning in southern Africa's dryland river ecosystems.

  5. ESTIMATES OF KRASNOYARSK REGION BUDGET LOSSES DUE TO THE TAX SHORTFALLS FROM BUSINESSES RELATED WITH A TEMPORARY DISABILITY OF SMOKING EMPLOYEES AND THE REDUCTION IN LABOR INTENSITY DUE TO THE SMOKING BREAKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pavlovich Artuchov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to estimate Krasnoyarsk region budget losses due to the shortfalls of taxes from businesses related with a temporary disability of smoking employees and the reduction of labor intensity due to the smoking breaks in 2011.In our work we used the method of economic losses estimation, developed by Conference Board of Canada.The following results were obtained. The estimation of tax shortfalls due to a temporary disability of smoking employees and decrease of labor intensity due to smoking breaks was carried out. It was obtained that Krasnoyarsk region budget losses as a result of the tax shortfalls are equal to 532.8 million rubles – due to increased sick absence risks among smokers and 3 414.3 million rubles – due to the lack of workers on the workplace during smoking breaks. Thus, it was found that the total budget losses of Krasnoyarsk region in 2011 reach 0.34% of the gross regional product.The obtained results can be used for the assessments of the economic losses.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-22

  6. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  7. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area : Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  8. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area : Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  9. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area : Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  10. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife refuge : Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  11. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area : Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  12. BIRD/WILDLIFE STRIKE CONTROL FOR SAFER AIR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... Abstract. Bird strike has become a major threat to air safety globally. Over the years, collision between birds/wildlife and aircrafts has resulted in the death of hundreds of people and is responsible for annual losses worth about US $1.2 billion to the global aviation industry. This paper therefore, focuses on ...

  13. 50 CFR 216.87 - Wildlife research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wildlife research. 216.87 Section 216.87 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.87 Wildlife research. (a) Wildlife research, other than research on...

  14. 75 FR 54649 - Endangered Wildlife; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Wildlife; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Wildlife Service (Service), invite the public to comment on applications for permits to conduct enhancement..., U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 911 NE. 11th Avenue, Portland, OR 97232-4181. FOR FURTHER...

  15. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too loud Difficulty following conversations when two or more people are talking ...

  16. Evaluation of different empirical models of crop/weed competition to estimate yield and LAI losses from common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghestani, Mohammad Ali; Zand, Eskandar; Soufizadeh, Saeid; Beygi, Mehdi Agha

    2007-11-01

    Usefulness and validity of different empirical yield loss models at describing the effect of common lambsquarters competition in maize were evaluated in a two year experiment in Karaj during 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Experimental factors were density (1st year: 2, 5, 10 and 15 plants m(-2); 2nd year: 6.6, 13.3 and 20 plants m(-2)) and the relative emergence time (1st year: simultaneous to, at 2-3 and 4-5 leaf stages of maize; 2nd year: simultaneous to, at 2-3 and 5-6 leaf stages of maize) of common lambsquarters. Results indicated that the highest maize yield and LAI losses were observed at simultaneous emergence of weed and maize resulted in 85 and 92% yield loss and 73 and 53% LAI loss in the first and second years of experiments, respectively. Also, delaying common lambsquarters emergence reduced its competitive ability against maize. Comparison of different empirical models revealed that the empirical yield loss models based on density and the relative time of weed emergence and the weed relative leaf area, also the rectangular hyperbolic yield loss model based on weed density were more reliable at predicting maize yield and LAI losses according to their high coefficient of determination (R2). Also, results indicated that the negative effect of the relative time of common lambsquarters emergence on maize yield loss was more than weed density, so that the rectangular hyperbolic yield loss model based on weed density was more capable at predicting yield loss at each of weed emergence time.

  17. Uso de geoprocessamento na estimativa da perda de solo em microbacia hidrográfica do semiárido brasileiro.= Applied geoprocessing for soil loss estimation in a Brazilian semiarid watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Guerreiro Chaves

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays soil loss by erosion is one of the most serious environmental problems which has caused the degradation of various resources, especially soil and water. The aim of this study was to predict the soil loss due to erosion at a small watershed sited in Semiarid region of Ceara State, Brazil, through an arrangement of Geographic Information System tools with a quantitative model of soil loss, by the Universal Soil Loss Equation, USLE. The watershed delimitation was performed using the Digital Elevation Model. The density of drainage network was estimated using the extension ArcHydro/ArcMap 9.1. The soil loss in 74% of the studied small watershed presents a value smaller than 11 t ha-1 year-1 in more plain and vegetated areas. It was observe that more than 90% of the area presented a soil loss below 37 t ha-1 year-1, being this characteristic very influenced by the local geography, which is smooth and low sloped in more than 83% of the area of the small watershed. 66% of the area presents a low vulnerability to erosion (<10 t ha-1 year-1, being associated to this region cover vegetation and low values of slope factors. The integrated use of GIS and USLE has allowed a fast and dynamic analysis of the study area, beyond identifying most vulnerable areas to the soil loss process within the basin.

  18. The role of native birds and other wildlife on the emergence of zoonotic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; McLean, Robert G.; Burroughs, T.; Knobler, S.; Lederberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Wildlife can be an important source of transmission of infectious disease to humans. One potential transmission route involves hunting and fishing, both common activities in the United States and worldwide. For example, during 1996, approximately 11 million Americans, about 40 percent of the total population 16 years of age and older, took part in some recreational activity relating to wildlife and fish. Another potential route of infection focuses on urban and suburban environments. These locations are of special concern because of their increasing role as wildlife habitat, the greater interface between humans and wildlife that takes place within those environments, the paucity of knowledge about disease in those wildlife populations, and the general lack of orderly management for wildlife within those environments. In the wild, several trends are contributing to the growing importance of zoonotic diseases. First, the spectrum of infectious diseases affecting wildlife today is greater than at any time during the previous century. Second, the occurrence of infectious diseases has changed, from sporadic, self-limiting outbreaks that generally resulted in minor losses to frequently occurring events that generally result in major losses of wildlife. Third, disease emergence has occurred on a worldwide scale in a broad spectrum of wildlife species and habitats. Given the scope of the problem, current disease surveillance efforts are inadequate. Few state wildlife agencies allocate personnel and resources to address wildlife disease, despite their statutory responsibility for managing nonmigratory wildlife. Some state agencies provide minimal support for regional programs based at universities. At the federal level, the primary surveillance effort is conducted by the National Wildlife Health Center, operated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Outside of government, some veterinary schools, agriculture diagnostic laboratories, and other programs provide additional

  19. The Zambian Wildlife Ranching Industry: Scale, Associated Benefits, and Limitations Affecting Its Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Peter A.; Barnes, Jonathan; Nyirenda, Vincent; Pumfrett, Belinda; Tambling, Craig J.; Taylor, W. Andrew; Rolfes, Michael t’Sas

    2013-01-01

    The number and area of wildlife ranches in Zambia increased from 30 and 1,420 km2 in 1997 to 177 and ∼6,000 km2 by 2012. Wild ungulate populations on wildlife ranches increased from 21,000 individuals in 1997 to ∼91,000 in 2012, while those in state protected areas declined steeply. Wildlife ranching and crocodile farming have a turnover of ∼USD15.7 million per annum, compared to USD16 million from the public game management areas which encompass an area 29 times larger. The wildlife ranching industry employs 1,200 people (excluding jobs created in support industries), with a further ∼1,000 individuals employed through crocodile farming. Wildlife ranches generate significant quantities of meat (295,000 kg/annum), of which 30,000 kg of meat accrues to local communities and 36,000 kg to staff. Projected economic returns from wildlife ranching ventures are high, with an estimated 20-year economic rate of return of 28%, indicating a strong case for government support for the sector. There is enormous scope for wildlife ranching in Zambia due to the availability of land, high diversity of wildlife and low potential for commercial livestock production. However, the Zambian wildlife ranching industry is small and following completion of field work for this study, there was evidence of a significant proportion of ranchers dropping out. The industry is performing poorly, due to inter alia: rampant commercial bushmeat poaching; failure of government to allocate outright ownership of wildlife to landowners; bureaucratic hurdles; perceived historical lack of support from the Zambia Wildlife Authority and government; a lack of a clear policy on wildlife ranching; and a ban on hunting on unfenced lands including game ranches. For the wildlife ranching industry to develop, these limitations need to be addressed decisively. These findings are likely to apply to other savanna countries with large areas of marginal land potentially suited to wildlife ranching. PMID:24367493

  20. Has the time come for big science in wildlife health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of wildlife emerging diseases are global and profound with increased burden on the public health system, negative impacts on the global economy, declines and extinctions of wildlife species, and subsequent loss of ecological integrity. Examples of health threats to wildlife include Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes a cutaneous fungal infection of amphibians and is linked to declines of amphibians globally; and the recently discovered Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans, the etiologic agent of white nose syndrome which has caused precipitous declines of North American bat species. Of particular concern are the novel pathogens that have emerged as they are particularly devastating and challenging to manage. A big science approach to wildlife health research is needed if we are to make significant and enduring progress in managing these diseases. The advent of new analytical models and bench assays will provide us with the mathematical and molecular tools to identify and anticipate threats to wildlife, and understand the ecology and epidemiology of these diseases. Specifically, new molecular diagnostic techniques have opened up avenues for pathogen discovery, and the application of spatially referenced databases allows for risk assessments that can assist in targeting surveillance. Long-term, systematic collection of data for wildlife health and integration with other datasets is also essential. Multidisciplinary research programs should be expanded to increase our understanding of the drivers of emerging diseases and allow for the development of better disease prevention and management tools, such as vaccines. Finally, we need to create a National Fish and Wildlife Health Network that provides the operational framework (governance, policies, procedures, etc.) by which entities with a stake in wildlife health cooperate and collaborate to achieve optimal outcomes for human, animal, and ecosystem health.

  1. Wildlife values of North American ricelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, J.M.; Elphick, C.S.; Reinecke, K.J.; Miller, M.R.; Manley, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    Ricelands have become an indispensable component of waterbird habitat and a leading example of integrating agricultural and natural resource management in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, Gulf Coast, and Central California. Residual rice, weed seeds, and invertebrates provide food for many avian species during fall and winter. In North America, considerable information exists on the use of ricefields by wintering waterbirds, the value of ricelands as breeding habitat for birds, and the effects of organic chemicals on birds that- feed in ricefields. Recent research has also examined the influence of field management practices, such as winter flooding and post-harvest straw manipulation, on the suitability of ricefields for wildlife. Whereas early studies focused on detrimental effects of wildlife on rice production (e.g., crop depredation), it has become apparent that waterbirds may benefit producers by enhancing straw decomposition, reducing weed and pest pressure, and providing additional income through hunting and wildlife viewing opportunities. A comprehensive evaluation of agronomic and environmental issues is needed to meet the challenges of producing food and sustaining wildlife in twenty-first-century rice lands. Changes in agricultural markets, pressures of increased urban development, conflicting needs for limited resources such as water, endangered species constraints, and concerns over water quality must be addressed in developing a sustainable, mutually beneficial partnership among the rice industry, wildlife, and environmental interests. Research is also needed to evaluate potential reductions in the wildlife carrying capacity of ricelands resulting from new harvest and field management techniques, crop conversion, or loss of rice acreage. Key uncertainties include: (1) changes in waste grain abundance and availability due to various harvest and post-harvest management practices; (2) evaluating food depletion by birds feeding in rice6elds and

  2. A Survey of the Fish and Macroinvertebrate Communities of the Silvio Conte National Wildlife Refuge Lands in the Nulhegan Drainage and the West Mountain Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results from the following: 1) A fish species inventory of running and standing waters. 2) An analysis of these data indicating an estimate...

  3. Benefits of the fire mitigation ecosystem service in The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthum, Bryan; Pindilli, Emily; Hogan, Dianna

    2017-12-01

    The Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) National Wildlife Refuge delivers multiple ecosystem services, including air quality and human health via fire mitigation. Our analysis estimates benefits of this service through its potential to reduce catastrophic wildfire related impacts on the health of nearby human populations. We used a combination of high-frequency satellite data, ground sensors, and air quality indices to determine periods of public exposure to dense emissions from a wildfire within the GDS. We examined emergency department (ED) visitation in seven Virginia counties during these periods, applied measures of cumulative Relative Risk to derive the effects of wildfire smoke exposure on ED visitation rates, and estimated economic losses using regional Cost of Illness values established within the US Environmental Protection Agency BenMAP framework. Our results estimated the value of one avoided catastrophic wildfire in the refuge to be $3.69 million (2015 USD), or $306 per hectare of burn. Reducing the frequency or severity of extensive, deep burning peatland wildfire events has additional benefits not included in this estimate, including avoided costs related to fire suppression during a burn, carbon dioxide emissions, impacts to wildlife, and negative outcomes associated with recreation and regional tourism. We suggest the societal value of the public health benefits alone provides a significant incentive for refuge mangers to implement strategies that will reduce the severity of catastrophic wildfires. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Benefits of the fire mitigation ecosystem service in the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthum, Bryan M.; Pindilli, Emily; Hogan, Dianna

    2017-01-01

     The Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) National Wildlife Refuge delivers multiple ecosystem services, including air quality and human health via fire mitigation. Our analysis estimates benefits of this service through its potential to reduce catastrophic wildfire related impacts on the health of nearby human populations. We used a combination of high-frequency satellite data, ground sensors, and air quality indices to determine periods of public exposure to dense emissions from a wildfire within the GDS. We examined emergency department (ED) visitation in seven Virginia counties during these periods, applied measures of cumulative Relative Risk to derive the effects of wildfire smoke exposure on ED visitation rates, and estimated economic losses using regional Cost of Illness values established within the US Environmental Protection Agency BenMAP framework. Our results estimated the value of one avoided catastrophic wildfire in the refuge to be \\$3.69 million (2015 USD), or \\$306 per hectare of burn. Reducing the frequency or severity of extensive, deep burning peatland wildfire events has additional benefits not included in this estimate, including avoided costs related to fire suppression during a burn, carbon dioxide emissions, impacts to wildlife, and negative outcomes associated with recreation and regional tourism. We suggest the societal value of the public health benefits alone provides a significant incentive for refuge mangers to implement strategies that will reduce the severity of catastrophic wildfires.

  5. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge : Refuge Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document lists the objectives of Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. Topics outlined in this plan include wildlife-wildlands interpretation,...

  6. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Law Enforcement Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides...

  7. Cropland Management Plan: Louisa National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Louisa National Wildlife Refuge Cropland Management Plan focuses to the production of supplemental grain and browse foods to maintain wildlife populations at...

  8. Guidelines for wildlife disease risk analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2014-01-01

    Provides an overview of science-based processes and tools for wildlife disease risk analysis and their application to contemporary issues such as human-wildlife interactions, domestic animal-wildlife...

  9. Arctic National Wildlife Range, Annual Narrative Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Arctic National Wildlife Range (ANWR) was established by executive order in 1960 for the purpose of preserving unique wildlife, wilderness and recreational...

  10. Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge : Cropland Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge Cropland Management Plan focuses on the production of supplemental grain and browse foods to maintain wildlife populations at...

  11. Fishery Management Recommendations : Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These management recommendations were prepared by the Winona Fishery Resources Office of the U.S. Fish Wildlife Service for the Necedah National Wildlife Refuge....

  12. Contaminants investigation at Grulla National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In August, 2003, a contaminants investigation was initiated at Grulla National Wildlife Refuge (Grulla NWR) by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel. The purpose...

  13. US Fish and Wildlife Service Regional Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Boundaries of the management Regions of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is organized into 8 geographic Regions.

  14. Estimated losses of energy in a power system using a semi-statistical methodology; Estimacion de perdidas de energia en un sistema electrico de potencia mediante una metodologia semi-estadistica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Martinez, D [Centro Universitario UAEM, Valle de Teotihuacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: david_2mtz@hotmail.com; Martinez Lendech, J.F [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores del Oriente del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: mrtzlendech@hotmail.com; Garcia Herrera, C; Olvera Ricano, J.G. [Centro Universitario UAEM, Valle de Teotihuacan (Mexico)]. E-mails: cozobi_garcia@yahoo.com.mx; jgolverar@uaemex.mx

    2013-03-15

    Determination of electrical losses is one of the most important tasks for any enterprise dedicated to generation, transmission, transformation and/or distribution of electric energy. Any enterprise dedicated to these activities does continuously energy balances in order to estimate whole electrical losses of specific processes. However, it is necessary to classify the whole electrical losses into technical and non-technical losses. This paper presents a proposal for estimating technical and non-technical losses in an electrical power system. [Spanish] La determinacion de las perdidas de energia electrica es una de las labores mas importantes en cualquier empresa dedicada a la generacion, transmision, transformacion y/o distribucion de energia electrica. Es indudable que toda empresa dedicada a cualquiera de las actividades mencionadas anteriormente realiza periodicamente balances de energia que permiten estimar el valor de las perdidas totales de energia del proceso considerado. No obstante, para poder realizar un mejor analisis de la problematica de las perdidas de energia, es necesario separar el valor total de perdidas obtenido mediante un balance de energia, en perdidas tecnicas y perdidas no tecnicas. El presente trabajo presenta una propuesta para la estimacion de perdidas tecnicas y no tecnicas en un sistema electrico de potencia.

  15. African Wildlife Policy : Protecting Wildlife Herbivores on Private Game Ranches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinyua, P.; Kooten, van G.C.; Bulte, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    In large parts of Africa, wildlife herbivores spill over onto private lands, competing with domestic livestock for forage resources. To encourage private landowners to take into account the externality benefits of wildlife, game cropping is increasingly considered as an important component of

  16. Exploring Wildlife, Unit 1, Colorado Division of Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jon K.; Smith, Dwight R.

    This booklet on wildlife is part of a series to encourage youth to pursue environmental projects. The booklet discusses various aspects of wildlife management such as life zones, pollution, predator control, game stocking, habitat improvement, hunting, legislation, and careers. Key words are defined, and suggested activities are listed. (MR)

  17. Annual Hunting Program for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1987-88

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the results of the 1986-87 hunting season and lays out estimates for the 1987-88 season at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge. It details the...

  18. Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project, Annual Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Hydropower development within the Columbia and Snake River Basins has significantly affected riparian, riverine, and adjacent upland habitats and the fish and wildlife species dependent upon them. Hydroelectric dams played a major role in the extinction or major loss of both anadromous and resident salmonid populations and altered instream and adjacent upland habitats, water quality, and riparian/riverine function. Hydroelectric facility construction and inundation directly affected fish and wildlife species and habitats. Secondary and tertiary impacts including road construction, urban development, irrigation, and conversion of native habitats to agriculture, due in part to the availability of irrigation water, continue to affect wildlife and fish populations throughout the Columbia and Snake River Basins. Fluctuating water levels resulting from facility operations have created exposed sand, cobble, and/or rock zones. These zones are generally devoid of vegetation with little opportunity to re-establish riparian plant communities. To address the habitat and wildlife losses, the United States Congress in 1980 passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act) (P.L. 96-501), which authorized the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington to create the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The Act directed the Council to prepare a program in conjunction with federal, state, and tribal wildlife resource authorities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife species affected by the construction, inundation and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin (NPPC 2000). Under the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program), the region's fish and wildlife agencies, tribes, non-government organizations (NGOs), and the public propose fish and wildlife projects that address wildlife and fish losses resulting from dam construction and subsequent inundation. As directed by the Council, project

  19. Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.). While exceedance of these benchmarks does not indicate any particular level or type of risk, concentrations below the benchmarks should not result in significant effects. In practice, when contaminant concentrations in food or water resources are less than these toxicological benchmarks, the contaminants may be excluded from further consideration. However, if the concentration of a contaminant exceeds a benchmark, that contaminant should be retained as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) and investigated further. The second tier in ecological risk assessment, the baseline ecological risk assessment, may use toxicological benchmarks as part of a weight-of-evidence approach (Suter 1993). Under this approach, based toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. Other sources of evidence include media toxicity tests, surveys of biota (abundance and diversity), measures of contaminant body burdens, and biomarkers. This report presents NOAEL- and lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 85 chemicals on 9 representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, little brown bat, meadow vole, white-footed mouse, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer) or 11 avian wildlife species (American robin, rough-winged swallow, American woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, barn owl, Cooper's hawk, and red

  20. Wildlife trade and global disease emergence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karesh, William B; Cook, Robert A; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Newcomb, James

    2005-01-01

    The global trade in wildlife provides disease transmission mechanisms that not only cause human disease outbreaks but also threaten livestock, international trade, rural livelihoods, native wildlife...

  1. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  2. Renewable energy and wildlife conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mona

    2016-09-09

    The renewable energy sector is rapidly expanding and diversifying the power supply of the country. Yet, as our Nation works to advance renewable energy and to conserve wildlife, some conflicts arise. To address these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting innovative research and developing workable solutions to reduce impacts of renewable energy production on wildlife.

  3. Wildlife Emergency and Critical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Jennifer; Barron, Heather

    2016-05-01

    Wildlife patients often present as emergencies. For veterinarians who do not typically treat wildlife, it is important to be able to stabilize and determine the underlying cause of the animal's signs. This article discusses initial assessment, stabilization, and treatment of common emergency presentations in wild birds, reptiles, and mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of Bordetella avium by TaqMan real-time PCR in tracheal swabs from wildlife birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, T; Pestka, D; Tykałowski, B; Śmiałek, M; Koncicki, A; Bancerz-Kisiel, A

    2017-03-28

    Bordetella avium, the causing agent of bordetellosis, a highly contagious infection of the respiratory tract in young poultry, causes significant losses in poultry farming throughout the world. Wildlife birds can be a reservoir of various pathogens that infect farm animals. For this reason the studies were conducted to estimate the prevalence of Bordetella avium in wildlife birds in Poland. Tracheal swab samples were collected from 650 birds representing 27 species. The bacterial DNA was isolated directly from the swabs and screened for Bordetella avium by TaqMan real-time PCR. The assay specificity was evaluated by testing DNA isolated from 8 other bacteria that can be present in avian respiratory tract, and there was no amplification from non-Bordetella avium agents. Test sensitivity was determined by preparing standard tenfold serial dilutions of DNA isolated from positive control. The assay revealed to be sensitive, with detection limit of approximately 4.07x10^2 copies of Bordetella avium DNA. The genetic material of Bordetella avium was found in 54.54% of common pheasants, in 9.09% of Eurasian coots, in 3.22% of black-headed gulls and in 2.77% of mallard ducks. The results of this study point to low prevalence of Bordetella avium infections in wildlife birds. The results also show that described molecular assay proved to be suitable for the rapid diagnosis of bordetellosis in the routine diagnostic laboratory.

  5. An initial abstraction and constant loss model, and methods for estimating unit hydrographs, peak streamflows, and flood volumes for urban basins in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Streamflow data, basin characteristics, and rainfall data from 39 streamflow-gaging stations for urban areas in and adjacent to Missouri were used by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Metropolitan Sewer District of St. Louis to develop an initial abstraction and constant loss model (a time-distributed basin-loss model) and a gamma unit hydrograph (GUH) for urban areas in Missouri. Study-specific methods to determine peak streamflow and flood volume for a given rainfall event also were developed.

  6. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Rainwater Wildlife Area, 1998-2001 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland rover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2} plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  7. Wildlife disease prevalence in human-modified landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Grant; Rhodes, Jonathan; Bradley, Adrian; Baxter, Greg; Seabrook, Leonie; Lunney, Daniel; Liu, Yan; McAlpine, Clive

    2013-05-01

    Human-induced landscape change associated with habitat loss and fragmentation places wildlife populations at risk. One issue in these landscapes is a change in the prevalence of disease which may result in increased mortality and reduced fecundity. Our understanding of the influence of habitat loss and fragmentation on the prevalence of wildlife diseases is still in its infancy. What is evident is that changes in disease prevalence as a result of human-induced landscape modification are highly variable. The importance of infectious diseases for the conservation of wildlife will increase as the amount and quality of suitable habitat decreases due to human land-use pressures. We review the experimental and observational literature of the influence of human-induced landscape change on wildlife disease prevalence, and discuss disease transmission types and host responses as mechanisms that are likely to determine the extent of change in disease prevalence. It is likely that transmission dynamics will be the key process in determining a pathogen's impact on a host population, while the host response may ultimately determine the extent of disease prevalence. Finally, we conceptualize mechanisms and identify future research directions to increase our understanding of the relationship between human-modified landscapes and wildlife disease prevalence. This review highlights that there are rarely consistent relationships between wildlife diseases and human-modified landscapes. In addition, variation is evident between transmission types and landscape types, with the greatest positive influence on disease prevalence being in urban landscapes and directly transmitted disease systems. While we have a limited understanding of the potential influence of habitat loss and fragmentation on wildlife disease, there are a number of important areas to address in future research, particularly to account for the variability in increased and decreased disease prevalence. Previous studies

  8. Body composition during weight loss in obese patients estimated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and by total body potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Andersen, T

    1996-01-01

    for FFM were strong (r = 0.92 and 0.93). Bland and Altman plots showed limits of agreement of +/-9 kg before and after weight loss; DXA underestimated FFM in women and overestimated FFM in men. DXA accounted for 80% of the lost body weight. The composition of the lost body mass did not differ from......OBJECTIVE: To validate the ability of DXA to measure total body composition before and after weight loss and the composition of the lost body mass. DESIGN: Cross sectional and follow-up study of body composition before and after a weight loss of 10.6 +/- 6.8 kg. SUBJECTS: 31 obese subjects...... with a mean body weight of 105.2 +/- 15.2 kg at baseline, and a mean body weight of 94.6 +/- 16.5 kg at follow-up. MEASUREMENTS: Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry, total body potassium counting, and high precision scales before and after a weight loss. RESULTS: DXA and the scales...

  9. Asteroseismology of old open clusters with Kepler: direct estimate of the integrated red giant branch mass-loss in NGC 6791 and 6819

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miglio, A.; Brogaard, K.; Stello, D.; Chaplin, W.J.; D'Antona, F.; Montalbán, J.; Basu, S.; Bressan, A.; Grundahl, F.; Pinsonneault, M.; Serenelli, A.M.; Elsworth, Y.; Hekker, S.; Kallinger, T.; Mosser, B.; Ventura, P.; Bonanno, A.; Noels, A.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Szabo, R.; Li, J.; McCauliff, S.; Middour, C.K.; Kjeldsen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Mass-loss of red giant branch (RGB) stars is still poorly determined, despite its crucial role in the chemical enrichment of galaxies. Thanks to the recent detection of solar-like oscillations in G-K giants in open clusters with Kepler, we can now directly determine stellar masses for a

  10. Estimating environmental value losses from earth materials excavation and infilling for large-scale airport construction: a case of Dalian Offshore Airport, Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hua-Kun; Wang, Nuo; Wu, Nuan; Song, Nan-Qi; Zhu, Dao-Li

    2017-09-01

    Large-scale airport construction removes large quantities of earth materials, resulting in serious environmental pollution and ecosystem damage. However, studies of environmental concerns caused by the materials used in airport construction are still preliminary, and those case studies on the impacts of large-scale offshore airport development are very limited. China's Dalian Offshore Airport is considered here to study the environmental value loss from 240 million m3 of materials excavations and 21 km2 of artificial island infillings. The findings show that the calculated annual environmental value loss for the development of the Dalian Offshore Airport is approximately US$7.75 million, including US$1.81 million and US$1.47 million of direct economic loss of timber resources and marine biology resources, respectively, and US$1.53 million and US$2.79 million value losses of forest and marine ecosystem services damaged caused by materials excavation and infilling, respectively. The conclusions of this study provide an important foundation to quantitatively analyse the environmental impact of the Dalian Offshore Airport's development and can be used as a reference for similar engineering and environment impact assessment programs.

  11. Extreme Wildlife Declines and Concurrent Increase in Livestock Numbers in Kenya: What Are the Causes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O Ogutu

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of escalating wildlife losses worldwide. Extreme wildlife losses have recently been documented for large parts of Africa, including western, Central and Eastern Africa. Here, we report extreme declines in wildlife and contemporaneous increase in livestock numbers in Kenya rangelands between 1977 and 2016. Our analysis uses systematic aerial monitoring survey data collected in rangelands that collectively cover 88% of Kenya's land surface. Our results show that wildlife numbers declined on average by 68% between 1977 and 2016. The magnitude of decline varied among species but was most extreme (72-88% and now severely threatens the population viability and persistence of warthog, lesser kudu, Thomson's gazelle, eland, oryx, topi, hartebeest, impala, Grevy's zebra and waterbuck in Kenya's rangelands. The declines were widespread and occurred in most of the 21 rangeland counties. Likewise to wildlife, cattle numbers decreased (25.2% but numbers of sheep and goats (76.3%, camels (13.1% and donkeys (6.7% evidently increased in the same period. As a result, livestock biomass was 8.1 times greater than that of wildlife in 2011-2013 compared to 3.5 times in 1977-1980. Most of Kenya's wildlife (ca. 30% occurred in Narok County alone. The proportion of the total "national" wildlife population found in each county increased between 1977 and 2016 substantially only in Taita Taveta and Laikipia but marginally in Garissa and Wajir counties, largely reflecting greater wildlife losses elsewhere. The declines raise very grave concerns about the future of wildlife, the effectiveness of wildlife conservation policies, strategies and practices in Kenya. Causes of the wildlife declines include exponential human population growth, increasing livestock numbers, declining rainfall and a striking rise in temperatures but the fundamental cause seems to be policy, institutional and market failures. Accordingly, we thoroughly evaluate wildlife

  12. Mercury poisoning in wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Fairbrother, Anne; Locke, Louis N.; Hoff, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    Mercury is an intriguing contaminant because it has complex chemical properties, a wide range of harmful effects, and an infinite persistence in the environment. Die-offs of wildlife due to mercury have occurred in many countries, especially before mercury seed dressings were banned. Today, most mercury problems are associated with aquatic environments. Methylmercury, the most toxic chemical form, attacks many organ systems, but damage to the central nervous system is most severe. Harmful wet-weight concentrations of mercury, as methylmercury, in the tissues of adult birds and mammals range from about 8-30 ppm in the brain, 20-60 ppm in liver, 20-60 ppm in kidney, and 15-30 ppm in muscle. Young animals may be more sensitive.

  13. Eating to save wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Birkved, Morten; Gamborg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    .e. from cradle to gate) and across a multitude of impact categories (i.e. including and beyond climate change), of typical food items sold in zoos and aquariums. It describes the impacts on wildlife and nature that these products may have. Further we link this analysis to different ideas of sustainability......, could be: Does it make sense to work for conservation by preserving animal species in captivity while selling food to visitors that may be undermining this effort? Complicating the issue is that zoos and aquariums are dependent on generating a profit from “non-core” services such as cafeterias...... and the like to generate funds for running the zoo, and conceivably, in turn for conservation purposes - funds that might diminish if zoos and aquariums do not sell a variety of food products, including animal-based ones to their visitors. The main question addressed by this paper is: If zoos and aquariums...

  14. Light Pollution and Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffek, J.

    2008-12-01

    for Educational Program IYA Dark Skies Education Session Fall American Geophysical Union San Francisco, December 15-19, 2008 Light Pollution and Wildlife This is a very exciting time to be a part of the mission to keep the nighttime skies natural. The International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 is developing programs for all areas of Dark Skies Awareness. For many years the issue of light pollution focused on the impact to the astronomy industry. While this is an important area, research has shown that light pollution negatively impacts wildlife, their habitat, human health, and is a significant waste of energy. Since the message and impact of the effects of light pollution are much broader now, the message conveyed to the public must also be broader. Education programs directed at youth are a new frontier to reach out to a new audience about the adverse effects of too much artificial light at night. The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) has developed educational presentations using the National Science Teachers Association Education Standards. These programs focus on youth between the ages of 5 to 17exploring new territory in the education of light pollution. The IDA education programs are broken down into three age groups; ages 5-9, 8-13, 12 and older. The presentations come complete with PowerPoint slides, discussion notes for each slide, and workbooks including age appropriate games to keep young audiences involved. A new presentation reflects the growing area of interest regarding the effects of too much artificial light at night on wildlife. This presentation outlines the known problems for ecosystems caused by artificial light at night. Insects are attracted to artificial lights and may stay near that light all night. This attraction interferes with their ability to migrate, mate, and look for food. Such behavior leads to smaller insect populations. Fewer insects in turn affect birds and bats, because they rely on insects as a food source. The IDA

  15. Bonneville Power Administration Wildlife Mitigation Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. Future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and enhancement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative. Five standardizing alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information.

  16. Arapaho and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuges Black-footed Ferret Cooperative Recovery Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — White-tailed prairie dog colony mapping and density estimation will continue at Arapaho NWR through 2019, and a final report will be prepared at that time. As of...

  17. Morbidity, outcomes and cost-benefit analysis of wildlife rehabilitation in Catalonia (Spain)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rafael Angel Molina-López; Santi Mañosa; Alex Torres-Riera; Manel Pomarol; Laila Darwich

    2017-01-01

    ..., could be used as reliable estimators of the rehabilitation costs. Methodology A retrospective study based on 54772 admissions recorded from 1995-2013 in the database of the Wildlife Rehabilitation Center of Torreferrussa (Catalonia, NW Spain...

  18. 7 CFR 371.6 - Wildlife Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wildlife Services. 371.6 Section 371.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.6 Wildlife Services. (a) General statement. Wildlife Services (WS) manages problems caused by wildlife. (b) Deputy Administrator of...

  19. 36 CFR 1002.2 - Wildlife protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wildlife protection. 1002.2... RECREATION § 1002.2 Wildlife protection. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) The taking of wildlife. (2) The feeding, touching, teasing, frightening or intentional disturbing of wildlife nesting, breeding or...

  20. Wildlife reserves, populations, and hunting outcome with smart wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Strange, Niels

    2014-01-01

    We consider a hunting area and a wildlife reserve and answer the question: How does clever migration decision affect the social optimal and the private optimal hunting levels and population stocks? We analyze this in a model allowing for two-way migration between hunting and reserve areas, where...... the populations’ migration decisions depend on both hunting pressure and relative population densities. In the social optimum a pure stress effect on the behavior of smart wildlife exists. This implies that the population level in the wildlife reserve tends to increase and the population level in the hunting area...... and hunting levels tend to decrease. On the other hand, the effect on stock tends to reduce the population in the wildlife reserve and increase the population in the hunting area and thereby also increase hunting. In the case of the private optimum, open-access is assumed and we find that the same qualitative...