WorldWideScience

Sample records for wildlife area management

  1. State Wildlife Management Area Boundaries - Publicly Accessible

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This polygon theme contains boundaries for approximately 1392 Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) across the state covering nearly 1,288,000 acres. WMAs are part of the...

  2. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan : Executive Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.; Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation in Oregon.

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the project is to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources. The Northwest Power Act directs the NPPC to develop a program to ''protect, mitigate, and enhance'' fish and wildlife of the Columbia River and its tributaries. The overarching goals include: A Columbia River ecosystem that sustains an abundant, productive, and diverse community of fish and wildlife; Mitigation across the basin for the adverse effects to fish and wildlife caused by the development and operation of the hydrosystem; Sufficient populations of fish and wildlife for abundant opportunities for tribal trust and treaty right harvest and for non-tribal harvest; and Recovery of the fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of the hydrosystem that are listed under the Endangered Species Act.

  3. Realising the promise of Tanzania’s wildlife management areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homewood, Katherine; Lund, Jens Friis; Keane, Aidan

    2017-01-01

    Tanzania’s Community Wildlife Management Areas (CWMAs) – originally called Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) – were intended to benefit both people and wildlife. However, for their first two decades, CWMAs have been characterised by land conflict, wildlife damage to people and crops, lack of tourism...... potential and high administration costs among other negative impacts. Can rethinking how CWMAs are run bring about the benefits once promised?...

  4. Towards sustainable use of Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable use of Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) has become equated with wise exploitation of wildlife resources therein and ownership devolution of WMAs to the local people by the Government. Demand for sustainability is often driven by the severity of overexploitation of wildlife resources and perceived conflict ...

  5. Protected areas and wildlife management in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thein Lwin

    1993-01-01

    Myanmar embraces diverse geophysical features from the sea in the south to the snow-capped mountains in the north. Wildlife conservation is not new to Myanmar and it dated back to about 1859, the period of the last dynasty of Myanmar Kings. Myanmar is strongly committed to form a system of protected areas in conformity with modern conservation concepts, encompassing terrestrial and wetland ecosystems. After the termination of the Nature Conservation and National Parks Project (1981-84) which was assisted by FAO and financed jointly by UNDP and the government, its functions were taken over by the newly formed Wildlife and Sanctuaries Division of the Forest Department

  6. Protected areas and wildlife management in Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lwin, Thein [Forest Department (Myanmar)

    1993-10-01

    Myanmar embraces diverse geophysical features from the sea in the south to the snow-capped mountains in the north. Wildlife conservation is not new to Myanmar and it dated back to about 1859, the period of the last dynasty of Myanmar Kings. Myanmar is strongly committed to form a system of protected areas in conformity with modern conservation concepts, encompassing terrestrial and wetland ecosystems. After the termination of the Nature Conservation and National Parks Project (1981-84) which was assisted by FAO and financed jointly by UNDP and the government, its functions were taken over by the newly formed Wildlife and Sanctuaries Division of the Forest Department

  7. The economic and social viability of Tanzanian Wildlife Management Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homewood, Katherine; Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis

    This policy brief contributes to assessing the economic and social viability of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) through preliminary findings by the ‘Poverty and ecosystem Impacts of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas’ (PIMA) project, focusing on benefits, costs, and their distribution...

  8. Kirtland's Warbler Wildlife Management Area Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) for Kirtland’s Warbler Wildlife Management Area (WMA) was signed on September 10, 2009, completing a planning process that...

  9. Wildlife Management Areas in Tanzania: A Study of Opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2003 Tanzania established 16 pilot Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs), with the aim of enhancing conservation and poverty alleviation through sustainable utilization of natural resources. This study examines the opportunities and challenges of this policy initiative with reference to the proposed WMAs. Data were ...

  10. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan Executive Summary : A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-02-01

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the Draft Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan. The comprehensive plan can be viewed on the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) website at: www.umatilla.nsn.us or requested in hard copy from the CTUIR at the address below. The wildlife area was established in September 1998 when the CTUIR purchased the Rainwater Ranch through Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for purposes of fish and wildlife mitigation for the McNary and John Day dams. The Management Plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by BPA for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus management actions and prioritize funding during the 2002-2006 planning period. Since acquisition of the property in late 1998, the CTUIR has conducted an extensive baseline resource assessment in preparation for the management plan, initiated habitat restoration in the Griffin Fork drainage to address road-related resource damage caused by roads constructed for forest practices and an extensive flood event in 1996, and initiated infrastructure developments associated with the Access and Travel Management Plan (i.e., installed parking areas, gates, and public information signs). In addition to these efforts, the CTUIR has worked to set up a long-term funding mechanism with BPA through the NPPC Fish and Wildlife Program. The CTUIR has also continued to coordinate closely with local and state government organizations to ensure consistency with local land use laws and maintain open lines of communication regarding important issues such as big game hunting, tribal member exercise of treaty rights, and public

  11. Rainwater Wildlife Area, Watershed Management Plan, A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-03-01

    This Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary. The purpose of the project is

  12. Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project : Rainwater Wildlife Area Final Management Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen

    2002-03-01

    This Draft Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary.

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for artificial reefs, National Park Service properties, Wildlife Management Areas, National Wildlife Refuges, and...

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Designated Critical Habitats, wildlife refuges, management areas, National Forests, National Parks, National Park...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing management area data for Designated Critical Habitats, National Park Service properties, Wildlife Refuges, and...

  16. 78 FR 49445 - Wildlife Services Policy on Wildlife Damage Management in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... Health Inspection Service's Wildlife Services (APHIS-WS) program is making a policy decision on how to... this definition. Otherwise, APHIS will refer all requests for operational assistance with urban rodent...

  17. Wanaket Wildlife Area Management Plan : Five-Year Plan for Protecting, Enhancing, and Mitigating Wildlife Habitat Losses for the McNary Hydroelectric Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

    2001-09-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to continue to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat at the Wanaket Wildlife Area. The Wanaket Wildlife Area was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1993. This management plan will provide an update of the original management plan approved by BPA in 1995. Wanaket will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the McNary Hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Wanaket Wildlife Area, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Wanaket Wildlife Area management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Wanaket Wildlife Area will be managed over the next five years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management. Specific project objectives are related to protection and enhancement of wildlife habitats and are expressed in terms of habitat units (HU's). Habitat units were developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP), and are designed to track habitat gains and/or losses associated with mitigation and/or development projects. Habitat Units for a given species are a product of habitat quantity (expressed in acres) and habitat quality estimates. Habitat quality estimates are developed using Habitat Suitability Indices (HSI). These indices are based on quantifiable habitat features such

  18. Understanding the cognitive basis for human-wildlife relationships as a key to successful protected-area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teel, Tara L.; Manfredo, Michael J.; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife is a critical component of protected areas worldwide. It can serve not only as a primary attraction or an enjoyable part of the visitor experience but also as source of conflict. Managing wildlife in this context requires a broadbased approach that can account for the myriad factors...... this micro-macro approach and explore its implications for protected-area management. First, data from nineteen-state study conducted in 2004 via mail survey in the united States show how two contrasting orientations - dominations and mutualism - produce different attitudes and behaviors toward wildlife...... to wildlife issues. Together, these studies highlight the importance of multilevel models for exploring the social aspects of wildlife and protected-area management....

  19. Understanding the cognitive basis for human-wildlife relationships as a key to successful protected-area management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teel, T.L.; Manfredo, M.J.; Jensen, F.S.; Buijs, A.E.; Fischer, A.; Riepe, C.; Arlinghaus, R.; Jacobs, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife is a critical component of protected areas worldwide. It can serve not only as a primary attraction or an enjoyable part of the visitor experience but also as a source of conflict. Managing wildlife in this context requires a broadbased approach that can account for the myriad factors

  20. Wildlife laws monitoring as an adaptive management tool in protected area management in Ghana: a case of Kakum Conservation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiafe, Edward Debrah

    2016-01-01

    The wildlife laws of Ghana alienated the rural communities from forests and material well-being depended upon for their livelihood and this manifests itself in the progressive conflict between the park patrol staff and poachers from the fringes of the protected areas. The main aim of this study was to determine the impact of quantification of patrol efforts on indicators of illegal hunting activities that occur in rainforest protected areas, as a result of monitoring patrol operations and modifying the original plan. The specific objectives were to determine the optimal patrol efforts necessary to reduce illegal wildlife use to minimal; and the influence of the rainfall and seasonal activities on illegal wildlife use. The results indicated that as the patrol efforts increased the encounter with illegal wildlife use also increased until a certain point that the encounter rates started decreasing. Neither rainfall nor seasonal activities influenced the illegal activities and the patrol efforts. The protection staff of rainforest protected areas would work effectively to bring down illegal wildlife off-take to the barest minimum if monitored, quantified and provide feed-back. Illegal wildlife off-take can also be reduced by the protection staff if the original plans are made flexible to be adjusted. Recommendations for further studies have been made.

  1. Information support of territorial wildlife management of Lake Baikal and the surrounding areas (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnykh, Svetlana

    2013-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage Committee inscribed Lake Baikal in the World Heritage List under all four natural criteria as the most outstanding example of a freshwater ecosystem. It is the oldest and deepest lake in the world, which is the main freshwater reserve surrounded by a system of protected areas that have high scientific and natural values. However, there is a conflict between three main interests within the territory: the preservation of the unique ecosystem of the lake and its surrounding areas, the need for regional economic development, and protection of interests of the population, living on the shores of Lake Baikal. Solutions to the current challenges are seen in the development of control mechanisms for the wildlife management to ensure sustainable development and conservation of lake and the surrounding regions. For development mechanisms of territorial management of the complex and valuable area it is necessary to analyze features of its functioning and self-control (adaptable possibilities), allowing ecosystems to maintain their unique properties under influence of various external factors: anthropogenic (emissions, waste water, streams of tourists) and natural (climate change) load. While determining the direction and usage intensity of the territory these possibilities and their limits should be considered. Also for development of management strategy it is necessary to consider the relation of people to land and water, types of wildlife management, ownership, rent, protection from the negative effects, and etc. The relation of people to the natural area gives a chance to prioritize the direction in the resource use and their protection. Results of the scientific researches (reaction of an ecosystem on influence of various factors and system of relations to wildlife management objects) are the basis for the nature protection laws in the field of wildlife management and environmental protection. The methodology of legal zoning of the territory was

  2. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Precious Lands Wildlife Management Area, Technical Report 2000-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozusko, Shana

    2003-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) currently manages a 15,325 acre parcel of land known as the Precious Lands Wildlife Management Area that was purchased as mitigation for losses incurred by construction of the four lower Snake River dams. The Management Area is located in northern Wallowa County, Oregon and southern Asotin County, Washington (Figure 1). It is divided into three management parcels--the Buford parcel is located on Buford Creek and straddles the WA-OR state line, and the Tamarack and Basin parcels are contiguous to each other and located between the Joseph Creek and Cottonwood Creek drainages in Wallowa County, OR. The project was developed under the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-501), with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The acreage protected under this contract will be credited to BPA as habitat permanently dedicated to wildlife and wildlife mitigation. A modeling strategy known as Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and adopted by BPA as a habitat equivalency accounting system. Nine wildlife species models were used to evaluate distinct cover type features and provide a measure of habitat quality. Models measure a wide range of life requisite variables for each species and monitor overall trends in vegetation community health and diversity. One product of HEP is an evaluation of habitat quality expressed in Habitat Units (HUs). This HU accounting system is used to determine the amount of credit BPA receives for mitigation lands. After construction of the four lower Snake River dams, a HEP loss assessment was conducted to determine how many Habitat Units were inundated behind the dams. Twelve target species were used in that evaluation: Canada goose, mallard, river otter, downy woodpecker, song sparrow, yellow warbler, marsh wren, western meadowlark, chukar, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, and mule deer. The U.S. Army Corp of

  3. Simulating Brown hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas dispersion: a tool for wildlife management of wide areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Amici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the 20th century was characterised by intense processes of urbanisation, industrialisation and agricultural mechanisation, leading to a fragmentation of the agricultural and forest landscape. This, in turn, reduced the bio-permeability of the territory and affected the dispersion of many wild species. Brown hare (Lepus europeus dispersion is dramatically affected by habitat fragmentation, presence of predators, intense tillage and elevated hunting pressure. Consequently, the only stable populations of hare are often in no-hunting areas where wildlife management is efficient. It is necessary, therefore, to identify not only additional areas suitable for reproduction, but also the most suitable dispersion pathways for hares, in order to optimise management. In the present study, by means of a Geographic Information System (GIS, a deterministic hare suitability model was developed on the basis of a multicriterial approach and fuzzy logic. Subsequently, a friction surface was derived from the suitability map in order to describe the land bio-permeability. Finally, on the basis of species potential, the spread of hares from stable population areas (source areas to the remaining territory was simulated. The area of study was the province of Viterbo (central Italy. The suitability map showed good discrimination ability (ROC=0.705. The hare dispersion simulation map allowed the potential spreading of this species throughout the provincial territory to be analysed. Isolated or less connected zones were highlighted, allowing the distribution of habitat enhancements, and/or the institution of new no-hunting areas devoted to the reproduction and consequent spread of hares throughout the territory, to be localised. The presented flexible and reiterable methodology could prove useful for wildlife management and hunting planning over a wide area. It would thus provide an important contribution to reducing the importance of animal

  4. Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-11-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

  5. Failure by Design? Revisiting Tanzania′s Flagship Wildlife Management Area Burunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Moyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we revisit the on-the-ground reality of Burunge Wildlife Management Area (WMA that is celebrated as one of Tanzania's best examples of community-based conservation (CBC. We find Burunge WMA rife with conflict and contestation over grievances that remained unsettled since its establishment a decade ago. These grievances have been accentuated by growing land pressure resulting from increasing human, livestock, and elephant populations, in combination with infrastructure improvements and support for agriculture-led development. The WMA governance regime has little to offer the residents and village leaders of Burunge member villages who appear hostages in a situation where interests in human development and conservation are pitted against each other, making a mockery of the notions of CBC. By re-examining this exemplary WMA case and compare our findings with the way it is being portrayed by supporting agencies, we pinpoint the tendency of the actors promoting conservation in Tanzania to misrepresent or ignore the realities on the ground that defy official policy promises. In doing this, we hope to call upon the many empathetic and hard-working individuals to end the collective failure to address this detrimental discrepancy between reality and representation, and start supporting affected residents in their struggles for self-determination.

  6. 50 CFR 70.9 - Wildlife species management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wildlife species management. 70.9 Section 70.9 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.9 Wildlife species...

  7. Can sacrificial feeding areas protect aquatic plants from herbivore grazing? Using behavioural ecology to inform wildlife management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Wood

    Full Text Available Effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. However, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. New methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. We used an individual-based model to predict the efficacy of a sacrificial feeding area in preventing grazing damage by mute swans (Cygnus olor to adjacent river vegetation of high conservation and economic value. The accuracy of model predictions was assessed by a comparison with observed field data, whilst prediction robustness was evaluated using a sensitivity analysis. We used repeated simulations to evaluate how the efficacy of the sacrificial feeding area was regulated by (i food quantity, (ii food quality, and (iii the functional response of the forager. Our model gave accurate predictions of aquatic plant biomass, carrying capacity, swan mortality, swan foraging effort, and river use. Our model predicted that increased sacrificial feeding area food quantity and quality would prevent the depletion of aquatic plant biomass by swans. When the functional response for vegetation in the sacrificial feeding area was increased, the food quantity and quality in the sacrificial feeding area required to protect adjacent aquatic plants were reduced. Our study demonstrates how the insights of behavioural ecology can be used to inform wildlife management. The principles that underpin our model predictions are likely to be valid across a range of different resource-consumer interactions, emphasising the generality of our approach to the evaluation of strategies for resolving wildlife management problems.

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries of managed properties including: Critical Habitats, Management Areas, Marine Sanctuaries, National Parks, Nature Conservancy lands,...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use data for designated critical habitats, essential habitats, management areas, marine sanctuaries, National Park Service properties,...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries of Coast Guard facilities; management areas; marinas; marine sanctuaries; national forests; national, regional, and state parks;...

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Designated Critical Habitats, Management Areas, National Forests, National Park Service properties, Parks, and...

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for regional and state parks, historic sites, marine sanctuaries, and other managed areas for the Hudson River....

  13. Detailed study of irrigation drainage in and near wildlife management areas, west-central Nevada, 1987-90; Part B, Effect on biota in Stillwater and Fernley Wildlife Management Areas and other nearby wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Robert J.; Hallock, Linda L.

    1993-01-01

    A water-quality reconnaissance study during 1986-87 found high concentrations of several potentially toxic elements in water, bottom sediment, and biota in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (WMA). This study prompted the U.S. Department of the Interior to initiate a more detailed study to determine the hydrogeochemical processes that control water quality in the Stillwater WMA, and other nearby wetlands, and the resulting effects on biota, especially migratory birds. Present wetland size is about 10% of historical size; the dissolved- solids load in the water in these now-isolated wetlands has increased only moderately, but the dissolved-solids concentration has increased more than seven-fold. Wetland vegetation has diminished and species composition in flow water has shifted to predominant salt-tolerant species in many areas. Decreased vegetative cover for nesting is implicated in declining waterfowl production. Decreases in numbers or virtual absence of several wildlife species are attributed to degraded water quality. Results of toxicity tests indicate that water in some drains and wetland areas is acutely toxic to some fish and invertebrates. Toxicity is attributed to the combined presence of arsenic, boron, lithium, and molybdenum. Biological pathways are involved in the transport of mercury and selenium from agricultural drains to wetlands. Hatch success of both artificially incubated and field-reared duck eggs was greater than/= 90 percent; no teratogenesis was observed. Mercury in muscle tissue of waterfowl harvested from Carson Lake in October 1987 exceeded the human health criterion six-fold.

  14. Understanding the cognitive basis for human-wildlife relationships as a key to successful protected-area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teel, Tara L.; Manfredo, Michael J.; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    or value orientations form basis for more specific cognitions that in turn drive individual action. We extend this cognitive hierarchy framework to account for the rolke of societal forces that give rise to cultural values and their orientations over time. Using empirical data from two cases, we surview...... this micro-macro approach and explore its implications for protected-area management. First, data from nineteen-state study conducted in 2004 via mail survey in the united States show how two contrasting orientations - dominations and mutualism - produce different attitudes and behaviors toward wildlife....... Hierarchical linear modeling of these data supports a societal-level shift from domination to mutualism in response to modernization. Second, a 2007-8 exploratory application of outdoor approach in ten European countries provides further evidence of the role of value orientations in shaping individual response...

  15. Estimating Sustainable Live-Coral Harvest at Kamiali Wildlife Management Area, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Ken; Bolick, Holly; Langston, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Live coral is harvested throughout the Indo-West Pacific to make lime, used in the consumption of the world's fourth-most consumed drug, betel nut. Coral harvesting is an environmental concern; however, because lime-making is one of the few sources of income in some areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG), the practice is unlikely to stop. To better manage coral harvest, we used standard fishery-yield methods to generate sustainable-harvest guidelines for corymbose Acropora species found on the reef flat and crest at Lababia, PNG. We constructed a yield curve (weight-specific net annual-dry-weight production) by: 1) describing the allometric relationship between colony size and dry weight, and using that relationship to estimate the dry weight of Acropora colonies in situ; 2) estimating annual growth of Acropora colonies by estimating in situ, and describing the relationship between, colony dry weight at the beginning and end of one year; and 3) conducting belt-transect surveys to describe weight-frequencies and ultimately to predict annual weight change per square meter for each weight class. Reef habitat covers a total 2,467,550 m2 at Lababia and produces an estimated 248,397 kg/y (dry weight) of corymbose Acropora, of which 203,897 kg is produced on the reef flat/crest. We conservatively estimate that 30,706.6 kg of whole, dry, corymbose, Acropora can be sustainably harvested from the reef flat/crest habitat each year provided each culled colony weighs at least 1805 g when dry (or is at least 46 cm along its major axis). Artisanal lime-makers convert 24.8% of whole-colony weight into marketable lime, thus we estimate 7615.2 g of lime can be sustainably produced annually from corymbose Acropora. This value incorporates several safety margins, and should lead to proper management of live coral harvest. Importantly, the guideline recognizes village rights to exploit its marine resources, is consistent with village needs for income, and balances an equally strong village

  16. Estimating Sustainable Live-Coral Harvest at Kamiali Wildlife Management Area, Papua New Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Longenecker

    Full Text Available Live coral is harvested throughout the Indo-West Pacific to make lime, used in the consumption of the world's fourth-most consumed drug, betel nut. Coral harvesting is an environmental concern; however, because lime-making is one of the few sources of income in some areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG, the practice is unlikely to stop. To better manage coral harvest, we used standard fishery-yield methods to generate sustainable-harvest guidelines for corymbose Acropora species found on the reef flat and crest at Lababia, PNG. We constructed a yield curve (weight-specific net annual-dry-weight production by: 1 describing the allometric relationship between colony size and dry weight, and using that relationship to estimate the dry weight of Acropora colonies in situ; 2 estimating annual growth of Acropora colonies by estimating in situ, and describing the relationship between, colony dry weight at the beginning and end of one year; and 3 conducting belt-transect surveys to describe weight-frequencies and ultimately to predict annual weight change per square meter for each weight class. Reef habitat covers a total 2,467,550 m2 at Lababia and produces an estimated 248,397 kg/y (dry weight of corymbose Acropora, of which 203,897 kg is produced on the reef flat/crest. We conservatively estimate that 30,706.6 kg of whole, dry, corymbose, Acropora can be sustainably harvested from the reef flat/crest habitat each year provided each culled colony weighs at least 1805 g when dry (or is at least 46 cm along its major axis. Artisanal lime-makers convert 24.8% of whole-colony weight into marketable lime, thus we estimate 7615.2 g of lime can be sustainably produced annually from corymbose Acropora. This value incorporates several safety margins, and should lead to proper management of live coral harvest. Importantly, the guideline recognizes village rights to exploit its marine resources, is consistent with village needs for income, and balances an equally

  17. Wildlife Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffen, Neil R [ORNL; Evans, James W. [TWRA; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL

    2007-10-01

    This document outlines a plan for management of the wildlife resources on the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation. Management includes wildlife population control through hunting, trapping, removal, and habitat manipulation; wildlife damage control; restoration of wildlife species; preservation, management, and enhancement of wildlife habitats; coordination of wildlife studies and characterization of areas; and law enforcement. Wildlife resources are divided into several categories, each with a specific set of objectives and procedures for attaining them. These objectives are management of (1) wildlife habitats to ensure that all resident wildlife species exist on the Reservation in viable numbers; (2) featured species to produce selected species in desired numbers on designated land units; (3) game species for research, education, recreation, and public safety; (4) the Three Bend Scenic and Wildlife Management Refuge Area; (5) nuisance wildlife, including nonnative species, to achieve adequate population control for the maintenance of health and safety on the Reservation; (6) sensitive species (i.e., state or federally listed as endangered, threatened, of special concern, or in need of management) through preservation and protection of both the species and habitats critical to the survival of those species; and (7) wildlife disease. Achievement of the objectives is a joint effort between the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory through agreements between TWRA and DOE and between DOE and UT-Battelle, LLC.

  18. Wildlife management using the AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Fatti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Two applications of Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process towards solving decision problems in Wildlife Management are discussed. The first involves structuring the management objectives of a National Park and establishing priorities for the implementation of various possible strategic management plans in the Park. The second deals with the problem faced by the various non-governmental organisations concerned with the conservation of the Rhino and Elephant populations in Southern Africa, of deciding how best to allocate their funds towards this purpose. General conclusions are drawn concerning the use of analytical techniques, particularly the AHP, in planning and decision making in Wildlife Management.

  19. Community based wildlife management planning in protected areas: The case of Altai argali in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan L. Maroney

    2006-01-01

    The number of protected areas in Mongolia has increased fourfold since the country’s transition to a market-based economy over a decade ago; however, many of these protected areas have yet to realize their intended role as protectorates of biodiversity. Given the prevalence of (semi-) nomadic pastoralists in rural areas, effective conservation initiatives in Mongolia...

  20. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Ekechukwu, G.A.; Hallock, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation was begun in 1990 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage in and near the Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has the potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife or to impair beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and ground water, bottom sediment, and biota collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Lovelock agricultural area were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Also analyzed were radioactive substances, major dissolved constitu- ents, and nutrients in water, as well as pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In samples from areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents equaled or exceeded baseline concentrations or recommended standards for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife--in water: arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediment; arsenic and uranium; and in biota; arsenic, boron, and selenium. Selenium appears to be biomagnified in the Humboldt Sink wetlands. Biological effects observed during the reconnaissance included reduced insect diversity in sites receiving irrigation drainage and acute toxicity of drain water and sediment to test organisms. The current drought and upstream consumption of water for irrigation have reduced water deliveries to the wetlands and caused habitat degradation at Humboldt Wildlife Management Area. During this investigation. Humboldt and Toulon Lakes evaporated to dryness because of the reduced water deliveries.

  1. Wildlife management using the AHP

    OpenAIRE

    L.P. Fatti

    2003-01-01

    Two applications of Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process towards solving decision problems in Wildlife Management are discussed. The first involves structuring the management objectives of a National Park and establishing priorities for the implementation of various possible strategic management plans in the Park. The second deals with the problem faced by the various non-governmental organisations concerned with the conservation of the Rhino and Elephant populations in Southern Africa, of deci...

  2. Journal of Wildlife Management guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    William M. Block; Frank R. Thompson; Dawn Hanseder; Allison Cox; Anna Knipps

    2011-01-01

    These Guidelines apply to all Journal of Wildlife Management (JWM, The Journal) submissions. Publishing a professional manuscript proceeds most smoothly if authors understand the policy, procedures, format, and style of the outlet to which they are submitting a manuscript. These instructions supersede all previous guidelines. Manuscripts that clearly deviate from this...

  3. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was initiated to determine whether irrigation drainage in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health or fish and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert and were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements, including selenium. Other analyses included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediments and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, concentrations of the following constituents commonly were found to exceed baseline concentrations or federal and state criteria for the protection of aquatic life or the propagation of wildlife: in water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appear to be biomagnified whereas arsenic is bioaccumulated. Some radioactive substances were substantially higher at the downstream sites compared with upstream background sites, but the significance of this to wildlife is unknown at present. 88 refs., 32 figs., 19 tabs

  4. Wildlife Private Lands Specialist Support Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer represents the areas of Minnesota that MNDNR Wildlife Private Lands Specialists cover. These boundaries are provided for support mapping and to show...

  5. Blurred Boundaries in Wildlife Management Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonman-Berson, S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts have been increasing at alarming rates over the last few decades. Wildlife management practices deal with preventing and disentangling these conflicts. However, which approach should be taken is widely disputed in research, policy, in-the-field-wildlife management and local

  6. Public access management as an adaptive wildlife management tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    Wildlife populations across the United States are benefiting from improved wildlife management techniques. However, these benefits also create new challenges including overpopulation, disease, increased winter kill, and forage degradation. These issues have become the challenges for natural resource managers and landowners. Specifically, elk (Cervus elaphus) populations in the Gunnison River Valley of Colorado are growing and causing increased resource damage on public and private lands. On public lands elk threaten sage grouse habitat and compete with domestic livestock for available forage; on private lands they diminish available livestock forage. Management of elk and elk habitat in this area is a shared responsibility of the NPS (Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park and Curecanti National Recreation Area), BLM (Uncompahgre Field Office), USFS (Gunnison National Forest), and the CDOW (Colorado Division of Wildlife). All of these agencies participate in this research and adaptive management project.

  7. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.; Thompson, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    A reconnaissance was initiated in 1986 to determine whether the quality of irrigation-drainage water in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, wildlife, or other beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert, and analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Other analysis included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents were found to commonly exceed baseline concentrations or recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife: In water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, molybdenum, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appeared to be biomagnified, and arsenic bioaccumulated. Pesticides contamination in bottom sediments and biota was insignificant. Adverse biological effects observed during this reconnaissance included gradual vegetative changes and species loss, fish die-offs, waterfowl disease epidemics, and persistent and unexplained deaths of migratory birds. (USGS)

  8. DYNAST: Simulating wildlife responses to forest management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. Benson; William F.  Laudenslayer

    1986-01-01

    A computer simulation approach (DYNAST) was used to evaluate effects of three timber-management alternatives on wildlife in a 2700-ha (6700-acre) study area located in the Sierra Nevada, California. Wildlife species selected to evaluate the effects of these alternatives were band-tailed pigeon (Columba fusciutu), pileated woodpecker (

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for aquaculture sites, Designated Critical Habitats, management areas, Nature Conservancy properties, parks, and...

  10. Managing the livestock– Wildlife interface on rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Johan T.; Cross, Paul C.; Valeix, Marion

    2017-01-01

    On rangelands the livestock–wildlife interface is mostly characterized by management actions aimed at controlling problems associated with competition, disease, and depredation. Wildlife communities (especially the large vertebrate species) are typically incompatible with agricultural development because the opportunity costs of wildlife conservation are unaffordable except in arid and semi-arid regions. Ecological factors including the provision of supplementary food and water for livestock, together with the persecution of large predators, result in livestock replacing wildlife at biomass densities far exceeding those of indigenous ungulates. Diseases are difficult to eradicate from free-ranging wildlife populations and so veterinary controls usually focus on separating commercial livestock herds from wildlife. Persecution of large carnivores due to their depredation of livestock has caused the virtual eradication of apex predators from most rangelands. However, recent research points to a broad range of solutions to reduce conflict at the livestock–wildlife interface. Conserving wildlife bolsters the adaptive capacity of a rangeland by providing stakeholders with options for dealing with environmental change. This is contingent upon local communities being empowered to benefit directly from their wildlife resources within a management framework that integrates land-use sectors at the landscape scale. As rangelands undergo irreversible changes caused by species invasions and climate forcings, the future perspective favors a proactive shift in attitude towards the livestock–wildlife interface, from problem control to asset management.

  11. Wildlife habitat management on the northern prairie landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas H.; Haseltine, Susan D.; Cowardin, Lewis M.

    1994-01-01

    The northern prairie landscape has changed dramatically within the past century as a result of settlement by Europeans. Natural ecosystems have been disrupted and wildlife populations greatly altered. Natural resource agencies control only limited areas within the landscape, which they cannot manage independently of privately owned lands. Wildlife managers need first to set quantifiable objectives, based on the survival, reproduction, and distribution of wildlife. Second, they need to build public support and partnerships for meeting those objectives. Finally, they need to evaluate progress not only with respect to attitudes of the public and partners but, more importantly, of the wildlife response. This paper describes some useful tools for managing information at all phases of this process. We follow by discussing management options at a landscape level. Examples are given that involve agency lands as well as private lands, managed for biological resources and diversity as well as economic sustainability.

  12. Species distributions models in wildlife planning: agricultural policy and wildlife management in the great plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Joseph J.; Jorgensen, Christopher; Stuber, Erica F.; Gruber, Lutz F.; Bishop, Andrew A.; Lusk, Jeffrey J.; Zach, Eric S.; Decker, Karie L.

    2017-01-01

    We know economic and social policy has implications for ecosystems at large, but the consequences for a given geographic area or specific wildlife population are more difficult to conceptualize and communicate. Species distribution models, which extrapolate species-habitat relationships across ecological scales, are capable of predicting population changes in distribution and abundance in response to management and policy, and thus, are an ideal means for facilitating proactive management within a larger policy framework. To illustrate the capabilities of species distribution modeling in scenario planning for wildlife populations, we projected an existing distribution model for ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) onto a series of alternative future landscape scenarios for Nebraska, USA. Based on our scenarios, we qualitatively and quantitatively estimated the effects of agricultural policy decisions on pheasant populations across Nebraska, in specific management regions, and at wildlife management areas

  13. 36 CFR 13.918 - Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing... Preserve General Provisions § 13.918 Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area. (a) Entry into the Sable Pass Wildlife Viewing Area is prohibited from May 1 to September 30 unless authorized by the Superintendent. (b...

  14. Alabama ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for designated critical habitats, state parks, wildlife refuges, and wildlife management areas in Alabama. Vector...

  15. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of American...

  16. Human-wildlife interactions in urban areas: a review of conflicts, benefits and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Soulsbury, Carl D.; White, Piran C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife has existed in urban areas since records began. However, the discipline of urban ecology is relatively new and one that is undergoing rapid growth. All wildlife in urban areas will interact with humans to some degree. With rates of urbanisation increasing globally, there is a pressing need to understand the type and nature of human-wildlife interactions within urban environments, to help manage, mitigate or even promote these interactions. Much research attention has focussed on th...

  17. Rainwater Wildlife Area Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2004-01-01

    vegetation species, allowance of normative processes such as fire occurrence, and facilitating development of natural stable stream channels and associated floodplains. Implementation of habitat enhancement and restoration activities could generate an additional 1,850 habitat units in 10 years. Baseline and estimated future habitat units total 7,035.3 for the Rainwater Wildlife Area. Habitat protection, enhancement and restoration will require long-term commitments from managers to increase probabilities of success and meet the goals and objectives of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Program.

  18. Wildlife tracking data management: a new vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Ferdinando; Cagnacci, Francesca; Calenge, Clément; Dettki, Holger; Cameron, Alison; Neteler, Markus

    2010-07-27

    To date, the processing of wildlife location data has relied on a diversity of software and file formats. Data management and the following spatial and statistical analyses were undertaken in multiple steps, involving many time-consuming importing/exporting phases. Recent technological advancements in tracking systems have made large, continuous, high-frequency datasets of wildlife behavioural data available, such as those derived from the global positioning system (GPS) and other animal-attached sensor devices. These data can be further complemented by a wide range of other information about the animals' environment. Management of these large and diverse datasets for modelling animal behaviour and ecology can prove challenging, slowing down analysis and increasing the probability of mistakes in data handling. We address these issues by critically evaluating the requirements for good management of GPS data for wildlife biology. We highlight that dedicated data management tools and expertise are needed. We explore current research in wildlife data management. We suggest a general direction of development, based on a modular software architecture with a spatial database at its core, where interoperability, data model design and integration with remote-sensing data sources play an important role in successful GPS data handling.

  19. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR.

  20. Wildlife habitat management on college and university campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosci, Tierney; Warren, Paige S.; Harper, Rick W.; DeStefano, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing involvement of higher education institutions in sustainability movements, it remains unclear to what extent college and university campuses address wildlife habitat. Many campuses encompass significant areas of green space with potential to support diverse wildlife taxa. However, sustainability rating systems generally emphasize efforts like recycling and energy conservation over green landscaping and grounds maintenance. We sought to examine the types of wildlife habitat projects occurring at schools across the United States and whether or not factors like school type (public or private), size (number of students), urban vs. rural setting, and funding played roles in the implementation of such initiatives. Using case studies compiled by the National Wildlife Federation’s Campus Ecology program, we documented wildlife habitat-related projects at 60 campuses. Ten management actions derived from nationwide guidelines were used to describe the projects carried out by these institutions, and we recorded data about cost, funding, and outreach and education methods. We explored potential relationships among management actions and with school characteristics. We extracted themes in project types, along with challenges and responses to those challenges. Native plant species selection and sustainable lawn maintenance and landscaping were the most common management actions among the 60 campuses. According to the case studies we examined, we found that factors like school type, size, and location did not affect the engagement of a campus in wildlife habitat initiatives, nor did they influence the project expenditures or funding received by a campus. Our results suggest that many wildlife habitat initiatives are feasible for higher education institutions and may be successfully implemented at relatively low costs through simple, but deliberate management actions.

  1. 36 CFR 241.2 - Cooperation in wildlife management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperation in wildlife... FISH AND WILDLIFE General Provisions § 241.2 Cooperation in wildlife management. The Chief of the... which national forests or portions thereof may be devoted to wildlife protection in combination with...

  2. Shillapoo Wildlife Area 2007 Follow-up HEP Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-03-01

    In April and May 2007 the Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted a follow-up HEP analysis on the Egger (612 acres) and Herzog (210 acres) parcels located at the north end of the Shillapoo Wildlife Area. The Egger and Herzog parcels have been managed with Bonneville Power Administration funds since acquired in 1998 and 2001 respectively. Slightly more than 936 habitat units (936.47) or 1.14 HUs per acre was generated as an outcome of the 2007 follow-up HEP surveys. Results included 1.65 black-capped chickadee HUs, 280.57 great blue heron HUs, 581.45 Canada goose HUs, 40 mallard HUs, and 32.80 mink HUs. Introduction A follow-up Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980) analysis was conducted by the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) during April and May 2007 to document changes in habitat quality and to determine the number of habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing operation and maintenance (O&M) funds since WDFW acquired the parcels. The 2007 follow-up HEP evaluation was limited to Shillapoo Wildlife Area (SWA) parcels purchased with Bonneville Power Administration funds. D. Budd (pers. comm.) reported WDFW purchased the 612 acre Egger Farms parcel on November 2, 1998 for $1,737,0001 and the 210 acre Herzog acquisition on June 21, 2001 for $500,000 with Memorandum of Agreement funds (BPA and WDFW 1996) as partial fulfillment of BPA's wildlife mitigation obligation for construction of Bonneville and John Day Dams (Rasmussen and Wright 1989). Anticipating the eventual acquisition of the Egger and Herzog properties, WDFW conducted HEP surveys on these lands in 1994 to determine the potential number of habitat units to be credited to BPA. As a result, HEP surveys and habitat unit calculations were completed as much as seven years prior to acquiring the sites. The term 'Shillapoo Wildlife Area' will be used to describe only the Herzog and Egger parcels in this

  3. Albeni Falls Wildlife Management Plan - preliminary environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the development and implementation of the Albeni Falls Wildlife Management Plan. Approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in 1990, the project is a cooperative effort with the Interagency Work Group that includes the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG); United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS); United States Forest Service (USFS); United States Army Corps of Engineers (COE); the Kalispel Tribe; and the Upper Columbia United Tribes (UCUT). The proposed action would enable the Interagency Work Group to protect and enhance a variety of wetland and riparian habitats, restore 28,587 habitat units lost as a result of the construction and operation of Albeni Falls Dam, and implement long-term wildlife management activities at selected sites within the overall study area. This Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of protecting and enhancing wildlife habitat in selected portions of a 225,077 hectare (556,160 acre) study area surrounding Lake Pend Oreille in Bonner County, and 7,770 hectare (19,200 acre) area surrounding Spirit and Twin lakes, in Kootenai County, Idaho. Four proposed activities are analyzed: habitat protection; habitat enhancement; operation and maintenance (O ampersand M); and monitoring and evaluation (M ampersand E)

  4. 14 CFR 139.337 - Wildlife hazard management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wildlife hazard management. 139.337 Section... AIRPORTS Operations § 139.337 Wildlife hazard management. (a) In accordance with its Airport Certification... alleviate wildlife hazards whenever they are detected. (b) In a manner authorized by the Administrator, each...

  5. Wildlife-community conflicts in conservation areas in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of or threat of extinction to wildlife species and natural areas which serve as their habitat. .... negative impacts are hunting of endangered species, disturbance of animals ..... Resolving the conflict calls for a tight balancing Act-Legislator.

  6. Wildlife friendly roads: the impacts of roads on wildlife in urban areas and potential remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Seth P D; Brown, Justin L.; Sikich, Jeff A.; Schoonmaker, Catherine M.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2014-01-01

    Roads are one of the most important factors affecting the ability of wildlife to live and move within an urban area. Roads physically replace wildlife habitat and often reduce habitat quality nearby, fragment the remaining habitat, and cause increased mortality through vehicle collisions. Much ecological research on roads has focused on whether animals are successfully crossing roads, or if the road is a barrier to wildlife movement, gene flow, or functional connectivity. Roads can alter survival and reproduction for wildlife, even among species such as birds that cross roads easily. Here we examine the suite of potential impacts of roads on wildlife, but we focus particularly on urban settings. We report on studies, both in the literature and from our own experience, that have addressed wildlife and roads in urban landscapes. Although road ecology is a growing field of study, relatively little of this research, and relatively few mitigation projects, have been done in urban landscapes. We also draw from the available science on road impacts in rural areas when urban case studies have not fully addressed key topics.

  7. Southeast Alaska ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Parks, Wildlife Refuges, and areas designated as Critical Habitat in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in...

  8. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl R Krull

    Full Text Available Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control, with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation

  9. Weeds and Wildlife: Perceptions and Practices of Weed Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma H Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative impacts of invasive plants or weeds on biodiversity have been well established yet their role in providing key habitats and resources for wildlife has been little understood. Weed removal thus has the potential to adversely affect wildlife but whether this is considered during weed management is poorly known. To determine the extent of this knowledge, we examined the perceptions of weed managers regarding wildlife and weed management in Victoria, Australia. We surveyed 81 weed managers of varying levels of experience from different types of organisations, including state and local government, community groups and private companies. We found 90% of managers had observed wildlife-weed interactions and that most (70% adjusted management programmes to accommodate wildlife. Despite this, few (19% had adopted the recommended practice of combining gradual weed removal with re-vegetation. While management programmes included monitoring of native vegetation, consideration of wildlife monitoring in weed management was rare. This highlights the need for management to better understand and respond to wildlife-weed relationships. If the improvement of wildlife habitat is included in the objectives of weed programmes, as it should be, then wildlife should also be incorporated in project monitoring. This would lead to a greater understanding of the role weeds and their management have in each situation and, ultimately, more informed decision making.

  10. Planning in the human ecotone: Managing wild places on the Togiak National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart Allen

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is revising the long-range plan for Alaska’s Togiak National Wildlife Refuge, over half of which is designated as the Togiak Wilderness Area. Many of the planning issues are social rather than biological, involving public use and its effects on Refuge resources and opportunities. Planners, managers, and stakeholders are finding...

  11. Sensitive Wildlife - Center for Natural Lands Management [ds431

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset represents sensitive wildlife data collected for the Center for Natural Lands Management (CNLM) at dedicated nature preserves in San Diego County,...

  12. Portfolio selection theory and wildlife management | Hearne | ORiON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portfolio selection theory and wildlife management. ... Abstract. With a strong commercial incentive driving the increase in game ranching in Southern Africa the need has come for more advanced management tools. ... Keywords: Portfolio selection, multi-objective optimisation, game ranching, wildlife management.

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains polygons that represent the following sensitive human-use management areas in Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington:...

  14. Western Alaska ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for Designated Critical Habitats, Wildlife Refuges, Wild and Scenic Rivers, and State Parks. Vector polygons in this data...

  15. Virginia ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries for management areas, national parks, state and local parks, and wildlife refuges in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set...

  16. Columbia River wildlife mitigation habitat evaluation procedures report: Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County pygmy rabbit projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, P.R.; Ratassepp, J.; Berger, M.; Judd, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites

  17. Columbia River Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report / Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County Pygmy Rabbit Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites.

  18. A Framework to Evaluate Wildlife Feeding in Research, Wildlife Management, Tourism and Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Sara; Fraser, David

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Human feeding of wildlife is a world-wide phenomenon with very diverse effects on conservation, animal welfare and public safety. From a review of the motivations, types and consequences of wildlife feeding, an evaluative framework is presented to assist policy-makers, educators and managers to make ethical- and biologically-based decisions about the appropriateness of feeding wildlife in the context of research, wildlife management, tourism and recreation. Abstract Feeding of wildlife occurs in the context of research, wildlife management, tourism and in opportunistic ways. A review of examples shows that although feeding is often motivated by good intentions, it can lead to problems of public safety and conservation and be detrimental to the welfare of the animals. Examples from British Columbia illustrate the problems (nuisance animal activity, public safety risk) and consequences (culling, translocation) that often arise from uncontrolled feeding. Three features of wildlife feeding can be distinguished: the feasibility of control, the effects on conservation and the effects on animal welfare. An evaluative framework incorporating these three features was applied to examples of feeding from the literature. The cases of feeding for research and management purposes were generally found to be acceptable, while cases of feeding for tourism or opportunistic feeding were generally unacceptable. The framework should allow managers and policy-makers to distinguish acceptable from unacceptable forms of wildlife feeding as a basis for policy, public education and enforcement. Many harmful forms of wildlife feeding seem unlikely to change until they come to be seen as socially unacceptable. PMID:26479747

  19. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Estuarine Research Reserves, wildlife refuges, wildlife management areas, state/regional parks, state...

  20. Guide to wildlife tree management in New England northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs; Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko Yamasaki; William M. Healy

    1987-01-01

    Presents information on the culture and management of trees that have value as components of wildlife habitat in the northern hardwood and associated types in New England. Background information is provided for choosing the most suitable trees for wildlife habitats and for estimat ing the impact of timber production. Suggestions are made for choosing the numbers of...

  1. Community-Based Wildlife Management In Tanzania: The Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-based wildlife management (CWM) approach – known to others as community-based conservation – was first introduced in Tanzania in 1987/88. The approach intends to reconcile wildlife conservation and rural economic development. In the 1990s Tanzanians witnessed a rush by government Ministries and ...

  2. Editorial: Welcome to the new Journal of Wildlife Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    William M. Block; Michael L. Morrison

    2006-01-01

    Although the name was not changed, you are reading the first issue of a new journal. As you should all know by now, this issue represents the combination of The Journal of Wildlife Management (JWM) with the former Wildlife Society Bulletin (WSB). We want to emphasize a point: the content of WSB is included in the "new" JWM.

  3. Wildlife of southern forests habitat & management: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson

    2003-01-01

    The temperate climate, productive soils, and lush forests of the South support an abundant and diverse wildlife community. But these forests and the wildlife that inhabit them have never been stable. They have continually been molded by a variety of forces. Early, during the Pleistocene period, drastic periodic climatic shifts wrought wholesale changes to the nature...

  4. New England wildlife: management forested habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko Yamasaki; William B. Leak; John W. Lanier

    1992-01-01

    Presents silvicultural treatments for six major cover-type groups in New England to produce stand conditions that provide habitat opportunities for a wide range of wildlife species. Includes matrices for species occurrence and utilization by forested and nonforested habitats, habitat breadth and size class, and structural habitat features for the 338 wildlife species...

  5. Department of Wildlife and Ecotourism Manage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-11-22

    Nov 22, 2016 ... scattering seeds. In general, the removal offers some feedbacks for wildlife around the ... survey with previous data reveal that some species, such as Actophilornis africana African ..... the survey would have introduced bias as.

  6. Policy challenges for wildlife management in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark L. Shaffer

    2014-01-01

    Try as it might, wildlife management cannot make wild living things adapt to climate change. Management can, however, make adaptation more or less likely. Given that policy is a rule set for action, policy will play a critical role in society’s efforts to help wildlife cope with the challenge of climate change. To be effective, policy must provide clear goals and be...

  7. A Framework to Evaluate Wildlife Feeding in Research, Wildlife Management, Tourism and Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Sara; Fraser, David

    2013-10-11

    Feeding of wildlife occurs in the context of research, wildlife management, tourism and in opportunistic ways. A review of examples shows that although feeding is often motivated by good intentions, it can lead to problems of public safety and conservation and be detrimental to the welfare of the animals. Examples from British Columbia illustrate the problems (nuisance animal activity, public safety risk) and consequences (culling, translocation) that often arise from uncontrolled feeding. Three features of wildlife feeding can be distinguished: the feasibility of control, the effects on conservation and the effects on animal welfare. An evaluative framework incorporating these three features was applied to examples of feeding from the literature. The cases of feeding for research and management purposes were generally found to be acceptable, while cases of feeding for tourism or opportunistic feeding were generally unacceptable. The framework should allow managers and policy-makers to distinguish acceptable from unacceptable forms of wildlife feeding as a basis for policy, public education and enforcement. Many harmful forms of wildlife feeding seem unlikely to change until they come to be seen as socially unacceptable.

  8. 78 FR 66056 - Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge and Carlton Pond Waterfowl Production Area, Penobscot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... hiking, hunting, and fishing. Background The CCP Process The National Wildlife Refuge System... activities, such as wildlife observation, photography, hiking, snowmobiling, and hunting, would continue to... management (if warranted) to [[Page 66058

  9. Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the wildlife resources of the Site. Wildlife populations inhabiting the Hanford Site are monitored in order to measure the status and condition of the populations and assess effects of Hanford operations.

  10. Wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the wildlife resources of the Site. Wildlife populations inhabiting the Hanford Site are monitored in order to measure the status and condition of the populations and assess effects of Hanford operations

  11. Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: Implications and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Keet, D.F.; Hofmeyr, M.; De Klerk, L. M.; Cross, P.C.; Jolles, Anna E.; Cooper, D.; Whyte, I.J.; Buss, P.; Godfroid, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Management goals for wildlife reserves in grassveld and bushveld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and therefore require control. A means of measuring the success of management is outlined. Keywords: condition; cover; fire; game reserves; genetic diversity; goals; management; management strategy; nature reserves; range; reserves; soil; south africa; species composition; species diversity; veld; veld condition; wildlife ...

  13. Micro-Credit and Community Wildlife Management: Complementary Strategies to Improve Conservation Outcomes in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaya, Emmanuel; Chapman, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Community wildlife management programs in African protected areas aim to deliver livelihood and social benefits to local communities in order to bolster support for their conservation objectives. Most of these benefits are delivered at the community level. However, many local people are also seeking more individual or household-level livelihood benefits from community wildlife management programs because it is at this level that many of the costs of protected area conservation are borne. Because community wildlife management delivers few benefits at this level, support for their conservation objectives amongst local people often declines. The study investigated the implications of this for reducing poaching in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Three community wildlife management initiatives undertaken by Park management were compared with regard to their capacity to deliver the individual and household-level benefits sought by local people: community conservation services, wildlife management areas and community conservation banks. Interviews were carried out with poachers and local people from four villages in the Western Serengeti including members of village conservation banks, as well as a number of key informants. The results suggest that community conservation banks could, as a complementary strategy to existing community wildlife management programs, potentially provide a more effective means of reducing poaching in African protected areas than community wildlife management programs alone.

  14. Evaluation of wildlife management through organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John

    2011-01-01

    for six common agricultural wildlife species. ALMaSS outputs can be expressed as a simple index of relative change in abundance and distribution, allowing easy comparison between scenarios. Results indicate that organic farming generally had a beneficial effect, but the degree was variable with all...

  15. Neotropical dry forest wildlife water hole use and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vaughan

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Selected wildlife species diurnal use of a natural water hole (QD and an artificial water hole (AW were studied during 1990 dry season at Guanacaste Conservation Area, Costa Rica. In total, 919 individuals (six mammal and one game bird species consumed water from QD, while 713 individuals (four mammal species consumed water from AW. Estimated daily water consumption by selected wildlife species was 29.7 l at QD and 27.3 l at AW. Estimated 24-h water consumed by all wildlife species or evaporated was 44.6 l at QD and 41.1 l at AW. This resulted from summing: a water consumed by studied species, b estimated 24-hour water consumed by other wildlife (QD = 14.85 l, AW = 13.65 l and c daily water evaporation (QD = 0.04 l, AW = 0.10 l. During a 120-day dry season, AW required about 4 932 l of water from the park administration. Management implications for neotropical dry forest water holes are discussed.Se estudió el uso diurno de un ojo de agua natural (QD y otro artificial (AW a finales de la época seca de 1990 en el Area de Conservacion de Guanacaste, Costa Rica. En total 919 individuos (seis especies de mamíferos y una de ave cinegética consumieron agua de QD y 713 individuos (cuatro especies de mamíferos de AQ. Se estimó que en un dia, las especies de vida silvestre estudiados tomaron 29.7 l y 27.3 l de agua de QD y AW, respectivamente. El total de agua consumido o evaporado de cada ojo de agua durante 24-horas fue estimado en 44.6 l en QD y 41.1 l en AW, con base en: a agua bebida durante 12 h por las especies seleccionadas, b agua bebida por todos los otros individuos durante 24 h (QD = 14.85 l, AW = 13.65 l y c evaporación diaria (QD = 0.04 l, AW = 0.01 l. Para abastecer AW durante una epoca seca de 120 días, la administración del parque debe proveer 4 932 l de agua. Se discute las implicaciones de manejo en las regiones de bosque seco neotropical.

  16. Warfare and wildlife declines in Africa's protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskin, Joshua H; Pringle, Robert M

    2018-01-18

    Large-mammal populations are ecological linchpins, and their worldwide decline and extinction disrupts many ecosystem functions and services. Reversal of this trend will require an understanding of the determinants of population decline, to enable more accurate predictions of when and where collapses will occur and to guide the development of effective conservation and restoration policies. Many correlates of large-mammal declines are known, including low reproductive rates, overhunting, and habitat destruction. However, persistent uncertainty about the effects of one widespread factor-armed conflict-complicates conservation-planning and priority-setting efforts. Case studies have revealed that conflict can have either positive or negative local impacts on wildlife, but the direction and magnitude of its net effect over large spatiotemporal scales have not previously been quantified. Here we show that conflict frequency predicts the occurrence and severity of population declines among wild large herbivores in African protected areas from 1946 to 2010. Conflict was extensive during this period, occurring in 71% of protected areas, and conflict frequency was the single most important predictor of wildlife population trends among the variables that we analysed. Population trajectories were stable in peacetime, fell significantly below replacement with only slight increases in conflict frequency (one conflict-year per two-to-five decades), and were almost invariably negative in high-conflict sites, both in the full 65-year dataset and in an analysis restricted to recent decades (1989-2010). Yet total population collapse was infrequent, indicating that war-torn faunas can often recover. Human population density was also correlated (positively) with wildlife population trajectories in recent years; however, we found no significant effect, in either timespan, of species body mass, protected-area size, conflict intensity (human fatalities), drought frequency, presence of

  17. Managing and eradicating wildlife tuberculosis in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, B; Livingstone, P

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium bovis infection was first identified in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand in the late 1960s. Since the early 1970s, possums in New Zealand have been controlled as part of an ongoing strategy to manage the disease in livestock. The TB management authority (TBfree New Zealand) currently implements three strategic choices for disease-related possum control: firstly TB eradication in areas selected for eradication of the disease from livestock and wildlife, secondly Free Area Protection in areas in which possums are maintained at low densities, normally along a Vector Risk Area (VRA) boundary, and thirdly Infected Herd Suppression, which includes the remaining parts of VRA where possums are targeted to minimise the infection risk to livestock. Management is primarily through a range of lethal control options. The frequency and intensity of control is driven by a requirement to reduce populations to very low levels (usually to a trap-catch index below 2%), then to hold them at or below this level for 5–10 years to ensure disease eradication.Lethal possum control is implemented using aerial- and ground-based applications, under various regulatory and operational constraints. Extensive research has been undertaken aimed at improving the efficacy and efficiency of control. Aerial applications use sodium fluoroacetate (1080) bait for controlling possums over extensive and rugged areas of forest that are difficult to access by foot. Ground-based control uses a range of toxins (primarily, a potassium cyanide-based product) and traps. In the last 5 years there has been a shift from simple possum population control to the collection of spatial data on possum presence/absence and relative density, using simple possum detection devices using global positioning system-supported data collection tools, with recovery of possum carcasses for diagnostic necropsy. Such data provide information subsequently used in

  18. Wildlife in U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hadidian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts between people and wild animals in cities are undoubtedly as old as urban living itself. In the United States it is only of late, however, that many of the species now found in cities have come to live there. The increasing kind and number of human-wildlife conflicts in urbanizing environments makes it a priority that effective and humane means of conflict resolution be found. The urban public wants conflicts with wildlife resolved humanely, but needs to know what the alternative management approaches are, and what ethical standards should guide their use. This paper examines contemporary urban wildlife control in the United States with a focus on the moral concerns this raises. Much of the future for urban wildlife will depend on reform in governance, but much as well will depend on cultural changes that promote greater respect and understanding for wild animals and the biotic communities of which they and we are both a part.

  19. Wildlife in U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidian, John

    2015-11-11

    Conflicts between people and wild animals in cities are undoubtedly as old as urban living itself. In the United States it is only of late, however, that many of the species now found in cities have come to live there. The increasing kind and number of human-wildlife conflicts in urbanizing environments makes it a priority that effective and humane means of conflict resolution be found. The urban public wants conflicts with wildlife resolved humanely, but needs to know what the alternative management approaches are, and what ethical standards should guide their use. This paper examines contemporary urban wildlife control in the United States with a focus on the moral concerns this raises. Much of the future for urban wildlife will depend on reform in governance, but much as well will depend on cultural changes that promote greater respect and understanding for wild animals and the biotic communities of which they and we are both a part.

  20. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional Administrator...

  1. Confronting uncertainty in wildlife management: performance of grizzly bear management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artelle, Kyle A; Anderson, Sean C; Cooper, Andrew B; Paquet, Paul C; Reynolds, John D; Darimont, Chris T

    2013-01-01

    Scientific management of wildlife requires confronting the complexities of natural and social systems. Uncertainty poses a central problem. Whereas the importance of considering uncertainty has been widely discussed, studies of the effects of unaddressed uncertainty on real management systems have been rare. We examined the effects of outcome uncertainty and components of biological uncertainty on hunt management performance, illustrated with grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in British Columbia, Canada. We found that both forms of uncertainty can have serious impacts on management performance. Outcome uncertainty alone--discrepancy between expected and realized mortality levels--led to excess mortality in 19% of cases (population-years) examined. Accounting for uncertainty around estimated biological parameters (i.e., biological uncertainty) revealed that excess mortality might have occurred in up to 70% of cases. We offer a general method for identifying targets for exploited species that incorporates uncertainty and maintains the probability of exceeding mortality limits below specified thresholds. Setting targets in our focal system using this method at thresholds of 25% and 5% probability of overmortality would require average target mortality reductions of 47% and 81%, respectively. Application of our transparent and generalizable framework to this or other systems could improve management performance in the presence of uncertainty.

  2. Confronting uncertainty in wildlife management: performance of grizzly bear management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A Artelle

    Full Text Available Scientific management of wildlife requires confronting the complexities of natural and social systems. Uncertainty poses a central problem. Whereas the importance of considering uncertainty has been widely discussed, studies of the effects of unaddressed uncertainty on real management systems have been rare. We examined the effects of outcome uncertainty and components of biological uncertainty on hunt management performance, illustrated with grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis in British Columbia, Canada. We found that both forms of uncertainty can have serious impacts on management performance. Outcome uncertainty alone--discrepancy between expected and realized mortality levels--led to excess mortality in 19% of cases (population-years examined. Accounting for uncertainty around estimated biological parameters (i.e., biological uncertainty revealed that excess mortality might have occurred in up to 70% of cases. We offer a general method for identifying targets for exploited species that incorporates uncertainty and maintains the probability of exceeding mortality limits below specified thresholds. Setting targets in our focal system using this method at thresholds of 25% and 5% probability of overmortality would require average target mortality reductions of 47% and 81%, respectively. Application of our transparent and generalizable framework to this or other systems could improve management performance in the presence of uncertainty.

  3. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment/Management Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property.

  4. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment/management plan and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property

  5. Taming wildlife disease: bridging the gap between science and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Maxwell B.; Mihaljevic, Joseph R.; Arellano, Ana Lisette; Kueneman, Jordan G.; Cross, Paul C.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.

    2013-01-01

    1.Parasites and pathogens of wildlife can threaten biodiversity, infect humans and domestic animals, and cause significant economic losses, providing incentives to manage wildlife diseases. Recent insights from disease ecology have helped transform our understanding of infectious disease dynamics and yielded new strategies to better manage wildlife diseases. Simultaneously, wildlife disease management (WDM) presents opportunities for large-scale empirical tests of disease ecology theory in diverse natural systems. 2.To assess whether the potential complementarity between WDM and disease ecology theory has been realized, we evaluate the extent to which specific concepts in disease ecology theory have been explicitly applied in peer-reviewed WDM literature. 3.While only half of WDM articles published in the past decade incorporated disease ecology theory, theory has been incorporated with increasing frequency over the past 40 years. Contrary to expectations, articles authored by academics were no more likely to apply disease ecology theory, but articles that explain unsuccessful management often do so in terms of theory. 4.Some theoretical concepts such as density-dependent transmission have been commonly applied, whereas emerging concepts such as pathogen evolutionary responses to management, biodiversity–disease relationships and within-host parasite interactions have not yet been fully integrated as management considerations. 5.Synthesis and applications. Theory-based disease management can meet the needs of both academics and managers by testing disease ecology theory and improving disease interventions. Theoretical concepts that have received limited attention to date in wildlife disease management could provide a basis for improving management and advancing disease ecology in the future.

  6. Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Annual Report 2007-2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkins, Brian

    2007-10-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife Area funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 08 contract period October 1, 2007-September 30, 2008. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. Significant progress was realized in almost all major work types. Of particular note was progress made in tree plantings and pasture rehabilitation efforts. This year's tree planting effort included five sites detailed below and in terms of the number of plants was certainly the largest effort on the wildlife area to date in one season. The planting itself took a significant amount of time, which was anticipated. However, installation of mats and tubes took much longer than expected which impacted planned fence projects in particular. Survival of the plantings appears to be good. Improvement to the quality of waterfowl pasture habitats is evident on a number of sites due to replanting and weed control efforts. Continuing long-term weed control efforts will be key in improving this particular type of habitat. A prolonged cold, wet spring and a number of equipment breakdowns presented stumbling blocks that impacted schedules and ultimately progress on planned activities. The unusual spring weather delayed fieldwork on pasture planting projects as well as weed control and slowed the process of maintaining trees and shrubs. This time lag also caused the continued deferral of some of our fencing projects. The large brush hog mower had the driveline break twice and the smaller tractor had an engine failure that caused it to be down for over a month. We have modified our budget plan for next

  7. Wildlife Co-management defined: The Beverly and Kaminuriak Caribou Management Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald C. Thomas

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of indigenous and scientific forms of wildlife data gathering and conservation/management reveals similarities and differences. The two systems are needed to effectively manage wildlife in northern Canada, particularly migratory, trans-boundary species. The Beverly and Kaminuriak Caribou Management Board brought multi-jurisdictional caribou users and managers together to co-manage two large herds of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlan-dicus. The advisory Board's principal duties and responsibilities are communication and to maintain the two herds at population levels that will meet user needs. Goals, objectives, and principles are set out in a management plan. Board activities are structured in 15 action plans under major categories of communication, supply of caribou, use of caribou, and habitat. Board successes are attributed to use of the plan to guide actions; to the Chairmen and vice-Chairmen; to the quality of founding members and their continuity; to effective vehicles of communication such as a newspaper, radio, video, and community meetings; to a spirit of cooperation; and to high caribou numbers because of high productivity combined with poor accessibility. Problem areas include technical limitations, members' decreasing powers and increasing turnover, inadequate communication of Board objectives and activities within the communities, and accountability. Future challenges include the management of caribou shortages, obtaining better herd data, and the need for more intensive management as user populations grow.

  8. Limitations to Wildlife Habitat Connectivity in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Trask, Melinda

    2007-01-01

    The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) conducted an evaluation of existing wildlife habitat and movement corridors within southeast Portland, where a new section of highway (the Sunrise Corridor) is proposed. The purpose was to develop a comprehensive strategy to preserve and enhance connections for wildlife passage potentially impacted by the Sunrise Corridor project. The evaluation illustrates limitations to urban wildlife protection that are not typically considered. The proposed a...

  9. Wildlife in U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidian, John

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Wild animals are increasingly adapting to living in urbanizing environments, even as urban living has become the dominant human life style. This leads to greater opportunities to experience and enjoy wildlife, but also to increases in the kind and frequency of human-wildlife conflicts. Conflicts occur not only with species deemed to be perennial pests or nuisances, but situationally and episodically with others that are valued and esteemed. Regardless of how we view wild animals with whom we have conflicts, all deserve moral consideration and humane treatment. Issues in coexisting with urban wildlife are reviewed here. Abstract Conflicts between people and wild animals in cities are undoubtedly as old as urban living itself. In the United States it is only of late, however, that many of the species now found in cities have come to live there. The increasing kind and number of human-wildlife conflicts in urbanizing environments makes it a priority that effective and humane means of conflict resolution be found. The urban public wants conflicts with wildlife resolved humanely, but needs to know what the alternative management approaches are, and what ethical standards should guide their use. This paper examines contemporary urban wildlife control in the United States with a focus on the moral concerns this raises. Much of the future for urban wildlife will depend on reform in governance, but much as well will depend on cultural changes that promote greater respect and understanding for wild animals and the biotic communities of which they and we are both a part. PMID:26569317

  10. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction

  11. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu

    2008-01-15

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction.

  12. Tourism Taxation, Politics and Territorialisation in Tanzania's Wildlife Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Sulle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism activities occurring on communal lands such as Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs are increasing in Tanzania. This is the result of natural resources governance reforms aimed to empower communities to manage and benefit directly from resources found in their jurisdictions. This article explores the impacts of taxes imposed on tourism activities occurring on communal lands and the emerging politics of resource and revenue sharing among WMA member villages. In the process, we use empirical data gathered from two WMAs in northern Tanzania between 2006 and 2016. We find that while the current high tax rates on tourism businesses occurring at the grassroots level reduce revenue earned by communities, the main challenge facing the studied WMAs is the model of revenue sharing among WMA member villages. Currently, as the result of WMA regulations, villages which had prior arrangement with tour operators in their land have suffered revenue losses as they have to share revenue equally with other members of the WMA. We argue that the current tax regime coupled with the contested cost and benefit sharing model not only lower returns to grassroots communities--which in turn discourage their much needed participation in conservation-tourism initiatives--but also generate new forms of struggles over resource control.

  13. Assessing patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and compensation around a Central Indian protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krithi K Karanth

    Full Text Available Mitigating crop and livestock loss to wildlife and improving compensation distribution are important for conservation efforts in landscapes where people and wildlife co-occur outside protected areas. The lack of rigorously collected spatial data poses a challenge to management efforts to minimize loss and mitigate conflicts. We surveyed 735 households from 347 villages in a 5154 km(2 area surrounding Kanha Tiger Reserve in India. We modeled self-reported household crop and livestock loss as a function of agricultural, demographic and environmental factors, and mitigation measures. We also modeled self-reported compensation received by households as a function of demographic factors, conflict type, reporting to authorities, and wildlife species involved. Seventy-three percent of households reported crop loss and 33% livestock loss in the previous year, but less than 8% reported human injury or death. Crop loss was associated with greater number of cropping months per year and proximity to the park. Livestock loss was associated with grazing animals inside the park and proximity to the park. Among mitigation measures only use of protective physical structures were associated with reduced livestock loss. Compensation distribution was more likely for tiger related incidents, and households reporting loss and located in the buffer. Average estimated probability of crop loss was 0.93 and livestock loss was 0.60 for surveyed households. Estimated crop and livestock loss and compensation distribution were higher for households located inside the buffer. Our approach modeled conflict data to aid managers in identifying potential conflict hotspots, influential factors, and spatially maps risk probability of crop and livestock loss. This approach could help focus allocation of conservation efforts and funds directed at conflict prevention and mitigation where high densities of people and wildlife co-occur.

  14. Assessing patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and compensation around a Central Indian protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Krithi K; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M; DeFries, Ruth; Ballal, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating crop and livestock loss to wildlife and improving compensation distribution are important for conservation efforts in landscapes where people and wildlife co-occur outside protected areas. The lack of rigorously collected spatial data poses a challenge to management efforts to minimize loss and mitigate conflicts. We surveyed 735 households from 347 villages in a 5154 km(2) area surrounding Kanha Tiger Reserve in India. We modeled self-reported household crop and livestock loss as a function of agricultural, demographic and environmental factors, and mitigation measures. We also modeled self-reported compensation received by households as a function of demographic factors, conflict type, reporting to authorities, and wildlife species involved. Seventy-three percent of households reported crop loss and 33% livestock loss in the previous year, but less than 8% reported human injury or death. Crop loss was associated with greater number of cropping months per year and proximity to the park. Livestock loss was associated with grazing animals inside the park and proximity to the park. Among mitigation measures only use of protective physical structures were associated with reduced livestock loss. Compensation distribution was more likely for tiger related incidents, and households reporting loss and located in the buffer. Average estimated probability of crop loss was 0.93 and livestock loss was 0.60 for surveyed households. Estimated crop and livestock loss and compensation distribution were higher for households located inside the buffer. Our approach modeled conflict data to aid managers in identifying potential conflict hotspots, influential factors, and spatially maps risk probability of crop and livestock loss. This approach could help focus allocation of conservation efforts and funds directed at conflict prevention and mitigation where high densities of people and wildlife co-occur.

  15. Public trust doctrine, research and responsible wildlife management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Blackmore

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A significant proportion of South African biodiversity occurs in extensive private wildlife areas. As such, the continuance of these private reserves is paramount to conservation of the country’s biodiversity. The areas are, however, vulnerable to being divided into smaller camps as landowners enter into the new and rapidly growing industry of selective breeding and intensive management of antelope and predators. Concerns are being raised as to the long-term consequences of the products and impacts of this industry on, inter alia, integrity and conservation of the country’s wildlife, and the landscapes these facilities are located in, as well as the country’s reputation as a free ranging and fair chase hunting destination. Using the public trust doctrine as a foundation, this article characterises the relationship between the country’s environmental law and the roles played by government as the regulator, the wildlife industry, research and the public in achieving responsible wildlife management and the long-term conservation of this resource. These relationships are seen to be finely balanced between the provision of robust science, and evidence-based and cautious or risk-averse decision-making. It is concluded that the public trust doctrine is a powerful tool to limit the impacts of unsustainable and parochial use of wildlife on the conservation of biodiversity. It is also concluded that an improved understanding of the doctrine by researchers, public and the wildlife industry would lead to a greater relevance of research, and in turn sound evidence-based decision-making and ultimately sustainable use of wildlife.

  16. Wildlife underpasses on U.S. 64 in North Carolina: integrating management and science objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mark D.; Van Manen, Frank T.; Wilson, Travis W.; Cox, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter on wildlife underpasses on U.S. Highway 64 in North Carolina is from a book on highways, wildlife, and habitat connectivity. U.S. 64 is an important route in North Carolina connecting major population centers and highways that underwent a major upgrade from a two-lane rural road to a major highway. New routes were proposed for a large portion of the project (28 miles) to improve driver safety and increase speed limits to 70 miles per hour (from the previously posted 55 mph). The authors review the geographical, historical, political, and social setting; the roadway and environmental issues; the rationale for the project; critical factors; outcomes of the project; and lessons learned. The area of the project supports high wildlife densities, including American black bears, white-tailed deer, red wolves, and bobcats. Critical factors to be incorporated into wildlife mitigation measures: driver safety, underpass construction costs, and permitting by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The U.S. 64 underpasses, completed in 2005, were the first in North Carolina designed specifically for wildlife and according to specifications provided by the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC). The authors describe the underpass specifications recommended based on this project, including size, control of public access, fencing, gates, and maintenance (notably vegetation management). The authors conclude that one of the most beneficial outcomes of this project was the fact that, since the completion of the U.S. 64 underpasses, the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) routinely considers wildlife passageways for road projects in the state.

  17. State Wildlife Management Area Public Facilities - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This point theme contains facilities and features for WMAs that are best represented as points. WMAs are part of the Minnesota state recreation system created to...

  18. State Wildlife Management Area Public Facilities - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This line theme contains facilities and features for WMAs that are best represented as lines. WMAs are part of the Minnesota state recreation system created to...

  19. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 27, Wildlife Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, P.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Evans, J.W. [Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-06-01

    A plan for management of the wildlife resources on the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation is outlined in this document. Management includes wildlife population control (hunts, trapping, and removal), handling specific problems with wildlife, restoration of species, coordination with researchers on wildlife studies, preservation and management of habitats, and law enforcement. Wildlife resources are divided into five categories, each with a specific set of objectives and procedures for obtaining these objectives. These categories are (1) species-richness management to ensure that all resident wildlife species exist on the Reservation in viable numbers; (2) featured species management to produce selected species in desired numbers on designated land units; (3) management of game species for research, education, recreation, and public safety, (4) endangered species management designed to preserve and protect both the species and habitats critical to the survival of those species; and (5) pest management. Achievement of the objectives is a joint effort between the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Environmental Sciences Division.

  20. Wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Animals from the Hanford environs were collected and analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Wildlife is a potential pathway for the exposure of people who hunt or fish near the Hanford Site. Low levels of radionuclides attributed to past operations at Hanford were observed in several samples of whitefish collected from the Columbia River and in ducks collected from onsite wastewater ponds. In addition, a special study conducted during 1980 determined that Hanford deer contained small amounts of 129 I attributable to onsite operations. Calculated doses resulting from assumed consumption of the samples were very small and far below dose standards

  1. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Critical Habitats, Wildlife Refuges, National Park lands, and other management areas in the Bristol Bay Subarea....

  2. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use data for management areas, National Park Service properties, State Parks, and National Wildlife Refuges in Long Island, New York....

  3. Evaluation of wildlife management through organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming has often been suggested as a way of increasing biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, but literature reports a variable success. The drivers in play are multi-factorial and include the particular species groups under consideration, the precise form of organic management, the la...

  4. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Rainwater Wildlife Area, 1998-2001 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen

    2004-01-01

    vegetation species, allowance of normative processes such as fire occurrence, and facilitating development of natural stable stream channels and associated floodplains. Implementation of habitat enhancement and restoration activities could generate an additional 1,850 habitat units in 10 years. Baseline and estimated future habitat units total 7,035.3 for the Rainwater Wildlife Area. Habitat protection, enhancement and restoration will require long-term commitments from managers to increase probabilities of success and meet the goals and objectives of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Program. Longer-term benefits of protection and enhancement activities include increases in native species diversity and plant community resiliency in all cover types. Watershed conditions, including floodplain/riparian, and instream habitat quality should improve as well providing multiple benefits for terrestrial and aquatic resources. While such benefits are not necessarily recognized by HEP models and reflected in the number of habitat units generated, they are consistent with the NPPC Fish and Wildlife Program.

  5. Portfolio selection theory and wildlife management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JW Hearne

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available With a strong commercial incentive driving the increase in game ranching in Southern Africa the need has come for more advanced management tools. In this paper the potential of Portfolio Selection Theory to determine the optimal mix of species on game ranches is explored. Land, or the food it produces, is a resource available to invest. We consider species as investment choices. Each species has its own return and risk profile. The question arises as to what proportion of the resource available should be invested in each species. We show that if the objective is to minimise risk for a given return, then the problem is analogous to the Portfolio Selection Problem. The method is then implemented for a typical game ranch. We show that besides risk and return objectives, it is necessary to include an additional objective so as to ensure sufficient species to maintain the character of a game ranch. Some other points of difference from the classical Portfolio Selection problem are also highlighted and discussed.

  6. Conservation markets for wildlife management with case studies from whaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Leah R; Costello, Christopher; Gaines, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Although market-based incentives have helped resolve many environmental challenges, conservation markets still play a relatively minor role in wildlife management. Establishing property rights for environmental goods and allowing trade between resource extractors and resource conservationists may offer a path forward in conserving charismatic species like whales, wolves, turtles, and sharks. In this paper, we provide a conceptual model for implementing a conservation market for wildlife and evaluate how such a market could be applied to three case studies for whales (minke [Balaenoptera acutorostrata], bowhead [Balaena mysticetus], and gray [Eschrictius robustus]). We show that, if designed and operated properly, such a market could ensure persistence of imperiled populations, while simultaneously improving the welfare of resource harvesters.

  7. ARM! For the future: adaptive resource management in the wildlife profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Lancia; Clait E. Braun; Michael W. Collopy; Raymond D. Dueser; John G. Kie; Clifford J. Martinka; James D. Nichols; Thomas D. Nudds; Wayne R. Porath; Nancy G. Tilghman

    1996-01-01

    The authors encourage wildlife professionals to shift from a traditional, agricultural paradigm to an ecological one through adaptive resource management (ARM). The wildlife profession has a long-established tradition of examining and debating the quality and direction of wildlife research. This introspection is good, for it encourages the profession to improve and...

  8. The urbanization of wildlife management:Social science, conflict, and decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Patterson; Jessica M. Montag; Daniel R. Williams

    2003-01-01

    Increasing urbanization of rural landscapes has created new challenges for wildlife management. In addition to changes in the physical landscape, urbanization has also produced changes in the socio-cultural landscape. The greater distancing from direct interaction with wildlife in urbanized societies has led to the emergence of a culture whose meanings for wildlife are...

  9. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    The need for a way by which rangeland managers can account for wildlife in land-use planning, in on-the-ground management actions, and in preparation of environmental impact statements is discussed. Principles of range-land-wildlife interactions and management are described along with management systems. The Great Basin of southeastern Oregon was selected as a well-...

  10. Wildlife Habitat Evaluation Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Edward L., Jr.; Benson, Delwin E.

    The National 4-H Wildlife Invitational is a competitive event to teach youth about the fundamentals of wildlife management. Youth learn that management for wildlife means management of wildlife habitat and providing for the needs of wildlife. This handbook provides information about wildlife habitat management concepts in both urban and rural…

  11. Insights into the management of large carnivores for profitable wildlife-based land uses in African savannas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Funston

    Full Text Available Large African predators, especially lions (Panthera leo and leopards (Panthera pardus, are financially valuable for ecotourism and trophy hunting operations on land also utilized for the production of other wildlife species for the same purpose. Predation of ungulates used for trophy hunting can create conflict with landholders and trade off thus exists between the value of lions and leopards and their impact on ungulate populations. Therefore productionist and conservation trade-offs are complexly graded and difficult to resolve. We investigated this with a risk-benefit analysis on a large private wildlife production area in Zimbabwe. Our model showed that lions result in substantial financial costs through predation on wild ungulates that may not be offset by profits from hunting them, whereas the returns from trophy hunting of leopards are projected to exceed the costs due to leopard predation. In the absence of additional income derived from photo-tourism the number of lions may need to be managed to minimize their impact. Lions drive important ecological processes, but there is a need to balance ecological and financial imperatives on wildlife ranches, community wildlife lands and other categories of multiple use land used for wildlife production. This will ensure the competitiveness of wildlife based land uses relative to alternatives. Our findings may thus be limited to conservancies, community land-use areas and commercial game ranches, which are expansive in Africa, and should not necessarily applied to areas where biodiversity conservation is the primary objective, even if hunting is allowed there.

  12. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Tacoma/Trimble Area Management Plan, Technical Report 2001-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray; Lockwood, Jr., Neil; Holmes, Darren

    2003-10-01

    In 2000 and 2001, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) continued to mitigate the wildlife habitat losses as part of the Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project. Utilizing Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds, the Kalispel Tribe of Indians (Tribe) purchased three projects totaling nearly 1,200 acres. The Tacoma/Trimble Wildlife Management Area is a conglomeration of properties now estimated at 1,700 acres. It is the Tribe's intent to manage these properties in cooperation and collaboration with the Pend Oreille County Public Utility District (PUD) No. 1 and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to benefit wildlife habitats and associated species, populations, and guilds.

  13. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Ladd Marsh Wildlife Area, 2004-2006 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul; Wagoner, Sara

    2006-05-01

    The Regional HEP Team (RHT) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) staff conducted a follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis on the Ladd Marsh Wildlife Management Area (LMWA) in May 2005. The 2005 HEP assessment resulted in a total of 647.44 HUs, or 0.76 HUs/acre. This is an increase of 420.34 HUs (0.49 HUs/acre) over 2001 HEP survey results. The most significant increase in HUs occurred on the Wallender and Simonis parcels which increased by 214.30 HUs and 177.49 HUs respectively. Transects were established at or near 2001 HEP analysis transect locations whenever possible. ODFW staff biologists assisted the RHT re-establish transect locations and/or suggested areas for new surveys. Since 2001, significant changes in cover type acreage and/or structural conditions have occurred due to conversion of agriculture cover types to emergent wetland and grassland cover types. Agricultural lands were seeded to reestablish grasslands and wetlands were restored through active management and manipulation of extant water sources including natural stream hydrology/flood regimes and available irrigation. Grasslands increased on the Wallender parcel by 21% (65 acres), 23% (71 acres) at the Simonis site, and 39% (62 acres) at Conley Lake. The emergent wetland cover type also changed significantly increasing 60% (184 acres) at Wallender and 59% (184 acres) on the Simonis tract. Today, agriculture lands (crop and grazed pasture) have been nearly eliminated from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) mitigation project lands located on the LMWA.

  14. USING OF THERMAL STRUCTURE MAPS FOR VEGETATION MAPPING (CASE OF ALTACHEYSKY WILDLIFE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Abramova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared imagery contains considerable amount of qualitative information about ground objects and landscapes. In spite of it, this type of data is often used to derive quantitative information such as land or sea surface temperatures. This paper describes the examination of Altacheysky wildlife area situated in the southern part of Buryatia Republic, Mukhorshibirsky district based on Landsat imagery and ground observations. Ground observations were led to study the vegetation cover of the area. Landsat imagery were used to make multitemporal thermal infrared image combined of 7 ETM+ scenes and to make multispectral image combined of different zones of a OLI scene. Both images were classified. The multitemporal thermal infrared classification result was used to compose thermal structure map of the wildlife area. Comparison of the map, multispectral image classification result and ground observations data reveals that thermal structure map describes better the particularities of Altacheysky wildlife area vegetation cover.

  15. Managing ecotourism visitation in protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, J.L.; Farrell, T.A.; Lindberg, Kreg; Wood, Megan Epler; Engeldrum, David

    1998-01-01

    Ecotourism management seeks to integrate and balance several potentially conflicting objectives: protection of natural and cultural resources, provision of recreation opportunities and generation of economic benefits. In the absence of effective planning and management, ecotourism can lead to significant negative impacts on vegetation, soil, water, wildlife, historic resources, cultures, and visitor experiences. This chapter reviews visitor-related natural resource and experience impacts associated with ecotourism within protected areas. The influence of factors that control the nature and extent of impacts are also reviewed, including type and amount of use, the variable resistance and resilience of environmental attributes such as vegetation and soil types, and the role of management in shaping visitation, resources and facilities to support visitation while minimizing associated impacts. Implications for managing the effects of protected area visitation are highlighted, including carrying capacity decision frameworks and selecting management strategies and tactics.

  16. Educational background and professional participation by federal wildlife biologists: Implications for science, management, and The Wildlife Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    Over 2,000 people are employed in wildlife biology in the United States federal government. The size of this constituency motivated me to examine the amount of formal education federal biologists have received and the extent of continuing education they undertake by reading journals or attending scientific meetings. Most federal biologists who are members of The Wildlife Society (TWS) have a graduate degree. However, one-third have only a Bachelor of Science degree, despite the current trend toward hiring people with graduate degrees. Most federal biologists are not research biologists. Numbers of journals subscribed to was positively related to educational level. Less than one-third of all wildlife biologists employed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service are members of TWS or subscribe to any of its journals. In contrast, the majority of presenters at the TWS 2000 Annual Conference were research biologists and members of TWS. The failure of many federal wildlife biologists to read scientific literature or attend professional meetings indicates a failure to promote the importance of continuing education in the federal workplace. I identify 2 potential adverse impacts of this failing: an inability to recognize important and relevant scientific contributions and an ineffectiveness in carrying out adaptive management.

  17. Heap leach cyanide irrigation and risk to wildlife: Ramifications for the international cyanide management code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, D B; Madden-Hallett, D M; Smith, G B; Gursansky, W

    2017-06-01

    Exposed cyanide-bearing solutions associated with gold and silver recovery processes in the mining industry pose a risk to wildlife that interact with these solutions. This has been documented with cyanide-bearing tailings storage facilities, however risks associated with heap leach facilities are poorly documented, monitored and audited. Gold and silver leaching heap leach facilities use cyanide, pH-stabilised, at concentrations deemed toxic to wildlife. Their design and management are known to result in exposed cyanide-bearing solutions that are accessible to and present a risk to wildlife. Monitoring of the presence of exposed solutions, wildlife interaction, interpretation of risks and associated wildlife deaths are poorly documented. This paper provides a list of critical monitoring criteria and attempts to predict wildlife guilds most at risk. Understanding the significance of risks to wildlife from exposed cyanide solutions is complex, involving seasonality, relative position of ponding, temporal nature of ponding, solution palatability, environmental conditions, in situ wildlife species inventory and provision of alternative drinking sources for wildlife. Although a number of heap leach operations are certified as complaint with the International Cyanide Management Code (Cyanide Code), these criteria are not considered by auditors nor has systematic monitoring regime data been published. Without systematic monitoring and further knowledge, wildlife deaths on heap leach facilities are likely to remain largely unrecorded. This has ramifications for those operations certified as compliance with the Cyanide Code. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Wildlife Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Kim Arild; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Karstoft, Henrik

    This report contains a progress report for the ph.d. project titled “Wildlife Communication”. The project focuses on investigating how signal processing and pattern recognition can be used to improve wildlife management in agriculture. Wildlife management systems used today experience habituation...

  19. Managing invasive plants in natural areas: Moving beyond weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega

    2009-01-01

    Exotic invasive plants present one of the greatest challenges to natural resource management. These weeds can alter entire communities and ecosystems, substantially degrading important ecosystem services such as forage for wild and domestic herbivores, water and soil quality, recreational values, and wildlife habitat. Traditionally, weed management in natural areas has...

  20. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental chang...... and provide important information for conservation management of migratory birds....

  1. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Wildlife Refuges in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent management...

  2. Regional economic effects of current and proposed management alternatives for Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Lynne; Lambert, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP). The CCP must describe the desired future conditions of a Refuge and provide long range guidance and management direction to achieve Refuge purposes. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), located 27 miles northeast of Aberdeen, South Dakota, is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the CCP. The CCP for Sand Lake NWR must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed Refuge management strategies.

  3. Regional economic effects of current and proposed management alternatives for Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Lynne; Lambert, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP). The CCP must describe the desired future conditions of a Refuge and provide long range guidance and management direction to achieve Refuge purposes. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), located along the James River in east central North Dakota, is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the CCP. The CCP for Arrowwood NWR must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed Refuge management strategies.

  4. The effects of radar on avian behavior: Implications for wildlife management at airports

    OpenAIRE

    Sheridan, Eleanor R

    2014-01-01

    Airports are areas with a high availability of resources for wildlife to forage, breed, and roost. Airports also have different types of radars to assist with air traffic control as well as tracking of wildlife that could become a risk for aircraft. The effect of radar electromagnetic radiation on wildlife behavior is not well understood. The goal of this study was to determine if bird behavior is affected by radar in two contexts: static radar (e.g., surveillance radar) and approaching radar...

  5. 36 CFR 251.10 - Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of location of mining claims within certain areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. 251.10 Section 251.10... areas in the Norbeck Wildlife Preserve, South Dakota. The location of mining claims in such areas within...

  6. 'Wildlife 2001: Populations', an International Conference on Population Dynamics and Management of Vertebrates

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Reginald

    1992-01-01

    In 1984, a conference called Wildlife 2000: Modeling habitat relationships of terrestrial vertebrates, was held at Stanford Sierra Camp at Fallen Leaf Lake in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. The conference was well-received, and the published volume (Verner, J. , M. L. Morrison, and C. J. Ralph, editors. 1986. Wildlife 2000: modeling habitat relationships of terrestrial vertebrates, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin, USA) proved to be a landmark publication that received a book award by The Wildlife Society. Wildlife 2001: populations was a followup conference with emphasis on the other major biological field of wildlife conservation and management, populations. It was held on July 29-31, 1991, at the Oakland Airport Hilton Hotel in Oakland, California, in accordance with our intent that this conference have a much stronger international representation than did Wildlife 2000. The goal of the conference was to bring together an international group of specialists to address the state ...

  7. Wildlife Habitats in Managed Forests the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Ward [Technical Editor] Thomas

    1979-01-01

    The Nation's forests are one of the last remaining natural habitats forterrestrial wildlife. Much of this vast forest resource has changed dramatically in the last 200 years and can no longer be considered wild. It is now managed for multiple use benefits, including timber production. Timber harvesting and roadbuilding now alter wildlife habitat more than any...

  8. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle and selected wildlife species at selected livestock/wildlife interface areas of the Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndengu, Masimba; Matope, Gift; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Tivapasi, Musavengana; Scacchia, Massimo; Bonfini, Barbara; Pfukenyi, Davis Mubika

    2017-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and risk factors for Brucella species infection in cattle and some wildlife species in communities living at the periphery of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area in south eastern Zimbabwe. Three study sites were selected based on the type of livestock-wildlife interface: porous livestock-wildlife interface (unrestricted); non-porous livestock-wildlife interface (restricted by fencing); and livestock-wildlife non-interface (totally absent or control). Sera were collected from cattle aged≥2years representing both female and intact male animals. Sera were also collected from selected wild ungulates from Mabalauta (porous interface) and Chipinda (non-interface) areas of the Gonarezhou National Park. Samples were screened for Brucellaantibodies using the Rose Bengal plate test and confirmed by the complement fixation test. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression modelling. In cattle, brucellosis seroprevalence from all areas was 16.7% (169/1011; 95% CI: 14.5-19.2%). The porous interface recorded a significantly (p=0.03) higher seroprevalence (19.5%; 95% CI: 16.1-23.4%) compared to the non-interface area (13.0%; 95% CI: 9.2-19.9%).The odds of Brucellaseropositivity increased progressively with parity of animals and were also three times higher (OR=3.0, 2.0wildlife and livestock. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to the... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING General Provisions...

  10. Perceived damage and areas of needed research for wildlife pests of California agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Roger A; Salmon, Terrell P; Schmidt, Robert H; Timm, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Many wildlife species cause extensive damage to a variety of agricultural commodities in California, with estimates of damage in the hundreds of millions annually. Given the limited availability of resources to solve all human-wildlife conflicts, we should focus management efforts on issues that provide the greatest benefit to agricultural commodities in California. This survey provides quantitative data on research needs to better guide future efforts in developing more effective, practical and appropriate methods for managing these species. We found that ground squirrels, pocket gophers, birds, wild pigs, coyotes and voles were the most common agricultural wildlife pest species in California. The damage caused by these species could be quite high, but varied by agricultural commodity. For most species, common forms of damage included loss of crop production and direct death of the plant, although livestock depredation was the greatest concern for coyotes. Control methods used most frequently and those deemed most effective varied by pest species, although greater advancements in control methods were listed as a top research priority for all species. Collectively, the use of toxicants, biocontrol and trapping were the most preferred methods for control, but this varied by species. In general, integrated pest management practices were used to control wildlife pests, with a special preference for those approaches that were efficacious and quick and inexpensive to apply. This information and survey design should be useful in establishing research and management priorities for wildlife pest species in California and other similar regions. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. 50 CFR 32.5 - What are the requirements for sportfishing on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... engaged in public sport fishing on a wildlife refuge area: (a) Each person shall secure and possess the... and use of the wildlife refuge area. (e) Each person must comply with the provisions of any refuge.... In addition, refuge-specific sport fishing regulations appear in §§ 32.20 through 32.72. [58 FR 5064...

  12. Wind and wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: identifying low-impact areas for wind development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Fargione

    Full Text Available Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW than most other forms of energy production and has known and predicted adverse effects on wildlife. The Northern Great Plains (NGP is home both to some of the world's best wind resources and to remaining temperate grasslands, the most converted and least protected ecological system on the planet. Thus, appropriate siting and mitigation of wind development is particularly important in this region. Steering energy development to disturbed lands with low wildlife value rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce impacts to wildlife. Goals for wind energy development in the NGP are roughly 30 GW of nameplate capacity by 2030. Our analyses demonstrate that there are large areas where wind development would likely have few additional impacts on wildlife. We estimate there are ∼1,056 GW of potential wind energy available across the NGP on areas likely to have low-impact for biodiversity, over 35 times development goals. New policies and approaches will be required to guide wind energy development to low-impact areas.

  13. Historical Documentation of Warm-Season Grasses Management at Erie National Wildlife Refuge 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The early accounts of an active grassland management program at Erie National Wildlife Refuge dates back to 1977. This report is an attempt to document the refuge’s...

  14. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge’s 1996 annual water management program and describes plans for 1997. The main objective of...

  15. Threatened and endangered wildlife survey: Vacherie Dome area, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Review of the available literature concerning the previous distribution of animals now considered to be threatened or endangered suggests that the following species may once have occupied the project area in Webster and Bienville Parishes, Louisiana: Florida panther, bald eagle, Arctic peregrine falcon, red-cockaded woodpecker, ivory-billed woodpecker, red wolf, and Eskimo curlew. The Louisiana pine snake is not officially listed at this time although it is considered to be a candidate for inclusion on the federal list pending further research on its population and distribution. Based on previous experience within northwestern Louisiana and other recent evidence, it is concluded that the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is the only animal listed or proposed as threatened or endangered which may actually now be found there

  16. Optimizing wind power generation while minimizing wildlife impacts in an urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Bohrer

    Full Text Available The location of a wind turbine is critical to its power output, which is strongly affected by the local wind field. Turbine operators typically seek locations with the best wind at the lowest level above ground since turbine height affects installation costs. In many urban applications, such as small-scale turbines owned by local communities or organizations, turbine placement is challenging because of limited available space and because the turbine often must be added without removing existing infrastructure, including buildings and trees. The need to minimize turbine hazard to wildlife compounds the challenge. We used an exclusion zone approach for turbine-placement optimization that incorporates spatially detailed maps of wind distribution and wildlife densities with power output predictions for the Ohio State University campus. We processed public GIS records and airborne lidar point-cloud data to develop a 3D map of all campus buildings and trees. High resolution large-eddy simulations and long-term wind climatology were combined to provide land-surface-affected 3D wind fields and the corresponding wind-power generation potential. This power prediction map was then combined with bird survey data. Our assessment predicts that exclusion of areas where bird numbers are highest will have modest effects on the availability of locations for power generation. The exclusion zone approach allows the incorporation of wildlife hazard in wind turbine siting and power output considerations in complex urban environments even when the quantitative interaction between wildlife behavior and turbine activity is unknown.

  17. Optimizing wind power generation while minimizing wildlife impacts in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Gil; Zhu, Kunpeng; Jones, Robert L; Curtis, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    The location of a wind turbine is critical to its power output, which is strongly affected by the local wind field. Turbine operators typically seek locations with the best wind at the lowest level above ground since turbine height affects installation costs. In many urban applications, such as small-scale turbines owned by local communities or organizations, turbine placement is challenging because of limited available space and because the turbine often must be added without removing existing infrastructure, including buildings and trees. The need to minimize turbine hazard to wildlife compounds the challenge. We used an exclusion zone approach for turbine-placement optimization that incorporates spatially detailed maps of wind distribution and wildlife densities with power output predictions for the Ohio State University campus. We processed public GIS records and airborne lidar point-cloud data to develop a 3D map of all campus buildings and trees. High resolution large-eddy simulations and long-term wind climatology were combined to provide land-surface-affected 3D wind fields and the corresponding wind-power generation potential. This power prediction map was then combined with bird survey data. Our assessment predicts that exclusion of areas where bird numbers are highest will have modest effects on the availability of locations for power generation. The exclusion zone approach allows the incorporation of wildlife hazard in wind turbine siting and power output considerations in complex urban environments even when the quantitative interaction between wildlife behavior and turbine activity is unknown.

  18. Iskuulpa Watershed Management Plan : A Five-Year Plan for Protecting and Enhancing Fish and Wildlife Habitats in the Iskuulpa Watershed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

    2003-01-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat and watershed resources in the Iskuulpa Watershed. The Iskuulpa Watershed Project was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Fish and Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1998. Iskuulpa will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the John Day and McNary Hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Iskuulpa Watershed, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Iskuulpa Watershed management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Iskuulpa Watershed will be managed over the next three years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management.

  19. Explaining Emotional Attachment to a Protected Area by Visitors' Perceived Importance of Seeing Wildlife, Behavioral Connections with Nature and Sociodemographics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigen, Paulus P.P.; Haartsen, Tialda; Folmer, Akke

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the interest in understanding emotional bonds with protected nature areas has been growing. The role of wildlife in emotional bonds with places has until now not been the focus of many studies. The aim of our paper is to explore relations between the perceived importance of seeing wildlife

  20. Spatial Management Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial management files combine all related and relevant spatial management files into an integrated fisheries management file. Overlaps of the redundant spatial...

  1. Phase II Water Rental Pilot Project: Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Stacey H.

    1994-08-01

    The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented in 1991 as part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to quantify resident fish and wildlife impacts resulting from salmon flow augmentation releases made from the upper Snake River Basin. Phase I summarized existing resource information and provided management recommendations to protect and enhance resident fish and wildlife habitat resulting from storage releases for the I improvement of an adromous fish migration. Phase II includes the following: (1) a summary of recent biological, legal, and political developments within the basin as they relate to water management issues, (2) a biological appraisal of the Snake River between American Falls Reservoir and the city of Blackfoot to examine the effects of flow fluctuation on fish and wildlife habitat, and (3) a preliminary accounting of 1993--1994 flow augmentation releases out of the upper Snake, Boise, and Payette river systems. Phase III will include the development of a model in which annual flow requests and resident fish and wildlife suitability information are interfaced with habitat time series analysis to provide an estimate of resident fish and wildlife resources.

  2. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for communities, wildlife refuges, and National, State, and regional parks in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska....

  3. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains geographical boundary information for National Park Service properties, wildlife refuges, and other management areas in Guam and the Northern...

  4. Synthesis of regional wildlife and vegetation field studies to guide management of standing and down dead trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; Janet L. Ohmann; Kim L. Mellen-McLean; Karen L. Waddell

    2010-01-01

    We used novel methods for combining information from wildlife and vegetation field studies to develop guidelines for managing dead wood for wildlife and biodiversity. The DecAID Decayed Wood Adviser presents data on wildlife use of standing and down dead trees (snags and down wood) and summaries of regional vegetation plot data depicting dead wood conditions, for...

  5. Mammal indicator species for protected areas and managed forests in a landscape conservation area in northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep K. Mathur; Harish Kumar; John F. Lehmkuhl; Anshuman Tripathi; Vishwas B. Sawarkar; Rupak. De

    2010-01-01

    There is a realization that managed forests and other natural areas in the landscape matrix can and must make significant contributions to biodiversity conservation. Often, however, there are no consistent baseline vegetation or wildlife data for assessing the status of biodiversity elements across protected and managed areas for conservation planning, nor is there a...

  6. Use of survey data to define regional and local priorities for management on national wildlife refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Sauer; Jennifer Casey; Harold Laskowski; Jan D. Taylor; Jane Fallon

    2005-01-01

    National Wildlife Refuges must manage habitats to support a variety of species that often have conflicting needs. To make reasonable management decisions, managers must know what species are priorities for their refuges and the relative importance of the species. Unfortunately, species priorities are often set regionally, but refuges must develop local priorities that...

  7. Wildlife Surveys - CDFG Lands, Region 2 [ds325

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data represent wildlife observations from surveys in 2004 and 2005 of 56 different Wildlife Areas and Ecological Reserves (units) managed by the California...

  8. Control of pestivirus infections in the management of wildlife populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lack of host-specificity allow pestiviruses to infect domestic livestock as well as captive and free-ranging wildlife, posing unique challenges to different stakeholders. While current control measures for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are focused only on cattle, increased attention on the ...

  9. Columbia River ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Wildlife Refuges, National Forests, and State Parks for the Columbia River area. Vector polygons in this data set...

  10. Kootenai River Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project : Long-term Bighorn Sheep/Mule Deer Winter and Spring Habitat Improvement Project : Wildlife Mitigation Project, Libby Dam, Montana : Management Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, Chis

    1990-06-01

    The Libby hydroelectric project, located on the Kootenai River in northwestern Montana, resulted in several impacts to the wildlife communities which occupied the habitats inundated by Lake Koocanusa. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, in cooperation with the other management agencies, developed an impact assessment and a wildlife and wildlife habitat mitigation plan for the Libby hydroelectric facility. In response to the mitigation plan, Bonneville Power Administration funded a cooperative project between the Kootenai National Forest and Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks to develop a long-term habitat enhancement plan for the bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring ranges adjacent to Lake Koocanusa. The project goal is to rehabilitate 3372 acres of bighorn sheep and 16,321 acres of mule deer winter and spring ranges on Kootenai National Forest lands adjacent to Lake Koocanusa and to monitor and evaluate the effects of implementing this habitat enhancement work. 2 refs.

  11. Burlington Bottoms wildlife mitigation site : five-year habitat management plan, 2001-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beilke, Susan G.

    2001-01-01

    Historically the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins were ecologically rich in both the habitat types and the species diversity they supported. This was due in part to the pattern of floods and periodic inundation of bottomlands that occurred, which was an important factor in creating and maintaining a complex system of wetland, meadow, and riparian habitats. This landscape has been greatly altered in the past 150 years, primarily due to human development and agricultural activities including cattle grazing, logging and the building of hydroelectric facilities for hydropower, navigation, flood control and irrigation in the Columbia and Willamette River Basins. The Burlington Bottoms (BB) wetlands contains some of the last remaining bottomlands in the area, supporting a diverse array of native plant and wildlife species. Located approximately twelve miles northwest of Portland and situated between the Tualatin Mountains to the west and Multnomah Channel and Sauvie Island to the east, the current habitats are remnant of what was once common throughout the region. In order to preserve and enhance this important site, a five-year habitat management plan has been written that proposes a set of actions that will carry out the goals and objectives developed for the site, which includes protecting, maintaining and enhancing wildlife habitat for perpetuity

  12. Spatially explicit modeling of conflict zones between wildlife and snow sports: prioritizing areas for winter refuges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunisch, Veronika; Patthey, Patrick; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2011-04-01

    Outdoor winter recreation exerts an increasing pressure upon mountain ecosystems, with unpredictable, free-ranging activities (e.g., ski mountaineering, snowboarding, and snowshoeing) representing a major source of stress for wildlife. Mitigating anthropogenic disturbance requires the spatially explicit prediction of the interference between the activities of humans and wildlife. We applied spatial modeling to localize conflict zones between wintering Black Grouse (Tetrao tetrix), a declining species of Alpine timberline ecosystems, and two free-ranging winter sports (off-piste skiing [including snow-boarding] and snowshoeing). Track data (snow-sports and birds' traces) obtained from aerial photographs taken over a 585-km transect running along the timberline, implemented within a maximum entropy model, were used to predict the occurrence of snow sports and Black Grouse as a function of landscape characteristics. By modeling Black Grouse presence in the theoretical absence of free-ranging activities and ski infrastructure, we first estimated the amount of habitat reduction caused by these two factors. The models were then extrapolated to the altitudinal range occupied by Black Grouse, while the spatial extent and intensity of potential conflict were assessed by calculating the probability of human-wildlife co-occurrence. The two snow-sports showed different distribution patterns. Skiers' occurrence was mainly determined by ski-lift presence and a smooth terrain, while snowshoers' occurrence was linked to hiking or skiing routes and moderate slopes. Wintering Black Grouse avoided ski lifts and areas frequented by free-ranging snow sports. According to the models, Black Grouse have faced a substantial reduction of suitable wintering habitat along the timberline transect: 12% due to ski infrastructure and another 16% when adding free-ranging activities. Extrapolating the models over the whole study area results in an overall habitat loss due to ski infrastructure of

  13. The ethical dimensions of wildlife disease management in an evolutionary context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Gkd; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2014-08-01

    Best practices in wildlife disease management require robust evolutionary ecological research (EER). This means not only basing management decisions on evolutionarily sound reasoning, but also conducting management in a way that actively contributes to the on-going development of that research. Because good management requires good science, and good science is 'good' science (i.e., effective science is often science conducted ethically), good management therefore also requires practices that accord with sound ethical reasoning. To that end, we propose a two-part framework to assist decision makers to identify ethical pitfalls of wildlife disease management. The first part consists of six values - freedom, fairness, well-being, replacement, reduction, and refinement; these values, developed for the ethical evaluation of EER practices, are also well suited for evaluating the ethics of wildlife disease management. The second part consists of a decision tree to help identify the ethically salient dimensions of wildlife disease management and to guide managers toward ethically responsible practices in complex situations. While ethical reasoning cannot be used to deduce from first principles what practices should be undertaken in every given set of circumstances, it can establish parameters that bound what sorts of practices will be acceptable or unacceptable in certain types of scenarios.

  14. Public health significance of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in wildlife: Critical insights into better drinking water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zahedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is an enteric parasite that is transmitted via the faecal–oral route, water and food. Humans, wildlife and domestic livestock all potentially contribute Cryptosporidium to surface waters. Human encroachment into natural ecosystems has led to an increase in interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife populations. Increasing numbers of zoonotic diseases and spill over/back of zoonotic pathogens is a consequence of this anthropogenic disturbance. Drinking water catchments and water reservoir areas have been at the front line of this conflict as they can be easily contaminated by zoonotic waterborne pathogens. Therefore, the epidemiology of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium in free-ranging and captive wildlife is of increasing importance. This review focuses on zoonotic Cryptosporidium species reported in global wildlife populations to date, and highlights their significance for public health and the water industry.

  15. Public health significance of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in wildlife: Critical insights into better drinking water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Alireza; Paparini, Andrea; Jian, Fuchun; Robertson, Ian; Ryan, Una

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidium is an enteric parasite that is transmitted via the faecal-oral route, water and food. Humans, wildlife and domestic livestock all potentially contribute Cryptosporidium to surface waters. Human encroachment into natural ecosystems has led to an increase in interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife populations. Increasing numbers of zoonotic diseases and spill over/back of zoonotic pathogens is a consequence of this anthropogenic disturbance. Drinking water catchments and water reservoir areas have been at the front line of this conflict as they can be easily contaminated by zoonotic waterborne pathogens. Therefore, the epidemiology of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium in free-ranging and captive wildlife is of increasing importance. This review focuses on zoonotic Cryptosporidium species reported in global wildlife populations to date, and highlights their significance for public health and the water industry.

  16. Innovative Techniques for Estimating Illegal Activities in a Human-Wildlife-Management Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul; St. John, Freya A. V.; Khan, Saira; Petroczi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Effective management of biological resources is contingent upon stakeholder compliance with rules. With respect to disease management, partial compliance can undermine attempts to control diseases within human and wildlife populations. Estimating non-compliance is notoriously problematic as rule-breakers may be disinclined to admit to transgressions. However, reliable estimates of rule-breaking are critical to policy design. The European badger (Meles meles) is considered an important vector in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle herds. Land managers in high bTB prevalence areas of the UK can cull badgers under license. However, badgers are also known to be killed illegally. The extent of illegal badger killing is currently unknown. Herein we report on the application of three innovative techniques (Randomized Response Technique (RRT); projective questioning (PQ); brief implicit association test (BIAT)) for investigating illegal badger killing by livestock farmers across Wales. RRT estimated that 10.4% of farmers killed badgers in the 12 months preceding the study. Projective questioning responses and implicit associations relate to farmers' badger killing behavior reported via RRT. Studies evaluating the efficacy of mammal vector culling and vaccination programs should incorporate estimates of non-compliance. Mitigating the conflict concerning badgers as a vector of bTB requires cross-disciplinary scientific research, departure from deep-rooted positions, and the political will to implement evidence-based management. PMID:23341973

  17. Innovative techniques for estimating illegal activities in a human-wildlife-management conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cross

    Full Text Available Effective management of biological resources is contingent upon stakeholder compliance with rules. With respect to disease management, partial compliance can undermine attempts to control diseases within human and wildlife populations. Estimating non-compliance is notoriously problematic as rule-breakers may be disinclined to admit to transgressions. However, reliable estimates of rule-breaking are critical to policy design. The European badger (Meles meles is considered an important vector in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in cattle herds. Land managers in high bTB prevalence areas of the UK can cull badgers under license. However, badgers are also known to be killed illegally. The extent of illegal badger killing is currently unknown. Herein we report on the application of three innovative techniques (Randomized Response Technique (RRT; projective questioning (PQ; brief implicit association test (BIAT for investigating illegal badger killing by livestock farmers across Wales. RRT estimated that 10.4% of farmers killed badgers in the 12 months preceding the study. Projective questioning responses and implicit associations relate to farmers' badger killing behavior reported via RRT. Studies evaluating the efficacy of mammal vector culling and vaccination programs should incorporate estimates of non-compliance. Mitigating the conflict concerning badgers as a vector of bTB requires cross-disciplinary scientific research, departure from deep-rooted positions, and the political will to implement evidence-based management.

  18. Innovative techniques for estimating illegal activities in a human-wildlife-management conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul; St John, Freya A V; Khan, Saira; Petroczi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Effective management of biological resources is contingent upon stakeholder compliance with rules. With respect to disease management, partial compliance can undermine attempts to control diseases within human and wildlife populations. Estimating non-compliance is notoriously problematic as rule-breakers may be disinclined to admit to transgressions. However, reliable estimates of rule-breaking are critical to policy design. The European badger (Meles meles) is considered an important vector in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle herds. Land managers in high bTB prevalence areas of the UK can cull badgers under license. However, badgers are also known to be killed illegally. The extent of illegal badger killing is currently unknown. Herein we report on the application of three innovative techniques (Randomized Response Technique (RRT); projective questioning (PQ); brief implicit association test (BIAT)) for investigating illegal badger killing by livestock farmers across Wales. RRT estimated that 10.4% of farmers killed badgers in the 12 months preceding the study. Projective questioning responses and implicit associations relate to farmers' badger killing behavior reported via RRT. Studies evaluating the efficacy of mammal vector culling and vaccination programs should incorporate estimates of non-compliance. Mitigating the conflict concerning badgers as a vector of bTB requires cross-disciplinary scientific research, departure from deep-rooted positions, and the political will to implement evidence-based management.

  19. Managing an invasive corallimorph at Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Neal, Benjamin P.; Price, Nichole N.; Conklin, Eric; Pollock, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    In 2007, a phase shift from corals to corallimorpharians (CM) centered around a shipwreck was documented at Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands. Subsequent surveys revealed CM to be overgrowing the reef benthos, including corals and coralline algae, potentially placing coral ecosystems in the atoll at risk. This prompted the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the lead management agency of the atoll, to remove the shipwreck. Subsequent surveys showed reductions in CM around the ship impact site. We explain patterns of spread of the CM in terms of both life history and local currents and show with a pilot study that pulverized bleach may be an effective tool to eradicate CM on a local scale. If applied strategically, particularly in heavily infested (> 66% cover) areas, active intervention such as this could be an effective management tool to reduce CM impact on localized areas and decrease colonization rate of remaining reefs. This is the first documentation of the response of an invasive cnidarian to shipwreck removal. While this was a singular event in Palmyra, the spatial and temporal patterns of this invasion and the eradications lessons described herein, are useful for anticipating and controlling similar situations elsewhere.

  20. Using decision analysis to support proactive management of emerging infectious wildlife diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Muths, Erin L.; Katz, Rachel A.; Canessa, Stefano; Adams, Michael J.; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Berger, Lee; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Coleman, Jeremy; Gray, Matthew J.; Harris, M. Camille; Harris, Reid N.; Hossack, Blake R.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Kolby, Jonathan E.; Lips, Karen R.; Lovich, Robert E.; McCallum, Hamish I.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Nanjappa, Priya; Olson, Deanna H.; Powers, Jenny G.; Richgels, Katherine L. D.; Russell, Robin E.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Watry, Mary Kay; Woodhams, Douglas C.; White, C. LeAnn

    2017-01-01

    Despite calls for improved responses to emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, management is seldom considered until a disease has been detected in affected populations. Reactive approaches may limit the potential for control and increase total response costs. An alternative, proactive management framework can identify immediate actions that reduce future impacts even before a disease is detected, and plan subsequent actions that are conditional on disease emergence. We identify four main obstacles to developing proactive management strategies for the newly discovered salamander pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). Given that uncertainty is a hallmark of wildlife disease management and that associated decisions are often complicated by multiple competing objectives, we advocate using decision analysis to create and evaluate trade-offs between proactive (pre-emergence) and reactive (post-emergence) management options. Policy makers and natural resource agency personnel can apply principles from decision analysis to improve strategies for countering emerging infectious diseases.

  1. Ecology of Problem Individuals and the Efficacy of Selective Wildlife Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, George J F; Redpath, Steve M; Bearhop, Stuart; McDonald, Robbie A

    2017-07-01

    As a result of ecological and social drivers, the management of problems caused by wildlife is becoming more selective, often targeting specific animals. Narrowing the sights of management relies upon the ecology of certain 'problem individuals' and their disproportionate contribution to impacts upon human interests. We assess the ecological evidence for problem individuals and confirm that some individuals or classes can be both disproportionately responsible and more likely to reoffend. The benefits of management can sometimes be short-lived, and selective management can affect tolerance of wildlife for better or worse, but, when effectively targeted, selective management can bring benefits by mitigating impact and conflict, often in a more socially acceptable way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Site Specific Management Plan for the Hellsgate Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Matthew T.; Judd, Steven L.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains a detailed site-specific management plan for the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project. The report provides background information about the mitigation process, the review process, mitigation acquisitions, Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) and mitigation crediting, current habitat conditions, desired future habitat conditions, restoration/enhancements efforts and maps.

  3. Fire history and fire management implications in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Drury; P. J. Grissom

    2008-01-01

    We conducted this investigation in response to criticisms that the current Alaska Interagency Fire Management Plans are allowing too much of the landscape in interior Alaska to burn annually. To address this issue, we analyzed fire history patterns within the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, interior Alaska. We dated 40 fires on 27 landscape points within the...

  4. Managing fish and wildlife habitat in the face of climate change: USDA Forest Service perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory D. Hayward; Curtis H. Flather; Erin Uloth; Hugh D. Safford; David A. Cleaves

    2009-01-01

    The spatial and temporal scope of environmental change anticipated during the next century as a result of climate change presents unprecedented challenges for fish and wildlife management. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC 2007) suggested impacts from climate change on natural systems will be more grave than earlier...

  5. Turning a hazardous waste lagoon into reclaimed land for wildlife management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, A.K. [Woodward-Clyde International, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    Brownfields are turning back to green. This paper presents a case study of a former dump site for hazardous waste that has been remediated and will be developed into an enhanced wildlife management habitat. This successful remediation case combined various investigations, remedial designs, risk assessments, ecological studies, and engineering practices. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Herbicides as an alternative to prescribed burning for achieving wildlife management objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Bently Wigley; Karl V. Miller; David S. deCalesta; Mark W. Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Prescribed burning is used for many silvicultural and wildlife management objectives. However, the use of prescribed burning can be constrained due to difficulties in obtaining burning permits, concerns about liability, potential effects of scorch on growth and survival of crop trees, its sometimes ineffective results, limited burning days, and the costs of applying,...

  7. Public acceptance of management methods under different human-wildlife conflict scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liordos, Vasilios; Kontsiotis, Vasileios J; Georgari, Marina; Baltzi, Kerasia; Baltzi, Ioanna

    2017-02-01

    Wildlife management seeks to minimise public controversy for successful application of wildlife control methods. Human dimensions research in wildlife seeks a better understanding of public preferences for effective human-wildlife conflict resolution. In face to face interviews, 630 adults in Greece were asked to rate on a 5-point Likert-like scale their acceptance of 3 management methods, i.e., do nothing, non-lethal control, and lethal control, in the context of 5 human-wildlife conflict scenarios: 1) corvids damage crops; 2) starlings damage crops; 3) starlings foul urban structures; 4) coypus damage crops; and 5) coypus transfer disease. Univariate GLMs determined occupation, hunting membership and their interaction as the stronger predictors of public acceptance, generating 4 stakeholder groups: the general public, farmers, hunters, and farmers-hunters. Differences in acceptance and consensus among stakeholder groups were assessed using the Potential for Conflict Index 2 (PCI 2 ). All 4 stakeholder groups agreed that doing nothing was unacceptable and non-lethal control acceptable in all 5 scenarios, with generally high consensus within and between groups. The lethal control method was more controversial and became increasingly more acceptable as the severity of scenarios was increased and between non-native and native species. Lethal control was unacceptable for the general public in all scenarios. Farmers accepted lethal methods in the corvids and starlings scenarios, were neutral in the coypus damage crops scenario, whereas they accepted lethal control when coypus transfer disease. Hunters' opinion was neutral in the corvids, starlings and coypus damage crops and starlings foul urban structures scenarios, but they accepted lethal methods in the coypus transfer disease scenario. Farmers-hunters considered lethal control acceptable in all 5 scenarios. Implications from this study could be used for designing a socio-ecological approach which incorporates

  8. A digital model for planning water management at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimick, David A.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Fields, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge is an important area for waterfowl production and migratory stopover in west-central Montana. Eight wetland units covering about 5,600 acres are the essential features of the refuge. Water availability for the wetland units can be uncertain owing to the large natural variations in precipitation and runoff and the high cost of pumping supplemental water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, has developed a digital model for planning water management. The model can simulate strategies for water transfers among the eight wetland units and account for variability in runoff and pumped water. This report describes this digital model, which uses a water-accounting spreadsheet to track inputs and outputs to each of the wetland units of Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Inputs to the model include (1) monthly values for precipitation, pumped water, runoff, and evaporation; (2) water-level/capacity data for each wetland unit; and (3) the pan-evaporation coefficient. Outputs include monthly water volume and flooded surface area for each unit for as many as 5 consecutive years. The digital model was calibrated by comparing simulated and historical measured water volumes for specific test years.

  9. MANAGEMENT IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danimir Štros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has been seeking to achive pre-war results in tourism since its independence. Rural tourism in Croatia based on family farma faces a number of problems legal foundations, the involement of local communities, inadequate entepreneur support etc. The political will for development exists, but there is lack of willingness and the ability to get things started, which results in the closure of family farma who cannot cope with the parallel job of agriculture and tourism. Arriving guests certainly want a new type of tourism: peace, clean environment, cultural intangible and tangible treasures, all without the noise and stress; and Croatia can definitely offer it, either in coastal or inland areas with traditional food and drinks. The destinations connection is not satisfactora. there is also an evident lack of legislation and regional spatial development plans for sustainable tourism which is a prerequisite for successful tourism. With these plans presumptins accepted, Croatian tourism would become distinctive and inland and coastal branches of tourism could complement each other so that the customer can spend his vacation both in the continental ant the maritime part of the country, getting to know our culture and enjoy the traditional cousine.

  10. Transcriptional and physiological response of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to urban waters entering into wildlife protected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Toor, Gurpal S.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of protected areas is to conserve biodiversity and improve human welfare. To assess the effect of urban waters entering into protected areas, we performed 48-h whole-effluent exposures with fathead minnows, analyzing changes in steady state levels of mRNAs in the livers of exposed fish. Raw wastewater, treated city wastewater, and treated wastewater from a university were collected for exposures. All exposed fish showed altered mRNA levels of DNA damage-repair genes. Fish exposed to raw and treated wastewaters showed down-regulation of transcripts for key intermediates of cholesterol biosynthesis and elevated plasma cholesterol. The type of wastewater treatment influenced the response of gene transcription. Because of the relevance of some of the altered cellular pathways, we suggest that these effluents may cause deleterious effects on fish inside protected areas that receive these waters. Inclusion of research and mitigation efforts for this type of threat in protected areas management is advised. - Highlights: • Wastewater entering wildlife preserves alters gene expression in exposed fish. • DNA repair mechanisms and cholesterol metabolism were altered in fish. • Effects on cholesterol genes were in agreement with fish hypercholesterolemia. - Urban wastewaters released into protected areas altered gene transcription of key genes such as DNA repair and cholesterol biosynthesis and produced hypercholesterolemia in fish

  11. WILDLIFE HEALTH AND PUBLIC TRUST RESPONSIBILITIES FOR WILDLIFE RESOURCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Daniel J; Schuler, Krysten; Forstchen, Ann B; Wild, Margaret A; Siemer, William F

    2016-10-01

    A significant development in wildlife management is the mounting concern of wildlife professionals and the public about wildlife health and diseases. Concurrently, the wildlife profession is reexamining implications of managing wildlife populations as a public trust and the concomitant obligation to ensure the quality (i.e., health) and sustainability of wildlife. It is an opportune time to emphasize the importance of wildlife health, specifically to advocate for comprehensive and consistent integration of wildlife health in wildlife management. We summarize application of public trust ideas in wildlife population management in the US. We argue that wildlife health is essential to fulfilling public trust administration responsibilities with respect to wildlife, due to the central responsibility of trustees for ensuring the well-being of wildlife species (i.e., the core resources of the trust). Because both health of wildlife and risk perceptions regarding threats posed by wildlife disease to humans and domestic animals are issues of growing concern, managing wildlife disease and risk communication vis-à-vis wildlife health is critical to wildlife trust administration. We conclude that wildlife health professionals play a critical role in protecting the wildlife trust and that current conditions provide opportunities for important contributions by wildlife health professionals in wildlife management.

  12. An ethnozoological study in the adjoining areas of Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahawar Madan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that human beings are familiar with use of animals for food, cloth, medicine, etc. since ancient times. Enormous work has been done on ethnobotany and traditional medicine. Like plants, animal and their products are also possessing medicinal properties that can be exploited for the benefit of human beings. In India, many ethnic communities are dispersed all over the country and these people are still totally depended on local traditional medicinal system for their health care. India is gifted with faunal and floral biodiversity, Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary is also one of them, and thus the aim of this work was to take an ethnozoological field survey among Garasiya people (main tribal group of this area in the adjoining areas of this sanctuary. Method In order to document the ethnozoological information about animal and their products prevalent among these people in the adjoining area of Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary, a study was carried out from January, 2008 to April, 2008. Data were collected through semi-structured questionnaire and open interview with 25 (16 male and 9 female selected Garasiya people. The name of animal and other ethnozoological information were documented. Photographs and discussion were also recorded with the help of camera and voice recorder. Result A total of 24 animal species were used in 35 different medicinal purposes including asthma, weakness, tuberculosis, cough, paralysis and blister and for other religious purposes. It has been find out that animal used by Garasiya, consist of fourteen mammals, five birds, three reptiles, one arthropods and one amphibian. The meat of Cynopterus sphinx used to relieved fever and cough has the highest FL (96% although flesh of Sus scrofa and tooth of Elephas maximus have the lowest FL (12%. Some protected species such as Elephas maximus (elephant, Semnopithecus priam (monkey, Cervus unicolor (sambhar were also mentioned as important medicinal

  13. An ethnozoological study in the adjoining areas of Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroli, D P; Mahawar, Madan Mohan; Vyas, Nitin

    2010-02-10

    There is evidence that human beings are familiar with use of animals for food, cloth, medicine, etc. since ancient times. Enormous work has been done on ethnobotany and traditional medicine. Like plants, animal and their products are also possessing medicinal properties that can be exploited for the benefit of human beings. In India, many ethnic communities are dispersed all over the country and these people are still totally depended on local traditional medicinal system for their health care. India is gifted with faunal and floral biodiversity, Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary is also one of them, and thus the aim of this work was to take an ethnozoological field survey among Garasiya people (main tribal group of this area) in the adjoining areas of this sanctuary. In order to document the ethnozoological information about animal and their products prevalent among these people in the adjoining area of Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary, a study was carried out from January, 2008 to April, 2008. Data were collected through semi-structured questionnaire and open interview with 25 (16 male and 9 female) selected Garasiya people. The name of animal and other ethnozoological information were documented. Photographs and discussion were also recorded with the help of camera and voice recorder. A total of 24 animal species were used in 35 different medicinal purposes including asthma, weakness, tuberculosis, cough, paralysis and blister and for other religious purposes. It has been find out that animal used by Garasiya, consist of fourteen mammals, five birds, three reptiles, one arthropods and one amphibian. The meat of Cynopterus sphinx used to relieved fever and cough has the highest FL (96%) although flesh of Sus scrofa and tooth of Elephas maximus have the lowest FL (12%). Some protected species such as Elephas maximus (elephant), Semnopithecus priam (monkey), Cervus unicolor (sambhar) were also mentioned as important medicinal resources. We also found that cough, asthma and

  14. Holistic forest and wildlife management in Hawaii -- is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Buck

    1992-01-01

    Land management agencies face a highly introspective period. "New perspectives," "new forestry," and "holistic management" are all terms being used to "define" a different way of managing natural resources-a recognition that people are not satisfied with the status quo. As the population of Hawaii grows, the expectations of...

  15. The carrot or the stick? Evaluation of education and enforcement as management tools for human-wildlife conflicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Baruch-Mordo

    Full Text Available Evidence-based decision-making is critical for implementing conservation actions, especially for human-wildlife conflicts, which have been increasing worldwide. Conservation practitioners recognize that long-term solutions should include altering human behaviors, and public education and enforcement of wildlife-related laws are two management actions frequently implemented, but with little empirical evidence evaluating their success. We used a system where human-black bear conflicts were common, to experimentally test the efficacy of education and enforcement in altering human behavior to better secure attractants (garbage from bears. We conducted 3 experiments in Aspen CO, USA to evaluate: 1 on-site education in communal dwellings and construction sites, 2 Bear Aware educational campaign in residential neighborhoods, and 3 elevated law enforcement at two levels in the core business area of Aspen. We measured human behaviors as the response including: violation of local wildlife ordinances, garbage availability to bears, and change in use of bear-resistance refuse containers. As implemented, we found little support for education, or enforcement in the form of daily patrolling in changing human behavior, but found more support for proactive enforcement, i.e., dispensing warning notices. More broadly we demonstrated the value of gathering evidence before and after implementing conservation actions, and the dangers of measuring responses in the absence of ecological knowledge. We recommend development of more effective educational methods, application of proactive enforcement, and continued evaluation of tools by directly measuring change in human behavior. We provide empirical evidence adding to the conservation managers' toolbox, informing policy makers, and promoting solutions to human-wildlife conflicts.

  16. Values and attitudes of National Wildlife Refuge managers and biologists; Report to respondents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, Ayeisha A.; Benson, Delwin E.

    2002-01-01

    The issues affecting natural resource management, the society in which natural resource management occurs, natural resource agency personnel, and the publics they serve have changed in recent decades. Previous studies of Refuge professionals in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) have revealed that employees lack strong commitment to the current organizational structure, were frustrated with the lack of communication within the agency and felt there was a need for strong leadership (PEER 1998, 1999). These results prompted the authors to have further questions about refuge management in the Fish and Wildlife Service. What do employees value about their agency? Is there a difference in values between refuge managers and biologists and if so, what are those differences and what influences those differences?

  17. Footprints of Urban Micro-Pollution in Protected Areas: Investigating the Longitudinal Distribution of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Wildlife Preserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio A Rodriguez-Jorquera

    Full Text Available Current approaches to protect biodiversity by establishing protected areas usually gloss over water pollution as a threat. Our objective was to determine the longitudinal and seasonal distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs in water column and sediments from a wastewater dominated stream that enters preservation areas. Water samples were collected along the longitudinal section (six sites, 1000 m away from each other of the stream during the dry and wet seasons. Sediments were collected from three sites along the stream from three depths. Water and sediments were analyzed for PFAAs using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eleven PFAAs with 5 to 14 carbon atoms were detected in the water column at all sampling points, with a minor reduction at the last point suggesting a dilution effect. The most detected PFAAs was PFOS, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA. Seasonal differences in PFAAs concentrations suggested contribution of stormwater runoff during the wet season. All analyzed PFAAs in sediments were under the limit of quantification, likely due to the high proportion of sand and low organic matter. However, high concentrations of PFAAs were detected in the water column inside the protected areas, which includes PFOS in concentrations considered not safe for avian wildlife. Water samples appear to be more relevant than sediments to determine PFAAs micro-pollution in water bodies with sandy sediments. Inclusion of a management plans on micro-pollution research, monitoring, and mitigation is recommended for protected areas.

  18. Improving our legacy: Incorporation of adaptive management into state wildlife action plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity is a mounting concern, but despite numerous attempts there are few large scale conservation efforts that have proven successful in reversing current declines. Given the challenge of biodiversity conservation, there is a need to develop strategic conservation plans that address species declines even with the inherent uncertainty in managing multiple species in complex environments. In 2002, the State Wildlife Grant program was initiated to fulfill this need, and while not explicitly outlined by Congress follows the fundamental premise of adaptive management, 'Learning by doing'. When action is necessary, but basic biological information and an understanding of appropriate management strategies are lacking, adaptive management enables managers to be proactive in spite of uncertainty. However, regardless of the strengths of adaptive management, the development of an effective adaptive management framework is challenging. In a review of 53 State Wildlife Action Plans, I found a keen awareness by planners that adaptive management was an effective method for addressing biodiversity conservation, but the development and incorporation of explicit adaptive management approaches within each plan remained elusive. Only ???25% of the plans included a framework for how adaptive management would be implemented at the project level within their state. There was, however, considerable support across plans for further development and implementation of adaptive management. By furthering the incorporation of adaptive management principles in conservation plans and explicitly outlining the decision making process, states will be poised to meet the pending challenges to biodiversity conservation. ?? 2010 .

  19. Wildlife responses to brush management: a contemporary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush management has been widely practiced with the general intent of curtailing or reversing the proliferation of shrubs and trees in grasslands and savannas. The traditional aim of brush management has been to increase livestock forage or to improve water yield. Its potential role for restoring h...

  20. MANER : Managed Data Dissemination Scheme for LoRa IoT Enabled Wildlife Monitoring System (WMS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayele, Eyuel Debebe; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce dual radio based IoT network architecture for wildlife monitoring system (WMS). This solution will facilitate an IoT devices to be deployed for sustainable wildlife monitoring applications. In addition we present MANER, a managed data dissemination scheme for WMS. In

  1. Satellite telemetry: A new tool for wildlife research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancy, Steven G.; Pank, Larry F.; Douglas, David C.; Curby, Catherine H.; Garner, Gerald W.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Regelin, Wayne L.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game have cooperated since 1984 to develop and evaluate satellite telemetry as a means of overcoming the high costs and logistical problems of conventional VHF (very high frequency) radiotelemetry systems. Detailed locational and behavioral data on caribou (Rangifer tarandus), polar bears (Ursus maritimus), and other large mammals in Alaska have been obtained using the Argos Data Collection and Location System (DCLS). The Argos system, a cooperative project of the Centre National d'Études Spatiales of France, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, is designed to acquire environmental data on a routine basis from anywhere on earth. Transmitters weighing 1.6-2.0 kg and functioning approximately 12-18 months operated on a frequency of 401.650 MHz. Signals from the transmitters were received by Argos DCLS instruments aboard two Tiros-N weather satellites in sun-synchronous, nearpolar orbits. Data from the satellites were received at tracking stations, transferred to processing centers in Maryland and France, and made available to users via computer tape, printouts, or telephone links.During 1985 and 1986, more than 25,000 locations and an additional 28,000 sets of sensor data (transmitter temperature and short-term and long-term indices of animal activity) were acquired for caribou and polar bears. Locations were calculated from the Doppler shift in the transmitted signal as the satellite approached and then moved away from the transmitter. The mean locational error for transmitters at known locations (n - 1,265) was 829 m; 90% of the calculated locations were within 1,700 m of the true location. Caribou transmitters provided a mean of 3.1 (+5.0. SD) locations per day during 6h of daily operation, and polar bear transmitters provided 1.7 (+6.9SD) locations during 12h of operation every third day. During the first 6 months of

  2. A Review of: "Organ, John F., Daniel J. Decker, Len H. Carpenter, William F. Siemer, and Shawn J. Riley. Thinking Like a Manager: Reflections on Wildlife Management."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee. K. Cerveny

    2008-01-01

    Thinking Like a Manager is a unique book that offers students and wildlife professionals a fresh format for considering a. complex array of themes associated with the contemporary wildlife management. The title refers to Aldo Leopold's classic essay, Thinking Like a Mountain, which promotes the integration of ecological and sociocultural processes in natural...

  3. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  4. Regional economic impacts of current and proposed management alternatives for Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Lynne; Sexton, Natalie; Ishizaki, Asuka; Ritten, John

    2013-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP). The CCP must describe the desired future conditions of a refuge and provide long-range guidance and management direction to achieve refuge purposes. Charles M. Russell (CMR) National Wildlife Refuge, located in north-central Montana, is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the CCP. The CCP for the Refuge must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed refuge-management strategies. For refuge CCP planning, an economic analysis provides a means of estimating how current management (No Action Alternative) and proposed management activities (Alternatives) affect the local economy. This type of analysis provides two critical pieces of information: (1) it illustrates a refuge’s contribution to the local community; and (2) it can help in determining whether economic effects are or are not a real concern in choosing among management alternatives. It is important to note that the economic value of a refuge encompasses more than just the impacts on the regional economy. Refuges also provide substantial nonmarket values (values for items not exchanged in established markets) such as maintaining endangered species, preserving wetlands, educating future generations, and adding stability to the ecosystem (Carver and Caudill, 2007). However, quantifying these types of nonmarket values is beyond the scope of this study. This report first presents a description of the local community and economy near the Refuge. Next, the methods used to conduct a regional economic impact analysis are described. An analysis of the final CCP management strategies that could affect stakeholders and residents and the local economy is then presented. The refuge management activities of economic concern in this analysis are:

  5. 76 FR 13205 - Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, Jones and Jasper Counties, GA; Final Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ...; fishing; environmental education and interpretation; wildlife observation and photography; boating; camping (associated with big game hunts, scouts, and other youth organizations only); firewood cutting... game-management demonstration area'' to demonstrate that wildlife could be restored on worn out, eroded...

  6. 75 FR 35829 - Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Oxford Slough Waterfowl Production Area, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-R-2010-N084; 10137-1265-0000] Bear...) documents for Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR, Refuge), 7 miles south of Montpelier, Idaho, the... information by any of the following methods: [[Page 35830

  7. California's hardwood resource: managing for wildlife, water, pleasing scenery, and wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Dean W. Huber

    1995-01-01

    A new management perspective that emphasizes a variety of amenities and commodities is needed for California’s forest-zone hardwoods. For the near future and perhaps more on public than on private land, these "yields" are wildlife, water, esthetics, and wood products. Each is presented first as an individual yield and then as part of a combined yield. As an...

  8. Wildlife preservation and recreational use: Conflicting goals of wildland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Richard L. Knight

    1991-01-01

    Large tracts of wildland in North America have been set aside as wilderness areas and national parks. More than 200 million acres (88 million ha) of such lands have been formally designated in Canada and the United States (Eidsvik 1989). The primary goal of these designations is the preservation of undisturbed natural conditions and processes.

  9. Managing brucellosis in wildlife costs more than expected benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine brucellosis is a contagious bacterial disease of cattle, elk, and bison which occurs in the U.S., primarily in the greater Yellowstone area (GYA) of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho. Brucellosis commonly causes infected pregnant animals to abort their calves. It can result in significant productio...

  10. Adaptive management in the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge System: Science-management partnerships for conservation delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C.T.; Lonsdorf, E.V.; Knutson, M.G.; Laskowski, H.P.; Lor, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to recurrent decision making in which uncertainty about the decision is reduced over time through comparison of outcomes predicted by competing models against observed values of those outcomes. The National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is a large land management program charged with making natural resource management decisions, which often are made under considerable uncertainty, severe operational constraints, and conditions that limit ability to precisely carry out actions as intended. The NWRS presents outstanding opportunities for the application of adaptive management, but also difficult challenges. We describe two cooperative programs between the Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Geological Survey to implement adaptive management at scales ranging from small, single refuge applications to large, multi-refuge, multi-region projects. Our experience to date suggests three important attributes common to successful implementation: a vigorous multi-partner collaboration, practical and informative decision framework components, and a sustained commitment to the process. Administrators in both agencies should consider these attributes when developing programs to promote the use and acceptance of adaptive management in the NWRS. ?? 2010 .

  11. Common–interest community agreements on private lands provide opportunity and scale for wildlife management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Private lands are critical to conservation planning for wildlife, worldwide. Agriculture subsidies, tax incentives, and conservation easements have been successfully used as tools to convert cropland to native vegetation. However, uncertain economies threaten the sustainability of these incentives. The wildlife management profession is in need of innovative models that support effective management of populations. I argue that biologists should consider the option of facilitating the development of private reserves to reduce the dependence of conservation on public investment. Private reserves can be enhanced by creating common–interest communities, which reduce the problem posed by limited size of individual properties. Cross–property agreements between landowners can provide economic incentives through forms of ecotourism, energy production, and/or enhanced agricultural production. I share two case studies that demonstrate how cross–property agreements may be beneficial to landowner’s finances and conservation of diverse wildlife communities, as well as providing an efficient structure for NGOs and management agencies to engage and support landowners.

  12. Management of wildlife causing damage at Argonne National Laboratory-East, DuPage County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The DOE, after an independent review, has adopted an Environmental Assessment (EA) prepared by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) which evaluates use of an Integrated Wildlife Damage Management approach at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) in DuPage County, Illinois (April 1995). In 1994, the USDA issued a programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that covers nationwide animal damage control activities. The EA for Management of Wildlife Causing Damage at ANL-E tiers off this programmatic EIS. The USDA wrote the EA as a result of DOE`s request to USDA to prepare and implement a comprehensive Wildlife Management Damage Plan; the USDA has authority for animal damage control under the Animal Damage Control Act of 1931, as amended, and the Rural Development, Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 1988. DOE has determined, based on the analysis in the EA, that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an EIS is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  13. Near-saturated surface soil hydraulic properties under different land uses in the St Denis National Wildlife Area, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodhinayake, Waduwawatte; Si, Bing Cheng

    2004-10-01

    Surface soil hydraulic properties are key factors controlling the partition of rainfall and snowmelt into runoff and soil water storage, and their knowledge is needed for sound land management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of three land uses (native grass, brome grass and cultivated) on surface soil hydraulic properties under near-saturated conditions at the St Denis National Wildlife Area, Saskatchewan, Canada. For each land use, water infiltration rates were measured using double-ring and tension infiltrometers at -0.3, -0.7, -1.5 and -2.2 kPa pressure heads. Macroporosity and unsaturated hydraulic properties of the surface soil were estimated. Mean field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs), unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at -0.3 kPa pressure head, inverse capillary length scale () and water-conducting macroporosity were compared for different land uses. These parameters of the native grass and brome grass sites were significantly (p 1.36 × 10-4 m in diameter in the three land uses. Land use modified near-saturated hydraulic properties of surface soil and consequently may alter the water balance of the area by changing the amount of surface runoff and soil water storage.

  14. Risk factors for gastrointestinal parasite infections of dogs living around protected areas of the Atlantic Forest: implications for human and wildlife health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, N H A; Paschoal, A M O; Massara, R L; Santos, H A; Guimarães, M P; Passamani, M; Chiarello, A G

    2017-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitological methods (flotation and sedimentation), 13 parasite taxa (11 helminths and two protozoans) were found in feces samples from dogs. The most prevalent were the nematode Ancylostoma (47%) followed by Toxocara (18%) and Trichuris (8%). Other less prevalent (dogs younger than one year were more likely to be infected with Toxocara, and purebred dogs with Trichuris. The number of cats in the households was positively associated with Trichuris infection, while male dogs and low body scores were associated with mixed infections. The lack of associations with dog free-ranging behavior and access to forest or villages indicates that infections are mostly acquired around the households. The results highlight the risk of zoonotic and wildlife parasite infections from dogs and the need for monitoring and controlling parasites of domestic animals in human-wildlife interface areas.

  15. Prevalence of brucellosis in the human, livestock and wildlife interface areas of Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Shirima

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2006, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in domestic ruminants in agropastoral communities of Serengeti district, Tanzania to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in domestic–wildlife interface villages. Both the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and Competitive Enzyme Linked-immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA were used to analyse 82 human and 413 livestock sera from four randomly selected villages located along game reserve areas of Serengeti National Park. Although both cattle (288 and small ruminants (125 were screened, seropositivity was detected only in cattle. The overall seroprevalence based on c-ELISA as a confirmatory test was 5.6%. In cattle both age and sex were not statistically associated with brucellosis seropositivity (P = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.8 and 0.33; 95% CI = 0.6, 3.7, respectively. Overall herd level seropositivity was 46.7% (n = 7, ranging from 25% to 66.7% (n = 4–10. Each village had at least one brucellosis seropositive herd. None of the 82 humans tested with both RBPT and c-ELISA were seropositive. Detecting Brucella infection in cattle in such areas warrants further investigation to establish the circulating strains for eventual appropriate control interventions in domestic animals.

  16. Regional economic analysis of current and proposed management alternatives for Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Lynne; Sexton, Natalie; Donovan, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan must describe the desired future conditions of a refuge and provide long-range guidance and management direction to achieve refuge purposes. The Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge (refuge) is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the refuge must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed refuge management strategies. The purpose of this study was to assess the regional economic implications associated with draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan management strategies. Special interest groups and local residents often criticize a change in refuge management, especially if there is a perceived negative impact to the local economy. Having objective data on economic impacts may show that these fears are overstated. Quite often, the extent of economic benefits a refuge provides to a local community is not fully recognized, yet at the same time the effects of negative changes is overstated. Spending associated with refuge recreational activities, such as wildlife viewing and hunting, can generate considerable tourist activity for surrounding communities. Additionally, refuge personnel typically spend considerable amounts of money purchasing supplies in local stores, repairing equipment and purchasing fuel at the local service stations, and reside and spend their salaries in the local community. For refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan planning, a regional economic assessment provides a means of estimating how current management (no action alternative) and proposed management activities (alternatives) could affect the local economy. This type of analysis provides two critical pieces of

  17. Wetland areas: Natural water treatment systems. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search. [Dual use wildlife refuges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the dual use of wetland areas as both water treatment systems and wildlife refuges. The ability of salt marshes, tidal flats, marshlands, and bogs to absorb and filter natural and synthetic wastes is examined. Topics include the effects of individual pollutants; environmental factors; species diversity; the cleansing ability of wetland areas; and the handling of sewage, industrial and municipal wastes, agricultural runoff, accidental spills, and flooding. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. The Influences of Geologic Depositional Environments on Sand Boil Development, Tara Wildlife Lodge Area in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    28 6.1 Electrical resistivity tomography ...28 6.2 Electrical resistivity tomography at Tara Wildlife Lodge... Electrical resistivity tomography Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is commonly used in geophysical explorations. Geophysical electrical methods

  19. Tigers and Their Prey in Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling: Abundance Baseline for Effective Wildlife Reserve Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febri Anggriawan Widodo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Managing the critically endangered Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae needs accurate information on its abundance and availability of prey at the landscape level. Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling Wildlife Reserve in central Sumatra represents an important area for tigers at local, regional and global levels. The area has been recognized as a long-term priority Tiger Conservation Landscape. Solid baseline information on tigers and prey is fundamentally needed for the management. The objective of this study was to produce robust estimate of tiger density and prey a vailability in the reserve. We used camera traps to systematically collecting photographic samples of tigers and prey using Spatial Capture Recapture (SCR framework. We estimated density for tigers and calculated trap success rate (TSR; independent pictures/100 trap nights for main prey species. Three blocks in the reserve were sampled from 2012 to 2015 accumulating a total of 8,125 effective trap nights. We captured 14 tiger individuals including three cubs. We documented the highest density of tigers (individuals/100 km2 in southern sampling block (based on traditional capture recapture (TCR : 1.52 ± SE 0.55; based on Maximum Likelihood (ML SCR:0.51 ± SE 0.22 and the lowest in northeastern sampling block (TCR: 0.77 ±SE 0.39; ML SCR: 0.19 ± SE 0.16. The highest TSR of main prey (large ungulates and primates was in northeastern block (35.01 ± SD 8.67 and the lowest was in southern block (12.42 ± SD 2.91. The highest level of disturbance, as indicated by TSR of people, was in northeastern sampling block (5.45 ± SD 5.64 and the lowest in southern (1.26 ± SD 2.41. The results suggested that human disturbance strongly determine the density of tigers in the area, more than prey availability. To recover tigers, suggested strategies include controlling human disturbance and poaching to the lowest possible level in addition to maintaining main prey availability.

  20. Phase I Water Rental Pilot Project : Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggin, Stacey H.; Hansen, H. Jerome

    1992-10-01

    The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented as a part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement (NTSA) between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to improve juvenile and adult salmon and steelhead passage in the lower Snake River with the use of rented water for flow augmentation. The primary purpose of this project is to summarize existing resource information and provide recommendations to protect or enhance resident fish and wildlife resources in Idaho with actions achieving flow augmentation for anadromous fish. Potential impacts of an annual flow augmentation program on Idaho reservoirs and streams are modeled. Potential sources of water for flow augmentation and operational or institutional constraints to the use of that water are identified. This report does not advocate flow augmentation as the preferred long-term recovery action for salmon. The state of Idaho strongly believes that annual drawdown of the four lower Snake reservoirs is critical to the long-term enhancement and recovery of salmon (Andrus 1990). Existing water level management includes balancing the needs of hydropower production, irrigated agriculture, municipalities and industries with fish, wildlife and recreation. Reservoir minimum pool maintenance, water quality and instream flows are issues of public concern that will be directly affected by the timing and quantity of water rental releases for salmon flow augmentation, The potential of renting water from Idaho rental pools for salmon flow augmentation is complicated by institutional impediments, competition from other water users, and dry year shortages. Water rental will contribute to a reduction in carryover storage in a series of dry years when salmon flow augmentation is most critical. Such a reduction in carryover can have negative impacts on reservoir fisheries by eliminating shoreline spawning beds, reducing available fish habitat

  1. Tourism-induced disturbance of wildlife in protected areas: A case study of free ranging elephants in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eranga Ranaweerage

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tourism-induced disturbance is a growing concern in wildlife conservation worldwide. This case study in a key protected area in Sri Lanka, examined the behavioral changes of Asian elephants in the context of elephant watching tourism activities. Observations of different age–sex-group classes of elephants were conducted focusing on the feeding activity of elephants in the presence vs. absence of tourists. Frequency and duration of alert, fear, stress and aggressive behaviors of elephants were significantly high in the presence of tourists and these behaviors occurred at a cost of feeding time. Tourist behavior, vehicle noise, close distances and time of the tours were closely associated with the behavioral changes of elephants. It is important to monitor tourism effects on endangered species such as Asian elephants and to take proper measures including controlled tourist behavior and vehicle activity in protected areas in order to reduce disturbance of wildlife behavior.

  2. Mainstreaming biodiversity and wildlife management into climate change policy frameworks in selected east and southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Kupika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rio+20 outcomes document, the Future We Want, enshrines green economy as one of the platforms to attain sustainable development and calls for measures that seek to address climate change and biodiversity management. This paper audits climate change policies from selected east and southern African countries to determine the extent to which climate change legislation mainstreams biodiversity and wildlife management. A scan of international, continental, regional and national climate change policies was conducted to assess whether they include biodiversity and/or wildlife management issues. The key finding is that many climate change policy–related documents, particularly the National Adaptation Programme of Actions (NAPAs, address threats to biodiversity and wildlife resources. However, international policies like the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol do not address the matter under deliberation. Regional climate change policies such as the East African Community, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa and African Union address biodiversity and/or wildlife issues whilst the Southern African Development Community region does not have a stand-alone policy for climate change. Progressive countries like Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia have recently put in place detailed NAPAs which are mainstream responsive strategies intended to address climate change adaptation in the wildlife sector. Keywords: mainstreaming, biodiversity, wildlife, climate change policy, east and southern Africa

  3. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Site : Five-Year Habitat Management Plan, 2001-2005, 2000-2001 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beilke, Susan G.

    2001-09-01

    Historically the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins were ecologically rich in both the habitat types and the species diversity they supported. This was due in part to the pattern of floods and periodic inundation of bottomlands that occurred, which was an important factor in creating and maintaining a complex system of wetland, meadow, and riparian habitats. This landscape has been greatly altered in the past 150 years, primarily due to human development and agricultural activities including cattle grazing, logging and the building of hydroelectric facilities for hydropower, navigation, flood control and irrigation in the Columbia and Willamette River Basins. The Burlington Bottoms (BB) wetlands contains some of the last remaining bottomlands in the area, supporting a diverse array of native plant and wildlife species. Located approximately twelve miles northwest of Portland and situated between the Tualatin Mountains to the west and Multnomah Channel and Sauvie Island to the east, the current habitats are remnant of what was once common throughout the region. In order to preserve and enhance this important site, a five-year habitat management plan has been written that proposes a set of actions that will carry out the goals and objectives developed for the site, which includes protecting, maintaining and enhancing wildlife habitat for perpetuity.

  4. Application of sperm sorting and associated reproductive technology for wildlife management and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J K; Steinman, K J; Robeck, T R

    2009-01-01

    Efforts toward the conservation and captive breeding of wildlife can be enhanced by sperm sorting and associated reproductive technologies such as sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI). Sex ratio management is of particular significance to species which naturally exist in female-dominated social groups. A bias of the sex ratio towards females of these species will greatly assist in maintaining socially cohesive groups and minimizing male-male aggression. Another application of this technology potentially exists for endangered species, as the preferential production of females can enable propagation of those species at a faster rate. The particular assisted reproductive technology (ART) used in conjunction with sperm sorting for the production of offspring is largely determined by the quality and quantity of spermatozoa following sorting and preservation processes. Regardless of the ART selected, breeding decisions involving sex-sorted spermatozoa should be made in conjunction with appropriate genetic management. Zoological-based research on reproductive physiology and assisted reproduction, including sperm sorting, is being conducted on numerous terrestrial and marine mammals. The wildlife species for which the technology has undergone the most advance is the bottlenose dolphin. AI using sex-sorted fresh or frozen-thawed spermatozoa has become a valuable tool for the genetic and reproductive management of captive bottlenose dolphins with six pre-sexed calves, all of the predetermined sex born to date.

  5. A survey for Echinococcus spp. of carnivores in six wildlife conservation areas in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagendo, D; Magambo, J; Agola, E L; Njenga, S M; Zeyhle, E; Mulinge, E; Gitonga, P; Mbae, C; Muchiri, E; Wassermann, M; Kern, P; Romig, T

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the presence of Echinococcus spp. in wild mammals of Kenya, 832 faecal samples from wild carnivores (lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, wild dogs and silver-backed jackals) were collected in six different conservation areas of Kenya (Meru, Nairobi, Tsavo West and Tsavo East National Parks, Samburu and Maasai Mara National Reserves). Taeniid eggs were found in 120 samples (14.4%). In total, 1160 eggs were isolated and further analysed using RFLP-PCR of the nad1 gene and sequencing. 38 of these samples contained eggs of Echinococcus spp., which were identified as either Echinococcus felidis (n=27) or Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (n=12); one sample contained eggs from both taxa. E. felidis was found in faeces from lions (n=20) and hyenas (n=5) while E. granulosus in faeces from lions (n=8), leopards (n=1) and hyenas (n=3). The host species for two samples containing E. felidis could not be identified with certainty. As the majority of isolated eggs could not be analysed with the methods used (no amplification), we do not attempt to give estimates of faecal prevalences. Both taxa of Echinococcus were found in all conservation areas except Meru (only E. felidis) and Tsavo West (only E. granulosus). Host species identification for environmental faecal samples, based on field signs, was found to be unreliable. All samples with taeniid eggs were subjected to a confirmatory host species RLFP-PCR of the cytochrome B gene. 60% had been correctly identified in the field. Frequently, hyena faeces were mistaken for lion and vice versa, and none of the samples from jackals and wild dogs could be confirmed in the tested sub-sample. This is the first molecular study on the distribution of Echinococcus spp. in Kenyan wildlife. The presence of E. felidis is confirmed for lions and newly reported for spotted hyenas. Lions and hyenas are newly recognized hosts for E. granulosus s.s., while the role of leopards remains uncertain. These data provide the basis for

  6. Managing heart rot in live trees for wildlife habitat in young-growth forests of coastal Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Hennon; Robin L. Mulvey

    2014-01-01

    Stem decays of living trees, known also as heart rots, are essential elements of wildlife habitat, especially for cavity-nesting birds and mammals. Stem decays are common features of old-growth forests of coastal Alaska, but are generally absent in young, managed forests. We offer several strategies for maintaining or restoring fungal stem decay in these managed...

  7. From forest to farm: systematic review of cultivar feeding by chimpanzees--management implications for wildlife in anthropogenic landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockings, Kimberley J; McLennan, Matthew R

    2012-01-01

    Crop-raiding is a major source of conflict between people and wildlife globally, impacting local livelihoods and impeding conservation. Conflict mitigation strategies that target problematic wildlife behaviours such as crop-raiding are notoriously difficult to develop for large-bodied, cognitively complex species. Many crop-raiders are generalist feeders. In more ecologically specialised species crop-type selection is not random and evidence-based management requires a good understanding of species' ecology and crop feeding habits. Comprehensive species-wide studies of crop consumption by endangered wildlife are lacking but are important for managing human-wildlife conflict. We conducted a comprehensive literature search of crop feeding records by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), a ripe-fruit specialist. We assessed quantitatively patterns of crop selection in relation to species-specific feeding behaviour, agricultural exposure, and crop availability. Crop consumption by chimpanzees is widespread in tropical Africa. Chimpanzees were recorded to eat a considerable range of cultivars (51 plant parts from 36 species). Crop part selection reflected a species-typical preference for fruit. Crops widely distributed in chimpanzee range countries were eaten at more sites than sparsely distributed crops. We identified 'high' and 'low' conflict crops according to their attractiveness to chimpanzees, taking account of their importance as cash crops and/or staple foods to people. Most (86%) high conflict crops were fruits, compared to 13% of low conflict crops. Some widely farmed cash or staple crops were seldom or never eaten by chimpanzees. Information about which crops are most frequently consumed and which are ignored has enormous potential for aiding on-the-ground stakeholders (i.e. farmers, wildlife managers, and conservation and agricultural extension practitioners) develop sustainable wildlife management schemes for ecologically specialised and protected species in

  8. Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset is meant to depict wilderness areas within the state of New Mexico managed by the Bureau of Land Management These wilderness areas are officially...

  9. Hawaii ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for artificial reefs, designated critical habitats, national parks, marine sanctuaries, special management areas,...

  10. The role of wildlife in the transmission of parasitic zoonoses in peri-urban and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Mackenstedt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last 100 years in many countries of the world, there have been dramatic changes in natural/rural landscapes due to urbanization. Since many wildlife species are unable to adapt to these alterations in their environment, urbanization is commonly responsible for a decline of biodiversity in areas of urban development. In contrast, some wild animal species are attracted to peri-urban and urban habitats due to the availability of an abundant food supply and the presence of structures in which to shelter. Urban foxes and/or raccoons are common sights in many peri-urban and urban areas of Europe where they can reach far higher population densities than in their natural habitats. The same is true for foxes and dingoes in some urban areas of Australia. Unfortunately, some of these highly adaptable species are also hosts for a number of parasites of public health and veterinary importance. Due to the complexity of many parasitic life cycles involving several host species, the interactions between wild animals, domestic animals and humans are not fully understood. The role of potential hosts for transmission of a zoonotic disease in urban or peri-urban areas cannot be extrapolated from data obtained in rural areas. Since more than 75% of human diseases are of zoonotic origin, it is important to understand the dynamics between wildlife, domestic animal species and humans in urbanized areas, and to conduct more focused research on transmission of zoonotic parasites including arthropod vectors under such conditions.

  11. Risk factors for gastrointestinal parasite infections of dogs living around protected areas of the Atlantic Forest: implications for human and wildlife health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. A. Curi

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitological methods (flotation and sedimentation, 13 parasite taxa (11 helminths and two protozoans were found in feces samples from dogs. The most prevalent were the nematode Ancylostoma (47% followed by Toxocara (18% and Trichuris (8%. Other less prevalent (<2% parasites found were Capillaria, Ascaridia, Spirocerca, Taeniidae, Acantocephala, Ascaris, Dipylidium caninum, Toxascaris, and the protozoans Cystoisospora and Eimeria. Mixed infections were found in 36% of samples, mostly by Ancylostoma and Toxocara. Previous deworming had no association with infections, meaning that this preventive measure is being incorrectly performed by owners. Regarding risk factors, dogs younger than one year were more likely to be infected with Toxocara, and purebred dogs with Trichuris. The number of cats in the households was positively associated with Trichuris infection, while male dogs and low body scores were associated with mixed infections. The lack of associations with dog free-ranging behavior and access to forest or villages indicates that infections are mostly acquired around the households. The results highlight the risk of zoonotic and wildlife parasite infections from dogs and the need for monitoring and controlling parasites of domestic animals in human-wildlife interface areas.

  12. The Danish game bag record and its role in wildlife management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    The Danish Game Bag Record and its role in wildlife management The Danish Game Bag Record, i.e. the national hunting statistics database, was initiated in 1941. It is a compilation of annual, mandatory reports on bagged game (shot or trapped) from all hunting licence holders. Today, this database...... is reflected in the methods of collecting the hunting statistics but the basic principle of every hunter reporting his/hers personal game bag every year still applies. From 1941 onwards annual reports were delivered on paper forms, and since year 2000 it has been possible to report electronically via...... management is its ability to reflect changes in population size – at least for some game species – mainly on a nationwide scale, but for some of the more abundant species also on a regional scale. A few examples will be shown to illustrate this. Finally, a few suggestions for improvement of the bag record...

  13. Diagnosis of wildlife use, in the flora and fauna protection Area “Usumacinta Canyon, Tenosique, Tabasco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Aquino-Bravata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Describes the use of the wildlife in 7 localities in the path of Redención del Campesino-San Francisco within the Area of Protection of Flora and Fauna "Cañón del Rio Usumacinta", located in Tenosique Tabasco. The work provides information on the traditions of use of wildlife by the local settlers and the way of understanding the activity itself in the region. Describes the cultural value of the wildlife, identifying and quantifying the recognized species andused; the modalities and pressure on the use of some species; arts of capture, characterizing the profile of the hunters. There were a total of 26 species of fauna (12 mammals, 12 birds and 2 reptile; the mammals were the most recognized and used by the inhabitants, in second order birds. The use of animals in these communities is closelylinked with the knowledge and tradition. Were detected as most frequent uses: food, pets and as seconds flat, the uses of craftsmanship and medicinal. To obtain the hunters use dogs, firearms and other instruments, such as machetes, traps and slingshots. The main motivation of the hunters is the subsistence, exclusively male activity, group and individual occasionally.

  14. Fire Management in the Inter Galatic Interface or 30 Years of Fire Management at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge/Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederic W. Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Prescribed burning is essential on Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. Not only is it needed to manage the volatile fuels, but also to manage the complex system of fire maintained habitats found here. Fire management on the Refuge presents unique challenges. In addition to the restraints to prescribed burning that are common to many prescribed burning programs,...

  15. Tourism, poaching and wildlife conservation: what can integrated conservation and development projects accomplish?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesen, Anne Borge; Skonhoft, Anders [Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Dragvoll (Norway)

    2005-10-15

    Integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) have frequently been established in Africa to improve wildlife conservation and the welfare of local communities. However, their effectiveness has been hampered by conflicts and illegal harvesting. This paper focuses on the strategic interaction between the manager of a protected area and a group of local people. The park manager benefits from wildlife through tourism and hunting. The local people benefit through hunting, but also bear the wildlife damage. ICDPs relying on money transfers to the local people from the park manager may or may not promote wildlife conservation. In addition, the welfare of the local people are ambiguous. (author) [Wildlife; Conservation; Conflicts; Local welfare].

  16. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: the relationship of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities and structural conditions (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ralph G. Anderson

    1984-01-01

    The relationships of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities, structural conditions, and special habitats in the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon are described. The importance of habitat components to wildlife and the predictability of management activities on wildlife are examined in terms of managed rangelands. The paper does not provide guidelines but rather...

  17. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: the relationship of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities and structural conditions (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ralph G. Anderson

    1984-01-01

    The relationships of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities, structural conditions, and special habitats in the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon are described in a series of appendices. The importance of habitat components to wildlife and the predictability of management activities on wildlife are examined in terms of managed rangelands. ...

  18. Leadership and management influences the outcome of wildlife reintroduction programs: findings from the Sea Eagle Recovery Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E. Sutton

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife reintroductions and translocations are statistically unlikely to succeed. Nevertheless, they remain a critical part of conservation because they are the only way to actively restore a species into a habitat from which it has been extirpated. Past efforts to improve these practices have attributed the low success rate to failures in the biological knowledge (e.g., ignorance of social behavior, poor release site selection, or to the inherent challenges of reinstating a species into an area where threats have already driven it to local extinction. Such research presumes that the only way to improve reintroduction outcomes is through improved biological knowledge. This emphasis on biological solutions may have caused researchers to overlook the potential influence of other factors on reintroduction outcomes. I employed a grounded theory approach to study the leadership and management of a successful reintroduction program (the Sea Eagle Recovery Project in Scotland, UK and identify four critical managerial elements that I theorize may have contributed to the successful outcome of this 50-year reintroduction. These elements are: 1. Leadership & Management: Small, dedicated team of accessible experts who provide strong political and scientific advocacy (“champions” for the project. 2. Hierarchy & Autonomy: Hierarchical management structure that nevertheless permits high individual autonomy. 3. Goals & Evaluation: Formalized goal-setting and regular, critical evaluation of the project’s progress toward those goals. 4. Adaptive Public Relations: Adaptive outreach campaigns that are open, transparent, inclusive (esp. linguistically, and culturally relevant.

  19. Leadership and management influences the outcome of wildlife reintroduction programs: findings from the Sea Eagle Recovery Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Alexandra E

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife reintroductions and translocations are statistically unlikely to succeed. Nevertheless, they remain a critical part of conservation because they are the only way to actively restore a species into a habitat from which it has been extirpated. Past efforts to improve these practices have attributed the low success rate to failures in the biological knowledge (e.g., ignorance of social behavior, poor release site selection), or to the inherent challenges of reinstating a species into an area where threats have already driven it to local extinction. Such research presumes that the only way to improve reintroduction outcomes is through improved biological knowledge. This emphasis on biological solutions may have caused researchers to overlook the potential influence of other factors on reintroduction outcomes. I employed a grounded theory approach to study the leadership and management of a successful reintroduction program (the Sea Eagle Recovery Project in Scotland, UK) and identify four critical managerial elements that I theorize may have contributed to the successful outcome of this 50-year reintroduction. These elements are: 1. Leadership & Management: Small, dedicated team of accessible experts who provide strong political and scientific advocacy ("champions") for the project. 2. Hierarchy & Autonomy: Hierarchical management structure that nevertheless permits high individual autonomy. 3. Goals & Evaluation: Formalized goal-setting and regular, critical evaluation of the project's progress toward those goals. 4. Adaptive Public Relations: Adaptive outreach campaigns that are open, transparent, inclusive (esp. linguistically), and culturally relevant.

  20. Serosurveillance of foot-and-mouth disease virus in selected livestock-wildlife interface areas of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Mkama

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is caused by a virus of the genus Aphthorvirus of the family Picornaviridae. There is great scientific need for determining the transmission dynamics of FMD virus (FMDV by drawing more attention to the livestock-wildlife interface areas. A variety of literature suggests that buffalo could serve as reservoir of FMDV in wildlife and cattle. However, many FMDV research studies conducted on experimentally infected cattle as carriers and groups of animal highly susceptible to FMDV (i.e. bovine calves have shown lower chances of transmission of the virus between carriers and the susceptible groups. These findings underscore the importance of continued research on the role played by carrier animals on FMDV transmission dynamics under natural conditions. The aim of this research study was to determine FMDV infection status among buffalo and cattle herds in selected livestock-wildlife interface areas. The sampled areas included Mikumi, Mkomazi and Ruaha national parks, where a total of 330 buffalo and bovine sera samples were collected. Laboratory analysis of the samples was done through the NSP ELISA technique using the PrioCHECK® FMDV NS Kit for detection of antibodies directed against 3ABC non-structural proteins and confirming natural infections. Results showed that 76.3% of tested sera samples were positive for FMDV. However, serotyping of NSP ELISA seroreactors with LPBE is yet to be done. This information is important for further epidemiological studies towards developing effective FMD control strategies.

  1. ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELING AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT UNITS (UMAS: AN APPLICATION TO DEER IN CAMPECHE, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Escalante

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Units for the Conservation, Management and Sustainable Use of Wildlife (UMAs are instruments of conservation and management of specific species in Mexico. UMAs represent in southeastern Mexico an important way for deer management, but they have major problems related to the monitoring of species. In this paper, we propose a methodology based on the use of a ‘niche centroid approach’ for estimating ecological distances to the niche centroid in order to produce distribution maps containing information on the potential relative abundance of species to evaluate the capability of UMAs to maintain populations of deers. We modeled the abundance for Mazama temama, M. pandora and Odocoileus virginianus on the state of Campeche, Mexico. Our predictions of areas with most abundance of deer coincided with reports from literature. We identified the UMAs “Ik Balam” and “Ejido Carlos Cano Cruz” as areas with high proportion of suitable environment, while UMAs “Betito y Lupita”, “El Huanal”, “Puh”, “Refugio faunístico Jalotum”, “Ría Lagartos-Ría Celestun” and “Yocol Cab Balam” have not environmental conditions adequate to maintain deer populations. Although this is a preliminary study, it can be a starting point to establish institutional standards for the management of species.

  2. EVALUATION OF PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY AT THE WILDLIFE PROTECTED AREA, "NEVADO DE TOLUCA" MEXICO, DURING THE DRY SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martínez-Hernández

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on grassland primary productivity for the wildlife protected area Nevado de Toluca (APFF Nevado de Toluca. We evaluated three communities in this area during dry season: Loma Alta, La Peñuela y Agua Blanca. Following Hodgson (1994, for this study we used exclusion cages. Vegetation was cut every 28 days during a five months sampling period. A randomized block design was used, where the blocks represented the grassland communities and the different months constituted treatments. The month of September showed the higher production (610.3 kg/ha DM. No significant differences were observed among communities (P >0.05. In conclusion, these communities have similar low primary productivity through the evaluation dry season months, which in addition was found lower in comparison to other areas, therefore livestock grazing in this region should be limited this season.

  3. Louisiana ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries for managed lands in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data set represent the management areas. Location-specific type and...

  4. Salmonella infections in Antarctic fauna and island populations of wildlife exposed to human activities in coastal areas of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, J B; Shellam, G R; Bradshaw, S D; Smith, D W; Mackenzie, J S; Mofflin, R G

    2009-06-01

    Salmonella infections in Antarctic wildlife were first reported in 1970 and in a search for evidence linking isolations with exposure to human activities, a comparison was made of serovars reported from marine fauna in the Antarctic region from 1982-2004 with those from marine mammals in the Northern hemisphere. This revealed that 10 (83%) Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from Antarctic penguins and seals were classifiable in high-frequency (HF) quotients for serovars prevalent in humans and domesticated animals. In Australia, 16 (90%) HF serovars were isolated from marine birds and mammals compared with 12 (86%) HF serovars reported from marine mammals in the Northern hemisphere. In Western Australia, HF serovars from marine species were also recorded in humans, livestock, mussels, effluents and island populations of wildlife in urban coastal areas. Low-frequency S. enterica serovars were rarely detected in humans and not detected in seagulls or marine species. The isolation of S. Enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4), PT8 and PT23 strains from Adélie penguins and a diversity of HF serovars reported from marine fauna in the Antarctic region and coastal areas of Australia, signal the possibility of transient serovars and endemic Salmonella strains recycling back to humans from southern latitudes in marine foodstuffs and feed ingredients.

  5. Recreationists’ Perceptions of Scenic Beauty and Satisfaction at a Public Forest Managed for Endangered Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Paudyal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed burning and other active forest management treatments have been proven essential for maintaining suitable habitat conditions for many wildlife species, including the federally endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW. This study examines the perception of forest management treatments of recreation users participating in various activities (hunting, hiking/backpacking, camping, off-highway vehicle riding, and canoeing/kayaking in terms of scenic beauty and recreation satisfaction. We used photographic images to capture various forest management treatments of different intensity levels and times after treatments, and assessed users’ perception of scenic beauty and recreation satisfaction. Results indicated variation among users participating in different recreation activities, but that good quality RCW habitats offered both higher scenic beauty and higher recreation satisfaction than poor quality habitats for most activity user groups. Finally, recreation satisfaction was statistically equal to perceived scenic beauty from both good and poor-quality RCW habitats for most of the activity user groups, thus suggesting the importance of scenic beauty of forest sites in determining recreation users’ attainment of visit satisfaction. Findings conclude that forest sites developed as good quality RCW habitats in the present state also offer quality experience to recreation users, thus supporting multi-objective forestry practices in public forests.

  6. Management of conservation reserve program grasslands to meet wildlife habitat objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandever, Mark W.; Allen, Arthur W.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies document environmental and social benefits of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). This report offers a synopsis of findings regarding effects of establishing CRP conservation practices on the quality and distribution of wildlife habitat in agricultural landscapes. On individual farms, year-round provision of wildlife habitat by the CRP may appear relatively insignificant. However, considered from multi-farm to National scales, such improvements in habitat and wildlife response have proven to be extensive and profound.

  7. 50 CFR 31.12 - Sale of wildlife specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sale of wildlife specimens. 31.12 Section 31.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDLIFE SPECIES MANAGEMENT Terms and Conditions of Wildlife...

  8. Harvesting wildlife affected by climate change: a modelling and management approach for polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Eric V.; Wilson, Ryan R.; Rode, Karyn D.; Runge, Michael C.; Stern, Harry

    2017-01-01

    The conservation of many wildlife species requires understanding the demographic effects of climate change, including interactions between climate change and harvest, which can provide cultural, nutritional or economic value to humans.We present a demographic model that is based on the polar bear Ursus maritimus life cycle and includes density-dependent relationships linking vital rates to environmental carrying capacity (K). Using this model, we develop a state-dependent management framework to calculate a harvest level that (i) maintains a population above its maximum net productivity level (MNPL; the population size that produces the greatest net increment in abundance) relative to a changing K, and (ii) has a limited negative effect on population persistence.Our density-dependent relationships suggest that MNPL for polar bears occurs at approximately 0·69 (95% CI = 0·63–0·74) of K. Population growth rate at MNPL was approximately 0·82 (95% CI = 0·79–0·84) of the maximum intrinsic growth rate, suggesting relatively strong compensation for human-caused mortality.Our findings indicate that it is possible to minimize the demographic risks of harvest under climate change, including the risk that harvest will accelerate population declines driven by loss of the polar bear's sea-ice habitat. This requires that (i) the harvest rate – which could be 0 in some situations – accounts for a population's intrinsic growth rate, (ii) the harvest rate accounts for the quality of population data (e.g. lower harvest when uncertainty is large), and (iii) the harvest level is obtained by multiplying the harvest rate by an updated estimate of population size. Environmental variability, the sex and age of removed animals and risk tolerance can also affect the harvest rate.Synthesis and applications. We present a coupled modelling and management approach for wildlife that accounts for climate change and can be used to balance trade-offs among multiple

  9. Harvesting wildlife affected by climate change: a modelling and management approach for polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Eric V; Wilson, Ryan R; Rode, Karyn D; Runge, Michael C; Stern, Harry L

    2017-10-01

    The conservation of many wildlife species requires understanding the demographic effects of climate change, including interactions between climate change and harvest, which can provide cultural, nutritional or economic value to humans.We present a demographic model that is based on the polar bear Ursus maritimus life cycle and includes density-dependent relationships linking vital rates to environmental carrying capacity ( K ). Using this model, we develop a state-dependent management framework to calculate a harvest level that (i) maintains a population above its maximum net productivity level (MNPL; the population size that produces the greatest net increment in abundance) relative to a changing K , and (ii) has a limited negative effect on population persistence.Our density-dependent relationships suggest that MNPL for polar bears occurs at approximately 0·69 (95% CI = 0·63-0·74) of K . Population growth rate at MNPL was approximately 0·82 (95% CI = 0·79-0·84) of the maximum intrinsic growth rate, suggesting relatively strong compensation for human-caused mortality.Our findings indicate that it is possible to minimize the demographic risks of harvest under climate change, including the risk that harvest will accelerate population declines driven by loss of the polar bear's sea-ice habitat. This requires that (i) the harvest rate - which could be 0 in some situations - accounts for a population's intrinsic growth rate, (ii) the harvest rate accounts for the quality of population data (e.g. lower harvest when uncertainty is large), and (iii) the harvest level is obtained by multiplying the harvest rate by an updated estimate of population size. Environmental variability, the sex and age of removed animals and risk tolerance can also affect the harvest rate. Synthesis and applications . We present a coupled modelling and management approach for wildlife that accounts for climate change and can be used to balance trade-offs among multiple conservation

  10. Improve wildlife species tracking—Implementing an enhanced global positioning system data management system for California condors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltermire, Robert G.; Emmerich, Christopher U.; Mendenhall, Laura C.; Bohrer, Gil; Weinzierl, Rolf P.; McGann, Andrew J.; Lineback, Pat K.; Kern, Tim J.; Douglas, David C.

    2016-05-03

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) staff in the Pacific Southwest Region and at the Hopper Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex requested technical assistance to improve their global positioning system (GPS) data acquisition, management, and archive in support of the California Condor Recovery Program. The USFWS deployed and maintained GPS units on individual Gymnogyps californianus (California condor) in support of long-term research and daily operational monitoring and management of California condors. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) obtained funding through the Science Support Program to provide coordination among project participants, provide GPS Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) transmitters for testing, and compare GSM/GPS with existing Argos satellite GPS technology. The USFWS staff worked with private companies to design, develop, and fit condors with GSM/GPS transmitters. The Movebank organization, an online database of animal tracking data, coordinated with each of these companies to automatically stream their GPS data into Movebank servers and coordinated with USFWS to improve Movebank software for managing transmitter data, including proofing/error checking of incoming GPS data. The USGS arranged to pull raw GPS data from Movebank into the USGS California Condor Management and Analysis Portal (CCMAP) (https://my.usgs.gov/ccmap) for production and dissemination of a daily map of condor movements including various automated alerts. Further, the USGS developed an automatic archiving system for pulling raw and proofed Movebank data into USGS ScienceBase to comply with the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002. This improved data management system requires minimal manual intervention resulting in more efficient data flow from GPS data capture to archive status. As a result of the project’s success, Pinnacles National Park and the Ventana Wildlife Society California condor programs became partners and adopted the same

  11. Past and predicted future effects of housing growth on open space conservation opportunity areas and habitat connectivity around National Wildlife Refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Baumann, Matthias; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Helmers, David P.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2016-01-01

    ContextHousing growth can alter suitability of matrix habitats around protected areas, strongly affecting movements of organisms and, consequently, threatening connectivity of protected area networks.ObjectivesOur goal was to quantify distribution and growth of housing around the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System. This is important information for conservation planning, particularly given promotion of habitat connectivity as a climate change adaptation measure.MethodsWe quantified housing growth from 1940 to 2000 and projected future growth to 2030 within three distances from refuges, identifying very low housing density open space, “opportunity areas” (contiguous areas with habitat corridors within these opportunity areas in 2000.ResultsOur results indicated that the number and area of open space opportunity areas generally decreased with increasing distance from refuges and with the passage of time. Furthermore, total area in habitat corridors was much lower than in opportunity areas. In addition, the number of corridors sometimes exceeded number of opportunity areas as a result of habitat fragmentation, indicating corridors are likely vulnerable to land use change. Finally, regional differences were strong and indicated some refuges may have experienced so much housing growth already that they are effectively too isolated to adapt to climate change, while others may require extensive habitat restoration work.ConclusionsWildlife refuges are increasingly isolated by residential housing development, potentially constraining the movement of wildlife and, therefore, their ability to adapt to a changing climate.

  12. National wildlife refuge management on the United States/Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Radke

    2013-01-01

    Many conservation strategies have been developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in cooperation with others to protect habitat and enhance the recovery of fish and wildlife populations in the San Bernardino Valley, which straddles Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico. Habitats along this international border have been impacted by illegal activities,...

  13. Developing management strategies for riparian areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Hibbs; S. Chan

    2001-01-01

    This talk outlines four principles that are critical to successful management of a riparian area. First, given problems both with defining historic conditions and with returning to them, attaining management goals based on restoration of ecological processes and functions will be far more successful. Second, the management goals for any stream reach must be placed in a...

  14. The dynamic of urban and protected areas at Balai Raja Wildlife Reserve, Riau, Indonesia: a social ecology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwondo; Darmadi; Yunus, M.

    2018-01-01

    The development process has resulted in deforestation. A comprehensive study is needed to obtain an objective solution by integrating the ecological dimension and human dimension. This study was conducted within Balai Raja Wildlife Reserve (BRWR), Bengkalis Regency, Riau Province, Indonesia. We used the social-ecological systems (SES) approach based on local characteristics, categorized into ecological status, social status and actors. Each factoris ranked using Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS).BRWR sustainability levels are in moderate condition. The ecological dimension is in a less sustainable state, with leverage: (1) forest conversion; (2) local ecological knowledge; (3) high conservation value. The social dimension is in a less sustainable state, with leverage: (1) community empowerment; (2) social conflict; (3) participation in landscape management. Dimensions actors are on a fairly sustainable status, with leverage: (1) institutional interaction; (2) stakeholder’s commitment; (3) law enforcement. We recommend strengthening community empowerment, local ecological knowledge, interaction, and stakeholder commitment

  15. RAINWATER MANAGEMENT IN PROTECTED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Żarnowiec

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to find out whether the climate of the southern Poland allows for removing rainwater from industrial areas by evaporation from roof surfaces. The study covered the premises of a Logistics Centre with an approximate area of 34 hectares, located in the catchment of the Wedonka stream and in the region of water intake for Kraków at the Rudawa river. In the future, the Centre will comprise nine large warehouses. Road traffic associated with the project will cause potential risks for groundwater and surface water of this protected area. Therefore, the Centre’s investor decided to evaporate rainwater from the premises. To establish advisability of this plan, the study team designed and built a unique experimental station consisting of experimental roof, tank for collecting water for the sprinkler system, system for delivering, distributing and discharging water from the roof, measuring tilt tray, automatic meteorological station, and electronic devices for recording measurement data. The research on the experimental station was carried out from April to October in 2011 and 2012 and included continuous measurements of the volume of water supplied to and discharged from the roof. Moreover, the temperature of the roof and water in the tank and a number of important meteorological parameters were measured. The difference between supplied and discharged water, divided by the wetted surface of the roof, helped to determine thickness of the evaporation layer in millimeters. The study confirmed the possibility of removing potentially contaminated rainwater by evaporating it from roof surfaces of the Logistics Centre located near Kraków at an average rate of 5.9 dm3·m–2.d–1. However, due to high seasonal variability of rainfall and air temperature, it is necessary to temporarily collect water in an expansion tank of suitable capacity.

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: SENSITIV (Sensitive Area Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for sensitive areas along the Hudson River. Vector points in this data set represent sensitive areas. This data set...

  17. Radioactive waste management of urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Gu, S.X.

    1993-01-01

    The several years experience of radioactive waste management in Shanghai of China shows that the centralized management is quite successful and effective. Rad waste generated in urban area would be treated with further concern in the respect of radiation and environmental protection. In this respect, there is a need for a professional organisation to undertake the necessary regulation, and demonstrate that high standards of design, planning, management and operation could be met. The experience in China is suitable to manage and dispose rad waste generated from the civil applications in urban area, and valuable to the developing country and area in particular. It is concluded that the centralized management of intermediate level and low level radioactive waste is an optimum choice for urban area

  18. Integrated wetland management for waterfowl and shorebirds at Mattamuskeet National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernia, Brian G.; Stanton, John D.; Lyons, James E.

    2017-11-22

    Mattamuskeet National Wildlife Refuge (MNWR) offers a mix of open water, marsh, forest, and cropland habitats on 20,307 hectares in coastal North Carolina. In 1934, Federal legislation (Executive Order 6924) established MNWR to benefit wintering waterfowl and other migratory bird species. On an annual basis, the refuge staff decide how to manage 14 impoundments to benefit not only waterfowl during the nonbreeding season, but also shorebirds during fall and spring migration. In making these decisions, the challenge is to select a portfolio, or collection, of management actions for the impoundments that optimizes use by the three groups of birds while respecting budget constraints. In this study, a decision support tool was developed for these annual management decisions.Within the decision framework, there are three different management objectives: shorebird-use days during fall and spring migrations, and waterfowl-use days during the nonbreeding season. Sixteen potential management actions were identified for impoundments; each action represents a combination of hydroperiod and vegetation manipulation. Example hydroperiods include semi-permanent and seasonal drawdowns, and vegetation manipulations include mechanical-chemical treatment, burning, disking, and no action. Expert elicitation was used to build a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model that predicts shorebird- and waterfowl-use days for each potential management action. The BBN was parameterized for a representative impoundment, MI-9, and predictions were re-scaled for this impoundment to predict outcomes at other impoundments on the basis of size. Parameter estimates in the BBN model can be updated using observations from ongoing monitoring that is part of the Integrated Waterbird Management and Monitoring (IWMM) program.The optimal portfolio of management actions depends on the importance, that is, weights, assigned to the three objectives, as well as the budget. Five scenarios with a variety of objective

  19. Biodiversity and Phytosociological Studies of Upstream and Downstream Riparian Areas of Pakistan: Special Reference to Taunsa Wildlife Sanctuary and Keti Shah Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arfeen, R. Z.; Saleem, A.; Mirza, S. N.; Tayyab, H. M.; Akmal, M.; Afzal, O.

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan riparian zone mostly belongs to Sindh and Punjab provinces and prone to climatic problems and anthropogenic activities. The research was conduct to estimate and compare the structure and composition of riverine floral diversity in low riparian zone of River Indus. The data was collected from Keti Shah forest and Taunsa wildlife sanctuary. Total 14259 plants/individuals were recorded, which belong to 54 plant species with 18 different families. In Taunsa pre-monsoon survey, total 30 plant species were found with 4476 plants from 16 different families. In Taunsa post-monsoon survey total 3348 individuals were recorded from 20 plant species and 9 families. Similarly, in Keti Shah forest, total 3975 individual were recorded from 22 species and 11 families during the pre-monsoon season and 2460 plants were recorded in post-monsoon season, belonging to 16 species and 10 families. These species mostly belong to Fabaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Asclepiadaceae. Different phytosociological parameters indicate Tamarix dioca, Cynodon dactylon, Desmostachya bipinnata, Imperata cylindrica, Fimbristylis hispidula, Acacia nilotica, Phragmites karka, Tamarix sp. and Saccharum bengalense as dominant species. The biodiversity in upstream and downstream areas were rich in pre-monsoon season in comparison to post-monsoon season in surveyed areas. This study is useful for management of the area in the future as conservation strategies can be made through considering the adaptive tree species in future plantation and endangered species can be conserved. (author)

  20. Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Induced Transgression of the Chandeleur Islands for Restoration and Wildlife Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reahard, Ross; Mitchell, Brandie; Brown, Tevin; Billiot, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Barrier Islands are the first line of defense against tropical storms and hurricanes for coastal areas. Historically, tropical cyclonic events have had a great impact on the transgression of barrier islands, especially the Chandeleur Island chain off the eastern coast of Louisiana. These islands are of great importance, aiding in the protection of southeastern Louisiana from major storms, providing habitat for nesting and migratory bird species, and are part of the second oldest wildlife refuge in the country. In 1998, Hurricane Georges caused severe damage to the chain, prompting restoration and monitoring efforts by both federal and state agencies. Since then, multiple storm events have steadily diminished the integrity of the islands. Hurricane Katrina in 2005 thwarted all previous restoration efforts, with Hurricane Gustav in 2008 exacerbating island erosion and vegetation loss. Data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat 2-4 Multispectral Scanner (MSS), and Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) will be utilized to detect land loss, island transgression, and vegetation change from 1979 to 2009. This study looks to create a more synoptic view of the transgression of the Chandeleur Islands and correlate weather and sea surface phenomena with erosion trends over the past 30 years, so that partnering organizations such as the Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES) can better monitor and address the continual change of the island chain.

  1. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: manmade habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ira David Luman; Ralph. Anderson

    1979-01-01

    Manmade structures on rangelands provide specialized habitats for some species. These habitats and how they function as specialized habitat features are examined in this publication. The relationships of the wildlife of the Great Basin to such structures are detailed.

  2. 76 FR 55699 - Proposed Establishment of Everglades Headwaters National Wildlife Refuge and Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... Federal trust species and species of management concern, with special emphasis on species listed under the... landscape; (6) protect the headwaters, groundwater recharge, and watershed of the Kissimmee Chain of Lakes...

  3. Estimating management costs of protected areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Jonathan M.H.; Burgess, Neil David; Green, Rhys E.

    2012-01-01

    Despite chronic underfunding for conservation and the recognition that funds must be invested wisely, few studies have analysed the direct costs of managing protected areas at the spatial scales needed to inform local site management. Using a questionnaire survey we collected data from protected...... area managers in the Eastern Arc Mountains (EAMs) of Tanzania to establish how much is currently spent on reserve management and how much is required to meet conservation objectives. We use an information theoretic approach to model spatial variation in these costs using a range of plausible, spatially...... in actual spend and over 40% of variation in necessary spend. Population pressure is a variable that has not been used to model protected area management costs before, yet proved to be considerably better at predicting both actual and necessary spend than other measures of anthropogenic pressure. We use our...

  4. Wildlife feeding in parks: methods for monitoring the effectiveness of educational interventions and wildlife food attraction behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Dvorak, Robert G.; Manning, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    Opportunities to view and interact with wildlife are often an important part of high quality recreational experiences. Such interactions frequently include wildlife feeding, resulting in food-conditioned behaviors that may cause harm to both wildlife and visitors. This study developed and applied efficient protocols for simultaneously evaluating wildlife feeding-related behaviors of visitors and related foraging behaviors of chipmunks along a trail in Zion National Park. Unobtrusive observation protocols permitted an evaluation of educational messages delivered, and documentation of wildlife success in obtaining human food and the strength of their food attraction behavior. Significant improvements were documented for some targeted visitor behaviors and human food available to chipmunks, with minor differences between treatments. Replication of these protocols as part of a long-term monitoring program can help protected area managers evaluate and improve the efficacy of their interventions and monitor the strength of food attraction behavior in wildlife.

  5. Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Study Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset is meant to depict Wilderness Study Areas (WSA's), within the state of New Mexico, identified by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) as having...

  6. Louisiana ESI: PARISH (Parish Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries for parishes in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data set represent parish management areas. Location-specific type and...

  7. 78 FR 3024 - Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, MS; Intent To Prepare a Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... an area for the ``conservation, management, and restoration of the fish, wildlife, and plant... ``for use as an inviolate sanctuary, or for any other management purpose, for migratory birds'' 16 U.S.C...

  8. Area-based management and fishing efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchal, P.; Ulrich, C.; Pastoors, M.

    2002-01-01

    The scope of this study is to investigate the extent to which area-based management may have influenced the fishing efficiency of the Danish and Dutch demersal fleets harvesting cod, plaice and sole in the North Sea. Special consideration is given to the `plaice box', a restricted area where fishing

  9. Managing Risk Areas in Software Development Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    2015-01-01

    Software companies are increasingly offshoring development to countries with high expertise at lower cost. Offshoring involves particular risk areas that if ignored increase the likelihood of failure. However, the offshoring client’s maturity level may influence the management of these risk areas...

  10. 78 FR 23949 - Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge and Carlton Pond Waterfowl Production Area, Penobscot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Maine Coastal Islands NWR, 9 Water Street, Rockland, ME 04841. For more information on locations for... newsletters updating the public on our progress with the CCP. We received comments on topics such as the potential effects of climate change, improving biological connectivity, forest management, potential...

  11. 300 Area Revitalization Project Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, H. D.

    1999-01-01

    The 300 Area Revitalization Team has been tasked with the responsibility to develop an integrated path forward for the 300 Area, as part of a commitment stemming from the 300 Area Disposition Workshop that was held on March 17, 1998. The integrated path forward that is needed must ensure that budget, schedule, and work scopes are complementary between the Programs that are involved in the 300Area. This Project Management Plan (PMP) defines the roles and responsibilities, and the overall approach, to development of a prioritized schedule for 300 Area activities that will achieve the end-state condition

  12. The oil and gas resource potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1999-01-01

    In anticipation of the need for scientific support for policy decisions and in light of the decade-old perspective of a previous assessment, the USGS has completed a reassessment of the petroleum potential of the ANWR 1002 area. This was a comprehensive study by a team of USGS scientists in collaboration on technical issues (but not the assessment) with colleagues in other agencies and universities. The study incorporated all available public data and included new field and analytic work as well as the reevaluation of all previous work.Using a methodology similar to that used in previous USGS assessments in the ANWR and the NPRA, this study estimates that the total quantity of technically recoverable oil in the 1002 area is 7.7 BBO (mean value), which is distributed among 10 plays. Using a conservative estimate of 512 million barrels as a minimum commercially developable field size, then about 2.6 BBO of oil distributed in about three fields is expected to be economically recoverable in the undeformed part of the 1002 area. Using a similar estimated minimum field size, which may not be conservative considering the increased distance from infrastructure, the deformed area would be expected to have about 600 MMBO in one field.The amounts of in-place oil estimated for the 1002 area are larger than previous USGS estimates. The increase results in large part from improved resolution of reprocessed seismic data and geologic analogs provided by recent nearby oil discoveries.

  13. Stepwise strategic environmental management in marine protected area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padash, A.; Jozi, S. A.; Nabavi, S. M. B.; Dehzad, B.

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, necessity to protect environment has been a serious concern for all people and international communities. In appropriate development of human economic activities, subsistence dependence of the growing world population on nature decreases the natural diversity of ecosystems and habitats day by day and provides additional constraints for life and survival of wildlife. As a result, implementation of programs to protect species and ecosystems is of great importance. The current study was carried out to implement a comprehensive strategic environmental management plan in the Mond protected area in southern Iran. Accordingly, the protected area was zoned using multi criteria decision method. According to the numerical models, fifteen data layer were obtained on a scale of 1:50,000. The results revealed that 28.35% out of the entire study area belongs to nature conservation zone. In the following step, in order to offer the strategic planning using strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats method, a total number of 154 questionnaires were prepared and filled by the relevant experts. For this purpose, after identifying the internal and external factors, they were weighted in the form of matrices as; internal factor evaluation and external factor evaluation. Analytical hierarchy process and expert choice software were applied to weight the factors. At the end, by considering the socioeconomic and environmental issues, the strategy of using protective strategies in line with international standards as well as a strong support of governmental national execution with a score of 6.05 was chosen as the final approach.

  14. Great Basin wildlife disease concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ Mason

    2008-01-01

    In the Great Basin, wildlife diseases have always represented a significant challenge to wildlife managers, agricultural production, and human health and safety. One of the first priorities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Fish and Wildlife Services was Congressionally directed action to eradicate vectors for zoonotic disease, particularly rabies, in...

  15. Law enforcement staff perceptions of illegal hunting and wildlife conservation in the Gonarezhou National Park, southeast Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.; Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Mango, L.; Jakarasi, J.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, pressure from the illegal harvesting of wildlife is a recurrent issue for protected area management. In order to ensure the effective conservation of wildlife resources, law enforcement has been identified as one of the most important components of protected area management. Our study

  16. A model for evaluating effects of climate, water availability, and water management on wetland impoundments--a case study on Bowdoin, Long Lake, and Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Gleason, Robert A.; Stamm, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Many wetland impoundments managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) National Wildlife Refuge System throughout the northern Great Plains rely on rivers as a primary water source. A large number of these impoundments currently are being stressed from changes in water supplies and quality, and these problems are forecast to worsen because of projected changes to climate and land use. For example, many managed wetlands in arid regions have become degraded owing to the long-term accumulation of salts and increased salinity associated with evapotranspiration. A primary goal of the USFWS is to provide aquatic habitats for a diversity of waterbirds; thus, wetland managers would benefit from a tool that facilitates evaluation of wetland habitat quality in response to current and anticipated impacts of altered hydrology and salt balances caused by factors such as climate change, water availability, and management actions. A spreadsheet model that simulates the overall water and salinity balance (WSB model) of managed wetland impoundments is presented. The WSB model depicts various habitat metrics, such as water depth, salinity, and surface areas (inundated, dry), which can be used to evaluate alternative management actions under various water-availability and climate scenarios. The WSB model uses widely available spreadsheet software, is relatively simple to use, relies on widely available inputs, and is readily adaptable to specific locations. The WSB model was validated using data from three National Wildlife Refuges with direct and indirect connections to water resources associated with rivers, and common data limitations are highlighted. The WSB model also was used to conduct simulations based on hypothetical climate and management scenarios to demonstrate the utility of the model for evaluating alternative management strategies and climate futures. The WSB model worked well across a range of National Wildlife Refuges and could be a valuable tool for USFWS

  17. 50 CFR 31.1 - Determination of surplus wildlife populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of surplus wildlife populations. 31.1 Section 31.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDLIFE SPECIES MANAGEMENT Surplus...

  18. 77 FR 2754 - Establishment of Everglades Headwaters National Wildlife Refuge and Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... Refuge and Conservation Area in Polk, Osceola, Highlands, and Okeechobee Counties, Florida. The Service... south Florida, helping to protect and restore one of the great grassland and savanna landscapes of... Administration Act [16 U.S.C. 668dd(a)(2)], Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1534), Emergency Wetlands Resources...

  19. Mammalian wildlife diseases as hazards to man and livestock in an area of the Llanos Orientales of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, E A; D'Alessandro, A; Morales, G A; Angel, D

    1981-01-01

    Development of the LLanos Orientales of Colombia, and access to underdeveloped areas in the Llanos, may create disease hazards to man and domestic animals or introduce exotic pathogens, creating reservoirs of infection for domestic animals and acting as limiting factors on the native wild species. A survey of wild animals common to the Llanos revealed a number of parasites indigenous to the area. A total total of 59 mammalian species, representing eight orders were examined. Haematozoa were represented by Trypanosoma cruzi, T. evansi and T. rangeli. Eight species of ticks were found: Amblyomma cajennense, A. auricularium, A. rotundatum, A. maculatum, A. longirostre, A. pacae, Ixodes luciae and Boophilus microplus. Four species of fleas were found: Rhopalopsyllus lugubris lugubris, R. australis tupinus, R. cacicus saevus and Polygenis klagesi samuelis. A species of Echinococcus was commonly found in Cuniculus paca. Serologic titers and/or isolations of pathogenic viral and bacterial agents generally indicated that the wildlife population had not been exposed to the diseases common to the domestic population. A low prevalence of titers to Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis was found in Cebus apella and Proechimys sp. Neutralizing antibodies to Group B viruses were found in Proechimys sp., Coendor sp. and Nectomys squamipes. Antibodies to Group C viruses were found in Proechimys sp. Serologic titers to Leptospira sejroe and L. tarassovi were found in Proechimys sp. and Didelphis marsupialis. L. tarassovi was isolated from Proechimys sp. Titers to Brucella were not found in 1964 animals. The significance of these findings are discussed.

  20. Conforth Ranch (Wanaket) Wildlife Mitigation Project. Draft Management Plan and Draft Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to mitigate for loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of Columbia River Basin hydroelectric projects, including McNary dam. The proposed wildlife mitigation project involves wildlife conservation on 1140 hectares (ha)(2817 acres) of land (including water rights) in Umatilla County, Oregon. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA)(DOE/EA- 1016) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  1. Progress Report: Stratton Ecological Research Site - An Experimental Approach to Assess Effects of Various Grazing Treatments on Vegetation and Wildlife Communities Across Managed Burns and Habitat Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Heidi J.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Hobbs, N. Thompson

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how management practices affect wildlife is fundamental to wise decisions for conservation of public lands. Prescribed fire and grazing timing are two management tools frequently used within publicly owned sagebrush ecosystems. We conducted a variety of surveys in order to assess the impacts of grazing timing strategies (early summer before peak green-up, mid-summer at peak green-up, and late summer after peak green-up) in conjunction with prescribed fire on avian and small mammal populations in a high-elevation sagebrush ecosystem. Avian surveys resulted in a large detection sample size for three bird species: Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri), horned lark (Eremophila alpestris), and vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus). Brewer's sparrows had the lowest number of detections within the mid-summer grazing treatment compared to early and late summer grazing treatments, while horned larks and vesper sparrows had higher detection frequencies within the late summer grazing treatment. Summer and fall sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) pellet counts revealed that the greatest over-winter and over-summer use by sage-grouse occurred within the early summer grazing treatment with minimal use of burn treatment areas across all grazing treatments. Deer-mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) represented approximately 90 percent of small mammals captured and were most prevalent within the mid-summer grazing treatment. Sagebrush cover was greatest within the mid-summer grazing treatment. We monitored 50 and 103 nests in 2007 and 2008, respectively. The apparent success rate for shrub-obligate nesting species was 58 percent in 2007 and 63 percent in 2008. This research will support management of sagebrush ecosystems by providing public land managers with direct comparisons of wildlife response to management regimes.

  2. Native Prairie Adaptive Management: a multi region adaptive approach to invasive plant management on Fish and Wildlife Service owned native prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Jill J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Moore, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the northern Great Plains is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses, smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). Management to suppress these invasive plants has had poor to inconsistent success. The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. In partnership with the FWS, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. This joint partnership is known as the Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM) initiative. The NPAM decision framework is built around practical constraints faced by FWS refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen FWS field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, have participated in the initiative. These FWS cooperators share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. Though the scope is broad, the initiative interfaces with individual land managers who provide site-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators. We describe the technical components of this approach, how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. During an initial scoping workshop, FWS cooperators developed a consensus management objective

  3. Foodborne parasites from wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund

    2015-01-01

    The majority of wild foods consumed by humans are sourced from intensively managed or semi-farmed populations. Management practices inevitably affect wildlife density and habitat characteristics, which are key elements in the transmission of parasites. We consider the risk of transmission...... of foodborne parasites to humans from wildlife maintained under natural or semi-natural conditions. A deeper understanding will be useful in counteracting foodborne parasites arising from the growing industry of novel and exotic foods....

  4. Highways and habitat: managing habitat connectivity and landscape permeability for wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Millions of miles of highway crisscross the United States . Highways fragment the landscape, affecting the distribution of animal populations and limiting the ability of individuals to disperse between those populations. Moreover, animal-vehicle collisions are a serious hazard to wildlife, not to mention people.Researchers at the PNW Research Station in...

  5. Cooperation or competition : dilemma for resource managers in sustainable wildlife utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwakiwa, E.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: analytical modelling; Associated Private Nature Reserves; consumptive use; elephants; Kruger National Park; land productivity; non-consumptive use; waterpoints; Savanna ecosystem model; South Africa.

    Wildlife as part of biodiversity is a global natural resource.

  6. Continuous water-quality monitoring to improve lake management at Lake Mattamuskeet National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Moorman; Tom Augspurger

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has partnered with U.S. Geological Survey to establish 2 continuous water-quality monitoring stations at Lake Mattamuskeet. Stations on the east and west side of the lake measure water level, clarity, dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity, and conductivity.

  7. Modeling large-scale winter recreation terrain selection with implications for recreation management and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucretia E. Olson; John R. Squires; Elizabeth K. Roberts; Aubrey D. Miller; Jacob S. Ivan; Mark Hebblewhite

    2017-01-01

    Winter recreation is a rapidly growing activity, and advances in technology make it possible for increasing numbers of people to access remote backcountry terrain. Increased winter recreation may lead to more frequent conflict between recreationists, as well as greater potential disturbance to wildlife. To better understand the environmental characteristics favored by...

  8. Business Development Management and Services Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The creation in ENSA of the new Business Development Management is meant to leverage ENSA's activities by taking advantage of the previous experience gained by the services area to have a much more active presence than before in both the national and international market for goods and services of the nuclear industry. The Management's activities go beyond the traditional, mature activity of large nuclear components manufacturing developed in ENSA since it was founded. This article details the activities of this new Management and its future projection. (Author)

  9. Effects of non-consumptive wildlife-oriented tourism on marine species and prospects for their sustainable management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Shelley; Hardiman, Nigel

    2015-03-15

    Marine non-consumptive wildlife-oriented tourism, whereby tourists observe and/or interact closely with animals, without purposely having a detrimental effect on them, has been growing globally in recent decades. Human-mediated feeding (provisioning) is widely used by tour operators to attract target species, facilitate viewing and interaction with tourists. Although potential effects of such provisioning on terrestrial fauna have been given moderate scientific research attention, equivalent research in the marine environment is limited. Effects of provisioning marine wildlife may include direct habituation, behavioural change, and/or dietary impacts among individuals and species. There may also be disruption to the species associated assemblage. It was found that the literature on the effects of non-consumptive wildlife tourism is fragmented and results from different areas and taxa are frequently contradictory. Most studies appeared to be of a few years duration, at most. This reflects the relative immaturity of the industry - many enterprises studied typically commenced within the 1990 s. Studies (other than fish) tended to focus on a focal species with few addressing the wider implications for the associated assemblage. Supplementary feeding may also have impacts on the health and wellbeing of provisioned animals. It is concluded that such nature tourism is often not benign - focal species and their assemblage are often disrupted. We conclude that funding to better understand the impacts and thus address them is imperative. To supplement funding for the research and monitoring required, an additional charge could incorporated into the fee charged to those engaging in marine wildlife tourism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Zambian wildlife ranching industry: scale, associated benefits, and limitations affecting its development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Peter A; Barnes, Jonathan; Nyirenda, Vincent; Pumfrett, Belinda; Tambling, Craig J; Taylor, W Andrew; t'Sas Rolfes, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The number and area of wildlife ranches in Zambia increased from 30 and 1,420 km(2) in 1997 to 177 and ∼6,000 km(2) by 2012. Wild ungulate populations on wildlife ranches increased from 21,000 individuals in 1997 to ∼91,000 in 2012, while those in state protected areas declined steeply. Wildlife ranching and crocodile farming have a turnover of ∼USD15.7 million per annum, compared to USD16 million from the public game management areas which encompass an area 29 times larger. The wildlife ranching industry employs 1,200 people (excluding jobs created in support industries), with a further ∼1,000 individuals employed through crocodile farming. Wildlife ranches generate significant quantities of meat (295,000 kg/annum), of which 30,000 kg of meat accrues to local communities and 36,000 kg to staff. Projected economic returns from wildlife ranching ventures are high, with an estimated 20-year economic rate of return of 28%, indicating a strong case for government support for the sector. There is enormous scope for wildlife ranching in Zambia due to the availability of land, high diversity of wildlife and low potential for commercial livestock production. However, the Zambian wildlife ranching industry is small and following completion of field work for this study, there was evidence of a significant proportion of ranchers dropping out. The industry is performing poorly, due to inter alia: rampant commercial bushmeat poaching; failure of government to allocate outright ownership of wildlife to landowners; bureaucratic hurdles; perceived historical lack of support from the Zambia Wildlife Authority and government; a lack of a clear policy on wildlife ranching; and a ban on hunting on unfenced lands including game ranches. For the wildlife ranching industry to develop, these limitations need to be addressed decisively. These findings are likely to apply to other savanna countries with large areas of marginal land potentially suited to wildlife ranching.

  11. The Zambian Wildlife Ranching Industry: Scale, Associated Benefits, and Limitations Affecting Its Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Peter A.; Barnes, Jonathan; Nyirenda, Vincent; Pumfrett, Belinda; Tambling, Craig J.; Taylor, W. Andrew; Rolfes, Michael t’Sas

    2013-01-01

    The number and area of wildlife ranches in Zambia increased from 30 and 1,420 km2 in 1997 to 177 and ∼6,000 km2 by 2012. Wild ungulate populations on wildlife ranches increased from 21,000 individuals in 1997 to ∼91,000 in 2012, while those in state protected areas declined steeply. Wildlife ranching and crocodile farming have a turnover of ∼USD15.7 million per annum, compared to USD16 million from the public game management areas which encompass an area 29 times larger. The wildlife ranching industry employs 1,200 people (excluding jobs created in support industries), with a further ∼1,000 individuals employed through crocodile farming. Wildlife ranches generate significant quantities of meat (295,000 kg/annum), of which 30,000 kg of meat accrues to local communities and 36,000 kg to staff. Projected economic returns from wildlife ranching ventures are high, with an estimated 20-year economic rate of return of 28%, indicating a strong case for government support for the sector. There is enormous scope for wildlife ranching in Zambia due to the availability of land, high diversity of wildlife and low potential for commercial livestock production. However, the Zambian wildlife ranching industry is small and following completion of field work for this study, there was evidence of a significant proportion of ranchers dropping out. The industry is performing poorly, due to inter alia: rampant commercial bushmeat poaching; failure of government to allocate outright ownership of wildlife to landowners; bureaucratic hurdles; perceived historical lack of support from the Zambia Wildlife Authority and government; a lack of a clear policy on wildlife ranching; and a ban on hunting on unfenced lands including game ranches. For the wildlife ranching industry to develop, these limitations need to be addressed decisively. These findings are likely to apply to other savanna countries with large areas of marginal land potentially suited to wildlife ranching. PMID:24367493

  12. PUREX source Aggregate Area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the PUREX Plant Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE)Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  13. 7 CFR 371.6 - Wildlife Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wildlife Services. 371.6 Section 371.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.6 Wildlife Services. (a) General statement. Wildlife Services (WS) manages problems caused by wildlife. (b) Deputy Administrator of...

  14. Management accounting in an area. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    The role of a chief accountant in a mining Area, in particular the management accounting aspect, is demonstrated by considering: cash flow; cost control; functional costing; capital expenditure appraisal; budgetary control and zero base budgeting. The above subject headings and their needs are also considered in the light of the current economic situation. 4 references.

  15. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  16. Madagascar's nascent locally managed marine area network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 2004, the creation of locally managed marine areas (LMMAs) in Madagascar has exponentially increased, highlighting the need for improved information sharing between communities and between support organizations. Until recently, however, these LMMAs operated in relative isolation, with little communication or ...

  17. Evaluating sources of job satisfaction: A survey of U.S. Fish and Wildlife refuge managers and biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponds, Phadrea D.; Brinson, Ayeisha A.; Benson, Delwin

    2003-01-01

    The following summary consists of revised excerpts from the thesis study that was conducted in 2000-2002 by Ayeisha Brinson, Colorado State University (Brinson, 2002). The purpose of this report is to provide the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) with additional finding related to sources of job satisfaction. Because this is a report of additional findings from a length study, the information in this report is condensed and represented without references from the original research. The literature review, methodology, and discussion from the original thesis are not presented in this report. Any questions concerning the thesis should be directed to Ayeisha Brinson, who may be reached by e-mail. The purpose of the report is to examine differences and similarities between National Wildlife Refuge managers and biologists on a selection of independent variable related to job satisfaction occupation status (being either a manager or a biologist): are managers more satisfied with their jobs than biologist? If so, what are the components of that satisfaction? What are the sources of dissatisfaction? a?|

  18. Human-wildlife conflict as a barrier to large carnivore management and conservation in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    CHYNOWETH, MARK; ÇOBAN, EMRAH; ALTIN, ÇAĞATAY; ŞEKERCİOĞLU, ÇAĞAN

    2016-01-01

    Large carnivorous mammals are wide-ranging animals and thus frequently come into contact with human settlements in agrarian landscapes. This often generates human-wildlife conflict; carnivores potentially damage livestock, agricultural products, or human well-being. In Turkey, the cooccurrence of eight medium-large carnivore species combined with a burgeoning human population and unsustainable consumption of natural resources increasingly threatens carnivore populations. To better understand ...

  19. Forest resource use pattern in Kedarnath wildlife sanctuary and its fringe areas (a case study from Western Himalaya, India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Zubair A.; Bhat, Jahangeer A.; Bhatt, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    The rural population of Himalaya has been strongly dependent on the forest resources for their livelihood for generations. The present study, carried out at three different altitudes of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS), explored forest resource-use patterns to understand rural peoples' dependency on the adjacent forests. A total of six forests were selected and the seven dependent villages were surveyed for the study of forest resource use patterns in relation to their socioeconomic status. Average fuelwood and fodder consumption were found to be 2.42 kg/capita/day and 43.96 kg/household/day respectively which was higher than the earlier reported values. Average fuelwood consumption by temporary dhaba (roadside refreshment establishments) owners (52.5 kg/dhaba/day) is much higher than the permanent villagers. Average cultivated land per family was less than 1 ha (0.56 ha). Inaccessibility of the area and deprived socio-economic status of the locals are largely responsible for the total dependency of the local inhabitants on nearby forests for fuelwood, fodder and other life supporting demands. Extensive farming of fuelwood trees on less used, barren land and establishment of fodder banks could be the alternative to bridge the gap between the demand and supply. Active participation of local people is mandatory for the conservation of these forests. - Highlights: • We studied energy consumption at different altitudes in Western Himalaya of India. • On an average, fuelwood and fodder consumption is 2.42 kg/capita/day and 43.96 kg/household/day respectively. • Maximum fuelwood (3.24 kg/capita/day) at higher and fodder consumption (1800 kg/household/day) at middle altitudes was recorded. • Dhabas (roadside refreshment establishments) consume much more fuelwood as compared to the permanent villagers (P<0.000, t-test). • Fuelwood consumption showed significant negative relationship with LPG (−0.87) and kerosene oil (−0.89)

  20. Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contributions to wildlife habitat, management issues, challenges and policy choices--an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Arthur W.; Vandever, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The following bibliography presents brief summaries of documents relevant to Conservation Reserve Program relations to wildlife habitat, habitat management in agriculturally dominated landscapes, and conservation policies potentially affecting wildlife habitats in agricultural ecosystems. Because the literature summaries furnished provide only sweeping overviews, users are urged to obtain and evaluate those papers appearing useful to obtain a more complete understanding of study findings and their implications to conservation in agricultural ecosystems. The bibliography contains references to reports that reach beyond topics that directly relate to the Conservation Reserve Program. Sections addressing grassland management and landowner surveys/opinions, for example, furnish information useful for enhancing development and administration of conservation policies affecting lands beyond those enrolled in conservation programs. Some sections of the bibliography (for example, agricultural conservation policy, economics, soils) are far from inclusive of all relevant material written on the subject. Hopefully, these sections will serve as fundamental introductions to related issues. In a few instances, references may be presented in more than one section of the bibliography. For example, individual papers specifically addressing both non-game and game birds are included in respective sections of the bibliography. Duplication of citations and associated notes has, however, been kept to a minimum.

  1. Stepwise strategic environmental management in marine protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Padash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, necessity to protect environment has been a serious concern for all people and international communities. In appropriate development of human economic activities, subsistence dependence of the growing world population on nature decreases the natural diversity of ecosystems and habitats day by day and provides additional constraints for life and survival of wildlife. As a result, implementation of programs to protect species and ecosystems is of great importance. The current study was carried out to implement a comprehensive strategic environmental management plan in the Mond protected area in southern Iran. Accordingly, the protected area was zoned using multi criteria decision method. According to the numerical models, fifteen data layer were obtained on a scale of 1:50,000. The results revealed that 28.35% out of the entire study area belongs to nature conservation zone. In the following step, in order to offer the strategic planning using strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats method, a total number of 154 questionnaires were prepared and filled by the relevant experts. For this purpose, after identifying the internal and external factors, they were weighted in the form of matrices as; internal factor evaluation and external factor evaluation. Analytical hierarchy process and expert choice software were applied to weight the factors. At the end, by considering the socioeconomic and environmental issues, the strategy of using protective strategies in line with international standards as well as a strong support of governmental national execution with a score of 6.05 was chosen as the final approach.

  2. Characterization of habitat preferences for selected wildlife species in encinal savannas of the Southwest [Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendy D. Jones; Carlton M. Jones; Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2005-01-01

    The encinal savannas of the sub-mogollon southwestern United States are important for livestock grazing and wildlife habitat. Little data have been collected on the ecology of these Sierra Madrean types of woodland land areas, which makes management difficult. Obtaining information such as habitat preferences for selected wildlife species and livestock can be an...

  3. Wildlife law and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bertouille, S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the crucial issues of our decades is how to stop the loss of biodiversity. Policy–makers need reliable data to base their decisions on. Managing wildlife populations requires, first of all, science–based knowledge of their abundance, dynamics, ecology, behaviour and dispersal capacities based on reliable qualitative data. The importance of dialogue and communication with the local actors should be stressed (Sennerby Forsse, 2010) as bag statistics and other monitoring data in wildlife ...

  4. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  5. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species

  6. Planning for people? An evaluation of objectives for managing visitors at wildlife refuges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey J. Brooks; Robert Massengale

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the quality of planning objectives for visitor services as written in Comprehensive Conservation Plans for the National Wildlife Refuge System of the United States. Planners in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service are predominantly writing public use objectives that address wildlife recreation and education. Results indicate that planners are writing...

  7. Solid waste management in Khartoum industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsidig, N. O. A.

    2004-05-01

    This study was conducted in Khartoum industrial area (KIA). The study discusses solid waste generation issues in KIA as well as solid waste collection, storage, transport and final disposal methods. A focus on environmental impact resulting from the accumulation of solid waste was presented by reviewing solid waste management in developed as well as developing countries starting from generation to final disposal. Environmental health legislation in Sudan was investigated. The study covers all the (eight) industrial sub-sectors presented in KIA. The main objective of the study is to assess the situation of solid waste in KIA. To fulfill the objectives of the study the researcher deemed it necessary to explore problems related to solid waste generation and solid waste arrangement with special emphasis on final disposal methods. Practically, 31 (thirty-one) factories representing the different industrial sub-sectors in KIA were studied. This represents 25% of the total number of factories located in KIA. Data were obtained by, questionnaires, interviews and observations mainly directed to concerned officials, solid waste workers, pickers and brokers. Obtained data were stored, coded, tabulated and analyzed using the computer systems (excel and SPSS programmes). The obtained results should clear deficiency in the management of solid waste which led to great environmental deterioration in KIA and neighboring residential areas. The environment in studied area is continuously polluted due to high pollution loads and unproved solid waste management. In order to maintain health environment operating factories have to pretreated their solid waste according to the recognized standards and waste minimization techniques such as recycling and re use should be widely applied, moreover, running crash programme for environmental sanitation in Khartoum state should be expanded and improved to include special characteristics of solid waste from industries. Finally, increase awareness

  8. Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal

  9. Area-based management and fishing efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, P.; Ulrich, Clara; Pastoors, M.

    2002-01-01

    The scope of this study is to investigate the extent to which area-based management may have influenced the fishing efficiency of the Danish and Dutch demersal fleets harvesting cod, plaice and sole in the North Sea. Special consideration is given to the 'plaice box', a restricted area where...... fishing is prohibited to towed-gear fleets of horsepower exceeding 300 hp. An index of fishing power is calculated as the log-ratio between the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of any vessel and some survey abundance index. Annual trends in fishing are calculated as the year-effect derived from a general...... linear model (GLM) analysis of the index of fishing power. The fishing efficiency of Danish gill-netters and, to some extent, Danish seiners, has overall increased inside the 'plaice box', whilst remaining relatively stable outside. However, the fishing efficiency of the other exemption fleets has...

  10. A comparison of photograph-interpreted and IfSAR-derived maps of polar bear denning habitat for the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.

    2018-05-11

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in Alaska use the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for maternal denning. Pregnant bears den in snow banks for more than 3 months in winter during which they give birth to and nurture young. Denning is one of the most vulnerable times in polar bear life history as the family group cannot simply walk away from a disturbance without jeopardizing survival of newly born cubs. The ANWR includes the “1002 Area”, a region recently opened for oil and gas exploration by the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). As a part of its mission, the DOI “… protects and manages the Nation's natural resources …” and is therefore responsible for conserving polar bears and encouraging development of energy potential. Because future industrial activities could overlap habitats used by denning polar bears, identifying these habitats can inform the decisions of resource managers tasked to develop resources and protect polar bears. To help inform these efforts, we qualitatively compared the distribution of denning habitat identified by two different methods: previously published habitat from manual interpretation of aerial photographs, and habitat derived by computer interrogation of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) digital terrain models (DTM). Because photograph-interpreted methods depicted denning habitat as a line and IfSAR-derived methods depicted habitat as a polygon, we assessed agreement between the two methods with distance measurements. We found that 77.5 percent of IfSAR-derived denning habitat (79.6 km2 ; 1.2 percent of the 6,837.0 km2 1002 Area) was within 600 m of photograph-interpreted habitat (3,026.9 km), including 53.9 percent within 200 m. This distribution differed from that of randomly distributed points, as only 49.4 percent of these occurred within 600 m of photograph-interpreted habitat, including 18.3 percent within 200 m. Both methods appear to identify the major physiographic features that polar bears

  11. Disequilibria Management at the Euro Area Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Lupu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The current crisis has shown that an economic integration through a political and monetary approach is wrong. It seems to be more appropriate a social and economic approach, meaning both a betterpreparedness of the new countries joining the euro area and more flexibility of the economic structures of the old members of the euro zone, in order to make the more "harmonious" the way of the monetary area operation. For that purpose, this article has made an analysis of the imbalances management issue in the euro area in order to provide a few theoretical solutions for a better functioning of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU, based on the observation of developments in the euro area countries. This paper enriches theeconomic literature, but also it is relying on the research workings made by the authors in the field of European integration. The originality of this article arises from the extremely topical issue examined and its way of approach, but also from the conclusions outlined.

  12. A Habitat-Based Approach to Management of Tallgrass Prairies at the Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schroeder, Richard

    1999-01-01

    .... and improving overall floristic quality. Selection of appropriate management strategies followed by monitoring and evaluation of habitat conditions will allow for adaptive management and appropriate modifications over time.

  13. Tuberculosis in Tanzanian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, S; Mlengeya, T; Kazwala, R R; Michel, A; Kaare, M T; Jones, S L; Eblate, E; Shirima, G M; Packer, C

    2005-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a pathogen of growing concern in free-ranging wildlife in Africa, but little is known about the disease in Tanzanian wildlife. Here, we report the infection status of Mycobacterium bovis in a range of wildlife species sampled from protected areas in northern Tanzania. M. bovis was isolated from 11.1% (2/18) migratory wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and 11.1% (1/9) topi (Damaliscus lunatus) sampled systematically in 2000 during a meat cropping program in the Serengeti ecosystem, and from one wildebeest and one lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) killed by sport hunters adjacent to Tarangire National Park. A tuberculosis antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to screen serum samples collected from 184 Serengeti lions (Panthera leo) and 19 lions from Ngorongoro Crater sampled between 1985 and 2000. Samples from 212 ungulates collected throughout the protected area network between 1998 and 2001 also were tested by EIA. Serological assays detected antibodies to M. bovis in 4% of Serengeti lions; one positive lion was sampled in 1984. Antibodies were detected in one of 17 (6%) buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Tarangire and one of 41 (2%) wildebeest in the Serengeti. This study confirms for the first time the presence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife of northern Tanzania, but further investigation is required to assess the impact on wildlife populations and the role of different wildlife species in maintenance and transmission.

  14. Wildlife disease and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch-Kirkbride, Shauna L; Riley, Shawn J; Gore, Meredith L

    2013-10-01

    Risk perception has an important influence on wildlife management and is particularly relevant to issues that present health risks, such as those associated with wildlife disease management. Knowledge of risk perceptions is useful to wildlife health professionals in developing communication messages that enhance public understanding of wildlife disease risks and that aim to increase public support for disease management. To promote knowledge of public understanding of disease risks in the context of wildlife disease management, we used a self-administered questionnaire mailed to a stratified random sample (n = 901) across the continental United States to accomplish three objectives: 1) assess zoonotic disease risk perceptions; 2) identify sociodemographic and social psychologic factors underlying these risk perceptions; and 3) examine the relationship between risk perception and agreement with wildlife disease management practices. Diseases we assessed in the surveys were rabies, plague, and West Nile virus. Risk perception, as measured by an index consisting of severity, susceptibility, and dread, was greatest for rabies and West Nile virus disease (x = 2.62 and 2.59, respectively, on a scale of 1 to 4 and least for plague (x = 2.39). The four most important variables associated with disease risk perception were gender, education, prior exposure to the disease, and concern for health effects. We found that stronger risk perception was associated with greater agreement with wildlife disease management. We found particular concern for the vulnerability of wildlife to zoonotic disease and for protection of wildlife health, indicating that stakeholders may be receptive to messages emphasizing the potential harm to wildlife from disease and to messages promoting One Health (i.e., those that emphasize the interdependence of human, domestic animal, wildlife, and ecosystem health).

  15. Terrestrial Species in Protected Areas and Community-Managed Lands in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Velho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas (including areas that are nominally fully protected and those managed for multiple uses encompass about a quarter of the total tropical forest estate. Despite growing interest in the relative value of community-managed lands and protected areas, knowledge about the biodiversity value that each sustains remains scarce in the biodiversity-rich tropics. We investigated the species occurrence of a suite of mammal and pheasant species across four protected areas and nearby community-managed lands in a biodiversity hotspot in northeast India. Over 2.5 years we walked 98 transects (half of which were resampled on a second occasion across the four paired sites. In addition, we interviewed 84 key informants to understand their perceptions of species trends in these two management regimes. We found that protected areas had higher overall species richness and were important for species that were apparently declining in occurrence. On a site-specific basis, community-managed lands had species richness and occurrences comparable to those of a protected area, and in one case their relative abundances of mammals were higher. Interviewees indicated declines in the abundances of larger-bodied species in community-managed lands. Their observations agreed with our field surveys for certain key, large-bodied species, such as gaur and sambar, which generally occurred less in community-managed lands. Hence, the degree to which protected areas and community-managed lands protect wildlife species depends upon the species in question, with larger-bodied species usually faring better within protected areas.

  16. Wildlife Inventory, Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassirer, E. Frances

    1995-06-01

    Wildlife distribution/abundance were studied at this location during 1993 and 1994 to establish the baseline as part of the wildlife mitigation agreement for construction of Dworshak reservoir. Inventory efforts were designed to (1) document distribution/abundance of 4 target species: pileated woodpecker, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, and river otter, (2) determine distribution/abundance of rare animals, and (3) determine presence and relative abundance of all other species except deer and elk. 201 wildlife species were observed during the survey period; most were residents or used the area seasonally for breeding or wintering. New distribution or breeding records were established for at least 6 species. Pileated woodpeckers were found at 35% of 134 survey points in upland forests; estimated densities were 0-0.08 birds/ha, averaging 0.02 birds/ha. Yellow warblers were found in riparian areas and shrubby draws below 3500 ft elev., and were most abundant in white alder plant communities (ave. est. densities 0.2-2. 1 birds/ha). Black-capped chickadees were found in riparian and mixed tall shrub vegetation at all elevations (ave. est. densities 0-0.7 birds/ha). River otters and suitable otter denning and foraging habitat were observed along the Snake and Salmon rivers. 15 special status animals (threatened, endangered, sensitive, state species of special concern) were observed at Craig Mt: 3 amphibians, 1 reptile, 8 birds, 3 mammals. Another 5 special status species potentially occur (not documented). Ecosystem-based wildlife management issues are identified. A monitoring plant is presented for assessing effects of mitigation activities.

  17. Semiworks source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the Semi-Works Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) . Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations WD and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations. This approach is described and justified in The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Package. This strategy provides new concepts for: accelerating decision-malting by maximizing the use of existing data consistent with data quality objectives (DQOs); and undertaking expedited response actions (ERAS) and/or interim remedial measures (IRMs), as appropriate, to either remove threats to human health and welfare and the environment, or to reduce risk by reducing toxicity, mobility, or volume of contaminants

  18. Changes in the composition of hunting catches in southeastern Cameroon: a promising approach for collaborative wildlife management between ecologists and local hunters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Yasuoka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, both depletion of wild animals and declining food supply have threatened the livelihoods of people inhabiting the forests of the Congo Basin, and rendered the bushmeat trade a national and global concern. Because initial approaches to wildlife management were criticized for lacking consideration of the customary rights of local people, a variety of projects have been proposed to ensure their active participation in management initiatives. However, unfamiliar with the concepts of conservation ecology, local people have found it difficult to contribute effectively. This paper proposes an approach to monitor the status of fauna, based on the ratio of blue duikers (Philantomba monticola to medium-sized duikers (Cephalophus spp. for the total number of hunting catches (the catch B/M. Analysis of changes in the composition of hunting catches across multiple sites in southeastern Cameroon revealed the following trends: (1 without substantive human intervention, i.e., hunting pressure and forest disturbance, medium-sized duikers were densely distributed while blue duikers were sparse, so that the catch B/M was low; (2 under moderate human intervention, blue duikers became more densely distributed while the original density of medium-sized duikers was maintained, so that the catch B/M increased; (3 with extensive human intervention in specific areas, medium-sized duikers became sparsely distributed while a relatively high density of blue duikers was maintained, so that the catch B/M increased significantly and a mosaic of different compositions of duikers was formed; and (4 with extensive human intervention extending over the specific extensive area, both medium-sized and blue duikers became sparse. It appears that the catch B/M predicts changes in the status of game animals and of the background wild fauna, and is both a sufficiently reliable variable for ecologists and perceptible for local people. Furthermore, this approach has the

  19. Implications of spatial data variations for protected areas management: an example from East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowhaniuk, Nicholas; Hartter, Joel; Ryan, Sadie J

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems and remote sensing technologies have become an important tool for visualizing conservation management and developing solutions to problems associated with conservation. When multiple organizations separately develop spatial data representations of protected areas, implicit error arises due to variation between data sets. We used boundary data produced by three conservation organizations (International Union for the Conservation of Nature, World Resource Institute, and Uganda Wildlife Authority), for seven Ugandan parks, to study variation in the size represented and the location of boundaries. We found variation in the extent of overlapping total area encompassed by the three data sources, ranging from miniscule (0.4 %) differences to quite large ones (9.0 %). To underscore how protected area boundary discrepancies may have implications to protected area management, we used a landcover classification, defining crop, shrub, forest, savanna, and grassland. The total area in the different landcover classes varied most in smaller protected areas (those less than 329 km(2)), with forest and cropland area estimates varying up to 65 %. The discrepancies introduced by boundary errors could, in this hypothetical case, generate erroneous findings and could have a significant impact on conservation, such as local-scale management for encroachment and larger-scale assessments of deforestation.

  20. Auditing wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Reilly

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Reilly B.K. and Y. Reilly. 2003. Auditing wildlife. Koedoe 46(2: 97–102. Pretoria. ISSN 0075-6458. Accountants and auditors are increasingly confronted with the problem of auditing wildlife populations on game ranches as their clients' asset base expands into this industry. This paper aims to provide guidelines on these actions based on case study data and research in the field of wildlife monitoring. Parties entering into dispute on numbers of animals on a property often resort to their auditors for advice. This paper tracks a method of deciding on whether or not to audit the population based on wildlife value and an initial sample count. This will act as a guideline for the accounting profession when confronted by this problem.

  1. Wildlife Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  2. A Landscape Model (LEEMATH) to Evaluate Effects of Management Impacts on Timber and Wildlife Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbin Li; David L. Gartner; Pu Mou; Carl C. Trettin

    2000-01-01

    Managing forest resources for sustainability requires the successful integration of economic and ecological goals. To attain such integration, land managers need decision support tools that incorporate science, land-use strategies, and policy options to assess resources sustainability at large scales. Landscape Evaluation of Effects of Management Activities on Timber...

  3. Using structured decision making to manage disease risk for Montana wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Gude, Justin A.; Anderson, Neil J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.; Thompson, Michael J.; Sullivan, Mark G.; Edwards, Victoria L.; Gower, Claire N.; Cochrane, Jean Fitts; Irwin, Elise R.; Walshe, Terry

    2013-01-01

    We used structured decision-making to develop a 2-part framework to assist managers in the proactive management of disease outbreaks in Montana, USA. The first part of the framework is a model to estimate the probability of disease outbreak given field observations available to managers. The second part of the framework is decision analysis that evaluates likely outcomes of management alternatives based on the estimated probability of disease outbreak, and applies managers' values for different objectives to indicate a preferred management strategy. We used pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) as a case study for our approach, applying it to 2 populations in Montana that differed in their likelihood of a pneumonia outbreak. The framework provided credible predictions of both probability of disease outbreaks, as well as biological and monetary consequences of management actions. The structured decision-making approach to this problem was valuable for defining the challenges of disease management in a decentralized agency where decisions are generally made at the local level in cooperation with stakeholders. Our approach provides local managers with the ability to tailor management planning for disease outbreaks to local conditions. Further work is needed to refine our disease risk models and decision analysis, including robust prediction of disease outbreaks and improved assessment of management alternatives.

  4. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. This area consists of several separated land parcels, of which 2,000 hectares (4,943 acres) have been purchased by BPA and an additional 4,640 hectares (11,466 acres) have been identified by the Colville Confederated Tribes for inclusion in the Project. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  5. Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife mitigation project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. This area consists of several separated land parcels, of which 2,000 hectares (4,943 acres) have been purchased by BPA and an additional 4,640 hectares (11,466 acres) have been identified by the Colville Confederated Tribes for inclusion in the Project. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs

  6. Estimating Radiological Doses to Predators Foraging in a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L.Soholt; G.Gonzales; P.Fresquez; K.Bennett; E.Lopez

    2003-01-01

    Since 1957, Los Alamos National Laboratory has operated Area G as its low-level, solid radioactive waste management and disposal area. Although the waste management area is developed, plants, small mammals, and avian and mammalian predators still occupy the less disturbed and revegetated portions of the land. For almost a decade, we have monitored the concentrations of selected radionuclides in soils, plants, and small mammals at Area G. The radionuclides tritium, plutonium-238, and plutonium-239 are regularly found at levels above regional background in all three media. Based on radionuclide concentrations in mice collected from 1994 to 1999, we calculated doses to higher trophic levels (owl, hawk, kestrel, and coyote) that forage on the waste management area. These predators play important functions in the regional ecosystems and are an important part of local Native American traditional tales that identify the uniqueness of their culture. The estimated doses are compared to Department of Energy's interim limit of 0.1 rad/day for the protection of terrestrial wildlife. We used exposure parameters that were derived from the literature for each receptor, including Environmental Protection Agency's exposure factors handbook. Estimated doses to predators ranged from 9E-06 to 2E-04 rad/day, assuming that they forage entirely on the waste management area. These doses are greater than those calculated for predators foraging exclusively in reference areas, but are still well below the interim dose limit. We believe that these calculated doses represent upper-bound estimates of exposure for local predators because the larger predators forage over areas that are much greater than the 63-acre waste management area. Based on these results, we concluded that predators foraging on this area do not face a hazard from radiological exposure under current site conditions

  7. Federal collaboration in science for invasive mammal management in U.S. National Parks and Wildlife Refuges of the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Hu, Darcy; Loh, Rhonda; Banko, Paul C.; Conner, L.M.; Smith, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most isolated islands in the Pacific Ocean are home to US National Parks and Wildlife Refuges. These islands are known for flora and fauna that occur nowhere else, but also for invasive species and other factors which have resulted in the disproportionate extinction of native species. The control of invasive mammals is the single most expensive natural resource management activity essential for restoring ecological integrity to parks in the Hawaiian Islands, American Samoa, and the islands of Guam and Saipan. Science-based applications supporting management efforts have been shaped by longstanding collaborative federal research programs over the past four decades. Consequently, feral goats (Capra hircus) have been removed from >690 km2 in National Parks, and feral pigs (Sus scrofa) have been removed from >367 km2 of federal lands of Hawai‘i, bringing about the gradual recovery of forest ecosystems. The exclusion of other non-native ungulates and invasive mammals is now being undertaken with more sophisticated control techniques and fences. New fence designs are now capable of excluding feral cats (Felis catus) from large areas to protect endangered native waterfowl and nesting seabirds. Rodenticides which have been tested and registered for hand and aerial broadcast in Hawai‘i have been used to eradicate rats from small offshore islands to protect nesting seabirds and are now being applied to montane environments of larger islands to protect forest birds. Forward-looking infrared radar (FLIR) is also being applied to locate wild ungulates which were more recently introduced to some islands. All invasive mammals have been eradicated from some remote small islands, and it may soon be possible to manage areas on larger islands to be free of invasive mammals at least during seasonally important periods for native species.

  8. Components of spatial information management in wildlife ecology: Software for statistical and modeling analysis [Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne L. Beyer; Jeff Jenness; Samuel A. Cushman

    2010-01-01

    Spatial information systems (SIS) is a term that describes a wide diversity of concepts, techniques, and technologies related to the capture, management, display and analysis of spatial information. It encompasses technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), remote sensing, and relational database management systems (...

  9. 75 FR 39038 - Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge and Wetland Management District, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... since the mid-1990s. Emphasis will be on maintaining relationships with existing landowners and... years directs management of habitats to focus on maintaining and using ecological processes that shaped... maintain early and mid-successional stages. Wetlands are actively managed to benefit migratory birds...

  10. Nevada Test 1999 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 radioactive waste management sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvonne Townsend

    2000-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 1999 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 3.9 inches at the Area 3 RWMS (61 percent of average) and 3.8 inches at the Area 5 RWMS (75 percent of average). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 1999 rainfall infiltrated less than one foot before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium data indicate very slow migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were insignificant. All 1999 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing as expected at isolating buried waste

  11. Camera Traps on Wildlife Crossing Structures as a Tool in Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Management - Five-Years Monitoring of Wolf Abundance Trends in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šver, Lidija; Bielen, Ana; Križan, Josip; Gužvica, Goran

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of gray wolf (Canis lupus) and its coexistence with humans presents a challenge and requires continuous monitoring and management efforts. One of the non-invasive methods that produces high-quality wolf monitoring datasets is camera trapping. We present a novel monitoring approach where camera traps are positioned on wildlife crossing structures that channel the animals, thereby increasing trapping success and increasing the cost-efficiency of the method. In this way we have followed abundance trends of five wolf packs whose home ranges are intersected by a motorway which spans throughout the wolf distribution range in Croatia. During the five-year monitoring of six green bridges we have recorded 28 250 camera-events, 132 with wolves. Four viaducts were monitored for two years, recording 4914 camera-events, 185 with wolves. We have detected a negative abundance trend of the monitored Croatian wolf packs since 2011, especially severe in the northern part of the study area. Further, we have pinpointed the legal cull as probable major negative influence on the wolf pack abundance trends (linear regression, r2 > 0.75, P Croatia until there is more data proving population stability. In conclusion, quantitative methods, such as the one presented here, should be used as much as possible when assessing wolf abundance trends.

  12. Blue Creek Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Agreement pertaining to the Blue Creek Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Spokane Tribe, Upper Columbia United Tribes, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). If fully implemented, the proposed action would allow the sponsors to protect and enhance 2,631 habitat units of big game winter range and riparian shrub habitat on 2,185 hectares (5,400 acres) of Spokane Tribal trust lands, and to conduct long term wildlife management activities within the Spokane Indian Reservation project area. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir

  13. Wildlife Habitats Suitability Modelling using Fuzzy Inference System: A Case Study of Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor in Shimbar Protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Obeidavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several modelling techniques have been developed for habitat suitability modelling. In the meantime, the Fuzzy Inference System (FIS with ability to model uncertainty of input variables is an effective method to model wildlife species habitat suitability. So, Persian Leopard habitat suitability was predicted in Shimbar Protected Area using FIS. Therefore, the effective environmental variables were determined. We also defined and determined the linguistic variables, linguistic values, and range of them. Then, we designed the membership functions of the fuzzy sets of the input and output variables. Also, the definition of the fuzzy rules in the system was performed. Finally, the defuzzification of output was carried out. The accuracy of the predictive model was tested using AUC. Also, 11 FISs were developed to determine sensitivity of the models and important variables in modelling. The results showed that the predictive model was more efficient than the random model (AUC=0.960. In addition, the ‘distance to capra’ was the most important predictor. According to the success of FIS in Persian Leopard habitat suitability modelling, we suggest this method to improve and complete the existing spatial information of wildlife habitats in Iran, especially about regions and species that have been less studied.

  14. 2016 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data include direct radiation exposure, as well as radiation from the air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2016 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports, developed by National Security Technologies, LLC Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show that tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. During 2016, precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS was 8% below average, and precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS was 8% above average. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation as measured from the bare-soil weighing lysimeter. Vadose zone monitoring on Area 5 and Area 3 RWMS cell covers shows no evidence of precipitation percolating through the covers

  15. The role of native birds and other wildlife on the emergence of zoonotic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; McLean, Robert G.; Burroughs, T.; Knobler, S.; Lederberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Wildlife can be an important source of transmission of infectious disease to humans. One potential transmission route involves hunting and fishing, both common activities in the United States and worldwide. For example, during 1996, approximately 11 million Americans, about 40 percent of the total population 16 years of age and older, took part in some recreational activity relating to wildlife and fish. Another potential route of infection focuses on urban and suburban environments. These locations are of special concern because of their increasing role as wildlife habitat, the greater interface between humans and wildlife that takes place within those environments, the paucity of knowledge about disease in those wildlife populations, and the general lack of orderly management for wildlife within those environments. In the wild, several trends are contributing to the growing importance of zoonotic diseases. First, the spectrum of infectious diseases affecting wildlife today is greater than at any time during the previous century. Second, the occurrence of infectious diseases has changed, from sporadic, self-limiting outbreaks that generally resulted in minor losses to frequently occurring events that generally result in major losses of wildlife. Third, disease emergence has occurred on a worldwide scale in a broad spectrum of wildlife species and habitats. Given the scope of the problem, current disease surveillance efforts are inadequate. Few state wildlife agencies allocate personnel and resources to address wildlife disease, despite their statutory responsibility for managing nonmigratory wildlife. Some state agencies provide minimal support for regional programs based at universities. At the federal level, the primary surveillance effort is conducted by the National Wildlife Health Center, operated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Outside of government, some veterinary schools, agriculture diagnostic laboratories, and other programs provide additional

  16. Attitudinal Perception of Local People towards Wildlife Conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, understanding and acknowledging residents' knowledge and perceptions about wildlife conservation is an important part of a process of engaging with local communities and building constructive relationships between residents and protected areas' management. This study is aimed at evaluating local people's ...

  17. Wildlife reserves, populations, and hunting outcome with smart wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Strange, Niels

    2014-01-01

    We consider a hunting area and a wildlife reserve and answer the question: How does clever migration decision affect the social optimal and the private optimal hunting levels and population stocks? We analyze this in a model allowing for two-way migration between hunting and reserve areas, where...... the populations’ migration decisions depend on both hunting pressure and relative population densities. In the social optimum a pure stress effect on the behavior of smart wildlife exists. This implies that the population level in the wildlife reserve tends to increase and the population level in the hunting area...... and hunting levels tend to decrease. On the other hand, the effect on stock tends to reduce the population in the wildlife reserve and increase the population in the hunting area and thereby also increase hunting. In the case of the private optimum, open-access is assumed and we find that the same qualitative...

  18. Using fatty-acid profile analysis as an ecologic indicator in the management of tourist impacts on marine wildlife: a case of stingray-feeding in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeniuk, Christina A D; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Rothley, Kristina D

    2007-10-01

    Feeding marine wildlife as a tourism experience has become a popular means by which to attract both people and wildlife, although management efforts are still in their infancy. "Stingray City Sandbar" in the Cayman Islands, where visitors can hand feed free-ranging Southern Stingrays (Dasyatis americana), is a world-famous attraction currently undergoing visitor and wildlife management. One plan is to decrease the amount of nonnatural food provided by tourists with the intention of decreasing stingray habituation to the artificial food source and promoting stingray health. However, the effectiveness of this action is uncertain given that neither the extent of squid composition in the stingray diet nor the degree of nutrient similarity between the fed and natural diets is unknown. We used fatty acid (FA) profile analysis to address these questions by assessing the serum nonesterified FA composition of fed and unfed stingrays around the island and compared them with FA profiles of (1) the provisioned food source (squid) and (2) other warm- and cold-water elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). Our results indicated that fed stingrays were distinct. The FA profiles of the fed stingray population were expressly different from those of the unfed populations and showed a remarkable similarity to the FA composition of squid, suggesting that squid is the main food source. The tropical fed stingrays also exhibited essential FA ratios, specific to both species and habitat, comparable with those of elasmobranchs and squid from cold-water environs, implying that the provisioned food does not provide a similar nutritional lipid composition to that eaten in the wild. Our results suggest that FA profiles are a valuable indicator for the management and monitoring of fed Southern Stingrays because they can be used to assess differences in diet composition and provide an index of nutritional similarity. Our findings are currently being used by Caymanian stakeholders in designing practical

  19. Strip thinning young hardwood forests: multi-functional management for wood, wildlife, and bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamie Schuler; Ashlee Martin

    2016-01-01

    Upland hardwood forests dominate the Appalachian landscape. However, early successional forests are limited. In WV and PA, for example, only 8 percent of the timberland is classified as seedling and sapling-sized. Typically no management occurs in these forests due to the high cost of treatment and the lack of marketable products. If bioenergy markets come to fruition...

  20. Influence of harvesting pressure on demographic tactics: Implications for wildlife management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servanty, S.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Ronchi, F.; Focardi, S.; Baubet, E.; Gimenez, O.

    2011-01-01

    Demographic tactics within animal populations are shaped by selective pressures. Exploitation exerts additional pressures so that differing demographic tactics might be expected among populations with differences in levels of exploitation. Yet little has been done so far to assess the possible consequences of exploitation on the demographic tactics of mammals, even though such information could influence the choice of effective management strategies. Compared with similar-sized ungulate species, wild boar Sus scrofa has high reproductive capabilities, which complicates population management. Using a perturbation analysis, we investigated how population growth rates (??) and critical life-history stages differed between two wild boar populations monitored for several years, one of which was heavily harvested and the other lightly harvested. Asymptotic ?? was 1??242 in the lightly hunted population and 1??115 in the heavily hunted population, while the ratio between the elasticity of adult survival and juvenile survival was 2??63 and 1??27, respectively. A comparative analysis including 21 other ungulate species showed that the elasticity ratio in the heavily hunted population was the lowest ever observed. Compared with expected generation times of similar-sized ungulates (more than 6years), wild boar has a fast life-history speed, especially when facing high hunting pressure. This is well illustrated by our results, where generation times were 3??6years in the lightly hunted population and only 2??3years in the heavily hunted population. High human-induced mortality combined with non-limiting food resources accounted for the accelerated life history of the hunted population because of earlier reproduction. Synthesis and applications. For wild boar, we show that when a population is facing a high hunting pressure, increasing the mortality in only one age-class (e.g. adults or juveniles) may not allow managers to limit population growth. We suggest that simulations of

  1. Prioritization of strategies for protected area management with local people using the hybrid SWOT-AHP analysis: the case of Kakum conservation area, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Foli Fiagbomeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of protected areas towards conservation and protection of biodiversity cannot be over emphasized. Likewise, the dependence of local communities on forest and natural resources cannot be overlooked. Hence for the long term viability of forest reserves and wildlife protected area, the relationship of local people living close to these areas are of key importance if conflict of use can be mitigated. Admittedly, decision-making with respect to forest resource use and protection are complex due to the multiple interests of the major stakeholders. Stakeholder involvement in the planning, management and policy analysis can help resolve conflicts, and increase the commitment of local people to support conservation of protected areas. In this paper, we employ the SWOT-AHP methodology, with the aid of the Priority Estimation Tool (PriEsT, to evaluate and prioritize three management strategies for the Kakum conservation area in Ghana, as a means to facilitate conservation while ensuring benefits to local people. Considering the management objectives of the conservation area, seventeen SWOT sub-factors were identified and used in rating the three alternative management strategies. Among the strength sub-factors, enforcement of protection regulations (S4 is the most important. Similarly, limited funds for patrolling and outreach programs (W3, local people’s interest in alternative livelihood (O4 and the presence of illegal activities (T3 are the most important weakness, opportunity and threat sub-factors respectively. The management strategy “institute village committees to support monitoring and protection of resources” (A1 has the highest priority rating, indicating that management authorities must pay more attention to collaborative management. We propose that to improve on protected area management in Ghana, more management strategy studies must be conducted. However, these studies may apply the fuzzy AHP technique since it is

  2. Assessment of fuel resource diversity and utilization patterns in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in Kumaun Himalaya, India, for conservation and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samant, Sher S.; Dhar, Uppeandra; Rawal, Ranbeer S. [G.B. Pant Inst. of Himalayan Environment and Development, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2000-07-01

    A general decrease in abundance of wood plant species used as sources of fuel suggests that more detailed information is urgently needed on species-level trends and their conservation. Such studies have not been carried out so far in India and elsewhere; we therefore quantified the species-wise extraction of fuel from a site (Gori Ganga Valley) in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in the Kumaun Himalaya. In all, 31 species (26 trees and 5 shrubs) were used as fuel, of which 14 were native to the Himalaya. Utilisation patterns, distributions, probabilities of use (PU), resources use indices (RUI), preferences and availabilities in forest communities of these species were determined. Use pattern did not vary much amongst low altitude villages (Similarity: 52-74%), whereas along the vertical (elevational) gradient it varied considerably (Similarity: 15-31%). Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz, Pinus roxburghii Sarg., Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus, Macaranga pustulata King ex Hk. F., Quercus lanuginosa Don, Engelhardtia spicata Bl. and Mallotus philippensis (Lamk.) Muell. contributed most to collections, while Pyracantha crenulata (Don) Roem., Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels, Alnus nepalensis Don and Bauhinia vahlii Wt. and Arn. were in lesser demand. W. fruticosa, P. roxburghii, M. pustulata, Casearia elliptica Willd., E. spicata, M. philippensis, Q. leucotrichophora and Phoebe lanceolata (Nees) Nees showed high values of PU and RUI, indicating high pressure. Higher density of P. roxburghii, Rhododendron arboreum Sm., Q. lanuginosa, Q. leucotrichophora, Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude, C. elliptica and M. pustulata amongst trees and Maesa indica A.DC., P. crenulata and W. fruticosa amongst shrubs exhibited high density but the remaining species showed low density indicating the possible depletion. Intensive management of natural habitats of species highly-referred for fuel, diversification of choice of species from natives to non-natives, large scale propagation of highly

  3. Survey of wildlife, including aquatic mammals, associated with riparian habitat on the Syncrude Canada Ltd. Aurora Mine environmental impact assessment local study area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surrendi, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    A general overview of the wildlife associated with riparian habitats at Syncrude`s proposed Aurora Mine, located 70 km northeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta on the east side of the Athabasca River, was presented. The area is underlain by bitumen and is being considered for bitumen extraction and production of synthetic crude oil. Two surveys were conducted with the help of experienced trappers from the community at Fort McKay. One was an aerial survey on November 3, 1995, the other a ground survey on November 29-30, 1995. The two surveys yielded 248 observed tracks on four 500 metre transects. The study area was comprised of boreal forest with natural drainage via Stanley Creek into the Muskeg River and via Fort Creek into the Athabasca River. Beavers, fox, weasel, mink, rabbit, wolf, moose, deer, ptarmigan, sharp-tailed grouse and ruffed grouse, lynx, coyote, river otter and mice were associated with riparian habitat on the study area. There was no sign of muskrat in the study area. It was concluded that in order to develop an understanding of reclamation alternatives for mined areas in the region, future detailed examination of the site should be approached through the integration of traditional ecological knowledge and conventional scientific methodology. 26 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Survey of wildlife, including aquatic mammals, associated with riparian habitat on the Syncrude Canada Ltd. Aurora Mine environmental impact assessment local study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrendi, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    A general overview of the wildlife associated with riparian habitats at Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine, located 70 km northeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta on the east side of the Athabasca River, was presented. The area is underlain by bitumen and is being considered for bitumen extraction and production of synthetic crude oil. Two surveys were conducted with the help of experienced trappers from the community at Fort McKay. One was an aerial survey on November 3, 1995, the other a ground survey on November 29-30, 1995. The two surveys yielded 248 observed tracks on four 500 metre transects. The study area was comprised of boreal forest with natural drainage via Stanley Creek into the Muskeg River and via Fort Creek into the Athabasca River. Beavers, fox, weasel, mink, rabbit, wolf, moose, deer, ptarmigan, sharp-tailed grouse and ruffed grouse, lynx, coyote, river otter and mice were associated with riparian habitat on the study area. There was no sign of muskrat in the study area. It was concluded that in order to develop an understanding of reclamation alternatives for mined areas in the region, future detailed examination of the site should be approached through the integration of traditional ecological knowledge and conventional scientific methodology. 26 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Seasonal movements of wildlife and livestock in a heterogenous pastoral landscape: Implications for coexistence and community based conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tyrrell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rangelands across the world are home to millions of pastoral people and vast wildlife populations, which create a complex landscape for conservation. Community based conservation has been used to promote human-wildlife coexistence on pastoral lands, protecting wildlife outside of official protected areas. With the spread of community based conservation within the rangelands there is a need for more information on successful management practices. This study provides an example of this in the South Rift, Kenya, where seasonal movements of pastoralists aid coexistence. We used Density Surface Modelling (DSM, a novel tool for conservation managers in the rangelands, to predict wildlife and livestock abundance across the landscape and seasons. Wildlife grazers, zebra (Equus burchelli and wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus, follow expected metabolic patterns, feeding on short grass outside the conservation area in the wet season, before returning to the taller-lower quality grazing in the conservation areas during the drought. Browsing wildlife, impala (Aepyceros melampus and Grant’s gazelle (Nanger granti, move from open grassland and bushland areas into thicker, denser browse as the seasons progress towards the drought. Livestock, both shoats (Ovis aries, and Capra aegagrus hircus and cattle (Bos indicus, are managed by community grazing committees, who enforce a grazing plan that creates spatial–temporal separation between wildlife and livestock. They exploit the high-quality grazing in the livestock area during the wet season while conserving pasture in the conservation area, which is utilized only as forage is depleted. This ensures that wildlife has access to a diverse resource base across all seasons and potentially reduces competition, allowing for a diverse and abundant wildlife community to coexist with livestock. This highlights the importance of the presence and maintenance of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of forage resources

  6. Oregon wildlife planning coordination project: Annual report, October 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    The intent of the Oregon Wildlife Planning Coordination project is to fund Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) staff to facilitate wildlife mitigation coordination and planning between Oregon wildlife managers. The primary goal of ODFW wildlife mitigation planning/coordination staff is to foster, facilitate, and manage a statewide cooperative wildlife mitigation planning and implementation effort between the Oregon wildlife managers (the Oregon Wildlife Coalition or OWC) to mitigate for wildlife losses in Oregon caused by the development and operation of the hydropower system

  7. 77 FR 43115 - Notice of Temporary Closure of Betty's Kitchen Wildlife and Interpretive Area, Yuma County, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... officer. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT: John MacDonald, Yuma Field Manager, at 2555 East Gila Ridge... fines provided for in 18 U.S.C. 3571. Authority: 43 CFR 8364.1. John MacDonald, Field Manager. [FR Doc...

  8. A fuzzy multi-objective linear programming approach for integrated sheep farming and wildlife in land management decisions: a case study in the Patagonian rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metternicht, Graciela; Blanco, Paula; del Valle, Hector; Laterra, Pedro; Hardtke, Leonardo; Bouza, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    Wildlife is part of the Patagonian rangelands sheep farming environment, with the potential of providing extra revenue to livestock owners. As sheep farming became less profitable, farmers and ranchers could focus on sustainable wildlife harvesting. It has been argued that sustainable wildlife harvesting is ecologically one of the most rational forms of land use because of its potential to provide multiple products of high value, while reducing pressure on ecosystems. The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is the most conspicuous wild ungulate of Patagonia. Guanaco ?bre, meat, pelts and hides are economically valuable and have the potential to be used within the present Patagonian context of production systems. Guanaco populations in South America, including Patagonia, have experienced a sustained decline. Causes for this decline are related to habitat alteration, competition for forage with sheep, and lack of reasonable management plans to develop livelihoods for ranchers. In this study we propose an approach to explicitly determinate optimal stocking rates based on trade-offs between guanaco density and livestock grazing intensity on rangelands. The focus of our research is on finding optimal sheep stocking rates at paddock level, to ensure the highest production outputs while: a) meeting requirements of sustainable conservation of guanacos over their minimum viable population; b) maximizing soil carbon sequestration, and c) minimizing soil erosion. In this way, determination of optimal stocking rate in rangelands becomes a multi-objective optimization problem that can be addressed using a Fuzzy Multi-Objective Linear Programming (MOLP) approach. Basically, this approach converts multi-objective problems into single-objective optimizations, by introducing a set of objective weights. Objectives are represented using fuzzy set theory and fuzzy memberships, enabling each objective function to adopt a value between 0 and 1. Each objective function indicates the satisfaction of

  9. Ethnozoological study of animals based medicine used by traditional healers and indigenous inhabitants in the adjoining areas of Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Manash Pratim; Prasad, Surya Bali

    2017-06-30

    India has an immense faunal, floral, as well as cultural diversity with many ethnic communities who are primarily dependent on the traditional medicinal system for their primary health care. Documentation and evaluation of this indigenous remedial knowledge may be helpful to establish new drugs for human health. The present study is intended to look into different zootherapeutic medicinal uses in the traditional health care system among the native inhabitants adjacent to the Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India. Field survey was carried out from March 2015 to August 2015 by personal interviews through semi-structured questionnaires. In some cases where participants were uncomfortable with the questionnaires, informal interviews and open group discussions were conducted with a total of 62 indigenous respondents (43 male and 19 female) who provided the information regarding various medicinal uses of animals and their products (local name of animal, mode of preparation, application etc). The study recorded a total of 44 different species, 44 genera and 36 families of animals which are used for the treatment of 40 different ailments. Insects occupied the highest uses (30.9%), followed by mammals (23.8%), fishes (16.7%), reptiles (11.9%), amphibians (7.1%), annelids (4.8%) and gastropods (4.8%). Further, some zootherapeutic animals i.e. cockroach (Periplaneta americana), praying mantis (Mantis religiosa) and earthworms (Metaphire houletti, Pheretima posthum) are used for the treatment of asthma, otorrhoea and cancer respectively. The findings suggest that the traditional zootherapeutic remedial measures followed by the native people adjacent to Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary plays an important role in their primary health care. The documentation of this indigenous knowledge on animal based medicines should be very helpful in the formulation of strategies for sustainable management and conservation of bio-resources as well as providing potential for the novel drugs

  10. Forest bird monitoring protocol for strategic habitat conservation and endangered species management on O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Island of O'ahu, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Banko, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot forest bird survey and a consequent forest bird monitoring protocol that was developed for the O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. The pilot survey was conducted to inform aspects of the monitoring protocol and to provide a baseline with which to compare future surveys on the Refuge. The protocol was developed in an adaptive management framework to track bird distribution and abundance and to meet the strategic habitat conservation requirements of the Refuge. Funding for this research was provided through a Science Support Partnership grant sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).

  11. Modern Wildlife Monitoring Technologies: Conservationists versus Communities? A Case Study: The Terai-Arc Landscape, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashaswi Shrestha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of new and advanced wildlife monitoring technologies is shifting the paradigm of wildlife conservation and management. These digital technologies are helping wildlife conservationists and researchers around the world to monitor and manage wildlife with more precision and efficiency. However, this research study highlights some of the key drawbacks of using such modern technologies for wildlife conservation and management especially in developing countries, where the digital divide often clearly separates well-endowed conservation organisations and rural communities. It provides an insight into how the extensive use of such digital wildlife monitoring technologies can often marginalise the role of local and indigenous communities in wildlife management. Our case study, which was conducted in the Terai Arc Landscape (TAL in southern Nepal, includes interviews with several wildlife experts, biologists, and members of local and indigenous communities. Findings indicate that the increasing militarisation and centralisation of protected area management, and the lack of universal access to the information gathered using modern monitoring technologies, have notably led to the marginalisation of local and indigenous communities in the region. These developments not only undermine the benefits of using such technologies but have also caused a rift between conservation organisations and local communities. As a result, this research study recommends that conservation organisations who advocate for the use of such technologies need to hold consultations and dialogues between conservationists and local and indigenous community members in order to be more inclusive and allow for a cross cultural and an interdisciplinary understanding of the best practices for the conservation and management of wildlife.

  12. Madagascar's nascent locally managed marine area network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communication, raise the profile and expand the use of the ... community - led approaches to conservation in Madagascar and ... Fishing communities have been managing marine resources in ... munities are finding that once abundant resources are dwin- .... per closure and lead to an enhancement in catch per unit effort.

  13. Management effectiveness evaluation in protected areas of southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, Fausto; Rosado, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Protected areas are home to biodiversity, habitats and ecosystem as well as a critical component of human well-being and a generator of leisure-related revenues. However, management is sometimes unsatisfactory and requires new ways of evaluation. Management effectiveness of 36 protected areas in southern Ecuador have been assessed. The protected areas belong to three categories: Heritage of Natural Areas of the Ecuadorian State (PANE), created and funded by the State, Areas of Forest and Protective Vegetation (ABVP), created but no funded by the State, and private reserves, declared and funded by private entities. Management effectiveness was evaluated by answers of managers of the protected areas to questionnaires adapted to the socio-economic and environmental characteristics of the region. Questions were classified into six elements of evaluation: context, planning, inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes as recommended by IUCN. Results were classified into four levels: unsatisfactory, slightly satisfactory, satisfactory and very satisfactory. The PANE areas and private reserves showed higher management effectiveness levels (satisfactory and very satisfactory) than ABVP areas, where slightly satisfactory and unsatisfactory levels prevailed. Resources availability was found as the main reason behind this difference. The extension, age and province of location were found irrelevant. Outputs, inputs and processes require main efforts to improve management effectiveness. Improving planning and input in the PANE areas and inputs and outcomes on ABVP areas is necessary to obtain a similar result in all areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of echinococcosis and Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered small ruminants at the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Ngorongoro, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Miran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Echinococcosis or hydatidosis (due to the larval stage of Echinococcus spp. and cysticercosis (due to the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena pose a significant economic losses due to slaughter condemnation and risk to public health in developing countries such as Tanzania where sanitation is poor and people live in close proximity with each other and with animals. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of and to identify the predisposing factors for echinococcosis and cysticercosis in sheep and goats at three slaughter slabs located in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional based survey was conducted, from January 2013 to April 2013, whereby a total of 180 animals comprising 90 goats and 90 sheep of both sexes were examined at postmortem for the evidence of larval stages of Echinococcus spp. (hydatid cyst and T. hydatigena (Cysticercus tenuicollis through visual inspection, incision and palpation of organs and viscera. Results: The prevalence of echinococcosis was 22.2% and 16.6%, in goats and sheep, respectively, while the overall infection rates for cysticercosis were 61.1% in goats and 42.2% in sheep. The result of this study revealed that goats and sheep in Malambo slaughter slab had significantly higher prevalence of T. hydatigena (C. tenuicollis and hydatid cysts (p<0.05 compared to other slab points. T. hydatigena (C. tenuicollis cysts were more frequently detected in the omentum than other visceral organs among the animals examined. Conclusion: In conclusion, the observed high prevalence of the two metacestodes larval stages leads to high condemnation rates of edible offals and raises significant public health concerns. This underscores for the need to undertake more extensive epidemiological investigations to better determine the causal factors, economic impact, and public health importance of the disease in this livestock-wildlife interface setting.

  15. Prevalence of echinococcosis and Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered small ruminants at the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Ngorongoro, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miran, M B; Kasuku, A A; Swai, E S

    2017-04-01

    Echinococcosis or hydatidosis (due to the larval stage of Echinococcus spp.) and cysticercosis (due to the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena ) pose a significant economic losses due to slaughter condemnation and risk to public health in developing countries such as Tanzania where sanitation is poor and people live in close proximity with each other and with animals. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of and to identify the predisposing factors for echinococcosis and cysticercosis in sheep and goats at three slaughter slabs located in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Ngorongoro, Tanzania. A cross-sectional based survey was conducted, from January 2013 to April 2013, whereby a total of 180 animals comprising 90 goats and 90 sheep of both sexes were examined at postmortem for the evidence of larval stages of Echinococcus spp. (hydatid cyst) and T. hydatigena ( Cysticercus tenuicollis ) through visual inspection, incision and palpation of organs and viscera. The prevalence of echinococcosis was 22.2% and 16.6%, in goats and sheep, respectively, while the overall infection rates for cysticercosis were 61.1% in goats and 42.2% in sheep. The result of this study revealed that goats and sheep in Malambo slaughter slab had significantly higher prevalence of T. hydatigena ( C. tenuicollis ) and hydatid cysts (p<0.05) compared to other slab points. T. hydatigena ( C. tenuicollis ) cysts were more frequently detected in the omentum than other visceral organs among the animals examined. In conclusion, the observed high prevalence of the two metacestodes larval stages leads to high condemnation rates of edible offals and raises significant public health concerns. This underscores for the need to undertake more extensive epidemiological investigations to better determine the causal factors, economic impact, and public health importance of the disease in this livestock-wildlife interface setting.

  16. Air quality management in Riga area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitass, A. [Riga City Council (Latvia). Air Monitoring Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The present Air Quality Management System was started in 1992 as a result of co-operation between two cities - Riga and Norrkoping (Sweden) supported by BITS (The Swedish Agency for International Technical and Economic Co-operation). Lots of Swedish companies were involved in different parts of this project. The strategy is designed by INDIC company developing the AIRVIRO which is a computer based system for all aspects of air quality management. Air pollution in Riga is a serious problem affecting health and damaging valuable buildings of historic value. The majority of the city`s air pollution is the result of emission sources inside the city. The traffic is the predominant source of pollution now. The fossil fuel power stations in the country are not considered to affect the air quality situation in Riga. (author)

  17. Air quality management in Riga area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitass, A [Riga City Council (Latvia). Air Monitoring Dept.

    1996-12-31

    The present Air Quality Management System was started in 1992 as a result of co-operation between two cities - Riga and Norrkoping (Sweden) supported by BITS (The Swedish Agency for International Technical and Economic Co-operation). Lots of Swedish companies were involved in different parts of this project. The strategy is designed by INDIC company developing the AIRVIRO which is a computer based system for all aspects of air quality management. Air pollution in Riga is a serious problem affecting health and damaging valuable buildings of historic value. The majority of the city`s air pollution is the result of emission sources inside the city. The traffic is the predominant source of pollution now. The fossil fuel power stations in the country are not considered to affect the air quality situation in Riga. (author)

  18. The Zambian wildlife ranching industry: scale, associated benefits, and limitations affecting its development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Lindsey

    Full Text Available The number and area of wildlife ranches in Zambia increased from 30 and 1,420 km(2 in 1997 to 177 and ∼6,000 km(2 by 2012. Wild ungulate populations on wildlife ranches increased from 21,000 individuals in 1997 to ∼91,000 in 2012, while those in state protected areas declined steeply. Wildlife ranching and crocodile farming have a turnover of ∼USD15.7 million per annum, compared to USD16 million from the public game management areas which encompass an area 29 times larger. The wildlife ranching industry employs 1,200 people (excluding jobs created in support industries, with a further ∼1,000 individuals employed through crocodile farming. Wildlife ranches generate significant quantities of meat (295,000 kg/annum, of which 30,000 kg of meat accrues to local communities and 36,000 kg to staff. Projected economic returns from wildlife ranching ventures are high, with an estimated 20-year economic rate of return of 28%, indicating a strong case for government support for the sector. There is enormous scope for wildlife ranching in Zambia due to the availability of land, high diversity of wildlife and low potential for commercial livestock production. However, the Zambian wildlife ranching industry is small and following completion of field work for this study, there was evidence of a significant proportion of ranchers dropping out. The industry is performing poorly, due to inter alia: rampant commercial bushmeat poaching; failure of government to allocate outright ownership of wildlife to landowners; bureaucratic hurdles; perceived historical lack of support from the Zambia Wildlife Authority and government; a lack of a clear policy on wildlife ranching; and a ban on hunting on unfenced lands including game ranches. For the wildlife ranching industry to develop, these limitations need to be addressed decisively. These findings are likely to apply to other savanna countries with large areas of marginal land potentially suited to wildlife

  19. Best management practices for riparian areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Phillips; Lloyd W. Swift; Charles R. Blinn

    2000-01-01

    Forest streams, lakes, and other water bodies create unique conditions along their margins that control and influence transfers of energy, nutrients, and sediments between aquatic and terrestrial systems. These riparian areas are among the most critical features of the landscape because they contain a rich diversity of plants and animals and help to maintain water...

  20. Modernizing Training Options for Natural Areas Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Sarah E.; Ober, Holly K.; Stein, Taylor V.; Andreu, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    A recent shift in desires among working professionals from traditional learning environments to distance education has emerged due to reductions in travel and training budgets. To accommodate this, the Natural Areas Training Academy replaced traditionally formatted workshops with a hybrid approach. Surveys of participants before and after this…

  1. An adaptive approach to invasive plant management on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service-owned native prairies in the Prairie Pothole Region: decision support under uncertainity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Jill J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Flanders-Wanner, Bridgette

    2011-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. We describe the technical components of a USGS management project, and explain how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. In partnership with the Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. The framework is built around practical constraints faced by refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen Service field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, are participating in the project. They share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. While the scope is broad, the project interfaces with individual land managers who provide refuge-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators.

  2. Design of a wildlife avoidance planning system for autonomous harvesting operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis D.; Grøn Sørensen, Claus; Green, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting and mowing operations are among the main potential stressors affecting wildlife within agricultural landscapes, leading to large animal losses. A number of studies have been conducted on harvesting practices to address the problem of wildlife mortality, providing a number of management...... actions or field area coverage strategies. Nevertheless, these are general rules limited to simple-shaped fields, and which are not applicable to more complex operational situations. The objectives of the present study were to design a system capable of deriving a wildlife avoidance driving pattern...

  3. Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects : Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State). Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities.

  4. Washington wildlife mitigation projects. Final programmatic environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities

  5. Livestock grazing, wildlife habitat, and rangeland values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Krausman; David E. Naugle; Michael R. Frisina; Rick Northrup; Vernon C. Bleich; William M. Block; Mark C. Wallace; Jeffrey D. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Livestock managers make and implement grazing management decisions to achieve a variety of objectives including livestock production, sustainable grazing, and wildlife habitat enhancement. Assessed values of grazing lands and ranches are often based on aesthetics and wildlife habitat or recreational values, which can exceed agricultural values, thus providing...

  6. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    Full Text Available After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specified the theoretical bases of salinity, the related technical features are then considered in order to define a proper management of soil and waters. Particular relevance is assigned to the irrigation and leaching techniques as well as, more briefly, to other agronomic interventions in order to guarantee the most effective salinity control. Another relevant technical facet of salinity control, although quite often neglected or retained of secondary importance in comparison to irrigation, is the drainage and disposal of leached water. The increased sensibility on the environmental impacts that the disposal of these waters can produce has raised today the level of attention on these procedures that are disciplined by norms of law and, therefore, require appropriate techniques of intervention. Finally, after the different scale orders involved in the management of salinity are defined (from the field and farm level up to the land and basin, the fundamental elements in order to work out a risk analysis and an action program are illustrated; some indications about the most up to date salinity monitoring and mapping methods are also provided, considering their great importance to continuously check the possible broadening of salinization and to carefully maintain its control.

  7. 50 CFR 32.2 - What are the requirements for hunting on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... migratory game bird, upland game, and big game hunting appear in §§ 32.20 through 32.72. (g) The use of any... HUNTING AND FISHING General Provisions § 32.2 What are the requirements for hunting on areas of the...

  8. Towards informed and multi-faceted wildlife trade interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W.S. Challender

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available International trade in wildlife is a key threat to biodiversity conservation. CITES, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, seeks to ensure international wildlife trade is sustainable, relying on trade bans and controls. However, there has been little comprehensive review of its effectiveness and here we review approaches taken to regulate wildlife trade in CITES. Although assessing its effectiveness is problematic, we assert that CITES boasts few measurable conservation successes. We attribute this to: non-compliance, an over reliance on regulation, lack of knowledge and monitoring of listed species, ignorance of market forces, and influence among CITES actors. To more effectively manage trade we argue that interventions should go beyond regulation and should be multi-faceted, reflecting the complexity of wildlife trade. To inform these interventions we assert an intensive research effort is needed around six key areas: (1 factors undermining wildlife trade governance at the national level, (2 determining sustainable harvest rates for, and adaptive management of CITES species, (3 gaining the buy-in of local communities in implementing CITES, (4 supply and demand based market interventions, (5 means of quantifying illicit trade, and (6 political processes and influence within CITES.

  9. Yaupon (Ilex vomitoria): Section 7.5.10, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Chester

    1997-01-01

    ...), yauipon is the most valuable to wildlife (Halls and Ripley 1961). Its thicket-forming characteristics make it excellent cover for many birds, and its fruits and foliage provide a year-round food source for white-tailed deer (Halls 1977...

  10. U.S. Forest Service and partners deliver urban wildlife research in support of conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susannah B. Lerman; Nancy F. Sonti

    2015-01-01

    Urban wildlife contributes to the vibrancy of our cities, adds value to the places we live and allows urban residents to connect with nature without driving hours to a protected reserve. Land and water conservation projects have the potential to serve as a refuge for species impacted by urbanization, and in so doing, strengthening the connection between the growing...

  11. Proceedings IV: Issues and technology in the management of impacted wildlife; February 6-8, 1989; Glenwood Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Davis; John C. Emerick; Deborah M. Finch; Susan Q. Foster; John W. Monarch; Sandra Rush; Oakleigh Thorne; Jeffrey Todd

    1989-01-01

    The Fourth Biennial Wildlife Symposium was held at the historic Hotel Colorado in Glenwood Springs, Colorado, from February 6-8, 1989. In spite of some very cold wcather, the attendees came from many parts of the United States and Canada. As in previous years, they represented government, industry, academic and professional organizations, including nonprofits. Thorne...

  12. Managing young upland forests in southeast Alaska for wood products, wildlife, aquatic resources, and fishes: problem analysis and study plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark S. Wipfli; Robert L. Deal; Paul E. Hennon; Adelaide C. Johnson; Toni L. de Santo; Thomas A. Hanley; Mark E. Schultz; Mason D. Bryant; Richard T. Edwards; Ewa H. Orlikowska; Takashi Gomi

    2002-01-01

    Red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) appears to influence the productivity of young-growth conifer forests and affect the major resources (timber, wildlife, and fisheries) of forested ecosystems in southeast Alaska. We propose an integrated approach to understanding how alder influences trophic links and processes in young-growth ecosystems. The presence...

  13. Management of Traffic Congestion in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilibald Premzl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of road vehicles is increasing, the benefits they affordhave been progressively diminished by external costs.Whereas traffic increases as we approach the centre, the roadand open space decreases. The greater specialisation allows thecity growth in size and in traffic attraction. In this way urbangrowth feeds itself !mer-urban transp011 facilities also becomemore extensive. Growth in size of the city generates greateramounts of traffic and can eventually give rise to agglomerationdiseconomies. Higher transport costs, offices and shops, attractedby the accessibility of central locations, gradually replaceresidential uses, people being forced to seek housing inthe suburbs. As the urban area expands and offices in the citycentre are built denser and highe1; traffic congestion increases.This may result in the fall in centra/land values, since accessibilitydiminishes with the saturation of transport network. Increasedpollution takes various forms as noise, smoke andovercrowded housing in the centre, urban decay in the transitionalzone as commercial development is anticipated.

  14. Wildlife response on the Alaska North Slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costanzo, D.; McKenzie, B.

    1992-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive plan to deal with potentially oiled wildlife on the Alaskan North Slope, a multifaceted wildlife protection strategy was developed and implemented during 1991. The strategy incorporated all aspects of wildlife response including protection of critical habitat, hazing, capture and stabilization, long term rehabilitation, and release. The primary wildlife response strategy emphasizes controlling of the release and spreading of spilled oil at the source to prevent or reduce contamination of potentially affected species and/or their habitat. A secondary response strategy concentrates on keeping potentially affected wildlife away from an oiled area through the use of deterrent techniques. Tertiary response involves the capture and treatment of oiled wildlife. Implementation of the strategy included the development of specialized training, the procurement of equipment, and the construction of a bird stabilization center. The result of this initiative is a comprehensive wildlife response capability on the Alaskan North Slope. 1 ref., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Cross-sectional survey of brucellosis and associated risk factors in the livestock-wildlife interface area of Nechisar National Park, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaka, Hassen; Aboset, Gezahegn; Garoma, Abebe; Gumi, Balako; Thys, Eric

    2018-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the seroprevalence of ovine and bovine brucellosis in the livestock-wildlife interface area of Nechisar National Park, Ethiopia. Furthermore, producer's knowledge about brucellosis and its zoonotic potential was assessed using a structured questionnaire. A total of 268 cattle and 246 goat sera were collected from 50 herds and 46 flocks and subjected to Rose Bengal test (RBT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in parallel to detect anti-Brucella species antibodies. Positive reactions were further confirmed with compliment fixation test (CFT). Flock and herd level seroprevalence rate was 12.8% (95% CI 4.8-25.7) and 32.0% (95% CI 19.5-46.7) in goats and cattle, respectively. An overall animal-level seroprevalence of 4.5% (95% CI 2.25-7.86) and 9.7% (95% CI 6.44-13.89) was recorded for goats and cattle, respectively. Seroprevalence showed an increasing trend with age, where adult cattle > 2 years. Goats (> 1 year) recorded relatively higher seroprevalence, but the differences were not statistically significant. Similarly, female cattle and goats recorded a relatively higher seroprevalence, 11 and 5.6%, respectively, compared to males but the difference was not significant. However, a significant (P < 0.01) variation of seroprevalence was noted for parity (bovine), higher in animals in second parity, and abortion history, in both species, higher in animals that experienced abortion. Interviews revealed lack of awareness about brucellosis and food safety related to the zoonotic potential from consuming raw animal products (milk and meat). Ninety-eight percent of respondents did not consider handling abortion material is risky, and only a very low proportion (8%, n = 50) was able to mention limited zoonotic diseases (anthrax and Taenia cysticercosis) could be transmissible to people. The study indicated that brucellosis is endemic in domestic animals in the interface area and calls for further

  16. 50 CFR 29.1 - May we allow economic uses on national wildlife refuges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May we allow economic uses on national wildlife refuges? 29.1 Section 29.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT General Rules...

  17. Traffic Management System on Airport Manoeuvring Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Borković

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years the number of flights at the busiestairports in the world has doubled, which, in the meantime hasled to a situation in which runways and taxi ways (manoeuvringareas cannot follow such substantial increase. As the result,many airports could not use their capacities in the full range interms of handling passengers and cargo. As a consequence,there were delays and traffic congestion, fuel was unnecessarilywasted, all of which caused negative impact on the environment.Traffic capacity increase on the ground cannot be consideredwithout the development and implementation of thesystem infrastructure that would optimize traffic flows and itsdistribution on the airport itself In these terms, and for positivesolution of these problems, a new system for surveillance andcontrol of aircraft on the airport manoeuvring areas is necessary,one which could be implemented fairly quickly, would becomplementary with the existing international standards andwould be upgraded to the existing and available technology andinfrastructure. With the implementation of the Advanced SurfaceMonitoring and Control System (A-SMGCS the aircrafttaxiing time could be significantly shortened and could be determinedmore accurately, which would have positive impacton the flight schedule. The unnecessary aircraft braking actionscould be also avoided, and this would reduce the fuel consumption,as well as noise and environmental pollution.

  18. Changing patterns of wildlife diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was not to analyze the effects of global warming on wildlife disease patterns, but to serve as a springboard for future efforts to identify those wildlife diseases, including zoonotic diseases, that could be influenced the most by warming climates and to encourage the development of models to examine the potential effects. Hales et al. (1999) examined the relationship of the incidence of a vector-borne human disease, Dengue fever, and El Nino southern oscillations for South Pacific Island nations. The development of similar models on specific wildlife diseases which have environmental factors strongly associated with transmission would provide information and options for the future management of our wildlife resources.

  19. Hydrology, ecology, and management of riparian areas in the Madrean Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Peter F. Ffolliott; Leonard F. DeBano

    2005-01-01

    Riparian areas in the Madrean Archipelago have historically provided water necessary for people, livestock, and agricultural crops. European settlers were attracted to these areas in the 1880s, where they enjoyed shade and forage for themselves and their livestock and existed on the readily available wildlife and fish. Trees growing along stream banks were harvested...

  20. Managing extreme natural disasters in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, P. C.; Swaminathan, M. S.

    2006-08-01

    Extreme natural hazards, particularly the hydro-meteorological disasters, are emerging as a cause of major concern in the coastal regions of India and a few other developing countries. These have become more frequent in the recent past, and are taking a heavy toll of life and livelihoods. Low level of technology development in the rural areas together with social, economic and gender inequities enhance the vulnerability of the largely illiterate, unskilled, and resource-poor fishing, farming and landless labour communities. Their resilience to bounce back to pre-disaster level of normality is highly limited. For the planet Earth at crossroads, the imminent threat, however, is from a vicious spiral among environmental degradation, poverty and climate change-related natural disasters interacting in a mutually reinforcing manner. These, in turn, retard sustainable development, and also wipe out any small gains made thereof. To counter this unacceptable trend, the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation has developed a biovillage paradigm and rural knowledge centres for ecotechnological and knowledge empowerment of the coastal communities at risk. Frontier science and technologies blended with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence result in ecotechnologies with pro-nature, pro-poor and pro-women orientation. The rural communities are given training and helped to develop capacity to adopt ecotechnologies for market-driven eco-enterprises. The modern information and communication-based rural knowledge centres largely operated by trained semi-literate young women provide time- and locale-specific information on weather, crop and animal husbandry, market trends and prices for local communities, healthcare, transport, education, etc. to the local communities. The ecotechnologies and time- and locale-specific information content development are need-based and chosen in a ‘bottom-up’ manner. The use of recombinant DNA technology for genetic shielding of agricultural

  1. Monitoring neotropical migrants on managed lands: when, where, why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam Droege

    1993-01-01

    Relevant wildlife monitoring on managed lands lies somewhere between monitoring everything and monitoring nothing. Knowing the population status of all birds on a managed area would be potentially useful information but would be costly to collect, but without monitoring no link between management and wildlife populations can be made. A decision making process for...

  2. Blue Creek Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities are analyzed: Habitat protection; Habitat enhancement; Operation and maintenance; and Monitoring and evaluation. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir

  3. WILDLIFE HEALTH 2.0: BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE-TO-ACTION GAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Craig

    2017-01-01

    The unprecedented threats to the health and sustainability of wildlife populations are inspiring conversations on the need to change the way knowledge is generated, valued, and used to promote action to protect wildlife health. Wildlife Health 2.0 symbolizes the need to investigate how to improve connections between research expertise and policy or practices to protect wildlife health. Two imperatives drive this evolution: 1) growing frustrations that research is inadequately being used to inform management decisions and 2) the realization that scientific certainty is context specific for complex socioecologic issues, such as wildlife health. Failure to appreciate the unpredictability of complex systems or to incorporate ethical and cultural dimensions of decisions has limited the contribution of research to decision making. Wildlife health can draw from scholarship in other fields, such as public health and conservation, to bridge the knowledge-to-action gap. Efforts to integrate science into decisions are more likely to be effective when they enhance relevance, credibility, and legitimacy of information for people who will make or be affected by management decisions. A Wildlife Health 2.0 agenda is not a rejection of the current research paradigm but rather a call to expand our areas of inquiry to ensure that the additional contextual understanding is generated to help decision makers make good choices.

  4. Potential effects of forestry operations and associated best management practices on riparian wildlife species in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke M. Warrington; W. Michael Aust; Scott M. Barrett; W. Mark Ford; M. Chad Bolding; Andy Dolloff

    2016-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service is considering the addition of 374 riparian and aquatic species in the southeastern United States to the federal Threated and Endangered Species List. This recommendation is a result of a 2011 petition, which recognized forest operations as having negative effects on 51 percent of the listed species, citing research conducted in the...

  5. National Wildlife Refuges of Louisiana, UTM Zone 15 NAD83, USFWS (2001) [National_Wildlife_Refuges_LA_USFWS_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — National Wildlife Refuges are federal lands managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The primary source for boundary information is the USFWS Realty...

  6. Prevalence and spectrum of helminths in free-ranging African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer in wildlife protected areas, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Senyael Swai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and spectrum of helminths in free-ranging African buffaloes in Tanzania by a cross-sectional study. Methods: Faecal samples (n=1 23 from Arusha National Park and Ngorongoro Crater were examined for helminth eggs using sedimentation and floatation techniques during the period of March to June 2012. Results: Coprological examination revealed that 34.1% (n=42 of the buffaloes excreted nematodes and trematodes eggs and protozoan oocyst in their faces. The pattern of infection was either single or mixed. Single (52.4% and concurrent infections with two, three, four and five parasites were recorded in 19.0%, 11.9%, 14.3% and 2.3% respectively of the cases. The nematode eggs encountered were those of Trichostrongylus sp. (20.3%, Oesophagostomum sp. (7.3%, Strongyle sp. (4.1%, Bunostomum sp. (4.1%, Ostertegia sp. (3.3% and Toxocara sp. (2.4%. The trematode eggs encountered were those of Fasciola sp. (9.8%, Paramphistomum sp. (4.9%, Gastrothylax sp. (1.6%, Ornithobilharzia sp. (0.81% and Fischoederius sp (0.81%. The protozoan oocyst recorded was that of Eimeria sp. (8.1%. Geographical location of buffaloes had significant influence on the prevalence of infection with Trichostrongylus (P=0.046 and Fasciola (P=0.001, and the mean prevalances in Arusha National Park are significantly higher than those in Ngorongoro Crater. Age had significant influence on infection with Fasciola (P=0.036, and juvenile recorded higher levels of infection than sub-adults. Health status, body condition score and sex-wise prevalence of helminths were not significant (P>0.05. Conclusions: This study indicates that helminths species are numerous and highly prevalent in the two protected areas and may be one of the contributing factors to lower buffalo productivity.

  7. Innovation in Management Plans for Community Conserved Areas: Experiences from Australian Indigenous Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Davies

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention to formal recognition of indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs as part of national and/or global protected area systems is generating novel encounters between the customary institutions through which indigenous peoples and local communities manage these traditional estates and the bureaucratic institutions of protected area management planning. Although management plans are widely considered to be important to effective management of protected areas, little guidance has been available about how their form and content can effectively reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs. This gap has been particularly apparent in Australia where a trend to rapidly increased formal engagement of indigenous people in environmental management resulted, by 2012, in 50 indigenous groups voluntarily declaring their intent to manage all or part of their estates for conservation in perpetuity, as an indigenous protected area (IPA. Development and adoption of a management plan is central to the process through which the Australian Government recognizes these voluntary declarations and invests resources in IPA management. We identified four types of innovations, apparent in some recent IPA plans, which reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs and support indigenous people as the primary decision makers and drivers of knowledge integration in IPAs. These are (1 a focus on customary institutions in governance; (2 strategic planning approaches that respond to interlinkages of stewardship between people, place, plants, and animals; (3 planning frameworks that bridge scales by considering values and issues across the whole of an indigenous people's territory; and (4 varied communication modes appropriate to varied audiences, including an emphasis on visual and spatial modes. Further research is warranted into how governance and management of IPAs, and the plans that

  8. Income and managing problems of the protected areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    n 2000, the authors collected a great quantity of relevant data by investigating more than 50 nature reserves. Based on the analysis of development and management situation of the protected areas in China, the main problems were put forward, such as, no unified management for income and managing activities, lack of special guideline and effective supervision, lack of income and investment, investing financial difference in different provinces. All these problems caused the lack of funds for construction, as well as the damage of resources and environment. Furthermore the conserving activities have to transmit to the profits in many protected areas. Combined with these problems, the primary solution programmers also were put forward.

  9. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The transportation planning process in a TMA shall address congestion management through a process that provides for safe and...

  10. 30 CFR 784.21 - Fish and wildlife information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fish and wildlife information. 784.21 Section... PLAN § 784.21 Fish and wildlife information. (a) Resource information. Each application shall include fish and wildlife resource information for the permit area and adjacent area. (1) The scope and level...

  11. 30 CFR 780.16 - Fish and wildlife information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fish and wildlife information. 780.16 Section... PLAN § 780.16 Fish and wildlife information. (a) Resource information. Each application shall include fish and wildlife resource information for the permit area and adjacent area. (1) The scope and level...

  12. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Today`s notice announces BPA`s proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA`s obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  13. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Today's notice announces BPA's proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA's obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  14. Enhancement of Ecosystem Services through Active Management of a Eutrophic Area of the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services of wetlands are relevant when considering management decisions and assessing restoration success. However, many services (e.g., biochemistry, wildlife habitat) are difficult to quantify and value (e.g., monetize), requiring non-use valuations (e.g., indicators)...

  15. Using integrated research and interdisciplinary science: Potential benefits and challenges to managers of parks and protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Charles; Powell, Robert B.; Machlis, Gary; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; van Riper, Carena J.; von Ruschkowski, Eick; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Galipeau, Russell E.

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to build a case for utilizing interdisciplinary science to enhance the management of parks and protected areas. We suggest that interdisciplinary science is necessary for dealing with the complex issues of contemporary resource management, and that using the best available integrated scientific information be embraced and supported at all levels of agencies that manage parks and protected areas. It will take the commitment of park managers, scientists, and agency leaders to achieve the goal of implementing the results of interdisciplinary science into park management. Although such calls go back at least several decades, today interdisciplinary science is sporadically being promoted as necessary for supporting effective protected area management(e.g., Machlis et al. 1981; Kelleher and Kenchington 1991). Despite this history, rarely has "interdisciplinary science" been defined, its importance explained, or guidance provided on how to translate and then implement the associated research results into management actions (Tress et al. 2006; Margles et al. 2010). With the extremely complex issues that now confront protected areas (e.g., climate change influences, extinctions and loss of biodiversity, human and wildlife demographic changes, and unprecedented human population growth) information from more than one scientific discipline will need to be brought to bear in order to achieve sustained management solutions that resonate with stakeholders (Ostrom 2009). Although interdisciplinary science is not the solution to all problems, we argue that interdisciplinary research is an evolving and widely supported best practice. In the case of park and protected area management, interdisciplinary science is being driven by the increasing recognition of the complexity and interconnectedness of human and natural systems, and the notion that addressing many problems can be more rapidly advanced through interdisciplinary study and analysis.

  16. Wildlife reserves, populations and hunting outcome with smart wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2014-01-01

    reach ambiguous results when comparing a situation with and without stress effects. A pure stress effect implies that the population level in a wildlife reserve increase and the population level in the hunting area decrease in optimum. However, this change in optimal population levels increase migration...... from the wildlife reserve to the hunting area in the social optimum. The total effect is, therefore, ambiguous. For the private optimum open-access is assumed and exactly the same results arise as in the social optimum when comparing a situation with and without stress effects....

  17. Fish & Wildlife Annual Project Summary, 1983.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-07-01

    BPA's Division of Fish and Wildlife was created in 1982 to develop, coordinate and manage BPA's fish and wildlife program. Division activities protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife resources impacted by hydroelectric development and operation in the Columbia River Basin. At present the Division spends 95% of its budget on restoration projects. In 1983, 83 projects addressed all aspects of the anadromous fish life cycle, non-migratory fish problems and the status of wildlife living near reservoirs.

  18. Nevada Test Site 2008 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2008 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities

  19. Golfo de Fonseca ESI; Honduras and Nicaragua: MGT (Management Areas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Golfo de Fonseca. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  20. Balancing habitat delivery for breeding marsh birds and nonbreeding waterfowl: An integrated waterbird management and monitoring approach at Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loges, Brian W.; Lyons, James E.; Tavernia, Brian G.

    2017-08-23

    The Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge (CCNWR) in the Mississippi River flood plain of eastern Missouri provides high quality emergent marsh and moist-soil habitat benefitting both nesting marsh birds and migrating waterfowl. Staff of CCNWR manipulate water levels and vegetation in the 17 units of the CCNWR to provide conditions favorable to these two important guilds. Although both guilds include focal species at multiple planning levels and complement objectives to provide a diversity of wetland community types and water regimes, additional decision support is needed for choosing how much emergent marsh and moist-soil habitat should be provided through annual management actions.To develop decision guidance for balanced delivery of high-energy waterfowl habitat and breeding marsh bird habitat, two measureable management objectives were identified: nonbreeding Anas Linnaeus (dabbling duck) use-days and Rallus elegans (king rail) occupancy of managed units. Three different composite management actions were identified to achieve these objectives. Each composite management action is a unique combination of growing season water regime and soil disturbance. The three composite management actions are intense moist-soil management (moist-soil), intermediate moist-soil (intermediate), and perennial management, which idles soils disturbance (perennial). The two management objectives and three management options were used in a multi-criteria decision analysis to indicate resource allocations and inform annual decision making. Outcomes of the composite management actions were predicted in two ways and multi-criteria decision analysis was used with each set of predictions. First, outcomes were predicted using expert-elicitation techniques and a panel of subject matter experts. Second, empirical data from the Integrated Waterbird Management and Monitoring Initiative collected between 2010 and 2013 were used; where data were lacking, expert judgment was used. Also, a

  1. Hunting, Livelihoods and Declining Wildlife in the Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Madhu; Htun, Saw; Zaw, Than; Myint, Than

    2010-08-01

    The Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar and three contiguous protected areas, comprise some of the largest expanses of natural forest remaining in the region. Demand for wildlife products has resulted in unsustainable exploitation of commercially valuable species resulting in local extirpation of vulnerable species. Camera trap, track and sign, and questionnaire-based surveys were used to examine (a) wildlife species targeted by hunters, (b) the importance of wild meat for household consumption, and (c) the significance of hunting as a livelihood activity for resident villages. Certain commercially valuable species highly preferred by hunters were either completely absent from hunt records (tiger, musk deer and otter) or infrequently obtained during actual hunts (bear, pangolin). Species obtained by hunters were commonly occurring species such as muntjacs with low commercial value and not highly preferred by hunters. Fifty eight percent of respondents ( n = 84) indicated trade, 27% listed subsistence use and 14% listed human-wildlife conflict as the main reason for hunting ( n = 84). Average amount of wild meat consumed per month is not significantly higher during the hunting season compared to the planting season (paired t-test, P > 0.05). Throughout the year, the average amount of fish consumed per month was higher than livestock or wild meat (Friedman test, P < 0.0001). Hunting is driven largely by trade and wild meat, while not a critical source of food for a large number of families could potentially be an important, indirect source of access to food for hunting families. Findings and trends from this study are potentially useful in helping design effective conservation strategies to address globally prevalent problems of declining wildlife populations and dependent human communities. The study provides recommendations to reduce illegal hunting and protect vulnerable species by strengthening park management through enforcement, increasing the

  2. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area...

  3. Reservoir area of influence and implications for fisheries management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Dustin R.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the spatial area that a reservoir draws anglers from, defined as the reservoir's area of influence, and the potential overlap of that area of influence between reservoirs is important for fishery managers. Our objective was to define the area of influence for reservoirs of the Salt Valley regional fishery in southeastern Nebraska using kernel density estimation. We used angler survey data obtained from in-person interviews at 17 reservoirs during 2009–2012. The area of influence, defined by the 95% kernel density, for reservoirs within the Salt Valley regional fishery varied, indicating that anglers use reservoirs differently across the regional fishery. Areas of influence reveal angler preferences in a regional context, indicating preferred reservoirs with a greater area of influence. Further, differences in areas of influences across time and among reservoirs can be used as an assessment following management changes on an individual reservoir or within a regional fishery. Kernel density estimation provided a clear method for creating spatial maps of areas of influence and provided a two-dimensional view of angler travel, as opposed to the traditional mean travel distance assessment.

  4. Final integrated trip report: site visits to Area 50, Andersen Air Force Base, Guam National Wildlife Refuge, War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam, Rota and Saipan, CNMI, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Pratt, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    . Although the military mission comes first on these lands, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service assists in protecting native species and habitats. The recovery of limestone forest on Guam for forest bird habitat may require intensive management, including reduction of feral herbivores, propagation, out-planting, weed control, and periodic suppression of herbivorous insects. Research to support these techniques may be best accomplished in small areas where potential limiting factors can easily be experimentally manipulated. Area 50, a 24 ha enclosure, contains a relictual patch of relatively undisturbed limestone forest surrounded by tarmac allowing easy access and management opportunities to control alien mammals and snakes. These species have been periodically managed in the past, but recent typhoons have damaged snake-proofing on the enclosure fence. A new concrete barrier is planned to provide more permanent control opportunities within this enclosed area or another similar area, thereby allowing experimental research for various management regimes. Eradication and control of alien vertebrate and plant pests will provide habitat where native communities can be restored in a small, intensively managed area. The stated aim of this project is to "affect ecosystem restoration through the removal and exclusion of introduced species and the reestablishment and propagation of native species, with focus on the reintroduction of native forest bird species." This will be achieved by constructing a multispecies barrier surrounding the area, coordinated eradication of selected alien species within the area, and possible reintroduction of Mariana Crow, Guam Kingfisher, and Guam Rail. This barrier also allows experimental research questions to be addressed within the small enclosure around Area 50 that may be applied to manage and restore the larger areas of limestone forest on northern Guam and also similar forests on other islands of the Marianas.

  5. Assessment of hospital emergency management in the Beijing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantao, Xin

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, the number of public health emergencies has increased. Improving hospital emergency management is an important challenge. This is a pilot study intended to assess hospital emergency management in the Beijing area, make recommendations to government health authorities and hospital managers, and offer references for similar studies. This was an observational, cross-sectional survey. Forty-five hospitals in the Beijing area were selected randomly. A self-administered questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. It comprised of three sections: (1) Section A was the introduction; (2) Section B asked for the respondent's personal information; and (3) Section C comprised the major part of the questionnaire and was intended to gather information regarding the hospital's general emergency management situation. The survey response rate was 44%, accounting for 29% of total hospitals that the study targeted. No hospital had an established emergency management department or full-time staff for emergency management. A total of 15-45% of the hospitals had established a hospital emergency management committee, performed a vulnerability analysis, or evaluated emergency management regularly. Twenty-five percent of respondents thought that the local government health authority had established an integrated hospital incident command system. A total of 40%-55% of hospitals contracted with outside institutions for supplements, backup of key functional systems and professional support. After the occurrence of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, Chinese hospital managers took many measures to improve hospital resilience. However, most of these efforts lacked the guidance of theories, concepts, principles, and methods. An integrated, standardized, operational hospital emergency management model has not been established. Although the survey response rate was relatively low, some clues for further study were discovered, and suggestions to the

  6. Tank Focus Area Pretreatment Program. FY 1995 Program Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.I.; McGinnis, C.P.; Wilkenson, W.T.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    This program management plan (PMP) describes the FY 1995 project plans for the Pretreatment Program of the Tank Focus Area. The Tank Focus Area is one of five areas of environmental concerns originally identified by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Technology Development (EM-50). Projects in the Tank Focus Area relate to the remediation of liquid waste stored in underground storage tanks at various US Department of Energy sites. The Pretreatment Program is an organizational unit performing work within the Tank Focus Area. The function of the Pretreatment Program is to develop, test, evaluate, and demonstrate new technologies, with emphasis on separations. The 11 Pretreatment Program projects for FY 1995 are (1) Cesium Extraction Testing, (2) Comprehensive Supernate Treatment, (3) Hot Cell Studies, (4) Cesium Removal Demonstration, (5) Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration, (6) Crossflow Filtration, (7) Technical Interchange with CEA, (8) TRUEX Applications, (9) NAC/NAG Process Studies (conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory), (10) NAC/NAG Process and Waste Form Studies (conducted at Florida International University), and (11) Program Management. Section 2 of this PMP contains a separate subsection for each FY 1995 project. A brief description of the project, a schedule of major milestones, and a breakdown of costs are provided for each project. The PMP also contains sections that describe the project controls that are in place. Quality assurance, document control, the project management system, and the management organization are described in these sections

  7. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation

  8. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter

    2004-08-31

    The naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area is one of the largest reservoirs in the domestic U.S. and is the largest reservoir in area extent in the world. Production from Spraberry sands is found over a 2,500 sq. mile area and Spraberry reservoirs can be found in an eight county area in west Texas. Over 150 operators produce 65,000 barrels of oil per day (bopd) from the Spraberry Trend Area from more than 9,000 production wells. Recovery is poor, on the order of 7-10% due to the profoundly complicated nature of the reservoir, yet billions of barrels of hydrocarbons remain. We estimate over 15% of remaining reserves in domestic Class III reservoirs are in Spraberry Trend Area reservoirs. This tremendous domestic asset is a prime example of an endangered hydrocarbon resource in need of immediate technological advancements before thousands of wells are permanently abandoned. This report describes the final work of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area.'' The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. This objective has been accomplished through research in three areas: (1) detail historical review and extensive reservoir characterization, (2) production data management, and (3) field demonstration. This provides results of the final year of the three-year project for each of the three areas.

  9. Associate Directorate Environmental Management Infrastructure Plan for Area G and Area L Domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Patrice Ann; Baumer, Andrew Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Technical Area 54, at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is situated in the east-central portion of the Laboratory on the Mesita del Buey between Pajarito Canyon to the south and Canada del Buey to the north. TA-54 includes four MDAs designated as G, H, J, and L; a waste characterization, container storage, and transfer facility; active TRU waste and MLLW waste storage and low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations at Area G; active hazardous and mixed low-level (MLLW) waste storage operations at Area L; and administrative and support areas. MDA J has previously under-gone closure. Area G is a waste management and disposal area, used for the disposal and storage of radioactive wastes since 1957. Since August 2015, Area G has been in warm standby and provides minimal operations to support safety, compliance, and nitrate salt remediation. Located within Area G, MDA G covers 63-acres. MDA G contains 334 active and inactive waste management units, which include 36 pits, 294 shafts, and 4 trenches. In 1971, Area G began use for the retrievable storage of TRU waste. There are two pits, four trenches and 60 shafts that contain retrievable TRU waste. Thirty-three of the shafts contain TRU waste that may present unique problems for retrieval. In 1986, segregation of MLLW was initiated at Area G for treatment and temporary storage or for off-site disposal. Area G is the only active LLW disposal facility at the Laboratory. Current operations at Area G include storage and characterization of TRU and mixed TRU waste destined for off-site disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico and the storage of MLLW destined for off-site treatment and/or disposal. Several above-ground container storage units (CSUs) are currently used for storage of containerized MLLW and/or mixed TRU wastes. These consist of asphalt pads and associated fabric domes or other structures. As defined by the Consent Order, MDA G contains 229 of the 334 subsurface waste

  10. Associate Directorate Environmental Management Infrastructure Plan for Area G and Area L Domes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baumer, Andrew Ronald [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-26

    Technical Area 54, at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is situated in the east-central portion of the Laboratory on the Mesita del Buey between Pajarito Canyon to the south and Cañada del Buey to the north. TA-54 includes four MDAs designated as G, H, J, and L; a waste characterization, container storage, and transfer facility; active TRU waste and MLLW waste storage and low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations at Area G; active hazardous and mixed low-level (MLLW) waste storage operations at Area L; and administrative and support areas. MDA J has previously under-gone closure. Area G is a waste management and disposal area, used for the disposal and storage of radioactive wastes since 1957. Since August 2015, Area G has been in warm standby and provides minimal operations to support safety, compliance, and nitrate salt remediation. Located within Area G, MDA G covers 63-acres. MDA G contains 334 active and inactive waste management units, which include 36 pits, 294 shafts, and 4 trenches. In 1971, Area G began use for the retrievable storage of TRU waste. There are two pits, four trenches and 60 shafts that contain retrievable TRU waste. Thirty-three of the shafts contain TRU waste that may present unique problems for retrieval. In 1986, segregation of MLLW was initiated at Area G for treatment and temporary storage or for off-site disposal. Area G is the only active LLW disposal facility at the Laboratory. Current operations at Area G include storage and characterization of TRU and mixed TRU waste destined for off-site disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico and the storage of MLLW destined for off-site treatment and/or disposal. Several above-ground container storage units (CSUs) are currently used for storage of containerized MLLW and/or mixed TRU wastes. These consist of asphalt pads and associated fabric domes or other structures. As defined by the Consent Order, MDA G contains 229 of the 334 subsurface waste

  11. Tuberculosis serosurveillance and management practices of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in the Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L E; Hanyire, T G; Dawson, J; Foggin, C M; Michel, A L; Huyvaert, K P; Miller, M A; Olea-Popelka, F J

    2018-04-01

    Transfrontier conservation areas represent an international effort to encourage conservation and sustainable development. Their success faces a number of challenges, including disease management in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tuberculosis (TB) affects humans and a multitude of non-human animal species and is of particular concern in sub-Saharan Africa. The Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area encompasses five countries, including Zimbabwe, and is home to the largest contiguous population of free-ranging elephants in Africa. Elephants are known to be susceptible to TB; thus, understanding TB status, exposure and transmission risks to and from elephants in this area is of interest for both conservation and human health. To assess risk factors for TB seroprevalence, a questionnaire was used to collect data regarding elephant management at four ecotourism facilities offering elephant-back tourist rides in the Victoria Falls area of Zimbabwe. Thirty-five working African elephants were screened for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex antibodies using the ElephantTB Stat-Pak and the DPP VetTB Assay for elephants. Six of 35 elephants (17.1%) were seropositive. The risk factor most important for seropositive status was time in captivity. This is the first study to assess TB seroprevalence and risk factors in working African elephants in their home range. Our findings will provide a foundation to develop guidelines to protect the health of captive and free-ranging elephants in the southern African context, as well as elephant handlers through simple interventions. Minimizing exposure through shared feed with other wildlife, routine TB testing of elephant handlers and regular serological screening of elephants are recommended as preventive measures. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Facility Investigations (Rlq) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  13. Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the Global Database of Protected Area Management Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Lauren; Leverington, Fiona; Knights, Kathryn; Geldmann, Jonas; Eassom, April; Kapos, Valerie; Kingston, Naomi; de Lima, Marcelo; Zamora, Camilo; Cuardros, Ivon; Nolte, Christoph; Burgess, Neil D; Hockings, Marc

    2015-11-05

    Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts to enhance PA effectiveness. The global conservation community has conducted thousands of assessments of protected area management effectiveness (PAME), and interest in the use of these data to help measure the conservation impact of PA management interventions is high. Here, we summarize the status of PAME assessment, review the published evidence for a link between PAME assessment results and the conservation impacts of PAs, and discuss the limitations and future use of PAME data in measuring the impact of PA management interventions on conservation outcomes. We conclude that PAME data, while designed as a tool for local adaptive management, may also help to provide insights into the impact of PA management interventions from the local-to-global scale. However, the subjective and ordinal characteristics of the data present significant limitations for their application in rigorous scientific impact evaluations, a problem that should be recognized and mitigated where possible. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. Managing health physics departmental data via a local area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.J.; Castronovo, F.P. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe the multiuser data management system that can be accessed simultaneously by all department members, in use at the Dept of Health Physics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, U.S.A., which makes use of the Local Area Network. (UK)

  15. The development of area wide traffic management scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zuylen, H.J.; Lu, S.; Li, J.; Yusen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic management in cities with congestion is a big challenge with still unused opportunities. Intersection control is a corner stone but this should be done in an area-wide context. The dominant traffic process on urban roads is the traffic flow on the intersections. Spill back is a most

  16. Evaluation of parking management strategies for urban areas : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The state of the art of parking management in urban areas in the United States was established using an extensive review of the literature and a nationwide questionnaire survey that was distributed to 458 city officials, 173 of whom responded. Based ...

  17. B Plant source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington state is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 100 Areas (Figure 1--1). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford KLSite on the National Priorities List (NPL), included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of Feasibility Study (FS) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination, assessing risks to human health and the environment, and selection of remedial actions. This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AIMS) for the B Plant Aggregate Area located in the 200 Areas. The study provides the basis for initiating RI/FS under CERCLA or under the Resource which contain reactor fuel processing and waste management Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS). This report also integrates RCRA treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  18. Black-footed Ferret (Mustela nigripes) Management Plan for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (revised September 2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This adaptive “step-down” management plan documents the legal basis and monitoring protocols associated with reintroduction and management of federally endangered...

  19. Oral estrogen retains potency as an aversion agent in eggs: implications to studies of community ecology and wildlife management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, L K; Crowe, M; Lundquist, R

    1992-06-01

    The first of two experiments with laboratory rats demonstrated that oral estrogen (17 alpha-ethinylestradiol) can remain in the albumen of eggs at room temperature for up to 8 days with undiminished capacity to produce conditioned taste aversion. The second experiment showed that estrogen remains potent in the yolk of eggs for at least 4 days. There is now greater assurance that egg prey placed into the field will induce reliable CTA among mammalian predators. Community ecologists interested in such processes as competitive release and the responses of prey populations to reduced predation upon their eggs can selectively factor predation out of field experiments without the need for physically excluding predators. Wildlife biologists interested in reducing predation upon the eggs of endangered species now have greater assurance that estrogen-treated egg baits will suppress predation in a more cost-effective manner and with less likelihood of discrimination between treated eggs and those of endangered species.

  20. Building Capacity for Protected Area Management in Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Madhu; Johnson, Arlyne; Spence, Kelly; Sypasong, Ahnsany; Bynum, Nora; Sterling, Eleanor; Phimminith, Thavy; Praxaysombath, Bounthob

    2014-04-01

    Declining biodiversity in protected areas in Laos is attributed to unsustainable exploitation of natural resources. At a basic level, an important need is to develop capacity in academic and professional training institutions to provide relevant training to conservation professionals. The paper (a) describes the capacity building approach undertaken to achieve this goal, (b) evaluates the effectiveness of the approach in building capacity for implementing conservation and (c) reviews implementation outcomes. Strong linkages between organizations implementing field conservation, professional training institutions, and relevant Government agencies are central to enhancing effectiveness of capacity building initiatives aimed at improving the practice of conservation. Protected area management technical capacity needs will need to directly influence curriculum design to insure both relevance and effectiveness of training in improving protected area management. Sustainability of capacity building initiatives is largely dependent on the level of interest and commitment by host-country institutions within a supportive Government policy framework in addition to engagement of organizations implementing conservation.

  1. Statistical methods for analysing responses of wildlife to human disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Alan A. Ager; Michael J. Wisdom

    2006-01-01

    1. Off-road recreation is increasing rapidly in many areas of the world, and effects on wildlife can be highly detrimental. Consequently, we have developed methods for studying wildlife responses to off-road recreation with the use of new technologies that allow frequent and accurate monitoring of human-wildlife interactions. To illustrate these methods, we studied the...

  2. Wildlife disease elimination and density dependence

    KAUST Repository

    Potapov, A.; Merrill, E.; Lewis, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Disease control by managers is a crucial response to emerging wildlife epidemics, yet the means of control may be limited by the method of disease transmission. In particular, it is widely held that population reduction, while effective

  3. Sustainable Land Management in Mining Areas in Serbia and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Popović

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the impacts of mining activities on sustainable land management in mining areas in the Republic of Serbia and Romania and discusses the main challenges related to the management of these issues in legislation and practice. Particular attention is paid to land disturbance, mine waste management and land reclamation, as well as access to land for mining purposes, the transfer of mining royalties and the partnerships of the mining industry, governments, communities and civil society for sustainable mining. Both governments are willing to provide the adequate role to mining in strengthening the national economies, but they face numerous constraints in this matter. Sustainable mining practices and consistent implementation of the mining for the closure planning approach, within an improved legislative framework and in cooperation with stakeholders at all levels, create conditions for the development of creative, profitable, environmentally-sound and socially-responsible management and reuse of mine lands.

  4. VT Wildlife Linkage Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Wildlife Linkage Habitat Analysis uses landscape scale data to identify or predict the location of potentially significant wildlife linkage...

  5. GRA prospectus: optimizing design and management of protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard; Halsing, David

    2001-01-01

    Protected areas comprise one major type of global conservation effort that has been in the form of parks, easements, or conservation concessions. Though protected areas are increasing in number and size throughout tropical ecosystems, there is no systematic method for optimally targeting specific local areas for protection, designing the protected area, and monitoring it, or for guiding follow-up actions to manage it or its surroundings over the long run. Without such a system, conservation projects often cost more than necessary and/or risk protecting ecosystems and biodiversity less efficiently than desired. Correcting these failures requires tools and strategies for improving the placement, design, and long-term management of protected areas. The objective of this project is to develop a set of spatially based analytical tools to improve the selection, design, and management of protected areas. In this project, several conservation concessions will be compared using an economic optimization technique. The forest land use portfolio model is an integrated assessment that measures investment in different land uses in a forest. The case studies of individual tropical ecosystems are developed as forest (land) use and preservation portfolios in a geographic information system (GIS). Conservation concessions involve a private organization purchasing development and resource access rights in a certain area and retiring them. Forests are put into conservation, and those people who would otherwise have benefited from extracting resources or selling the right to do so are compensated. Concessions are legal agreements wherein the exact amount and nature of the compensation result from a negotiated agreement between an agent of the conservation community and the local community. Funds are placed in a trust fund, and annual payments are made to local communities and regional/national governments. The payments are made pending third-party verification that the forest expanse

  6. Spent shot availability and ingestion on areas managed for mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, J.H.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Washburn, B.E.; Wester, G.R.; Lanigan, J. T.; Franson, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) hunting is becoming increasingly popular, especially in managed shooting fields. Given the possible increase in the availability of lead (Pb) shot on these areas, our objective was to estimate availability and ingestion of spent shot at the Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area (EBCA, hunted with nontoxic shot) and the James A. Reed Memorial Wildlife Area (JARWA, hunted with Pb shot) in Missouri. During 1998, we collected soil samples one or 2 weeks prior to the hunting season (prehunt) and after 4 days of dove hunting (posthunt). We also collected information on number of doves harvested, number of shots fired, shotgun gauge, and shotshell size used. Dove carcasses were collected on both areas during 1998-99. At EBCA, 60 hunters deposited an estimated 64,775 pellets/ha of nontoxic shot on or around the managed field. At JARWA, approximately 1,086,275 pellets/ha of Pb shot were deposited by 728 hunters. Our posthunt estimates of spent-shot availability from soil sampling were 0 pellets/ha for EBCA and 6,342 pellets/ha for JARWA. Our findings suggest that existing soil sampling protocols may not provide accurate estimates of spent-shot availability in managed dove shooting fields. During 1998-99, 15 of 310 (4.8%) mourning doves collected from EBCA had ingested nontoxic shot. Of those doves, 6 (40.0%) contained a?Y7 shot pellets. In comparison, only 2 of 574 (0.3%) doves collected from JARWA had ingested Pb shot. Because a greater proportion of doves ingested multiple steel pellets compared to Pb pellets, we suggest that doves feeding in fields hunted with Pb shot may succumb to acute Pb toxicosis and thus become unavailable to harvest, resulting in an underestimate of ingestion rates. Although further research is needed to test this hypothesis, our findings may partially explain why previous studies have shown few doves with ingested Pb shot despite their feeding on areas with high Pb shot availability.

  7. 75 FR 61171 - Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge, Genesee County and Orleans County, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    .... 715d). The refuge consists of more than 10,800 acres within the rural townships of Alabama and Shelby... forests, grasslands, and wet meadows. These areas serve the habitat needs of both migratory and resident... addition to outlining broad management direction on conserving wildlife and their habitats, CCPs identify...

  8. 78 FR 38897 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Arctostaphylos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... habitat within the Presidio; and (3) restoring the natural ecological interactions of the species with its... ecological interactions of the species with its habitat or areas with additional management that may be...-0067; 4500030114] RIN 1018-AY63 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical...

  9. Biodiversity protection and sustainable management of coastal areas: The Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donati, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands, northwest coast of Sicily Island, is the largest area in the Mediterranean Sea, stretching over with its 53,992 hectares. Established in 1991, since 2001 it is managed by the Municipality of Favignana on behalf of the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea. The Egadi’s archipelago is located in the Strait of Sicily, and includes the islands of Favignana, Levanzo, Marettimo and the islets of Formica and Maraone. The institutional mission of the Marine Protected Area is the protection and enhancement of the marine environment, environmental education, awareness and information of users, research and monitoring, integrated management of the coastal zone, and the promotion of sustainable development, with particular reference to the eco-compatibility of tourism [it

  10. Managing for climate change on protected areas: An adaptive management decision making framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-McAllister, Sherri L; Rhodes, Jonathan; Hockings, Marc

    2017-12-15

    Current protected area management is becoming more challenging with advancing climate change and current park management techniques may not be adequate to adapt for effective management into the future. The framework presented here provides an adaptive management decision making process to assist protected area managers with adapting on-park management to climate change. The framework sets out a 4 step process. One, a good understanding of the park's context within climate change. Secondly, a thorough understanding of the park management systems including governance, planning and management systems. Thirdly, a series of management options set out as an accept/prevent change style structure, including a systematic assessment of those options. The adaptive approaches are defined as acceptance of anthropogenic climate change impact and attempt to adapt to a new climatic environment or prevention of change and attempt to maintain current systems under new climatic variations. Last, implementation and monitoring of long term trends in response to ecological responses to management interventions and assessing management effectiveness. The framework addresses many issues currently with park management in dealing with climate change including the considerable amount of research focussing on 'off-reserve' strategies, and threats and stress focused in situ park management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Man-Made Wildlife Tourism Destination: The Visitors Perspective on Lok Kawi Wildlife Park, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Sun Fatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sabah is blessed with natural forest habitats and rich with floras and faunas. Amongst its’ attraction is wildlife endemism. Lok Kawi Wildlife Park was established to provide an alternative wildlife tourism destination with its inhabitants from the wildlife species of Borneo. Since its opening in 2007, multitudes of tourists have visited the park. However, there has been no study to identify the visitor’s perspective on Lok Kawi Wildlife Park as man-made wildlife tourism destination. The study aims to assist the park’s management for the betterment of the park’s facilities and future development. A convenience sampling and a designed questionnaire was applied in this study, distributed after the visitors visited the park. The results showed that majority of the visitors were Malaysian and only a quarter were foreign visitors. Majority indicated that visiting the park is for recreational outing (holiday and only a few indicated that is an educational visit. Majority of the respondents knew the meaning of wildlife tourism and visiting the park’s is part of wildlife tourism. Most of the respondents came to know about the park’s existence through the local media and mostly agreed that the park indeed provide an authentic learning experience about wildlife, whilst creating wildlife conservation awareness.

  12. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation area...

  13. Small Water System Management Program: 100 K Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunacek, G.S. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Purposes of this document are: to provide an overview of the service and potable water system presently in service at the Hanford Site's 100 K Area; to provide future system forecasts based on anticipated DOE activities and programs; to delineate performance, design, and operations criteria; and to describe planned improvements. The objective of the small water system management program is to assure the water system is properly and reliably managed and operated, and continues to exist as a functional and viable entity in accordance with WAC 246-290-410

  14. Multidisciplinary Wildlife Teaching Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernbrode, William R., Ed.

    This guide provides information and activities descriptions designed to allow the teacher to use wildlife concepts in the teaching of various subjects. The author suggests that wildlife and animals are tremendous motivators for children and hold their attention. In the process, concepts of wildlife interaction with man and the environment are…

  15. Firewood and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Carey; John D. Gill

    1980-01-01

    The increased demand for firewood threatens the habitat of many wildlife species. Dead or dying trees that commonly are cut for firewood are vital to wildlife species that nest in tree cavities. Likewise, healthy trees of many species preferred for firewood are important components of wildlife habitat. Tree species or species groups are value-rated for both firewood...

  16. Determining management strategies for the Sarikum Nature Protection Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Sevgi

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, many environmental problems have become important factors in promoting the economic need to develop tourist activity: climate change such as energy wars, increasing hunger and aridity, population increases in urban areas, excessive and unthinking use of natural resources, difficult international relations, economic competition, and increasing environmental stress. Trends in global tourism have changed with changes in culture and our attitude to nature. Changes in both the profile and consumption patterns of tourists have called for the need to balance the use of natural and cultural assets with the need to adequately protect them. In this study, the Sarikum Nature Protection Area (SNPA) was selected as a case study because of its significance as a Turkish wetland area and the variety of different ecosystems coexisting within it. The study focussed on management strategies, but also provides a broader strategy for an area that currently has no management plan. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analyses of the area were gathered and analyzed using R'WOT analysis (ranking + SWOT), a multi-criteria assessment method, in order to determine strategies, obtain the participation of interest groups, and assess their opinions and attitudes. The analysis showed the following: the rich biological diversity and the existence of endemic species were the reserve's most significant strength; the presence of natural areas in surrounding regions was the most significant opportunity; the shortage of infrastructure and lack of legal regulation of ecotourism was the most significant weakness; and the lack of a management plan was the most immediate threat.

  17. 77 FR 16051 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... and shooting sports outreach and education organizations; (9) Tourism, outfitter, and/or guide... management of wildlife and habitat resources through outreach and education; (e) Fostering communication and...

  18. Fluid management plan for the Project Shoal Area Offsites Subproject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has initiated the Offsites Subproject to characterize the hazards posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at facilities other than the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A primary Subproject objective is to gather adequate data to characterize the various Subproject sites through the collection of surface and subsurface soil samples and by drilling several wells for the collection of groundwater data. The Project Shoal Area (PSA) is one of the Subproject's Nevada sites and is subject to the requirements set forth in the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (DOE, 1996a). In accordance with the FFACO, a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed for work at the PSA (designated as Corrective Action Unit Number 416). This Fluid Management Plan (FMP) provides guidance for the management of fluids generated from wells constructed at the PSA. Long-term monitoring and future activities at the site, if required, will be set forth in additional documents as required by the FFACO. The ultimate method for disposition of fluids generated by site operations depends upon sample analysis and process knowledge in relation to fluid management criteria. Section 2 describes well site operations; Section 3 discusses fluid management criteria; Section 4 includes the fluid monitoring program; Section 5 presents the fluid management strategy; Section 6 provides for fluid management during routine well monitoring; and Section 7 contains reporting criteria

  19. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Floyd N.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2000-08-04

    As a result of the most recent recalculation one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41, triggering a change from detection monitoring to groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents (i.e., sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate). Nitrate, chromium, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking waster standards. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the waste management area are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the facility. There is evidence for both upgradient and waste management area sources for observed nitrate concentrations. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the observed chromium and technetium-99.

  20. Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Safety Assessment Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, K.K.; Kendall, E.W.; Brown, J.J.

    1980-02-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document evaluates site characteristics, facilities and operating practices which contribute to the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. Also considered, as a separate section, are facilities and operating practices such as monitoring; storage/disposal criteria; site maintenance, equipment, and support; transportation and waste handling; and others which are adequate for the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for radioactive waste handling and storage/disposal for a maximum of twenty more years at the present rate of utilization

  1. Agricultural intensification : saving space for wildlife?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudron, F.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: agricultural frontier; smallholder; intensification; semi-arid area; wildlife; conservation agriculture; cotton; Zimbabwe.

    Increasing agricultural production and preventing further losses in biodiversity are both legitimate objectives, but they compete strongly in the

  2. Alternative Transportation Study : Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-31

    This report provides an overview of the historic and current visitation, infrastructure, and transportation conditions related to Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge and the surrounding areas in Chatham, MA. The study defines transportation-related goal...

  3. Alternative transportation study : Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report provides an assessment of historic and current visitation, infrastructure, and transportation conditions at the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge and surrounding areas in southwest Oklahoma. The study defines transportation-related goals ...

  4. Safety assessment for Area 5 radioactive-waste-management site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.; Card, D.H.; Horton, K.

    1982-09-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document contains evaluations of site characteristics, facilities, and operating practices that contribute to the safe handling, storage, and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. A separate section considers facilities and operating practices such as monitoring, storage/disposal criteria, site maintenance, equipment, and support. The section also considers the transportation and waste handling requirements supporting the new Greater Confinement Disposal Facility (GCDF), GCDF demonstration project, and other requirements for the safe handling, storage, and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Finally, the document provides an analysis of releases and an assessment of the near-term operational impacts and dose commitments to operating personnel and the general public from normal operations and anticipated accidental occurrences. The conclusion of this report is that the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for low-level radioactive waste handling, storage, and disposal. Also, the new GCDF demonstration project will not affect the overall safety of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

  5. Wildlife in Chernobyl forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary Mycio

    2007-01-01

    The article is a review of a book addressed Wormwood Forest: a natural history of Chernobyl which describes life in Europe's largest wildlife sanctuary in the region surrounding the Chernobyl station. Since the accident, the area has largely been a safe haven from hunters and farmers, allowing the wildlife to live in an undisturbed environment. Against this backdrop, the book describes in detail, a highly controversial programme that released an endangered species of horse into the zone. Lack of funding for such programmes makes it nearly impossible to administer them. The book blends reportage, popular science and encounters with the zone's few residents. The result is an account of a remarkable land, its people and animals seen through the eyes of the locals, the author and the zoologists, botanists and radiologists who travelled with her around the zone. The radiation is the book's ever-present protagonist, as the author describes in detail how it works itself through the entire food chain and environment. Along the author's journey through the affected regions of Belarus and Ukraine she debunks several myths surrounding Chernobyl and the nuclear industry in general. In fact, while there have been a small number of cases of mutations observed in some species, these are not as dramatic as the Chernobyl mythology.

  6. Stochasticity in natural forage production affects use of urban areas by black bears: implications to management of human-bear conflicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Baruch-Mordo

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to increased human-wildlife conflict. For American black bears (Ursus americanus, little is known about the degree of bear urbanization and its ecological mechanisms to guide the management of human-bear conflicts. Using 6 years of GPS location and activity data from bears in Aspen, Colorado, USA, we evaluated the degree of bear urbanization and the factors that best explained its variations. We estimated space use, activity patterns, survival, and reproduction and modeled their relationship with ecological covariates related to bear characteristics and natural food availability. Space use and activity patterns were dependent on natural food availability (good or poor food years, where bears used higher human density areas and became more nocturnal in poor food years. Patterns were reversible, i.e., individuals using urban areas in poor food years used wildland areas in subsequent good food years. While reproductive output was similar across years, survival was lower in poor food years when bears used urban areas to a greater extent. Our findings suggest that bear use of urban areas is reversible and fluctuates with the availability of natural food resources, and that removal of urban individuals in times of food failures has the potential to negatively affect bear populations. Given that under current predictions urbanization is expected to increase by 11% across American black bear range, and that natural food failure years are expected to increase in frequency with global climate change, alternative methods of reducing urban human-bear conflict are required if the goal is to prevent urban areas from

  7. Stochasticity in natural forage production affects use of urban areas by black bears: implications to management of human-bear conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Wilson, Kenneth R; Lewis, David L; Broderick, John; Mao, Julie S; Breck, Stewart W

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to increased human-wildlife conflict. For American black bears (Ursus americanus), little is known about the degree of bear urbanization and its ecological mechanisms to guide the management of human-bear conflicts. Using 6 years of GPS location and activity data from bears in Aspen, Colorado, USA, we evaluated the degree of bear urbanization and the factors that best explained its variations. We estimated space use, activity patterns, survival, and reproduction and modeled their relationship with ecological covariates related to bear characteristics and natural food availability. Space use and activity patterns were dependent on natural food availability (good or poor food years), where bears used higher human density areas and became more nocturnal in poor food years. Patterns were reversible, i.e., individuals using urban areas in poor food years used wildland areas in subsequent good food years. While reproductive output was similar across years, survival was lower in poor food years when bears used urban areas to a greater extent. Our findings suggest that bear use of urban areas is reversible and fluctuates with the availability of natural food resources, and that removal of urban individuals in times of food failures has the potential to negatively affect bear populations. Given that under current predictions urbanization is expected to increase by 11% across American black bear range, and that natural food failure years are expected to increase in frequency with global climate change, alternative methods of reducing urban human-bear conflict are required if the goal is to prevent urban areas from becoming population sinks.

  8. Stochasticity in Natural Forage Production Affects Use of Urban Areas by Black Bears: Implications to Management of Human-Bear Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Wilson, Kenneth R.; Lewis, David L.; Broderick, John; Mao, Julie S.; Breck, Stewart W.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to increased human-wildlife conflict. For American black bears (Ursus americanus), little is known about the degree of bear urbanization and its ecological mechanisms to guide the management of human-bear conflicts. Using 6 years of GPS location and activity data from bears in Aspen, Colorado, USA, we evaluated the degree of bear urbanization and the factors that best explained its variations. We estimated space use, activity patterns, survival, and reproduction and modeled their relationship with ecological covariates related to bear characteristics and natural food availability. Space use and activity patterns were dependent on natural food availability (good or poor food years), where bears used higher human density areas and became more nocturnal in poor food years. Patterns were reversible, i.e., individuals using urban areas in poor food years used wildland areas in subsequent good food years. While reproductive output was similar across years, survival was lower in poor food years when bears used urban areas to a greater extent. Our findings suggest that bear use of urban areas is reversible and fluctuates with the availability of natural food resources, and that removal of urban individuals in times of food failures has the potential to negatively affect bear populations. Given that under current predictions urbanization is expected to increase by 11% across American black bear range, and that natural food failure years are expected to increase in frequency with global climate change, alternative methods of reducing urban human-bear conflict are required if the goal is to prevent urban areas from becoming population sinks

  9. S Plant Aggregate Area Management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    This document is prepared in support of an Aggregate Area Management Study of S Plant, 200 West Area, at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and the results from an environmental investigation undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This document is based on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. This report describes the REDOX facility and its waste sites, including cribs, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, underground tank farms designed for high-level liquid wastes, and the lines and encasements that connect them

  10. Z plant aggregate area management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    This document was prepared in support of the development of a Aggregate Area Management Study of Z Plant, 200 West Area, at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It provides a technical description and operational history of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) which is currently the Waste Site and Facility Research Office, Natural Resources, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). It is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigations or sampling were conducted in support of this report

  11. Ecotourism management in Banat’s protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Mircea Petroman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The strategies developed in the field of ecotourismcontribute to the creation of a favourable environment in this sector ofactivity and to the meeting of tourists’ demands without endangering thenatural resources in the Banat’s protected areas. Management should take intoaccount the main requirements regarding the ecological exploitation of theareas, the judicious exploitation of the tourist flows and the establishment ofsupport thresholds as well as the implementation of material recycling measuresin the area. Cooperation between rural and ecological tourism produces benefitssuch as diversification of economic activities, development of infrastructureand increase of demand for rural goods and services – all this contributing tothe long-term economic stability in areas with such natural resources.

  12. T Plant source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. Inclusion on the NPL initiates the Remedial Investigation (RI) and Feasibility Study (FS) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination, assessing risks to human health and the environment, and selection of remedial actions. This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the T Plant Aggregate Area located in the 200 Areas. The study provides the basis for initiating RI/FS under CERCLA or under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS). This report also integrates RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  13. Z Plant source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State is or into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. Inclusion on the NPL initiates the Remedial Investigation (RI) and Feasibility Study (FS) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination, assessing risks to human health and the environment, and selection of remedial actions. This report presents the insults of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the Z Plant Aggregate Area located m the 200 Areas. The study provides the basis for initiating RIIFS under CERCLA or under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS). This report also integrates RCRA treatment, storage, or disposed (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  14. U Plant source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. Inclusion on the NPL initiates the Remedial Investigation (RI) and Feasibility Study (FS) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination, assessing risks to human health and the environment, and selection of remedial actions. This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the U Plant Aggregate Area located in the 200 Areas. The study provides the basis for initiating RI/FS under CERCLA or under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS). This report also integrates RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  15. Water management for a megacity: Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortajada, Cecilia; Castelán, Enrique

    2003-03-01

    The paper presents an overview of the present situation of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The analysis indicates an urgent need to radically improve the current water supply and wastewater management practices, to become sustainable. The MCMA is one of the most rapidly growing urban centers of the world, with a population of about 21 million people, a very high rate of immigration and numerous illegal settlements. In order to meet the increasing water demand, successive governments have focused almost exclusively on supply management and engineering solutions, which have resulted in investments of hundreds of millions of USD and the construction of major infrastructure projects for interbasin water transfer. Environmental, economic and social policies associated with water management are mostly inadequate and insufficient, which is resulting in increasing deterioration in the environment, health and socioeconomic conditions of a population living in one of the largest urban agglomerations of the world. Surprisingly, however, no long-term strategies on demand-management, reuse, conservation, and improved water-management practices have been developed so far.

  16. Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks: Approach and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meike, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The Data Management System network is a complex and important part of manned space platforms. Its efficient operation is vital to crew, subsystems and experiments. AI is being considered to aid in the initial design of the network and to augment the management of its operation. The Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks (IRMA-LAN) project is concerned with the application of AI techniques to network configuration and management. A network simulation was constructed employing real time process scheduling for realistic loads, and utilizing the IEEE 802.4 token passing scheme. This simulation is an integral part of the construction of the IRMA-LAN system. From it, a causal model is being constructed for use in prediction and deep reasoning about the system configuration. An AI network design advisor is being added to help in the design of an efficient network. The AI portion of the system is planned to evolve into a dynamic network management aid. The approach, the integrated simulation, project evolution, and some initial results are described.

  17. Nevada Test Site, 2006 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David B. Hudson

    2007-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2006 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2006; Warren and Grossman, 2007; National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2006 totaled 98.6 millimeters (mm) (3.9 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 80.7 mm (3.2 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 remains at the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that evaporation continues to slowly remove soil moisture that came from the heavy precipitation in the fall of 2004 and the spring of

  18. A strategic approach to eradication of bovine TB from wildlife in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, S A; Hancox, N; Livingstone, P G

    2013-11-01

    A review and amendment of New Zealand's National Pest Management Strategy for bovine tuberculosis (TB) has led to adoption of new strategy objectives for localized eradication of disease from the principal wildlife maintenance host and infecting vector for farmed cattle and deer, the brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula. Historic programmes have been based on management of disease within herds and control of wildlife directed towards reducing infected herd prevalence. From July 2011, the TB strategy has been redirected towards eradication of TB from possums and other wildlife over a total area of at least 2.5 million hectares over a 15-year period. The amended strategy is intended to provide large-scale proof of concept, using two extensive bush areas, that TB can be eradicated from wildlife in New Zealand in the longer term, leading to eventual savings in control programmes needed to protect cattle and deer herds from infection. Achievement of strategy objectives will be supported by major research together with technical and managerial improvements in wildlife TB control and surveillance, and these are reviewed. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Sitting on the fence? policies and practices in managing human-wildlife conflict in Limpopo province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflicts are the product of socio-economic and political landscapes and are contentious because the resources concerned have economic value and species are often high profile and legally protected. Within a governance framework, we detail institutional roles and the effectiveness of policies and practices of controlling damage-causing animals (DCAs at Kruger National Park (KNP and Limpopo Province along KNP′s western border. Most DCAs originate from the park, significantly affecting its long-term legitimacy among local communities. Between 2002 and 2004, over 12% of households within 15 km of the park experienced DCA damage, with incidents significantly correlated with being located closer to KNP and having higher numbers of mammalian livestock. These incidents are affecting opinions concerning KNP, as those who experienced damage were less likely to believe that the park would ever help their household economically. According to 482 DCA incident records from 1998 to 2004, the most problematic species are buffalo, lion, elephant, hippo and crocodile. Limpopo Province utilised professional hunters in DCA control, however, widespread abuses including the direct luring of lion led to a national moratorium on specific hunting practices. DCA procedures are highly flawed due to ambiguity concerning species and movement of DCAs, poor reporting, inadequate response times, overlapping responsibilities, and corruption. These are exacerbated by weak and, in some cases, competing institutions. Further, the controversial issue of undelivered compensation is determining negative attitudes by communities towards institutions who have historically promised it. Drawing on good governance principles, we offer recommendations on alleviating DCA conflicts in such contexts.

  20. Management of the water balance and quality in mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, Antti; Krogerus, Kirsti; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija; Turunen, Kaisa; Backnäs, Soile; Vento, Tiia; Veijalainen, Noora; Hentinen, Kimmo; Korkealaakso, Juhani

    2015-04-01

    Although mining companies have long been conscious of water related risks they still face environmental management problems. These problems mainly emerge because mine sites' water balances have not been adequately assessed in the stage of the planning of mines. More consistent approach is required to help mining companies identify risks and opportunities related to the management of water resources in all stages of mining. This approach requires that the water cycle of a mine site is interconnected with the general hydrologic water cycle. In addition to knowledge on hydrological conditions, the control of the water balance in the mining processes require knowledge of mining processes, the ability to adjust process parameters to variable hydrological conditions, adaptation of suitable water management tools and systems, systematic monitoring of amounts and quality of water, adequate capacity in water management infrastructure to handle the variable water flows, best practices to assess the dispersion, mixing and dilution of mine water and pollutant loading to receiving water bodies, and dewatering and separation of water from tailing and precipitates. WaterSmart project aims to improve the awareness of actual quantities of water, and water balances in mine areas to improve the forecasting and the management of the water volumes. The study is executed through hydrogeological and hydrological surveys and online monitoring procedures. One of the aims is to exploit on-line water quantity and quality monitoring for the better management of the water balances. The target is to develop a practical and end-user-specific on-line input and output procedures. The second objective is to develop mathematical models to calculate combined water balances including the surface, ground and process waters. WSFS, the Hydrological Modeling and Forecasting System of SYKE is being modified for mining areas. New modelling tools are developed on spreadsheet and system dynamics platforms to

  1. Institutional Control Policies and Implementation for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vefa Yucel; Greg Shott; Denise Wieland

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has implemented varying institutional control policies in performance assessment/composite analysis (PA/CA) calculations for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (Shott et al., 1998; 2000; Bechtel Nevada [BN] and Neptune and Company Inc. [Neptune], 2006). The facilities are within the actively maintained boundaries of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that are enforced by NNSA/NSO. Under current policies, access required for exposure of the member of public (MOP) or the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) is prohibited. Uncertainties affecting institutional control policies are the duration and effectiveness of the controls during the post-closure period. Implementing a uniform set of institutional control policies for the RWMSs that encompasses waste management and environmental restoration programs and is consistent with the end-state vision for the environmental management programs for the NTS (DOE, 2006) is a primary goal of the maintenance program. The NNSA/NSO Performance Management Plan (DOE, 2002) complies with DOE Policy P455.1, 'Use of Risk-Based End States' (DOE, 2003a). Expected future land uses are a driver in selecting acceptable end state conditions and clean-up goals for the NTS. NNSA/NSO Environmental Management's (EM's) land management assumptions and framework for Environmental Management activities are as follows: The NTS will remain under federal control in perpetuity as an NNSA test site, and the large buffer zone surrounding the NTS (the Nevada Test and Training Range) is assumed to remain under the control of the U.S. Air Force. There are no plans for transfer of any NTS lands to other agencies or public entities. Access will continue to be restricted to the NTS and the surrounding areas. For management purposes, NNSA/NV EM activities have been established based on the source of contamination and type of waste

  2. Institutional Control Policies and Implementation for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vefa Yucel, Greg Shott, Denise Wieland, et al.

    2007-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has implemented varying institutional control policies in performance assessment/composite analysis (PA/CA) calculations for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (Shott et al., 1998; 2000; Bechtel Nevada [BN] and Neptune and Company Inc. [Neptune], 2006). The facilities are within the actively maintained boundaries of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that are enforced by NNSA/NSO. Under current policies, access required for exposure of the member of public (MOP) or the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) is prohibited. Uncertainties affecting institutional control policies are the duration and effectiveness of the controls during the post-closure period. Implementing a uniform set of institutional control policies for the RWMSs that encompasses waste management and environmental restoration programs and is consistent with the end-state vision for the environmental management programs for the NTS (DOE, 2006) is a primary goal of the maintenance program. The NNSA/NSO Performance Management Plan (DOE, 2002) complies with DOE Policy P455.1, 'Use of Risk-Based End States' (DOE, 2003a). Expected future land uses are a driver in selecting acceptable end state conditions and clean-up goals for the NTS. NNSA/NSO Environmental Management's (EM's) land management assumptions and framework for Environmental Management activities are as follows: The NTS will remain under federal control in perpetuity as an NNSA test site, and the large buffer zone surrounding the NTS (the Nevada Test and Training Range) is assumed to remain under the control of the U.S. Air Force. There are no plans for transfer of any NTS lands to other agencies or public entities. Access will continue to be restricted to the NTS and the surrounding areas. For management purposes, NNSA/NV EM activities have been established based on the source of contamination and

  3. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for Ottawa NWR describes the inventory program’s relation to Refuge objectives and outlines the program’s policies and administration....

  4. Corn rootworm area-wide management across the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, Laurence D.; Coppedge, James R.; Richard Edwards, C.; Tollefson, Jon J.; Wilde, Gerald E.

    2000-01-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, northern corn rootworm, D. barberi Smith and Lawrence, and Mexican corn rootworm, D. virgifera zeae Krysan and Smith are among the most economically and environmentally important pests of United States maize (Zea mays L.) production systems (Metcalf 1986). Annually, 8 to 10 million hectares of maize are treated with soil applied insecticides to protect the crop from larval feeding damage. Crop rotation, however, is also widely used to minimise the need for soil insecticide applications. Insecticides for adult rootworm management are also frequently used. Numerous problems are currently associated with corn rootworm management approaches. Soil insecticides are normally used to protect maize roots from larval feeding damage. However, they are ineffective in controlling the management of corn rootworm populations (Gray et al. 1992, Sutter et al. 1991). It is not uncommon for large numbers of rootworms to develop within treated fields. Thus, when maize is grown in the same field year after year (continuous cropping), soil insecticide applications must be used to protect the plant. These applications are generally made without knowledge (prophylactic) of the rootworm population levels within the field due to the difficulty of sampling for immature life stages. Western corn rootworm resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides has been extensively documented (Ball and Weekman 1962). Recently, two distinct populations of western corn rootworms in Nebraska were found to be resistant to carbaryl and methyl parathion which are commonly used for adult control (Meinke et al. 1998). Although the occurrence of resistance has not spread outside of these areas, the potential for increased tolerance of western corn rootworm populations to carbamate and organophosphate insecticides across the region does exist. In response to many of the management problems discussed above, scientists with the USDA Agricultural

  5. CAMPFIRE and Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Local Communities Bordering Northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Gandiwa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflicts are a global problem, and are occurring in many countries where human and wildlife requirements overlap. Conflicts are particularly common near protected areas where societal unrest is large. To ease conflict, integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs have been implemented. The Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE is an example of an ICDP. We hypothesized that (i a higher perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE would be associated with a decline in human-wildlife conflicts, and (ii local communities with higher perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE programs would have more favorable attitudes towards problematic wild animals. Four focus group discussions and interviews with 236 respondents were conducted in four local communities adjacent to northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe from December 2010 to August 2011. Moreover, we included data on recorded incidences of human-wildlife conflicts and CAMPFIRE financial returns to study communities between 2000 and 2010. Our results indicate that local communities showed considerable differences in how CAMPFIRE effectiveness was perceived. Local communities with higher ratings of CAMPFIRE effectiveness generally perceived a decline in human-wildlife conflicts, although some people had experienced problems with wild animals. Attitudes towards main problematic wild animals varied across the study communities and were partly associated with perceived CAMPFIRE effectiveness. Our findings partly support both of our study hypotheses. Contextual factors across the four local communities seemed to influence the perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE programs and attitudes towards problematic wildlife species. We recommend that decisions and actions regarding the control of problem animals be devolved to the community level in order to help reduce human-wildlife conflicts in community-based natural resources management programs.

  6. Stakeholder analysis in the management of irrigation in Kampili area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumiati; Ali, M. S. S.; Fahmid, I. M.; Mahyuddin

    2018-05-01

    Irrigation has appreciable contribution in building food security, particularly rice crops. This study aims to analyze the role of stakeholders involved in distributing of irrigation water. The study was conducted in the Kampili Irrigation Area in South Sulawesi Province Indonesia, the data were obtained through observation and interviews with stakeholders involved, and analysed by stakeholder analysis, based on the interests and power held by the actors. This analysis is intended to provide an optimal picture of the expected role of each stakeholder in the management of irrigation resources. The results show that there were many stakeholders involved in irrigation management. In the arrangement of irrigation distribution there was overlapping authority of the stakeholders to its management, every stakeholder had different interests and power between each other. The existence have given positive and negative values in distributing irrigation water management, then in the stakeholder collaboration there was contestation between them. This contestation took place between the agriculture department, PSDA province, the Jeneberang River Region Hall, the Farmers Group and the P3A.

  7. Environmental noise management in the area of opencast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilić Nikola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental noise constitutes a threat regarding disturbance and deterioration of quality of living. There are numerous sources of environmental noise, among others mine objects, traffic roads etc. In Serbian practice open cast mines are commonly in vicinity of residential areas, which is the case of the Field C open cast coal mine and the Barosevac settlement. More complexity is added to noise management in such conditions through additional noise sources, not directly linked to mine objects and activities, such as local or regional roads. This paper describes an approach to noise management for the purpose of environmental noise impact reduction, from both traffic and industrial sources, related to the project Environmental Improvement Project in Kolubara Mine Basin in Barosevac settlement, as a part of acquisition of new Excavator-belt Conveyor-Stacker (ECS system.

  8. Environmental Management Integration Project/Mixed Waste Focus Area Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D.; Kristofferson, K.; Cole, L.

    1999-01-01

    On January 16, 1998, the Assistant Secretary for the Environmental Management (EM) Program at the Department of Energy, issued DOE-Idaho the Program Integration and Systems Engineering Guidance for Fiscal Year 1998, herein called Guidance, which directed that program integration tasks be performed for all EM program areas. This guidance directed the EM Integration team, as part of the Task 1, to develop baseline waste and material disposition maps which are owned by the site Project Baseline Summary (PBS) manager. With these baselines in place Task 2 gave direction to link Science and Technology activities to the waste and material stream supported by that technology. This linkage of EM Program needs with the OST activities supports the DOE goal of maximizing cleanup at DOE sites by 2006 and provides a defensible science and technology program. Additionally, this linkage is a valuable tool in the integration of the waste and material disposition efforts for the DOE complex

  9. A Wildlife Monitoring System Based on Wireless Image Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junguo Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Survival and development of wildlife sustains the balance and stability of the entire ecosystem. Wildlife monitoring can provide lots of information such as wildlife species, quantity, habits, quality of life and habitat conditions, to help researchers grasp the status and dynamics of wildlife resources, and to provide basis for the effective protection, sustainable use, and scientific management of wildlife resources. Wildlife monitoring is the foundation of wildlife protection and management. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN technology has become the most popular technology in the field of information. With advance of the CMOS image sensor technology, wireless sensor networks combined with image sensors, namely Wireless Image Sensor Networks (WISN technology, has emerged as an alternative in monitoring applications. Monitoring wildlife is one of its most promising applications. In this paper, system architecture of the wildlife monitoring system based on the wireless image sensor networks was presented to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional monitoring methods. Specifically, some key issues including design of wireless image sensor nodes and software process design have been studied and presented. A self-powered rotatable wireless infrared image sensor node based on ARM and an aggregation node designed for large amounts of data were developed. In addition, their corresponding software was designed. The proposed system is able to monitor wildlife accurately, automatically, and remotely in all-weather condition, which lays foundations for applications of wireless image sensor networks in wildlife monitoring.

  10. Management of area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, V.A.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Reyes Flores, J.; Regidor Fernandez, E.E.; Teruya, T.; Barnes, B.; Gomez Riera, P.; Lindquist, D.; Loosjes, M.

    2005-01-01

    Effective management of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) is key to success. Programme planning includes collection of baseline data and a feasibility assessment. The optimal management structure is where the programme can be implemented effectively and flexibly, independent of government politics, bureaucracy, and even corruption that impede timely goal achievement. Ideally, programmes include both public and private management, and require strong and steady financial support. Governments and donors are the most common sources of funds, but a mixture of public, community, and private funds is now the trend. Interrupted cash flow severely restrains programme performance. Physical support of programme operations must be reliable, and led by a maintenance professional. It is essential to have full-time, well-paid, and motivated staff led by a programme manger with technical and management experience. Programme failure is usually due to poor management and inadequate public support, and not to poor technology. (author)

  11. Nevada Test Site 2005 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David B. Hudson, Cathy A. Wills

    2006-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2005 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2005; Grossman, 2005; Bechtel Nevada, 2006). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2005 totaled 219.1 millimeters (mm) (8.63 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 201.4 mm (7.93 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 has percolated to the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that precipitation from the fall of 2004 and the spring of 2005 infiltrated past the deepest sensors at 188 centimeters (6.2 feet) and remains in the pit cover

  12. Light Pollution and Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffek, J.

    2008-12-01

    for Educational Program IYA Dark Skies Education Session Fall American Geophysical Union San Francisco, December 15-19, 2008 Light Pollution and Wildlife This is a very exciting time to be a part of the mission to keep the nighttime skies natural. The International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 is developing programs for all areas of Dark Skies Awareness. For many years the issue of light pollution focused on the impact to the astronomy industry. While this is an important area, research has shown that light pollution negatively impacts wildlife, their habitat, human health, and is a significant waste of energy. Since the message and impact of the effects of light pollution are much broader now, the message conveyed to the public must also be broader. Education programs directed at youth are a new frontier to reach out to a new audience about the adverse effects of too much artificial light at night. The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) has developed educational presentations using the National Science Teachers Association Education Standards. These programs focus on youth between the ages of 5 to 17exploring new territory in the education of light pollution. The IDA education programs are broken down into three age groups; ages 5-9, 8-13, 12 and older. The presentations come complete with PowerPoint slides, discussion notes for each slide, and workbooks including age appropriate games to keep young audiences involved. A new presentation reflects the growing area of interest regarding the effects of too much artificial light at night on wildlife. This presentation outlines the known problems for ecosystems caused by artificial light at night. Insects are attracted to artificial lights and may stay near that light all night. This attraction interferes with their ability to migrate, mate, and look for food. Such behavior leads to smaller insect populations. Fewer insects in turn affect birds and bats, because they rely on insects as a food source. The IDA

  13. Wildlife and electric power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Goodwin, J.G.; Hunt, J.R.; Fletcher, John L.; Busnel, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of miles of transmission lines have been introduced into our natural environment. These lines and their corridors can be damaging or beneficial to wildlife communities depending on how they are designed, where they are placed, and when they are constructed and maintained. With the current trend toward UHV systems, new problems (associated with additional increments in audible noise, electric and magnetic force fields, etc.) must be addressed. We recommend the following areas for careful study: (1) the response of wilderness species to transmission lines and line construction and maintenance activities (2) the magnitude of bird collision and electrocution mortality, (3) the response of power corridor and power tower in habiting wildlife to laboratory and field doses of electro-chemical oxidants, corona noise, electric and magnetic fields, etc., (4) the productivity of tower inhabiting birds compared with nearby non-tower nesters, and (5) the influence of powerline corridors on mammalian and avian migration patterns. It is our hope that the questions identified in this study will help stimulate further research so that we can maximize wildlife benefits and minimize wildlife detriments.

  14. ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT IN THE MINING AND METALLURGICAL MARAMURES AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel POP

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the interdisciplinary recent concerns of "environmental management", looking to determine the damages caused by pollution, remediation expenditures, and benefits that may arise through the application of remediation techniques and decontamination technologies in the mining and metallurgical Maramureş area. Large areas of land were diverted from their original destination (pastures, arable land, forests being now covered with ponds and dumps of mine or flotation tailings, deposits that are insufficiently protected, and have become sources of pollution to surrounding areas. All Eastern European countries have in common major environmental problems, the most serious being due to mining, metallurgy and chemistry. In the relationship of "economic-ecological" equilibrium, should be considered both economic criteria, as well as ecological ones. Pollution as the deterioration of environment, requires costs for rehabilitation of degraded areas, and for environmental protection, costs for new technologies, non polluting ones. The assessment foundation of environmental damages, is necessary for establishing the priority directions in the allocation of funds for projects to protect and rehabilitate the environment.

  15. The importance of vegetation density for tourists' wildlife viewing experience and satisfaction in African savannah ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbieu, Ugo; Grünewald, Claudia; Schleuning, Matthias; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Southern African protected areas (PAs) harbour a great diversity of animals, which represent a large potential for wildlife tourism. In this region, global change is expected to result in vegetation changes, such as bush encroachment and increases in vegetation density. However, little is known on the influence of vegetation structure on wildlife tourists' wildlife viewing experience and satisfaction. In this study, we collected data on vegetation structure and perceived mammal densities along 196 road transects (each 5 km long) and conducted a social survey with 651 questionnaires across four PAs in three Southern African countries. Our objectives were 1) to assess visitors' attitude towards vegetation, 2) to test the influence of perceived mammal density and vegetation structure on the easiness to spot animals, and 3) on visitors' satisfaction during their visit to PAs. Using a Boosted Regression Tree procedure, we found mostly negative non-linear relationships between vegetation density and wildlife tourists' experience, and positive relationships between perceived mammal densities and wildlife tourists' experience. In particular, wildlife tourists disliked road transects with high estimates of vegetation density. Similarly, the easiness to spot animals dropped at thresholds of high vegetation density and at perceived mammal densities lower than 46 individuals per road transect. Finally, tourists' satisfaction declined linearly with vegetation density and dropped at mammal densities smaller than 26 individuals per transect. Our results suggest that vegetation density has important impacts on tourists' wildlife viewing experience and satisfaction. Hence, the management of PAs in savannah landscapes should consider how tourists perceive these landscapes and their mammal diversity in order to maintain and develop a sustainable wildlife tourism.

  16. The importance of vegetation density for tourists’ wildlife viewing experience and satisfaction in African savannah ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Claudia; Schleuning, Matthias; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Southern African protected areas (PAs) harbour a great diversity of animals, which represent a large potential for wildlife tourism. In this region, global change is expected to result in vegetation changes, such as bush encroachment and increases in vegetation density. However, little is known on the influence of vegetation structure on wildlife tourists’ wildlife viewing experience and satisfaction. In this study, we collected data on vegetation structure and perceived mammal densities along 196 road transects (each 5 km long) and conducted a social survey with 651 questionnaires across four PAs in three Southern African countries. Our objectives were 1) to assess visitors’ attitude towards vegetation, 2) to test the influence of perceived mammal density and vegetation structure on the easiness to spot animals, and 3) on visitors’ satisfaction during their visit to PAs. Using a Boosted Regression Tree procedure, we found mostly negative non-linear relationships between vegetation density and wildlife tourists’ experience, and positive relationships between perceived mammal densities and wildlife tourists’ experience. In particular, wildlife tourists disliked road transects with high estimates of vegetation density. Similarly, the easiness to spot animals dropped at thresholds of high vegetation density and at perceived mammal densities lower than 46 individuals per road transect. Finally, tourists’ satisfaction declined linearly with vegetation density and dropped at mammal densities smaller than 26 individuals per transect. Our results suggest that vegetation density has important impacts on tourists’ wildlife viewing experience and satisfaction. Hence, the management of PAs in savannah landscapes should consider how tourists perceive these landscapes and their mammal diversity in order to maintain and develop a sustainable wildlife tourism. PMID:28957420

  17. Road development and the geography of hunting by an Amazonian indigenous group: consequences for wildlife conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Espinosa

    Full Text Available Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1 road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2 historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12-14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building

  18. Road development and the geography of hunting by an Amazonian indigenous group: consequences for wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Santiago; Branch, Lyn C; Cueva, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12-14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building near or within

  19. Forest inventory, Peter T. Johnson Wildlife Mitigation Unit, Craig Mountain, Idaho. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narolski, S.W.

    1996-12-01

    The primary objective of this report is to determine the quantity and quality of existing forest habitat types on the 59,991-acre Peter T. Johnson Wildlife Mitigation Unit (WMU). Products from this effort include a description of the ecological condition, a map of habitat types, and an inventory of forest resources on the WMU lands. The purpose of this and other resource inventories (plant and wildlife) is to assess the current resources condition of the WMU and to provide necessary information to generate a long-term management for this area

  20. Forest inventory: Peter T. Johnson Wildlife Mitigation Unit, Craig Mountain, Idaho. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narolski, Steven W.

    1996-12-01

    The primary objective of this report is to determine the quantity and quality of existing forest habitat types on the 59,991-acre Peter T. Johnson Wildlife Mitigation Unit (WMU). Products from this effort include a description of the ecological condition, a map of habitat types, and an inventory of forest resources on the WMU lands. The purpose of this and other resource inventories (plant and wildlife) is to assess the current resources condition of the WMU and to provide necessary information to generate a long-term management for this area.

  1. Nevada Test Site 2000 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvonne Townsend

    2001-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2000 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 167 mm (6.6 in) at the Area 3 RWMS (annual average is 156 mm [6.5 in]) and 123 mm (4.8 in) at the Area 5 RWMS (annual average is 127 mm [5.0 in]). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2000 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2000 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing well at isolating buried waste

  2. Nevada Test Site 2001 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2001 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 150 mm (5.9 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 120 mm (4.7 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2001 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2001 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility performance assessments

  3. Nevada Test Site 2001 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report[ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants[NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2001 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 150 mm (5.9 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 120 mm (4.7 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2001 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2001 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility performance assessments

  4. Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring and Habitat Assessment in the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josephine R.; Stromayer, Karl A.K.; Jordan, Brandon M.; Ennis, Mike J.; Woolington, Dennis W.

    2005-01-01

    The project report describes a two year experiment to control wetland drainage to the San Joaquin River of California from the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge using a decision support system for real-time water quality management. This system required the installation and operation of one inlet and three drainage flow and water quality monitoring stations which allowed a simnple mass balance model to be developed of the seasonally managed wetlands in the study area. Remote sensing meth...

  5. Waste Management Policy In Tourism Area of Saensuk Municipality, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsathon Kaewmanee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saensuk Municipality is a famous tourism city in Thailand, especially Bangsaen beach. In supporting the tourism activity, it has waste managing method by using new generation administrator and technologies. However, the waste problem happened in Saensuk Municipality is included the human resource ability, technical facility, and the amount of waste. By using the qualitative descriptive method and doing a series of interview to selected informants, the researcher studied and analyzed the problem, factors, and solutions of the issue. This study found that the nature of the beach and the visitor behavior is among the reason behind the large amount of waste daily in the site. Moreover, the regulation by the local government is sufficient to cover the issue if implemented fully. The study shows that the city had implemented the good governance idea in several instances, and giving the waste management to the private sector is one of the optionsto resolve the problem since the quality of the work could be improved. Keywords:waste management,public policy, tourism area, Thailand

  6. Context-dependent conservation responses to emerging wildlife diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate E Langwig; Jamie Voyles; Mark Q Wilber; Winifred F Frick; Kris A Murray; Benjamin M Bolker; James P Collins; Tina L Cheng; Matthew C Fisher; Joseph R Hoyt; Daniel L Lindner; Hamish I McCallum; Robert Puschendorf; Erica Bree Rosenblum; Mary Toothman; Craig KR Willis; Cheryl J Briggs; A Marm Kilpatrick

    2015-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose an important threat to wildlife. While established protocols exist for combating outbreaks of human and agricultural pathogens, appropriate management actions before, during, and after the invasion of wildlife pathogens have not been developed. We describe stage-specific goals and management actions that minimize disease impacts on...

  7. Nevada Test Site 2009 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2009 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NTS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 87.6 millimeters (mm) (3.45 inches (in.)) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2009 is 43 percent below the average of 152.4 mm (6.00 in.), and the 62.7 mm (2.47 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2009 is 49 percent below the average of 122.5 mm (4.82 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation

  8. Assessing Movements of Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in Relation to Depopulated Buffer Zones for the Management of Wildlife Tuberculosis in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrom, Andrea E; Anderson, Dean P; Coleman, Morgan; Thomson, Caroline; Cross, Martin L; Pech, Roger P

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand, managing the threat of bovine tuberculosis (TB) to livestock includes population reduction of potentially infectious wildlife, primarily the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Population control is often targeted on forested buffer zones adjacent to farmland, in order to limit movements of possums across the buffer and reduce the risk of disease transmission to livestock. To assess the effectiveness of buffers in protecting livestock we analysed GPS telemetry data from possums located in untreated forest adjacent to buffers, and used these data to characterise patterns of movement that could lead to possums reaching farmland during the season when most dispersal occurs. Analyses of movement data showed that the direction of dispersal by sub-adult and adult possums and the extent of long exploratory movements were not biased toward forest buffers, even though these provided vacant habitat as suitable for possums as untreated forest. Instead, dispersal and exploratory movements were uncommon even for sub-adult possums and such events typically lasted buffer to reach farmland. Our results indicate short-term reduction in the risk of TB transmission from possums to livestock in New Zealand by the use of depopulated buffer zones, while acknowledging that the threat of disease spread from untreated forest is likely to increase over time as possum population density and, potentially, TB prevalence among those possums, increase in the buffer zone.

  9. Wildlife disease and environmental health in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline; Pearce, John; Oakley, Karen; Whalen, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health is defined by connections between the physical environment, ecological health, and human health. Current research within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recognizes the importance of this integrated research philosophy, which includes study of disease and pollutants as they pertain to wildlife and humans. Due to its key geographic location and significant wildlife resources, Alaska is a critical area for future study of environmental health.

  10. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National

  11. Nevada Test Site 2007 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2007 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007a; 2008; Warren and Grossman, 2008). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are at background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. A single gamma spectroscopy measurement for cesium was slightly above the minimum detectable concentration, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 136.8 millimeters (mm) (5.39 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2007 is 13 percent below the average of 158.1 mm (6.22 in.), and the 123.8 mm (4.87 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2007 is 6 percent below the average of 130.7 mm (5.15 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05U continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward movement percolation of precipitation more effectively

  12. Pest management strategies: Area-wide and conventional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    part of the cost of an area-wide programme will be fighting the target pest away from the commercial production - before the commercial crops are susceptible - on wild or alternate hosts or abandoned orchards, untreated host plants in homeowners' gardens, etc. In most cases, area-wide insect control will be the responsibility of a separate organisation hired by the producers. A separate organisation can plan an aggressive offense against the target pest population over the entire area. High technology systems can be effectively utilised to plan the population management programme. Included will be satellite imagery to detect alternate hosts, sensitive methods to detect movement of the pest populations, computer programmes to predict changes in the pest insect population based on biological parameters, a systems approach to utilise natural enemies on an area-wide basis, genetic analysis to detect the development of resistance and utilisation of systems to delay the development of resistance over the total area. Further, area-wide programmes encourage the use of specialised methods of insect control that are not effective or are not used on a farm by farm basis. These include the sterile insect technique (SIT), male annihilation, inundative releases of parasites, mating inhibitors, large-scale trap cropping with very attractive plants, treatment of alternate hosts on public lands and hosts in private gardens, etc. The objective of area-wide control is to reduce the pest population within the target area to a non-economic level. This is accomplished by attacking the entire insect pest population in the target area. Conventional insect control attempts to protect the plant or animal, is carried out by individual producers over a small area with little planning, is short-term, low technology and is a reactive (defense) approach to insect control. Area-wide insect control attempts to reduce the pest population to a non-economic level over a large area involving many

  13. Evaluating genetic traceability methods for captive-bred marine fish and their applications in fisheries management and wildlife forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Bylemans, Jonas; Maes, Gregory E.; Diopere, Eveline; Cariani, Alessia; Senn, Helen; Taylor, Martin I.; Helyar, Sarah; Bargelloni, Luca; Bonaldo, Alessio; Carvalho, Gary; Guarniero, Ilaria; Komen, Hans; Martinsohn, Jann Th; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Tinti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Growing demands for marine fish products is leading to increased pressure on already depleted wild populations and a rise in aquaculture production. Consequently, more captive-bred fish are released into the wild through accidental escape or deliberate releases. The increased mixing of captive-bred and wild fish may affect the ecological and/or genetic integrity of wild fish populations. Unambiguous identification tools for captive-bred fish will be highly valuable to manage risks (fisheries ...

  14. Wildlife disease prevalence in human-modified landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Grant; Rhodes, Jonathan; Bradley, Adrian; Baxter, Greg; Seabrook, Leonie; Lunney, Daniel; Liu, Yan; McAlpine, Clive

    2013-05-01

    Human-induced landscape change associated with habitat loss and fragmentation places wildlife populations at risk. One issue in these landscapes is a change in the prevalence of disease which may result in increased mortality and reduced fecundity. Our understanding of the influence of habitat loss and fragmentation on the prevalence of wildlife diseases is still in its infancy. What is evident is that changes in disease prevalence as a result of human-induced landscape modification are highly variable. The importance of infectious diseases for the conservation of wildlife will increase as the amount and quality of suitable habitat decreases due to human land-use pressures. We review the experimental and observational literature of the influence of human-induced landscape change on wildlife disease prevalence, and discuss disease transmission types and host responses as mechanisms that are likely to determine the extent of change in disease prevalence. It is likely that transmission dynamics will be the key process in determining a pathogen's impact on a host population, while the host response may ultimately determine the extent of disease prevalence. Finally, we conceptualize mechanisms and identify future research directions to increase our understanding of the relationship between human-modified landscapes and wildlife disease prevalence. This review highlights that there are rarely consistent relationships between wildlife diseases and human-modified landscapes. In addition, variation is evident between transmission types and landscape types, with the greatest positive influence on disease prevalence being in urban landscapes and directly transmitted disease systems. While we have a limited understanding of the potential influence of habitat loss and fragmentation on wildlife disease, there are a number of important areas to address in future research, particularly to account for the variability in increased and decreased disease prevalence. Previous studies

  15. Summary of the Seattle Urban Area Consequence Management Guidance for a Wide-Area Biological Attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirvel, R

    2010-09-13

    A terrorist attack involving a release of biological warfare agent in the Seattle urban area would require decision-makers to make a host of important, and sometimes untested, choices concerning how best to respond and recover. This technical supplement supports the Puget Sound Regional Biological Attack Recovery Plan Annex to the Regional Catastrophic Plan, which structures the region’s response and recovery approach, by providing technical details on how to conduct a biological remediation. More specifically, the technical supplement identifies the principal issues that must be addressed following a wide-area release of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) spores; explains the resources that are available to address the release; sets forth strategies to reduce the time required for consequence management; and focuses on remediation options, procedures, and tools that can be implemented today should such an incident occur. The content is intended to be used with the Interim Consequence Management Guidance for a Wide-Area Biological Attack (LLNL 2009). A second and related purpose of this technical supplement is to serve as a detailed guide for other geographical regions interested in formulating their own consequence management plans. This technical supplement is funded by, and was developed as part of, the Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration (IBRD) program—a collaborative effort among Department of Homeland Security, Department of Defense, and numerous other Federal, state, and local agencies—to improve the nation’s ability to respond to and recover from a wide-area biological incident. Content of the technical supplement follows the six-phase diagram for responding to and recovering from a biological contamination incident (see Figure 1 on the next page), which represents a consensus scheme developed after multi-agency review and approval. Whereas the focus of the document is on remediation/cleanup activities, the topics of response

  16. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David B.

    2013-09-10

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2012 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2012; 2013a; 2013b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 133.9 millimeters (mm) (5.27 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2012 is 12% below the average of 153.0 mm (6.02 in.), and the 137.6 mm (5.42 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2012 is 11% below the average of 122.4 mm (4.82 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  17. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, D. B. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2013 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2013; 2014a; 2014b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are close to detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 105.8 millimeters (mm) (4.17 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2013 is 30% below the average of 150.3 mm (5.92 in.), and the 117.5 mm (4.63 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2013 is 5% below the average of 123.6 mm (4.86 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: MGT_FISH (Fishery Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains commercial fisheries in South Florida. Vector polygons in this data set represent statistical reporting grids used to aggregate commercial...

  19. Future frequencies of extreme weather events in the National Wildlife Refuges of the conterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Allstadt, Andrew J.; Bateman, Brooke L.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Vavrus, Stephen J.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a major challenge for managers of protected areas world-wide, and managers need information about future climate conditions within protected areas. Prior studies of climate change effects in protected areas have largely focused on average climatic conditions. However, extreme weather may have stronger effects on wildlife populations and habitats than changes in averages. Our goal was to quantify future changes in the frequency of extreme heat, drought, and false springs, during the avian breeding season, in 415 National Wildlife Refuges in the conterminous United States. We analyzed spatially detailed data on extreme weather frequencies during the historical period (1950–2005) and under different scenarios of future climate change by mid- and late-21st century. We found that all wildlife refuges will likely experience substantial changes in the frequencies of extreme weather, but the types of projected changes differed among refuges. Extreme heat is projected to increase dramatically in all wildlife refuges, whereas changes in droughts and false springs are projected to increase or decrease on a regional basis. Half of all wildlife refuges are projected to see increases in frequency (> 20% higher than the current rate) in at least two types of weather extremes by mid-century. Wildlife refuges in the Southwest and Pacific Southwest are projected to exhibit the fastest rates of change, and may deserve extra attention. Climate change adaptation strategies in protected areas, such as the U.S. wildlife refuges, may need to seriously consider future changes in extreme weather, including the considerable spatial variation of these changes.

  20. Trade issues and area-wide pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Food security and economic security are unarguably desirable objectives for all nations - indeed for the world. Equally important is the sustainability of designs that achieve these objectives without disadvantaging others or damaging the environment. Considering area-wide pest management in the context of these interrelated global policy forces is essential to fully understand its role in both the protection of plant resources and in facilitation of trade. The case for food security begins with the realisation that there are currently about 800 million people in the world who are suffering from malnutrition due to lack of food. The World Food Summit, convened in November 1996, urgently called for coordinated world-wide action to ensure 'food for all'. A key strategy for realising this goal is reducing losses due to plant pests. In this light, area-wide pest management can be viewed as a valuable addition to the toolbox of pest management strategies. It can also be one of the most sustainable and cost-effective options to consider for pest management. However, just as the problem of world hunger is not solved by a single farmer, area-wide pest management cannot be successful at the individual level. It requires commitment and cooperation to make it feasible - the same type of commitment and cooperation that was expressed at the World Food Summit. Where economic security is concerned, one need not look far to see a world of growing economic integration and widening circles of development. As the World Trade Organisation celebrates the 50th anniversary of the rules-based trading system which began with the GATT after World War II, it is clear that globalisation and the liberalisation of trade have become permanent fixtures in international policy formulation and are integral to the economic security of all nations. Now, more than ever before, the world's prosperity rests on maintaining an open international economy based on commonly agreed rules. The significance of