David N. Cole; William E. Hammitt
Increasingly, wilderness managers must choose between the objective of wildness (âuntrammeledâ wilderness) and the objectives of naturalness and solitude. This dilemma has surfaced with awareness of the pervasiveness of human influence in wilderness and that regulation is often the only way to maintain outstanding opportunities for solitude. Should we trammel...
William C. Fischer
Outlines a procedure for fire management planning for parks; wilderness areas; and other wild, natural, or essentially undeveloped areas. Discusses background and philosophy of wilderness fire management, planning concepts, planning elements, and planning methods.
John M. Halstead; Cindy M. Brown; Albert E. Luloff; Bruce E. Lindsay
The management plan for the Pemigewasset Wilderness Area of New Hampshire represents a departure from traditional plans. Results of this study indicate limited evidence of the Pemigewasset Wilderness Management Plan (PWMP), as currently implemented, having a large direct impact on diverting hikers from their planned destinations and promoting dispersed usage and low...
Peter B. Landres; Mark W. Brunson; Linda Merigliano; Charisse Sydoriak; Steve Morton
This paper summarizes a dialogue session that focused on two concepts that strongly influence nearly all wilderness management: wildness and naturalness. The origin and value of these concepts are discussed, as well as the dilemma and irony that arises when wilderness managers contemplate manipulating the environment to restore naturalness at the risk of reducing...
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset is meant to depict wilderness areas within the state of New Mexico managed by the Bureau of Land Management These wilderness areas are officially...
Joseph W. Roggenbuck
This essay describes five major critiques of the wilderness idea and how wilderness managers might shape experience opportunities in wilderness in response. These challenges include the notions that the wilderness idea separates people from nature, that it denies the human story in "pristine" lands, that it privileges a kind of recreation favored by elites...
David N. Cole
Recreational use adversely affects the ecological integrity of wilderness. Wilderness managers face the challenge of keeping this loss of ecological integrity to minimal levels, a task that must be accomplished primarily through management of wilderness visitors. For the past 30 years, researchers have assisted managers by assessing problems associated with...
The Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute strives to provide scientific leadership in developing and applying the knowledge necessary to sustain wilderness ecosystems and values. Since its 1993 dedication, researchers at this federal, interagency Institute have collaborated with researchers and managers from other federal, academic and private institutions to...
Pierre van den Berg; Ralph Swain
Wilderness managers have limited time to initiate international exchanges. Additionally, the benefits to developing capacity for wilderness management around the globe are not significant enough to make the effort cost-effective. International assistance, including wilderness management exchange programs, is critical to protecting wild areas around the globe. Former...
Ramesh Ghimire; Ken Cordell; Alan Watson; Chad Dawson; Gary T. Green
A national survey of managers was developed to support interagency wilderness strategic planning. The focus was on major challenges, perceived needs for science and training, and accomplishments of 1995 Strategic Plan objectives. The survey was administered to managers at the four federal agencies with wilderness management responsibilities: the Bureau of Land...
William A. Valliere; Robert E. Manning
The underlying hypothesis of this study is that environmental ethics influence public attitudes toward wilderness management. To study this hypothesis, environmental ethics were defined, categorized, and measured empirically. Additionally, attitudes toward selected wilderness management issues were measured. Associations were found between beliefs in selected...
Robert E. Manning
A large and growing body of research on outdoor recreation and the wilderness experience has been conducted over the nearly 50 years since passage of the Wilderness Act of 1964. A number of conceptual and empirical frameworks have emerged from this body of knowledge that can be used to help define and manage the wilderness experience.
David N. Cole; Stephen F. McCool; William T. Borrie; Jennifer O' Loughlin
Thirty-seven papers are presented on wilderness visitors, experiences, and visitor management. Three overview papers synthesize knowledge and research about wilderness visitors, management of visitor experiences, and wilderness recreation planning. Other papers contain the results of specific research projects on wilderness visitors, information and education, and...
Molly E. Hunter; Jose M. Iniguez; Calvin A. Farris
Fire suppression has been the dominant fire management strategy in the West over the last century. However, managers of the Gila and Aldo Leopold Wilderness Complex in New Mexico and the Saguaro Wilderness Area in Arizona have allowed fire to play a more natural role for decades. This report summarizes the effects of these fire management practices on key resources,...
Emily F. Pomeranz; Mark D. Needham; Linda E. Kruger
This article focuses on the collaborative and voluntary Wilderness Best Management Practices (WBMP) for managing recreation in Tracy Arm-Fords Terror Wilderness in Alaska. Stakeholder definitions of wilderness, opinions about the WBMP, and whether these opinions are reflective of their perceptions of wilderness are examined. Interviews with tour operators, agency...
Alan E. Watson; Ann Schwaller; Robert Dvorak; Neal Christensen; William T. Borrie
The Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in northern Minnesota has a rich history of advocacy for protection as wilderness. In the 1950s, Sigurd Olsen best described the song of the wilderness in Minnesota's north country: "I have heard the singing in many places, but I seem to hear it best in the wilderness lake country of the Quetico-Superior,...
When the federal agencies established policies in the late 1960s and early 1970s to allow the use of natural fires in wilderness, they launched a natural fire management experiment in a handful of wilderness areas. As a result, wildland fire has played more of its natural role in wilderness than anywhere else. Much of what we understand about fire ecology comes from...
Chad P. Dawson; Ken Cordell; Alan E. Watson; Ramesh Ghimire; Gary T. Green
The Wilderness Manager Survey (WMS) was developed in 2014 to support interagency strategic planning for the National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS) and asked managers about their perceived threats to the NWPS, the need for science information to support decisionmaking, the need for education and training, and the most important problems for managers in the...
Alan Watson; David N. Cole; Gregory T. Friese; John C. Hendee; Peter Landres; Thoms F. Geary; Gerald L. Stokes; Jeff Jarvis; Wes Henry
This chapter is a compendium of six papers written to add further depth to our national assessment of Wilderness, begun with the previous chapter. The first three papers summarize research and experience about the identity of Wilderness users and how Wilderness is used, use of Wilderness for personal growth, and changes of Wilderness values. The second three papers...
Funding wilderness protection will continue to be a challenge for public land managers. With continuing competition for federal funds and balanced budget goals, other sources of funds may be necessary to supplement annual federal appropriations. This paper identifies and evaluates five potential funding strategies and provides examples of each that are currently in use...
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset is meant to depict Wilderness Study Areas (WSA's), within the state of New Mexico, identified by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) as having...
The cultural roots and images of the Finnish wilderness lie in its use as a source of livelihood practiced in southern and central Finland during the Middle Ages. There are statutory wilderness areas in Finland, but Finnish people consider many other areas as wilderness. It is important for management of the areas, statutory wilderness areas and the other wilderness-...
Wilderness managers are faced with making judgments about the appropriateness of different types of recreational activities. One of the criteria they use is wilderness dependence-the notion that an activity should be allowed, or privileged if rationing is required, if it depends on a wilderness setting for much of its value. Inherent in this concept is the idea that...
Paul R. Lachapelle
Officials with the four wilderness managing agencies are faced with balancing wilderness preservation values and the minimum tool policies of their respective agencies. One example is the management of sanitation, particularly human waste and the often intrusive infrastructure that accompanies its treatment and disposal. Because the treatment and disposal of human...
Ingrid E. Schneider
The concept of visitor displacement has important implications for wilderness management and research. Research on actual displacement of wilderness visitors is extremely limited, but this displacement likely follows patterns found for general recreationists: visitors employ a variety of coping responses and displacement is prevalent. Understanding if and when visitors...
J. Dan Abbe
The California Desert Protection Act of 1994 was the largest park and wilderness legislation passed in the Lower 48 States since the Wilderness Act of 1964. It designated three national parks and 69 Bureau of Land Management wilderness areas. The California Desert and Wilderness Restoration Project is working to restore and revitalize these lands through a public/...
Ryan N.K. Brown; Randall S. Rosenberger; Jeffrey D. Kline; Troy E. Hall; Mark D. Needham
The 2003 Bear Butte and Booth (B&B) Fires burned much of the Mount Jefferson Wilderness in the Deschutes and Willamette National Forests, Oregon. A question for managers is how best to manage recreation in fire-affected areas in ways that minimize adverse impacts on visitor experiences and the recovering landscape. To help address this question, we used onsite...
Michael J. Tranel
Like many wilderness areas, Denali National Park and Preserve faces a variety of challenges in its wilderness management planning. As an Alaska conservation unit that has been significantly expanded by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 (ANILCA), Denali faces the additional responsibility of acknowledging that its management of controversial...
Stephen F. McCool
Does research help managers provide opportunities for visitors to have high quality experiences in wilderness? Difficulties in applying visitor experience research result from several factors: the nature of wilderness itself, the character of the wilderness visitor experience challenge as a research and management topic, and the paradigm of research applications...
Dvorak, Robert G.; Borrie, William T.; Watson, Alan E.
Wilderness managers are charged with the challenging goal of balancing resource protection and experience quality across a broad, value-laden landscape. While research has provided insight into visitors' motivations and their meanings for wilderness, a struggle exists to implement experiential concepts within current management frameworks. This research posits the human experience of wilderness to be an evolving, enduring relationship, and that research needs can be addressed by conceptualizing and investigating an individuals' personal wilderness relationship. The purpose of this study was to explore wilderness relationships of visitors to the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. A predictive model was proposed to investigate the internal dimensions of a visitor's wilderness relationship. A mail-back questionnaire was distributed during the summer of 2007, resulting in a sample of 564 respondents. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Results from testing several relationship models provided support for a multidimensional structure consisting of five factors with a single overarching relationship factor. The preferred relationship model indicated the importance of identities and attachment in place relationships. Trust and commitment toward management were also important considerations. This research provided the preliminary evidence for a multidimensional wilderness relationship model and complements a perspective of wilderness experiences as wilderness. Findings may help to reframe decision-making and public-input processes that guide management actions to increased wilderness character protection and facilitate quality wilderness experiences.
... focus on protecting natural resources and systems. Under this alternative, most of the Big Spring... Availability of the Draft General Management Plan/ Wilderness Study/Environmental Impact Statement for the... Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Environmental Impact Statement (GMP/WS/EIS) for the Ozark National Scenic...
Troy E. Hall; Erin Seekamp; David Cole
Surveys show relatively little support for use restrictions to protect wilderness experiences. However, such conclusions based on aggregate data could hide important differences among visitors. Visitors with more wilderness-dependent trip motives were hypothesized to be more supportive of use restrictions. Using survey data from visitors to 13 wildernesses, cluster...
... management under alternative B would be to enable visitor participation in a wide variety of outdoor... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2031-A046-409] General Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Big Cypress National...
Full Text Available A unique momentum has been created over the past few years for strengthening the protection of wilderness in Europe. Policy makers started to pay attention to the importance of truly untouched and non-managed areas and the European Parliament adopted a special report on wilderness in February 2009. The report was followed by the EC Presidency Conference in Prague, May 2009, on Wilderness Areas. The most important outcome of this event was the approval of the ‘Agenda for Wilderness’, which eventually led to the inclusion of wilderness in the new EU Biodiversity Strategy. This paper argues that these political successes have yet to be put into practice. Threats to wilderness areas are still increasing and there have been no improvements in the management of these areas. There are emerging threats, especially from tree felling and mining, which is driven by increase in commodity prices. In order to save the last pieces of wilderness in Europe and utilize the current opportunities to restore wilderness areas, science and field conservation must develop a common Wilderness Research Agenda for Europe. The main questions are: (i What are the ecosystem services and benefits that humans obtain for wilderness areas? (ii What is the potential contribution of such wilderness areas for reducing biodiversity loss, halt species extinctions and support biodiversity restoration in Europe? (iii What is the social perception of wilderness in different countries and across different sectors of society? (iv What should be considered wilderness in a densely populated area such as Europe?
..., methods used to protect wilderness conditions and social conditions, actions taken by managers to control... most important elements of the wilderness environment and social conditions, such as naturalness, wildness, challenge, self-reliance, crowding, and aesthetics; and 4. How current visitor use...
Alan E. Watson; Neal A. Christensen; Dale J. Blahna; Kari S. Archibald
Llama use in wilderness is projected to increase over the next 5 years. While the greatest concerns about this increase in use are unexpected impacts to native flora, impacts to native fauna, and conflicts with other user types, there is also concern about how prepared managers are to deal with this increasing recreation demand. This research compares manager attitudes...
Peter Landres; Steve Boutcher; Liese Dean; Troy Hall; Tamara Blett; Terry Carlson; Ann Mebane; Carol Hardy; Susan Rinehart; Linda Merigliano; David N. Cole; Andy Leach; Pam Wright; Deb Bumpus
The purpose of monitoring wilderness character is to improve wilderness stewardship by providing managers a tool to assess how selected actions and conditions related to wilderness character are changing over time. Wilderness character monitoring provides information to help answer two key questions about wilderness character and wilderness stewardship: 1. How is...
Peter Landres; Suzy Stutzman; Wade Vagias; Carol Cook; Christina Mills; Tim Devine; Sandee Dingman; Adrienne Lindholm; Miki Stuebe; Melissa Memory; Ruth Scott; Michael Bilecki; Ray O' Neil; Chris Holbeck; Frank Turina; Michael Haynie; Sarah Craighead; Chip Jenkins; Jeremy Curtis; Karen Trevino
This User Guide was developed to help National Park Service (NPS) staff effectively and efficiently fulfill the mandate from the 1964 Wilderness Act and NPS policy to "preserve wilderness character" now and into the future. This mandate applies to all congressionally designated wilderness and other park lands that are, by policy, managed as wilderness,...
Craig W. Allin
The National Wilderness Preservation System reflects the triumph of politics over science. The history of wilderness allocation has reflected political rather than scientific sensibilities. The preeminence of politics over science extends to wilderness management as well and is illustrated here by representative examples from the modern history of Yellowstone National...
Paul A. Gray; Robert J. Davidson
Sustainable development, ecosystem management and ecosystem health are three prominent catch phrases that now permeate the scientific and popular media, and form the basis of a growing number of private sector, government and academic programs. This discussion paper briefly explores the definition and application of these concepts as a context for wilderness protection...
Planning is where science, public interests and management of wilderness areas come together. Unfortunately, science and information specifically supporting wilderness experiences, if any exists, is often perceived by managers as subjective, value laden, and hard to defend. This can sometimes lead to the tough decisions about providing high quality wilderness...
Stephen F. McCool; Chad P. Dawson
What information is needed to facilitate enhanced management of visitor experiences in wilderness? The final session of the workshop comprised a facilitated process with the 20 participants to identify research and information needs to support wilderness visitor experience management. The Wilderness Act and the previous presentations and discussions not only provided a...
Alan Watson; Roian Matt; Tim Waters; Kari Gunderson; Steve Carver; Brett Davis
On the Flathead Indian Reservation in Montana, U.S., the Mission Mountains Tribal Wilderness is bordered by a buffer zone. To successfully improve forest health within that buffer zone and restore fire in the wilderness, the managing agency and the public need to work together to find solutions to increasingly threatening fuel buildups. A combination of qualitative,...
... Environmental Impact Statement for General Management Plan/ Wilderness Study, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY: The National Park... updating the General Management Plan (GMP) for Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. As part of this conservation...
Robert G. Dvorak; William T. Borrie; Alan E. Watson
Wilderness managers are charged with the challenging goal of balancing resource protection and experience quality across a broad, value-laden landscape. While research has provided insight into visitors' motivations and their meanings for wilderness, a struggle exists to implement experiential concepts within current management frameworks. This research posits the...
Sandra L. Haire; Carol Miller; Kevin McGarigal
Management activities, applied over broad scales, can potentially affect attributes of fire regimes including fire severity. Wilderness landscapes provide a natural laboratory for exploring effects of management because in some federally designated wilderness areas the burning of naturally ignited fires is promoted. In order to better understand the contribution of...
... and culminate in life-threatening heat stroke. The differential diagnosis in the wilderness is broad and should include exercise-associated hyponatraemia with or without encephalopathy. Clinical guidelines for wilderness and hospital management of these conditions are available. Field management and evacuation are ...
Robert M. Muth; Roger N. Clark
This paper describes the application of the Incentive System for Litter Control to wilderness and backcountry environments. Based on research, observation, and management experience, a set of procedures was developed and is presented here. Additional management considerations are discussed.
H. Ken Cordell; John C. Bergstrom; J. Michael Bowker
Gone are those of the 1950s and early 1960s who championed preserving wild lands and who influenced and saw through the birth of the National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS). Gone too are myriad eager managers and proponents of wild land protection of the late 1960s and 1970s who helped rear the fledgling Wilderness1 system and bring it into adolescence by adding...
Antarctica is often described as one of the world's last wildernesses. In harmony with this general perception, the wilderness values of Antarctica received legal status with the adoption of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Article 3(1) of the Protocol obliges each
Keiter, Robert [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Holt, Rebecca [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Tanana, Heather [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); McNeally, Phoebe [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Tribby, Clavin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
Utah is rich in oil shale and oil sands resources. Chief among the challenges facing prospective unconventional fuel developers is the ability to access these resources. Access is heavily dependent upon land ownership and applicable management requirements. Understanding constraints on resource access and the prospect of consolidating resource holdings across a fragmented management landscape is critical to understanding the role Utah’s unconventional fuel resources may play in our nation’s energy policy. This Topical Report explains the historic roots of the “crazy quilt” of western land ownership, how current controversies over management of federal public land with wilderness character could impact access to unconventional fuels resources, and how land exchanges could improve management efficiency. Upon admission to the Union, the State of Utah received the right to title to more than one-ninth of all land within the newly formed state. This land is held in trust to support public schools and institutions, and is managed to generate revenue for trust beneficiaries. State trust lands are scattered across the state in mostly discontinuous 640-acre parcels, many of which are surrounded by federal land and too small to develop on their own. Where state trust lands are developable but surrounded by federal land, federal land management objectives can complicate state trust land development. The difficulty generating revenue from state trust lands can frustrate state and local government officials as well as citizens advocating for economic development. Likewise, the prospect of industrial development of inholdings within prized conservation landscapes creates management challenges for federal agencies. One major tension involves whether certain federal public lands possess wilderness character, and if so, whether management of those lands should emphasize wilderness values over other uses. On December 22, 2010, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar issued
Wright, H E
fire. Major fires occur so often that the vegetation pattern is a record of fire history. All elements in the forest mosaic are in various stages of postfire succession, with only a few approaching climax. Fire interrupts the successful sequence toward climax. Geomorphic and edaphic factors in vegetational distribution are largely submerged by the fire regime, except for bog and other lowland vegetation. Fire recycles nutrients and renews succession. Nevertheless, despite the fire regime, the resulting long-term equilibrium of the forest mosaic, characterized by severe and irregular fluctuations of individual elements, reflects regional climate. In the BWCA and the western mountains, large virgin forests can be preserved for study and wilderness recreation. These wilderness areas must be managed to return them to the natural equilibrium which has been disturbed by 50 to 70 years of fire suppression. The goal should be to maintain virgin forests as primeval wilderness. This can be done by management that permits fire and other natural processes to determine the forest mosaic. Mechanized tree-felling and other human disturbances should be kept to an absolute minimum. Natural landforms also should be preserved for study and for certain nondestructive recreational activities. It is somewhat late for the Colorado River and other rivers of the West, because natural balances are upset by drainagebasin disturbances. Modification of plant cover on hillslopes changes infiltration and erosion rates and thus the stream discharge and sediment load, so the stream balance is altered from primeval conditions. Scenic Rivers legislation should thus be used to restore certain river systems and their drainage basins. Mountain meadows, badlands, desert plains, and patterned permafrost terrain are extremely fragile and sensitive. Intricate stream and weathering processes leave patterns easily obliterated by mechanized vehicles. Tire tracks can last for decades or centuries. The mineral
John J. Confer; Andrew J. Mowen; Alan K. Graefe; James D. Absher
The Leave No Trace (LNT) educational program has the potential to provide wilderness users with useful minimum impact information. For LNT to be effective, managers need to understand who is most/least aware of minimum impact practices and how to expose users to LNT messages. This study examined LNT knowledge among various user groups at an Eastern wilderness area and...
John H. Schomaker; Thomas R. Glassford
Backcountry areas have been suggested as recreation alternatives to wilderness. A problem with the concept is that areas which could be managed as backcountry are already used by recreationists. Visitors to a wilderness in Oregon and to a nondesignated roadless area in northern Idaho held many of the same values and sought the same kind of experiences. Therefore....
Nicholas Palso; Alan Graefe
This study explores perceptions of wilderness recreationists in the eastern United States, with a focus on definitions of wilderness areas and factors that may decrease enjoyment of the wilderness experience. The eventual aim is to compare these data with information collected from wilderness users in the western United States. The few studies performed on this...
Corn, Paul Stephen
The decline of amphibian species has emerged as a major global conservation issue in the last decade. Last year, the Department of the Interior (DOI) initiated a major national initiative to detect trends in amphibian populations and research the causes of declines. The program, conducted principally by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), emphasizes lands managed by DOI, but collaboration with the Forest Service is encouraged to increase the scope of inference about population trends. Although amphibians are not usually the first group of animals that comes to mind when one thinks of wilderness, conservation of amphibian populations is clearly a wilderness issue.
Ken Cordell; Chris Barns; David Brownlie; Tom Carlson; Chad Dawson; William Koch; Garry Oye; Chris Ryan
The authors of this article are recently retired wilderness professionals from universities or federal agencies. We were asked to share our observations about how wilderness stewardship is being managed in America today. We based our observations on our many years of combined professional wilderness career experience as managers, trainers, scientists, educators, and...
Robert J. Hrubes; Kent P. Connaughton; Robert W. Sassaman
This hypothesis was tested by a linear programing model: Roadless areas on the Sierra National Forest precluded from planned future development would be candidates for wilderness designation, and the associated loss in present and future timber harvests could be offset by investing in more intensive management. The results of this simulation test suggest that levels of...
Schuster, Elke; Johnson, S. Shea; Taylor, Jonathan G.
A substantial amount of backcountry (about 250,000 acres) in Rocky Mountain National Park [RMNP of the Park] may be designated as wilderness areas in the coming years. Currently, over 3 million visitors drives through the park on Trail Ridge Road, camp in designated campgrounds, day hike, etc. each year. Many of those visitors also report using the backcountry-wilderness areas that are not easily accessible by roads or trails. Use of the backcountry is growing at RMNP and is accompanied by changing visitor expectations and preferences for wilderness management. For these reasons it is of great importance for the Park to periodically assess what types of environments and conditions wilderness users seek to facilitate a quality experience. To assist in this effort, the Political Analysis and Science Assistance [PSAS] program / Fort Collins Center / U.S. Geological Survey, in close collaboration with personnel and volunteers from RMNP, as well as the Natural Resource Recreation and Tourism [NRRT] Department at Colorado State University, launched a research effort in the summer of 2002 to investigate visitorsa?? wilderness experiences in the Park. Specifically, the purpose of this research was: (1) To determine what constitutes a wilderness experience; (2) To identify important places, visual features, and sounds essential to a quality wilderness experience and; (3) To determine what aspects may detract from wilderness experience. Thus, answers to these questions should provide insight for Park managers about visitorsa?? expectation for wilderness recreation and the conditions they seek for quality wilderness experiences. Ultimately, this information can be used to support wilderness management decisions within RMNP. The social science technique of Visitor Employed Photography [VEP] was used to obtain information from visitors about wilderness experiences. Visitors were selected at random from Park-designated wilderness trails, in proportion to their use, and asked to
Every year, the four Federal wilderness management agencies - U.S. DOI Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, and the USDA Forest Service - receive hundreds of proposals to conduct scientific studies within wilderness. There is no consistent and comprehensive framework for evaluating such proposals that accounts for the unique...
Alan E. Watson; David N. Cole; David L. Turner; Penny S. Reynolds
Documented evidence shows that managers of units within the U.S. National Wilderness Preservation System are making decisions without reliable information on the amount, types, and distribution of recreation use occurring at these areas. There are clear legislative mandates and agency policies that direct managers to monitor trends in use and conditions in wilderness....
Alan E. Watson; Michael J. Niccolucci
Beliefs and attitudes underlying wilderness visitorsâ support for use restrictions were studied. Some evidence shows that in overused places visitors cite both protection of the resource and the wilderness experience as reasons for supporting restrictions. The research reported here provides the opportunity to assess the relative contribution of each of these reasons,...
I grew up in urban China, and to me wilderness was an enchanting yet elusive concept. Although I traveled extensively in China to remote locations, studied leisure and recreation management at Pennsylvania State University at the doctoral level, and taught recreation management at the University of Montana, backcountry camping is simply not a common practice among...
James N. Gladden
An analysis of co-managing structures and land use issues in three case studies of arctic wilderness politics shows that more formal and informal power sharing by government officials with local people results in less conflict. Greater input and control by nearby communities may also help to protect wilderness ecosystems and traditional values of northern cultures....
William W. Hendricks; Alan E. Watson
Since its development by Jim Bradley in the late 1970s, the Impact Monster, a wilderness education skit designed to teach minimum impact techniques, has been used as a wilderness education tool by federal land management agencies. This paper reports on an evaluation of the perceived effectiveness of the Impact Monster program and its content. Results indicate that the...
The location of the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park wilderness areas along an international border and within a World Heritage Site and Transfrontier Conservation Area, provides unique opportunities and challenges for the stewardship of these areas. Although the wilderness areas were proclaimed more than 30 years ago, wilderness-specific planning, management and monitoring...
The Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in northern Minnesota is one of the most iconic and cherished wilderness areas in the United States. One of the original wilderness areas established in 1964, the BWCAW protects a glaciated landscape of about 1,175 lakes, connected by several hundred miles of streams. Located adjacent to Canada's Quetico Provincial...
Kari Gunderson; Christopher V. Barns; William W. Hendricks; Leo H. McAvoy
Many scientists, managers and advocates for wilderness consider education key to promoting appreciation and understanding of the cultural, environmental and experiential values of wilderness. Despite the large variety and diversity of wilderness information and education techniques, little research exists on the design and application of wilderness education programs...
Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell; Robert Manning; Steven Martin
The historic Wilderness Act celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2014, and wilderness social science shared a similar legacy. As paradoxical as it might seem, humans are an important part of wilderness, helping to define the very concept and representing an important component of wilderness use and management. Much of the past five decades of wilderness-related...
Steven R. Lawson; Robert Manning
Wilderness experiences are thought to be comprised of or defined by three dimensions, including social, resource, and management conditions. Decisions about how to manage wilderness recreation in Denali National Park involve potential tradeoffs among the conditions of resource, social, and managerial attributes of the wilderness experience. This study expands the...
I conducted a survey of wilderness areas to provide an overview of plant invasions in the National Wilderness Preservation System. Fifteen per cent of responding mangers reported that exotic plants were among their top 10 management concerns, either because they are actively dealing with control of exotic pest plants or have prioritized prevention of their...
Drury, Jack K.
A Wilderness Recreation Education program aims to: offer students an opportunity to be involved with direct learning in the outdoors; instill an understanding of ways to exist within and enjoy the wilderness environment; and develop an awareness of an appreciation for the need to conserve and maintain the wilderness environment for generations to…
Troy E. Hall; David N. Cole
We describe how wilderness visitors perceive changes in wilderness use, impacts, and management. We examine how visitors have responded to change, both behaviorally and cognitively. The study was based on a sample of visitors to 19 Forest Service wildernesses in Oregon and Washington. Many respondents said the types of wilderness trips they take have changed since...
The present status of species and habitats in Finnish wilderness areas is largely a consequence of past administrative, use, and management traditions in northern Finland. The existing wilderness legislation sets a framework for management, but historical uses and administrative decisions have influenced many prevailing practices. In addition, management of many uses...
Alan E. Watson
At the 2005 Biennial George Wright Society Conference on Parks, Protected Areas, and Cultural Sites in Philadelphia, March 14 to 18, there were many sessions relevant to wilderness. One session provided focus on a priority research area of the Leopold Institute: understanding the effects of management actions on relationships between people and wilderness. A great...
Kristopher J. Lah
This research compared the differences found between manager-defined and visitor-defined social standards for wilderness encounters in Mount Rainier National Park. Social standards in recreation areas of public land are defined by what is acceptable to the public, in addition to the areaâs management. Social standards for the encounter indicator in Mount Rainierâs...
Alan E. Watson; David N. Cole; Joseph W. Roggenbuck
Recent studies at the Leopold Institute have included analysis of use and user trends at the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Desolation Wilderness, Shining Rock Wilderness, the Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex, Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Eagle Cap Wilderness. Some sociodemographics, like age, education, and the proportion of female visitors, have...
David N. Cole
Seven principles, derived from research on wilderness campsites, are proposed: (1) campsite impacts are complex; (2) impact is inevitable with repetitive use of campsites; (3) impact occurs rapidly, recovery occurs slowly; (4) the relationship between use and impact is asymptotic; (5) certain sites are more durable than others; (6) certain users cause less impact than...
Medical Oversight, Educational Core Content, and Proposed Scopes of Practice of Wilderness EMS Providers: A Joint Project Developed by Wilderness EMS Educators, Medical Directors, and Regulators Using a Delphi Approach.
Millin, Michael G; Johnson, David E; Schimelpfenig, Tod; Conover, Keith; Sholl, Matthew; Busko, Jonnathan; Alter, Rachael; Smith, Will; Symonds, Jennifer; Taillac, Peter; Hawkins, Seth C
A disparity exists between the skills needed to manage patients in wilderness EMS environments and the scopes of practice that are traditionally approved by state EMS regulators. In response, the National Association of EMS Physicians Wilderness EMS Committee led a project to define the educational core content supporting scopes of practice of wilderness EMS providers and the conditions when wilderness EMS providers should be required to have medical oversight. Using a Delphi process, a group of experts in wilderness EMS, representing educators, medical directors, and regulators, developed model educational core content. This core content is a foundation for wilderness EMS provider scopes of practice and builds on both the National EMS Education Standards and the National EMS Scope of Practice Model. These experts also identified the conditions when oversight is needed for wilderness EMS providers. By consensus, this group of experts identified the educational core content for four unique levels of wilderness EMS providers: Wilderness Emergency Medical Responder (WEMR), Wilderness Emergency Medical Technician (WEMT), Wilderness Advanced Emergency Medical Technician (WAEMT), and Wilderness Paramedic (WParamedic). These levels include specialized skills and techniques pertinent to the operational environment. The skills and techniques increase in complexity with more advanced certification levels, and address the unique circumstances of providing care to patients in the wilderness environment. Furthermore, this group identified that providers having a defined duty to act should be functioning with medical oversight. This group of experts defined the educational core content supporting the specific scopes of practice that each certification level of wilderness EMS provider should have when providing patient care in the wilderness setting. Wilderness EMS providers are, indeed, providing health care and should thus function within defined scopes of practice and with
David N. Cole
Wilderness is a relatively new and powerful idea that is still finding its footing in the world of science. Although the intellectual history of wilderness can be traced farther back in time (Nash 2001), as a land classification wilderness is less than a century old, and it was just 50 years ago that wilderness was codified in legislation in the United States. While...
Joy, Elizabeth; Van Baak, Karin; Dec, Katherine L; Semakula, Barbara; Cardin, Ashlea D; Lemery, Jay; Wortley, George C; Yaron, Michael; Madden, Christopher
Children, older adults, disabled and special needs athletes, and female athletes who participate in outdoor and wilderness sports and activities each face unique risks. For children and adolescents traveling to high altitude, the preparticipation physical evaluation should focus on risk assessment, prevention strategies, early recognition of altitude-related symptoms, management plans, and appropriate follow-up. As the risk and prevalence of chronic disease increases with age, both older patients and providers need to be aware of disease and medication-specific risks relative to wilderness sport and activity participation. Disabled and special needs athletes benefit from careful pre-event planning for the potential medical issues and equipment modifications that may affect their health in wilderness environments. Issues that demand special consideration for female adventurers include pregnancy, contraceptive use, menses, and ferritin levels at altitude. A careful preparticipation evaluation that factors in unique, population- specific risks will help special populations stay healthy and safe on wilderness adventures. The PubMed and SportDiscus databases were searched in 2014 using both MeSH terms and text words and include peer-reviewed English language articles from 1977 to 2014. Additional information was accessed from Web-based sources to produce this narrative review on preparticipation evaluation for special populations undertaking wilderness adventures. Key words include children, adolescent, pediatric, seniors, elderly, disabled, special needs, female, athlete, preparticipiation examination, wilderness medicine, and sports. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Laurel Boyers; Mark Fincher; Jan van Wagtendonk
The research, resource management and wilderness staffs in Yosemite National Park recently completed the third 10-year cycle of a wilderness campsite impact monitoring program. Initial results indicate an overall improvement in conditions due to a strong restoration program, decreased use and increased visitor education. Lessons learned point to the necessity for ample...
Schuster, Elke; Johnson, S. Shea; Taylor, Jonathan G.
Approximately 250,000 acres of backcountry in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP or the Park) may be designated as wilderness use areas in the coming years. Currently, over 3 million people visit RMNP each year; many drive through the park on Trail Ridge Road, camp in designated campgrounds, or hike in front-country areas. However, visitors also report much use of backcountry areas that are not easily accessible by roads or trails. Use of the backcountry is growing at RMNP and is accompanied by changing visitor expectations and preferences for wilderness management. For these reasons it is of great importance for the Park to periodically assess what types of environments and conditions wilderness users seek, to help them facilitate a quality wilderness experience.
Information about human relationships with wilderness is important for wilderness management decisions, including decisions pertaining to the use of wildland fire. In a study about meanings attached to a national forest, local residents were asked to identify places they valued on the forest, why they valued them, and how fuel treatments affected those values. Local...
The Wilderness Debate Rages On is a collection of mostly previously published papers about the meaning, value, and role of wilderness and continues the discussion that was propelled by the editors' previous book The Great New Wilderness Debate (also a collection of papers) published in 1998. The editors state that this sequel to their previous book is mandated...
Schrading, Walter A; Battaglioli, Nicole; Drew, Jonathan; McClure, Sarah Frances
Wilderness medicine training has become increasingly popular among medical professionals with numerous educational opportunities nationwide. Curricula for fellowship programs and for medical student education have previously been developed and published, but a specific curriculum for wilderness medicine education during emergency medicine (EM) residency has not. The objective of this study is to create a longitudinal wilderness medicine curriculum that can be incorporated into an EM residency program. Interest-specific tracks are becoming increasingly common in EM training. We chose this model to develop our curriculum specific to wilderness medicine. Outlined in the article is a 3-year longitudinal course of study that includes a core didactic curriculum and a plan for graduated level of responsibility. The core content is specifically related to the required EM core content for residency training with additions specific to wilderness medicine for the residents who pursue the track. The wilderness medicine curriculum would give residencies a framework that can be used to foster learning for residents interested in wilderness medicine. It would enhance the coverage of wilderness and environmental core content education for all EM residents in the program. It would provide wilderness-specific education and experience for interested residents, allowing them to align their residency program requirements through a focused area of study and enhancing their curriculum vitae at graduation. Finally, given the popularity of wilderness medicine, the presence of a wilderness medicine track may improve recruitment for the residency program. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
David N. Cole; Stephen F. McCool; Wayne A. Freimund; Jennifer O' Loughlin
Ten papers presented as plenary talks at the conference, "Wilderness Science in a Time of Change," are included. Topics include: the influence of global change on wilderness and its management; contemporary criticisms and celebrations of the wilderness idea; the capacity of science to meet the challenges and opportunities wilderness presents; wilderness in...
Alan E. Watson
While there is a long history of research on factors influencing wilderness recreation visitor experiences, there has been little focused research to understand the experiences of users visiting wilderness under legislative special provisions or the impact of these special provisions on wilderness recreation visitors. There are some exceptions. For example, contrasting...
... Register Notification of Redesignation of Potential Wilderness as Wilderness, Ross Lake National Recreation..., Ross Lake National Recreation Area, and Lake Chelan National Recreation Area as the Stephen Mather... acres of potential wilderness within Ross Lake National Recreation Area, including approximately 1,667...
James Tricker; Peter Landres; Jennifer Chenoweth; Roger Hoffman; Scott Ruth
The Olympic Wilderness was established November 16, 1988 when President Ronald Reagan signed the Washington Park Wilderness Act. A total of 876,447 acres or 95% of Olympic National Park (OLYM) was designated as wilderness and became a part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, wherein wilderness character would be preserved. The purpose of this project was to...
Dan McDonald; Tom McDonald; Leo H. McAvoy
This paper represents a dialogue between tribal wilderness managers and researchers on the primary research needs of tribal wilderness in the United States and Canada. The authors identify a number of research priorities for tribal wildlands. The paper also discusses some major issues and challenges faced by researchers conducting research in areas that are culturally...
Ceauşu, Silvia; Gomes, Inês; Pereira, Henrique Miguel
Several of the most important conservation prioritization approaches select markedly different areas at global and regional scales. They are designed to maximize a certain biodiversity dimension such as coverage of species in the case of hotspots and complementarity, or composite properties of ecosystems in the case of wilderness. Most comparisons between approaches have ignored the multidimensionality of biodiversity. We analyze here the results of two species-based methodologies-hotspots and complementarity-and an ecosystem-based methodology-wilderness-at local scale. As zoning of protected areas can increase the effectiveness of conservation, we use the data employed for the management plan of the Peneda-Gerês National Park in Portugal. We compare the approaches against four criteria: species representativeness, wilderness coverage, coverage of important areas for megafauna, and for regulating ecosystem services. Our results suggest that species- and ecosystem-based approaches select significantly different areas at local scale. Our results also show that no approach covers well all biodiversity dimensions. Species-based approaches cover species distribution better, while the ecosystem-based approach favors wilderness, areas important for megafauna, and for ecosystem services. Management actions addressing different dimensions of biodiversity have a potential for contradictory effects, social conflict, and ecosystem services trade-offs, especially in the context of current European biodiversity policies. However, biodiversity is multidimensional, and management and zoning at local level should reflect this aspect. The consideration of both species- and ecosystem-based approaches at local scale is necessary to achieve a wider range of conservation goals.
Nathan L. Stephenson; Connie Millar
Anthropogenic climatic change can no longer be considered an abstract possibility. It is here, its effects are already evident, and changes are expected to accelerate in coming decades, profoundly altering wilderness ecosystems. At the most fundamental level, wilderness stewards will increasingly be confronted with a trade-off between untrammeled wilderness character...
Douglas G. Fox; Ann M. Bartuska; James G. Byrne; Ellis Cowling; Richard Fisher; Gene E. Likens; Steven E. Lindberg; Rick A. Linthurst; Jay Messer; Dale S. Nichols
This screening procedure is intended to help wilderness managers conduct "adverse impact determinations" as part of Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) applications for sources that emit air pollutants that might impact Class I wildernesses. The process provides an initial estimate of susceptibility to critical loadings for sulfur, nitrogen, and...
Paticia L. Winter
Wilderness is widely supported by the American public (Campaign for Americaâs Wilderness 2003) and provides myriad ecosystem services and other benefits (Schuster and others 2005, Williams and Watson 2007). Wilderness services and benefits deemed important to the public include use (such as recreation) and non-usevalues (such as scenery appreciation) (Brown...
Claire Payne; J. Michael Bowker; Patrick C. Reed
Wilderness is an integral part of the Federal land system. Since its inception in 1964, the National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS) has grown to more than ninety million acres. It presents a source of controversy to many in society, while to many others its existence is virtually unknown. Among those who have an explicit interest in wilderness, there...
Chad P. Dawson; Peter Newman; Alan Watson
This exploratory study involved identifying the dimensions of a wilderness experience sought by users based on the available literature and on input from wilderness users. Input was collected using focus group interviews with members of four groups that were primarily involved in wilderness use and preservation in recent years. Positive and negative dimensions are...
Ashley Adams; Peter Landres; Simon Kingston
The National Park Service (NPS) Wilderness Stewardship Division, in collaboration with the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute and the NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program, developed a database application to facilitate tracking and trend reporting in wilderness character. The Wilderness Character Monitoring Database allows consistent, scientifically based...
Nicholas Palso; Alan Graefe
This study explores the differences in perceptions of wilderness between recreationists in the Eastern United States and those from the West, with a focus on definitions of wilderness areas and factors that may decrease enjoyment of the wilderness experience. The few studies performed on this comparison over the past 25 years have produced inconsistent results and...
Keith C. Russell; John C. Hendee; Dianne Phillips-Miller
This paper summarizes findings from a detailed study of the processes employed by four leading wilderness therapy programs focusing on how wilderness therapy works, the kinds of behavioral problems to which it is commonly applied, expected outcomes and the role of wilderness in the intervention and treatment process (Russell, 1999). Wilderness therapy is an emerging...
Joseph W. Roggenbuck; B. L. Driver
Using the taxonomy of personal benefits attributed to wilderness and developed for the 1985 national wilderness conference, this paper summarizes the research since published on the benefits of nonfacilitated uses of wilderness. It describes recent developments in theory and methods regarding leisure experiences and discusses the implications of these developments for...
The relationship between perceptions of wilderness character and attitudes toward management intervention to adapt biophysical resources to a changing climate and nature restoration at Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks
Alan Watson; Steve Martin; Neal Christensen; Gregg Fauth; Dan Williams
In a recent national survey of federal wilderness managers, respondents identified the high priority need for scientific information about public attitudes toward biophysical intervention to adapt to climate change and attitudes of the public toward restoration of natural conditions. In a survey of visitors to one National Park wilderness in California, visitors...
Reed F. Noss
The new conservation movementâuniting scientists and activistsâseeks to relook at the role of protected land. The result is a redefining of terms, the encompassing of the concept of ecosystems, incorporating both scientific and nonscientific approaches to conservation, and reconsidering management. This philosophical essay speculates on the future of wilderness and...
Howard, Keith A.; Nielson, Jane E.; Simpson, Robert W.; Hazlett, Richard W.; Alminas, Henry V.; Nakata, John K.; McDonnell, John R.
At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 105,200 acres of the Turtle Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-307) were evaluated for mineral resources (known) and resource potential (undiscovered). In this report, the area studied is referred to as "the wilderness study area" or simply "the study area"; any reference to the Turtle Mountain Wilderness Study Area refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.The wilderness study area is in southeastern San Bernardino County, Calif. Gold, silver, copper, and lead have been mined within and adjacent to the study area. Copper-zinc-silver-gold mineral occurrences are found in the southern part and gold-silver mineral occurrences are found in the northern part of the study area; identified low- to moderate-grade gold-silver resources occur adjacent to the study area along the western boundary. Six areas in the south-central and northwestern parts of the study area have high resource potential, two broad areas have moderate resource potential, and part of the southwest corner has low resource potential for lode gold, silver, and associated copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, and tungsten. Alluvium locally within one of these areas has moderate resource potential for placer gold and silver, and the entire area has low resource potential for placer gold and silver. There is low resource potential for perlite, ornamental stone (onyx marble and opal), manganese, uranium and thorium, pegmatite minerals, and oil and gas within the study area. Sand and gravel are abundant but are readily available outside the wilderness study area.
Alan E. Watson
Wilderness conflict research has mostly followed the direction of recreation research in the U.S. An interpersonal recreation conflict model proposed in the late 1970s has guided much of the conflict research in wilderness, with emphasis on determining the amount of interpersonal conflict resulting from goal interference and how much one or more hypothesized...
Sonja C. Kruger; Ian A. Rusworth; Kirsten Oliver
Wilderness areas are by definition free from the sights and sounds of modern man. The boundaries of wilderness areas have traditionally been defined based on the management authorities' perceptions of which areas have wilderness quality. Experience shows that many areas classified as wilderness do not actually have wilderness qualities and do not provide a true...
Gary H. Elsner
Permits were first needed for visits to wilderness areas in California during summer 1971. A computerized system for analyzing these permits and summarizing information from them has been developed. It produces four types of summary tables: point-of-origin of visitors; daily variation in total number of persons present; variations in group size; and variations in...
David N. Cole
A primary goal of wilderness stewardship is to protect individual wilderness areas from most anthropogenic change. Numerous agents of change threaten to degrade wilderness character. These agents of change are both internal (for example, grazing) and external (for example, polluting industries) to wilderness. They can be activities (for example, recreation use) or the...
Karen M. Fox
Concepts of wilderness and âwilderness experienceâ merge into a grand or metanarrative that describes how âwilderness experienceâ is and provides a normalized reference point for values, beliefs, actions, and choices. This paper engages and juxtaposes critiques by scholars and authors representing nondominant perspectives with the North American, wilderness...
Nancy Roeper; Peter Landres; Don Fisher
Two days before the 8th World Wilderness Congress began in Alaska, nearly 200 government wildlands managers from 17 countries met to share ideas about common challenges and to explore ways to improve wildland stewardship globally. The goal for this Global Wilderness Seminar for Government Agencies was to lay the foundation for an operating peer network of government...
Carver, Steve; Tricker, James; Landres, Peter
A GIS-based approach is developed to identify the state of wilderness character in US wilderness areas using Death Valley National Park (DEVA) as a case study. A set of indicators and measures are identified by DEVA staff and used as the basis for developing a flexible and broadly applicable framework to map wilderness character using data inputs selected by park staff. Spatial data and GIS methods are used to map the condition of four qualities of wilderness character: natural, untrammelled, undeveloped, and solitude or primitive and unconfined recreation. These four qualities are derived from the US 1964 Wilderness Act and later developed by Landres et al. (2008a) in "Keeping it Wild: An Interagency Strategy to Monitor Trends in Wilderness Character Across the National Wilderness Preservation System." Data inputs are weighted to reflect their importance in relation to other data inputs and the model is used to generate maps of each of the four qualities of wilderness character. The combined map delineates the range of quality of wilderness character in the DEVA wilderness revealing the majority of wilderness character to be optimal quality with the best areas in the northern section of the park. This map will serve as a baseline for monitoring change in wilderness character and for evaluating the spatial impacts of planning alternatives for wilderness and backcountry stewardship plans. The approach developed could be applied to any wilderness area, either in the USA or elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
H. Ken Cordell; Carter Betz; Gary T. Green
Wilderness and other public land management agencies, both federal and state, have been feeling a pinch. It seems this pinch may partly be in response to a growing perception, or perhaps misperception,that nature-based, especially wildland recreation, is on the decline. This perception has been getting a lot of media attention of late. Some of us who have done research...
Annette Puttkammer; Vita Wright
This annotated reading list provides an introduction to the issue of recreation fees on public lands. With an emphasis on wilderness recreation fees, this compilation of historical and recent publications is divided into the following sections: historical context, arguments for and against fees, pricing mechanisms and the effects of price, public attitudes toward fees...
Alan E. Watson; Greg H. Aplet; John C. Hendee
The papers contained in Volume I of these Proceedings were originally scheduled for presentation at the Sixth World Wilderness Congress in Bangalore, India, in 1997. Due to a delay of the Congress until 1998, these 27 papers were compiled for publication prior to presentation. Volumes I and II contain papers covering seven topics: protected area systems: challenges,...
Alan E. Watson
The purpose of this paper is to extend a synthesis of knowledge about wilderness visitors and their visits developed in 1985. At that time, visitor research was in decline, and there was very little ability to understand trends. Over the last 15 years, wilderness visitor research has been initiated at many places in the U.S. where no previous studies had been completed...
Jacobs, Michael J.; Schloeder, Catherine A.
The Russian River-Cooper Lake-Resurrection River trail system, on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, traverses essential brown bear habitat. To set management guidelines for this area, the trail system was monitored using questionnaire cards and electronic trail counters from 1984 through 1987. This helped to determine the extent and type of human use and human-bear encounters in the area. Management recommendations were intended to reduce the potential displacement of brown bears by hikers and to inform wilderness users of the proper camping techniques to avoid attracting bears to the campsite. An average of 5800 visitors hiked or camped along the trail system each year. Encounters between hikers and brown bears averaged 7/yr while encounters with black bears averaged 35/yr. Minor problems occurred with both the electronic trail counters and the questionnaire. Modilications to these methods are discussed. A Limits of Acceptable Change format should be considered for the trail system to determine the character and future direction of recreational activities and monitoring of the trail system should continue in the future.
Alan Watson; Stephen Carver; Zdenka Krenova; Brooke McBride
The Tenth World Wilderness Congress (WILD10) met in Salamanca, Spain in 2013. The symposium on science and stewardship to protect and sustain wilderness values was the largest of multiple symposia held in conjunction with the Congress. This symposium was organized and sponsored by the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, the Wildland Research Institute of the...
Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell; Lawrence A. Hartmann
Wilderness use is often subsumed under outdoor recreation participation in large-scale assessments. Participation monitoring has indicated, however, that wilderness use has been increasing faster than outdoor recreation use in general. In a sample of Forest Service wilderness and nonwildemess users during the summer of 1985, detailed expenditure, activity, and travel...
Rutko, Ebony A.; Gillespie, Judy
This article seeks to provide a review of the theoretical and empirical literature in the field of wilderness therapy, the intent of which is to gain a greater conceptual understanding of the importance of the physical environment in therapeutic intervention. A review and consolidation of the existing literature reveal that the theories used to…
Alan E. Watson; Greg H. Aplet; John C. Hendee
The papers contained in Volume II of these Proceedings represent a combination of papers originally scheduled for the delayed 1997 meeting of the World Wilderness Congress and those submitted in response to a second call for papers when the Congress was rescheduled for October 24-29, 1998, in Bangalore, India. Just as in Volume I, the papers are divided into seven...
Peter Landres; Shannon Meyer
The Wilderness Act of 1964 established a National Wilderness Preservation System, and this publication is a compilation of selected information about every wilderness within this System. For each wilderness, the following information is given: legally correct wilderness name; public law that established the wilderness; date the enabling law was signed by the President...
Nancy C. Ratner; Davin L. Holen
Traditional ecological knowledge within specific cultural and geographical contexts was explored during an interactive session at the 8th World Wilderness Congress to identify traditional principles of sustainability. Participants analyzed the traditional knowledge contained in ten posters from Canada and Alaska and identified and discussed the traditional principles...
Wilderness heat-related illnesses span a continuum of medical problems caused by ... of modern science, clothing technology, and an understanding of physiology ..... guidelines for wilderness emergency care, heat-related illnesses, and EAH ...
Christopher V. Barns
Wilderness is widely recognized as a valuable environment for scientific research, and it is generally assumed that this research will benefit the wilderness resource. But what if the research is of value only in understanding an ecosystem that has been extinct for 65 million years? What if thousands of pounds of material must be removed from the wilderness to conduct...
Peter Landres; Steve Boutcher; Linda Merigliano; Chris Barns; Denis Davis; Troy Hall; Steve Henry; Brad Hunter; Patrice Janiga; Mark Laker; Al McPherson; Douglas S. Powell; Mike Rowan; Susan Sater
One of the central mandates of the 1964 Wilderness Act is that âeach agency administering any area designated as wilderness shall be responsible for preserving the wilderness character of the area.â Although wilderness comprises about 20 percent of National Forest System lands (over 35 million acres), the agency lacks a way to evaluate progress in fulfilling this...
Susan F. Fox
This special issue of the Journal of Forestry provides an overview of Americaâs National Wilderness Preservation System and highlights the important role that science serves in informing wilderness stewardship. The lead authors of the articles in this volume selected the Journal because it is highly respected and widely circulated among foresters and federal...
Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.
A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.
Will Meeks; Jimmy Fox; Nancy Roeper
Wilderness plays a vital role in global and landscape-level conservation of wildlife. Millions of migratory birds and mammals rely on wilderness lands and waters during critical parts of their life. As large, ecologically intact landscapes, wilderness areas also play a vital role in addressing global climate change by increasing carbon sequestration, reducing...
Christy Watkins; Lynne M. Westphal; Paul H. Gobster; Joanne Vining; Alaka Wali; Madeleine Tudor
We describe the rules, norms, and strategies (institutional statements) that characterize ecological restoration across 10 organizations in the Chicago Wilderness region. Our use of Ostrom's IAD ADICO grammar tool is novel in both context (non-extractive resource management) and data type (qualitative interviews). Results suggest that, in contrast to a focus on...
Joseph W. Roggenbuck; Alan E. Watson
The total amount of recreational use of the National Wilderness Preservation System is currently at about 14.5 million visitor days per annum. Trends indicate a stable or declining overall use; use on a per acre basis is declining. The common stereotype of the wilderness user as young, wealthy, urban, leisured, and a nonresident of the State or region is largely...
H. Ken Cordell; Danielle Murphy; Kurt H. Riitters; J.E. Harvard
In Chapters 7 through 10 of this book, we examined the social and economic benefits or values from Wilderness. In this chapter, we attempt to examine the natural ecological values of Wilderness. We define ecological value generally as the level of benefits that the space. water, minerals, biota, and all other factors that make up natural ecosystems provide to support...
Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.
The bryoflora of two small maritime islands, Chisik and Duck Island (2,302 ha), comprising Tuxedni Wilderness in western lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, was examined to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. The field study was conducted from sites selected to represent the totality of environmental variation within Tuxedni Wilderness. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare the bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 286 bryophytes were identified: 230 mosses and 56 liverworts. Bryum miniatum, Dichodontium olympicum, and Orthotrichum pollens are new to Alaska. The annotated list of species for Tuxedni Wilderness expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Central Pacific Coast district. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Tuxedni Wilderness primarily includes taxa of boreal (61%), montane (13%), temperate (11%), arctic-alpine (7%), cosmopolitan (7%), distribution; 4% of the total moss flora are North America endemics. A brief summary of the botanical exploration of the general area is provided, as is a description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types of Chisik and Duck Islands.
Bruns, D.A.; Wiersma, G.B.
This research plan outlines an approach to the measurement of pollutants and ecosystem parameters at remote, high-elevation, wilderness study sites. A multimedia, systems approach to environmental monitoring is emphasized. The primary purpose of the research is to apply and field test a technical report entitled ''Guidelines for measuring the physical, chemical, and biological condition of wilderness ecosystems.'' This document intended to provide Federal Land Managers with information to establish environmental monitoring programs in wilderness areas. To date, this monitoring document has yet to be evaluated under rigorous field conditions at a remote, high-elevation Rocky Mountain site. For the purpose of field testing approaches to monitoring of pollutants and ecosystems in remote, wilderness areas, evaluation criteria were developed. These include useability, cost-effectiveness, data variability, alternative approaches, ecosystems conceptual approach, and quality assurance. Both the Forest Service and INEL environmental monitoring techniques will be evaluated with these criteria. Another objective of this research plan is to obtain an integrated data base on pollutants and ecosystem structure and function at a remote study site. The methods tested in this project will be used to acquire these data from a systems approach. This includes multimedia monitoring of air and water quality, soils, and forest, stream, and lake ecosystems. 71 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs
Tina Tin; Alan Hemmings
Since 1998, the wilderness values of Antarctica have been among those given legal recognition under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Despite the legal obligation, on-the-ground implementation has attracted little interest. The term "wilderness" and its consequential operational implication, including the designation of...
Gaudio, Flavio G; Lemery, Jay; Johnson, David E
The Epinephrine Roundtable took place on July 27, 2008, during the 25th Annual Meeting of the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) in Snowmass, CO. The WMS convened this roundtable to explore areas of consensus and uncertainty in the field treatment of anaphylaxis. Panelists were selected on the basis of their relevant academic or professional experience. There is a paucity of data that address the treatment of anaphylaxis in the wilderness. Anaphylaxis is a rare disease, with a sudden onset and drastic course that does not lend itself to study in randomized, controlled trials. Therefore, the panel endorsed the following position based on the limited available evidence and review of published articles, as well as expert consensus. The position represents the consensus of the panelists and is endorsed by the WMS. In 2014, the authors reviewed relevant articles published since the Epinephrine Roundtable. The following is an updated version of the original guidelines published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2010;21(4):185-187. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gary T. Green; J. Michael Bowker; Cassandra Y. Johnson; H. Ken Cordell; Xiongfei Wang
Certain social groups appear notably less in wilderness visitation surveys than their population proportion. This study examines whether different social groups in American society (minorities, women, rural dwellers, low income and less educated populations) perceive more constraints to wilderness visitation than other groups. Logistic regressions were fit to data from...
George H. Stankey
Judging the impact of social and technological trends on the future of wilderness is complex. Declining public trust, growing demands for scrutiny, a need to recognize the link between biophysical and socioeconomic systems, and the need for criteria to select among alternative futures challenge us. A burgeoning global population will increase resource impacts, but more...
Economic growth is a perennial national goal. Perpetual economic growth and wilderness preservation are mutually exclusive. Wilderness scholarship has not addressed this conflict. The economics profession is unlikely to contribute to resolution, because the neoclassical paradigm holds that there is no limit to economic growth. A corollary of the paradigm is that...
Schwartz, Michael K.; Hahn, Beth; Hossack, Blake R.
We explore the connection between US designated wilderness areas and wildlife with the goal of establishing a research agenda for better understanding this complex relationship. Our research agenda has two components. The first, “wildlife for wilderness,” considers the impact of wildlife on wilderness character. Whereas studies show that wildlife is important in both the perception and actual enhancement of wilderness character, the context and particulars of this relationship have not been evaluated. For instance, is knowing that a rare, native species is present in a wilderness area enough to increase perceptions of naturalness (an important wilderness quality)? Or does the public need to observe the species or its sign (e.g., tracks) for this benefit? The second part of our research agenda, “wilderness for wildlife,” considers the types of research needed to understand the impact of wilderness areas on wildlife and biodiversity conservation. Several studies show the effect of one area being designated wilderness on one wildlife species. Yet, there has been no research that examines how the networks of wilderness areas in the National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS) are used by a species or a community of species. Furthermore, we found no studies that focused on how the NWPS affects ecological or trophic interactions among species. We hope that by providing a research agenda, we can spur multiple lines of research on the topic of wildlife and wilderness.
Lareau, Stephanie A; Caudell, Michael J; Pandit, Kiran B; Hiestand, Brian C
Wilderness medicine has been a part of medical student education for many years and is becoming more popular. To help standardize and improve the student experience, we surveyed current elective directors to gain an understanding of what experts in the field thought were priority elements in a wilderness medicine elective. Although there is a diversity of opinion among leaders in the field, there are multiple topics on which there is concordance on inclusion or exclusion. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker; John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell
Little is known about the values immigrant groups or U.S.-born racial and ethnic minorities attribute to wilderness. However, the views of these groups are important to wilderness preservation because of increasing diversity along ethnic, cultural, and racial lines in the United States. We examine the proposition that wilderness is a social construction (valued...
Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell
Wilderness social science has changed over the 50 years since passage of the Wilderness Act. This research was initially heavily influenced by the need to operationalize definitions contained in the Wilderness Act, the desire to report use levels, and the need for better understanding of the important values American people attached to wilderness. Over the past three...
Roy Ramthun; Lynda Kersey; Jim Rogers
Attempts to influence the behavior of wilderness visitors through the use of information are limited by the visitorsâ reception of that information. This study examined the information gathering behavior of wilderness visitors and the effect of different information collection styles on visitorsâ knowledge of low-impact behavior and attitudes toward wilderness...
Paul A. Lorah
A familiar version of the âjobs versus the environmentâ argument asserts that wilderness areas limit economic growth by locking up potentially productive natural resources. Analysis of the development paths of rural Western counties shows that this is unlikely: the presence of Wilderness is correlated with income, employment and population growth. Similarly, Wilderness...
John, David A.; Nash, J. Thomas; Plouff, Donald; McDonnell, John R.
The Morey (NV-060-191) and Fandango (NV-060-190) Wilderness Study Areas are located in the northern Hot Creek Range about 25 mi north of Warm Springs, Nev. At the request of the Bureau of Land Management, 46,300 acres of the Morey and Fandango Wilderness Study Areas were studied. In this report, the area studied is referred to as 'the wilderness study area', or simply 'the study area'. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral surveys were conducted by the USGS and the USBM in 1984 to appraise the identified mineral resources and to assess the mineral resource potential of the study areas. These studies indicate that there are small identified resources of zinc, lead, and silver at the Lead Pipe property in the Fandango Wilderness Study Area, several areas of high potential for the occurrence of gold resources in the Fandango study area, small areas of low and moderate potential for the occurrence of silver, lead, and zinc resources in the Fandango study area, areas of moderate and high potential for the occurrence of silver, lead, and zinc resources in the Morey study area, and an area of low potential for copper, molybdenum, and tin in the Morey study area. Both study areas have low resource potential for petroleum, natural gas, uranium, and geothermal energy.
Daniel R. Williams
This paper offers a social constructionist approach to examining the nature and dynamics of arctic wilderness meanings and values. Viewing wilderness as a socially constructed place responds to growing critiques of modern "Enlightenment" views of nature and society in three ways examined here. First, wilderness landscapes are seen as geographically organized...
James N. Gladden
There are several important factors related to political conflict associated with arctic wilderness areas: scientific studies, economic interests, ethnic identities, geographic differences, and national histories. How groups with an interest in these wilderness areas inject their values into these factors stimulates political debate with each other and with stewarding...
W. van Riet
The Wilderness Act of September 1964, of the United States of America, states that "... wilderness, in contrast with those areas where man and his own works dominate the landscape, is hereby recognised as an area where the earth and its community of life are not influenced by man and where man himself is a visitor who does not remain55 (Nash 1967. The Act also states that a wilderness "... must retain its primeval character and influence and that it must be protected and managed in such a way that it appears to have been effected primarily by the forces of nature.”
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.8 Forest management. Forest management activities in a wilderness unit will be directed toward allowing natural...
David N. Cole; Thomas E. Ferguson
An excessive number of highly impacted campsites led managers of the Caney Creek Wilderness to attempt to reduce campsite impacts with a program of trail relocation, education, closure of selected campsites, and site restoration. The strategy involved increasing the concentration of use somewhat, without resorting to the restrictiveness of a designated campsite policy...
David N. Cole
This report brings together seven case studies of trends in the number and condition of wilderness campsites over periods ranging from 13 to 32 years. Case examples come from five mountainous wilderness areas in the western United States: Sequoia-Kings Canyon Wilderness in California, the Eagle Cap Wilderness in Oregon, the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness in...
Alan E. Watson; Michael J. Niccolucci; Daniel R. Williams
A long-term problem that continues to grow in many wildland areas is the displeasure hikers express about meeting recreational livestock (primarily horses and mules) and seeing impacts from stock use. Three studies were conducted to provide a broad look at this interaction in wilderness and some of the contributors to the conflict between hikers and horse users....
Allan, James R; Kormos, Cyril; Jaeger, Tilman; Venter, Oscar; Bertzky, Bastian; Shi, Yichuan; Mackey, Brendan; van Merm, Remco; Osipova, Elena; Watson, James E M
Wilderness areas are ecologically intact landscapes predominantly free of human uses, especially industrial-scale activities that result in substantial biophysical disturbance. This definition does not exclude land and resource use by local communities who depend on such areas for subsistence and bio-cultural connections. Wilderness areas are important for biodiversity conservation and sustain key ecological processes and ecosystem services that underpin planetary life-support systems. Despite these widely recognized benefits and values of wilderness, they are insufficiently protected and are consequently being rapidly eroded. There are increasing calls for multilateral environmental agreements to make a greater and more systematic contribution to wilderness conservation before it is too late. We created a global map of remaining terrestrial wilderness following the established last-of-the-wild method, which identifies the 10% of areas with the lowest human pressure within each of Earth's 62 biogeographic realms and identifies the 10 largest contiguous areas and all contiguous areas >10,000 km 2 . We used our map to assess wilderness coverage by the World Heritage Convention and to identify gaps in coverage. We then identified large nationally designated protected areas with good wilderness coverage within these gaps. One-quarter of natural and mixed (i.e., sites of both natural and cultural value) World Heritage Sites (WHS) contained wilderness (total of 545,307 km 2 ), which is approximately 1.8% of the world's wilderness extent. Many WHS had excellent wilderness coverage, for example, the Okavango Delta in Botswana (11,914 km 2 ) and the Central Suriname Nature Reserve (16,029 km 2 ). However, 22 (35%) of the world's terrestrial biorealms had no wilderness representation within WHS. We identified 840 protected areas of >500 km 2 that were predominantly wilderness (>50% of their area) and represented 18 of the 22 missing biorealms. These areas offer a starting
William W. Hendricks
This study examined studentsâ attitudes toward the impact monster and the good guy roles in the impact monster skit and determined if attitudes differed by gender and grade level. In addition, differences in high- and low-involvement with the skit were analyzed. The impact monster skit is a popular wilderness education program designed to teach appropriate wilderness...
William T. Borrie; Angela M. Meyer; Ian M. Foster
Wilderness areas provide a sanctuary from human domination, for the plants and animals that exist there and also for the visitors who come there to escape the demands and pressures of modern society. As a place of refuge and sanctuary, we have found wilderness to allow experiences of connection, engagement and belonging. Two studies help illustrate the role of wildness...
David N. Cole
When crafting the U.S. Wilderness Act, Howard Zahniser selected the word untrammeled rather than undisturbed to describe wilderness (Harvey 2005). This reflected his belief that places that had been disturbed by humans should be considered for wilderness designation because impaired ecosystems could be restored. Like many others, he hoped that restoration could be...
Robert G. Dvorak; Erin D. Small
This study examines visitor attitudes across the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness regarding the effects of natural disturbances on visitor planning and wilderness conditions. Visitors were intercepted at entry points and permit distribution locations during 2007. Results suggest that respondents were aware of recent wind and fire disturbances. Few respondents...
Linda Moon Stumpff
American Indian tribes value pristine water sources that often originate in wilderness areas to support provisioning and cultural benefits. Based on interviews with four traditional leaders, this article focuses on the concept of living waters in ways that connect ecosystem service benefits to wilderness. Cultural knowledge connects indigenous water stewardship and...
Margalit, Daniella; Ben-Ari, Amichai
Background: Adolescents participate in decision-making processes involving risky behaviors. Management of these important decisions may be promoted by enhancing adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs and cognitive autonomy. Objective: In order to elucidate the value of wilderness therapy to the successful management of decision making processes among…
Alan Watson; Janet Sproull
The Seventh World Wilderness Congress met in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, in 2001. The symposium on science and stewardship to protect and sustain wilderness values was one of several symposia held in conjunction with the Congress. The papers contained in this proceedings were presented at this symposium and cover seven topics: state-of-knowledge on protected areas...
injuries, and trauma care, whereas jungle expeditions require an understanding ... series will address expedition medicine, psychological and human factors, and ... Dead. Fig. 1. Cumulative wilderness rescue statistics from 1900 to early 2017,.
Tina Tin; Kees Bastmeijer; Jessica O' Reilly; Patrick Maher
In 2007 and 2008, students from Tilburg University (the Netherlands) collected 269 responses on a questionnaire about Antarctica and its management. Respondents in the Netherlands clearly supported protecting Antarctica as a wilderness, and acknowledged Antarctica's importance as part of the global climate system and as a science laboratory for the benefit of...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waiver precluded. 29.526 Section 29.526 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER... and a timely demand for repayment is made prior to the final disbursement by the administrator or...
Leemon, Drew, Ed.; Schimelpfenig, Tod, Ed.; Gray, Sky, Ed.; Tarter, Shana, Ed.; Williamson, Jed, Ed.
The Wilderness Risk Managers Committee (WRMC), a consortium of outdoor schools and organizations, works toward better understanding and management of risks in the wilderness. Among other activities, the WRMC gathers data on incidents and accidents from member organizations and other wilderness-based programs. This book compiles incident data for…
Bryan K. Walton
Wilderness advocacy in Alabama is as unique as the cultural flavor of the South. This paper documents how the most recent wave of wilderness activism in Alabama, embodied in the Alabama Wilderness Alliance, Wild Alabama, and WildLaw, have sought to place themselves within the cultural roots and heritage of the American South. In this paper, the efforts and impacts of...
Peter B. Landres; David N. Cole; Alan E Watson
In 1964, the Wilderness Act (P.L. 88-577) established the National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS), currently composed of nearly 39 million hectares in 564 separate units, ranging in size from 2.4 he&ares to 3.5 million hectares. The purpose of the NWPS is â. . . to secure for the American people of present and future generations the benefits of an enduring...
Alan E. Watson; John C. Hendee; Hans P. Zaglauer
A study of visitors to Oregon's Eagle Cap Wilderness in 1965 offered a baseline against which to evaluate how those who recreate in wilderness have changed their views of wilderness. A study of visitors to that same wilderness area in 1993 provided comparative data. Some characteristics of the visitors changed in ways that would suggest that the values visitors...
Droffelaar, van Boy; Jacobs, M.H.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of leaders’ wilderness experiences on intentions to transform leadership behaviors toward authentic leadership. Design/methodology/approach – Content analysis was used on trail reports made by participants of a wilderness-based
Jill M. Belsky
The paper identifies and discusses two major themes in wilderness social science. First, that wilderness studies (and its advocates) have been limited by an ontological tension between those who mainly approach the relationship between humans and nature on the basis of material factors and constraints and those who approach it through an examination of shifting...
Reid M. Helford
In April 1996 an exciting new project was announced, an unprecedented conservation undertaking in one of the nation's most densely populated regions. Chicago Wilderness is a collaborative effort among the more than 90 organizations that make up the Chicago Region Biodiversity Council (CRBC) to protect, restore, and manage the region's natural landscapes...
David R. Spildie; David N. Cole; Sarah C. Walker
In 1993, a management program was initiated in the Seven Lakes Basin in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness to bring high levels of campsite impact into compliance with management standards. The core of the strategy involved confining use, particularly by stock groups, and restoring certain campsites and portions of campsites. In just five years, campsite impacts were...
... precluding dual coverage to avoid inequitable or anomalous coverage situations for certain workers. However... 404.1913 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY...) General. Employment or self-employment or services recognized as equivalent under the Act or the social...
Gundars Rudzitis; Rebecca Johnson
There have been few economic studies of the impact of wilderness on nearby communities. The few studies that have been carried out find relatively modest economic impacts on the surrounding communities by people who come to recreate in federally wilderness areas. However, studies find that people are moving to areas near federally designated wilderness and other...
MacKinnon, Ralph; Aitken, Deborah; Humphries, Christopher
Technology-enhanced simulation is well-established in healthcare teaching curricula, including those regarding wilderness medicine. Compellingly, the evidence base for the value of this educational modality to improve learner competencies and patient outcomes are increasing. The aim was to systematically review the characteristics of technology-enhanced simulation presented in the wilderness medicine literature to date. Then, the secondary aim was to explore how this technology has been used and if the use of this technology has been associated with improved learner or patient outcomes. EMBASE and MEDLINE were systematically searched from 1946 to 2014, for articles on the provision of technology-enhanced simulation to teach wilderness medicine. Working independently, the team evaluated the information on the criteria of learners, setting, instructional design, content, and outcomes. From a pool of 37 articles, 11 publications were eligible for systematic review. The majority of learners in the included publications were medical students, settings included both indoors and outdoors, and the main focus clinical content was initial trauma management with some including leadership skills. The most prevalent instructional design components were clinical variation and cognitive interactivity, with learner satisfaction as the main outcome. The results confirm that the current provision of wilderness medicine utilizing technology-enhanced simulation is aligned with instructional design characteristics that have been used to achieve effective learning. Future research should aim to demonstrate the translation of learning into the clinical field to produce improved learner outcomes and create improved patient outcomes.
... wilderness, and accomplish refuge purposes in a way that preserves wilderness character. Our policies on... Forest, Palmyra Atoll, Pearl Harbor, Rose Atoll, and Wake Atoll. These refuges are located in Hawai'i... preserves wilderness character in accordance with (1) the Refuges' respective CCPs; (2) regulations on...
Alan E. Watson
âSocial conditions in wildernessâ refers to all aspects of human use of the wilderness that pose the possibility of impact to the resource and visitor experiences. The reasons for monitoring (1) use levels and use trends (including characteristics of use and users) and (2) the quality of the recreation experiences provided (ability to provide naturalness, privacy, and...
Harper, Nevin J.; Gabrielsen, Leiv E.; Carpenter, Cathryn
This paper addresses pluralistic understandings of wilderness in the context of wilderness therapy (WT). The term wilderness perpetuates a modern worldview of place that beyond 'civilisation' exists an environment defined by risk, fear and an unpredictable nature. WT utilises outdoor travel and living practices during therapeutic intervention and…
Julia Dawn Parker; Patricia L. Winter
Educating, interpreting for, and communicating with wilderness visitors is necessary to promote appropriate low-impact wilderness recreation. The Angeles National Forest is located northeast of Los Angeles and is surrounded by a large and ethnically diverse population that provided a potentially ethnically diverse sample ofwilderness visitors for the purpose of this...
Mary Beth Adams; Dale S. Nichols; Anthony C. Federer; Keith F. Jensen; Harry Parrott
The USDA Forest Service's Eastern Region manages eight wilderness areas that have been designated as Class I air quality areas by the Federal Clean Air Act. As part of this legislation, Federal land managers are required to consult with air pollution regulators on the potential impacts of proposed air pollution emissions--including phytotoxic gases and acidic...
Full Text Available The face of Europe has been shaped by human civilization for centuries and wilderness did not only vanish from the continent’s surface but also from humans’ minds and experiences. However, there are still a few places left, which have remained more or less unmodified and have at least the potential for rewilding. Among them are the Šumava National Park and the neighbouring Bavarian Forest NP, which together create a unique forest zone in the middle of Europe susceptible to host and demonstrate natural forest dynamics and ecosystem processes. This is also a large and very important Natura 2000 area. Transboundary cooperation between both National parks has improved since 1990, when the former Iron Curtain Corridor was opened, and culminated by the project Europe’s Wild Heart. The main goal of the project Europe’s Wild Heart, which started in 2008, was to develop a transboundary wilderness area in the core zones of the two national parks – BFNP and ŠNP. The project area was 13,060 ha and a “life story” of this project is described in this paper. A common “vision 2020” was signed where both parks committed among other things “to achieve a joint core area of about 15,000 ha with harmonized management principles, information services and monitoring networks to officially become the first and largest transboundary wilderness area in Central Europe”. Unfortunately, the bark beetle outbreak which followed the Kyrill hurricane in 2008 and 2009 escalated the discussion about appropriate forest management in the ŠNP. Opponents of the national park principles, non-intervention and wilderness concept became more and more vocal. The situation escalated after the election in 2010 when the Green Party was replaced by conservatives (ODS – Civic Democratic Party at the Czech Ministry of Environment. Clear cuttings were started in some former non-intervention parts of the ŠNP and hunting was again allowed in the core zone. Since then
Cameron E. Naficy; Eric G. Keeling; Peter Landres; Paul F. Hessburg; Thomas T. Veblen; Anna. Sala
Changes in the climate and in key ecological processes are prompting increased debate about ecological restoration and other interventions in wilderness. The prospect of intervention in wilderness raises legal, scientific, and values-based questions about the appropriateness of possible actions. In this article, we focus on the role of science to elucidate the...
Grimwood, Bryan S. R.; Haberer, Alexa; Legault, Maria
This paper explores and critically interprets the role wilderness travel may play in fostering environmental sustainability. The paper draws upon two qualitative studies that sought to understand human-nature relationships as experienced by different groups of wilderness travel leaders in Canada. According to leaders involved in the studies,…
Steven R. Martin
Day-use visitors to the Desolation Wilderness were asked about making voluntary donations at the trailhead. Of the 111 visitors who used one of the four trailheads at which voluntary donations were requested, 55% reported making a donation, with an average reported donation amount of $4.20. Subjects were categorized into three groups: donors, would-be donors, and...
Hedlund, D.C.; Cordell, L.E.
During 1981 and 1982 the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mimes conducted field investigations to evaluate the mineral resource potential of the Sandia Mountain Wilderness, Bernalillo and Sandoval Counties, New Mexico. This report and map represent only the results of the aeromagnetic compilation from previous publications (U.S. geological Survey, 1975a,b,c). The wilderness encompasses 61 mi2 (37,232 acres) within the Cibola National Forest, but the map area is about 145 mi2 and includes areas adjacent to the wilderness boundary.
Joseph G. Champ; Daniel R. Williams; Catherine M. Lundy
The authors consider a new frontier for the study of wilderness recreation experience, an increasingly common form of blog known as online trip reports. Analysis and discussion in this article is the result of collecting and reflecting upon more than 300 trip reports focused on wilderness areas in the state of Colorado. The authors present a case study of one trip...
Cassandra Johnson Gaither
The perspective of Latin American and Asian immigrants on nature and wildlands is strikingly different from the view typical of European Americans. The very idea of outdoor recreation may be strange to the cultures from which many of these immigrants originate. This chapter addresses immigrant interaction with wildlands and wilderness by examining the environmental...
Katherine Elliott; Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose; William A. Jackson
Aims Wilderness and other natural areas are threatened by large-scale disturbances (e.g., wildfire), air pollution, climate change, exotic diseases or pests, and a combination of these stress factors (i.e., stress complexes). Linville Gorge Wilderness (LGW) is one example of a high elevation wilderness in the southern Appalachian region that has been subject to stress...
Daniel L. Dustin; Keri A. Schwab; Kelly S. Bricker
This paper illustrates how wilderness, biodiversity, and human health are intertwined. Proceeding from the assumption that humankind is part of, rather than apart from, nature, health is re-imagined as a dynamic relationship that can best be conceived in broad ecological terms. Health, from an ecological perspective, is a measure of the wellness of the individual and...
Full Text Available Like conservation-induced displacement, human-wildlife conflict (HWC has potentially negative implications for communities in and around protected areas. While the ways in which displacement emerges from the creation of 'wilderness' conservation landscapes are well documented, how the production of 'wilderness' articulates with intensifications in HWC remains under examined both empirically and conceptually. Using a political-ecological approach, I analyse increases of HWC in Mozambique's Limpopo National Park (LNP and the subsequent losses of fields and livestock, as well as forms of physical displacement suffered by resident communities. While intensifications of encounters between wildlife on the one hand and people and livestock on the other result in part from increases in wildlife populations, I argue that HWC and the ways in which it constitutes and contributes to various forms of displacement results more centrally from changing relations between wildlife and people and the power and authority to manage conflict between them. Both of these contributing factors, moreover, are the consequence of practices that aim to transform the LNP into a wilderness landscape of conservation and tourism. HWC and its negative impacts are thus not natural phenomena, but are the result of political decisions to create a particular type of conservation landscape.
J. M. Bowker; H. Ken Cordell; Neelam C. Poudyal
The Wildland Research Institute (WRi) at the University of Leeds (UK) came into being in October 2009. Its origins go back to a United Kingdom research councilfunded seminar series called Wilderness Britain? which ran between 1998 and 2000 and was coordinated from the University of Leeds. This opened up the wider debate on wilderness and rewilding in the UK and later...
Condon, Steven M.; Brown, S. Don
The Pedra Wilderness Study Area, located approximately 30 mi northeast of Durango, Colorado, was evaluated for its mineral-resource potential. Geochemical and geophysical studies indicate little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in this area. This conclusion is supported by the findings of the earlier study and is suggested by the absence of significant mining activity in the area.
Ronalds, Lisa; Allen-Craig, Sandy
In an effort to address the issue of youth homelessness in Australia, Regional Extended Family Services (REFS) have developed a wilderness-based therapeutic intervention. REFS aim to provide early intervention services for young people at risk of homelessness, and their families. This study examined the outcomes of the REFS wilderness program by…
Lindsey, D.A.; Zimbelman, D.R.; Campbell, D.L.; Duval, J.S.; Cook, K.L.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W.; Yambrick, R.A.; Tuftin, S.E.
The Swasey Mountain and the Howell Peak Wilderness Study Areas are underlain by an east-dipping sequence of carbonate rocks, shale, and quartzite of Cambrian age. The Sand Pass mineralized area, immediately northwest of the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area, contains numerous occurrences of jasperoid, small igneous intrusions of Tertiary age, and geochemical anomalies; the mineralized area has been explored for gold. Although no identified resources of metals are known in or near the wilderness study areas, the distribution of geologic structures and stream-sediment geochemical anomalies indicates there is a moderate potential for undiscovered resources of lead, zinc, copper, molybdenum, silver, and gold. An area of moderate potential for undiscovered resources of these metals extends south and east into the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area from the Sand Pass mineralized area. A second area of moderate potential for undiscovered resources of these metals extends from the southern part of the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area across the western part of the Howell Peak Wilderness Study Area. Both study areas contain inferred subeconomic resources of quartzite, high-purity limestone, and sand and gravel. Both areas have moderate resource potential for high-purity limestone and dolomite. Fossils, especially trilobites, of interest to collectors are present in both areas. The potential for undiscovered resources is moderate for oil and gas and is low for geothermal energy within the study areas. There is no potential for undiscovered resources of coal.
Koen Arts; Anke Fischer; Rene van der Wal
âWilderness' is often seen as an ideal state in contemporary debates on ecological restoration. This paper asks what is left of âwilderness' in present-day Western Europe and explores this question by drawing on a case study of the Hoge Veluwe National Park in the Netherlands. An overview of intellectual histories of wilderness ideas is used as a backdrop to...
Taylor, Nicole; Gray, Tonia; Birrell, Carol
Today's Western culture is characterized by high technology, time compression and a disconnection from the natural world. What happens when a group of young adult students who are firmly embedded within this world, embark on a 6-day unassisted wilderness experience? When divorced from the structural support of the everyday, and placed in an…
...-burnable food or beverage containers, including deposit bottles, except for non-burnable containers... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Forest wilderness. 261.57 Section 261.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...
... which may be designated as wilderness areas by statute shall be developed with a view to protecting such... manner as will leave them unimpaired for future use and enjoyment as wilderness, with inconsistent uses...
... compliance with Sec. 4(d)(5) of the Wilderness Act. The WSP will reevaluate existing wilderness-related plans... the Web site (to assist in reducing costs, the public is strongly encouraged to accept compact disks... available at any time. While you can ask us in your comment to withhold your personal identifying...
Norman L. Christensen
Research in wilderness areas (areas with minimal human activity and of large spatial extent) formed the foundation for ecological models and theories that continue to shape our understanding how ecosystems change through time, how ecological communities are structured and how ecosystems function. By the middle of this century, large expanses of wilderness had become...
Daniel R. Williams
Description: This paper takes a social constructionist approach to examine the nature and dynamics of personal and social meanings of wilderness. The paper builds on geographic and social theory to discuss the ways in which conflicts over the meaning and value of wilderness are significant consequences of modernization and globalization. The process of modernization...
... centuries, America's dramatic landscapes have attracted people from around the world to begin new lives and... launched the America's Great Outdoors Initiative, which laid the foundation for a comprehensive, community... invite all Americans to visit and enjoy our wilderness areas, to learn about their vast history, and to...
... National Wilderness Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The mystery... of local economies, providing tourism and recreation revenue for communities. To help preserve our... agenda for the 21st century, with ideas stemming directly from the American people. We are working with...
Young, Justin Mark J; Campbell, Aaron D; Raastad, Kate K
Wilderness sports and adventures continue to increase in popularity. Counseling is an essential element of the preparticipation evaluation (PPE) for athletes in traditional sports. This approach can be applied to and augmented for the wilderness athlete and adventurer. The authors reviewed the literature on counseling during PPEs and gathered expert opinion from medical professionals who perform such PPEs for wilderness sports enthusiasts. The objective was to present findings of this review and make recommendations on the counseling component of a wilderness sports/adventure PPE. The counseling component of a PPE for wilderness sports/adventures should take place after a basic medical evaluation, and include a discussion on sport or activity-specific injury prevention, personal health, travel recommendations, and emergency event planning. Counseling should be individualized and thorough, and involve shared decision making. This should take place early enough to allow ample time for the athlete or adventurer to further prepare as needed based on the recommendations. Resources may be recommended for individuals desiring more information on selected topics. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Phipps, Maurice, Ed.; Hayashi, Aya, Ed.
This document presents the proceedings of the Wilderness Education Association's 2005 National Conference on Outdoor Leadership. Following a brief history of the Wilderness Education Association (WEA), 21 conference papers are presented. Topics of the conference papers include: wilderness education curriculum, programs, history, environmental…
Nov 6, 1995 ... having a detrimental impact on fish communities, and propo- sals have been ... salinity gradient exists in the Wilderness system, with ...... Osmoregulation in juvenile Rhabdosargus .... Community metabolism and phosphorous.
... the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain.'' Throughout our history, countless people have passed through America's most treasured... our wilderness areas, to learn about their vast history, and to aid in the protection of our precious...
Alexis A. Olds
Full Text Available The Wilderness Lakes System, a temporarily open and closed estuary with three associated lakes situated in the southern Cape region of South Africa, was sampled using a range of sampling gears to assess the fish community. A total of 25 species were sampled throughout the system, with the highest diversity in the Touw Estuary (23 species and the lowest in Langvlei (11 species. Estuary-associated marine species (13 species dominated species richness with smaller proportions of estuarine resident (7 species, freshwater (3 species and catadromous species (2 species. Estuarine resident species dominated the catch numerically. The size–class distribution of euryhaline marine species indicated that upon entering the Touw Estuary as juveniles, the fish move up the system towards Rondevlei where they appear to remain. Three freshwater species were recorded in the system, all of which are alien to the Wilderness Lakes System. Decreasing salinity in the upper lakes appears to be a driving factor in the distribution and increasing abundance of the freshwater fishes. Sampling followed a drought, with the system experiencing substantially increased levels of mouth closure compared to a similar study conducted in the 1980s. The timing of mouth opening and the degree of connectivity between the lakes influence the nursery function of the system as a whole. Management actions need to focus on improving ecological functioning of this system, in particular how mouth opening is managed, to facilitate nursery function and limit the establishment of invasive species. Conservation implications: Key management actions are required to improve fish recruitment potential into and within the system. These include maintenance of adequate marine inflow through adherence to artificial mouth breaching protocols and improving connectivity between the lakes through sediment removal from localised deposition points within the connecting channels.
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions governing the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Superior National Forest, Minnesota. 293.16 Section 293.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS...
Leuschner, William A.; And Others
Two similar wilderness areas, one of which charges user fees, were sampled in order to compare user characteristics, trip characteristics, and travel cost demand functions. The purpose was to examine the effect fees had on user behavior and choices of area. Results are presented. (MT)
Alan E. Watson; M. J. Niccolucci; Daniel R. Williams
The purpose of this research was to determine the extent of conflict between hikers and recreational stock users in a Sierra Nevada wilderness and to test the relative importance of various hypothetical predictors of conflict using multiple conflict measures. A survey of hikers and recreational stock users of the John Muir Wilderness in California revealed the ability...
J.D. Temperman (Jeroen)
textabstractDutch Politician Geert Wilders, leader of the rightist Party for Freedom (PVV), was tried in relation to (religious) defamation and hate speech charges in a case that lasted from 2009 to 2011. While fully acquitted, stakeholders are now bringing a case against the Netherlands for
John B. Loomis
Two techniques are used to estimate the economic value of recreation and off-site passive use values of wilderness. Using an average value per recreation day ($39), the economic value of wilderness recreation is estimated to be $574 million annually. Generalizing the two Western passive use values studies we estimate values of Western wilderness in the lower 48 states...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation of aircraft within airspace reservation over the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Superior National Forest, Minnesota... Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Superior National Forest, Minnesota. (a) Description of areas...
The wilderness values of Antarctica receive explicit legal protection under the Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. However, different opinions exist, on the one hand, as regards the precise meaning of the wilderness concept at the international and national level and, on the other hand,
Susan A. Fox
President Lyndon Baines Johnson signed the Wilderness Act into law on Sept. 3, 1964. In this photo, LBJ hands the pen he used to Alice Zahniser while naturalist, author, adventurer, and conservationist Mardy Murie (standing behind her) looks on.
Key-words : biodiversity, herbivory, wilderness, non-linear dynamics, mosaic cycling, grassland, wood encroachment, forest, Bos taurus , Calluna vulgaris , Deschampsia flexuosa.This thesis examines the suitability of controlled and wilderness grazing as conservation management tool for open,
Rupert Summerson; Tina Tin
Antarctica is designated by the Antarctic Treaty System as a "natural reserve devoted to peace and science" (http://www.ats.aq/index_e.htm). Multiple, and sometimes conflicting, values are protected. In a place where wilderness protection and certain forms of human activity are both prized, a discussion of the protection of the Antarctic wilderness...
J. M. Bowker; H. K. Cordell; N. C. Poudyal
Prior to the U.S. Wilderness Act of 1964, economics as a science was hardly considered applicable to the types of human values set forth in this pathbreaking legislation. Economics was largely confined to the purchasing and labor decisions of households and firms as well the functioning of markets and economies. However, around this time, John Krutilla (1967) in his...
Wilderness areas in the world are threatened by the environmental impacts of the growing global human population. This study estimates the impact of birth rate on the future surface area of biodiverse wilderness and on the proportion of this area without major extinctions. The following four drivers are considered: human population growth (1), agricultural efficiency (2), groundwater drawdown by irrigation (3), and non-agricultural space used by humans (buildings, gardens, roads, etc.) (4). This study indicates that the surface area of biodiverse unmanaged land will reduce with about 5.4% between 2012 and 2050. Further, it indicates that the biodiverse land without major extinctions will reduce with about 10.5%. These percentages are based on a commonly used population trajectory which assumes that birth rates across the globe will reduce in a similar way as has occurred in the past in many developed countries. Future birth rate is however very uncertain. Plausible future birth rates lower than the expected rates lead to much smaller reductions in surface area of biodiverse unmanaged land (0.7% as opposed to 5.4%), and a reduction in the biodiverse land without major extinctions of about 5.6% (as opposed to 10.5%). This indicates that birth rate is an important factor influencing the quality and quantity of wilderness remaining in the future.
Drury, Jack K.
Explains the use of a computer as a planning and teaching tool in wilderness trip food planning. Details use of master food list and spreadsheet software such as VisiCalc to provide shopping lists for food purchasing, cost analysis, and diet analysis. (NEC)
John D. Shultis
Recent academic literature has expressed concern over the potential impact of the increasing types and levels of electronic (largely communication-related) technology brought by visitors into the wilderness. A key issue has been perceived changes in risktaking behavior by wilderness and backcountry users. Despite these concerns, extremely limited empirical assessment...
Rudy M. Schuster; David Cole; Troy Hall; Jennifer Baker; Rebecca Oreskes
Purposes were to describe on-site social carrying capacity from the users' perspectives, provide management applications, and refi ne constructs of product shift and rationalization used by visitors as coping responses to crowding. Data were gathered using on-site exit surveys of hikers in the Great Gulf Wilderness and analyzed with descriptive statistics,...
Full Text Available In the fall of 1846, the first of 3,000 African American settlers set foot on their 40-acre plots in the Great Northern Wilderness of New York State, a place we now call the “forever wild” wilderness of the Adirondack State Park. These black settlers were the initial wave of a social experiment meant to destroy both slavery and, more generally, racism throughout the entire United States through the redemptive practice of a utopian agrarianism. The settlers understood that nature and culture, wilderness and society, were thickly, dialectically intertwined. And they weren’t alone: their efforts were seeded by the white abolitionist, Gerrit Smith; fertilized by the utopian socialist communes that covered the Northeast in the 1840s; and nurtured by abolitionists, both black and white. To United States environmental history, I add two threads less frequently seen: African American history and an intellectual history of radical politics. Following these threads has led me beyond the disciplinary confines of history and into larger debates about the cultural politics of wilderness. In this article I argue that the critical wilderness paradigm currently reigning both in and beyond historical scholarship has obscured nuanced, sometimes radical visions of the natural world. Instead of an ironic, deconstructed notion of a troubling wilderness, I suggest another heuristic, the ecology of freedom, which highlights past contingency and hope, and can furthermore help guide our present efforts, both scholastic and activist, to find an honorable, just way of living on the earth.
A California appeals court reversed a lower court decision barring a worker from pursuing an HIV discrimination claim against his employer. [Name removed] claims that [name removed] violated California's Fair Employment and Housing Act when it rescinded accommodations that the bank had made earlier for HIV-related medical needs. The accommodations included a compressed work week and one day of telecommuting per week, which [name removed] performed well enough to earn a promotion. With a change in management, the accommodations were canceled, ostensibly to control costs. The lower court ruled that [name removed] was barred from suing his former employer because of statements on his disability insurance application. However, the appeals court ruled that [name removed]'s statements on the form were honest and did not preclude him from future litigation. Myron Quon, an attorney with Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund in Los Angeles, noted that [name removed]'s deft handling of the questions was vital to the success of the suit. [Name removed] had made comments and notations on the form, rather than just checking the appropriate yes or no boxes, and noted that he could return to work with a reasonable accommodation. Others applying for disability are cautioned to do the same to preserve their legal rights.
John Peden; Tina Tin; Javier Benayas; Luis Pertierra; Pablo Tejedo; Jessica O' Reilly; Kees Bastmeijer; Pat Maher
This paper summarizes preliminary results of a research study that investigated university students' perceptions of Antarctic wilderness and reports on discussions of these results at a workshop held at the 10th World Wilderness Congress. The purpose of the research study was to determine whether nationality and cultural differences were associated with beliefs...
Nelson, Timothy R.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Brenner, Owen T.; Henderson, Rachel E.; Reynolds, Billy J.; Wilson, Kathleen E.
Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center in St. Petersburg, Florida, conducted a bathymetric survey of Fire Island from May 6-20, 2015. The USGS is involved in a post-Hurricane Sandy effort to map and monitor the morphologic evolution of the wilderness breach as a part of the Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Project GS2-2B. During this study, bathymetry data were collected with single-beam echo sounders and Global Positioning Systems, which were mounted to personal watercraft, along the Fire Island shoreface and within the wilderness breach. Additional bathymetry and elevation data were collected using backpack Global Positioning Systems on flood shoals and in shallow channels within the wilderness breach.
New Zealand's wilderness resource has become iconic on both a national and international scale, and provides an important source of cultural identity for many Kiwis (a colloquial term for a New Zealander). Now, in the early 21st Century, however, social changes such as urbanization, globalization, increasing consumerism, and growing international tourism may be...
David J. Parsons
It seems increasingly clear that the primary challenge to the future preservation of wild landscapes will be adapting to the rapidly changing social and biophysical environments within which such areas exist. Established in large part as islands of naturalness, where human influences are minimized, wilderness ecosystems are now threatened by myriad changes, many of...
... notice should be addressed to Alan E. Watson, Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, USDA Forest... submitted by e-mail to: [email protected] . The public may inspect comments received at the Aldo Leopold... to the building. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alan E. Watson, Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research...
Matthew Rollins; Tom Swetnam; Penelope Morgan
Twentieth century fire patterns were analyzed for two large, disparate wilderness areas in the Rocky Mountains. Spatial and temporal patterns of fires were represented as GIS-based digital fire atlases compiled from archival Forest Service data. We find that spatial and temporal fire patterns are related to landscape features and changes in land use. The rate and...
Barton, Jo; Bragg, Rachel; Pretty, Jules; Roberts, Jo; Wood, Carly
It is well understood that wilderness expeditions improve well-being; however, there is little supporting quantitative data. The aim of this study was to measure the impact of wilderness expeditions on self-esteem (SE) and connectedness to nature (CN) and assess whether benefits varied according to participant and expedition characteristics. SE…
Snyder, G.L.; Patten, L.L.
Several areas of metallic and nonmetallic mineralization have been identified from surface occurrences within the Mount Zirkel Wilderness and vicinity, Colorado. Three areas of probable copper-lead-zinc-silver-gold resource potential, two areas of probable chrome-platinum resource potential, four areas of probable uranium-thorium resource potential, two areas of probable molybdenum resource potential, and one area of probable fluorspar potential were identified by studies in 1965-1973 by the USGS and USBM. No potential for fossil fuel or geothermal resources was identified
Wilderness preservation, as one branch of conservation, demonstrates a decidedly different cultural ethos than the utilitarian branch. Thus, preservation and utilitarian conservation represent different habits of thought fermenting in the cask of l9th century economic evolution. More specifically, the utilitarian branch of conservation can easily be viewed as an...
A longer duration tidal phase in the Swartvlei system during 1992 and 1993, compared to the Wilderness lake system, did not result in greater abundance of fish sampled. There appears to be no justification for the artificial maintenance of permanently tidal conditions in the Swartvlei and Touw River estuaries on the ...
Nathanson, Andrew T; Young, Justin Mark J; Young, Craig
A request for a preparticipation medical evaluation for wilderness watersports may be made by guiding agencies, instructional camps, or by patients presenting for an annual visit. Although guidelines have been published regarding preparticipation physical evaluation for traditional competitive high school and collegiate sports, little has been written about medical evaluations for those wishing to engage in wilderness and adventure watersports. in this article, we offer guidance based on literature review and expert opinion. Watersports are among the most common recreational activities in the United states and are generally safe. Drowning, however, is a significant risk, particularly in small, self-propelled craft, and among children. Medical counseling before participation in watersports should include screening for medical conditions which may impair swimming ability, including a history of seizures, heart disease, and lung disease. Physicians should also promote preventive health measures such as use of lifejackets and sun protection, as well as alcohol avoidance. Swim testing tailored to specific activities should be strongly considered for children and those with questionable swimming ability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sakals, M. E.; Wilford, D. J.; Wellwood, D. W.; MacDougall, S. A.
Active geomorphic fans experience debris flows, debris floods and/or floods (hydrogeomorphic processes) that can be hazards to humans. Grizzly bears ( Ursus arctos) can also be a hazard to humans. This paper presents the results of a cross-disciplinary study that analyzed both hydrogeomorphic and grizzly bear hazards to wilderness campers on geomorphic fans along a popular hiking trail in Kluane National Park and Reserve in southwestern Yukon Territory, Canada. Based on the results, a method is proposed to reduce the risks to campers associated with camping on fans. The method includes both landscape and site scales and is based on easily understood and readily available information regarding weather, vegetation, stream bank conditions, and bear ecology and behaviour. Educating wilderness campers and providing a method of decision-making to reduce risk supports Parks Canada's public safety program; a program based on the principle of user self-sufficiency. Reducing grizzly bear-human conflicts complements the efforts of Parks Canada to ensure a healthy grizzly bear population.
intertextual connections to the rest of the book. In my article, I have analysed how the Danish poet N.F.S. Grundtvig reworks Isa 35 in his hymn “Then the wilderness shall bloom like a rosy bower”, and how he reinterprets the wild animals as the Enemy (the Devil). In my view, the animals in Isa 35 have...
Invasive alien freshwater fishes in the Wilderness Lakes System, a wetland of international importance in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. ... A total of 87 893 fish comprising 16 species were caught. In addition to confirming the ... Key words: freshwater fish, invasive alien fishes, estuary, RAMSAR site, diversity.
In the last decade, increasing concern has been expressed about the impact of new technologies - especially communication technologies - on the wilderness experience. Many authors have suggested a tipping point has been reached, with new technologies changing the very nature of the 'traditional' wilderness experience in various ways. The loss of direct...
Rodway, George W; Muza, Stephen R
The current conflict in Afghanistan is the first major military action in which the United States and other North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) forces have found themselves regularly engaged in combat at high altitudes. However, high altitude warfare is not a new concept in Asia by any means. This article will offer a short general historical review of high altitude warfare in Asia and then specifically address some of the operational challenges faced by troops carrying out missions at high altitude in the ongoing conflict in Afghanistan. Additionally, there will be discussion of evidence-based interventions being used to attempt to maintain optimal health of the warfighter at high altitude in this theater of operations. Years of research into how to alleviate the problematic nature of military operations in the high altitude environment has resulted in extensive risk management recommendations from the US Army, specifically aimed at preventing altitude-related casualties. Copyright © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Semmens, Darius J.; Diffendorfer, Jay
Species that migrate through protected and wilderness areas and utilize their resources, deliver ecosystem services to people in faraway locations. The mismatch between the areas that most support a species and those areas where the species provides most benefits to society can lead to underestimation of the true value of protected areas such as wilderness. We present a method to communicate the “off-site” value of wilderness and protected areas in providing habitat to migratory species that, in turn, provide benefits to people in distant locations. Using northern pintail ducks (Anas acuta) as an example, the article provides a method to estimate the amount of subsidy – the value of the ecosystem services provided by a migratory species in one area versus the cost to support the species and its habitat elsewhere.
H. Ken Cordell; Danielle Murphy; Kurt H. Riitters; J.E. Harvard
This chapter describes the lands that make up the National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS). The first section includes statistics on trends in designations since the creation of the NWPS and describes the current size of the System in total land area and number of areas across the country. Also included are descriptions of the prevalence of NWPS lands by states...
Kurt F. Kipfmueller; Thomas W. Swetnam
Tree-ring reconstructed summer drought was examined in relation to the occurrence of 15 fires in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Area (SBW). The ten largest fire years between 1880 and 1995 were selected from historical fire atlas data; five additional fire years were selected from a fire history completed in a subalpine forest within the SBW. Results of the analysis...
Susan A. Fox; Beth A. Hahn
The National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS) is a vital component of the national and international infrastructure for science, education, and information. The NWPS serves as an important resource for advancing research, from discovering new dinosaurs (Arbour et al. 2014, Landon 2016) to understanding human history on the American landscape (Rasic 2003). The NWPS...
Watson, Alan E.
A societal decision to protect over 9 million acres of land and water for its wilderness character in the early 1960s reflected US wealth in natural resources, pride in the nation's cultural history and our commitment to the well-being of future generations to both experience wild nature and enjoy benefits flowing from these natural ecosystems.…
Karen Born; Aaron Orkin; David VanderBurgh; Jackson Beardy
Objective. To understand how community members of a remote First Nations community respond to an emergency first aid education programme. Study design. A qualitative study involving focus groups and participant observation as part of a communitybased participatory research project, which involved the development and implementation of a wilderness first aid course in collaboration with the community. Methods. Twenty community members participated in the course and agreed to be part of the rese...
Canney, F.C.; Howd, F.H.; Domenico, J.A.; Nakagawa, H.M.
The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine what mineral values, if any, may be present. Results must be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This report presents the results a geochemical survey of the Great Gulf and Presidential Range-Dry River Wilderness Areas; the Dartmouth Range, Wild River, Pemigewasset, Kinsman Mountain, Mount Wolf-Gordon Pond, Jobildunk, Carr Mountain, Sandwich Range, and the Dry River Extention (2 parcels) Roadless Areas; and the intervening and immediately surrounding areas in the White Mountain National Forest, Coos, Grafton, and Carroll Counties, New Hampshire. The Great Gulf Wilderness was established when the Wilderness Act was passed in 1964, and the Presidential Range-Dray Wiver Wilderness was established by Public Law 93-622, January 3, 1975. The Dartmouth Range, Wild River, Pemigewasset, Kinsman Mountain, Mount Wolf-Gordon Pond, Carr Mountain, and Jobildunk areas were classified as a further planning area during the Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) by the U.S. Forest Service, January 1979.
Alan E. Watson
A societal decision to protect over 9 million acres of land and water for its wilderness character in the early 1960s reflected US wealth in natural resources, pride in the nation's cultural history and our commitment to the well-being of future generations to both experience wild nature and enjoy benefits flowing from these natural ecosystems. There is no...
S. Thomas Olliff; Sue Consolo Murphy
Three criteria are used to assess how Yellowstoneâs wilderness managers incorporate science into management: preciousness, vulnerability and responsiveness to management. Four observations are proposed. First, where scientists lead, managers will follow. Scientists that leave the best trail will be followed most closely. Second, managers need to refocus efforts on...
... American people of present and future generations the benefits of an enduring resource of wilderness.” The... protection laws in many of our States and in countries around the world. The vision and structure established...
On August 18, 1972, an aerial patrol reported a snag burning deep in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness in Idaho. Bob Mutch, then a young research forester, traveled to the site the following day for an on-the-ground assessment. It was, Mutch later recalled, a little "nothing fire" that posed no threat. And he was right. Growing to only 24 feet by 24...
Llewellyn, Craig H
There are direct and indirect linkages and a form of symbiosis between operational military medicine from World War II and present wilderness medicine, from the beginnings to contemporary practice, and the more recently evolved field of tactical emergency medical support. Each of these relationships will be explored from the historical perspective of the Department of Military & Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences from 1982 to the present. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Radtke, Frederick A.; Radtke, Jean C.
The paper deals primarily with the components of culture that preclude rejection of developmentally disabled persons with a view toward minifying these attitudes in the future. Reviewed are such components of culture as democratic ideals, religious factors, economic factors, and educational practices which foster negative attitudes toward the…
J.M. Bowker; A. Askew; L. Seymour; J.P. Zhu; D. English; C.M. Starbuck
This study used travel cost and on-site day cost models, coupled with the Forest Serviceâs National Visitor Use Monitoring data, to examine the demand for and value of recreation access to designated Wilderness.
Forrester, Joseph D; Vakkalanka, J Priyanka; Holstege, Christopher P; Mead, Paul S
Lyme disease is a multisystem tickborne illness caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is the most common vectorborne disease in the United States. Prognosis after initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy is typically good if treated early. Wilderness providers caring for patients who live in or travel to high-incidence Lyme disease areas should be aware of the basic biology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of Lyme disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.
In recent years strong concerns have been raised about the protection of the remaining areas of wilderness in Europe. Despite an extensive human footprint, Europe still retains large areas with a high degree of native and free functioning ecosystems, where roads, buildings, bridges, cables and other
Straker, Jo; Potter, Tom G.; Irwin, David
This paper asks, what is the outdoors, and challenges conceptions of the role the outdoors play in education. It critically examines why a better understanding of the outdoors is important to outdoor education, how wilder places are essential to education, and how learning generated from these places can be translated into sustainable thinking and…
Foley, D.; Dorscher, M.
Matched pairs of known geothermal wells and springs with BLM proposed Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) were identified by inspection of WSA and Geothermal resource maps for the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. A total of 3952 matches, for geothermal sites within 25 miles of a WSA, were identified. Of these, only 71 (1.8%) of the geothermal sites are within one mile of a WSA, and only an additional 100 (2.5%) are within one to three miles. Approximately three-fourths of the matches are at distances greater than ten miles. Only 12 of the geothermal sites within one mile of a WSA have surface temperatures reported above 50/sup 0/C. It thus appears that the geothermal potential of WSAs overall is minimal, but that evaluation of geothermal resources should be considered in more detail for some areas prior to their designation as Wilderness.
Brawdy, Paul, Ed.; Luo, Ping, Ed.
This proceedings of the 2003 Wilderness Education Association (WEA) conference contains 10 papers and presentation summaries on outdoor leadership, wilderness programs, and related training. Following a brief history of WEA, the entries are: (1) "Adventure Education and Rock 'n Roll: Sustaining the Revolution in Post-Communist Romania" (Dawn M.…
Douglas G Fox; J. Christopher Bernabo; Betsy Hood
Guidelines include a large number of specific measures to characterize the existing condition of wilderness resources. Measures involve the atmospheric environment, water chemistry and biology, geology and soils, and flora. Where possible, measures are coordinated with existing long-term monitoring programs. Application of the measures will allow more effective...
In this podcast, Dr. Greg Dasch discusses an outbreak of four cases of sylvatic typhus that occurred at a wilderness camp in Pennsylvania. Sylvatic typhus is very rare in the United States, with only 41 cases since it was discovered in the United States in 1975. Lab work at CDC and the discovery that all four camp counselors who became ill had slept in the same bunk at the camp between 2004 and 2006 ultimately led to confirmation that flying squirrels living in the wall of the cabin were to blame for the illnesses.
Bastmeijer, Kees; Watson, A.; Sproull, J.; Dean, L.
Antarctica is often described as one of 'world's last wildernesses'. Since 1990, tourism to this wilderness is developing rapidly. In a period of 15 years, the number of tourists that make landings in Antarctica has increased from 2,500 (1990/91) to more than 23.000 (2004/05). The diversity of
... exercising delegated powers. 2.12 Section 2.12 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS... from exercising delegated powers. No delegation of authority by the Secretary or a general officer contained in this part shall preclude the Secretary or general officer from exercising any of the authority...
... visitor use in the Park. The GMP will provide updated management direction for the entire park. The EEWS....YP0000] Draft Environmental Impact Statement for General Management Plan, Everglades National Park... the General Management Plan (GMP) and East Everglades Wilderness Study (EEWS) for Everglades National...
Walsh, Richard G.; Gilliam, Lynde O.
The contingent valuation approach was applied to the problem of estimating the recreation benefits from alleviating congestion at Indian Peaks wilderness area, Colorado. A random sample of 126 individuals were interviewed while hiking and backpacking at the study site in 1979. The results provide an empirical test and confirmation of the Cesario and Freeman proposals that under conditions of excess recreational demand for existing sites, enhanced opportunities to substitute newly designated s...
H. Ken Cordell; J. Michael Bowker
These are the first-round results of a project aimed at exploring at a global scale the complex relationships between protected natural lands, tourism, and economic growth. In this fist round we mainly were interested in secondary sources of data and parameters from previously published studies. In presenting results for the 8th World Wilderness Congress, we provided...
In an earlier paper I identified two key forms of "meaningful experience" for participants on a wilderness river rafting journey, namely a feeling of humility and being alive to the present. However, space considerations led me to describe only the first of these forms in any detail. In this paper I identify and describe the qualities of…
David N. Cole
Climate change and its effects are writ large across wilderness landscapes. They always have been and always will be (see Figure 1). But contemporary change is different. For the first time, the pace and direction of climate change appear to be driven significantly by human activities (IPCC 2007), and this change is playing out across landscapes already affected by...
Mann, D. L.; Nelson, J. G.
This is a critical examination of some of the basic concepts that have guided management of parks and related reserves, often termed wildlands. Study is focussed on Rondeau Provincial Park, Ontario, and on concepts such as wilderness, primeval forest, and the Carolinian forest. Deer culling and other management policies and practices have been based upon the idea that the highly valued sassafras, tulip, and other species of the Carolinian forest are decreasing due to browsing. Field mapping and analysis of historic vegetation records indicate that this trend is not in fact occurring. Historic research also reveals difficulties in defining the Carolinian or other perceived types of forest for management purposes. A major reassessment of ideology and management policy and practice seem to be required in Rondeau and other wildlands. Vague or general concepts such as wilderness or preservation should be strongly complemented and supported by more precise statements of objectives, a learning attitude, and experimentation and research. As a result of the technical uncertainties and value judgments frequently involved, management should also be based upon the expressed preferences and continuing involvement of citizens.
... management activities, visitor activities, and developments that would be appropriate in the park in the future. In addition, the plan will generally address visitor-use related issues and provide management... Environmental Impact Statement on a General Management Plan Amendment/Wilderness Study for Lake Clark National...
... also will outline the kinds of resource management activities, visitor activities, and developments... visitor-use related issues and provide management direction for the six designated wild rivers within the... Impact Statement for a General Management Plan Amendment/Wilderness Study, for Gates of the Arctic...
Pettit, E. C.; Koppes, M. N.
We developed a wilderness science education program for high school girls. The program offers opportunities for students to explore and learn about mountain glaciers and the alpine landscape through scientific field studies with geologists and glaciologists. Our purpose is to give students a feeling for the natural processes that create the alpine world and provide an environment that fosters the critical thinking necessary to all scientific inquiry. The program is currently being offered through the North Cascades Institute, a non-profit organization offering outdoor education programs for the general public. We lead eight girls for a weeklong expedition to the remote USGS South Cascade Glacier Research Station in Washington's North Cascades. For four days, we explore the glacier and the nearby alpine valleys. We encourage the girls to observe and think like scientists through making observations and inferences. They develop their own experiments to test ideas about glacier dynamics and geomorphology. In addition to scientific exploration, we engage the students in discussions about the philosophy of science and its role in our everyday lives. Our program exemplifies the success of hands-on, inquiry-based teaching in small groups for science education in the outdoors. The wilderness setting and single gender field team inspires young women's interest in science and provides a challenging environment that increases their physical and intellectual self-confidence.
Leggat, Peter A; Shaw, Marc T M
A profile of the recent genesis of the Sub-Faculty of Expedition Medicine into a Faculty of Expedition and Wilderness Medicine of The Australasian College of Tropical Medicine is presented. Information is given on aims, structure, professional grades of membership, and the various activities of the Faculty, including publications and scientific meetings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... activities at least 15 days in advance through public notices, media releases, and/or mailings. ADDRESSES... considers the creation of new special designations, management of lands with wilderness characteristics, or... and paleontological resources, American Indian concerns, recreation management, social and economic...
In this podcast, Dr. Greg Dasch discusses an outbreak of four cases of sylvatic typhus that occurred at a wilderness camp in Pennsylvania. Sylvatic typhus is very rare in the United States, with only 41 cases since it was discovered in the United States in 1975. Lab work at CDC and the discovery that all four camp counselors who became ill had slept in the same bunk at the camp between 2004 and 2006 ultimately led to confirmation that flying squirrels living in the wall of the cabin were to blame for the illnesses. Created: 6/30/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases. Date Released: 6/30/2009.
Laura M. Fredrickson; Dorothy H. Anderson
On-site observations, personal field journals, and in-depth interviews were used to examine qualitative aspects of the wilderness experience as a source of spiritual inspiration. Two groups of women kept personal journal accounts of their daily 'lived-experience' during one of two outdoor recreation trips; five participants went to the Boundary Waters Canoe...
... soundscapes, and scenery through traditional outdoor activities. The NPS would actively manage to reduce... Ross Lake NRA in order to protect and enhance soundscapes and wilderness character, experience, and...
A study examined experiences of nature among eight adolescents during a 12-day wilderness trip. The trip generated feelings of good will toward nature but no increase in environmentally responsible behaviors. Group norms emphasized social interaction and constrained attention to nature. Outdoor educators should consciously plan for transfer of…
Emily F. Pomeranz; Mark D. Needham; Linda E. Kruger
Voluntary codes of conduct and best management practices are increasingly popular methods for addressing impacts of recreation and tourism in protected areas. In southeast Alaska, for example, a collaborative stakeholder process has been used for creating, implementing, and managing the voluntary Wilderness Best Management Practices (WBMP) for the Tracy Arm- Fords...
H. Ken Cordell; John C. Bergstrom; Lawrence A. Hartmann; Donald B. K. English
The Analysis of the Outdoor Recreation and Wilderness Situation in the United States is intended to build upon past studies and to establish a new and better information base on outdoor recreation and wilderness demand and supply. Also, this assessment answers several key questions which will help identify ways to meet demand through the year 2040. Specifically, it is...
Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Dale W. Johnson; William T. Swank; William Jackson
As a consequence of human land use, population growth, and industrialization, wilderness and other natural areas can be threatened by air pollution, climate change, and exotic diseases or pests. Air pollution in the form of acidic deposition is comprised of sulfuric and nitric acids and ammonium derived from emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia....
Lilian Alessa; Alan Watson
Pressures are growing on undeveloped (wild) places in the Circumpolar North. Among them are economic development, oil and gas exploration and extraction, development of geothermal energy resources, development of heavy industry close to energy sources, and lack of appreciation for âotherâ orientations toward wilderness resources. An international seminar in Anchorage,...
Private wildlife conservation is booming business in South Africa! Nick Steele stood at the cradle of this development in the politically turbulent 1970s and 1980s, by stimulating farmers in Natal (now KwaZulu-Natal) to pool resources in order to restore wilderness landscapes, but at the same time
Antarctica is often described as one of the worldâs last wildernesses. Since 1990, tourism to this wilderness is developing rapidly. In a period of 15 years, the number of tourists that make landings in Antarctica has increased from 2,500 (1990/91) to more than 23,000 (2004/05). The diversity of tourist activities is also increasing. The 1991 Protocol on Environmental...
Witkind, Irving J.; Ridenour, James
A mineral survey conducted within the Centennial Mountains Wilderness study area in Montana and Idaho showed large areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for phosphate. Byproducts that may be derived from processing the phosphate include vanadium, chromium, uranium, silver, fluorine, and the rare earths, lanthanum and yttrium. Results of a geochemical sampling program suggest that there is little promise for the occurrence of base and precious metals in the area. Although the area contains other nonmetallic deposits, such as coal, building stone, and pumiceous ash they are not considered as mineral resources. There is a probable resource potential for oil and gas and significant amounts may underlie the area around the Peet Creek and Odell Creek anticlines.
Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.
The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.
Alan Ewert; Jillisa Overholt; Alison Voight; Chun Chieh Wang
Wilderness and Protected Landscapes (WPLs) have long been considered special areas for a variety of reasons including baseline data, impact analyses, protected zones, and other tangible and intangible values. Another salient, and some would argue, a more important value offered through WPLs is that of human transformation. Accordingly, three theories have provided the...
Smith, D.B.; Tosdal, R.M.; Pitkin, J.A.; Kleinkopf, M.D.; Wood, R.H.
The Muggins Mountains Wilderness Study Area covers approximately 8,855 acres immediately south of the Yuma Proving Ground. This study area contains sand and gravel, and it has a moderate potential for gold in placer deposits. One small drainage basin along the southeast boundary of this study area has a moderate potential for uranium. This study area has a low potential for geothermal energy and for oil and gas resources
The political performances of Dutch anti-Islam populist Geert Wilders revolve around a combination of giving and taking offense. In this article, I develop a critique of Wilders’ politics of offense by revisiting two classic texts of Frankfurt School critical theory that combine social theory with
Clow, David W.; Forrester, Harrison; Miller, Benjamin; Roop, Heidi; Sickman, James O.; Ryu, Hodon; Santo Domingo, Jorge
During 2010-2011, a study was conducted in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI) to evaluate the influence of pack animals (stock) and backpackers on water quality in wilderness lakes and streams. The study had three main components: (1) a synoptic survey of water quality in wilderness areas of the parks, (2) paired water-quality sampling above and below several areas with differing types and amounts of visitor use, and (3) intensive monitoring at six sites to document temporal variations in water quality. Data from the synoptic water-quality survey indicated that wilderness lakes and streams are dilute and have low nutrient and Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations. The synoptic survey sites were categorized as minimal use, backpacker use, or mixed use (stock and backpackers), depending on the most prevalent type of use upstream from the sampling locations. Sites with mixed use tended to have higher concentrations of most constituents (including E.coli) than those categorized as minimal-use (p≤0.05); concentrations at backpacker-use sites were intermediate. Data from paired-site sampling indicated that E.coli, total coliform, and particulate phosphorus concentrations were greater in streams downstream from mixed-use areas than upstream from those areas (p≤0.05). Paired-site data also indicated few statistically significant differences in nutrient, E. coli, or total coliform concentrations in streams upstream and downstream from backpacker-use areas. The intensive-monitoring data indicated that nutrient and E. coli concentrations normally were low, except during storms, when notable increases in concentrations of E.coli, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and turbidity occurred. In summary, results from this study indicate that water quality in SEKI wilderness generally is good, except during storms; and visitor use appears to have a small, but statistically significant influence on stream water quality.
Vigliola, Laurent; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Wantiez, Laurent; Parravicini, Valeriano; Villéger, Sébastien; Mou-Tham, Gerard; Frolla, Philippe; Friedlander, Alan M.; Kulbicki, Michel; Mouillot, David
High species richness is thought to support the delivery of multiple ecosystem functions and services under changing environments. Yet, some species might perform unique functional roles while others are redundant. Thus, the benefits of high species richness in maintaining ecosystem functioning are uncertain if functions have little redundancy, potentially leading to high vulnerability of functions. We studied the natural propensity of assemblages to be functionally buffered against loss prior to fishing activities, using functional trait combinations, in coral reef fish assemblages across unfished wilderness areas of the Indo-Pacific: Chagos Archipelago, New Caledonia and French Polynesia. Fish functional diversity in these wilderness areas is highly vulnerable to fishing, explained by species- and abundance-based redundancy packed into a small combination of traits, leaving most other trait combinations (60%) sensitive to fishing, with no redundancy. Functional vulnerability peaks for mobile and sedentary top predators, and large species in general. Functional vulnerability decreases for certain functional entities in New Caledonia, where overall functional redundancy was higher. Uncovering these baseline patterns of functional vulnerability can offer early warning signals of the damaging effects from fishing, and may serve as baselines to guide precautionary and even proactive conservation actions. PMID:27928042
Budding, Karin E.; Kluender, Steven E.
A geologic and geochemical investigation and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Spanish Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, in south-central Colorado. Anomalous gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in rocks and in stream sediments from drainage basins in the vicinity of the old mines and prospects on West Spanish Peak indicate a substantiated mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals in the area surrounding this peak; however, the mineralized veins are sparse, small in size, and generally low in grade. There is a possibility that coal may underlie the study area, but it would be at great depth and it is unlikely that it would have survived the intense igneous activity in the area. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas because of the lack of structural traps and the igneous activity.
Hans Kiener; Zdenka Krenova
The new born wilderness area "Europe's Wild Heart" is located on the border of two Central European states and is shared by two national parks - Bavarian Forest National Park and Sumava National Park. The Bavarian Forest NP with an area of more than 24,000 ha and the Sumava NP with more than 68,000 ha create the largest island of protected nature in the...
Brooks, S.; Spierenburg, M.J.; Brakel, L.; Kolk, A.; Lukhozi, K.B.
This article explores contemporary cultural geographies and underlying histories of change on private land in post-apartheid South Africa. Its focus is the expansion of wildlife-based tourism and related forms of commodified wilderness consumption in KwaZulu-Natal province. The article explores the
Several strategies are available for reducing accumulated forest fuels and their associated risks, including naturally or accidentally ignited wildland fires, management ignited prescribed fires, and a variety of mechanical and chemical methods (Omi 1996). However, a combination of policy, law, philosophy, and logistics suggest there is a more limited set of fuels...
Trevor Hare; Cory Jones
Roadless areas of southeastern Arizona managed by the Bureau of Land Management are becoming rare. Fragmentation by roads and development, all-terrain vehicle use, erosion, and altered hydrology are a few of the causes of loss and degradation of roadless areas. The history of BLM and publicly identified roadless areas includes the passage of the Wilderness Act of 1964...
Full Text Available This analysis briefly compares the economic impacts of three potential future management scenarios for Šumava National Park (NP in the Czech Republic: (1 continuation of current management, (2 the adoption of draft Bills that would declassify protected areas and enable developments (e.g. ski lift development within some of the Park ’ s most valuable habitats for wildlife, and (3 the adoption of proposals to expand the wilderness area in the Park ’ s core with associated tourism opportunities. The proposals in the draft Bills have the potential to generate employment through ski lift development, but much of this activity will use imported labour and/or be short-term (e.g. associated with construction work. The financial viability of this development is uncertain for a number of reasons, including: likely requirements to compensate for damage to protected habitats, reduced future snow cover due to climate change, and competition to attract sufficient visitors to use the ski lift. The economic impacts of the adoption of the draft Bills (and, to a lesser extent, of continuing with current management would also include negative effects on current nature tourism activity and on its long-term potential to expand. Currently, and certainly if the proposed plans in the draft Bill are adopted, the value of the NP as an area of wilderness and high-quality ecosystems will be reduced. This would weaken one of its key selling points as a tourism and recreation destination. The opportunity for international branding of the national park based on these ecosystems would be diminished. This damage to ecosystems would go against the views of the 75% of the Czech population who agree that it is important to halt the loss of biodiversity because we have a moral obligation to look after nature. Pro-wilderness development offers an alternative scenario. It would allow economic opportunities to be pursued to promote nature-based tourism at new locations and
Ancona, Zachary H.; Semmens, Darius J.; Sherrouse, Benson C.
within wilderness areas, which was an expected outcome because of the restrictions inside wilderness areas that preclude resource extraction, development, and motorized or mechanized recreation.Providing spatially explicit social-value information collected from residents in counties adjacent to these national forests can assist in facilitating the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service’s Multiple-Use Sustained-Yield Act of 1960 (16 U.S.C. 528) note and the 2012 Forest Service Planning Rule (36 CFR Part 219), which encourage public participation in planning and management. By making these maps available to the public, we hope to encourage exploration of potential uses of these data for resource management and planning.
Over the past twenty-five years, there has been an alarming decline in academic performance among American students. This trend is seen in failing test scores, poor attendance, and low first-year retention rates at post-secondary institutions. There have been numerous studies that have examined this issue but few to offer solutions. Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi, the originator of flow theory, suggests that poor academic performance might be best explained in terms of lack of student motivation and engagement (flow) rather than a lack of cognitive abilities. This study was designed to examine a series of activities conducted during an Experiential Wilderness Science Program at a college located in the Rocky Mountain region. Specifically, this study measured student engagement for each activity and described the dimensions (phenomenological, instructional, etc.) that were present when there was a high frequency of engagement among program participants. A combined quantitative and qualitative research methodology was utilized. The Experience Sampling Form (ESF) was administered to 41 freshman students participating in a 3-day wilderness science program to measure the frequency of engagement (flow) for nine different activities. A qualitative investigation using journals, participant interviews, and focus groups was used to describe the dimensions that were present when a high frequency of engagement among program participants was observed. Results revealed that engagement (flow) was highest during two challenge education activities and during a river sampling activity. Dimensions common among these activities included: an environment dimension, a motivation dimension, and an instruction dimension. The environment dimension included: incorporating novel learning activities, creating student interests, and introducing an element of perceived risk. The motivation dimension included: developing internal loci of control, facilitating high levels of self-efficacy, and
Anya V. Zavadskaya
This paper describes an assessment and monitoring program that was designed and initiated for monitoring recreational impacts in a wilderness in Kamchatka. The framework of the recreational assessment was tested through its application to a case study conducted during the summers of 2008 and 2009 in the Kronotsky State Natural Biosphere Preserve (Kamchatka peninsula,...
Crayton, W.M.; Talbot, S.
The Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge includes the Tuxedni Wilderness Area (WA), which is required to meet the Class 1 air quality requirements of the Clean Air Act (42 CFT 7401 et seq.). The Act specifically protects such areas from significant deterioration; however, most Class 1 Wilderness monitoring focuses on visual impairment and traditional atmospheric pollutants such as NOx. This study was designed to assess the feasibility of also measuring atmospheric transport of potentially toxic elemental and organic contaminants to remote areas as a pilot for subsequent monitoring of Service lands to be undertaken through the Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program. Located on the western shore of Cook Inlet, the Tuxedni WA lies about 80 km downwind of a major petroleum complex that the City of Anchorage. Elemental contaminants emanating from the city will be studied in two species of widely distributed alpine vegetation (Cladina rangiferina, a lichen; and Hylocomium splendens, a moss) collected from elevated windward slopes on Chisik Island, a remote site in the WA. Vegetation samples will be analyzed for a suite of potentially toxic elements by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Polycyclic aromatic compounds originating from petroleum-related and urban sources will be studied through the deployment of lipid-containing passive accumulators and analysis by gas chromatography with photoionization detection. Reference areas will also be selected and monitored
Tucker, Anita R.; Bettmann, Joanna E.; Norton, Christine L.; Comart, Casey
Background: Considering the sensitive ethical issues related to involuntary treatment of adolescents, research investigating youth transport practices and treatment outcomes is clearly needed. Youth transport is common practice in many private pay programs, including wilderness therapy programs. Objective: This study of 350 adolescents in…
Full Text Available The issue of necessity as a ground for precluding wrongfulness has received close attention over the last two decades both in case law and in scholarly writings. Arbitrations conducted against Argentina for breaches of bilateral investment treaty obligations committed while fighting against economic crisis revived the old controversies related to the concept of necessity in general public international law, but also brought up some new dilemmas. This paper analyses the use of necessity in international investment law in light of what the authors suggest to be the legal purpose of this concept, points to and discusses the divergences in case law with respect to some of the elements of the defence based on necessity and offers the solutions susceptible to lead to a more harmonious understanding of necessity in international investment law.
R. McGreggor Cawley
This essay offers some loosely organized comments on the project of preserving wilderness on the scale of the big outside. These comments are arranged around a subject that has been the topic of quite a bit of debate over the past few yearsâthe possibility that the nature in our discussions about federal land and the environment is an artifact of social construction....
Graduates of the Wilderness Education Association (W.E.A.) were surveyed by mail to investigate the effects of their certification on safety, ecological impact, and curriculum standardization of their subsequent leadership activities. Self-reports showed a slight, but not statistically significant, decrease in the number of post- W.E.A. course evacuations and rescues. Graduates reported a moderate W.E.A. influence on their accident records, and knowledge of W.E.A. stan...
... was designated. Scoping issues identified include wilderness characteristics, livestock grazing, recreational target and sports shooting, travel management, and energy development. Five alternatives are... 15 to July 15, or as determined by the Sonoran Pronghorn Recovery Team). Minor land-use...
Herren, Christopher D.; Peister, Alexandra; Breton, Timothy S.; Hill, Maggie S.; Anderson, Marcy S.; Chang, Adeline W.; Klein, Sydney B.; Thornton, Mackenzie M.; Vars, Stacy J.; Wagner, Kasey E.; Wiebe, Paige L.; Williams, Thomas G.; Yanez, Coraima P.; Ackles, Jasanta M.; Artis, Darius
ABSTRACT Four subcluster L2 mycobacteriophages, Finemlucis, Miley16, Wilder, and Zakai, that infect Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 were isolated. The four phages are closely related to each other and code for 12 to 14 tRNAs and 130 to 132 putative protein-coding genes, including tyrosine integrases, cro, immunity repressors, and excise genes involved in the establishment of lysogeny.
MIchael A. Jenkins; George R. Parker
We used aerial photographs from 1939, 1974, and 1990 to examine how land cover has changed on the 5,286-ha Charles C. Deam Wilderness of Hoosier National Forest over this time span. Digital elevation models were used to examine changes in land-cover class (closed-canopy forest, open forest, agriculture/old-field, clearcut, and pine plantation) within each land type (...
Mast, M. Alisa
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Air Resource Management, conducted a study to evaluate long-term trends in lake-water chemistry for 64 high-elevation lakes in selected Class I wilderness areas in Colorado, Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming during 1993 to 2009. Understanding how and why lake chemistry is changing in mountain areas is essential for effectively managing and protecting high-elevation aquatic ecosystems. Trends in emissions, atmospheric deposition, and climate variables (air temperature and precipitation amount) were evaluated over a similar period of record. A main objective of the study was to determine if changes in atmospheric deposition of contaminants in the Rocky Mountain region have resulted in measurable changes in the chemistry of high-elevation lakes. A second objective was to investigate linkages between lake chemistry and air temperature and precipitation to improve understanding of the sensitivity of mountain lakes to climate variability.
Dorner, H.; Michel, E.
The conditions and active measures which preclude a spontaneous failure of pipings are shown. With the basic safety concept a quality standard is achieved characterized by high-grade material properties, a structure that is adequate to the loads to which the components will be subjected in service and is amenable to inspection, precise load and stress evaluation, optimized manufacturing and operation monitoring. The possible failure types are described and the safety against failure is assessed. (author) [pt
Cain, James W.
And Then There Were None: The Demise of Desert Bighorn Sheep in the Pusch Ridge Wilderness. Paul R.Krausman. 2017. The University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. 248 pp. $65.00 hardcover. ISBN 978‐0‐8263‐5785‐4.
..., mountain biking, All-Terrain Vehicle use, Off-Highway Vehicle use, horseback riding), roadless areas, wilderness, forest health, roads, minerals, fire, subsurface mineral rights, lands, air quality, special uses...--Ecological Health, Restoration and Sustainability Changes are needed in management direction for maintaining...
Regina M. Rochefort; Darin D. Swinney
Three survey methods were utilized to describe human impacts in one wilderness management zone of Mount Rainier National Park: wilderness impact cards, social trail and campsite surveys, and condition class surveys. Results were compared with respect to assessment of wilderness condition and ecological integrity. Qualitative wilderness impact cards provided location of...
... public participation activities at least 15 days in advance through public notices, media releases, and..., public land access, off-highway vehicles, lands with wilderness characteristics, wildlife habitat and..., wildfire and prescribed fire management, and social and economic conditions across the HiLine District...
Orbital Cellulitis: Clinical Course and Management Challenges. The Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Experience. ... The major management challenges were poor financial status of patients precluding necessary diagnostic laboratory and imaging studies. Early recognition, diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ...
... modification. The associated management objectives dictate the level of protection, which range from... and realty, hydrology, soils, sociology, economics, and wilderness. At present, the BLM has identified... land use planning level, the process will follow the BLM's policies in the Land Use Planning Handbook...
Ellison, Mark Andrew
The purpose of this exploratory research was to examine the relationship between the restorative benefits of hiking in wilderness solitude (RBHWS) and job satisfaction. This research is a jumping off point, intended to guide future research on the RBHWS, and the practical utilization of this in human resource development. This research sought to…
Křenová, Zdeňka; Kiener, H.
Roč. 2, č. 2 (2012), s. 115-124 ISSN 1805-0174 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : wilderness * transboundary cooperation * national park * biodiversity * Natura 2000 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour
Dutch right-wing politician Geert Wilders has already been prosecuted once for incitement to hatred and group defamation over remarks and a film criticising Islam and comparing the Quran to Hitler’s Mein Kampf. He was acquitted, but now faces another criminal trial on the same charges concerning remarks he made in March 2014 about ‘fewer Moroccans’. This Article examines Wilders’ expressions which led to both prosecutions. The case law of the European Court of Human Rights on freedom of expre...
O'Leary, Virginia E.
It appears that there is nothing inherently associated with femaleness which should preclude the ascendence of women into management positions. However, barriers do exist and they stem from such factors as societal sex-role stereotypes, attitudes toward women in management, attitudes toward female competence, and the prevalence of the male…
Henry V. Bastian
Vegetation and fuel loading plots were monitored and sampled in wilderness areas treated with prescribed fire. Changes in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest structure tree species and fuel loading are presented. Plots were randomly stratified and established in burn units in 1995. Preliminary analysis of nine plots 2 years after burning show litter was reduced 54....
Robert E. Keane; Janice L. Garner; Kirsten M. Schmidt; Donald G. Long; James P. Menakis; Mark A. Finney
Fuel and vegetation spatial data layers required by the spatially explicit fire growth model FARSITE were developed for all lands in and around the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Area in Idaho and Montana. Satellite imagery and terrain modeling were used to create the three base vegetation spatial data layers of potential vegetation, cover type, and structural stage....
Kanengieter, John; Rajagopal-Durbin, Aparna
Lessons taught and learned in the challenging, unpredictable environment of a wilderness expedition have direct applications to today's business world. That's according to two directors at the National Outdoor Leadership School, who in this article share five principles for expedition--and career-success. (1) Practice leadership. The fundamental philosophy of NOLS is that leadership can be learned-even by those who don't think they have a natural ability to lead. You just need to practice making decisions, then reflecting on and learning from the outcomes. (2) Lead from everywhere. In an expedition group, or in an organization, you can play four roles, often simultaneously: designated leader, active follower, peer leader, and self-leader. Effective teamwork rests on knowing how and when to step into each role. (3) Behave well Leadership means getting along in a diverse group, cooperating with teammates, effectively resolving conflict, and keeping yourself and others motivated. (4) Keep calm. On expeditions and in business, people often end up scrapping not only Plan A but also Plan B. Leadership involves planning for things you can control, letting go of things you can't, expecting the unexpected, and maintaining composure when unforeseen circumstances arise. (5) Disconnect to connect. The fast-paced, high-tech world of work wreaks havoc on leaders' ability to engage in the careful, strategic thinking required of them. It's important to disconnect from 21st-century distractions and to connect with nature once in a while.
Alan E. Watson; Lilian Alessa; Janet Sproull
There are growing pressures on undeveloped (wild) places in the Circumpolar North. Among them are pressures for economic development, oil and gas exploration and extraction, development of geothermal energy resources, development of heavy industry close to energy sources, and lack of appreciation for "other" orientations toward wilderness resources by...
Damazio, Eulalio; Caran, Eliana; Ortiz, Valdemar; Macedo Junior, Antonio
We report on a 16-year-old male with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma who underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection due to a stage I tumor (normal retroperitoneal computed tomography). The surgical finding was three enlarged nodes, positive for metastatic disease. Patient was referred to adjuvant chemotherapy. This case suggests that the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group IV protocol is subject to questions regarding adolescents with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma, and that negative retroperitoneal CT does not preclude the need of lymph node dissection. (author)
Rudy M. Schuster; Ken Cordell; Gary T. Green
The purpose of this research was to expand the wilderness value scale administered in the 1994 and 2000 versions of the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment using questions included in the 2003 NSRE. A data set of 1,900 cases was randomly split in half. Validity of the additional questions was tested using principal component analysis, a confirmatory...
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is revising the long-range plan for Alaskaâs Togiak National Wildlife Refuge, over half of which is designated as the Togiak Wilderness Area. Many of the planning issues are social rather than biological, involving public use and its effects on Refuge resources and opportunities. Planners, managers, and stakeholders are finding...
Full Text Available Roberto Ago, the International Law Commission’s second Special Rapporteur on the topic of state responsibility for internationally wrongful acts, defined self-defence as a faculté of a state to use force in response to an act of another state through which a breach of the principal obligation under Article 2(4 Charter is committed. On this basis, he then inserted a provision in Chapter V to Part One of the Draft Articles on State Responsibility expressing self-defence as a specific factual circumstance precluding the wrongfulness of the use of force which constitutes a response to state aggression. This conception of self-defence, although misunderstood from the onset, remained in the backdrop of the study of the law of state responsibility for a considerable period. It was only dismantled during the reign of the last Special Rapporteur on the topic of state responsibility, James Crawford. The last Rapporteur, at the onset, submitted that it is not the function of the Draft Articles to specify the content of the primary rules, including that referred to in Article 51 Charter. He then redefined the function of the circumstance of self-defence as that of precluding the wrongfulness of non-performance of certain obligations other than the general prohibition insofar as such non-performance is connected with the exercise of the right under Article 51 Charter.This contribution first scrutinises this paradigmatic shift and finds it to be symptomatic of the conviction on the part of Crawford that the notion of self-defence could also encompass the use of force against speculative threats of state origin as well as actual threats that emanate from individuals or groups which are disconnected from the organisation of any state. It then uses this finding as a springboard towards the examination of the controversy surrounding the notion of self-defence under international law. In that connection, it first outlines the findings of the World Court on the
Townes, David A
In adventure racing, or multisporting, athletes perform multiple disciplines over a course in rugged, often remote, wilderness terrain. Disciplines may include, but are not limited to, hiking, trail running, mountain biking, caving, technical climbing, fixed-line mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating, and orienteering. While sprint races may be as short as 6 hours, expedition-length adventure races last a minimum of 36 hours up to 10 days or more and may cover hundreds of kilometres. Over the past decade, adventure racing has grown in popularity throughout the world with increasing numbers of events and participants each year. The provision of on-site medical care during these events is essential to ensure the health and safety of the athletes and thus the success of the sport. At present, there are no formal guidelines and a relatively small amount of literature to assist in the development of medical support plans for these events. This article provides an introduction to the provision of medical support for adventure races. Since a wide variety of illness and injury occur during these events, the medical support plan should provide for proper personnel, equipment and supplies to provide care for a wide range of illness and injury. Foot-related problems are the most common reasons for athletes to require medical attention during these events. This article also highlights some of the controversies involved in the provision of medical support for these events. Suggested penalties for acceptance of medical care during the event and strategies for removal of an athlete from the event for medical reasons are offered. In addition, some of the challenges involved in the provision of medical support, including communication, logistics and liability are discussed. This information should prove useful for medical directors of future, similar events. Because of their extreme nature, expedition-length adventure races represent a new and unique area of wilderness and
Matthew L. Brooks; Jeanne C. Chambers
Landmark legislation provides guiding principles for land management planning in southern Nevada and the rest of the United States. Such legislation includes, but is not limited to, the Forest Service Organic Administration Act of 1897 (16 U.S.C. 473-478, 479-482 and 551), National Park Service Organic Act of 1916 (U.S.C. Title 16, Secs. 1-4), Wilderness Act 1964 (P.L....
Thomas J. Straka
Full Text Available American forest resource management and planning goes back to the European roots of American Forestry. Timber management plans, documents based on forest regulation for timber production, were the foundation of American forestry. These types of management plans predominated until World War II. Multiple use forestry developed after World War II and issues like recreation, wildlife, water quality, and wilderness became more important. In the 1970’s harvest scheduling became part of the planning process, allowing for optimization of multiple goals. By 2001 social, environmental, and economic goals were integrated into the timber production process. American forestry experienced distinct historical periods of resource planning, ranging from classic sustained yield timber production, to multiple use-sustained yield, to sustainable human-forest systems. This article traces the historical changes in forest management planning philosophy using the forest management textbooks of the time. These textbooks provide insight into the thought process of the forestry profession as changes in the concept of sustainability occurred.
Sherrod, David R.; Wills, Barton B.
In the late spring or early summer of 2012, a flood emanated from a small moraine-dammed lake on the northeast flank of Three Fingered Jack in the Mount Jefferson Wilderness. Channel erosion or slope collapse breached the natural dam of the lake, leading to a sudden lowering of lake level by 2.8 m and discharge of 12,700 cubic meters (m3) of water. The resulting debris flow formed a bouldery deposit extending about 0.35 km downslope.
Since passage of the Wilderness Act, economists have derived the total economic valuation framework for estimating wildland benefits. Over the same time period, policies adopted by public land management agencies have been slow to internalize wilderness economics into management decisions. The lack of spatial resolution and modeler bias associated with the FORPLAN...
Emily F. Pomeranz; Mark D. Needham; Linda E. Kruger
This article focuses on a collaborative approach for addressing impacts of watercraft-based tourism in Tracy Arm-Fords Terror Wilderness, Alaska. This approach is the Wilderness Best Management Practices (WBMP) and involves codes of conduct for managing use in this area. This article examines use-related indicators that stakeholders prioritize for inclusion in the WBMP...
Glenn D. Shaw; Ricardo Cisneros; Donald Schweizer; James O. Sickman; Mark E. Fenn
Major ion chemistry (2000-2009) from 208 lakes (342 sample dates and 600 samples) in class I and II wilderness areas of the Sierra Nevada was used in the Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC) model to estimate critical loads for acid deposition and investigate the current vulnerability of high elevation lakes to acid deposition. The majority of the lakes were dilute (...
Voelker, A.H.; Wedow, H.; Oakes, E.; Scheffler, P.K.
A versatile method was developed to rate the energy- and mineral-resource potentials of areas in which land-management and resource-development decisions must be reached with a minimum expenditure of money and time. The method surveys published and personal information on resources in the region being assessed, selects the most appropriate information, synthesizes the information into map overlays and tract descriptions, rates the potential of tracts for particular resources, rates the overall importance of each tract for resource development, and documents the ratings and their significance. Basic criteria considered by the assessment team include the favorability and certainty ratings, the overall availability of each rated resource within this country, the size of a given tract, economic factors, and the number of resources in a tract. The method was applied to two separate but roughly similar geologic regions, the Idaho-Wyoming-Utah thrust belt and the central Appalachians. Undeveloped tracts of national forestland in these regions that are being considered for possible designation under the Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) planning process were rated for their resource value. Results support earlier indications that the 63 tracts comprising the western thrust belt possess a high potential for future resource development. Nearly one-half of these tracts were rated either 3 or 4. However, the wide spread of the importance ratings between 1 and 4 suggests that some tracts or portions of tracts can be added to the National Wilderness System without compromising resource development. The 72 eastern thrust belt tracts were given lower ratings, which indicates the reduced significance of the few remaining roadless areas in this region in satisfying the nation's near-term resource needs
Penna, Roberto; Allasia, Walter; Bianchi, Luca; Licata, Enrico; Duranti, Pierluigi; Molino, Andrea; Bagalini, Enea; Sagliocco, Sergio; Scarafia, Simone; Prinetto, Paolo; Airofarulla, Giuseppe; Carelli, Alberto
SALVEREMO project aims at designing and prototyping an innovative system for searching and rescuing individuals (especially hikers and mountaineers) who got lost or in peril in wilderness or mountain areas. It makes use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) equipped with a sensor suite specifically selected according to the requirements identified involving alpine rescuers and government officials. The peculiarity of the proposed solution is the exploitation and integration of the special skill and expertise coming from different competence fields. It will dramatically decrease the searching time in the wilderness and remote areas off the beaten tracks, providing rescuers and operators with a decision support system increasing successful results and reducing rescue missions costs. The system benefits from the adoption of a scaled-down Base Transceiver Station (BTS) embarked in the payload sensor suite of a small RPAS that can be carried in a back pack of rescuers. A Software Defined Radio (SDR) board implementing the BTS protocol stack has been integrated in a complex sensor suite made up of open processing boards and camera devices. Moreover computer vision (CV) algorithms for real time pattern detection and image enhancements have been investigated for assisting the rescuers during the searching operations. An easy-to-use ground station application has been developed for speeding up the overall mission accomplishment. Aknowledgement SALVEREMO project is a research project co-funded by Regione Piemonte according to the call for proposal POR F.E.S.R. 2007/2013, "Linea di attività I.1.3-Innovazione e PMI - Polo della Meccatronica e dei Sistemi Avanzati di Produzione". The authors want to thank "Il Soccorso Alpino Italiano" for the invaluable support for establishing operative requirements.
Gaurav Sikri, Gaurav; Bhattacharya,Anirban
Gaurav Sikri, Anirban Bhattacharya Department of Physiology, Armed Forces Medical College, Wanowarie, Pune, IndiaWe read with great interest the review article titled “Wilderness medicine at high altitude: recent developments in the field” by Shah et al.1 The authors have comprehensively summarized the recent advances in the field of high altitude medicine relevant to sports and travel medicine. However, Shah et al have described potential drugs for management of high-alti...
Full Text Available When in his Tanner lectures Stanley Cavell sets out to define Ordinary Language Philosophy or – rather – to explain how it demarcates philosophy as such, he takes up psychoanalytic literary criticism in order to articulate the terms of this task. Yet the constitution of the ordinary, in Cavell, is never quite accessed from within psychoanalysis-cum-literature alone; instead, it takes another relation, that of psychoanalysis and literature to classical Hollywood, for Cavell to address the ordinary in terms of its constitution. I propose to discuss this complex using two films by Billy Wilder as a passageway to Cavell’s analytic procedure.
D. Cole; N.L. Stephenson; C.I. Millar
Climate change and its effects are writ large across the landscape and in the natural and cultural heritage ofparks and wilderness. They always have beenÂ and always will be. The sculpted walls of Yosemite National Park and the jagged scenery ofthe Sierra Nevada wilderness would not be as spectacularÂ if periods of glaciation had not been followed by periods of...
Sádlo, Jiří; Vítková, Michaela; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr
Roč. 35, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-34 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Robinia pseudoacacia * plant invasion * management strategies Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)
eoMended USA 48,150 25 0 NV-060-288 135 None - -- - - 136 Monte Crieto - None - - - -- 137A Big Skey USFS Arc D0e 4-667 Rare II Wilderness 100,770 1O 0...Pershing 2,005 100 132 Jeraey goes- - - - 133 Siwerds Creek None i14 Smith Croek Po.------ 12 lselthymaxil, Sit*4? .r m SF y- 200 100 130 Hote Cristo ...Mudd) Rtiv.er Sp.ringsn 8S. 00( Curr% County, NM Hartley Count ), n3 Other Affected Subunitb or (court ivk 4 Snake 104 (C 5 Pine I.. CO0 6 W bte I
Pavel, Marilena D.; Masarati, Pierangelo; Gennaretti, Massimo; Jump, Michael; Zaichik, Larisa; Dang-Vu, Binh; Lu, Linghai; Yilmaz, Deniz; Quaranta, Giuseppe; Ionita, Achim; Serafini, Jacopo
Understanding, predicting and supressing the inadvertent aircraft oscillations caused by Aircraft/Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings (A/RPC) is a challenging problem for designers. These are potential instabilities that arise from the effort of controlling aircraft with high response actuation systems. The present paper reviews, updates and discusses desirable practices to be used during the design process for unmasking A/RPC phenomena. These practices are stemming from the European Commission project ARISTOTEL Aircraft and Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings - Tools and Techniques for Alleviation and Detection (2010-2013) and are mainly related to aerodynamic and structural modelling of the aircraft/rotorcraft, pilot modelling and A/RPC prediction criteria. The paper proposes new methodologies for precluding adverse A/RPCs events taking into account the aeroelasticity of the structure and pilot biodynamic interaction. It is demonstrated that high-frequency accelerations due to structural elasticity cause negative effects on pilot control, since they lead to involuntary body and limb-manipulator system displacements and interfere with pilot's deliberate control activity (biodynamic interaction) and, finally, worsen handling quality ratings.
... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.11 Scientific uses. Recognizing the scientific value of wilderness, research data gathering and similar scientific... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific uses. 35.11 Section 35.11...
Vermilion Cliffs-Paria Canyon Instant Study Area and adjacent wilderness areas are mostly in Coconino County Ariz., but extend into Kane County, Utah. The area studied in this report encompasses about 560 mi2 (1,450 km2). The study area includes the established Paria Canyon Primitive and Vermilion Cliffs Natural Areas between U.S. Highways 89 and 89A.
Sheila Maria Ribeiro Saad
Sunset Boulevard (Crepúsculo dos Deuses, EUA) foi coescrito e dirigido pelo cineasta Billy Wilder (1906-2002), entrando em cartaz em 1950 período marcado pela ascensão do macarthismo nos Estados Unidos. Para burlar a censura imposta pelo Red Scare, o filme apresenta diversas possibilidades de interpretação, as quais serão perseguidas ao longo da análise. Dentre elas, observa-se o melodrama aos moldes hollywoodianos; um panorama da transição do cinema mudo ao sonoro (e suas implicações); um m...
Gregory F. Hansen
Learning about, understanding, and working with native cultures can be rewarding as well as enlightening. Such endeavors can also be time consuming, difficult, and even frustrating in certain instances. However, if coordinated carefully and managed properly, at the end of the day such efforts can ultimately result in innumerable benefits to native communities, land...
Born, Karen; Orkin, Aaron; VanderBurgh, David; Beardy, Jackson
To understand how community members of a remote First Nations community respond to an emergency first aid education programme. A qualitative study involving focus groups and participant observation as part of a community-based participatory research project, which involved the development and implementation of a wilderness first aid course in collaboration with the community. Twenty community members participated in the course and agreed to be part of the research focus groups. Three community research partners validated and reviewed the data collected from this process. These data were coded and analysed using open coding. Community members responded to the course in ways related to their past experiences with injury and first aid, both as individuals and as members of the community. Feelings of confidence and self-efficacy related access to care and treatment of injury surfaced during the course. Findings also highlighted how the context of the remote First Nations community influenced the delivery and development of course materials. Developing and delivering a first aid course in a remote community requires sensitivity towards the response of participants to the course, as well as the context in which it is being delivered. Employing collaborative approaches to teaching first aid can aim to address these unique needs. Though delivery of a first response training programme in a small remote community will probably not impact the morbidity and mortality associated with injury, it has the potential to impact community self-efficacy and confidence when responding to an emergency situation.
Bettina Ohse; Falk Huettmann; Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond; Glenn P. Juday
Most wilderness areas still lack accurate distribution information on tree species. We met this need with a predictive GIS modeling approach, using freely available digital data and computer programs to efficiently obtain high-quality species distribution maps. Here we present a digital map with the predicted distribution of white spruce (Picea glauca...
Harry C. Zinn; Alan R. Graefe
Many resource managers and wilderness advocates see links between appreciating wild nature, participating in traditional outdoor activities, and support for protecting wild areas. Some of these individuals express concern that the values and recreation behavior of today's young people may suggest less support for protecting wilderness in the future. Although...
... decision making, which will allow managers to effectively address future opportunities and problems, such... will serve as the basis for future detailed management documents, such as five-year strategic plans and...
.... Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay... planning, invasive species management, energy and minerals management, travel management, wilderness, wild...
Michael S. Crossley
Full Text Available Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura is a pest of soybean in the northern Midwest whose migratory patterns have been difficult to quantify. Improved knowledge of soybean aphid overwintering sites could facilitate the development of control efforts with exponential impacts on aphid densities on a regional scale. In this preliminary study, we explored the utility of variation in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to distinguish soybean aphid overwintering origins. We compared variation in bulk 13C and 15N content in buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L. and soybean aphids in Wisconsin, among known overwintering locations in the northern Midwest. Specifically, we looked for associations between buckthorn and environmental variables that could aid in identifying overwintering habitats. We detected significant evidence of correlation between the bulk 13C and 15N signals of soybean aphids and buckthorn, despite high variability in stable isotope composition within and among buckthorn plants. Further, the 15N signal in buckthorn varied predictably with soil composition. However, lack of sufficient differentiation of geographic areas along axes of isotopic and environmental variation appears to preclude the use of carbon and nitrogen isotopic signals as effective predictors of likely aphid overwintering sites. These preliminary data suggest the need for future work that can further account for variability in 13C and 15N within/among buckthorn plants, and that explores the utility of other stable isotopes in assessing likely aphid overwintering sites.
Conclusion: In this small series, we observed a low successful uterine preservation rate and a high maternal complication rate. We recommend that primary cesarean hysterectomy should be used as the treatment of choice for mild to severe abnormally invasive placenta. Conservative management should be reserved for women with a strong fertility desire and women with extensive disease that precludes primary hysterectomy due to surgical difficulty.
Bush, Alfred L.; Condon, Steven M.; Franczyk, Karen J.; Brown, S.Don
The mineral resource potential of the Piedra Wilderness Study Area is low. No occurrences of metallic minerals, of valuable industrial rocks and minerals, or of useful concentrations of organic fuels are known in the study area. However, a noneconomic occurrence of gypsum in the Jurassic Wanakah Formation lies a few hundred feet west of the WSA boundary, is believed to extend into the WSA, and has a low resource potential. Particular attention was paid to the possible occurrence of organic fuels in the Pennsylvanian Hermosa Formation, of uranium and vanadium in the Jurassic Entrada Sandstone and Morrison Formation, and of coal in the Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone. Thin coaly beds in the Dakota have a low resource potential. Extensive sampling of stream sediments, limited sampling of rock outcrops and springs, and a number of scintillometer traverses failed to pinpoint significant anomalies that might be clues to mineral deposits.
DeWitt, E.; Anderson, J.L.; Barton, H.N.; Jachens, R.C.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W.; Close, T.J.
The authors present a study of 19,558 acres of the South McCullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area. The study area contains no identified mineral resources and has no areas of high mineral resource potential. However, five areas that make up 20 percent of the study area have a moderate potential either for undiscovered silver, gold, lead, copper, and zinc resources in small vein deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; for tungsten and copper in small- to medium-size vein deposits; or for silver and gold in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits. Six areas that makeup 24 percent of the study area have an unknown resource potential either for gold, silver, lead, and copper in small vein deposits; for gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and arsenic in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; or for tungsten and copper in small vein deposits
In medicine, the realm of the clinic and the realm of experimentation often overlap and conflict, and physicians have to develop practices to negotiate their differences. The work of Canadian neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield (1891-1976) is a case in point. Engaging closely with the nearly 5,000 pages of unpublished and hitherto unconsidered reports of electrical cortical stimulation that Penfield compiled between 1929 and 1955, I trace how Penfield's interest shifted from the production of hospital-based records designed to help him navigate the brains of individual patients to the construction of universal brain maps to aid his search for an ever-elusive "mind." Reading the developments of Penfield's operation records over time, I examine the particular ways in which Penfield straddled the individual and the universal while attempting to align his clinical and scientific interests, thereby exposing his techniques to standardize and normalize his brain maps.
Work, E.A.; Story, M.
An overview of the use of operational digital image processing at the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is presented. The BLM digital image analysis facility for the processing and analysis of aerial photography and satellite data is described, and its role within the Bureau's operational structure is explained. Attention is given to examples of BLM digital data analysis projects that have utilized Landsat (MSS and TM), NOAA-AVHRR, or SPOT data. These projects include: landcover mapping to assist land use planning or special projects; monitoring of wilderness units to detect unauthorized activities; stratification aid for detailed field inventories; identification/quantification of unauthorized use (agricultural and mineral trespass); and fire fuels mapping and updates. 3 refs
Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.
The U.S Army Corps of Engineers, New York District is developing engineering plans, including economic costs and benefits, for storm damage reduction along an 83 mile stretch of the coastal barrier islands and beaches on the south shore of Long Island, NY from Fire Island Inlet east to the Montauk Point headland. The plan, expected to include various alternatives for storm protection and erosion mitigation, is referred to as the Fire Island to Montauk Point Reformulation Plan (FIMP). These plans are expected to follow the Corps of Engineers’ Environmental Operating Principles striving for long term environmental sustainability and balance between environmental protection and protection of human health and property. Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS), a 19,579 acre unit of the National Park System includes a 32 mile long coastal barrier island located within the FIMP project area. A seven-mile section of the park, Otis Pike Fire Island High Dune Wilderness Area, is also a designated Federal Wilderness Area. The FIIS includes not only the barrier island and sand dunes, but also several islands, sand flats and wetlands landward of the barrier, submerged parts of Great South Bay shoreface, extending approximately 4,000 feet into the bay with the inner shelf region extending approximately 1,000 feet seaward of the Fire Island shoreline. The Fire Island barrier islands, a sand-starved system dominated by highly dynamic processes, are struggling to maintain their integrity in the face of sea-level rise and storms. Adding to the dilemma is that development on the barriers and the mainland has increased greatly during the past 50 years. As such, managers and decision makers in federal agencies, state agencies and local governments are challenged to balance tradeoffs between protection of lives and property, public access and long term conservation of natural habitats and processes and the plants and animals that depend on these habitats. National Park Service (NPS
Nodurft, Susan Jennings Johnson
The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of an innovative, outdoor wilderness program on the participants' sense of connectedness with the natural world. Ancillary objectives looked at the impact of epistemological and pedagogical program elements, participants' people and place background experiences, and worldviews on this connectedness sense. The weekend program, based upon a philosophy of deep ecology, draws upon the Native American wisdom tradition and employs a pedagogy of myth, modeling and experiential learning. The researcher and fourteen volunteers primarily drawn from biology classes at a community college participated in the study. Snyder's (1988) four themes of connectedness and a heuristic qualitative design described by Moustakas (1990) were employed in determining the essence of impact. Data collection methods included pre- and post-questionnaires, audio and video tapes of the weekend, field notes, journals, and follow-up interviews. Upon completion of data gathering, three co-researchers were selected for focus study. Results of analysis are described in the form of in-depth profiles of the three co-researchers' experiences containing verbatim narration and common themes explicated from those profiles. Findings revealed that (1) the co-researchers experienced a deep and transforming sense of connectedness with the natural world, (2) a number of key program elements could be identified that facilitated connectedness, (3) childhood experiences played a significant role, and (4) pre-existing biocentric worldviews deepened as a result of the wilderness experience. Several important implications resulted from this study: (1) Transformative programs such as the outdoor program in this study, virtually nonexistent in mainstream environmental education, need to be taken seriously and efforts made to incorporate these types of programs in our public schools, (2) science educators need to examine and amend a belief structure which, in
Currently Project Management as a field is understood from an engineering and management perspective as a system of planning, managing and monitoring work processes involved in projects. The systems focus does not preclude communication as an important element, but it does not synthesize...... communication concepts with project management practices. Understanding Project Management from a communication perspective entails synthesizing key concepts from Knowledge Communication, Knowledge Management and Rhetoric. From Knowledge Communication, key concepts include Wenger's Communities of Practice...... (1998), Nonaka & Takeuchi´s' SECI model describing the relationship between tacit and explicit knowledge in the context of knowledge creation (1995), and Davenport & Prusak's problematization of knowledge definitions in Working Knowledge (1998, 2000). From a Knowledge Management Perspective, key...
Kennedy, Kieran M
In order for medical practitioners to adequately explain to the court the findings of their clinical examinations of victims of sexual violence, they must have access to research data which will place their findings in to context. Unfortunately, existing research has reported a very wide range of injury prevalence data. This papers aims to provide an explanation for this wide variation in results and, furthermore, this paper aims to establish if it is possible to carry out a meta-analysis of existing research data, pertaining to the prevalence of injury after sexual assault. It is suggested that pooling of individual study results may allow statistically robust determination of the true prevalence of injury in victims of sexual violence. It is concluded that heterogeneity in research methodology, between existing research studies, is responsible for the broad range of reported prevalence rates. Finally, this heterogeneity is seen to preclude robust meta-analysis.
Spano, Susanne J; Campagne, Danielle; Stroh, Geoff; Shalit, Marc
Multiple casualty incidents (MCIs) are uncommon in remote wilderness settings. This is a case report of a lightning strike on a Boy Scout troop hiking through Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI), in which the lightning storm hindered rescue efforts. The purpose of this study was to review the response to a lightning-caused MCI in a wilderness setting, address lightning injury as it relates to field management, and discuss evacuation options in inclement weather incidents occurring in remote locations. An analysis of SEKI search and rescue data and a review of current literature were performed. A lightning strike at 10,600 feet elevation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains affected a party of 5 adults and 7 Boy Scouts (age range 12 to 17 years old). Resources mobilized for the rescue included 5 helicopters, 2 ambulances, 2 hospitals, and 15 field and 14 logistical support personnel. The incident was managed from strike to scene clearance in 4 hours and 20 minutes. There were 2 fatalities, 1 on scene and 1 in the hospital. Storm conditions complicated on-scene communication and evacuation efforts. Exposure to ongoing lightning and a remote wilderness location affected both victims and rescuers in a lightning MCI. Helicopters, the main vehicles of wilderness rescue in SEKI, can be limited by weather, daylight, and terrain. Redundancies in communication systems are vital for episodes of radio failure. Reverse triage should be implemented in lightning injury MCIs. Education of both wilderness travelers and rescuers regarding these issues should be pursued. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Didion, M.P.; Fortin, M.J.; Fall, A.
Effective forest ecosystem-based management requires a thorough understanding of the interactions between anthropogenic and natural disturbance processes over larger spatial and temporal scales than stands and rotation ages. Because harvesting does not preclude fire, it is important to evaluate the
Goidell, L.C.; Hagen, T.D.; Strimbu, M.J.; Dupuis-Nouille, E.M.; Taylor, A.C.; Weese, T.E.; Yerace, P.J.
Since 1991, excess soil and debris generated at the Fernald Environmental management Project (FEMP) have been managed in accordance with the principles contained in a programmatic Removal Action (RvA) Work Plan (WP). This plan provides a sitewide management concept and implementation strategy for improved storage and management of excess soil and debris over the period required to design and construct improved storage facilities. These management principles, however, are no longer consistent with the directions in approved and draft Records of Decision (RODs) and anticipated in draft RODs other decision documents. A new approach has been taken to foster improved management techniques for soil and debris that can be readily incorporated into remedial design/remedial action plans. Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) process. This paper describes the methods that were applied to address the issues associated with keeping the components of the new work plan field implementable and flexible; this is especially important as remedial design is either in its initial stages or has not been started and final remediation options could not be precluded
Pauza, Matthew D; Driessen, Michael M; Skerratt, Lee F
Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease caused by the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and is the cause of the decline and extinction of amphibian species throughout the world. We surveyed the distribution of Bd within and around the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (TWWHA), a 1.38 million ha area of significant fauna conservation value, which provides the majority of habitat for Tasmania's 3 endemic frog species (Litoria burrowsae, Bryobatrachus nimbus and Crinia tasmaniensis). Bd was detected at only 1 (3%) of the 33 sites surveyed within the TWWHA and at 15 (52%) of the 29 sites surveyed surrounding the TWWHA. The relatively low incidence of the disease within the TWWHA suggests that the majority of the TWWHA is currently free of the pathogen despite the fact that the region provides what appears to be optimal conditions for the persistence of Bd. For all survey sites within and around the TWWHA, the presence of Bd was strongly associated with the presence of gravel roads, forest and < 1000 m altitude--factors that in this study were associated with human-disturbed landscapes around the TWWHA. Conversely, the presence of walking tracks was strongly associated with the absence of Bd, suggesting an association of absence with relatively remote locations. The wide distribution of Bd in areas of Tasmania with high levels of human disturbance and its very limited occurrence in remote wilderness areas suggests that anthropogenic activities may facilitate the dissemination of the pathogen on a landscape scale in Tasmania. Because the majority of the TWWHA is not readily accessible and appears to be largely free of Bd, and because Tasmanian frogs reproduce in ponds rather than streams, it may be feasible to control the spread of the disease in the TWWHA.
... use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service... advises the Secretary of the Interior, through the BLM, on a variety of planning and management issues...-use planning process, invasive species management, travel management, wilderness, land exchange...
An overview of the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: Chapter 1 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada
Chambers, Jeanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Turner, Kent; Raish, Carol B.; Ostoja, Steven M.
Maintaining and restoring the diverse ecosystems and resources that occur in southern Nevada in the face of rapid socio-economic and ecological change presents numerous challenged to Federal land managers. Rapid population growth since the 1980s, the land uses associated with that growth, and the interactions of those uses with the generally dry and highly variable climate result in numerous stresses to ecosystems, species, and cultural resource. In addition, climate models predict that the rate of temperature increase and, thus, changes in ecological processes, will be highest for ecosystems like the Mojave Desert. The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP; http:www.SNAP.gov) was established in 1999 to address common issues pertaining to public lands in southern Nevada. Partners include the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and USDA Forest Service and they work with each other, the local community, and other partners. SNAP agencies manage more than seven million acres of public lands in southern Nevada (95% of the land area). Federal land includes two national recreation areas, two national conservation area, four national wildlife refuges, 18 congressionally designated wilderness areas, five wilderness study areas, and 22 areas of critical environmental concern. The partnership's activities are mainly centered in Southern Nevada's Clark County (fig. 1.1), but lands managed by SNAP partner agencies also include portions of Lake Mead National Recreation Area in Mohave County, Arizona, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and USDA Forest Service-managed lands in Lincoln and Nye Counties, Nevada, and all lands and activities managed by the Southern Nevada District Office of the Bureau of Land Management. These lands encompass nine distinct ecosystem types (fig. 1.2), support multiple species of management concern an 17 listed species, and are rich in cultural and historic resource. This introductory executive summary
Reactor 105-C (located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington) will be placed into an interim safe storage condition such that (1) interim inspection can be limited to a 5-year frequency; (2) containment ensures that releases to the environmental are not credible under design basis conditions; and (3) final safe storage configuration shall not preclude or significantly increase the cost for any decommissioning alternatives for the reactor assembly.This project management plan establishes plans, organizational responsibilities, control systems, and procedures for managing the execution of Reactor 105-C interim safe storage activities to meet programmatic requirements within authorized funding and approved schedules
Bowen, Daniel J; Neill, James T; Crisp, Simon J R
Adventure therapy offers a prevention, early intervention, and treatment modality for people with behavioural, psychological, and psychosocial issues. It can appeal to youth-at-risk who are often less responsive to traditional psychotherapeutic interventions. This study evaluated Wilderness Adventure Therapy (WAT) outcomes based on participants' pre-program, post-program, and follow-up responses to self-report questionnaires. The sample consisted of 36 adolescent out-patients with mixed mental health issues who completed a 10-week, manualised WAT intervention. The overall short-term standardised mean effect size was small, positive, and statistically significant (0.26), with moderate, statistically significant improvements in psychological resilience and social self-esteem. Total short-term effects were within age-based adventure therapy meta-analytic benchmark 90% confidence intervals, except for the change in suicidality which was lower than the comparable benchmark. The short-term changes were retained at the three-month follow-up, except for family functioning (significant reduction) and suicidality (significant improvement). For participants in clinical ranges pre-program, there was a large, statistically significant reduction in depressive symptomology, and large to very large, statistically significant improvements in behavioural and emotional functioning. These changes were retained at the three-month follow-up. These findings indicate that WAT is as effective as traditional psychotherapy techniques for clinically symptomatic people. Future research utilising a comparison or wait-list control group, multiple sources of data, and a larger sample, could help to qualify and extend these findings. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
...) Development and implementation of Integrated Natural Resources Management Plans (INRMPs) (land, forest, fish, and wildlife) and Integrated Cultural Resources Management Plans (ICRMPs). (i) Actions that take place...), wetlands, floodplains, coastal zones, wilderness areas, aquifers or other water supplies, prime or unique...
Hapke, Cheryl J.; Nelson, Timothy R.; Henderson, Rachel E.; Brenner, Owen T.; Miselis, Jennifer L.
IntroductionHurricane Sandy, which made landfall on October 29, 2012, near Atlantic City, New Jersey, had a significant impact on the coastal system along the south shore of Long Island, New York. A record significant wave height of 9.6 meters (m) was measured at wave buoy 44025, approximately 48 kilometers offshore of Fire Island, New York. Surge and runup during the storm resulted in extensive beach and dune erosion and breaching of the Fire Island barrier island system at two locations, including a breach that formed within the Otis Pike Fire Island High Dune Wilderness area on the eastern side of Fire Island.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long history of conducting morphologic change and processes research at Fire Island. One of the primary objectives of the current research effort is to understand the morphologic evolution of the barrier system on a variety of time scales (from storm scale to decade(s) to century). A number of studies that support the project objectives have been published. Prior to Hurricane Sandy, however, little information was available on specific storm-driven change in this region. The USGS received Hurricane Sandy supplemental funding (project GS2–2B: Linking Coastal Processes and Vulnerability, Fire Island, New York, Regional Study) to enhance existing research efforts at Fire Island. The existing research was greatly expanded to include inner continental shelf mapping and investigations of processes of inner shelf sediment transport; beach and dune response and recovery; and observation, analysis, and modeling of the newly formed breach in the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness area, herein referred to as the wilderness breach. The breach formed at the site of Old Inlet, which was open from 1763 to 1825. The location of the initial island breaching does not directly correspond with topographic lows of the dunes, but instead the breach formed in the location of a cross-island boardwalk that was destroyed during Hurricane Sandy
Reed, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.; Sorensen, J.H.
The advancement of computer technologies has led to the development of a number of emergency management information systems (e.g., EIS, CAMEO, IEMIS). The design of these systems has tended to be technologically driven rather than oriented to meeting information management needs during an emergency. Of course, emergency management needs vary depending on the characteristics of the emergency. For example, in hurricanes, onset is typically slow enough to allow emergency managers to simulate evacuations dynamically while in chemical disasters onset may be sufficiently rapid to preclude such simulation(s). This paper describes a system design process in which the analysis of widely recognized emergency management functions was used to identify information requirements and the requisite software and hardware capabilities to deal with rapid onset, low probability, high consequence events. These requirements were then implemented as a prototype emergency management system using existing hardware and software to assure feasibility. Data, hardware, and software requirements were further developed, refined, and made more concrete through an iterative prototyping effort. This approach focuses attention directly on meeting emergency management information needs while avoiding unneeded technological innovations. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
... natural conditions and processes in park units (NPS Management Policies 2006, section 4.1.5). The... environmental impact statement: restore appropriate stream and groundwater processes, restore appropriate native.... Management activities would be conducted using hand tools to reduce impact on wilderness character. This...
... Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) Non-native Plant Management Project, Cook, Lake and St. Louis... EIS, AFS, OR, Rim Paunina Project and Forest Plan Amendments, Crescent Ranger District, Deschutes... Development Project, Approval of Gaming Development and Management, Spokane County, WA, Review Period Ends: 03...
Resource and experiential impacts associated with visitation to wilderness and other similar backcountry settings have long been addressed by land managers under the context of “carrying capacity” decisionmaking. Determining a maximum level of allowable use, below which high-quality resource and experiential conditions would be sustained, was an early focus in the 1960s and 1970s. However, decades of recreation ecology research have shown that the severity and areal extent of visitor impact problems are influenced by an interrelated array of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors. This complexity, with similar findings from social science research, prompted scientists and managers to develop more comprehensive carrying capacity frameworks, including a new Visitor Use Management framework. These frameworks rely on a diverse array of management strategies and actions, often termed a “management toolbox,” for resolving visitor impact problems. This article reviews the most recent and relevant recreation ecology studies that have been applied in wildland settings to avoid or minimize resource impacts. The key findings and their management implications are highlighted to support the professional management of common trail, recreation site, and wildlife impact problems. These studies illustrate the need to select from a more diverse array of impact management strategies and actions based on an evaluation of problems to identify the most influential factors that can be manipulated.
... focus of visitor experiences would be linked to solitude, tranquility, natural soundscapes, and scenery... protect and enhance soundscapes and wilderness character, experience, and values. Should a catastrophic...
Experiences gained by Husky Oil and Rigel Energy drilling a successful exploratory well in Kananaskis country, Calgary's wilderness playground, are described. 'Fitting in' with the character of 'K-country' entailed developing a plan acceptable to recreational users, aboriginal groups, government agencies, and environmentalists. The result was a landmark effort in industrial adaptation to nature: the Eastern Slope Grizzly Bear Project, a major cumulative effects assessment, which is now gaining acceptance as an industry model. The assessment involved surveying the distribution of deer, elk, moose, sheep, rare plants, breeding birds and fish species and the tracking and mapping of the movements of bears, to get a complete picture of the health of the eastern slope habitat, and to provide the foundation for assessing development and land use. The study showed Husky Oil how to proceed without doing environmental damage. It influenced the manner in which the field was delineated, it altered production tests, it forced reinjection of fluids and gas during well testing rather than hauling it away in trucks, it determined the type and route for the access road and later the location of the pipeline, all in an effort to stay clear of high quality ungulate and bear habitat. It was time consuming and expensive, but according to company officials, well worth it. Development was also influenced by traditional land use and preservation of native cultural resources; for example, the pipeline was rerouted to avoid archaeological sites
Experiences gained by Husky Oil and Rigel Energy drilling a successful exploratory well in Kananaskis country, Calgary's wilderness playground, are described. 'Fitting in' with the character of 'K-country' entailed developing a plan acceptable to recreational users, aboriginal groups, government agencies, and environmentalists. The result was a landmark effort in industrial adaptation to nature: the Eastern Slope Grizzly Bear Project, a major cumulative effects assessment, which is now gaining acceptance as an industry model. The assessment involved surveying the distribution of deer, elk, moose, sheep, rare plants, breeding birds and fish species and the tracking and mapping of the movements of bears, to get a complete picture of the health of the eastern slope habitat, and to provide the foundation for assessing development and land use. The study showed Husky Oil how to proceed without doing environmental damage. It influenced the manner in which the field was delineated, it altered production tests, it forced reinjection of fluids and gas during well testing rather than hauling it away in trucks, it determined the type and route for the access road and later the location of the pipeline, all in an effort to stay clear of high quality ungulate and bear habitat. It was time consuming and expensive, but according to company officials, well worth it. Development was also influenced by traditional land use and preservation of native cultural resources; for example, the pipeline was rerouted to avoid archaeological sites.
... device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 to..., through the BLM, on a variety of planning and management issues associated with the resource management planning process for the Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area and Dominguez Canyon Wilderness...
Does negative retroperitoneal CT in adolescents with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma preclude the need of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection?; A tomografia de retroperitoneo normal em adolescentes com rabdomiossarcoma paratesticular afasta necessidade de linfadenectomia?
Damazio, Eulalio [Hospital Lucano, Teresina (PI) (Brazil); Caran, Eliana [Instituto de Oncologia Pediatrica, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo - UNIFESP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ortiz, Valdemar; Macedo Junior, Antonio, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Departamento de Urologia, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo - UNIFESP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
We report on a 16-year-old male with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma who underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection due to a stage I tumor (normal retroperitoneal computed tomography). The surgical finding was three enlarged nodes, positive for metastatic disease. Patient was referred to adjuvant chemotherapy. This case suggests that the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group IV protocol is subject to questions regarding adolescents with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma, and that negative retroperitoneal CT does not preclude the need of lymph node dissection. (author)
Springett, J. C.
The technique outlined in this paper is intended to eliminate the problems of cochannel interference and uniform geographic distribution of user channels which arise in conventional designs for a multiple spot beam communication satellite to serve mobile telephony users across the CONUS. By time multiplexing FM/FDMA signal ensembles so that only those beams operating on distinct frequency subbands are allowed to transmit concurrently, cochannel interference arising from simultaneous frequency subband reuse is precluded. Thus, time disjoint frequency reuse is accomplished over a repetitive sequence of fixed time slots. By assigning different size subbands to each time slot, a market of nonuniform users can be accommodated. The technique results in a greatly simplified antenna feed system design for the satellite, at a cost of imposing the need for time slot synchronization on the mobile FM receivers whose ability for rejecting adjacent channel interference is somewhat diminished.
Springett, J. C.
The technique outlined in this paper is intended to eliminate the problems of cochannel interference and uniform geographic distribution of user channels which arise in conventional designs for a multiple spot beam communication satellite to serve mobile telephony users across the CONUS. By time multiplexing FM/FDMA signal ensembles so that only those beams operating on distinct frequency subbands are allowed to transmit concurrently, cochannel interference arising from simultaneous frequency subband reuse is precluded. Thus, time disjoint frequency reuse is accomplished over a repetitive sequence of fixed time slots. By assigning different size subbands to each time slot, a market of nonuniform users can be accommodated. The technique results in a greatly simplified antenna feed system design for the satellite, at a cost of imposing the need for time slot synchronization on the mobile FM receivers whose ability for rejecting adjacent channel interference is somewhat diminished.
Wood, Molly S.; Fosness, Ryan L.
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), collected streamflow data in 2012 and estimated streamflow statistics for stream segments designated "Wild," "Scenic," or "Recreational" under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System in the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness in southwestern Idaho. The streamflow statistics were used by BLM to develop and file a draft, federal reserved water right claim in autumn 2012 to protect federally designated "outstanding remarkable values" in the stream segments. BLM determined that the daily mean streamflow equaled or exceeded 20 and 80 percent of the time during bimonthly periods (two periods per month) and the bankfull streamflow are important streamflow thresholds for maintaining outstanding remarkable values. Prior to this study, streamflow statistics estimated using available datasets and tools for the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness were inaccurate for use in the water rights claim. Streamflow measurements were made at varying intervals during February–September 2012 at 14 monitoring sites; 2 of the monitoring sites were equipped with telemetered streamgaging equipment. Synthetic streamflow records were created for 11 of the 14 monitoring sites using a partial‑record method or a drainage-area-ratio method. Streamflow records were obtained directly from an operating, long-term streamgage at one monitoring site, and from discontinued streamgages at two monitoring sites. For 10 sites analyzed using the partial-record method, discrete measurements were related to daily mean streamflow at a nearby, telemetered “index” streamgage. Resulting regression equations were used to estimate daily mean and annual peak streamflow at the monitoring sites during the full period of record for the index sites. A synthetic streamflow record for Sheep Creek was developed using a drainage-area-ratio method, because measured streamflows did not relate well to any index site to allow use of the partial
Benjamin L. ALLEN, Richard M. ENGEMAN, Lee R. ALLEN
Full Text Available The studies of Allen (2011 and Allen et al. (2011 recently examined the methodology underpinning claims that dingoes provide net benefits to biodiversity by suppressing foxes and cats. They found most studies to have design flaws and/or observational methods that preclude valid interpretations from the data, describing most of the current literature as ‘wild dogma’. In this short supplement, we briefly highlight the roles and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia. We discuss nomenclature, and the influence that unreliable science can have on policy and practice changes related to apex predator management [Current Zoology 57 (6: 737–740, 2011].
Kim, John J; Kim, Christine M
American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) and American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ASCRS) presented a joint position paper in February 2000 declaring that they do not support routine comanagement of patients with the optometrists. American Optometric Association and American Academy of Optometry quickly responded in support of AAO and ASCRS. All four entities did not preclude legitimate and proper comanagement arrangements. Since that time, the pattern of practice has changed, requiring us to rethink our positions. This paper is written to provide a possible model for the ophthalmology-optometry practice management in ophthalmic surgeries including refractive surgery. Since the publication of the Joint Position Paper, the concept of comanagement has faded and a new model of integrated management has evolved. This has occurred as the changes in the employment pattern of the ophthalmic practice have incorporated optometrists into its fold. This evolution allowed ophthalmic and optometric community to co-exist and thrive to provide better patient care.
Cole, David N.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Moore, Peggy E.; McDougald, Neil K.
Effects of recreational pack stock grazing on mountain meadows in Yosemite National Park were assessed in a 5-year study. Yosemite is a designated wilderness, to be managed such that its natural conditions are preserved. Studies were conducted in 3 characteristic meadow types: shorthair sedge (Carex filifolia Nutt.), Brewer's reed grass (Calamagrostis breweri Thurber), and tufted hairgrass [Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) Beauv.]. Horses and mules grazed experimental plots at intensities of 15 to 69% utilization for 4 seasons. In all 3 meadows, grazing caused decreases in productivity. The mean reduction after 4 years of grazing was 18% in the shorthair sedge meadow, 17% in the Brewer's reed grass meadow, and 22% in the tufted hairgrass meadow. Grazing also caused shifts in basal groundcover (usually a reduction in vegetation cover and increase in bare soil cover), and changes in species composition. Productivity and vegetation cover decreased as percent utilization increased, while bare soil cover increased as utilization increased. Changes in species composition were less predictably related to differences in grazing intensity. Passive management of grazing is insufficient in wilderness areas that are regularly used by groups with recreational stock. Wilderness managers need to monitor meadow conditions and the grazing intensities that occur. Our study suggests that biomass and ground cover are more sensitive indicators of grazing impact than species composition. Managers must make decisions about maximum acceptable levels of grazing impact and then develop guidelines for maximum use levels, based on data such as ours that relates grazing intensity to meadow response.
Katona, Lindsay B; Douglas, William S; Lena, Sean R; Ratner, Kyle G; Crothers, Daniel; Zondervan, Robert L; Radis, Charles D
The challenges presented by traumatic injuries in low-resource communities are especially relevant in South Sudan. This study was conducted to assess whether a 3-day wilderness first aid (WFA) training course taught in South Sudan improved first aid knowledge. Stonehearth Open Learning Opportunities (SOLO) Schools designed the course to teach people with limited medical knowledge to use materials from their environment to provide life-saving care in the event of an emergency. A pre-test/post-test study design was used to assess first aid knowledge of 46 community members in Kit, South Sudan, according to a protocol approved by the University of New England Institutional Review Board. The course and assessments were administered in English and translated in real-time to Acholi and Arabic, the two primary languages spoken in the Kit region. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation analyses were conducted. Results included a statistically significant improvement in first aid knowledge after the 3-day training course: t(38)=3.94; Pfirst of its kind in South Sudan, provides evidence that a WFA training course in South Sudan is efficacious. These findings suggest that similar training opportunities could be used in other parts of the world to improve basic medical knowledge in communities with limited access to medical resources and varying levels of education and professional experiences.
... Under Wilderness Review. There is a need to amend this RMP since these areas are now congressionally..., lands and realty, hydrology, soils, sociology and economics. You may submit comments on issues and...
Ireland, Kathryn B.; Hansen, Andrew J.; Keane, Robert E.; Legg, Kristin; Gump, Robert L.
Natural resource managers face the need to develop strategies to adapt to projected future climates. Few existing climate adaptation frameworks prescribe where to place management actions to be most effective under anticipated future climate conditions. We developed an approach to spatially allocate climate adaptation actions and applied the method to whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). WBP is expected to be vulnerable to climate-mediated shifts in suitable habitat, pests, pathogens, and fire. We spatially prioritized management actions aimed at mitigating climate impacts to WBP under two management strategies: (1) current management and (2) climate-informed management. The current strategy reflected management actions permissible under existing policy and access constraints. Our goal was to understand how consideration of climate might alter the placement of management actions, so the climate-informed strategies did not include these constraints. The spatial distribution of actions differed among the current and climate-informed management strategies, with 33-60% more wilderness area prioritized for action under climate-informed management. High priority areas for implementing management actions include the 1-8% of the GYE where current and climate-informed management agreed, since this is where actions are most likely to be successful in the long-term and where current management permits implementation. Areas where climate-informed strategies agreed with one another but not with current management (6-22% of the GYE) are potential locations for experimental testing of management actions. Our method for spatial climate adaptation planning is applicable to any species for which information regarding climate vulnerability and climate-mediated risk factors is available.
Schonewald-Cox, Christine; Buechner, Marybeth; Sauvajot, Raymond; Wilcox, Bruce A.
Protecting biodiversity on public lands is difficult, requiring the management of a complex array of factors. This is especially true when the ecosystems in question are affected by, or extend onto, lands outside the boundaries of the protected area. In this article we review recent developments in the cross-boundary management of protected natural resources, such as parks, wildlife reserves, and designated wilderness areas. Five ecological and 11 anthropic techniques have been suggested for use in cross-boundary management. The categories are not mutually exclusive, but each is a distinct and representative approach, suggested by various authors from academic, managerial, and legal professions. The ecological strategies stress the collection of basic data and documentation of trends. The anthropic techniques stress the usefulness of cooperative guidelines and the need to develop a local constituency which supports park goals. However, the situation is complex and the needed strategies are often difficult to implement. Diverse park resources are influenced by events in surrounding lands. The complexity and variability of sources, the ecological systems under protection, and the uncertainty of the effects combine to produce situations for which there are no simple answers. The solution to coexistence of the park and surrounding land depends upon creative techniques and recommendations, many still forthcoming. Ecological, sociological, legal, and economic disciplines as well as the managing agency should all contribute to these recommendations. Platforms for change include legislation, institutional policies, communication, education, management techniques, and ethics.
Mark C. Jewell; William E. Hammitt
Reports of trail degradation have been increasing in different wildernesses. This impact has become a common concern among managers. Deteriorating tread conditions of trails are increasing, as is concern at protected areas worldwide. In order to make objective and timely trail resource decisions, managers need to have effective and efficient methods of assessing trail...
David N. Cole; Richard L. Knight
Large tracts of wildland in North America have been set aside as wilderness areas and national parks. More than 200 million acres (88 million ha) of such lands have been formally designated in Canada and the United States (Eidsvik 1989). The primary goal of these designations is the preservation of undisturbed natural conditions and processes.
The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Systems Engineering Management Plan (OCRWM SEMP) specifies the technical management approach for the development of the waste management system, and specifies the approach for the development of each of the system elements -- the waste acceptance system, the transportation system, the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility, and the mined geologic disposal system, which includes site characterization activity. The SEMP also delineates how systems engineering will be used by OCRWM to describe the system development process; it identifies responsibilities for its implementation, and specifies the minimum requirements for systems engineering. It also identifies the close interrelationship of system engineering and licensing processes. This SEMP, which is a combined OCRWM and M ampersand O SEMP, is part of the top-level program documentation and is prepared in accordance with the direction provided in the Program Management System Manual (PMSM). The relationship of this document to other top level documents in the CRWMS document hierarchy is defined in the PMSM. A systems engineering management plan for each project, which specifies the actions to be taken in implementing systems engineering at the project level, shall be prepared by the respective project managers. [''Program'' refers to the CRWMS-wide activity and ''project'' refers to that level responsible for accomplishing the specific activities of that segment of the program.] The requirements for the project level SEMPs are addressed in Section 22.214.171.124. They represent the minimum set of requirements, and do not preclude the broadening of systems engineering activities to meet the specific needs of each project
Bastmeijer, C.J.; Maher, P.; Stewart, E.; Lück, M.
The fast increase of Antarctic tourism raises various management questions. Questions relating to the safety of tourists, questions regarding the interaction between science and tourism and questions relating to direct, indirect or cumulative affects on Antarctica's environment and wilderness
Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell
At a workshop in Oulanka National Park in Finland, shortly after the Finnish Wilderness Act had passed in 1991, managers and scientists wrestled with how to incorporate science into protection of wildlands of northern Finland. One working group was assigned to develop a list of "why managers don't apply the information scientists provide" and another...
Allen, Craig R.; Gunderson, Lance H.
The conceptual underpinnings for adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex ecological systems as a result non-linear interactions among components and emergence, yet management decisions must still be made. The strength of adaptive management is in the recognition and confrontation of such uncertainty. Rather than ignore uncertainty, or use it to preclude management actions, adaptive management can foster resilience and flexibility to cope with an uncertain future, and develop safe to fail management approaches that acknowledge inevitable changes and surprises. Since its initial introduction, adaptive management has been hailed as a solution to endless trial and error approaches to complex natural resource management challenges. However, its implementation has failed more often than not. It does not produce easy answers, and it is appropriate in only a subset of natural resource management problems. Clearly adaptive management has great potential when applied appropriately. Just as clearly adaptive management has seemingly failed to live up to its high expectations. Why? We outline nine pathologies and challenges that can lead to failure in adaptive management programs. We focus on general sources of failures in adaptive management, so that others can avoid these pitfalls in the future. Adaptive management can be a powerful and beneficial tool when applied correctly to appropriate management problems; the challenge is to keep the concept of adaptive management from being hijacked for inappropriate use.
Oviedo Pro, J. L.; Huntsinger, L.; Campos, P.; Caparros, A.
Mediterranean woodlands in California are managed as agro-silvo-pastoral systems producing a number of commercial products as well as a huge variety of environmental services, including private amenities for the landowner. In many parts of the woodlands, grazing on government owned (public) lands has traditionally had an important role in private ranching. In recent decades the risk of conversion to alternative uses (such as urban development or vineyards) has threatened these woodlands due to the increasing opportunity costs of capital. Understanding the economy of these woodlands and the potential effects of public grazing policies on the total income perceived by the landowner is crucial when considering strategies attempting to slow or stop land use change. However, traditional cash-flow analyses are lacking crucial information needed to understand all the elements that have an important role in the economic decisions that landowners make about their woodlands. For more than half a century, the use of public lands by private ranchers has been one of the most controversial debates in the American west. Wilderness conservationist groups have denounced grazing as destructive and argue for the removal of any kind of livestock. Ranchers have fought for their right to hold public grazing leases, arguing that they are crucial for the continuity of private ranching and consequently for the conservation of extensive rangeland habitat that otherwise could be converted to alternative uses. In this study, we apply the Agroforestry Accounting System (AAS) methodology to a California oak woodland case study to estimate the total private income generated in an accounting period. The presented case study is characterized by a household economy with self-employed labour and with part of the grazing dependent on public land leases. The AAS methodology extends traditional cash-flow analysis in order to estimate the total private income that would accurately explain the woodland
Although models of future sustainability often talk about effectively balancing economic, social and environmental imperatives or factors, in practice this typically remains an elusive ideal. This paper explores the exemplary possibilities but also dilemmas of a proposed initiative in the resource-rich but under-developed Filippino island province of Mindanao to achieve such a delicate balance in practice. This initiative by Raintrust Sustainable Ventures' proposes to link foreign investment in agricultural development to both the social advancement of local tribal peoples and the protection of large amounts of remaining wilderness areas. Such a case study provides an exemplary basis for discussing the challenge of achieving social and environmental as well as economic domains of 'future sustainability'. The crucial supporting role of information and geospatial technologies in the Raintrust plan will also be discussed
... public notices, media releases, and/or mailings. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments related to the... routes, wilderness characteristics, and visual resources. Five alternatives, including a no-action... realty, mineral and energy resources, Native American issues, social and economic conditions, soils, and...
Sogge, Mark K.; van Riper, Charles
Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers an area of 130,000 square miles. The relatively high semi-arid province boasts nine national parks, sixteen national monuments, many state parks, and dozens of wilderness areas. With the highest concentration of parklands in North America and unique geological and ecological features, the area is of particular interest to researchers. Derived from the Eighth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau, this third volume in a series of research on the Colorado Plateau expands upon the previous two books. This volume focuses on the integration of science into resource management issues, summarizes what criteria make a successful collaborative effort, outlines land management concerns about drought, provides summaries of current biological, sociological, and archaeological research, and highlights current environmental issues in the Four Corner States of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as historical aspects of pronghorn antelope movement patterns through calculating watershed prescriptions to the role of wind-blown sand in preserving archaeological sites on the Colorado River, this volume stands as a compendium of cuttingedge management-oriented research on the Colorado Plateau. The book also introduces, for the first time, tools that can be used to assist with collaboration efforts among landowners and managers who wish to work together toward preserving resources on the Colorado Plateau and offers a wealth of insights into land management questions for many readers, especially people interested in the natural history, biology, anthropology, wildlife, and cultural management issues of the region.
Stringell, Thomas B; Bamber, Roger N; Burton, Mark; Lindenbaum, Charles; Skates, Lucie R; Sanderson, William G
Performance assessment, impact detection, and the assessment of regulatory compliance are common scientific problems for the management of protected areas. Some habitats in protected areas, however, are rare and/or variable and are not often selected for study by ecologists because they preclude comparison with controls and high community variability makes meaningful change detection difficult. Shallow coastal saline lagoons are habitats that experience comparatively high levels of stress due to high physical variability. Lagoons are rare, declining habitats found in coastal regions throughout Europe (and elsewhere) where they are identified as one of the habitats most in need of protected area management. The infauna in the sediments of 25 lagoons were sampled. Temporal and spatial variation in three of these [protected] lagoons was investigated further over 5 years. In a multivariate analysis of community structure similarities were found between some lagoons, but in other cases communities were unique or specific to only two sites. The protected lagoons with these unique/specific communities showed significant temporal and spatial variation, yet none of the changes observed were attributed to human impacts and were interpreted as inherent variability. Multivariate control charts can operate without experimental controls and were used to assess community changes within the context of 'normal' lagoon variability. The aim of control chart analysis is to characterize background variability in a parameter and identify when a new observation deviates more than expected. In only 1 year was variability more than expected and corresponded with the coldest December in over 100 years. Multivariate control charts are likely to have wide application in the management of protected areas and other natural systems where variability and/or rarity preclude conventional analytical and experimental approaches but where assessments of condition, impact or regulatory compliance are
... of fish and wildlife habitats, cultural resources, watersheds, and wilderness and aesthetic values... use of the conveyed Federal land will not substantially conflict with established management... human health and the environment with respect to any such substances remaining on the property has been...
Fairchild, Pamela S; Haefner, Hope K
Lichen planus is a rare dermatological disorder that is often associated with painful and disfiguring vulvovaginal effects. At the University of Michigan Center for Vulvar Diseases, we see many women with vulvovaginal lichen planus each year, with marked scarring and vulvovaginal agglutination that precludes vaginal intercourse and causes difficulty with urination. Through our experience, we developed a protocol for the operative management and postoperative care for severe vulvovaginal agglutination. Our objective is to share this protocol with a wider audience so that providers who see patients with these devastating effects of lichen planus can benefit from our experience to better serve this patient population. The figure represents a case of erosive lichen planus with early vaginal agglutination. The video reviews the pathophysiology and presentation of lichen planus. We then present a case of scarring and agglutination in a young woman, including our surgical management and postoperative care recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chappell, E Thomas; Pare, Laura; Salehpour, Mohammed; Mathews, Marlon; Middlehof, Charles
While watertight closure of the dura is a long-standing tenet of cranial surgery, it is often not possible and sometimes unnecessary. Many graft materials with various attributes and drawbacks have been in use for many years. A novel synthetic dural graft material called GORE PRECLUDE MVP dura substitute (WL Gore & Associates, Inc, Flagstaff, Ariz) (henceforth called "MVP") is designed for use both in traditional watertight dural closure and as a dural "underlay" graft in a nonwatertight fashion. One surface of MVP is engineered to facilitate fibroblast in-growth so that its proximity to the underside of the dura will lead to rapid incorporation, whereas the other surface acts as a barrier to reduce tissue adhesion to the device. A series of 59 human subjects undergoing craniotomy and available for clinical and radiographic follow-up underwent nonwatertight underlay grafting of their durotomy with MVP. This is an assessment of the specific product and technique. No attempt is made to compare this to other products or techniques. The mean follow-up in this group was more than 4 months. All subjects have ultimately experienced excellent outcomes related to use of the graft implanted with the underlay technique. No complications occurred related directly to MVP, but the wound-related complication rate attributed to the underlay technique was higher than expected (17%). However, careful analysis found a high rate of risk factors for wound complications and determined that complications with the underlay technique could be avoided by assuring close approximation of the graft material to the underside of the dura. MVP can be used as an underlay graft in a nonwatertight fashion. However, if used over large voids (relaxed brain or large tumor bed), "tacking" or traditional watertight closure techniques should be used. The underlay application of MVP is best applied over the convexities and is particularly well-suited to duraplasty after hemicraniectomy.
Waldie, Peter A.
Conservation commonly requires trade-offs between social and ecological goals. For tropical small-scale fisheries, spatial scales of socially appropriate management are generally small—the median no-take locally managed marine area (LMMA) area throughout the Pacific is less than 1 km2. This is of particular concern for large coral reef fishes, such as many species of grouper, which migrate to aggregations to spawn. Current data suggest that the catchment areas (i.e. total area from which individuals are drawn) of such aggregations are at spatial scales that preclude effective community-based management with no-take LMMAs. We used acoustic telemetry and tag-returns to examine reproductive migrations and catchment areas of the grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus at a spawning aggregation in Papua New Guinea. Protection of the resultant catchment area of approximately 16 km2 using a no-take LMMA is socially untenable here and throughout much of the Pacific region. However, we found that spawning migrations were skewed towards shorter distances. Consequently, expanding the current 0.2 km2 no-take LMMA to 1–2 km2 would protect approximately 30–50% of the spawning population throughout the non-spawning season. Contrasting with current knowledge, our results demonstrate that species with moderate reproductive migrations can be managed at scales congruous with spatially restricted management tools.
Egharevba, Efe; Atkinson, Jacqueline
Clinical trials still represent the gold standard in testing the safety and efficacy of new and existing treatments. However, developing regions including sub-Saharan Africa remain underrepresented in pharmaceutical industry sponsored trials for a number of reasons including fear of corruption and unethical behaviour. This fear exists both on the part of pharmaceutical companies, and investigators carrying out research in the region. The objective of this research was to understand the ethical considerations associated with the conduct of pharmaceutical industry sponsored clinical trials in sub-Saharan Africa. Corruption was identified as a significant issue by a number of stakeholders who participated in semi-structured interviews and completed questionnaires. Additionally, fear of being perceived as corrupt or unethical even when conducting ethically sound research was raised as a concern. Thus corruption, whether actual or perceived, is one of a number of issues which have precluded the placement of a greater number of pharmaceutical sponsored clinical trials in this region. More discussion around corruption with all relevant stakeholders is required in order for progress to be made and to enable greater involvement of sub-Saharan African countries in the conduct of industry sponsored clinical trials.
Ceaușu, Silvia; Hofmann, Max; Navarro, Laetitia M; Carver, Steve; Verburg, Peter H; Pereira, Henrique M
Farmland abandonment takes place across the world due to socio-economic and ecological drivers. In Europe agricultural and environmental policies aim to prevent abandonment and halt ecological succession. Ecological rewilding has been recently proposed as an alternative strategy. We developed a framework to assess opportunities for rewilding across different dimensions of wilderness in Europe. We mapped artificial light, human accessibility based on transport infrastructure, proportion of harvested primary productivity (i.e., ecosystem productivity appropriated by humans through agriculture or forestry), and deviation from potential natural vegetation in areas projected to be abandoned by 2040. At the continental level, the levels of artificial light were low and the deviation from potential natural vegetation was high in areas of abandonment. The relative importance of wilderness metrics differed regionally and was strongly connected to local environmental and socio-economic contexts. Large areas of projected abandonment were often located in or around Natura 2000 sites. Based on these results, we argue that management should be tailored to restore the aspects of wilderness that are lacking in each region. There are many remaining challenges regarding biodiversity in Europe, but megafauna species are already recovering. To further potentiate large-scale rewilding, Natura 2000 management would need to incorporate rewilding approaches. Our framework can be applied to assessing rewilding opportunities and challenges in other world regions, and our results could guide redirection of subsidies to manage social-ecological systems. © 2015 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.
Johnson, Fred A.; Alhainen, Mikko; Fox, Anthony D.; Madsen, Jesper; Guillemain, Matthieu
The demography of many European waterbirds is not well understood because most countries have conducted little monitoring and assessment, and coordination among countries on waterbird management has little precedent. Yet intergovernmental treaties now mandate the use of sustainable, adaptive harvest strategies, whose development is challenged by a paucity of demographic information. In this study, we explore how a combination of allometric relationships, fragmentary monitoring and research information, and expert judgment can be used to estimate the parameters of a theta-logistic population model, which in turn can be used in a Markov decision process to derive optimal harvesting strategies. We show how to account for considerable parametric uncertainty, as well as for different management objectives. We illustrate our methodology with a poorly understood population of taiga bean geese (Anser fabalis fabalis), which is a popular game bird in Fennoscandia. Our results for taiga bean geese suggest that they may have demographic rates similar to other, well-studied species of geese, and our model-based predictions of population size are consistent with the limited monitoring information available. Importantly, we found that by using a Markov decision process, a simple scalar population model may be sufficient to guide harvest management of this species, even if its demography is age-structured. Finally, we demonstrated how two different management objectives can lead to very different optimal harvesting strategies, and how conflicting objectives may be traded off with each other. This approach will have broad application for European waterbirds by providing preliminary estimates of key demographic parameters, by providing insights into the monitoring and research activities needed to corroborate those estimates, and by producing harvest management strategies that are optimal with respect to the managers’ objectives, options, and available demographic information.
Ranney, Sally A. G.
This paper discusses wilderness preservation as related to outdoor leadership and explains how eco-tourism can promote preservation. Although historically, the wilderness in the United States was largely destroyed in the name of progress, our cultural heritage evolved from that wilderness. The Wilderness Act was the first legislation in the…
... Federal Register Notice Forest Service Title: Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute Wilderness... experiences. The Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute will gather, analyze, and report on information...
Gorenflo, L J; Romaine, Suzanne; Mittermeier, Russell A; Walker-Painemilla, Kristen
As the world grows less biologically diverse, it is becoming less linguistically and culturally diverse as well. Biologists estimate annual loss of species at 1,000 times or more greater than historic rates, and linguists predict that 50-90% of the world's languages will disappear by the end of this century. Prior studies indicate similarities in the geographic arrangement of biological and linguistic diversity, although conclusions have often been constrained by use of data with limited spatial precision. Here we use greatly improved datasets to explore the co-occurrence of linguistic and biological diversity in regions containing many of the Earth's remaining species: biodiversity hotspots and high biodiversity wilderness areas. Results indicate that these regions often contain considerable linguistic diversity, accounting for 70% of all languages on Earth. Moreover, the languages involved are frequently unique (endemic) to particular regions, with many facing extinction. Likely reasons for co-occurrence of linguistic and biological diversity are complex and appear to vary among localities, although strong geographic concordance between biological and linguistic diversity in many areas argues for some form of functional connection. Languages in high biodiversity regions also often co-occur with one or more specific conservation priorities, here defined as endangered species and protected areas, marking particular localities important for maintaining both forms of diversity. The results reported in this article provide a starting point for focused research exploring the relationship between biological and linguistic-cultural diversity, and for developing integrated strategies designed to conserve species and languages in regions rich in both.
Full Text Available Gaurav Sikri, Anirban Bhattacharya Department of Physiology, Armed Forces Medical College, Wanowarie, Pune, IndiaWe read with great interest the review article titled “Wilderness medicine at high altitude: recent developments in the field” by Shah et al.1 The authors have comprehensively summarized the recent advances in the field of high altitude medicine relevant to sports and travel medicine. However, Shah et al have described potential drugs for management of high-altitude illnesses, such as acute mountain sickness (AMS, high altitude cerebral edema, and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE as one group under the section “Novel drug treatment for AMS”. The pathophysiologies of these two sets of diseases (AMS/high altitude cerebral edema as one and HAPE as another set are different2 and hence it would have been nice to have had the novel drugs described separately to elucidate the therapeutic approach for the two different classes of diseases.View original paper by Shah et al.
... Rock Desert-High Rock Canyon Emigrant Trails National Conservation Area and Associated Wilderness, and... plant species is proposed for the existing Osgood Mountain Milkvetch ACEC. The Proposed RMP/Final EIS... preservation and protection of ecosystems and contains two options: Option 1 allows livestock grazing and...
Hejcman, M.; Pavlů, V.; Hejcmanová, P.; Gaisler, J.; Hakl, J.; Rauch, Ota
Roč. 75, č. 2 (2006), s. 165-174 ISSN 0001-6977 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SE/620/4/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : succession * grassland * management Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 0.148, year: 2006
Boehringer, Brad; Merrill, Kurt
Through wilderness stewardship programs, service projects, or trail crews, college outdoor programs can help land management agencies with their maintenance needs and provide student participants with rewarding service learning opportunities. Trail crews are usually composed of volunteer outdoor enthusiasts who take part in a multitude of…
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water rights. 35.12 Section 35.12 Wildlife... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.12 Water rights... the Department of the Interior as to exemption from State water laws. ...
... where public and private lands abut one another); and (6) Regional heritage/tourism opportunities on the... rangeland resources, lands with wilderness characteristics, and the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail (Trail). As a result of the protests, minor editorial modifications and technical clarifications were...
Red brome is a Mediterranean winter annual grass that has invaded south-western USA deserts. Unlike native annuals, it does not maintain a soil seed bank, but exhibits early and uniform germination. Above-average winter precipitation in these regions allows red brome to reach high density and biomass. These are time for concern, as large numbers of easily dispersed seeds increase the likelihood that it may spread into new areas. However, early and uniform germination can also lead to population crashes when drought precludes seed production. Winter droughts dramatically reduce densities of red brome, but provide opportunities for management of this exotic grass.
... quantity and quality of the experiences and desired recreation setting available in the planning area. The... designation areas; lands with wilderness characteristics; water, soil, and riparian areas; special status... and importance values. Badger Wash, up to 2,200 acres, Alternatives A, B, C and D: No surface...
Mast, M. Alisa; Ingersoll, George P.
In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Air Resource Management, began a study to evaluate long-term trends in lake-water chemistry for 64 high-elevation lakes in selected Class I wilderness areas in Colorado, Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming during 1993 to 2009. The purpose of this report is to describe trends in the chemical composition of these high-elevation lakes. Trends in emissions, atmospheric deposition, and climate variables (air temperature and precipitation amount) are evaluated over a similar period of record to determine likely drivers of changing lake chemistry. Sulfate concentrations in precipitation decreased over the past two decades at high-elevation monitoring stations in the Rocky Mountain region. The trend in deposition chemistry is consistent with regional declines in sulfur dioxide emissions resulting from installation of emission controls at large stationary sources. Trends in nitrogen deposition were not as widespread as those for sulfate. About one-half of monitoring stations showed increases in ammonium concentrations, but few showed significant changes in nitrate concentrations. Trends in nitrogen deposition appear to be inconsistent with available emission inventories, which indicate modest declines in nitrogen emissions in the Rocky Mountain region since the mid-1990s. This discrepancy may reflect uncertainties in emission inventories or changes in atmospheric transformations of nitrogen species that may be affecting deposition processes. Analysis of long-term climate records indicates that average annual mean air temperature minimums have increased from 0.57 to 0.75 °C per decade in mountain areas of the region with warming trends being more pronounced in Colorado. Trends in annual precipitation were not evident over the period 1990 to 2006, although wetter than average years during 1995 to 1997 and drier years during 2001 to 2004 caused a notable decline in precipitation
Mech, L. David
“Dave, would you do another legal declaration on the wolf for us?” The weary voice on the phone belonged to Mike Jimenez, Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf Management and Science Coordinator for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). He was calling from Wyoming to ask me to prepare a document to address a legal challenge to the FWS’s August 2012 delisting of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Wyoming, a highly controversial move. Mike’s tone reflected the reality that — as so many wildlife biologists know and live each day — wildlife management is mainly people management. This contention could not be truer for managing any wildlife species than for managing the wolf. Dubbed “the beast of waste and desolation” by Teddy Roosevelt (The Wilderness Hunter 1893/1900), wolves had been universally hated as prolific predators of valuable livestock and game. Around the turn of the 20th century, members of the U.S. Biological Survey and various state agents, ranchers, cowboys, and other frontiersmen poisoned and persecuted wolves, extirpating them from most of the contiguous United States (Young and Goldman 1944). By 1967, Minnesota and nearby Isle Royale National Park in Michigan held the only remaining wolves in the Lower 48 states, prompting the FWS to place the wolf on the Endangered Species List (established by the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966). The wolf then became the list’s poster species, and the timing was ideal: Silent Spring (Carson 1962) had just seeded and fertilized the environmental movement, which blossomed on Earth Day (April 22, 1970) into the environmental revolution. “Save the wolf!” became one of the movement’s rallying cries. And save the wolf we did.
Arnold, Thomas M.
The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has several "redlines", which are operational limits designated to preclude a catastrophic shutdown of the SSME. The Space Shuttle Orbiter utilizes a combination of hardware and software to enable or disable the automated redline shutdown capability. The Space Shuttle is launched with the automated SSME redline limits enabled, but there are many scenarios which may result in the manual disabling of the software by the onboard crew. The operational philosophy for manually enabling and disabling the redline limits software has evolved continuously throughout the history of the Space Shuttle Program, due to events such as SSME hardware changes and updates to Space Shuttle contingency abort software. In this paper, the evolution of SSME redline limits management will be fully reviewed, including the operational scenarios which call for manual intervention, and the events that triggered changes to the philosophy. Following this review, improvements to the management of redline limits for future spacecraft will be proposed.
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.9 Livestock grazing. (a) The grazing of livestock, where established prior to the date of legislation which designates...
Lund, J. R.
Water in California has always been important and controversial, and it probably always will be. California has a large, growing economy and population in a semi-arid climate. But California's aridity, hydrologic variability, and water controversies have not precluded considerable economic successes. The successes of California's water system have stemmed from the decentralization of water management with historically punctuated periods of more centralized strategic decision-making. Decentralized management has allowed California's water users to efficiently explore incremental solutions to water problems, ranging from early local development of water systems (such as Hetch Hetchy, Owens Valley, and numerous local irrigation projects) to more contemporary efforts at water conservation, water markets, wastewater reuse, and conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. In the cacophony of local and stakeholder interests, strategic decisions have been more difficult, and consequently occur less frequently. California state water projects and Sacramento Valley flood control are examples where decades of effort, crises, floods and droughts were needed to mobilize local interests to agree to major strategic decisions. Currently, the state is faced with making strategic environmental and water management decisions regarding its deteriorating Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Not surprisingly, human uncertainties and physical and fiscal non-stationarities dominate this process.
Lake, W.H.; Peck, M. III
The use of human factors engineering (HFE) in the design and use of spent fuel casks being developed for the Department of Energy's Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is addressed. The safety functions of cask systems are presented as background for HFE considerations. Because spent fuel casks are passive safety devices they could be subject to latent system failures due to human error. It is concluded that HFE should focus on operations and verifications tests, but should begin, to the extent possible, at the beginning of cask design. Use of HFE during design could serve to eliminate or preclude opportunity for human error
... Wilderness; 14. Emigrant Wilderness; 15. Hoover Wilderness; 16. Yosemite National Park; 17. Ansel Adams... monitor) Ansel Adams WA, Kaiser WA, John 15.5 14.9 13.6 7.1 2200 Muir WA (KAIS monitor)......... Sequoia...
McClellan, M. D.; Comas, X.; Wright, W. J.; Mount, G. J.
Peat soils store a large fraction of the global carbon (C) in soil. It is estimated that 95% of carbon in peatlands is stored in the peat soil, while less than 5% occurs in the vegetation. The majority of studies related to C stocks in peatlands have taken place in northern latitudes leaving the tropical and subtropical latitudes clearly understudied. In this study we use a combination of indirect non-invasive geophysical methods (mainly ground penetrating radar, GPR) as well as direct measurements (direct coring) to calculate total C stocks within subtropical depressional wetlands in the Disney Wilderness Preserve (DWP, Orlando, FL). A set of three-dimensional (3D) GPR surveys were used to detect variability of the peat layer thickness and the underlying peat-sand mix layer across several depressional wetlands. Direct samples collected at selected locations were used to confirm depth of each interface and to estimate C content in the laboratory. Layer thickness estimated from GPR and direct C content were used to estimate total peat volume and C content for the entire depressional wetland. Through the use of aerial photos a relationship between surface area along the depressional wetlands and total peat thickness (and thus C content) was established for the depressions surveyed and applied throughout the entire preserve. This work shows the importance of depressional wetlands as critical contributors of the C budget at the DWP.
... integrated into the entire planning process, from preparing the pre-plan to implementation and monitoring; 17... allocations for these lands. Considering wilderness characteristics in the land use planning process may... impacts on Indian trust assets and potential impacts to cultural resources, will be given due...
Thomas A. Heinlein; W. Wallace Covington; Peter Z. Fule; Margaret H. Moore; Hiram B. Smith
The management of national park and wilderness areas dominated by forest ecosystems adapted to frequent, low-intensity fires, continues to be a tremendous challenge. Throughout the inland West and particularly in the Southwest, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and mixed conifer forests have become dense and structurally homogeneous after periods of...
David N. Cole
This report compiles information about recent progress in the application of computer simulation modeling to planning and management of recreation use, particularly in parks and wilderness. Early modeling efforts are described in a chapter that provides an historical perspective. Another chapter provides an overview of modeling options, common data input requirements,...
Thompson, T. M.; Barna, M. G.; Schichtel, B. A.; Vimont, J.; Moore, C. T.
Oil and gas production in the Western United States has increased considerably over the past 10 years. While many of the still limited oil and gas impact assessments have focused on potential human health impacts, the typically remote locations of production in the Intermountain West suggests that the impacts of oil and gas production on national parks and wilderness areas (class 1&2 areas) could also be important. To evaluate this, we utilize the Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) with two year-long modeling episodes representing 2008 and 2011, meteorology and emissions. The model inputs for the 2008 and 2011 episodes were generated as part of the West-wide Jump-start Air Quality Modeling Study (WestJumpAQMS) and Three State Air Quality Study (3SAQS) respectively. Both studies included a detailed assessment of oil and gas (O&G) emissions in Western States for the respective years. Each year-long modeling episode was run both with and without emissions from O&G production. The difference between these two runs provides an estimate of the contribution of the O&G production to air quality. These data were used to assess the contribution of O&G to the 8 hour average ozone concentrations, daily and annual fine particulate concentrations, annual nitrogen deposition totals and visibility in the modeling domain. We present the results for the class 1&2 areas in the Western US. We also present temporal trends of O&G impacts, differentiating between trends in urban and rural areas.
Vařilová, Zuzana; Zvelebil, J.
Roč. 44, - (2005), s. 53-58 ISSN 1682-5519. [Sandstone Landscapes in Europe. Past, Present and Future. International Conference on Sandstone Landscapes /2./. Vianden, 25.05.2005-28.05.2005] Keywords : sandstones * rock-slope instability * rock fall * risk evalution and mitigation * monitoring net * remedial works Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation
Sanchez, Jose Julio
A nonmarket valuation approach is used in this study to evaluate the recreation values of the San Jacinto Wilderness in southern California. The analysis utilizes survey data from a stated-choice experiment involving backcountry visitors who responded to questions about hypothetical wildfire burn scenarios. Benefits of landscape preservation are derived using a Kuhn-Tucker (KT) demand system. Model results suggest that recreationists are more attracted to sites with recent foreground wildf...
.... ADDRESSES: Comments concerning this notice should be addressed to Alan E. Watson, Aldo Leopold Wilderness... . The public may inspect comments received at the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, USDA... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alan E. Watson, Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, (406) 542-4197...
Diefenbach, Duane R.; Wagner, Tyler; Stauffer, Glenn E.
of available habitat. The identified management approach must balance relevant social and economic concerns, Federal (e.g., Endangered Species Act, Wilderness Act, Refuge Act) and state regulations, and the conservation of biodiversity (e.g., Endangered/Threatened species, native habitat) in the Lower Keys.”The stakeholder group identified four fundamental objectives that are essential to addressing the problem: 1) Maximize a sustainable, viable, and healthy Key deer population, 2) Maximize value of Key deer to the People, 3) Minimize deer-related negative impacts to biodiversity, and 4) Minimize costs. In addition, the group identified 25 additional objectives that, if met, would help meet the fundamental objectives. The objectives network and measurable attributes identified by the stakeholder group can be used in the future to develop and evaluate potential management alternatives.
Mast, M. Alisa; Turk, John T.; Clow, David W.; Campbell, Donald D.
Trends in precipitation chemistry and hydrologic and climatic data were examined as drivers of long-term changes in the chemical composition of high-elevation lakes in three wilderness areas in Colorado during 1985-2008. Sulfate concentrations in precipitation decreased at a rate of -0.15 to -0.55 μeq/l/year at 10 high-elevation National Atmospheric Deposition Program stations in the state during 1987-2008 reflecting regional reductions in SO2 emissions. In lakes where sulfate is primarily derived from atmospheric inputs, sulfate concentrations also decreased although the rates generally were less, ranging from -0.12 to -0.27 μeq/l/year. The similarity in timing and sulfur isotopic data support the hypothesis that decreases in atmospheric deposition are driving the response of high-elevation lakes in some areas of the state. By contrast, in lakes where sulfate is derived primarily from watershed weathering sources, sulfate concentrations showed sharp increases during 1985-2008. Analysis of long-term climate records indicates that annual air temperatures have increased between 0.45 and 0.93°C per decade throughout most mountainous areas of Colorado, suggesting climate as a factor. Isotopic data reveal that sulfate in these lakes is largely derived from pyrite, which may indicate climate warming is preferentially affecting the rate of pyrite weathering.
Alan R. Graefe; Brijesh Thapa; John J. Confer; James D. Absher
To meet visitorsâ needs, managers must understand the motivations driving visitors to wilderness areas. This paper compares the motivations of different segments of Allegheny National Forest users. Factor analysis identified 5 motivation factors (social, escape, fun, nature and learning), with two items retained as single item dimensions (close to home and challenge)....
David N. Cole; Laurie Yung; Erika S. Zavaleta; Gregory H. Aplet; F. Stuart III Chaplin; David M. Graber; Eric S. Higgs; Richard J. Hobbs; Peter B. Landres; Constance I. Millar; David J. Parsons; John M. Randall; Nathan L. Stephenson; Kathy A. Tonnessen; Peter S. White; Stephen Woodley
FOR MOST LARGE U.S. PARKS AND WILDERNESS AREAS, enabling legislation and management policy call for preservation of these protected areas unimpaired in perpetuity. Central to the notions of protection, preservation, and unimpairment has been the concept of maintaining "naturalness," a condition imagined by many to persist over time in the absence of human...
David N. Cole; Jan W. van Wagtendonk; Mitchel P. McClaran; Peggy E. Moore; Neil K. McDougald
Effects of recreational pack stock grazing on mountain meadows in Yosemite National Park were assessed in a 5-year study. Yosemite is a designated wilderness, to be managed such that its natural conditions are preserved. Studies were conducted in 3 characteristic meadow types: shorthair sedge (Carex filifolia Nutt.), Brewerâs reed grass (...
Peter Newman; Robert Manning; Bill Valliere
As use in national parks and related areas continues to rise and visitors and types of activities continue to diversify, we are challenged to balance use and preservation in parks, wilderness and related areas. Faced with these challenges, integrative approaches to defining, monitoring and managing ecological, social and managerial setting attributes is crucial. This...
Thompson, M.L.; Berglund, R.C.
PRISM, a modular advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR), has been designed conceptually by GE under the US Department of Energy sponsorship. The concept design and analyses have been primarily focused on passive safety and improved construction and operating costs. Significantly, the unique design of multiple modules and features of PRISM enhance waste management over conventional reactor systems. This paper provides an overview of PRISM of these enhancements. Inherent to the ALMR's, the sodium coolant precludes crud buildup on reactor surfaces and in components and waste for disposal. Preliminary evaluations indicate this fundamental feature results in factors of 2-4 less waste volume and 2-3 orders of magnitude less curies per megawatt-electric for ultimate disposal. For example, the tap designed for sodium cleanup is expected to be exchanged only once every thirty years. Also, inherent to ALMR's, burning waste actinides and selected fission products to preclude their accumulation and burial is very attractive. The hard neutron spectrum of ALMR burns the actinides efficiently and is not poisoned by the actinides and fission products. The modular design of PRISM components (and the fuel cycle equipment) permit replacement without expensive and potentially hazardous volume reduction. For example, the functional components of the reference electromagnetic pump and IHK can be removed intact for waste disposal. Although development of the reference metal fuel is not completed, it is estimated that (low-level) waste from recycle of the fuel will result in significantly less volume than would be generated by aqueous recycle of oxide fuel. 6 refs., 10 figs
M.A. (Geography) In the last century, the establishment of protected areas has become an important part of managing South Africa’s wilderness and wildlife. The notion of untouched protected areas is becoming contested in a time when developing nations are seeking to improve quality of life for their citizens. With the promulgation of the NEM: PAA of 2003, resource sharing with local rural communities has become an important policy guideline for protected area management authorities. An exa...
Kristine D. Johnson; Fred P. Hain; Katherine S. Johnson; Felton Hastings
Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr) is the dominant species in a variety of sites in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Hemlock covers approximately 3820 acres (1528 hectares) or one percent of the Park, which at 524,856 acres is the largest area managed as wilderness in the eastern United States. Since timber was never harvested in about...
Cristy Watkins; Lynne M. Westphal
In this paper, we describe our application of Ostrom et al.'s ADICO syntax, a grammatical tool based in the Institutional Analysis and Development framework, to a study of ecological restoration decision making in the Chicago Wilderness region. As this method has only been used to look at written policy and/or extractive natural resource management systems, our...
Towards the Joint-Management of Transboundary Groundwaters: Hydrogeology and the Guarani Aquifer System; Hacia una gestion compartida de las aguas subterraneas transfronterizas: la Hidrogeologia y el Sistema Acuifero Guarani
In stark contrast to other international waters such as shared rivers or lakes, transboundary groundwaters are rarely co-managed. Management initiatives for shared groundwaters depend on scientific knowledge, which is often unavailable, and are influenced by a multiplicity of local issues that preclude the straightforward implementation of regulatory mechanisms. Drawing from historical documents and interviews with management experts, scientists and socio-economic stake holders, we examine the roles of science and scientific co-operation in the process that led to the creation of co-management instruments for the Guarani aquifer system. This analytical approach purposely sidesteps archetypical discussion about geopolitical differences and the incompatibility of institutional settings, arguing instead that hydrogeological knowledge is a constitutive dimension of the decision-making process, in which it operates both as a tool for the re framing of preferences as a challenge to established institutional frameworks. (Author)
This case study illustrates the positive effects of strategic fuels treatments in continuous heavy fuels. In 1999, a severe windstorm blew down close to 1,000 square miles of forest land in northern Minnesota and Canada. As much as 400,000 acres of the blowdown occurred in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. Fire experts were invited to assess the hazardous...
Full Text Available The anchoretic trend in Cistercian spirituality has always been the subject of many studies. Cistercian anchoritism has been analysed by researchers such as George Duby, Terryl Kinder, Janet Burton and Julie Krery, Mette Bruun and Emilia Jamroziak. Exordium parvum and Vita Sancti Bernardi are basic sources containing key information on the origins of the Cistercian order. They describe the departure of Robert of Molesme and his group as a journey to the wilderness (ad eremum in order to find better conditions for practising the rule of St. Benedict and following forefathers – Egyptian monks. Clairvaux II, Pontigny and Fontenay – first Burgundian churches of the Cistercians took form of a three-nave basilica with a transept (1130–1160. The temples were supposed to provide the best setting for contemplation. The so-called “Bernardine plan” was applied in the second generation of Cistercian churches, e.g. Fossanova, San Galgano, Casamari, Arabona, Haina (1148–1180. However, the plan was not the only architectural solution concerning Cistercian churches. There were also transept churches containing a presbytery culminated with a straight wall, surrounded with an ambulatory: Morimond, Ebrach, Ridaghshausen, Lubiąż; churches with an apsidal enclosure: Altzella, Sittich/Stiĉna,Valbuena, Huerta, Floran, Faleri or churches with multi-sided cathedral presbytery with an ambulatory and a circle of chapels: Ourscamp, Veruela, Poblet in the period from 1140 to 1180, Alcobaça, Vaucelle, Longpont, Royaumont, Varhem or Altenberg in the period from 1180 to 1240. Terryl Kinder and Megan Cassidy noticed the key factor shaping the significance of the Cistercian church space – the light. An important aspect of anchoritism is lectio divina, in which a monk finds himself in a kind of spiritual desert, facing the Word on his own. A consequence of such attitude in spiritual warfare as expressed in a number of miniatures depicting human struggle with a
Full Text Available Most federal legislation and policies (e.g., the Wilderness Act, Endangered Species Act, National Forest Management Act fail to speak directly to the need for old-growth protection, recruitment, and restoration on federal lands. Various policy and attitudinal barriers must be changed to move beyond the current situation. For example, in order to achieve the goal of healthy old growth in frequent-fire forests, the public must be educated regarding the evolutionary nature of these ecosystems and persuaded that collaborative action rather than preservation and litigation is the best course for the future of these forests. Land managers and policy makers must be encouraged to look beyond the single-species management paradigm toward managing natural processes, such as fire, so that ecosystems fall within the natural range of variability. They must also see that, given their recent evidence of catastrophic fires, management must take place outside the wildland-urban interface in order to protect old-growth forest attributes and human infrastructure. This means that, in some wilderness areas, management may be required. Land managers, researchers, and policy makers will also have to agree on a definition of old growth in frequent-fire landscapes; simply adopting a definition from the mesic Pacific Northwest will not work. Moreover, the culture within the federal agencies needs revamping to allow for more innovation, especially in terms of tree thinning and wildland fire use. Funding for comprehensive restoration treatments needs to be increased, and monitoring of the Healthy Forest Initiative and Healthy Forest Restoration Act must be undertaken.
...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.106 Unlimited exemptions. Unlimited exemptions from inclusion in the fleet... below. Unlimited exemptions do not preclude agencies from requesting fleet management services, if...
This paper has presented an overview of the economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal. It is hoped that this paper will assist the states in their efforts to determine their approach to the management of low-level wastes. Although the economies of scale realized by a larger facility are emphasized, the conclusion is that every state and region must examine its need for low-level waste disposal services and consider the interrelated factors that affect the volume of waste to be disposed, including waste reduction techniques, interim storage for not a single recommended capacity for a facility, but an acknowledgement of contingencies. In theory, per cubic foot disposal costs decrease as facility size increases. But theory does not preclude a state from constructing its own site, or a region generating small volumes of waste from building a shared facility. All factors should be weighed before a site is chosen and its size is determined
Brian R. Payne
I am new in my job as coordinator for USDA Forest Service research in recreation, social sciences, and wilderness. I predict that we will be giving greater attention and resources to this area in the near future, despite recent budget cuts and personnel reductions. Researchers should cooperate with each other nation-wide, and involve resource managers and users in the...
...\\, northerly of the northern right-of-way boundary CACA 18888; Sec. 27, NW\\1/4\\NW\\1/4\\, northerly of the... Wilderness Area CACA 35105; Sec. 3, excluding fee easement CALA 053588; Sec. 5, lots 1 and 2 in the NW\\1/4... Wilderness Area CACA 35105; Sec. 14, excluding the Palen McCoy Wilderness Area CACA 35105, and excluding fee...
Connelly, John W.; Knick, Steven T.; Braun, Clait E.; Baker, William L.; Beever, Erik A.; Christiansen, Thomas J.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Garton, Edward O.; Hagen, Christian A.; Hanser, Steven E.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Leu, Matthias; Miller, Richard F.; Naugle, David E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Pyke, David A.; Reese, Kerry P.; Schroeder, Michael A.; Stiver, San J.; Walker, Brett L.; Wisdorn, Michael J.
Recent analyses of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations indicate substantial declines in many areas but relatively stable populations in other portions of the species? range. Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats neces-sary to support sage-grouse are being burned by large wildfires, invaded by nonnative plants, and developed for energy resources (gas, oil, and wind). Management on public lands, which con-tain 70% of sagebrush habitats, has changed over the last 30 years from large sagebrush control projects directed at enhancing livestock grazing to a greater emphasis on projects that often attempt to improve or restore ecological integrity. Never-theless, the mandate to manage public lands to provide traditional consumptive uses as well as recreation and wilderness values is not likely to change in the near future. Consequently, demand and use of resources contained in sagebrush land-scapes plus the associated infrastructure to sup-port increasing human populations in the western United States will continue to challenge efforts to conserve Greater Sage-Grouse. The continued widespread distribution of sage-grouse, albeit at very low densities in some areas, coupled with large areas of important sagebrush habitat that are relatively unaffected by the human footprint, sug-gest that Greater Sage-Grouse populations may be able to persist into the future. We summarize the status of sage-grouse populations and habitats, provide a synthesis of major threats and chal-lenges to conservation of sage-grouse, and suggest a roadmap to attaining conservation goals.
Cashion, W.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Barton, H.N.; Kelley, K.D.; Kulik, D.M.; McDonnell, J.R.
This paper reports on the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas which include 242,000 acres, 33,690 acres, and 23,140 acres. Coal deposits underlie all three study areas. Coal zones in the Blackhawk and Nelsen formations have identified bituminous coal resources of 22 million short tons in the Desolation Canyon Study Area, 6.3 million short tons in the Turtle Canyon Study Area, and 45 million short tons in the Floy Canyon Study Area. In-place inferred oil shale resources are estimated to contain 60 million barrels in the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area. Minor occurrences of uranium have been found in the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and in the western part of the Floy Canyon area. Mineral resource potential for the study areas is estimated to be for coal, high for all areas, for oil and gas, high for the northern tract of the Desolation Canyon area and moderate for all other tracts, for bituminous sandstone, high for the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area, and low for all other tracts, for oil shale, low in all areas, for uranium, moderate for the Floy Canyon area and the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and low for the remainder of the areas, for metals other than uranium, bentonite, zeolites, and geothermal energy, low in all areas, and for coal-bed methane unknown in all three areas
Keeley, Jon E.
Fire management of California shrublands has been heavily influenced by policies designed for coniferous forests, however, fire suppression has not effectively excluded fire from chaparral and coastal sage scrub landscapes and catastrophic wildfires are not the result of unnatural fuel accumulation. There is no evidence that prescribed burning in these shrublands provides any resource benefit and in some areas may negatively impact shrublands by increasing fire frequency. Therefore, fire hazard reduction is the primary justification for prescription burning, but it is doubtful that rotational burning to create landscape age mosaics is a cost effective method of controlling catastrophic wildfires. There are problems with prescription burning in this crown-fire ecosystem that are not shared by forests with a natural surface-fire regime. Prescription weather conditions preclude burning at rotation intervals sufficient to effect the control of fires ignited under severe weather conditions. Fire management should focus on strategic placement of prescription burns to both insure the most efficient fire hazard reduction and to minimize the amount of landscape exposed to unnaturally high fire frequency. A major contributor to increased fire suppression costs and increased loss of property and lives is the continued urban sprawl into wildlands naturally subjected to high intensity crown fires. Differences in shrubland fire history suggest there may be a need for different fire management tactics between central coastal and southern California. Much less is known about shrubland fire history in the Sierra Nevada foothills and interior North Coast Ranges, and thus it would be prudent to not transfer these ideas too broadly across the range of chaparral until we have a clearer understanding of the extent of regional variation in shrubland fire regimes.
... wilderness designation proposal, and work with partners to ensure that dredge-spoil islands provide benefits..., studying potential wilderness lands, developing a bicycling and hiking trail, installing interpretive...
Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Malhotra, Mini [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Xiong, Zeyu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, a distributed GSHP system for providing all the space conditioning, outdoor air ventilation, and 100% domestic hot water to the Wilders Grove Solid Waste Service Center of City of Raleigh, North Carolina. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, construction costs, and simulations of the energy consumption of conventional central heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems providing the same level of space conditioning and outdoor air ventilation as the demonstrated GSHP system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the GSHP system compared with conventional HVAC systems. This case study also identified opportunities for reducing uncertainties in the performance evaluation and improving the operational efficiency of the demonstrated GSHP system.
Brunn, H. von [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke e.V. (VDEW), Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Herbst, A. [DREWAG Stadtwerke Dresden GmbH (Germany); Hoffer, A. [EVH GmbH, Halle (Germany); Meigen, M. [Stadtwerke Leipzig (Germany); Siedler, W. [Stadtwerke Hannover AG (Germany)
Anyone creating sources of danger in a public place must take proper precautions to prevent a hazard from actually arising. Work such as the construction or renovation of generating plants, pipe networks or district heat substations, the operation of heating installations and plants and the use of heating water and steam as media for the supply or district heating are potential sources of danger which may lead to accidents. The utility is liable for material damage and bodily harm. The only possible way of precluding liability is to prove that it has taken all possible measures for precluding risk at the outset within the organization itself, to the greatest possible extent. Not only must administration and line management be properly structured for this purpose, but administrative efficiency must also be demonstrated by a working system of delegation of tasks and responsibilities and the optimum organisation of processes and interfaces. (orig.) [German] Im AGFW-Arbeitsblatt FW 1000 'Anforderungen an die Qualifikation und die Organisation des technischen Bereichs von Fernwaermeversorgungsunternehmen' werden organisatorische, personelle sowie sicherheits- und betriebstechnische Mindestanforderungen fuer die Planung den Bau und den Betrieb von Nah- und Fernwaermeversorgungsanlagen beschrieben. Zur Bestaetigung der Anforderungserfuellung ist entweder eine Selbsteinschaetzung durch das Unternehmen oder die Ueberpruefung durch die AGFW vorgesehen. Hierfuer wurde ein Zertifizierungsverfahren entwickelt, das ab sofort von der gesamten Branche genutzt werden kann. (orig.)
... vocal, public speaking course, or course in dancing, sports or athletics, such as horseback riding, swimming, fishing, skiing, golf, baseball, tennis, bowling, sports officiating, or other sport or athletic...; or (iii) Any other type of course which VA determines to be avocational or recreational. (3) To...
Jahadi Hosseini, Seyed Hamid Reza; Khalili, Mohammad Reza; Motallebi, Mahmoud
Background: We sought to determine the efficacy of topical tranexamic acid (5%) in the management of traumatic hyphema. Methods: Thirty eyes with gross traumatic hyphema were enrolled in this study. The patients were treated with tranexamic acid (5%) eye drop every 6 hours for 5 days. The main outcome measures were best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Intra-ocular pressure (IOP), day of clot absorption, and rate of rebleeding. These parameters were evaluated daily for 4 days and thereafter at the 8th and 14th days after treatment. The patients were also compared with two historical control groups of patients (80 eyes) with traumatic hyphema; the first control group was treated with oral placebo and the other group was treated with oral tranexamic acid at our department. Result: Prior to treatment, the mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) BCVA was 0.59±0.62. BCVA was increased to 0.08±0.14 at day 14 (Ptranexamic acid seems promising in the management of traumatic hyphema. However, the small sample size of the present study precludes the conclusion that topical tranexamic acid can replace the oral tranexamic acid. PMID:24753640
Amanda L. Bentley Brymer
Full Text Available According to the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, federal action to manipulate habitat for species conservation requires an environmental impact statement, which should integrate natural, physical, economic, and social sciences in planning and decision making. Nonetheless, most impact assessments focus disproportionately on physical or ecological impacts rather than integrating ecological and socioeconomic components. We developed a participatory social-ecological impact assessment (SEIA that addresses the requirements of NEPA and integrates social and ecological concepts for impact assessments. We cooperated with the Bureau of Land Management in Idaho, USA on a project designed to restore habitat for the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus. We employed questionnaires, workshop dialogue, and participatory mapping exercises with stakeholders to identify potential environmental changes and subsequent impacts expected to result from the removal of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis. Via questionnaires and workshop dialogue, stakeholders identified 46 environmental changes and associated positive or negative impacts to people and communities in Owyhee County, Idaho. Results of the participatory mapping exercises showed that the spatial distribution of social, economic, and ecological values throughout Owyhee County are highly associated with the two main watersheds, wilderness areas, and the historic town of Silver City. Altogether, the SEIA process revealed that perceptions of project scale varied among participants, highlighting the need for specificity about spatial and temporal scales. Overall, the SEIA generated substantial information concerning potential impacts associated with habitat treatments for Greater Sage-Grouse. The SEIA is transferable to other land management and conservation contexts because it supports holistic understanding and framing of connections between humans and ecosystems. By applying
Griffith, James L.; Kohrt, Brandon A.
Psychiatric education is confronted with three barriers to managing stigma associated with mental health treatment. First, there are limited evidence-based practices for stigma reduction, and interventions to deal with stigma against mental health care providers are especially lacking. Second, there is a scarcity of training models for mental health professionals on how to reduce stigma in clinical services. Third, there is a lack of conceptual models for neuroscience approaches to stigma reduction, which are a requirement for high-tier competency in the ACGME Milestones for Psychiatry. The George Washington University (GWU) psychiatry residency program has developed an eight-week course on managing stigma that is based on social psychology and social neuroscience research. The course draws upon social neuroscience research demonstrating that stigma is a normal function of normal brains resulting from evolutionary processes in human group behavior. Based on these processes, stigma can be categorized according to different threats that include peril stigma, disruption stigma, empathy fatigue, moral stigma, and courtesy stigma. Grounded in social neuroscience mechanisms, residents are taught to develop interventions to manage stigma. Case examples illustrate application to common clinical challenges: (1) helping patients anticipate and manage stigma encountered in the family, community, or workplace; (2) ameliorating internalized stigma among patients; (3) conducting effective treatment from a stigmatized position due to prejudice from medical colleagues or patients’ family members; and (4) facilitating patient treatment plans when stigma precludes engagement with mental health professionals. This curriculum addresses the need for educating trainees to manage stigma in clinical settings. Future studies are needed to evaluate changes in clinical practices and patient outcomes as a result of social neuroscience-based training on managing stigma. PMID:26162463
Griffith, James L; Kohrt, Brandon A
Psychiatric education is confronted with three barriers to managing stigma associated with mental health treatment. First, there are limited evidence-based practices for stigma reduction, and interventions to deal with stigma against mental health care providers are especially lacking. Second, there is a scarcity of training models for mental health professionals on how to reduce stigma in clinical services. Third, there is a lack of conceptual models for neuroscience approaches to stigma reduction, which are a requirement for high-tier competency in the ACGME Milestones for Psychiatry. The George Washington University (GWU) psychiatry residency program has developed an eight-week course on managing stigma that is based on social psychology and social neuroscience research. The course draws upon social neuroscience research demonstrating that stigma is a normal function of normal brains resulting from evolutionary processes in human group behavior. Based on these processes, stigma can be categorized according to different threats that include peril stigma, disruption stigma, empathy fatigue, moral stigma, and courtesy stigma. Grounded in social neuroscience mechanisms, residents are taught to develop interventions to manage stigma. Case examples illustrate application to common clinical challenges: (1) helping patients anticipate and manage stigma encountered in the family, community, or workplace; (2) ameliorating internalized stigma among patients; (3) conducting effective treatment from a stigmatized position due to prejudice from medical colleagues or patients' family members; and (4) facilitating patient treatment plans when stigma precludes engagement with mental health professionals. This curriculum addresses the need for educating trainees to manage stigma in clinical settings. Future studies are needed to evaluate changes in clinical practices and patient outcomes as a result of social neuroscience-based training on managing stigma.
Ika Putri Larasati
Full Text Available Multiple stakeholders refer to different interests that are vulnerable to create conflict of interest. The condition requires an effective management to satisfy stakeholders without ignoring ethical practices to the environment. It demands systems thinking which makes companies realise that their activities influence stakeholders whilst stakeholders’ actions have impact on companies. However, several companies preclude the systems thinking which gives consequence to unsolved conflict and even creates worse problems. Gunns Limited Company Australia (Gunns is one of example ofthese companies.Gunnsactivities in the Tasmania forest generated public criticisms because Gunns was considered as a firm that deterioratedthe environment, humans’health and communities’ job. Different stakeholders’ views on this case might lead to environmental safety or environmental destructions. With this background, this essay attempts to analyzethe application of systems thinking (under stakeholder theory in the process of ethical management to the environment in order to solve the conflict of interests. Hopefully, this paper will significantly contribute to overcome similar issues in Indonesia and also contributes to further researches related to systems thinking as a solution for conflict of interest.
Johnson, A. B.
Storage of nuclear fuel after it has been discharged from reactors has become the leading spent fuel management option. Many storage facilities are being required to operate longer than originally anticipated. Aging is a term that has emerged to focus attention on the consequences of extended operation on systems, structures, and components that comprise the storage facilities. The key to mitigation of age-related degradation in storage facilities is to implement effective strategies to understand and manage aging of the facility materials. A systematic approach to preclude serious effects of age-related degradation is addressed in this paper, directed principally to smaller facilities (test and research reactors). The first need is to assess the materials that comprise the facility and the environments that they are subject to. Access to historical data on facility design, fabrication, and operation can facilitate assessment of expected materials performance. Methods to assess the current condition of facility materials are summarized in the paper. Each facility needs an aging management plan to define the scope of the management program, involving identification of the materials that need specific actions to manage age-related degradation. For each material identified, one or more aging management programs are developed and become part of the plan Several national and international organizations have invested in development of comprehensive and systematic approaches to aging management. A method developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is recommended as a concise template to organize measures to effectively manage age-related degradation of storage facility materials, including the scope of inspection, surveillance, and maintenance that is needed to assure successful operation of the facility over its required life. Important to effective aging management is a staff that is alert for evidence of materials degradation and committed to carry out the aging
Myers, Janet; Zack, Barry; Kramer, Katie; Gardner, Mick; Rucobo, Gonzalo; Costa-Taylor, Stacy
Individuals leaving prison face challenges to establishing healthy lives in the community, including opportunities to engage in behavior that puts them at risk for HIV transmission. HIV prevention case management (PCM) can facilitate linkages to services, which in turn can help remove barriers to healthy behavior. As part of a federally funded demonstration project, the community-based organization Centerforce provided 5 months of PCM to individuals leaving 3 state prisons in California. Program effects were measured by assessing changes in risk behavior, access to services, reincarnation, and program completion. Although response rates preclude definitive conclusions, HIV risk behavior did decrease. Regardless of race, age, or gender, those receiving comprehensive health services were significantly more likely to complete the program. PCM appears to facilitate healthy behavior for individuals leaving prison.
Stelmach, Rafael; Neto, Alcindo Cerci; Fonseca, Ana Cristina de Carvalho Fernandez; Ponte, Eduardo Vieira; Alves, Gerardo; Araujo-Costa, Ildely Niedia; Lasmar, Laura Maria de Lima Belizário Facury; de Castro, Luci Keiko Kuromoto; Lenz, Maria Lucia Medeiros; Silva, Paulo; Cukier, Alberto; Alves, Alexssandra Maia; Lima-Matos, Aline Silva; Cardoso, Amanda da Rocha Oliveira; Fernandes, Ana Luisa Godoy; de São-José, Bruno Piassi; Riedi, Carlos Antônio; Schor, Deborah; Peixoto, Décio Medeiros; Brandenburg, Diego Djones; Camillo, Elineide Gomes dos Santos; Serpa, Faradiba Sarquis; Brandão, Heli Vieira; Lima, João Antonio Bonfadini; Pio, Jorge Eduardo; Fiterman, Jussara; Anderson, Maria de Fátima; Cardoso, Maria do Socorro de Lucena; Rodrigues, Marcelo Tadday; Pereira, Marilyn Nilda Esther Urrutia; Antila, Marti; Martins, Sonia Maria; Guimarães, Vanessa Gonzaga Tavares; Mello, Yara Arruda Marques; de Andrade, Wenderson Clay Correia; Salibe-Filho, William; Caldeira, Zelina Maria da Rocha; da Cruz-Filho, Álvaro Augusto Souza; Camargos, Paulo
Objective: To report the results of a workshop regarding asthma management programs and centers (AMPCs) in Brazil, so that they can be used as a tool for the improvement and advancement of current and future AMPCs. Methods: The workshop consisted of five presentations and the corresponding group discussions. The working groups discussed the following themes: implementation of asthma management strategies; human resources needed for AMPCs; financial resources needed for AMPCs; and operational maintenance of AMPCs. Results: The workshop involved 39 participants, from all regions of the country, representing associations of asthma patients (n = 3), universities (n = 7), and AMPCs (n = 29). We found a direct relationship between a lack of planning and the failure of AMPCs. Based on the experiences reported during the workshop, the common assumptions about AMPCs in Brazil were the importance of raising awareness of managers; greater community participation; interdependence between primary care and specialized care; awareness of regionalization; and use of medications available in the public health system. Conclusions: Brazil already has a core of experience in the area of asthma management programs. The implementation of strategies for the management of chronic respiratory disease and their incorporation into health care system protocols would seem to be a natural progression. However, there is minimal experience in this area. Joint efforts by individuals with expertise in AMPCs could promote the implementation of asthma management strategies, thus speeding the creation of treatment networks, which might have a multiplier effect, precluding the need for isolated centers to start from zero. PMID:25750669
Javangula Kalyana C
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Keloid scars following median sternotomy are rare and occur more frequently in pigmented skin. Different management strategies have been described with variable success. We present a case of keloid scar formation following cardiac surgery including our management and the final aesthetic result. Case description A 64 year old female of fair complexion underwent mitral valve replacement. The procedure and postoperative recovery were uncomplicated, however, during the following year, thick keloid scars formed over the incision sites. Initial non surgical measures failed to relieve pain and did not offer any tangible aesthetic benefit. Eventually surgical excision was attempted. She presented to our clinic for nine months follow up with significant improvement in pain and aesthetic result. Discussion and Evaluation Several theories have attempted to explore the pathophysiology of keloid scar formation. A number of predisposing factors have been documented however none existed in this case. A variety of invasive and non invasive approaches have been described but significant differences in success rates and methodology of investigations still precludes a standardized management protocol. Conclusions In this case study a rare presentation of keloid scar has been presented. The variety of methods used to improve pain and aesthetic result demonstrates the propensity of keloid scars to recur and the therapeutic challenges that surgeons have to face in their quest for a satisfactory patient outcome.
Full Text Available There is a need for neonatal screening tools to improve the long-term clinical outcome of patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID. Recently, a PCR-based screening method for both TRECs and KRECs using Guthrie card samples has been developed. However, the applicability of these excision circle assays is limited to patients with severe T or B cell lymphopenia (SCID, XLA and A-T, whereas the most common forms of PID are not detected. Absence of serum IgA is seen in a major fraction of patients with immunological defects. As serum IgA in newborns is considered to be of fetal origin, eluates from routinely collected dried blood spot samples might thus be suitable for identification of children with PID. To assess the applicability of such screening assays, stored Guthrie card samples were obtained from 47 patients with various forms of primary immunodeficiency diseases (SCID, XLA, A-T, HIGM and IgAD, 20 individuals with normal serum IgA levels born to IgA-deficient mothers and 51 matched healthy newborns. Surprisingly, normal serum IgA levels were found in all SCID, XLA, A-T and HIGM patients and, additionally, in all those IgAD patients born to IgA-sufficient mothers. Conversely, no serum IgA was found in any of the 16 IgAD patients born by IgA-deficient mothers. Moreover, half of the IgA-sufficient individuals born by IgA-deficient mothers also lacked IgA at birth whereas no IgA-deficient individuals were found among the controls. IgA in neonatal dried blood samples thus appears to be of both maternal and fetal origin and precludes its use as a reliable marker for neonatal screening of primary immunodeficiency diseases.
Borte, Stephan; Janzi, Magdalena; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Nordvall, Lennart; Winiarski, Jacek; Fasth, Anders; Hammarström, Lennart
There is a need for neonatal screening tools to improve the long-term clinical outcome of patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Recently, a PCR-based screening method for both TRECs and KRECs using Guthrie card samples has been developed. However, the applicability of these excision circle assays is limited to patients with severe T or B cell lymphopenia (SCID, XLA and A-T), whereas the most common forms of PID are not detected. Absence of serum IgA is seen in a major fraction of patients with immunological defects. As serum IgA in newborns is considered to be of fetal origin, eluates from routinely collected dried blood spot samples might thus be suitable for identification of children with PID. To assess the applicability of such screening assays, stored Guthrie card samples were obtained from 47 patients with various forms of primary immunodeficiency diseases (SCID, XLA, A-T, HIGM and IgAD), 20 individuals with normal serum IgA levels born to IgA-deficient mothers and 51 matched healthy newborns. Surprisingly, normal serum IgA levels were found in all SCID, XLA, A-T and HIGM patients and, additionally, in all those IgAD patients born to IgA-sufficient mothers. Conversely, no serum IgA was found in any of the 16 IgAD patients born by IgA-deficient mothers. Moreover, half of the IgA-sufficient individuals born by IgA-deficient mothers also lacked IgA at birth whereas no IgA-deficient individuals were found among the controls. IgA in neonatal dried blood samples thus appears to be of both maternal and fetal origin and precludes its use as a reliable marker for neonatal screening of primary immunodeficiency diseases.
...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.0-General Provisions § 101-39.004 Optional operations. Nothing in this part shall preclude the establishment or operation of interagency fleet management systems by GSA or by... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Optional operations. 101...
López-Hernández, L B; Gómez-Díaz, B; Escobar-Cedillo, R E; Gama-Moreno, O; Camacho-Molina, A; Soto-Valdés, D M; Anaya-Segura, M A; Luna-Padrón, E; Zúñiga-Guzmán, C; Lopez-Hernández, J A; Vázquez-Cárdenas, N A; Sánchez-Chapul, L; Rangel-Villalobos, H; Canto, P; López-Cardona, M G; García, S; Méndez-Covarrubias, G; Coral-Vázquez, R M
Multidisciplinary management of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) has achieved outstanding results in developed nations. We aimed to describe the status of diagnosis and management of DMD in a developing country through the experience of non-profit organizations. A Multistate, multiple-source, population-based survey was performed from medical records of 432 patients. Data were retrospectively collected, reviewed and curated by health specialists; including clinical features, age at first symptoms, age at diagnosis, disease progression and management, family history, education, age and cause of death. There is a delay in noticing first symptoms and it did not diminish over the past 20 years. Less than 30% of patients obtained definite diagnosis and most of them are in physiotherapy programs but not under steroid treatment. In our study, family history does not anticipate recognition of symptoms compared to sporadic cases (p = 0.05). Approximately 93.33% of our patients attended to education programs. Mean age at death was 18.94 +/- 6.73 years and the most frequent cause was pneumonia. Delayed diagnosis of DMD in Mexico is mainly caused by the late detection of first symptoms. There is no difference in early detection of symptoms between familiar and sporadic cases. Lifespan of patients in our cohort is reduced compared to developed countries. The late diagnosis and low percentage of definite cases may affect patient management and genetic counseling and could also preclude participation of patients into novel clinical trials.
Varney, J. R.; Craighead, J. J.; Sumner, J. S.
Improved classification and mapping of grizzly habitat will permit better estimates of population density and distribution, and allow accurate evaluation of the potential effects of changes in land use, hunting regulation, and management policies on existing populations. Methods of identifying favorable habitat from ERTS-1 multispectral scanner imagery were investigated and described. This technique could reduce the time and effort required to classify large wilderness areas in the Western United States.
Mierlo, Camille Van; Pinto, Luis Abegão; Stalmans, Ingeborg
Iatrogenic pigment dispersion syndrome generally originates from a repetitive, mechanical trauma to the pigmented posterior epithelium of the iris. This trauma can arise after intraocular surgery, most commonly due to an abnormal contact between the intraocular lens (IOL) and the iris. Whether surgical removal of this primary insult can lead to a successful intraocular pressure (IOP) control remains unclear. Case-series. Patients with IOP elevation and clinical signs of pigment dispersion were screened for a diagnosis of iatrogenic IOL-related pigment dispersion. Three patients in which the IOL or the IOL-bag complex caused a pigment dispersion through a repetitive iris chafing were selected. In two cases, replacement of a sulcus-based single-piece IOL (patient 1) or a sub-luxated in-the-bag IOL (patient 2) by an anterior-chamber (AC) iris-fixed IOL led to a sustained decrease in IOP. In the third case, extensive iris atrophy and poor anatomical AC parameters for IOL implantation precluded further surgical intervention. IOL-exchange appears to be a useful tool in the management of iatrogenic pigment dispersion glaucoma due to inappropriate IOL implantation. This cause-oriented approach seems to be effective in controlling IOP, but should be offered only if safety criteria are met. How to cite this article: Van Mierlo C, Abegao Pinto L, Stalmans I. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):28-32.
Johnson, P.E.; Pope, R.B.; Wankerl, M.W.; Joy, D.S.; Shappert, L.B.; Danese, F.L.; Best, R.E.; Schmid, S.
This paper reports on a study which has been performed to examine the contingencies that could be pursued by the Department of energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for shipping spent fuel beginning in 1998. OCRWM's current plan is to initiate operations using early production units of Initiative I truck and rail/barge casks that are presently being designed. Contingencies to this plan were considered in case some unforeseen event occurs that precludes the Initiative I casks from entering into service early in 1998 in sufficient quantities (both numbers and types) to satisfy DOE's shipping needs. Specifically, the study addressed the potential availability of cask systems, selected several cask usage scenarios, determined the requirements for casks under these scenarios, generically assessed different strategies for acquiring casks or the use of casks, and generically assessed cask fabrication capabilities. Issues concerning both domestic and foreign resources were addressed with a focus on the first five years of Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) operation
Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Wankerl, M.W.; Best, R.E.; Schmid, S.; Danese, F.L.
A study has been performed to examine the contingencies that could be pursued by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for shipping spent fuel beginning in 1998. OCRWM's current plan is to initiate operations using early production units of Initiative I truck and rail/barge casks that are presently being designed. Contingencies to this plan were considered in case some unforeseen event occurs that precludes the Initiative I casks from entering into service early in 1998 in sufficient quantities (both numbers and types) to satisfy DOE's shipping needs. Specifically, the study addressed the potential availability of cask systems, selected several cask usage scenarios, determined the requirements for casks under these scenarios, generically assessed different strategies for acquiring casks or the use of casks, and generically assessed cask fabrication capabilities. Issues concerning both domestic and foreign resources were addressed with a focus on the first five years of Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) operation
McMeekin, T A; Baranyi, J; Bowman, J; Dalgaard, P; Kirk, M; Ross, T; Schmid, S; Zwietering, M H
of molecular subtyping information between public health agencies to detect foodborne outbreaks and limit the spread of human disease. Traceability of individual animals or crops from (or before) conception or germination to the consumer as an integral part of food supply chain management. Provision of high quality, online educational packages to food industry personnel otherwise precluded from access to such courses.
Streamflow statistics for development of water rights claims for the Jarbidge Wild and Scenic River, Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness, Idaho, 2013-14: a supplement to Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5212
Wood, Molly S.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), estimated streamflow statistics for stream segments designated “Wild,” “Scenic,” or “Recreational” under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System in the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness in southwestern Idaho. The streamflow statistics were used by the BLM to develop and file a draft, federal reserved water right claim to protect federally designated “outstanding remarkable values” in the Jarbidge River. The BLM determined that the daily mean streamflow equaled or exceeded 20, 50, and 80 percent of the time during bimonthly periods (two periods per month) and the bankfull (66.7-percent annual exceedance probability) streamflow are important thresholds for maintaining outstanding remarkable values. Although streamflow statistics for the Jarbidge River below Jarbidge, Nevada (USGS 13162225) were published previously in 2013 and used for the draft water right claim, the BLM and USGS have since recognized the need to refine streamflow statistics given the approximate 40 river mile distance and intervening tributaries between the original point of estimation (USGS 13162225) and at the mouth of the Jarbidge River, which is the downstream end of the Wild and Scenic River segment. A drainage-area-ratio method was used in 2013 to estimate bimonthly exceedance probability streamflow statistics at the mouth of the Jarbidge River based on available streamgage data on the Jarbidge and East Fork Jarbidge Rivers. The resulting bimonthly streamflow statistics were further adjusted using a scaling factor calculated from a water balance on streamflow statistics calculated for the Bruneau and East Fork Bruneau Rivers and Sheep Creek. The final, adjusted bimonthly exceedance probability and bankfull streamflow statistics compared well with available verification datasets (including discrete streamflow measurements made at the mouth of the Jarbidge River) and are considered the
McDonald, Amy A; Robinson, Bryce R H; Alarcon, Louis; Bosarge, Patrick L; Dorion, Heath; Haut, Elliott R; Juern, Jeremy; Madbak, Firas; Reddy, Srinivas; Weiss, Patricia; Como, John J
Traumatic diaphragm injuries (TDI) pose both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in both the acute and chronic phases. There are no published practice management guidelines to date for TDI. We aim to formulate a practice management guideline for TDI using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. The working group formulated five Patient, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome (PICO) questions regarding the following topics: 1) diagnostic approach (laparoscopy vs. computed tomography); 2) non-operative management of penetrating right-sided injuries; 3) surgical approach (abdominal or thoracic) for acute TDI, including 4) the use of laparoscopy; and 5) surgical approach (abdominal or thoracic) for delayed TDI. A systematic review was undertaken and last updated December 2016. RevMan 5 (Cochran Collaboration) and GRADEpro (Grade Working Group) software were utilized. Recommendations were voted on by working group members. Consensus was obtained for each recommendation. A total of 56 articles were utilized to formulate the recommendations. Most studies were retrospective case series with variable reporting of outcomes measures and outcomes frequently not stratified to intervention or comparator. The overall quality of the evidence was very low for all PICOs. Therefore, only conditional recommendations could be made. Recommendations were made in favor of laparoscopy over CT for diagnosis, non-operative vs. operative approach for right-sided penetrating injuries, abdominal vs. thoracic approach for acute TDI, and laparoscopy (with the appropriate skill set and resources) vs. open approach for isolated TDI. No recommendation could be made for the preferred operative approach for delayed TDI. Very low-quality evidence precluded any strong recommendations. Further study of the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to TDI is warranted. Guideline LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.
... eds. Auerbach's Wilderness Medicine . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 45. Graeme KA. Toxic plant ingestions. ... eds. Auerbach's Wilderness Medicine . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 65. Meehan TJ. Approach to the ...
Hall, Amanda K; Dodd, Virginia; Harris, Amy; McArthur, Kara; Dacso, Clifford; Colton, Lara M
Technology use for symptom management is beneficial for both patients and physicians. Widespread acceptance of technology use in healthcare fuels continued development of technology with ever-increasing sophistication. Although acceptance of technology use in healthcare by medical professionals is evident, less is known about the perceptions, preferences, and use of technology by heart failure (HF) patients. This study explores patients' perceptions and current use of technology for managing HF symptoms (MHFS). A qualitative analysis of in-depth individual interviews using a constant comparative approach for emerging themes was conducted. Fifteen participants (mean age, 64.43 years) with HF were recruited from hospitals, cardiology clinics, and community groups. All study participants reported use of a home monitoring device, such as an ambulatory blood pressure device or bathroom scale. The majority of participants reported not accessing online resources for additional MHFS information. However, several participants stated their belief that technology would be useful for MHFS. Participants reported increased access to care, earlier indication of a worsening condition, increased knowledge, and greater convenience as potential benefits of technology use while managing HF symptoms. For most participants financial cost, access issues, satisfaction with current self-care routine, mistrust of technology, and reliance on routine management by their current healthcare provider precluded their use of technology for MHFS. Knowledge about HF patients' perceptions of technology use for self-care and better understanding of issues associated with technology access can aid in the development of effective health behavior interventions for individuals who are MHFS and may result in increased compliance, better outcomes, and lower healthcare costs.
D'Aoust, Julie; Battat, Robert; Bessissow, Talat
To address the management of Clostridium difficile ( C. difficile ) infection (CDI) in the setting of suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-flare. A systematic search of the Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases by independent reviewers identified 70 articles including a total of 932141 IBD patients or IBD-related hospitalizations. In those with IBD, CDI is associated with increased morbidity, including subsequent escalation in IBD medical therapy, urgent colectomy and increased hospitalization, as well as excess mortality. Vancomycin-containing regimens are effective first-line therapies for CDI in IBD inpatients. No prospective data exists with regards to the safety or efficacy of initiating or maintaining corticosteroid, immunomodulator, or biologic therapy to treat IBD in the setting of CDI. Corticosteroid use is a risk factor for the development of CDI, while immunomodulators and biologics are not. Strong recommendations regarding when to initiate IBD specific therapy in those with CDI are precluded by a lack of evidence. However, based on expert opinion and observational data, initiation or resumption of immunosuppressive therapy after 48-72 h of targeted antibiotic treatment for CDI may be considered.
Full Text Available This article is written from the perspective of a court president in The Netherlands, a so called civil law country. In theory, in a civil law country, judges and lawyers in civil and commercial cases base their actions on the application of the law and its interpretation. Moreover, in criminal matters, the courts use inquisitorial procedures which differ from the adversarial procedures used in common law countries. The field of court management is not highly developed because of the tension between the need for judicial independence and judicial organization. There are many examples of this tension, including the fact that courts may be subject to budgetary limits which themselves may intrude upon judicial independence. For instance, suppose that a judge believes it necessary to appoint an expert to answer a certain scientific question, but the expert is expensive and budgetary considerations preclude the appointment. When I was involved in the process of the budgets of prosecutors’ offices and courts, this question frequently arose. In an effort to deal with this problem, part of the courts’ budgets were treated as open-ended even though courts rarely spent these open-ended budgets lavishly.
Full Text Available According to the Advanced Trauma Life Support recommendations for managing patients with life-threatening injuries, securing the airway is the first task of a primary caregiver. Airway management of patients with maxillofacial trauma is complex and crucial because it can dictate a patient’s survival. Securing the airway of patients with maxillofacial trauma is often extremely difficult because the trauma involves the patient’s airway and their breathing is compromised. In these patients, mask ventilation and endotracheal intubation are anticipated to be difficult. Additionally, some of these patients may not yet have been cleared of a cervical spine injury, and all are regarded as having a full stomach and having an increased risk of regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration. The requirements of the intended maxillofacial operation may often preclude the use of an oral intubation tube, and alternative methods for securing the airway should be considered before the start of the surgery. In order to improve the clinical outcome of patients with maxillofacial trauma, cooperation between maxillofacial surgeons, anesthesiologists, and trauma specialists is needed. In this review, we discuss the complexity and difficulties of securing the airway of patients with maxillofacial trauma and present our approach for airway management of such patients.
The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for disposing of the nation's high-level radioactive waste. Currently, DOE is considering the use of Multi-Purpose Canisters (MPCs) to containerize commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be handled by the system. To achieve its safeguards and security objectives, OCRWM plans to institute a US Regulatory Commission (NRC)-approved safeguards program. Since the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) facility and a possible Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility may be subject to selection for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections, the safeguards program for MPCs may not preclude compliance with the requirements of the IAEA's Annex D, Special Criteria for Difficult-to-Access Fuel Items. MPC safeguards are based on three principles: Verification, Material Control and Accounting, and Physical Protection
Hof, John G.; Loomis, John B.
A recreation allocation model is developed which efficiently selects recreation areas and degree of development from an array of proposed and existing sites. The model does this by maximizing the difference between gross recreation benefits and travel, investment, management, and site-opportunity costs. The model presented uses the Travel Cost Method for estimating recreation benefits within an operations research framework. The model is applied to selection of potential wilderness areas in C...
Noble, D.C.; Plouff, D.; Close, T.J.; Bergquist, J.R.; Neumann, T.R.
The part of the High Rock Late Wilderness Study Area, requested for mineral surveys by the Bureau of Land Management, encompasses 14,000 acres in the northern part of the Calico Mountains, Northwest Nevada. No resources were identified in the study area; however, there is low potential throughout the study area for volcanic-hosted deposits of mercury, uranium, and disseminated gold. The northern part of the study area has low potential for geothermal energy
Zhao, F.; Huang, C.; Healey, S. P.; McCarter, J. B.; Garrard, C.; Zhu, Z.
Natural disturbances and land management directly change C stored in biomass and soil pools, and can have indirect impacts on long-term C balance. The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), located in Central Rocky Mountains of United States, is of different land ownerships within similar environmental settings, making it an ideal site to examine the impacts of management and disturbances on regional carbon dynamics. Recent advances in the remote sensing of vegetation condition and change, along with new techniques linking remote sensing with inventory records, have allowed investigations that are much more tightly constrained to actual landscape environment, instead of hypothetical or generalized conditions. These new capabilities are built into the Forest Carbon Management Framework (ForCaMF), which is being used by the National Forest System to not only model, but to monitor across very specific management units, the impact of different kinds of disturbance on carbon storage. In this study, we used the ForCaMF approach to evaluate carbon effects of natural disturbances (e.g. wildfire) and land management (e.g. harvests) in GYE National Parks, Wilderness Area and National Forests. As might be expected, wildfire has been the dominant disturbance factor in the carbon cycle of GYE's administratively protected areas since the mid-1980s, while harvests have dominated storage trends on the managed land in the region's National Forests. Moving beyond this monitoring result but maintaining the same fidelity to historical vegetation patterns, we are also able to simulate alternative disturbance scenarios to provide landscape-specific insights to forest managers. We can estimate likely carbon storage impacts in GYE protected areas, for example, if more active fire suppression had been pursued since the mid-1980s. Likewise, we can identify differences in current carbon storage on managed lands if high harvest rates during the same period had been moderated. We discuss
Michel, Robert L.; Turk, John T.; Campbell, Donald H.; Mast, M. A.
Measurements of the cosmogenically-produced 35 S, a radioisotope of sulphur (t 1/2 = 87 days), are reported for the Ned Wilson Lake watershed in Colorado. The watershed contains two small lakes and a flowing spring presumed to be representative of local ground water. The watershed is located in the Flattops Wilderness Area and the waters in the system have low alkalinity, making them sensitive to increases in acid and sulphate deposition. Time series of 35 S measurements were made during the summers of 1995 and 1996 (July-September) at all three sites. The system is dominated by melting snow and an initial concentration of 16-20 mBq L -1 was estimated for snow melt based on a series of snow samples collected in the Rocky Mountains. The two lakes had large initial 35 S concentrations in July, indicating that a large fraction of the lake water and sulphate was introduced by meltwater from that year's snowpack. In 1995 and 1996, 35 S concentrations decreased more rapidly than could be accounted for by decay, indicating that other processes were affecting 35 S concentrations. The most likely explanation is that exchange with sediments or the biota was removing 35 S from the lake and replacing it with older sulphate devoid of 35 S. In September of 1995 and 1996, 35 S concentrations increased, suggesting that atmospheric deposition is important in the sulphate flux of these lakes in late summer. Sulphur-35 concentrations in the spring water were highly variable but never higher than 3.6 mBq L -1 and averaged 2 mBq L -1 . Using a simple mixing model, it was estimated that 75% of the spring water was derived from precipitation of previous years
Michel, Robert L.; Turk, John T.; Campbell, Donald H.; Mast, M. Alisa
Measurements of the cosmogenically-produced 35S, a radioisotope of sulphur (t1/2 = 87 days), are reported for the Ned Wilson Lake watershed in Colorado. The watershed contains two small lakes and a flowing spring presumed to be representative of local ground water. The watershed is located in the Flattops Wilderness Area and the waters in the system have low alkalinity, making them sensitive to increases in acid and sulphate deposition. Time series of 35S measurements were made during the summers of 1995 and 1996 (July–September) at all three sites. The system is dominated by melting snow and an initial concentration of 16–20 mBq L-1was estimated for snowmelt based on a series of snow samples collected in the Rocky Mountains. The two lakes had large initial 35S concentrations in July, indicating that a large fraction of the lake water and sulphate was introduced by meltwater from that year's snowpack. In 1995 and 1996, 35S concentrations decreased more rapidly than could be accounted for by decay, indicating that other processes were affecting 35S concentrations. The most likely explanation is that exchange with sediments or the biota was removing 35S from the lake and replacing it with older sulphate devoid of 35S. In September of 1995 and 1996, 35S concentrations increased, suggesting that atmospheric deposition is important in the sulphate flux of these lakes in late summer. Sulphur-35 concentrations in the spring water were highly variable but never higher than 3.6 mBq L-1 and averaged 2 mBq L-1. Using a simple mixing model, it was estimated that 75% of the spring water was derived from precipitation of previous years.
Needleman, Robert K; Neylan, Isabelle P; Erickson, Timothy
. Human encounters with these types of creatures are likely to increase, resulting in potential human morbidity and mortality. Temperature extremes and changes to climatic norms may have a dramatic effect on venomous terrestrial species. As climate change affects the distribution, populations, and life histories of these organisms, the chance of encounters could be altered, thus affecting human health and the survivability of these creatures. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
John T. Rotenberry; Robert J. Cooper; Joseph M. Wunderle; Kimberley G. Smith
We briefly review the effects of climate (particularly drought and hurricanes), insect outbreaks, and fire on populations of migrant birds. An important feature of all of these natural disturbances is that they occur over a variety of spatial and temporal scales, thus precluding any simple generalization of their effects or of methods for mitigating those effects. We...
Kwong, Kenny Yat-Choi; Redjal, Nasser; Scott, Lyne; Li, Marilyn; Thobani, Salima; Yang, Brian
Asthma management programs, such as the Breathmobile program, have been extremely effective in reducing asthma morbidity and increasing disease control; however, their high start-up costs may preclude their implementation in smaller health systems. In this study, we extended validated asthma disease management principles from the Breathmobile program to a smaller clinic system utilizing existing resources and compared clinical outcomes. Cox-regression analyses were conducted to determine the cumulative probability that a new patient entering the program would achieve improved clinical control of asthma with each subsequent visit to the program. A weekly asthma disease management clinic was initiated in an existing multi-specialty pediatric clinic in collaboration with the Breathmobile program. Existing nursing staff was utilized in conjunction with an asthma specialist provider. Patients were referred from a regional healthcare maintenance organization and patients were evaluated and treated every 2 months. Reduction in emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations, and improvements in asthma control were assessed at the end of 1 year. A total of 116 patients were enrolled over a period of 1 year. Mean patient age was 6.4 years at the time of their first visit. Patient ethnicity was self-described predominantly as Hispanic or African American. Initial asthma severity for most patients, classified in accordance with national guidelines, was "moderate persistent." After 1 year of enrollment, there was a 69% and 92% reduction in ED/urgent care visits and hospitalizations, respectively, compared with the year before enrollment. Up to 70% of patients achieved asthma control by the third visit. Thirty-six different patients were seen during 1 year for a total of $15,938.70 in contracted reimbursements. A large-scale successful asthma management program can be adapted to a stationary clinic system and achieve comparable results.
Full Text Available Cultural heritage has become of great importance in a number of areas, including self-identity, community identity and as an economic sector through cultural tourism. Most definitions of heritage now accept that it is a perceptual construct with many meanings, both for those who identify and manage it and for those who consume it in various ways. Because heritage can be seen in many lights, the potential for conflict between users, managers and those who own heritage is high. This article examines the nature of heritage and heritage landscapes and discusses the many symbolic and economic benefits that can ensue; the changing nature of the markets for heritage is described. The various monetary and opportunity costs of heritage are discussed and the resultant conflicts outlined. The article goes on to examine the contradictions and conflicts inherent in the concept of authenticity and the issues involved in various modes of interpretation. Here the article asks that if heritage is accepted as that which ‘we’ wish to preserve, then who are ‘we’? This question is explored in the context of the impacts of tourism upon heritage in Southern New Zealand, including the impacts of recent development, perceptions of crowding and the nature of wilderness. Inter-cultural perceptions are explained through the differing perceptions of, and attitudes to, the natural world held by Maori and by others. The article concludes by noting that, while much heritage research is still based upon the product and its presentation, future studies will need to learn more on consumers, their attitudes , expectations and values.
Berg, Regan J; Inaba, Kenji; Okoye, Obi; Pasley, Jason; Teixeira, Pedro G; Esparza, Michael; Demetriades, Demetrios
Selective non-operative management (NOM) is standard of care for clinically stable patients with blunt splenic trauma and expectant management approaches are increasingly utilised in penetrating abdominal trauma, including in the setting of solid organ injury. Despite this evolution of clinical practice, little is known about the safety and efficacy of NOM in penetrating splenic injury. Trauma registry and medical record review identified all consecutive patients presenting to LAC+USC Medical Center with penetrating splenic injury between January 2001 and December 2011. Associated injuries, incidence and nature of operative intervention, local and systemic complications and mortality were determined. During the study period, 225 patients experienced penetrating splenic trauma. The majority (187/225, 83%) underwent emergent laparotomy. Thirty-eight clinically stable patients underwent a deliberate trial of NOM and 24/38 (63%) were ultimately managed without laparotomy. Amongst patients failing NOM, 3/14 (21%) underwent splenectomy while an additional 6/14 (42%) had splenorrhaphy. Hollow viscus injury (HVI) occurred in 21% of all patients failing NOM. Forty percent of all NOM patients had diaphragmatic injury (DI). All patients undergoing delayed laparotomy for HVI or a splenic procedure presented symptomatically within 24h of the initial injury. No deaths occurred in patients undergoing NOM. Although the vast majority of penetrating splenic trauma requires urgent operative management, a group of patients does present without haemodynamic instability, peritonitis or radiologic evidence of hollow viscus injury. Management of these patients is complicated as over half may remain clinically stable and can avoid laparotomy, making them potential candidates for a trial of NOM. HVI is responsible for NOM failure in up to a fifth of these cases and typically presents within 24h of injury. Delayed laparotomy, within this limited time period, did not appear to increase
Stocker, Martin; Pilgrim, Sina B; Burmester, Margarita; Allen, Meredith L; Gijselaers, Wim H
Aiming for and ensuring effective patient safety is a major priority in the management and culture of every health care organization. The pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) has become a workplace with a high diversity of multidisciplinary physicians and professionals. Therefore, delivery of high-quality care with optimal patient safety in a PICU is dependent on effective interprofessional team management. Nevertheless, ineffective interprofessional teamwork remains ubiquitous. We based our review on the framework for interprofessional teamwork recently published in association with the UK Centre for Advancement of Interprofessional Education. Articles were selected to achieve better understanding and to include and translate new ideas and concepts. The barrier between autonomous nurses and doctors in the PICU within their silos of specialization, the failure of shared mental models, a culture of disrespect, and the lack of empowering parents as team members preclude interprofessional team management and patient safety. A mindset of individual responsibility and accountability embedded in a network of equivalent partners, including the patient and their family members, is required to achieve optimal interprofessional care. Second, working competently as an interprofessional team is a learning process. Working declared as a learning process, psychological safety, and speaking up are pivotal factors to learning in daily practice. Finally, changes in small steps at the level of the microlevel unit are the bases to improve interprofessional team management and patient safety. Once small things with potential impact can be changed in one's own unit, engagement of health care professionals occurs and projects become accepted. Bottom-up patient safety initiatives encouraging participation of every single care provider by learning effective interprofessional team management within daily practice may be an effective way of fostering patient safety.
Batabyal, A.A.; Nijkamp, P.
We study the problem of precluding biological invasions caused by ships transporting internationally traded goods in containers between different regions of the world. Using the long run expected net cost (LRENC) of inspections as the apposite managerial objective, we address the following important
Pawelczyk, Slawomira; Pazdur, Anna; Halas, Stanislaw
Tree rings can be used as archives of climatic and environmental data with annual resolution. Tree rings widths, maximum late wood density and other parameters as stable composition in tree rings can be used for the reconstruction of past climatic and environmental changes. Stable carbon isotope ratios in tree rings may provide valuable information on past climatic conditions. 13C/12C ratios of plant organic matter can reflect corresponding 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2 during formation of the rings. Investigations of isotopic carbon composition in tree rings from in the ecologically clean the Augustów Wilderness region in the north-eastern part of Poland (22 degrees 58'E, 53 degrees 51'N) (nowadays a sanctuary) were undertaken. Series of delta13C in alpha-cellulose and in wholewood were acquired. Those measurements constituted a part of more complex investigations of carbon isotope composition in tree rings including the measurements of radiocarbon concentration and tree ring widths. This article presents preliminary results. It is argued that contrary to the tree ring widths and delta13C in wholewood that do not reveal significant correlation with temperature, the variation of delta13C in the latewood alpha-cellulose is correlated with combined July and August temperatures. Copyright 2004 Taylor and Francis Ltd.
... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...